QUALITATIVE RESEARCH AN INTRODUCTION

Presented by: Menchu Lamban Jocelyn Maguinsay Jocelyn Tumambing

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
 ‘Qualitative

Research…involves finding out

what people think, and how they feel - or at any rate, what they say they think and how they say they feel. This kind of information is subjective. It involves feelings and impressions, rather than numbers’

Bellenger, Bernhardt and Goldstucker, Qualitative Research in Marketing, American Marketing Association

hoping always to get a better fix on the subject matter at hand.QUALITATIVE RESEARCH  Qualitative research involves the studied use and collection of a variety of empirical materials . . historical. interview. observational. personal experience. introspective.case study. life story.  Deploy a wide range of interconnected methods. and visual texts-that describe routine and problematic moments and meanings in individuals lives. interactional.

you ask "WHY.. but WORDS!  Instead of asking how many times someone purchased an item.QUALITATIVE RESEARCH  Not measurements.?"  Typically the samples are small.. and not "random" .

MOST FREQUENT USES  Understanding basic issues  why do people buy/use our product?  Pretesting ideas or questions  do people want a product that cleans their refrigerator?  Message testing  How do people like this ad?  Recommended to capture the basic feel of a problem prior to conducting a more analytical study .

STRENGTHS • Good for examining feelings and motivations Allows for complexity and depth of issues Provides insights • • .

WEAKNESSES • Can’t extrapolate to the whole population • • • Volume of data Complexity of analysis Time-consuming nature of the clerical efforts require .

GENERAL APPROACHES  Individual interviews   Nonstructured Structured  Projective Techniques Group interviews Structured or unstructured  Focus groups    Observation .

Positivist Paradigm • Emphasises that human reason is supreme and that there is a single objective truth that can be discovered by science • Encourages us to stress the function of objects. ordered place with a clearly defined past. present and future . celebrate technology and to regard the world as a rational.

Non-Positivist Paradigm • Questions the assumptions of the positivist paradigm • Argues that our society places too much emphasis on science and technology • Argues that this ordered. subjective experience . rational view of consumers denies the complexity of the social and cultural world we live in • Stresses the importance of symbolic.

. foreign. reliable.  The ‘subject’ who was studied was alien. and objective interpretations in their writings. and strange.THE FIVE MOMENTS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Traditional Period: 1900’s-World War II  Wrote objective colonising accounts of field experiences that were reflective of the positivist scientist paradigm  Concerned with offering valid.

THE MODERNIST PHASE POST WAR-1970’S The modernist ethnographer and sociological participant observer attempted rigorous. qualitative studies of important social processes. including social control in the classroom and society  Researchers were drawn to qualitative research because it allowed them to give a voice to society’s ‘underclass’  .

Computers were becoming more prevalent Boundaries between the social sciences and humanities had become blurred Social science was borrowing models. visual. methods and strategies Applied qualitative research was gaining in stature Research strategies ranged from grounded theory to the case study methodology Methods included qualitative interviewing and observational. theories and methods of analysis from the humanities Researcher acknowledged as being part of the research process .BLURRED GENRES 1970-1986         Researchers had a full complement of paradigms. personal and documentary methods.

Interpretative theories as opposed to grounded theories were more common as writers challenge old models of truth and meaning Crisis of Representation and Legitimisation    . class and race. 1986) Made research and writing more reflexive and called into question the issues of gender.CRISIS OF REPRESENTATION MID 1980’S-CURRENT DAY  Caused by the publication of a book called Anthropology as Cultural Critique (Marcus and Fischer.

small-scale theories fitted to specific problems and specific situations  .THE FIFTH MOMENT CURRENT DAY Defined and shaped by the dual crisis of representation and legitimisation  Theories now beginning to be read in narrative terms as ‘tales of the field’  Concept of an aloof researcher has finally been fully abandoned  More action oriented research is on the horizon  More Social criticism and social critique  The search for grand narratives is being replaced by more local.

interpretative Exploratory Quantitative Research Limited probing large varies Fewer specialist skills required Statistical Descriptive or causal . Per respondent Admin Type of Analysis Type of research Qualitative Research Probing small much Requires skilled researcher Subjective.'S QUANTITATIVE Type of questions Sample Size Info.QUALITATIVE V.

POPULARITY OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 1 2 3 Usually much cheaper than quantitative research No better way than qualitative research to understand in-depth the motivations and feelings of consumers Qualitative research can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of quantitative research .

Qualitative research doesn’t distinguish these differences as well as quantitative research can. profess to be experts in the field . Not representative of the population that is of interest to the researcher The multitude of individuals who.LIMITATIONS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH 1 2 3 Marketing successes and failures are based on small differences in the marketing mix. without formal training.

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH AS A PROCESS Theory  Method  Analysis  All three interconnect to define the qualitative research process  .

THEORETICAL APPROACH DEDUCTIVE   Deductive Theoretical Approach Seek to use existing theory to shape the approach which you adopt to the qualitative research process and to aspects of data analysis  Analytical Procedures   Pattern Matching Involves predicting a pattern of outcomes based on theoretical propositions to explain what you expect to find Explanation Building Involves attempting to build an explanation while collecting and analysing the data. rather than testing a predicted explanation as in pattern matching   .

Referred to as Interpretative and Grounded Theory  Art of Interpretation    Field Text: Consists of field notes and documents from the field Research Text: Notes and interpretations based on the filed text Working interpretative document: Writers initial attempt to make sense out of what he has learned  Public Text: The final tale of the Field .INDUCTIVE APPROACH   Inductive Theoretical Approach Seek to build up a theory which is adequately grounded in a number of relevant cases.

QUALITATIVE DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES In depth Interviewing  Focus Groups  Participant Observations  Ethnographic Studies – ethnicity of the subject  Projective Techniques  .

ANALYSIS QUALITATIVE DATA: AN APPROACH Categorisation  Unitising data  Recognising relationships and developing the categories  Developing and testing hypotheses to reach conclusion  .

INTERACTIVE NATURE OF THE QUALITATIVE PROCESS  Data collection. data analysis and the development and verification of relationships and conclusion are all interrelated and interactive set of processes  Allows researcher to recognise important themes. patterns and relationships as you collect data  Allows you to re-categorise existing data to see whether themes and patterns and relationships exist in the data already collected  Allows you to adjust your future data collection approach to see whether they exist in other cases .

TOOLS FOR HELPING THE ANALYTICAL PROCESS  Summaries  Should contain the key points that emerge from undertaking the specific activity  Self Memos you to make a record of the ideas which occur to you about any aspect of your research.as you think of them   Allow Researcher Diary .

THANK YOU .

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