International Series in Pure and Applied Mathematics
William Ted Martin, CONSULTING EDITOR

VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS

a
International Series in Pure and Applied 'Mathematics
WILI.LA11 TED MARTIN, Consulting Editor

Complex Analysis BELLMAN Stability Theory of Differential Equations
AIILFORS

Bucx Advanced Calculus
CODDnNUTON AND LEVINSON Theory of Ordinary Differential Equations G01.011 13 AND SHANKS Elements of Ordinary Differential Equations of Real Variables GRAVES The Theory of

GRIFFIN Elementary Theory of Numbers IIILDEBRAND rodurl ion to Numerical Analysis Principles of Nunurriral Analysis LAS b;leuu'nts of Pure aunt Applied Mathematics LASS Vector and Tensor Analysis LEIGIITON An Introduction to the Theory of Differential Equations NEHAIU Conformal Mapping NEWELL Vector Analysis ROSSER Logic for 'Mathematicians RUDIN Principles of Mathematical Analysis SNEDDON Elciuents of Partial I)iiTerential Equations Pourier Transforms SNEDDON STOLL Linear Algebra and 'Matrix Theory WEINSTOCK Calculus of Variations

VECTOR AND TENSOR
ANALYSIS
BY

HARRY LASS
JET PROPULSION LABORATORY

Calif. Institute of Tech. 4800 Oak Grove Drive Pasadena, California

New York Toronto London
McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, INC.
1950

VECTOR AND TENSOR. ANALYSIS
Copyright, 1950, by the '.11e(_;ratt-Bill Book Company, Inc. Printed in the 1 nited States of America. All rights reserved. 't'his hook, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form without, perrnis.sion of the publishers.

To MY
MOTHER AND FATHER

and 7. 6. A knowledge of these chapters should enable the reader to further digest the more comprehensive treatises dealing with these subjects. 5. two-. it is due in no small measure to the composite efforts of those men who have invented and who have vii . respectively. and 4 to gain familiarity with the algebra and calculus of vectors. that nothing has been sacrificed in the way of clearness of ideas. and elasticity can be found in Chapters 3. 2. mechanics. which are fairly complete from an elementary viewpoint. The author has attempted to be as rigorous as is possible in a work of this nature. hydrodynamics. If the book is successful. In order to cover such a wide range of topics the treatment has necessarily been brief. It is hoped that these chapters will give the mathematician a brief introduction to elementary theoretical physics. Finally.PREFACE This text can be used in a variety of ways. The student totally unfamiliar with vector analysis can peruse Chapters 1. These chapters cover the ordinary one-semester course in vector analysis. Those already acquainted with vector analysis who feel that they would like to become better acquainted with the applications of vectors can read the above-mentioned chapters with little difficulty: only a most rudimentary knowledge of these fields is necessary in order that the reader be capable of following their contents. electricity. Numerous examples in the fields of differential geometry. the author feels that Chapters 8 and 9 deal sufficiently with tensor analysis and Riemannian geometry to enable the reader to study the theory of relativity with a minimum of effort as far as the mathematics involved is concerned. The teacher who plans on using this book as a text can surely arrange the topics to suit his needs for a one-. some of which are listed in the reference section. however. Numerous examples have been worked out fully in the text. It is hoped. or even threesemester course.

HARRY LASS URBANA. I wish to thank Professor Charles de Prima of the California Institute of Technology for his kind interest in the development of this text. February.viii PREFACE applied the vector and tensor analysis. Finally. 1950 . The excellent works listed in the reference section have been of great aid. ILL.

. V 20. . . . Scalar. . or dot. Cauchy criterion for sequences 45. . Geometrical significance of the second fundamental form 37. . Frenet-Serret formulas 25. . . . . . . The second fundamental form 36. . . Conjugate directions 39. product 9. . Surface curves 34. . . . . . . . . . vii CHAPTER 1 THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS . . . . . Geodesics CHAPTER 4 INTEGRATION . . . . . . Multipli- cation by a scalar 4. . . . The Riemann integral ix . . or cross. Uniform continuity 43. Recapitulation 23. Subtraction of 6. . Equality of vectors 3. . Linear functions 7. . Functions of bounded variation 48. . 58 24. Envelopes 31. vectors Applications to spherical trigonometry CHAPTER 2 DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS . . . Vector. Examples of the vector product 13. Principal directions 38. The vector operator del. . Intrinsic equations of a curve 27. Involutes 28. 1 1. . product 11. Differentiation of vectors 17. . . Regular area in the plane 46. . . . . Surfaces and curvilinear coordinates 32. . . The gradient 19. The divergence of a vector 21. Differentiation rules 18. Spherical indicatrices 30. . The triple vector product 15. Evolutes 29. . . . . Normal to a surface 35. . . . Coordinate systems 8. Point-set theory 42. . Jordan curves 47.CONTENTS PREFACE . Asymptotic lines 40. . . Some properties of continuous functions 44. . 29 16. . . . The curl of a vector 22. Addition of vectors 5. . . . . . . Curvilinear coordinates CHAPTER 3 DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY . . . . Length of arc on a surface 33. The distributive law for the vector product 12. . Applications of the scalar product to space geometry 10. . . . . 89 41. . . . . . . Definition of a vector 2. . . The triple scalar product 14. Fundamental planes 26. Arc length 49. .

Poynting's theorem 82. . A theorem relating angular momentum with torque 93. . Solid angle 75. . Relative time rate of change of vectors 100. . 230 108. Momentum and angular momentum 91. Torque. Decomposition of a vector into a sum of solenoidal and irrotational vectors 71. Dynamics of a particle 88. Kinetic energy 96. Applications 115. Magnetostatics 74. . Maxwell's equations 80. Retarded potentials CHAPTER 6 MECHANICS . . Relationship between the strain and stress tensors 118. . Magnetic effect of currents (Oersted) 77. System of particles 90. .x CONTENTS gral 52. . . . Stokes's theorem 54. Pressure 109. Solution of Laplace's equation in spherical coordinates 68. Line integral (continued) (Gauss) 50. Moment of relative momentum 95. Relative motion 87. Motion about a fixed axis 86. Small displacements. . 127 57. . . Kinematics of a rigid body 99. Applications 104. or force. . Lorentz's electron theory 83. . . Moving charges. or currents 76. The line inte53. Discontinuities of D and E 63. Dipoles 72. Mutual induction and action of two circuits 78. . Work 97. Euler's angular coordinates 105. 184 84. Motion of a rigid body with one point fixed 103. Velocity 101. . . Kinematics of a particle 85. . . . Integration of Laplace's equation 67. Electrostatic forces 58. Rigid bodies 98. Acceleration 102. . . . Examples of Stokes's theorem 55. . . The equation of continuity 110. . Equations of motion for a perfect fluid 111. Law of induction (Faraday) 79. moment 92. Vortex motion 114. . Strain tensor 116. Electric polarization 73. The stress tensor 117. . Applications 69. The divergence theorem 56. . Solution of Maxwell's equations for electrically free space 81. . . Moment of momentum (continued) 94. The general motion of a fluid 113. . Poisson's formula 60. . Gauss's law 59. . Motion of a free top about a fixed point 106. . Method of images 65. Equations of motion for a particle 89. Integration of Poisson's equation 70. . . Navier-Stokes equation . . . . Conjugate functions CHAPTER 5 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY . . Connected and simply connected regions 51. Green's reciprocity theorem 64. . Dielectrics 61. Equations of motion for an incompressible fluid under the action of a conservative field 112. The top (continued) 107. Energy of the electrostatic field 62. Inertia tensor CHAPTER 7 HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY . Conjugate harmonic functions 66.

. . Parallel displacement of vectors 137. or vector. . . . The line element 128. Two-point tensors REFERENCES . . Schur's theorem 140. . . Determinants 122. . . . . . . . The Kronecker deltas 121. Euclidean space CHAPTER 9 FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS . . . . . INDEX . . Tensors 127. Law of transformation for the Christoffel symbols 130. . . . . 259 119. . n-space 123. . . . Contravariant vectors 124. Arithmetic. The curvature tensor 133. Summation notation 120. . 341 . . Scalar product of two vectors 126. . RiemannChristoffel tensor 134. . . . . Lagrange's equations 141.CONTENTS xi CHAPTER 8 TENSOR ANALYSIS AND RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY. . . Parallelism in a subspace 138. Covariant vectors 125. . . . . Covariant differentiation 131. 311 135. . . . . . . . . . . . . Einstein's law of gravitation 142. Riemannian curvature. Generalized covariant differentiation 139. . 339 . . Geodesic coordinates 132. . Frenet-Serret formulas 136. . . Geodesics in a Riemannian space 129.

.

In Chap. If jal = 0. adopt some notation for describing a vector in writing. they are parallel. In order to distina guish between scalars and vec- tors. of course. etc. temperature. Our starting point for the definition of a vector will be the intuitive one encountered in elementary physics. such as 2. It is the direction and magnitude which 1 . The starting points of the vectors are immaterial. i. the student will have to Fia. a. Physical concepts. have the same sense of direction. distance. The length of the vector will be denoted by the word magnitude. 1. 1 or may adopt his own notation. and only if. will also be designated as a vector. etc. If a represents the length of the vector a. 2. indicate that we are speaking of a vector. a. on the unit chosen to represent a given class of vectors. and arithmetic numbers.. velocities. To every vector will be associated a real nonnegative number equal to the length of the vector. 8 we will give a more mathematically rigorous definition of a vector. The student may choose his mode of representing a vector from Fig. accelerations. Any physical element that has magnitude and direction. and specific gravity. forces. are called scalars to distinguish them from vectors. we define a as the zero vector. This number will depend. Two vectors will be defined to be equal if. We shall represent vectors by arrows and use boldface type to Ca-.CHAPTER 1 THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS 1. and the same magnitude. We note that no direction is associated with a scalar. Equality of Vectors. Any directed line segment will be called a vector. and hence can be represented by a vector. A vector of length one will be called a unit vector. a] a. we shall write a = jal. Elementary examples of vectors are displacements. such as speed. Definition of a Vector.

2 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. 5). 3 are important. 3. Thus 2a will be a vector which is twice as long as the vector a FIG. We write a = b if the vectors are equal (see Fig. we define the product xa to be a new vector parallel to a whose magnitude has been multiplied by the factor x. 3. Addition of Vectors. c = d. 4. 3). as will be seen later. say a and b. Fm. 2). may produce different physical effects. The vector starting from the origin of a and ending at the arrow of b is defined as the vector sum a + b. We define -a as the vector obtained from a by reversing its direction (see Fig. If we multiply a vector a by a real number x. then a+c=b+d . and if a = b. 4). Multiplication by a Scalar. Z-a and which has the same direction as a (see Fig. We see that a + 0 = a. Let us suppose we have two vectors given. one of them can be written as a scalar multiple of the other. We note that x(ya) = (xy)a = xya (x + y)a = xa + ya Oa = 0 (zero vector) It is immediately seen that two vectors are parallel if. b adjoined to a (see Fig. 2. however. Equal vectors. We form a third vector by constructing a triangle with a and b forming two sides of the triangle. Fia. 4. and only if.

or second. Let us consider all vectors in the twodimensional Euclidean plane. a-b 6. construct -b and then add this vector to a. 6). The two possible directions will give a . let b and a have a common origin and construct the third side of the triangle. The reader should have no trouble proving these three results geometrically. Given the two vectors a and b. we can ask ourselves the following question: What vector c must be added to b to give a? The vector c is defined to be the vector a . Subtraction of Vectors. (2) is called the associative law of vector addition.b. Call them a and b. a+b+c Fio. Linear Functions.b = a + (-b). 5. Thus a . 5. 6] THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS 3 From Euclidean geometry we note that (a+b)+c=a+(b+c) x(a+b) =xa+xb a+b=b+a (1) (2) (3) (1) is called the commutative law of vector addition. nonzero vectors. We choose a basis for this system of vectors by considering any two nonparallel. (3) is the distributive law for multiplication by a scalar. First. We can obtain the desired result by two methods.b and b .a (see Fig. a-b Flo.SEc. Any third vector c can be written as a linear . 6.

Let us now consider the following problem: Let a and b have a common origin. 6 combination or function of a and b.b). then x = y = fr. We can rewrite (5) as c-xa-yb=0 1-x-y=0 (6) . 8). In particular. assume c = xa + yb. B a FIG. Now c=OB+BC so that c = xa + yb = b + x(a .x)b (5) Now conversely. This immediately implies that the end point of c lies on the line joining A to B. if C is the mid-point of BA. 0. c = xa + yb (4) The proof of (4) is by construction (see Fig.b. Then c=xa+(1 -x)b =x(a-b)+b We now note that c is a vector that is obtained by adding to b the vector x(a . 8.4 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. x + y = 1. this latter vector being parallel to the vector a .b) =xa+(1 . 7). Let C divide BA in the ratio x: y where x + y = 1. and let c be any vector starting from 0 whose end point lies on the line joining the ends of a and b (see Fig.

B. From (8) we eliminate the vector c and obtain 2a' + a = 2b' + b or *a' + '}a = *b' + b (9) . find (5) more useful for solving problems. c' (see Fig. A necessary and sufficient condition that the end points of any three vectors with common origin be on a straight line is that real constants it m..SEC. B'. Let ABC be the given triangle and let A'. a'=4b+ic b' = Ja + 4c (8) Now P (the intersection of two of the medians) lies on the line joining A and A' and on the line joining B and B'. c. a'. B'. Let us prove that the medians of a triangle meet at a point P which divides each median in the ratio 1:2. We shall thus find it expedient to find a relationship between the four vectors a. 9). C. n exist such that la+mb+nc=0 l+m+n=O (7) with l2+m2+n2p. calling them a. C' be the midChoose 0 anywhere in space and construct the vectors from 0 to A. b' associated with A. C 0 FIG. 61 THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS 5 We have proved our first important theorem. Example 1. b. however. A'. b'. 0. C'. We shall. b. B. A'. 9. B'. a'. From (5) we have points.

. 10). Problems 1. 10. . -sa' + -ia represents a vector whose origin is at 0 and whose end point lies on the line joining A to A. From symmetry considerations show that the vector sum is zero.a = c . Vectors are drawn from the center of a regular polygon to its vertices. 3. Interpret I a a 2. a. and this is the vector p = OP. Note that P divides AA' and BB' in the ratios 2: 1.6 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SFC.'jb' + *b represents a vector whose origin is at 0 and whose end point lies on the line joining B to B'. To prove that the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. Had we considered the median CC' in connection with AA'. b. The equation d . point in space (see Fig. Similarly.b Hence implies that ABCD is a parallelogram. 6 But from (5). we would have obtained that p + J e. There can only be one y vector having both these properties. Example 2. Give a geometric proof of (3). What is the vector sum a + b + c? Generalize this result for any closed polygon. Let ABCD be the parallelogram and 0 any C FIG. c are consecutive vectors forming a triangle. and this completes the proof of the theorem. Hence p = tea' + is = -b' -fib. 4. Ja+4c=lb+Id =p so that P bisects AC and BD.

b. b. Show that the mid-points of the lines which join the midpoints of the opposite sides of a quadrilateral coincide. The four sides of the quadrilateral are not necessarily coplanar. B. 10. How does this latter line intersect the opposite side? 15. Express the diagonal vectors in terms of a and b. Find a necessary and sufficient condition that their end points lie in a plane. Show that if two triangles in space are so situated that the three points of intersection of corresponding sides lie on a line. If b-a=2(d-c) show that the intersection point of the two lines joining A and D and B and C trisects these lines.SEc. a. 6. Show that the line which joins one vertex of a parallelogram to the mid-point of an opposite side trisects the diagonal. 61 THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS 7 5. A line from a vertex of a triangle trisects the opposite side. d are four vectors with a common origin. d are consecutive vector sides of a quadrilateral. 13. 7. b = (sin t)a is a variable vector which always remains parallel to the fixed vector a. 9. c. c. then the lines joining the corresponding vertices pass through a common point. a. 9 form the vertices of a parallelogram? 11. This is Desargues's theorem.bl >_ lal . It is trisected by a similar line issuing from another vertex. d are vectors from 0 to A. In what ratio do these lines intersect one another? 14. D. . 16. 8. Show that a necessary and sufficient condition that the figure be a parallelogram is that a + c = 0 and show that this implies b + d = 0. b. What is the vector condition that the end points of the vectors of Prob. Show that the bisectors of a triangle meet in a point. Show graphically that lal + lbl >_ la + bl. a and bare consecutive vectors of a parallelogram. What is rically the meaning of fib? Explain geomet- A. From this show that la .lbi. A line from a vertex of a triangle bisects the opposite side. C. a. 12. It intersects a similar line issuing from another vertex. and conversely. 17. c.

Note that they represent the projections of the vector r on the x. are collinear if and only if the product of the algebraic ratios in which they divide the sides BC. show that ma + nb = ka + 3b implies m = k. We choose a right-handed coordinate system.8 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. Coordinate Systems. j. The vectors i. y. For a considerable portion of the text we shall deal with the Euclidean space of three dimensions. What is the velocity of A relative to C? Of C relative to A? Are these results obvious? 19. and z axes. a right-hand screw will advance along the positive z axis. Theorem of Ceva. If a and b are not parallel. to the opposite vertices be concurrent is that the product of the algebraic ratios in which the three points divide the sides be -1. 21. y. and z axes. Three points. This is the ordinary space encountered by students of analytic geometry and the calculus. 22. Let v. be the velocity of A relative to B and let v2 be the velocity of B relative to C. b be constant vectors and let c be defined by the equation c = (cos t)a + (sin t)b When is c parallel to a? Parallel to b? Can c ever be parallel do d2c If a and b to a + b? Perpendicular to a + b? Find dt dt2 9 are unit orthogonal vectors with common origin. n = j. one on each side of a triangle. r is called the position vector of the point P . If we rotate the x axis into the y axis. A necessary and sufficient condition that the lines which join three points. 7 18. CA. describe the positions of c and show that c is perpendicular to dc 20. From Fig. We let i. 11 we observe that r=xi+yj+zk (10) The numbers x. y. k be the three unit vectors along the positive x. respectively. z are called the components of the vector r. Theorem of Menelaus. k form a very simple and elegant basis for our three-dimensional Euclidean space. 7. one on each side of a triangle ABC. AB is unity. Let a. j.

t). various particles arrive at P(x. point P(x. -2.xyztj + 5xk.z. y. Whenever we have a vector of the type (11).t)j + y(x. y.y. We shall have more to say about this type of vector in later .z. we say that we An elementary example would be the vector u = yi . As time goes on. t)k (11) It is of the utmost importance that the student understand the meaning of (11). Another example would be u = 3xzeq .t)1+#(x. y. At the point P(1. 71 THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS 9 and will be used quite frequently in what follows. y) z. 11. t) with components along the x. The most general space-time vector that we shall encounter will be of the form u =u(x.j. Xx. z axes given by a(x. z and on the time t. y.t) =a(x. z. y. z. t). t). called a steady field. y.y. z. 3) it has the value . y.xj. z) and have the velocities u(x.y.z. This vector field is time-independent and so is have a vector field.SEC. let us consider a fluid in motion. To be more specific. z. At any time t the particle which happens to be at the z Fm. y(x) y. z) will have a velocity which depends on the coordinates x.2i .

0 since cos 0 = cos (. This definition of the scalar product arose in physics and will play a dominant role in the development of the text. for the present. It makes no difference whether we choose 0 or . A moment's reflection shows that if a = ali + a2j + ask. then a + b = (ai + b1)i + (a2 + b2)j + (as + b3)k (12) xa + yb = (xai + yb1)i + (xaz + ybz)j + (xaa + yb3)k 8. From (13) we at once verify that a a ab b then a a b= b a the b ab = (proj a)b (bI = (proj b)a (al (17) . We define the scalar or dot product of two vectors by the identity a b = JaJJbJ cos 0 (13) where 0 is the angle between the two vectors when drawn from a common origin. Scalar. be interested only in constant vectors (uniform fields). Product. 12. b = b1i + ba + b3k. 8 chapters and will.10 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. or Dot. Fm.0).

which states that (18) From Fig. 13. 13 it is apparent that [proj (b+c)]aIaF = (proj b)a Iai + (proj C)a Ial f I Fm. 14). since the projection of the sum is the sum of the projections. which proves that OM is perpendicular to AB.SEC. 8J THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS 11 With this in mind we proceed to prove the distributive law. To prove that the median to the base of an isosceles triangle is perpendicular to the base (see Fig. Let the reader now prove that Example 3. To prove that an angle inscribed in a semicircle is a right angle (see Fig. 14. Example 4. From (5) we see that m=1 1 so that 0 FIG. 15). .

oR _ b2 j'i cb Lau. . -b2+a2_.k:g=o _a) co$B Ab a . C _ Cone BC aright YECr?. yAC -. s . c. AC _ angle 1'1 of I° 18. BC AND PIG.a z [SEc.]a (b a -a c T'`iq°n°metr 0 ' 0 c a $ 2ab + c _j.$o E that xample so 12 that Example 6 & 4$CAis C2 C.

k' be mutually orthogonal. cos -y. ri are called the direction cosines of the vector Y. Making use of (21) and (22) and equating components. j'. fl. so that Example 8.b) _ 1a121b12 cost 0 5 1a12Ib12 so that from (19) (albs + aab2 + aab3)2 S (a12 + a22 + as2)(b12 + b22 + b 32) In general n n n a-1 I aaba s (Z aa2)1(I ba2)1 a-1 a-1 (20) Let i' be a unit vector making angles a. we find that x = p1x' + ply' + pgz' y = q1x' + qty' + qaz' z = r1x' + r2y' + raz' (23) . let j' and k' be unit vectors with direction cosines p2. y'. where x. i' = cosai+cos0 j+cos7k =pli+qlj+rlk (21) pi. Cauchy's Inequality (19) Notice that 0 a = 0. Thus Notice that p12 + q12 + r12 = 1. qa. y'. z' axes form a coordinate system similar to the x-y-z coordinate system with common origin 0 (see Fig. (a . z axes are cos a. r2 and pa. We have r = r' so that xi + yj + zk = x'i' + y'j' + z'k'. y.b3 Formula (19) is of the utmost importance. 8] THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS 13 Hence if a = a1i + a2j + ask. r. 17). j' = p2i + q2j + r2k k' = pai+qsj+rak () We also impose the condition that i'. so that the x'. cos ft. z are the coordinates of a point P as measured in the x-y-z coordinate system and x'. 7 with the x.SEC. z axes.. y. y. Similarly. z' are the coordinates of the same point P as measured in the x'-y'-z' coordinate system. b = b1i + b2j + b3k. Example 7. then a b = albs + a2b2 + a.b)(a . The projections of i' on the x. q1. qa.

3 (26) . We can write (23) as 3 xa = I a0a. or = 1.a. Let x = x1. Now let a. 2. of. a-1 a = 1. 2. 8 We now find it more convenient to rename the x-y-z coordinate system.14 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS 1Src. Similarly. 2. y = x2. 3 (24) By making use of the fact that i' j' = j' k' = k' i' = 0. 0-1 a = 1. we can prove that 3 xa = I Asax#. let x' = x1.= a. 17. 3 (25) where Asa = a).V. z = x3. We leave this as an exercise for the reader. Z' = 28. Let us notice that differentiating (24) yields axa .a represent the cosine of the angle between the xa and V axes. where the superscripts do not designate powers but are just labels which enable us to differentiate between the various axes. y' = x2' y FIG.

zo) = 0 (27) This is the equation of the plane. Now POP = r . and xa = x(al. (0. 0). z) on the plane (Fig. Any three triples whose determinant does not vanish can be used to form a basis. b2. 0. 9. xa3). Equation (27) is linear in x. 0) + a2(0.yo)j + (z . The point Po(xo. The vector a = a'i + a2j + a'k may be represented by the number triple (a'. 1) form a basis for our linear vector space. yo. 1. a2 + b2. (b) Consider the surface Ax + By + Cz + D = 0. 1 0 1 0 1 0 00 0 =1 does not vanish. Hence. Applications of the Scalar Product to Space Geometry (a) We define a plane as the locus of lines passing through a fixed point perpendicular to a fixed direction. then a + b is defined by the number triple (a' + b'. If b = (b'. 0). 0.xo)i + (y . Axo+Byo+Czo+D=0. the space of number triples. We can define the scalar product (inner product) of two triples by the law (a . without appealing to geometry we could develop an algebraic theory of vectors. 1) The triples (1. . zo) obviously lies in the plane since its coordinates satisfy (27). We note that the determinant formed from these triples.ro is perpendicular to N so that or [(x . 0) + a3(0. a3) = a'(1. Let P(xo.xo) + B(y . namely. (0. zo) be any point on the surface. From this the reader can prove that (a'. Let r be the position vector to any -4 point P(x. that is. a'). a2.b) = a'b' + a2b2 + a3b3. 18). a2. yo. 0. zo) and let the fixed direction be given by the vector N = Ai + Bj + Ck. y. xa2.yo) + C(z . 0. Let the reader prove this result. a') is defined by the number triple (xa'. y.(Ai + Bj + Ck) = 0 and A(x . Of necessity. a2.SEC. yo. Z. b3). Let the fixed point be Po(xo. 91 THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS 15 Example 9. 1.zo)kl . a3 + b3).

yo)j + (z . 19. and let P(E. Hence the constant vector Ai + Bj + Ck is normal to the surface at every point so that the surface is a plane.9 Subtracting we have A(x .16 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.zo) = 0 Now consider the two vectors Ai + Bj + Ck and (28) (x . Equation (28) shows that these two vectors are perpendicular. We wish to determine the shortest distance from P . Let the equation of the plane be Ax + By + Cz + D = 0. 18. (c) Distance from a point to a plane.zo)k Fia.xo)i + (y .yo) + C(z . Fia.xo) + B(y . % r) be any point in space.

(d) Equation of a straight line through the point Po(xo.SEC. 21. Choose any point Po lying in the plane. z FIG. where N is a unit vector normal to the plane (see Fig. yo. 20 it is Fia. 20. zo) parallel to the vector T = li + mj + A. +Cr+DI (A2 + B2 + C2)f (29) where use has been made of the fact that Axo+Byo+Czo+D=O. 19). 91 THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS 17 to the plane. Now d = JPoP NJ = IAZ+B. It is apparent that the shortest distance will be the projection of PoP on N. From Fig. .

6. and the length of the major axis is 2a. Prove that the altitudes of a triangle are concurrent.zo=A m n (30) By allowing A to vary from . In Fig.a2(r2 + c2) + (c r)2 = O. 3. 1) to the line through the points B(2. (e) Equation of a sphere with center at Po(xo. Find the cosine of the angle between the two vectors a = 2i .3j + k and b = 3i . yo.oo to + oo we generate every point on the line. b = -2i+2j+2k Show that the vectors are perpendicular.ro = AT.j . -2).ro is parallel to T so that r .2k. 3. 4.3j + 5k.zo)k = A(li + mj + nk). If c is normal to a and b. Add and subtract the vectors a = 2i .yo -z .6) = cos a cos S + sin a sin 8 5.xo)i + (y . 7.xo) 2 + (y .18 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.yo)j + (z .b. 9 apparent that r .yo) 2 + (z . Show that a = cos a i + sin a j. Show that the equation of the ellipse is a4 . 21 obviously (r . and z axes. and prove that cos (a . Find the equation of the cone whose generators make an angle of 30° with the unit vector which makes equal angles with the x. 1. Let a and b be unit vectors in the x-y plane making angles a and 6 with the x axis. Find the shortest distance from the point A(1. -. . y.ro) = a2. 0. a . b = cos 9 i + sin 3 j. 8.ro) (r . 2. 4) and C(-1.c. so that equating components yields x xo y . or (x . zo) and radius a.<A<+O0 Hence (x .zo) 2 = a2 Problems 1. The position vectors of the foci of an ellipse are c and . show that c is normal to a + b.

3j + k. c are coplanar. B3 are the components of a vector B. 10. 16. show that a. that is. Let a = f(t)i + g(t)j + h(t)k. find the projection of a along b. Show that a2 = (iblb 15. Asa defined by (24) and (25). 14. 20. Find a vector perpendicular to the vectors a = i . Let a = a.a) a = 0. Given a = 2i . b = 0 and a2 is parallel to b.j + k.k.4k. -Ap r = Sp- y-1 where &0°= Iifa=l4. b. Let r be the position vector of a point P(x. Find a vector c so that a. al = a - (a . Verify (26). Show that the line joining the end points of the vectors a =2i -j . b =i-3j . b = 3j . and define h'(t)k da = f'(t)i dt + g'(t)j + Show that da dt a= lal dal dt 19. JbJ2 b=2i+3j-k. 17. Derive (25). c form the sides of a right triangle.Se=Oif aPd f. + a2 where a. Prove that the sum of the squares of the diagonals of a parallelogram is equal to the sum of the squares of its sides. 91 THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS 19 9. 12. a. 18. For the an".j + k.SEC. b = -i + 3j . 13. If a is not parallel to b. 11. B2. b. b. and let a be a constant vector. and find its length. z). Let a = 2i . y.k with common origin at O is parallel to the x-y plane. Interpret the equation (r . If B1. 22.5k. b) b. Find the angle between the plane Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 and the plane ax + by + cz + d = 0. show that aa ca ab cb Icb bbi c= aa ab ab bb ca ab b 21. B = B'i + B2j + B3k (see Example 8 in regard to the super- .

23. or vector. or Cross. product of a and b and is given by F ia. 22. The vector c is called the cross. show that for a rotation of axes the components of the vector B become (BI. b form two sides of a parallelogram. a2 a") 10. B2. 10 scripts). Show that for a rotation of axes. A cross is placed between the vectors a and b to denote the vector c = a x b. Read Example 8 carefully. the two vectors a. 25. Ps1 and B = BIi' + B2j' + Mk'. BICI + B2C2 + B3C3 = BICI + B2C2 +. 22). BaC' = Z BaC'a aa1 amt 3 24. Given any two nonparallel vectors a and b. Product. We choose that normal obtained by the motion of a right-hand screw when a is rotated into b (angle of rotation less than 180°) (see Fig. The area of the parallelogram is (31) A = !alibi sin 0 . Vector. The invariance here refers to both the numerical invariance of the scalar product and the formal invariance. Generalize the statements of Example 9 for n-tuples (a'. 3. a = 1. we may construct a third vector c as follows: When translated so that they have a common origin. We define c to be perpendicular to the plane of this parallelogram with magnitude equal to the area of the parallelogram.20 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS 3 [SEC. Prove the statements made in Example 9.&3103 This shows the invariance of the scalar product for rotations of axes. 2. B3) where B° _ I ayaB#. c=axb=lallbl sin0E where JEl = 1.

We obtain x(b+c)] - x b) In Sec. 11. Let u= ax(b+c)-axb-axc and form the scalar product of this vector with an arbitrary vector v. If a and b are parallel. b = b1i + b2j + b3k we obtain a x b = (a2b3 . 13 we shall show that a (b x c) = (a x b) c. a x a = 0. . but for the present Ave discuss its algebraic behavior. so that vector multiplication is not commutative. we can choose it not perpendicular to u. In particular. The Distributive Law for the Vector Product. kxl=j For the vectors a = all + a2j + ask. 11. We desire to prove that a x (b + c) = a x b + a x c. 12. Symbolically i j axb = a1 bl a2 b2 k as b3 (33) where (33) is to be expanded by the ordinary method of determinants. Hence u = 0 and ax(b+c) =a xb+a xc (32) This proof is by Professor Morgan Ward of the California Institute of Technology. we have ixi=jxj=kxk=0 jxk=i. It is obvious that a x b = -b x a.a2b1)k by making use of the distributive law of Sec.a3b2)i + (a3b1 . Hence This implies either that u = 0 or that v is perpendicular to u.SEc. 121 TIIE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS 21 The cross product will occur frequently in mechanics and electricity. Since v is arbitrary. Examples of the Vector Product Example 10 ixj=k.alb3)j + (aib2 . a x b = 0.

24). However. 23. if two vectors are equal.3k. b = -i + 2j . Rotation of a Particle. a = 2i . We assume that its distance from L remains constant. so that i j k 5 a xb = Example 12. 12 Example 11. their magnitudes are equal so that lellal sin I = lcilbl sin a and a b c sin a sin fl sin ti Example 13. Let us define the angular velocity of the particle as the vector w. whose direction is along L and whose length is w.a 0=cxb-cxa c xa = c xb Fia. Assume that a particle is rotating about a fixed line L with angular speed w.22 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. We choose the direction of w in the usual sense of a right-hand screw advance (see Fig. . 2 -3 2 -1 -3 Sine law of trigonometry c xc=cx(b-a) or c=b .3j + 5k.

25).SEC. 25.bic3) + as(bic2 . c1 = ai(b2ca . Now i j b2 C2 k bs C3 a (b x c) = (a. so that 13. the altitude of the parallelepiped being denoted by h (see Fig.(b xc) =fallbllclsin0cosa = hA = volume (35) A being the area of the parallelogram with sides b and c. c. b. This scalar represents the volume of the parallelepiped formed by the coterminous sides a. Now lw x rl = wa = speed of L P. The Triple Scalar Product.bac2) + a (baci . since a OP % v a. C1 b2 C2 bs C3 (36) . b. Fia. where r is the position vector of P from any origin taken on the line L. Let us consider the scalar a (b x c).b2c1) so that a1 a2 as a (b x c) = b. Let the reader show that v and w x r are parallel. 13] THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS 23 It is our aim to prove that the velocity vector v can be represented by w x r.i + a2j + ask) .

6. It is also very easy to show that the determinant of (36) represents (a x b) c. These results follow from elementary theorems on determinants. 14. Hence -a2c' sine O= A(a'c2 cost 0. no volume exists. We dot (37) with b and obtain . Hence X is a scalar. This result was used to prove (32). If b is not parallel to c. c are coplanar. The Triple Vector Product.(bac) = . we can quickly prove that X = 1. if two of the three vectors are equal.24 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. 14 Notice that a (b x c) = (a x b) c since both terms represent the volume of the parallelepiped. We note that (abc) = (cab) = (bca) and that (abc) _ . b.(cba) = . from Sec. If the three vectors a. This vector is therefore perpendicular to b x c so that it lies in the plane of b and c. We usually write a (b x c) = (abc) since there can be no confusion as to where the dot and cross belong. Now dot both sides with a and obtain x(a b) + y(a c) = 0. so that (a X where = (a b) = X. We are thus allowed to interchange the dot and the cross when working with the triple scalar product. From this it immediately follows that (a x b) x b = (a b)b .(a a)c. The triple vector product a x (b x c) plays an important role in the development of vector analysis and in its applications.(b b)a. The result is a vector since it is the vector product of a and (b x c). We dot (37) with c and obtain c or [a x (a x c)] = X[(a c)2 . and we at once have (abc) = 0.a2c2J -(a x c)2 = X[(a c)2 .a2c2J by an interchange of dot and cross. Hence a x (a x c) = (a c)a . the triple scalar product vanishes. Now we prove that A = 1 for the general case.(a b)c] In the special case when b = a.(acb).a2c2) = -Xa'c2 sin2 0 so that A = 1. a x (b x c) = xb + yc. (37) a x (b x c) _ X[(a c)b . since a [a x (b x c)] = 0. In particular.

.(b c)a Notice that a x (b x c) 5-1 (a x b) x c.cos y cos. If b is parallel to c. More complicated products are simplified by use of the triple products. Consider the spherical triangle ABC (sides are arcs of great circles) (see Fig. Let the sphere be of radius 1.(abc)d Also (39) (c x d) d) (b c) d) (40) 15. since a x b is perpendicular to the plane of OAB and since a x C is perpendicular to the plane of OAC. 26). so that (38) holds for any three vectors. 15] THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS 25 x(b xc)] -[(a xb) x b (a (a b)(b c) x b) x implying X = 1. For example. we can expand (a x b) x (c x d) by considering (a x b) as a single vector and applying (38). Applications to the Spherical Trigonometry.(a x b c)d = (abd)c . (a x b) x (c x d) = (a x b d)c . Thus a x (b x c) = (a c)b .SEC.6. (38) reduces to the identity 0 = 0. Now from (40) we see that (a x b) (a x c) = (b c) . The expansion (38) of a x (b x c) is often referred to as the rule of the middle factor.(a b) (a c) The angle between a x b and a x c is the same as the dihedral angle A between the planes OAC and OAB.(a b)c We leave it to the reader to show that (38) (a x b) x c = (a c)b . Hence sin y sin # cos A = cos a .

k 3. 0). Q(1.(bcd)a. 6. 3. Find a unit vector perpendicular to the vectors a=i-j+k b=i+i . Prove that d x (a x b) (a x c) = (abc) (a d). Problems 1. Show that (a x b) x (c x d) = (acd)b . and interpret this result trigonometrically. 1. 15 FIG. Find the equation of the plane passing through the end points of the vectors a = a1i + a j + ask.k. 7.26 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. all three vectors with origin at P(0. prove that a x b= b x c= c x a. . -2) Find the velocity of the particle when it is located at the point R(3. and its axis of rotation passes through the points P(0. 2). b = b1i + bd + bsk. A particle has an angular speed of 2 radians per second. c = c1i + cd + cak. Show by two methods that the vectors a = 2i . 5. 4. 0. b = -6i + 9j + 3k are parallel. 6. 26. 4). 2. If a + b+ c= 0.3j .

(abf) (ecd) = (cda) (bef) . If a. show that d = (dbc) a + (abc) (adc) (abc) b+ (abd) c (abc) for any vector d. 12. Write (41) as a single vector equation. All four vectors have their origin at P(0.(abc) (def) = (abe) (fcd) . 15). The four vectors a. show that d= (c d) a x b + .y + c1z = d. z. d are coplanar. 9. If a. Show that the sum of these four vectors is the zero vector. 10. 0.SEC. solve for x. derive a spherical trigonometric identity (see Sec. Four vectors have directions which are outward perpendiculars to the four faces of a tetrahedron. 0). b. a2x + b2y + c2z = d2 asx + bsy + c3z = da (41) Let a = aui + a2j + aak. c. r4.(cdb) (aef) 16. 14. c are not coplanar. Show that (a x b) x (c x d) = 0. Consider the system of equations a1x + b. Find the shortest distance between two straight lines in space. Find an expression for the shortest distance from the end point of the vector r. 17. 18. y. 15] THE ALGEBRA OF VECTORS 21 8. Prove that (b d) (abc) cxa a x(b xc) +b x(c x a)+ c x (a xb) =0 13. 11.(a d) b x c -1(abc) (abc) for any vector d. Prove that (a x b) (b x c) x (c x a) = (abc)2. etc. b. and assuming (abc) F6 0. b. Show that (a x b) (c x d) x (e x f) = (abd) (cef) . 15. r8. By considering the expansion for (a x b) x (a x c). and their lengths are equal to the areas of the faces they represent. . to the plane passing through the end points of the vectors r2. c are not coplanar.

a8ba. Since any vector is a linear combination of i.(a b)c. 3. show that the EaP in the new coordinate system are related to the caP in the old a a coordinate system by the equations &A = I I a aa.a3b2. a2. j. show that (a x b) (c x d) = 0. a. a3). that three others represent b x a. If (a'.28 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [Ssc.a1b3. We project a onto this vector. (38) is linear in a. Show that ca = 1 apa#S under a B=1 rotation of axes (see Prob. 20.--P as a matrix and show that cap = . 2. We can construct a x b by three geometrical constructions. 21. 2.i9c°r.G a By considering a rotation of axes (see Example 8). b. a = 1. The numbers c' = a2b3 . We first construct a vector normal to b lying in the plane of a and b. show that three of the nine numbers Ca9 obtained by considering cab = aab# . 22. explain why (38) holds for all vectors. c. 15 19. If a and b lie in a plane normal to a plane containing c and d. c3 = a'b2 . magnifying this newly constructed vector by the factor Ibl The final result yields a x b.a2b' a are the components of a x b. Show directly that a x (b x c) _ (a c)b . j. a x [b x (ac + ad)] = as x (b x c) + #a x (b x d) etc. b2. Use this to prove that a x (b + c) = a x b + a x c . c take on the values i. Sec. represent the components of a x b. r-1 a=1 a. and finally we rotate this new vector through an angle of 90° about the axis parallel to b. where a. Now show that. Show that caP _ -Cfta. while the remaining three vanish. that is. k in all possible ways. b3) are the components of the vectors a. 22. 6 = 1. Represent c. k. b. (b'. 3. b. 9). c2 = a3b' .

and y.t)j+ '(x.z. in the calculus.CHAPTER 2 DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS 16.z. z. z) will. y. y. Let us consider the vector field u = a(x.z. we note that the vector at the point P(x. t.t)i+13(x. let r = xi + yj + zk be the position vector of a moving particle P(x. z) in three-space. respectively.y. (42) defines a vector. We are thus led to the following definition: du = du as (-aa dai. 29 Then dr = dx i + dy j + dz k .at dt J k For example.y. be different from that at the point Q(x + dx. y + dy. Differentiation of Vectors. S. since we easily note that u will change if and only if its components change.6i+dyk as as (43) ax dx + ay dy + az dz + at d) i atdt)j dy -}- ( +(axdx+aydy+adz + ax dx + az dz }.+d. t) produces a change in u in the x direction. and similarly changes in f3 and y produce changes in u in the y and z directions. y. z) and at any time t. Thus a change in a(x. z + dz) Now. y. in general.t)k (42) At any point P(x. the student has learned how to find the change in a single function of x. If we keep P fixed. y. If we keep the time fixed. What difficulties do we encounter in the case of a vector? Actually none. z.y. the vector u can still change because of the time dependence of its components a.

30 and VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. -44-1k -4. k remain fixed in space. 27. 16 v dt d 2r dt 1 + + dt 2y + .u(t) At (46) (see Fig. 27). j. 28). We note that r=rcos0i+rsin0j so that v = dt = (-r sin 6i+rcos Bj) de and a = dt (dA2 (-r cos 0 i . dt k (44) z 2 a= dt2 = dt2 I j + dt2 k dt2 (45) Equations (44) and (45) are. we can define du dt lim At-.o u(t + At) . We have assumed that the vectors i. Consider a particle P moving on a circle C -A-. :Q/ It is easy to verify that (46) is equivalent to (43). Example 14.r sin B j) dt/ dt2 = C Therefore the acceleration is a = -w2r magnitude w2r. the velocity and acceleration of the particle.- angular speed w = .(Fig Fio. If the vector u depends on a single variable t. by definition. (47) The point P has an acceleration toward the origin of constant This acceleration is due to the fact that the .

dz (49) and dr dr dx 2 dy z (dz 2 ds ds = ds + \dsI + \ds) =dx2+dy2+dz2=1 ds2 from the calculus. 29) x=x(s) y = y(s) z = z(s) where s is are length measured from some fixed point Q. Example 15. . represents the unit tangent vector to the space curve (48). dy . 29. the Hence (49) position of Ar approaches the tangent line at P. FIG. z Y Fra. Hence ds is a unit vector. Let P be any point on the space curve (Fig. 16] DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS 31 velocity vector is changing direction at a constant rate.SEC. Now (48) r = x(s)i + y(s)j + z(s)k so that dr _ dx ds . As As -> 0. 28. it is called the centripetal acceleration.

u(t) o(t) Now u(t + At) = u(t) + Au v(t + At) = v(t) + AV (see Fig.udt + du dt'v (50) Similarly d(u x v) dt - u dv du v (51) x dt + dt d(fu) dt f du dt d_f + u (52) dt Notice how these formulas conform to the rules of the calculus. Differentiation Rules. 17 17.P(t) = u(t + At) v(t + At) . 27). so that c(t+ At At At At and passing to the limit. we obtain d (u v) _ dt dv . Therefore u u = u2 = constant By differentiating we obtain du du u'dt+ u'dt=0 . Let u(t) be a vector of constant magnitude. Consider 'p(t) = u(t) v(t) 'P(t + At) .. Example 16.32 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.

P-r(d8)2R since P= -d6R (54) . Hence du. 30). In all cases y u u = u2 where u is the length of u. 30. 17] DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS 3m Hence either dt = 0 or dl is perpendicular to u. where R is a V-dt dtR Now -I-r dR Also IdRI R is perpendicular to R (see Example 16). Example 17. Now r = rR. This is an important result and should be fully understood by the student. The reader should give a geometric proof of this theorem. = de We can easily verify this by differ- entiating R = cos B i + sin 9 j. R + r d8 P. Example 18. unit vector (see Fig.SEC. for Idul Motion in a Plane. Differentiation yields 2u ' dt = 2u d and u'du auat - du (53) This result is not trivial. Hence v = Wt- since R is a unit vector. FIG. where P is a unit vector perpendicular to R. Differentiating again we obtain a or _ _ dv dt d2r dr dR dt dr d6 d20 dt'R+dl +dtdt P+rdt2 dB dP P+rdt dt d2r a_dt R+2dtd6P+rd.

2. Expand dt [p x (q x r)]. 3. bare constart vectors. . If r x dt = 0. show that dt. d = w x b. If dt = w x a. Show that d r x dt) = r x d2r 6. b are con- stant vectors. Prove (51) and (52). a. -. 12. 9.dr1 with respect to t. a. show that r has a constant direction. 17 Thus I d2r . If r = aew' + be-. w are constants.34 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [Sic. Find the first and second derivatives of (r dt dt2 dr d2r 7. r = a cos wt + b sin wt. Show that RxdR= r x dr 7. b. R is a unit vector in the direction r. Prove (54). 4. 8. / 5. a. Is u unique? d dt 13. Find a vector u which satisfies dtu = at + b. Prove that r xdt = wa xb andd +w2r = 0.(dO)2]Rid(odO\p dt r dt dt Problems (55) 1.w2r = 0.". Differentiate l r . Show that () r dt r dt r.2 10. show that dt(axb)=0x(axb) 11.

31). Let r° be the position vector to a fixed point P in space. . z. t)j + y(x. If u = a(x.is a minimum. y. 17] DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS 35 14. ds2 15. t)i + 13(x. then r .. (see Fig. 16. Find the components of the velocity and acceleration of the particle along the unit orthogonal vectors er. z. The transformation between rectangular coordinates and spherical coordinates is given by x=rsin0cos0 y=rsin0sinrp z = r cos 0 where 0 is the colatitude. Show that if the distance Pte(.SEC. t)k. Show also that z l2 d1r r0 r ds2 + ds. and let r be the position vector to a variable point Q lying on a space curve r = r($). ee. 31. e.r° is perpendicular to the tangent at Q. show _ thatdu au au dx au dy au dz _ dt at + ax dt + ay dt + az dt z Fia. and r is the magnitude of the position vector r from the origin to the particle in question. (p is the longitudinal or azimuthal angle. z. y. y.

d = k for t = 0. 18. that is. Let p(x. A particle moving in the plane of (r.' + C2e'°2' is a solution of (i). The Gradient.B > 0. is a solution of d8u+Ad2u+Bdu+Cu=0 and if u2 is a solution of d dtu+Adtu+Bdt+Cu=F(t) show that u1 + U2 is a solution of (ii) provided A. z) be any continuous differentiable space function. where C is a constant vector. w2 being roots of w2 + 2Aw + B = 0.36 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS 1SEc. w1. A2 . Why is this necessary? 20. B are constants. Assume a solution of the form u(t) = e'°'C. C are independent of u. and show that u(t) = Clew. From the calculus dV = a dx + a dy + a dz ax ay az (56) . 1b 17. Consider the cases for which A2 . 8) has no transverse dt acceleration. 19. B. Consider the differential equation (i) du+2Adu+Bu=0 where A.B = 0. du = j. y. Find the vector u which satisfies d3u dt3 a te d2u 2 d du 0 such that u = i. t r2 df) = 0. If u.B < 0. A 2 . 18. Show that the radius vector from the originrto the particle sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time.

z). and Eq. so has the value gp(xo. At the point P(xo. zo) FIG.SEC. (p has the constant value . Consequently. 32). where Q remains on the surface v = constant.p has been differentiated. y. yo. yo. dr = dxi + dyj + dzk Now notice that (56) contains the terms dx. z + dz) (Fig. yo. from (58). 32. zo) represents a surface which obviously contains the point P(xo. Let del rp = Vsp=axi+ yJ+aZk We immediately see that d(p = dr VV (58) We shall now give a geometrical interpretation of IV-p. Thus V(p is normal to all the possible tangents to the surface at P so that V(p must necessarily be normal to the surface (p(x. y + dy. y. yo. aSP. zo) so that go(x. (59) states that Vgp is perpendicular to dr as long as dr represents a change from P to Q. aP ax 8y az We define a new vector formed from gp by taking its gradient p be defined by (57) three partial derivatives.p(xo. yo. zo) and d-r = 0. (59) Now Vgp is a vector which is at once completely determined after . As long as we move along this surface. zo). z) = constant (see . r = xi + yj + zk If we move to the point Q(x + dx. 181 DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS 37 Now let r be the position vector to the point P(x. dz and the terms aP. dy. y. z) = gp(xo.

z = 1 at the point P(1. 18 Fig. and cos 8 VO is a maximum for 0 = 0°. so that dip (the change in p) will depend to a great extent on dr. Hence Vr is normal to the sphere and so is parallel to the position vector r.1) Example 20. since dr VV = Idrl IV pl cos 0. Thus Vr = kr. The vector Vp is fixed at any point P(x. z). y.y. Hence the change of (p in any direction Fia. z) . Certainly dcp will be a maximum when dr is parallel to Vp. 1). 33). Let ldrl = ds so that d(P ds =u V(p (60) where u is a unit vector in the direction dr.1. 33.z) =x2+y2-z Thus V(p=2xi+2yj-k N=2i-2j-k 3 =2i-2j-katP(1. z). We find Vr if r = (x2 + y2 + Z2)1. y. Here Example 19. the projection of Vp on the unit vector having this is direction. Thus Vp is in the direction of maximum increase of p(x. Now dr = dr Vr = k dr r = kr dr Therefore from (53) k=1 r Example 21 and Vr = r = R r (61) Vf(u) = f'(u) Vu. . The surface r = constant is a sphere.P(x. u = u(x. y. 1.38 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [Sec. To find a unit vector normal to the surface x2 + y2 . Let us now return to dip = dr Vv.

Now V(rl + r2) is normal to the ellipse.T (63) But from Example 20. 34). and Vr2 is a unit vector parallel to the vector BP. 18] DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS 39 Proof: Vf(u) = i+ayj+azk au au j ay a = r(u) ax i + f'(u) = f'(u) Vu Example 22 Vf(ul. of au-aua az ) (62) = Example 23. Thus V(rl + r2) T = 0. u2. . . + f'(u) az au k .SEC. . of aua aua ay . If aua Vua a Consider the ellipse given by rl + r2 = constant (see Fig. T be a unit tangent to the ellipse. Let Y Fio. Equation . 34. and W2 . Vrj is a unit vector parallel to the vector AP. ax n . un) =a i+ayj+azk _ 1 of aua au.

Example 24 v (uv) = i a (uv) ax q!!!) + k a (uv) + J ay az y C'ax+j a+kc1v )u+Clax +jau+k az y )v -az V(uv) = U Vv + v Vu (65) This result is easily remembered if we keep in mind that V is a differential operator.z = 1 at the point (2. 1). Find the equation of the tangent plane to the surface xy . Thus (64) Notice that V is an operator. 1. just as dx is an operator in the differ- v . 19. so that we can apply the ordinary rules of calculus. Problems 1.40 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. The Vector Operator V. 19 (63) shows that AP and BP make equal angles with the tangent to the ellipse. . We define v=ia +iaay +kaz ential calculus.(1-+ja +kaz)'p y a vector operator because of its components a a a ax ay az It will help us in the future to keep in mind that V acts both as a differential operator and as a vector.

If So = (r x a) (r x b). y2. y. 2. where a is a constant vector and r is the position vector. z). and interpret this equation.y2 = -4 at the point of intersection P(. show that V. Show that the ellipse r. What is the value of Vv(x. What is the direction for the maximum change of the space function gp(z. 14. 3. Find the change of g = xyz in the direction normal to the surface yx2 + xy2 + z'y = 3 at the point P(1.Sac.1. Let r and x be the distances from the focus and directrix to any point on a parabola. If f = f(xl. Show that V(a r) = a. where T is a unit tangent vector to the parabola. 1).y cos z at the origin? 10.p = b x (r x a) + a x (r x b) when a and b are constant vectors. z) = constant and #(x. z) = x sin z . z) = constant are normal along a curve of intersection. + rz = c. We know that r = x. y. v = v(x. 191 DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS 41 2. 15. show that of aye of axe aya a = 1. 2. 5. 11. Find IVpI and show that it is the maximum change of V. z). Expand V(u/v) where u = u(x. x'. xa) (see Example 8). If r = (x2 + y2 + Z2)'1. show that rp=(p(r). 7.ra = c2 intersect at right angles when they have the same foci. and if x°t = x01(yl. What is the value of V(p V4' along this curve? 9. a = 1. 4. Find the cosine of the angle between the surfaces x2y + z = 3 and x log z . 13.i) T = 0. The surfaces g(x. Let gp = x2 + y2. z) at a point that makes So a maximum? 8. y. If Vv is always parallel to the position vector r. y. . y. y. Show that (R . 1. 3 .r== x2+ysd-z2. find Vr" by explicit use of (57). 3. and the hyperbola r. 2. 6. ya). 12. 1).

y. +Cad V>u. 20. The mass of fluid leaving the face EFGH per unit. The mass of fluid entering ABCD per unit time is given by pv dx dz. 35). time is r pv + a(pv) 1 dy dx dz ay . dz.P= ate + V(p. 3. dr 17. 2. x = r cos 0 y = r sin 0 z=z 1 of . show that (r V)u = nu. y. y. The Divergence of a Vector.find xyevzi:' + log (x + z + y) -X z 19. 15 above to the transformation 9-1 ay8 axa a = 1. show that 0 if a 0 . ty. e. 18. Or r ae az three mutually orthogonal unit vectors e. The x and z components of the velocity f contribute nothing to the flow through ABCD.t)showthat dt = au. We assume that the velocity field is given by f = u(x. If (_ v(x. y. z)j + w(x. Apply the results of Prob. We now concentrate on the flow through a small parallelepiped ABCDEFGH (Fig. Ifr =xi+yj+zk. es.42 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS axa ax8 [SEC. tz) = t"u(x.z. show that d. If u(tx. 20. which occur in cylindrical coordinates.y. z)k. z). t). Ifu =u(x.e of of ay a ' axa 16. of are the components of Vf along the and show that af. y. z)i + v(x. of dimensions dx. This type of motion is called steady motion because of the explicit independence of p and f on the time. y. Let us consider the motion of a fluid of density p(x. z. dy. Let us first calculate the amount of fluid passing through the face ABCD per unit time. 20 Using the fact that s _ 3 ax" aye 1 ay° ax8 ` 1 if« _ R . z).

so tha t a(Pu) ax + a(pv) ay + a(Pw) az (66) represents the loss of mass per unit time per unit volume. 20) DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS 43 The loss of mass per unit time is thus seen to be equal to a(pv) ay dx dy dz If we also take into consideration the other two faces. 35. We see at once that VV . (pf ) = di v (pf) = a(Pu) ax a(Pv) + ay + a(Pw) az = 1 dM V dt (67 ) . we find that the total loss of mass per unit time is [a(Pu)+o(Pv)+a(Pw)]dddz z A dy E ry Fia. This quantity is called the divergence of the vector pf.SEC.

V (r-'r) = r-3V r+r Vr-' V (r. z)f. y. The divergence of any vector f is defined as V f. 20 since i. Thus.u) + a(te) + ay av ax a(cyw) az _ (ax au x +ay+ aw az + uax +v ay +u'aa arp a'p sip (68) We remember this result easily enough if we consider V as a vector differential operator. k are constant vectors.44 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc. Example 25. when operating on spf. . We note that y Example 26. We now calculate the divergence of p(x. we first keep p fixed and let V operate on f. Compute V f if f = r/r' (inverse-square force). M and V are the mass and volume of the fluid. j. and since f and Vp are vectors we complete their multiplication by taking their dot product. V a(q.3r) = 0 (69) This is an important result. and then we keep f fixed and let V operate on V(V V is nonsense). What is the divergence of a gradient? k/ axe+ayz+az. The divergence of an inverse-square force is zero.

v = v2 = axe (70) aye az2 21. We postpone the physical meaning of the curl and define i j curl f=vxf= vxf = i Example 27 Caw a a a az ax ay v u w _ -J az 1 _ awl az ay + ax +k 1 _ au ax ay.) ax v x (cOf) = cO a(. (71) Vxr= Example 28 1 =0 i a j a k a v x (wf) = ax cpu ay az [a(sou) az a(caw) vv cv ay az JJ [a(te) _ a()1 ax + k [a(.21] DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS 45 This important quantity is called the Laplacian of 0.Pu)] ay [i (ay aw av az +j au az Ow ax U v w Vx('vf)=(Pvxf+Via xf (72) .SEc. The Curl of a Vector.

p + i \ az ax ax az/ + k \ax ay a2. To show that the divergence of a curl is zero.46 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.ay ax (74) Thus Example 31. Example 30. To show that the curl of a gradient is zero.p C1 2. Example 29. V (v x f) = ax ay a2u a aw_av az a2ul a au_aw' + ay az a2V a(av_au) + az \ax a2w ax / a2v ay/ a2w ay az az ay + az ax ax az + ax ay . i a V X (VP) = ax ax j a ay ay k a az az a2.p i av av av . ay ax/ (73) Hence Vxvio =0 provided (p has continuous second derivatives. What does (u V)v mean? We first dot u with a a This yields the scalar differential operator a ux ax + ua ay + U.az ay ay az a2 a2IP 02. 21 This result is easily obtained by considering V as a vector differential operator. az Then we operate on v obtaining uxax+Uyay+u$az Thus df=axdx+af dy+azdz y =dxa+dya+dzaz y . V.

v(V u) + u(V v) . Example 33.SFC. 211 DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS 47 and df = (dr V)f since dr = dx i + dy j + dz k. Let us expand V(u v).V)r = v (77) where r is the position vector xi + yj + zk. Adding. we Similarly. Now u x (V x v) = Vti(u v) .(u V)v Here we have applied the rule of the middle factor. If f = f(x. t). noting also that V operates only on v.(u V)v (79) . v) . y. z. v x (V x u) = obtain Vu(u v) + Vn(u v) = u x (V x v) + v and x u) + (u V)v + (v V)u u x(V xv) + v x(V xu) + Example 34 (78) V x (u x v) = (v V)u .(v V)u. Vn(u v) means that we keep the components of u fixed and differentiate only the components of v. (75) df = (dr V)f + a dt Example 32 (76) +vsa = vJ + vyj + vZk (v .

V V xv+V(pxv 4. Sec.(u V)v 8.(V x v) . V =0 13.V2v Let A = V x ((pi) where V2. V. pute A V x A. V (UV) = u Vv + v Vu 2.p = 0. Recapitulation. 22 Example 35 V. V x (V(p) = 0 5. df = (dr V)f + a dt Vxr . 22. (81) We now com- V x A = V x V xi = from (7).48 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc.v(V u) + u(V v) . Thus i V iV2 a cix j app k app AVxA= app a2 a2y ()2 -P ax 1 ay 0 az 0 ax2+j ay ax+kazax app a2 = az ay ax app a2g ft azax If also sp = X(x)Y(y)Z(z). We relist the above results: 1. Since A = V(p x i. (u x v) _ (V x u) . V. V x (u x v) _ (v V)u . (Vxv)=0 6.v . we obtain Example 37. (u xv) = Vu (u xv) +Vv (u xv) (V (V (80) Example 36 V X (V x v) = V(V v) . we can immediately conclude that 22.u 7.

prove that V x (w x r) = 2w. 12. V2r2.(r 3r) =0 Problems 1. show that V(a r) = 2a. r = xi + yj + zk. z). written J[(u. 9. y. Show that V2(1/r) = 0 where r = (x2 + y2 + z2)}. v = v(x. y. or au ax av au ay ft au az av 0 ax ay az aw aw aw ax ay az This determinant is called the Jacobian of (u. 13. z) = constant. z). Expand V(uvw). f2. Assume Vu x Vv = 0 and assume that we move on the surface u (x. Find the divergence and curl of (xi . 8. of 5. v. v. y. dco = dr VV + 15. Prove that (v V)v = 4 Vv2 . Show that Vu x Vv = 0.v x (V x v). v. 6. If pf = Vp. y. Compute V2 r. prove that f V x f = 0. y. w) with respect to (x. v. f3 are the components of the vector f in one set of rectangular axes and 11. xcoszi+ylogxj -z2k. 3. If A is a constant unit vector.Sxc. w)/(x. Suppose u and v satisfy an equation of the form f(u. / are the components of f after a . 4. show that V x (v xA)] = 14. Let u = u(x. /.yj)/(x + y). 22] DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS LP dt 49 14. If a = axi + fiyj + yzk. z)]. where r=xi+yJ+zk. Show that V x V(r)r] = 0 when r = (x2 + y2 + Z2) i and 7. v) = 0. Prove that a necessary and sufficient condition that u. z). 11. 2. w satisfy an equation f(u. v) = 0. 10. Show that v remains constant and hence v = f(u) or F(u. w) = 0 is that Vu Vv x Vw = 0. If fl. V2(1/r2) where r = (x2 + y2 + z2)3. If w is a constant vector. V.

If he is dealing with spheres. Often the mathematician. 15. 21. the circle of latitude.50 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. cone. 23 rotation of axes (see Example 8). c3. Curvilinear Coordinates. The surfaces r = (x2 + y2 + z2)} = cl 8 = cos-' [z/(x2 + y2 + z2)}1 = c2. he will probably find it expedient to describe the position of a point in space by the spherical coordinates r.' Sp = z (x2 + y2 + z2) X tan-1 y as a change of coordinates from the x-y-z coordinate system to the r-B-#p coordinate system. and the plane y/x = tan sp pass through the point P(r. 31). This circle is called the (p-curve since r and 0 remain constant on this curve . show that a fa aa_ a=1 xa = a=1 x so that V f is a scalar invariant under a rotation of axes. having e. as its unit tangent vector at P. the coordinates of the point P determining the constants c1. or engineer finds it convenient to use a coordinate system other than the familiar rectangular cartesian coordinate system. (80). Sec. 23. there will pass exactly one surface of each type. j = 1. Let us note the following: The sphere x2 + y2 + z2 = r2. and plane. Let f = f1i + f2j + f3k and consider nine quantities 9is Also afi axi of. 2. Through any point P in space. 9. 16. sp (see Fig. O = tan-' y/x = c3 are respect tively. except the origin. physicist. a sphere. The intersection of the sphere and the cone is a circle. We may consider the transformations r = (x2+y2+Z2)} a = cos. (81). the cone z/(x2 + y2 + z2)'1 = cos 8. 8. Prove (79). 0. 3 Show that gi. Sp). = -gi and that three of the nine quantities yield the three components of V x f. Use this result to show that V x((pf) =('V xf+Vcpxf. axis i. c2. see Prob.

P. z) ug = u3(x. Hence e9. y. of length dss = jdr3j. Unlike i. Let us make a change of coordinates from the x-y-z system to a u1-u2-u3 system as given by the equations Ul = u1(x. The three unit vectors at P.and r curves. they are not fixed. e. ee.SEC. Hence h3 is that quantity which must be multiplied into the differential change of coordinate gyp. = r sin 0 V(p. j. while similarly er = Vr and ee = r VB. We may also represent f as f = f1 Vr + f2r VO + far sin 0 VV and also by f = f1r2 sin O VO x V(p + f2r sin BV(p x Vr + far Vr x V8.p = ds3 hs hs so that ds3 = hs dip. Thus e. y.. y. Since Vv is perpendicular to the plane cp = constant. and Vp. We also note that the triple scalar product Vr V9 x Vtp is equal to (r2 sin 0)-1 and that dV = dsl ds2 ds3 = r2 sin 0 dr d9 dp. divergence. Thus we may expect to find more complicated formulas for the gradient. er. the r curve. d-p. curl. and Laplacian. are mutually perpendicular to each other and can be considered as forming a basis for a coordinate system in the neighborhood of P.xe. If drs is a vector tangent to the p-curve. = h3 Vsp. the circle of longitude. to yield arc length along the p-curve. namely.=rsin 0V(pxVr Any vector at P may be represented as f = flex + flee + f3ec.. f2. where hs is the scalar factor of proportionality between e. 23] DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS 51 so that only the coordinate p changes as we move along this curve. respectively. for as we move from point to point their directions change. 0. The intersection of the sphere and the plane yields the 0-curve.. z) (82) . ee and er are the unit tangent vectors to the 0. We note that er = ee x e.. The scalars f1. k.=erxee=rVrxVB eB=e. Spherical coordinates are special cases of orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems so that we will proceed to discuss these more general coordinate systems in order to obtain expressions for the gradient. z) U2 = u2(x. = r2 sin 0 VO X VV. fs can be functions of r. and Laplacian when dealing with spherical coordinates. e. we have from (58) dip = drs VP = dr3 e. we must have V(p parallel to e. curl. divergence. while the intersection of the cone and plane yields the straight line from the origin through. p.

u3)/(x. The surfaces will intersect in pairs. yo. Let u1. respectively (see Fig. us. . zo). u3 are known. y. yo. y. z) = ui(xo. 0 so that the transformation (82) is one to one in the neighborhood of a point.52 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. yo. The curve of intersection of the surfaces uI = ci and u2 = C2 we shall call the us curve. us curves. we obtain a family of surfaces. since along this curve only the variable us is allowed to change. y) z) = u2(xo. z) = C2. z) = u8(xo. Through a point P(xo. zo). z) = es. u2. u2. y. 23 We assume that the Jacobian J[(ul. y. z)] . yielding three curves which intersect orthogonally at the point P(xo. u2. yo. zo) will pass the three surfaces ui(x. y. zo) z y FIG. A point in space is determined when x. Let us assume that the three surfaces intersect one another orthogonally. By considering ui(x. and u3(x. yo. 36).P. u3(x.-. u2(x. y. Zo). us be three unit vectors issuing from P tangent to the ui. 36. z are known and hence when ui. y. z) = ci u2(x.

Hence u3 = h3 Vu3 where h3 is the scalar factor of proportionality between us and Vu3. yo. 9. in polar coordinates ds = r do if we move on the 0-curve. Similarly. 231 DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS 53 Now Vu3 is perpendicular to the surface u3(x. U2. y. Sec. dV = j (_x.SEc. Now let dr3 be a tangent vector along the us curve. u3 (86) Example 38. z) = u3(xo. 22. zo) so that Vu3 is parallel to the unit vector u3. so that from (58) dss = h3 du3 (83) We see that hs is that quantity which must be multiplied into the differential coordinate dus so that are length will result. For example. y. so that u1 = U2 X u3 = h2h3 Vu2 X Vu3 u2 = us x u1 = h3h1 Vu3 X Vu1 113 = u1 x u2 = h1h2 Vu1 x out and (84) Du1 Du2 X Vu3 = u1 U2 h1 h g x Us s = (h1h2ha)-1 (85) Note that the differential of volume is dV = ds1 ds2 ds3 = h1h2h3 du1 due du3 and making use of (85) as well as Prob. so that r = h2. h3 = 1. and dr3' = dss. ul = h1 Vu1j u2 = h2 Du2. Obviously dr3 us = dss. In cylindrical coordinates ds2 = dr2 + r2 d02 + dz2 so that h1 = 1. . z ) du1 due du3 u1. h2 = r.

+ aus h3 au] (90) . Now f = flul + f2u2 + f3u3 = f lh2ha Vu2 x vu3 + f 2h3h1 Vu3 x Vul + fahlh2 Vu1 x vu2 from (84). u3). Consequently V f = V (f 1h2h3) vu2 x Vu3 + f 1h2h3 V (Vu2 X Vu3) + V(f 2h3h1) Dua x Vu1 + f 2h3hly (Vu3 X Vu1) + V(f3h1h2) Vu1 X Vu2 + f3h1h2V (Vul x vu2) (88) Now V(f1h2h3) VU2 X Vu3 = a(flh2ha ) Vu1 Vu2 x Vu3. yf = 1 of au1 Vul + au2 vu2 + of vu3 `f au3 1 Vf = h1 au1 u1+----u2+-''U3 h3 au3 h2 49u2 1 of of of (87) In cylindrical coordinates of ar R+p+k r a9 az Our next attempt is to obtain an expression for the divergence of a vector when its components are known in an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. If f = f (U1. h1h2h3 + a(h3h1f2) au2 h.h2f3) + 49u3 (89 ) If we apply (89) to the vector VV as given by (87). u2.h2 a h1h2h3 au1 { h1 49U. then from Example 21.54 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. 23 Example 39. and out V (vu2 x vua) = 0 ao that (88) reduces to 1 [o(h2h3fi) 49U. we obtain VV2 1 a h2h3 a a (hAi a +au2 h2 au2 a (h.

SEC. 23]

DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS

55

This is the Laplacian in any orthogonal curvilinear coordinate
system. Example 40.
V2V

In cylindrical coordinates

l
r

ar

a

r

a

ar

-I-

a aB

1a_
r aB

+az- r az a

a

(91)

Example 41. Solve V2V = 0 assuming V = V(r),

r = (x2 + y2)i
From (91)

1 d (LV r J =0 dr r dr
and

or

r

dV d = c1

V =cllogr+C2
Finally we obtain the curl of f.
f = f1u1 + f2u2 + faun
= f 1h1 Vu1 + f2h2 Due + fshs Vua
and

V x f = V(f1hi) x Vul + V(f2h2) X Vu2 + V(faha) X Vus

since V x (Vul) = V X (Vu2) = V x (Vua) = 0. Now
V(f1h1) X VU, =
a(f1h1)

49U,

Vul X Vul +

a(f1h1)
49U2

Vu2 X Vu1

+ a(flhl aus
Replacing Vu2 x Vul by -- hlh2, etc., we obtain
us

Vus X Vul

Vxf=

ul f a(hsf3)
h2h3 L

au2

u2 - a(h2f2)1J + hsh1 Lra(hlfl) ^ a(hsfa) aul aua aua ua ` a(h1f1) (92)
La(h2f2)

+

1h2

49U1

49U2

56

VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS

[Sec. 23

Problems
1. For spherical coordinates, ds2 = dr2 + r2 d92 + r2 sine 9 d(p2 where B is the colatitude and (p the azimuthal angle. Show that
V Z V=

a I r2 sin B a r2 sin 9 ar \\\ ar
1
I

}-

(sin a9 `

a

6

aV
aB/J

+ a (sin 9
2. Solve V2V = 0 in spherical coordinates if V = V(r). 3. Express V - f and V x f in cylindrical coordinates. 4. Express V f and V x f in spherical coordinates by letting a, b, c be unit vectors in the r, 9, (p directions, respectively. 5. Write Eq. (92) in terms of a determinant. 6. Show that V x [(r V9)/sin 0) = V(p where r, 0, (p are spherical coordinates. 7. If a, b, c are the vectors of Prob. 4, show that
as as

ar=0'
ab

a9= b,
ab
a9

a =sin9c s
ab
a(P

=0

= -a
_

ar
ac

= cos 9 c

ac

ac

ar=0'

a9=0'

= - sin0a - cos0b

8. If x = r sin 9 cos (p, y = r sin 9 sin (p, z = r cos 9, then
the form ds2 = dx2 + dy2 + dz2 becomes
ds2 = dr2 + r2 d92 + r2 sin2 9 d(p2
3

Prove this. If, in general, ds2 = I (dxa) 2, and if
a-1
xa = xa(y', y2, y3)

a = 1, 2, 3, show that
ds2 =
a,

axa axa

..ydyOdy

Y

dyo dyr
dy''

_ I go, dys
X-f

SEC. 231

DIFFERENTIAL VECTOR CALCULUS
3

57

where

90Y = aI
nates:

ax" axa

a" ay"

Check this result for the transformation to cylindrical coordix = r cos 0 y = r sin 0 z=z
and obtain ds2 = dr2 + r2 d02 + dz2.

9. By making use of V2V = V(V V) - V x (V x V), find
V2V for V = v(r)e,, V being purely radial (spherical coordinates). Find V2V for V = f(r)e, + (p(z)e, in cylindrical coordinates. 10. Find V IV if V = w(r)k x r. 11. Consider the equations
a2S

(X -f 'U)V(V

s) + u V2s = p ate

X, µ, p constants.

Assume s = eiP'sl, p constant, and show that

(X + p)V(V s1) + (A + pp2)sl = 0

Next show that [V2 + (µ + pp2)/(X + µ)](V s1) = 0,
X+µ
0.

12. If A = V x (¢r), V2¢ = 0, show that
1

a a2Y'

sin 0 appaOar

a¢ a2Y' a0acpar

so that A V x A = 0 if, moreover, ¢ =
13. Show that Cpi = Ae9 + Bey + Ce° satisfies V2sp1 = ci, and
show that if 402 satisfies V°02 = 0, then rp = Cpl + 4p2 also satisfies V2ip = gyp. Find a solution of V2Sp = -(p.

CHAPTER 3
DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY

24. Frenet-Serret Formulas. A three-dimensional curve in a Euclidean space can be represented by the locus of the end point of the position vector given by

r(t) = x(t)i + y(t)j + z(t)k

(93)

where t is a parameter ranging over a set of values to < t < ti. We assume that x(t), y(t), z(t) have continuous derivatives of all orders and that they can be expanded in a Taylor series in the
neighborhood of any point of the curve.

We have seen in Chap. 2, Sec. 16, that ds is the unit tangent
vector to the curve. Let t =
ds-

Now t is a unit vector so that

its derivative is perpendicular to t. Moreover, this derivative,
dse

tells us how fast the unit tangent vector is changing direction

as we move along the curve. The principal normal to the curve is consequently defined by the equation
dt

= Kn
ds

(94)

where K is the magnitude of ds and is called the curvature.

The

reciprocal of the curvature, p =I 1K, is called the radius of curvature. It is important to note that (94) defines both K and n,

K being the length of ds while n is the unit vector parallel to
dt At any point P of our curve we now have two vectors t, n at ds right angles to each other (see Fig. 37). This enables us to set up
58

SEC. 24]

DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY

59

a local coordinate system at P by defining a third vector at right angles to t and n. We define as the binormal the vector

b = t xn
All vectors associated with the curve at the point P can be
written as a linear combination of the three fundamental vectors t, n, b, which form a trihedral at P.
z

0

Y

x Fia. 37.

Let us now evaluate - -- and

dn

Since b is a unit vector, its

derivative is perpendicular to b and so lies in the plane of t and n. Moreover, b t = 0 so that on differentiating we obtain

t=

0.

Hence `

is also perpendicular to t so that

dd_b

must be parallel to n.

Consequently, ds = rn, where r by defini-

tion is the magnitude of -. r is called the torsion of the curve.

60

VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS

[SEC. 24

Finally, to obtain dn, we note that n = b x t so that
b

ds

b x ds +

x t = b x Kn + rn x t =- Kt- rb

The famous Frenet-Serret formulas are
dt

Kn
ds

do

ds
db
ds

- (Kt + Tb)
rn

95)

Successive derivatives are functions of t, n, b and the derivatives
of K and r. Example 42.

The circular helix is given by

r = a cos ti+asintj+btk t =ds = (-a sin ti+acostj + bk) st
and

1=

(dl (a2sin2t+a2cos2t+b2)
2

(.)2
(a2 + b2)

Hence Now

t = (-a sin ti+acostj+bk)(a2+b2) 4
Kn = d = (-a cos t i - a sin t j)(a2 + b2)-t

so that
K = a(a2 +
Also
b2)-i

i

j

k
b

b = t x n = -a sin t a cost -cos t -sin t

(a2 + b2)-1
b2)-+

0

= (b sin t i - b cos t j + ak) (a2 +

SEC. 241

DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY

61

and

db
ds

= rn = (b cos t i + b sin t j)(a2 + b2)-1
T = b(a2 + b2)-1

so that
Problems

1. Show that the radius of curvature of the twisted curve x = log cos 0, y = log sin 0, z = V2 0 is p = csc 20.
2. Show that r = 0 is a necessary and sufficient condition that a curve be a plane curve.

3. Prove that T =
K

(r'r"r"').

z 4. For the curve x = a(3t - te), y = 3at2, z = a(3t + t3),
show that K = T = 1/3a(1 + t2)2.

5. Prove that

AA _ =
ds . ds

Kr,

do db
d8 - ds

=

0,

dt dn _
d8 . ds

= 0.

6. Prove that r"' = -K2t + K'n - rKb, where the primes
mean differentiation with respect to are length.

7. Prove that the shortest distance between the principal
normals at consecutive points at a distance ds apart (s measured along the arc) is ds p(p2 + 8. Find the curvature and torsion of the curve
r`2)_;

z = bu 9. For a plane curve given by r = x(t)i + y(t)j, show that

x = a(u - sin u),

y = all - cos u),

x,y - y,x
ds (K)

[(x')2 + (y1)2]1

10. Prove that (t't"t"') = K5

11. Show that the line element ds2 = dx2 + dy2 + dz2 - c2 dt2 remains invariant in form under the Lorentz transformation

x=

- yt
[1

- (V2/c2)1I

y=I

z=2
t=

- (V/c2)x
[1 - (V2/c2)J*

62

VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS

[SEC. 25

V, c are constants. The transformation ct = iT, i
leads to the four-dimensional Euclidean line element

ds2=dx2+dy2+dz2+dr2
12. If xa = xa(s), a = 1, 2, . . . , n, represents a curve in an n-dimensional Euclidean space for which
d82

= (d_-1)2 + (dx2) 2 +

.

. + (dxn) 2

define the unit tangent vector to this curve, this definition being a generalization of the definition of the tangent vector for the case

n = 3. Show that the vector

d2xa

ds2

) a = 1, 2,

.

.

.

, n, is normal

to the tangent vector, and define the unit principal normal n,
and curvature K, by the equations
d2xa

dta

d82 - ds =
a

Klnla,

a = 1, 2,

..,n

Show that
to

ds

a = 1, 2,

. . .

, n, is normal to nl and that

dnla = - K1.
!Is

Define the second curvature K2 and unit
la

a-1

normal n2 by th e equati ons d

..

. , n, and show that n2a is normal to to and nla if K2 ;P'- 0. Continue in this manner and obtain the generalization of the

d

= -Klt a + K2n2 a, a =
i

1, 2,

Frenet-Serret formulas. 25. Fundamental Planes. The plane containing the tangent and principal normal is called the osculating plane. Let s be a variable vector to any point in this plane and let r be the vector to the point P on the curve. s - r lies in the plane and is conse-

quently perpendicular to the binormal. The equation of the
osculating plane is

(s - r) b = 0

(96)

The normal plane to the curve at P is defined as the plane through P perpendicular to the tangent vector. Its equation is

SEC. 26]

DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY

63

easily seen to be

(s - r) t = 0

(97)

The third fundamental plane is the rectifying plane through P perpendicular to the normal n. Its equation is

(s - r) n = 0
Problems

(98)

1. Find the equations of the three fundamental planes for the
curve

x = at,

y=bt2,

z=cta

2. Show that the limiting position of the line of intersection of two adjacent normal planes is given by (s - r) n = p where s is the vector to any point on the line.
26. Intrinsic Equations of a Curve. The curvature and torsion of a curve depend on the point P of the curve and consequently on the are parameter s. Let is = f(s), r = F(s). These two equations are called the intrinsic equations of the curve. They owe their name to the fact that two curves with the same intrinsic equations are identical except possibly for orientation in space. Assume two curves with the same intrinsic equations. Let the trihedrals at a corresponding point P coincide; this can be done by a rigid motion.
Now
ds
(t1. t2) = t1

,cn2 + xni t2

T (nl n2) = n1 (-Kt - rb2) + n2 (--Kt, -- rbi)

(99)

d
Adding, we obtain

s

0

64

VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS

(SEC. 27

so that

constant = 3
since at P

(100)

tl=t2,

n1=n2,

b1=b2

Since (100) always maintains its maximum value, we must have dr, _ dr2 tl = t2, n1 n2, bi = b2 so that or r1 = r2 locally.
ds

ds

Hence the two curves are identical in a small neighborhood of P. Since we have assumed analyticity of the curves, they are
identical everywhere.

Problems

1. Show that the intrinsic equations of x = a(9 - sin 8), y = a(l - cos 8), z = 0 are p2 + s2 = 16a2, 7- = 0, where s is
measured from the top of the are of the cycloid. 2. Show that the intrinsic equation for the catenary
y=a'(ex/a+e-(sla)) 2

is ap = s2 + a2, where 8 is measured from the vertex of the
catenary.

Fla. 38.

27. Involutes. Let us consider the space curve r. We construct the tangents to every point of r and define an involute

SEc. 271

DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY

65

as any curve which is normal to every tangent of r (see Fig. 38). From Fig. 39, it is evident that

r,=r+ut
(101), we obtain

(101)

is the equation of the involute, u unknown. Differentiating
dr,

ds,^l t
ti =

Cdr

A

d_u \ ds
ds,

ds+ u ds+dst

(102)

where s is are length along r and s, is arc length along r'. (95), (102) becomes r

Using

(t+uua+dut)ds, d ds

(103)

Now t t, = 0 from the definition of the involute so that
du 1 +- =0

and

u=c - s
(104)

Fta. 39.

Therefore r, = r + (c - s)t, and there exists an infinite family of involutes, one involute for each constant c. The distance
between corresponding involutes remains a constant. An invo-

r

Fia. 40.

lute can be generated by unrolling a taut string of length c which has been wrapped along the curve. The end point of the string generates the involute (see Fig. 40). What are some properties of the involute?

66

VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS

[SEc. 28

r1=r+(c-s)t
ti = dr,
dr / dt Ids + lC - S) ds ds, -

t]

ds dsl

(C - s)

ds K - n
ds1

Hence the tangent to the involute is parallel to the corresponding normal of the curve. Since ti and n are unit vectors, we must
have (c - s) K d = 1. The curvature of the involute is
l

obtained from - = Kin, ds ds1 = =-dsl
r

dt1

do ds

(-Kt -7-b)
(c - s)K
K12

Hence

+ r2
K2(C - 8)2
K2

(105)

28. Evolutes. The curve t' whose tangents are perpendicular to a given curve is called the evolute of the curve. The tan-

gent to r' must lie in the plane
Fla. 41.

of b and n of r since it is perpendicular to t. Consequently

rl=r+un+vb
is the equation of the evolute.
Differentiating, we obtain

tl

=

dr1

= dr
{ds

dsl -

d_n db d_u dv A + u ds + v ds + ds n + d8 bl ds,

= It + u(-Kt -rb) +vTn+ds n +d8b]dsl
Now t t1 = 0, which implies I - uK = 0 or u =
dv tl=L(-ru+as) b+( +ds)n ,
1
K

= p. Thus

d8

Also t1 is parallel to r1 - r = un + vb (see Fig. 41). Therefore
(dv/ds) - UT

(du/ds) + Pr
V

u

SEC. 28]
or

DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY

67

T= Therefore

uv' - vu' u2+v2
=
ra

d v = ds tan-' u)
V

o

Tds=tan--' -C -U
(106)

and v = p tan (,p - c) since u = p. Therefore r1 = r + pn + p tan (,p - c)b
curve T.

and again we have a one-parameter family of evolutes to the
Problems

1. Show that the unit binormal to the involute is
Kb - Tt

b1 =
(C - S)KK1

2. Show that the torsion of an involute has the value
=
T1

T-K

dS

] [K(K2 + r2)(C - 8)I-1

3. Show that the principal ` normal to the evolute is parallel to the tangent of the curve 1'. 4. Show that the ratio of the torsion of the evolute to its curva-

ture is tan (,p - c).
5. Show that if the principal normals of a curve are binormals (equal vectors not necessarily coincident) of another curve, then c(K2 +,r2) = K where c is a constant. 6. On the binormal of a curve of constant torsion T, a point Q is taken at a constant distance c from the curve. Show that the binormal to the locus of Q is inclined to the binormal of the given curve at an angle

tan-'

CT2

K(C2r2 + 1)}

7. Consider two curves which have the same principal normals (equal vectors not necessarily coincident). Show that the tangents to the two curves are inclined at a constant angle.

This locus obviously lies on a unit sphere.=--. Moreover. of the indicatrix.rn) and K12 = K2 + r2 T2 . entiating. dt. Then t' Fla. ds1 = dt ds ds ds dal - ds. 29 29.Let r.68 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. and 1 K K2 + r2 K12 K 2 (b) The spherical indicatrix of the binormal. The unit tangent vectors are t(s) = ds. 1 = K d1' t. dt.n1 = do ds A dS. r1 = b. dr.ds. Spherical Indicatrices (a) When dealing with a family of unit vectors. ds A ds = = re Differ- t. = n.n. _ r `-Kt . as. = t. ds ds1 ds1 Therefore rds=1 ds. Let us now consider the spherical indicatrix of the tan- gent vectors to a curve r = r(s). dS1 = x.='--=-(-Kt-rn) ds ds. Thus the tangent to the spherical indicatrix P is parallel to the normal of the curve at the corresponding point. = dr. 42. Let us now find the curvature K. We obtain do ds =K.=n 1 Differentiating. and t. it is often convenient to give them a common origin and then to consider the locus of their end points.

y.c) = 0 and aF(x. y. Consider the one-parameter family of surfaces F(x. The locus of these points is the envelope of the characteristics and is called the edge of .K(dT/ds) T(K2 r2) + 3. c) = 0 aF(x. the curve of intersection approaches a limiting position. z.. z. y. 30. z. y. z. called the characteristic curve. Show that the torsion of the binormal indicatrix is Ti T(dK/ds) . in general. But these equations are equivalent to the equations F(x. intersect at a point. z. z. GEOMETRY 69 Problems 1. y. The locus of all these curves [obtained by eliminating c from (107)] gives us a surface called the envelope of the one-parameter family. c) = 0.K(dr/ds) Ti T2) K(K2 + 2. y. in general. z. c) Ac =0 where Ac # 0.z. c + Ac) = 0 ac which. 30J DIFFERENTIAL.z. c) ac -0 (107) Each c determines a characteristic curve. y. c) = 0 and F(x.y. Find the curvature of the spherical indicatrix of the principal normal of a given curve. c + Ac) = 0 aF(x. intersect in a curve. y. y.SEC. given by F(x. c) = 0 and F(x. Envelopes. y.c) ac =0 (108) F(x. As Ac --> 0. c + Ac) = 0. These two surfaces will.F(x. c + Ac) . z. Two neighboring surfaces are F(x. z. z. Show that the torsion of the tangent indicatrix is T(dK/ds) . Now consider two neighboring characteristics F(x.

Now of = as dr ds A b + (s -r). a If as2 = -t n + (s .y. v) z = z(u. A developable surface. A contradiction to this is the case of a cyiinder or cone.r(s)] b(s) = 0.r) (-Kt . z.70 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc.r(s)] b(s) = 0 where s is the parameter and s = xi + yj + A. z.r) ds in. is the envelope of a oneparameter family of planes. a developable surface is the tangent surface of a twisted curve. aF(x. c) = 0 regression. We have seen that the envelope of the osculating planes is the locus of the tangent line to the space curve P.. the equations x = x(u. Let us consider the osculating plane at a point P. v) y = y(u. and setting of = 0.c) = 0 ace Example 43. 31.= (s .r) n = 0.31 The edge of regression is given by the three simultaneous equations F(x.z. Surfaces and Curvilinear Coordinates.A) + (s . y. The characteristics are straight lines. as plane. This locus is the rectifying The intersection of f = 0 and as = 0 obviously yields Now the tangent lines which are the characteristics. In general. c) = 0 ac (109) a2F(x. y. v) Let us consider (110) . s) = [s . From (96) we have [s . called generators. we obtain the one-parameter family of osculating planes given by f(x. y. z. so that the edge of regression is the original curve r = r(s).r) n da a It is easy to verify that s = r satisfies f = Y Y as = az 4982 - = 0. If we let P vary. by definition. we obtain (s .

one such space curve exists. dv = 0. 32] DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY 71 where u and v are parameters ranging over a certain set of values. The curves obtained by setting v = constant are called the u curves. we shall obtain a locus of space curves which collectively form a surface. and similarly au/ ' F ao9r . = VG_ dv Now Or and av are tangent vectors to the u and v curves. v) = x(u. the locus of (110) is a space curve. the distance ds is given by ds2 = (arudu+-dvN 2 or 2 C_ J or due + 2 9r o9r au . y. and similarly the v curves are obtained by setting u = constant. 32. v)j + z(u. Length of Arc on a Surface. If we keep v fixed. v)k (111) where the end point of r generates the surface. u av' G (Ov) Equation (112) is called the first fundamental form for the surface In particular. av du dv + (av)2 dv2 ds2 = E du2 + 2F du dv + G dv2 where \12 2 (112) E r = r(u. along the u curve. The parameters u and v are called curvilinear coordinates. and the two curves are called the parametric curves. v)i + y(u. For each v.SEc. v). If we move from the point r to the point r + dr on the surface. We shall consider those surfaces (110) for which x. and if we let v vary. z have continuous second-order derivatives. so that (ds) = 1'E du (113) (ds). Equation (110) may be written r(u. so Or that the parametric curves form an orthogonal system if and only Or au av .

Consider the surface given by r = r sin 8 cos v i+ r sin 8 sin V j+ r cos 8 k. Surface Curves. G= r2 Sin2 0 so that ds2 = r2 d82 + r2 sin2 0 dcp2 and the 0-curves are orthogonal to the 9-curves. By letting u and v be functions of a single variable t. = 0. 33 Example 44. v) su + Q(u.72 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS 1Szc. where su and av are the differential changes of u(t) and v(t) for this new curve. 33. Now consider another su au + av av. we obtain r = r[u(t). v(t)] (114) which represents a curve on the surface (111). Of course the surface is a sphere. Now curve such that ar = dr or = E du au + F(du av + dv au) + G dv av (115) so that two curves are orthogonal if and only if Edu su +F(duav +dv &u) +Gdv av = 0 or 6V dv E+FCa u+au/+Gd -=0 (116) If we have a system of curves on the surface given by the differential equation P(u. (arau ar dvl dr = ` du + Wt dt. dv) to specify a given direction on the surface.r sin 8 k d0 ar a st = -r sin6sinpi+rsin8coscpj F=e c1r c1r 2 and is E a8/ = r2. the differential equa- . r = constant ar = r cos 0 cos sP i + r cos 0 sin V j . so that we will use the notation (du. v) av = 0. dr is completely determined when du dt av 1 and dv are specified. Differentiating. Along this curve.

FQ + GP). where H ar 8u 8 avl.(_P+dv1 . Given the curves uv = constant on the surface r = ui + vj. v) along the u and v curves.0. Normal to a Surface. z2 4. and av are tangent to the surface r(u. find the orthogonal trajectories. Find the envelope and edge of regression of the family of ellipsoids c2 (a2 x2 + y b2 + c2 = 1 where c is the parameter. ar 8r au x 49V is a vector normal to the surface. Show that the area of a surface is given by f f (EG . where c is the parameter and 0 is a constant. Note . . 341 DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY 73 tion for the orthogonal trajectories is given by E+F. Find the envelope and edge of regression of the one-param- eter family of planes x sin c . The vectors Consequently. Prove at the differential equations of the curves which bisect the angles between the parametric curves are VEdu-VGdv=0 and 1/E du + 1i dv .4PR)}/(ER . 3.y cos c + z tan 8 = c. If 8 is the angle between the two directions given by P due + Q du dv + R dv2 = 0 show that tan 0 = H(Q2 . 7.GPdv `` = Q dull Q du 0 (117) since - by P Q bu Problems 1. 2. respectively. Show that any two v curves on the surface r = u cos v i + u sin v j + (v + log cos u)k cut equal segments from all the u curves.F2)1 du dv or 34. 6.SEC. tvhl 5.

We now compute the curvature of any one of these curves in the direction (du. These planes intersect the surface in a family of curves. v) which contain the normal n. Since (ds). av Therefore Kn = edue+2fdudv+gdv2 ds2 Kn edue+2fdudv+gdv2 Edue+2Fdudv+Gdv2 (120) . the normals to the curves being parallel to n. dv).74 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. The Second Fundamental Form. 35 that au need not be a unit tangent vector to the u curve since the parameter u may not represent are length. Let ds be length of are along this curve. We define the unit normal to the surface as n _ (Or/au) x (ar/av) (118) (ar/au) x (ar/av) 35. Consider all the planes through a point P of the surface r = r(u. = 1/E du a necessary and sufficient condition for u to be arc length is that E = 1..= 0. Now dr Or du Or dv t=ds=auds+avds Therefore d2r ds2 dt ds _ K"n 492r du 2 au2 (ds) + au av A ds + Or d2u 2 a2r du dv _ a2r dv 2 av2 (ds) Or d2v + and au ds2 + av ds2 119) n) (du)2 (n au2) ds+ 2 (n au2av) ds ds )z since n - Or au n .

361 DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY 75 where we define e=n-au2' a2r a2r _n. What is the distance D of a neighboring point r(uo + Du. Therefore COS0= K Kn so that K = K. auav' f a2r (121) The quantity e due + 2f du dv + g dv2 is called the second fundamental form. Geometrical Significance of the Second Fundamental Form. 43. dv) with normal n at P (Fig. vo + Av) . 43). Now consider any curve t on the surface and let its normal be n.. Let r' be Fia. sec 0 (122) This is Meusnier's theorem. 36.SEC. dv) [see (119)]. We have r" K =n r" K since n rl" = r" n for two curves with the same (du. the direction of r being (du. dv) at P. the normal curve in the same direction (du. We construct a tangent plane to the surface at the point r(uo. vo). at a point P.

v = v(u. g = 2u2(1 + 4u2)-}. Let us make a change of variable u = u(u. F = 0.76 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. F. K2 are the normal curvatures of the surfaces in the direc- tion of the curve at P. dv). and find the normals to the surface and the normal curvature for the direction (du.2K1K2 COS 0 where 9j. v). G transform according to the law E lz Caul + 2F au au +G(av \au 2 . Show that the curvature K at any point P of the curve of intersection of two surfaces is given by K2 Sln2 0 = K12 + K22 . f = 0. Show that E. r(uo + Au. 4. Thus (123) 2D = e du2 + 2f du dv + g dv2 Problems 1. e = 2(1 + 4u)`}. vo + AV) = r(uo. What are the normal curvatures for directions along the parametric curves? 3. 5. G = u2. For the paraboloid of revolution r=ucosvi+usinvj+u2k show that E = 1 + 4u2. Find the second fundamental form for the sphere r=rsin0coscpi+rsin6sincpj+rcosOk r = constant. 2. vo) + 1 Now AV ar Au au a2r ar (a2r + D= 2! - + av Au2 + 2 + av2 Av2 + au av Au AV z a2r from the calculus. and 0 is the angle between their normals. to the plane? It is D = Ar n. Consequently z 1/ Av2 except for infinitesimals of higher order. 1). 36 on the surface.

B and d = .Fe) due + (Eg .Ge) du dv + (Fg .. A 6126) so that (K. is true if and only if This B2-AC= (K. When x is eliminated between (124) and (125). dv).Gf) dv2 = 0 (127) .AC = 0. These two directions will coincide if the quadratic equation (124) has a double root. 0 2(F2 .SEC. E . we have . From (120) we have g) dv2 = 0 (124) (K ..f) dv = 0 f) du + (xnG . (Su.2fF) + (f2 .EG) + du gE ..C if B2 .g) dv = 0 The solutions of (124) give the two directions for a given x. which give the same value for x. Sv). Principal Directions.. the two directions coincide and satisfy (Ef . Also show that e=± ( e au (au)2 + Zf au av (OV\2 1 au au au av g au au + g au J au av av au au av au av au av av av au CIO] -± [e (au)2 av + 2f avav+ g f) du dv + (av12 av J 37.e) due + or A due + 2B du dv + C dv2 = 0 This quadratic equation has two directions (du.eg) = 0 (125) Moreover.E .e) du + (x F . 37] DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY 77 F au au au\2 au av au av av au (avl 2 av av =Eaudo +F (aft do +audo )+Gag do E UP- Ii + 2F avav + G `avl and that E due + 2F du dv + G dv2 = E due + 2F du do + G W.F'-f)2or .

am 0' G= am = u2 + c2 . that is. no other direction can have the same curvature. that is. Example 45. a2r Q= -ucosipi . are called principal directions and are the only ones with a unique normal curvature. au 2 = -u sins zr a2G2-0' 8ua = -sin+Cos(pj.F2) (128) which is obtained by taking one-half of the sum of the roots of (125). Let us consider the right helicoid r= ucospi+usine'j+cook We have Or =cosSPi+sinrpj. F= au . The normal curvatures in these two directions are called the principal curvatures at the point. The curvature of a line of curvature is not a principal curvature since the line of curvature need not be a normal curve.usinrpj (Or\2 Hence (ar)2 au- 1. f2eg K= F2EG (129) A line of curvature is a curve whose tangent at any point has a direction coinciding with a principal direction at that point. The average of the two principal curvatures is HeG+gE-2fF 2(EG . The Gaussian curvature K is defined as the product of the curvatures.78 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc. The lines of curvature are obtained by solving the differential equation (126). solutions of (127). 37 The two directions.

F(Fg-Gf/ +G \F'g -Gf/ so that the principal directions are orthogonal.Ge (130) du Fg . and The differential equation (126) for the lines of curvature becomes dug + c(c2 + U2)Id tp2 = 0 and = ± log (u + \/u2 + c2) + a and the lines of curvature are given by r = u cos [± log (u + u2 + c2) + aji + u sin -p j + cspk.(u2 + C2)K.Gf _ Ef .c cos v j + uk) (C2 + (ar/au) x (ar/ap)j 82r u2)-} f=n 2 a2r au ago = -c(c2 + u2)-# Equation (125) yields . + C2(C2 + u2)-1 = 0 whence u2+C2 The average curvature is H = 2 2 C the Gaussian curvature is K = -c(c2 + so that d(p = ± du (C2 + u2) b u2)-} (u2 C2)2' + C2) = 0..Fe du au Fg . Referring to (126) for the two principal directions. 371 DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY 79 Also n = (ar/au) x (. we have dv av Eg .Gf au dv av + Substituting (130) into (116) we obtain E . 0 .9r/app) = (c sin p i .SEC.

Now let Q approach P along some fixed direction. The line 1 will approach a limiting position 1'.Ge) = gfE .(u2 + ft )2 = 0 3. We now compute the analytical expression for two directions to be conjugate.Ge 0 Fg-Gf=0 From these equations we conclude that f(Eg . The directions PQ and 1' are called conjugate directions. y=b(u-v). 38 Now let us choose the principal curves as the parametric lines. y = u sin v. We have shown that a necessary and sufficient condition that the lines of curvature be parametric curves is that f=F=0 Problems 1. so that from (127) we must have Ef .eFg =0 and F(Eg .of"(u2 + fF )iK . Also show that the differential equation of the lines of curvature is -T2 du2 - (K + Kr2u2 + d3 u) du ds + (1 + r2u2)T M = 0 38.Ge) = 0.feG=Feg . so that f = F = 0. Conjugate Directions. Show that the Gauss curvature is K = -. Let n be the normal at P and n + do the . These two curves satisfy the equation du dv = 0. Find the lines of curvature on the surface (131) x=a(u+v). z = {f (v) are given by the roots of f'=K2 . Show that the principal radii of curvature of the right conoid x = u cos v. Thus u = constant.r2/(1 + r2u2)2.80 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. The surface generated by the binormals of the curve r = r(s) is given by R = r + ub. Let P and Q be neighboring points on a surface. v constant are to represent the principal curves.Fe = 0 Eg . The tangent planes at P and Q will intersect in a straight line 1. z=uv 2.

obtained by solving (134). 38] DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY Or 81 normal at Q.SFc. Sv). we obtain far (_au -) du bu + I (-av -) Sv du + (au au anav Or anau Or an aU) au dvJ ar an + an which implies av av Sv dv = 0 (133) Now n au = 0.= -e an Or av au an Or au av 9 -f so that (133) becomes e du Su + f (du Sv + dv Au) + g Sv dv = 0 (134) If the direction (du. Let the direc- au Su + av Since Sr lies in both planes. dv) is given.au. Or - dv. so that the lines of curvature are conjugate directions. or (au Su + av Sv) Can du + a dv) =0 (132) Expanding. there is only one corresponding conjugate direction (Su. where dr = PQ = tion of 1' be given by Sr = Or an du + ar Sv. These two equations imply Sr do = 0. . Now consider the lines of curvature taken as parametric curves. we must have Sr n = 0 and Sr (n + dn) = 0. 0). Sv). Their directions are (du. so that by differenuiating we see that ar a2r an ar au au Similarly an Or a2r -n. Equation (134) is satisfied by these directions since f = 0 for lines of curvature. (0.

the solution of (135) is u = constant. If a direction is self-conjugate. so that the parametric curves are asymptotic lines if and only if e = g = 0. and r=ucosvi+usinvj+u2k We obtain Or =cosvi-{-sinvj+2uk. Asymptotic Lines. Let us find the lines of curvature and asymptotic lines of the surface of revolution z = x2 + y2.2u2 sin v j + uk)u-1(1 + 4u2)'I Therefore z =2(1+4u)-}. v = constant.82 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SFc. The directions which are self-conjugate are called asymptotic directions.usinvj n= (ar/au) x (ar/av) (ar/au) x (ar/av)I = (-2u2 cos v i . f 0. Let x = u cos v. vanishes for this direction. z = u2. z au2 f=n aua2r =0 av g=n = 2u2(1 +4 U2)-f 2 . Those curves whose tangents are asymptotic directions are called asymptotic lines. 39 39. Example 46. Moreover. ture rc.-ucosvi . Su so that (134) becomes (135) e due + 2f du dv + g dv2 = 0 We see that the asymptotic directions are those for which the second fundamental form vanishes. azr 8u2 au ar= -u sinvi+ucosvj av =2k' a2r av2 a2r au av = -sinvi+cosvj . dv du = Sv.f3PK 0. the normal curva- If e = g = 0. y = u sin v.

Such curves are called geodesics.SEC. To do this.yi) (1 (x. The distance between two points on a surface (we are allowed to move only on the surface) is given by 8 = I. j+ctan 4k are given by 0 ± ¢ = constant. 40] ar ar DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY 83 Also F = -.. VS) + y'dx (137) We might ask what must be the function y = y(x) joining the two points P and Q which will make (137) a minimum. Show that the asymptotic lines of the hyperboloid r=acos0seeipi+bsin0sec4. Prove that. Show that the principal radii of curvature are ± (u2 + c2)c-1. we require the use of the calculus of variations.. Geodesics. The reader might be tempted to say.= 0. y' = 0 or y = constant. z=cv Show that the asymptotic lines are the parametric curves. and so we say a few words about this important method. 4. The parametric equations of the helicoid are x=ucosv. so that f = F = 0. the sum of the normal curvature in conjugate directions is constant. But we find that y = constant will . The asymptotic lines are given by due + u2 dv2 = 0. 3. Find the asymptotic lines on the surface z = y sin x. Problems 1. We wish now to determine the geodesics. y=usinv. so that the surface possesses no asymptotic lines. and that the lines of curvature are u + V 'u2+ c2 c2 = Ae}°. 40. since the integrand is then a minimum. 2. These are imaginary. Let us first consider the integral fQ(xt. and from (131) the au av parametric curves are the lines of curvature. at any point of a surface.1 [E (dt/2 + 2F dt dt + G (i)]1 dt (136) Among the many curves on the surface that join the two fixed points will be those that make (136) an extremal.

It is y(x) y and so also y' (x) that are unknown .+a- since of as of 81' of 81" aY as + aY' as if Tay . y. Hence the solution to this problem is not trivial. B It Ar }' M f(x.x a Fzo. I. ?') dx is an extremal for a = 0. y') dx is an extremal. b a is arbitrary and independent of x and jp(x) is any function with continuous first derivative having the property that jp(a) = p(b) = 0 (see Fig.'f(x. Let y = y (x) be that function which makes (138) an extremal Now 1 t Y(x. a) = y(x) + arp(x).)' is given. and for a=0. of of e of a> r obtain fb ay We now integrate the right-hand term of (140) by parts and P] b dx + Lay - Jab dx ay'/ `p dx = 0 (141) . 44). Y. y. where P. We now formulate a y more general problem: to find y = y(x) such that j'f(x.84 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. of ay' of + of C7F 'p. Under our assumption. in general. pass through the two fixed points. ry (138) The function . 40 not. dJ da a-0 (139) Consequently dJ da0 = 0 or (140) = Ib\ay. J(a) = j. 44.-.

If will be positive or negative at some point. If it is positive at x = c. Example 47. From (144). which is independent of x. Let us consider f dx ( y yl ay 1J. = constant (144) is an integral of (143) if f = f(y. Then a (-' is not identically zero on the interval (a. b). it will be positive in a neighborhood of x = c from continuity (see Sees. we can immediately arrive at an integral of (143). y'). the function of y(x) must satisfy the Euler-Lagrange differential equation d of dx Cay' of ay 0 (143) If f = f(y. y'). We can construct (p to be positive on this interval and zero elsewhere.y of 1 = constant = a . so that (142) Now let us assume that ay ay dx (ay') is continuous. it Jb[afd(of)] y dx ay`p dx > 0 so that we have a contradiction to (142). we have f = (1 + y'2)1. 42 and 43). To extremalize (137). + a y yy of ay y [Of _ d (af 1 y/ dx TO from (143) lay d dx ay' (t\1 = 0 f-y aof y. Consequently. f . 40] DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY 85 Now (p(a) = p(b) = 0 by construction of v(x).SEc.

Example 48.. 2. where x' = u and x2 = v. If f = f Cx'. dtn? t). i .0 of av (147) dt avl where o (148) f = (E.. . The formulas (146) are a consequence of the fact that fo f dt must be an extremal when x`(1) is allowed to vary while we keep all other x1 fixed. then fhfdt is an extremal when the xa(t) satisfy d (ftaf dt a of axa = o X. j = 1. .Y'(1 and J y'2).42+ 2Fuv + Gv2)i = dt' E = E(u.x 2. (146) for a = 1. We thus obtain dt \a4/ d off` au .. i + 1. v). .. dt2) . dtl. Let us now try to find the differential equations that u(t) and v(t) must satisfy to make (136) an extremal. . n with is = The superscripts are not powers but labels that enable us to distinguish between the various variables.86 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. . a y'= and finally y= ± av-1x+ 0 (145) The constants a and fi are determined by noting that the straight line (145) passes through the two given fixed points. . . . 40 so that (1 +y') .n.. etc. We write s= f" (E. . 2.42 + 2Fuv + Gv2)} dt and apply (146)...1. x".

G = a2 Sin2 0. 8 we shall derive by tensor methods a slightly different system of differential equations. then t = a and dt = 1. Consider the sphere given by r = a sin 0cos(pi+a sin 0 sin cpj+acosOk where ds2 = a2 do2 + a2 sin2 0 dp2 so that E = a. (151) We can choose our coordinate system so that the coordinates of the fixed points d .SEc. and OE _ aEE _ OF _ OF _ aG _ 0' 8G aB _ 80 ac av a9 ap . so that (149) reduces to d ds (Eic + Fv) = 2( u2 aE + 2uv OF + 62 -n/A opu (150) while similarly (148) yields d (Fu+Gv) _2(u2av +24vav +v2av/ \ In Chap. F = 0. 401 DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY Now af au Eic + Fv f ds/dt / of au ice --CIE 87 au + 2uv OF au 2f + v2 aG au so that (147) becomes d Eu + Fvl _ 2t2 + 2"(W/au) + v2(aG/au) dt 2 ds/dt (149) and if we choose for the parameter t the are length s. Example 49.a sin 29 2 Hence (150) reduces to 2 ds a ds/ 2 ds sin 2B d (a sin2 0 ds) = 0 Integrating (151) we have sine 0 LIP = constant.

40 are a. . 2. h = constant 3. Problems 1. These are the curves (catenoids) which have minimum surfaces of revolution.1)I. Let us find y(x) which extremalizes f y(1 + y")} dx Since f = y(1 + y")# = f(y. Find the geodesics on the ellipsoid of revolution 2 x2+ z2 + b2 = 1 a2 Hint: Let x = u cos v. Example 50. we can apply (144) to obtain a first integral. so that 0. 5. Find y(x) which extremalizes f'[(l + y')/y)]} dx. 0 and a. and simplifying this expression yields y' = ± (a2y2 . We obtain y(1 + y'')t -. Show that the perpendicular from the vertex of a right circular cone to the tangents of a given geodesic is of constant length. 4.y''y(1 + y'')-l = a-1. 0. y'). Show that the differential equation of the geodesics for the right helicoid x = u cos v. Hence the geodesic is the are of the great circle joining the two fixed points. z = u sin v. Prove that the geodesics on a right circular cylinder are helices. 0. y = u sin v. 0.88 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. Hence sin' 8 ds = 0. z = cv is du TV + 1 -h [(u2 + C2)(u2 + C2 h2)1]. A further integration yields ay = cosh (0 ± ax). and ds = 0.

which thus excludes . but shall take their notion as intuitive. that is. the set of numbers whose cubes are less than 3 is unbounded. bounded above. It must be emphasized that the ends of the interval are to be finite numbers. for if x2 < 3 then obviously -2 < x < 2. A linear set of points will be said to be bounded if there exists an open interval containing the set. The set of points { x j satisfying a < x S b will be called a closed interval. Point-set Theory. The integers form such a set. These will be the points interior to the circle of radius r with center at the origin. for x3 < 3 is at least satisfied by all the negative numbers. Bounded Set. If we omit the end points. This set is. however. By this we mean that there exists a finite number N such that x < N if x3 < 3. etc. while 0 < x < 1 is an open interval. numbers.). The set of numbers whose squares are less than 3 is certainly bounded. we say that the interval is open (open at both ends). In geometry and analysis the student has frequently made use of the concept of a point and of the notion of a set or collection of elements (objects. 0 S x 5 1 is a closed interval. We might also be interested in the rational points of the one-dimensional continuum. All the definitions and theorems proved for linear sets can easily be extended to any finitedimensional space.oo. Any set of real numbers will be called a linear set. consider those x that satisfy a < x < b. Certainly N = 2 89 . Closed Interval. An alternative definition would be the following: A set of numbers S is bounded if there exists a finite number N such that -N <x <NforallxinS. as do the rationals and irrationals.CHAPTER 4 INTEGRATION 41. we shall consider only points of the real-number axis in what follows. For convenience. + oo. We may be interested in the points subject to the condition x2 + y2 < r2. points. We shall not define these concepts. However. For example.

contains an infinite number of S. But the complement of -1 < x < 1 relative to the set -1 S x S 1 is the null set (no elements). If S. Specifically. It is at once apparent that a set S containing only a finite number of points cannot have a limit point. A point P is a boundary point of a set S if every neighborhood of P contains points in S and points not in S. be concerned with sets that contain an infinite number of distinct points. For example. 0. If S is the set 0 5 x <_ 1.90 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc. A point P is said to be an interior point of a set S if it belongs to S and if a neighborhood N of P exists. . let S be the set of numbers (1/2. Interior Point. for example. Complement. The complement of the set of nationals relative to the reals is the set of irrationals. In this case the limit point 0 does not belong to S. Let the student frame a definition for sets bounded below. A set of points S is said to be an open set (not to be confused with open interval) if every point of S is an interior . A point P will be called a limit point of a set S if every open interval containing P contains an infinite number of distinct elements of S. then 0 and 1 are not interior points of S since every neighborhood of 0 or 1 contains points that are not in S. a set of elements S is bounded above if a finite number N exists such that x < N for all x in S. . Limit Point. . Set. We shall. Open. every element of N belonging to S. and conversely. in the main. The rational numbers in the interval 0 < x < 1 form such a collection. but 1 is not in S since 1 > 1. The complement C(S) has a relative meaning. 1 is a boundary point of the set S for which x > 1. all other points of S are interior points. A neighborhood of a point is any open interval containing that point.). Let the reader prove that between any two rationals there exists another rational. If S is the set of points 0 < x 5 1. A boundary point need not belong to the set. then the complement of S relative to the real axis is the set of points lxl > 1. 1/3. The complement of a set S is the set of points not in S. is the set of numbers -1 < x < 1. It is easy to verify that any open interval containing the origin. for it depends on the set T in which S is embedded. . then 0 and 1 are the only boundary points. However. Neighborhood.41 does the trick. Boundary Point. . 1/n. . 1/4. .

For example. . A set containing all its limit points is called a closed set. since its only limit point is 0. An infinite union of closed sets is not necessarily closed. we cannot prove this without postulating the existence of irrationals. the set S consisting of points which satisfy either 0 < x < 1 or 6 < x < 8 is open. The set of points belonging to both Si and S2 is called the intersection of Sl and S2. Closed Set. Prove that the set of all limit points of a set S is closed. 1/2. Give an example which verifies this. However. We give a proof of this statement in a later paragraph. and S2 are open. 4. 3. 10. the set (0. Supremum. for (1) obviously holds from the definition of S. What are the limit points of the set 0 < x < 1? Is the Open? What are the boundary points? 2. written SI n828. and if t < 1. 411 IXTBGRATION 91 point of S. We overcome .) is closed. Certainly we expect the be the supremum of this set. it is possible to find a rational r < 1 such that t < r. Then 1 is the supremum of S. that is. Prove that the set of points which belong to either S. Let S be the set of rationale less than 1. Let S be the set of rationals whose squares are to less than 3. . Example 52. Show that the set of all boundary points (the boundary) of a set S is closed. 1/n. Why is every finite set closed? 7. 5. 1/3. which it contains. . 1 with the point x = removed. A number s is said to be the supremum of a set of points S if 1. Give an example which verifies this. . or 82 is open if S. and S2. Problems set closed? 1. t < s implies an x in S such that x > t Example 51.SEC. An infinite intersection of open sets is not necessarily open. This set is called the union of S. 6. Prove that the complement of an open set is closed. . For example. x in S implies x 5 s 2. so that (2) holds. SI x2 < 3. written S. and conversely. 1/4. Repeat Prob. Prove that the set of points common to two closed sets is closed. U S29.

or it may be .92 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. or qa > qb + 1. so that a . From example 53.. 2a. We have at the same time proved that s is the greatest limit point of S. Also an integer p exists such that p 1 = p > qb..1. A limit point may or may not belong to the set. a contradiction. With the aid of (152) we are in a position to prove the wellknown Weierstrass-Bolzano theorem. Thus p > qb ? p . Q. To prove that a rational exists between any two numbers a. "Every infinite bounded set of points S has a limit point. This is the Archimedean ordering postulate. so that the theorem is proved. since na 5 s for all n. The points in N which are less than s are less than an infinite number of points of S. Hence an integer r exists such that ra > s . T is not empty since S is bounded below. The supremum of a set may be + oo as in the case of the set of all integers. na. . (152) Hence the rationals whose squares are less than 3 have a supreIt is obvious that we should define this supremum as the square root of 3. and a > p/q > b. If this set is bounded.. there exists a finite supremum s.b) > 1. Assumed: a > b > 0. b. . . Hence N contains an infinite number of S. The infemum of a set S is the number s such that 1. an integer q exists such that q(a .b > 0. 3a. Hence qa>gb+1zp>qb. We now show that s is a limit point of S. Hence the sequence Ina} is unbounded.(a/2) so that (r + 1)a > s + (a/2) > s. Let a > 0 and consider the sequence a. Choose the smallest p. call it s. . . T has a supremum. Consider any neighborhood N of s. Example 54. 41 this by postulating Every nonempty set of points has a supremum mum.E. From (152). x in S implies s < x 2. Into T we place all points which are less than an infinite number of S." The proof proceeds as follows: We construct a new set T. t > s implies an x in S such that x < t Example 53..oo as in the case of the null set. whereas those points in N which are greater than s are less than a finite number of points of S.D.

. Sn. we can pick out a subsequence of 8 which converges to P. if S is the . . since Sl is closed. Show that a countable collection of countable sets is countable. For example. The diameter of a set S is the supremum of all distances between points of the set.+F . 10. . Prove that the rationals are countable. . Prove that a unique limit point exists for the sequence. .. S1 M S2 D Sa M ... r". Pn+1. The set 1/2. r2. Show that if P is a limit point of a set S. . . unbounded. 7. Show that (152) implies that every set has an infemum. 3. . S2j etc. 9. . . . . . Prove that every bounded monotonic (either decreasing or increasing) sequence has a unique limit. Now consider the sequence of points P1. . i = 1. . 2. 5. . S2. . exists a point P which belongs to every Si. . 6. 41) INTEGRATION 93 Problems 1. 82. Hence P is in all Sn. Let the sequence of numbers sl. 8. . . Show that removing a finite number of elements from a set cannot affect the limit points. . that is. . Prove the Weierstrass-Bolzano theorem for a bounded set of points lying in a two-dimensional plane. if the set can be put into one-to-one correspondence with the positive integers. . . . The proof is easy. Show that the set S consisting of x satisfying 0 5 x 5 1 is uncountable by assuming that the set S is countable. Let P1 be any point of S1. 2. This infinite set belongs to S1 and has a limit point P which belongs to 8. .. . . 3... Consider an infinite sequence of nonempty closed and bounded sets S1. . . 2. 3. is bounded and monotonic decreasing for r > 0. Does it have any limit points? Does this violate the Weierstrass-Bolzano theorem? 2. But P is also a limit of P. . . n = 1. . P2. Theorem of Nested Sets. so that P belongs to Sn. and r"+1 = rr" 4. A set of numbers is said to be countable if they can be written as a sequence. . the numbers x being written in decimal form. . 1/n. . P2 any point of P.. p > 0. . Hint: The sequence r.SEC. . 1/3. satisfy the following criterion: for any e > 0 there exists an integer N such that Is. . sn. Diameter of a Set. is 1..snI < e for n ? N. . Prove that lim r" = 0 if Irl < 1. . . such There that Sn contains that is. . .

If. (2) S must be closed.11 < 22 . Problems 1.I x such that Ix . 2. since it is no great feat to pick out a single open interval which completely covers a bounded set S. 1/2. 41 set of numbers x which satisfy I < x < 1.= 61. 1/3. for consider the set S(1. Each T. The theorem states that there exists a subcollection T' of T which is finite in number and such that every element x of S is contained in one of the finite collection of open intervals that comprise T'. attained by the set.. the diameter of S is 7 . in the theorem of nested sets._f < 32 T. 1/n. . then there exists an open interval 7' of the collection T such that x is contained in T. .1 n < (n + 1)2 1 It is very easy to see that we cannot reduce the covering of S by eliminating any of the given T. 3 < x < 7. . is required to cover the point 1/n of S contained in it. .) and let T consist of the following set of open intervals: TIIx such that Ix T21x such that Ix . the diameters of the S approach zero. The Heine-Borel Theorem.91 as we please. the diameter is actually Prove this. There are pairs of points in S whose distance apart can be made as close to 6. Prove this. and let T be any collection of open intervals having the property that if x is any element of S. . . for there is no overlapping of these open intervals. then P is unique.. .. Let S be any closed and bounded set. Before proceeding to the proof we point out that (1) both the set S and the collection T are given beforehand.. . If a set is closed and bounded.94 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc.

Then at every point c of our closed and bounded set there exists a S(c. will cover P. Hence our original assumption is wrong. Since P is in S. A real. so that the points of S in either (1) or (2) require an infinite covering. We now prove that if f (x) is continuous on a closed and bounded interval. rt'his Tp has a finite nonzero diameter so that eventually one of the Si will be contained in TD. single-valued function f (x) is said to be continuous at a point x = c if. 421 INTEGRATION 95 This is possible since S is bounded. for any e > 0 there exists a S > 0 such that If(XI) . then f(x) is said to be uniformly continuous. there exists a positive number a > 0 such that If(x) . it will not be possible to cover the points of S in both (1) and (2) by a finite number of the given collection T. 42.0 and -N < x < N. a/2) such that If(s) . and the theorem is proved.f (c)I < e/2 for c . since the diameters of the Si --> 0. The function f(x) is said to be continuous over a set of points S if it is continuous at every point of S. Assume that the elements of S in (1) still require an infinite covering. one of the open intervals of T. We define uniform continuity as follows: If. say T. Any element x of S will belong to either (1) or (2). The a may well depend on the a and the point x = c.f(c)I < e whenever Ix . it is uniformly continuous. such that each Si is closed and bounded and such that the diameters of the Si -* 0.f(X2)1 < e whenever Ix1 . We subdivide this interval into two equal parts and repeat the above argument. Now if the theorem is false. given any positive number e > 0. It is important to notice that 8 is independent of any x on the interval.Src. In this way we construct a sequence of sets S. Proof of the theorem: Let S be contained in the interval (2) 0 < x < N. But by assumption all the elements of this Si require an infinite number of the { T } to cover them. Now divide this closed interval into two equal intervals (1) -N < x _:5.a < x < c + S. Choose an e/2 > 0. By the Heine-Borel theorem we can pick out a finite number of these .x21 < S.cI < S. From the theorem of nested sets there exists a unique point P which is contained in each Si. This is a direct contradiction to the fact that a single Tp covers them. We make use of the Heine-Borel theorem to prove uniform continuity. and so also by a a-neighborhood. Hence every point of S is covered by a 26-neighborhood. Uniform Continuity. S2 S3 .

4C Hence f (c) = s.f(c). It is easily seen that Ix1 - max If(x) I < If (a) I + ne. .f(xo)I < e/2. - a 5 x S b.. x2.f (c) I < f(c)12 if Ix cI < 6. Similarly f (c) < 0 is impossible..e/2.. . Choose any e > 0 and consider the corresponding S > 0 such that If(XI) . . Now consider the set s . of f x. a < c < b. and x2 of S whose distance apart is less neighborhoods which will cover S. But from continuity lim f(x.') = ..96 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc. . s . The set {x} will have a supremum.f (xo) I < e/2.. Since s is a supremum. b). say n of them. Some Properties of Continuous Functions (a) Assume f(x) continuous on the closed and bounded interval a < x < b. f (x2) > s . there exists a c such that f (c) = 0.e. there exist x1. .. Now consider any two points x.. From continuity. x. In (a) we showed that f (x) was bounded. .E. b) into a finite number of S-intervals.. . for f(a) < 0. But also x2 differs from xo by less than 26.f(x2)1 < e.D. (b) If f (a) < 0 and f (b) > 0. be the diameter of the smallest of this finite collection of 6-neighborhoods. Let xo be the center of the 6-neighborhood which covers From continuity lf(xi) .e/2. call it c.D. Hence c is not the supremum of f x 1.E. Let {x} be the set of all points on (a. where e > 0. so that f (c) = 0.f(X2)1 < e whenever x21 < S. Q. . we can prove that f (x) is bounded.e. 43 Let S. Q. Consequently If(xl) . 43. As a consequence of uniform continuity. Let { xn' } be a subsequence f xd } will have a limit point c... than bl. The set is bounded and nonvacuous since a belongs to {x}.. f (x) <= s for all x on (a. Assume f (c) > 0. x1. Now subdivide the interval (a.') z s. since -s'-+c e/n -* 0 as n oo. Let s be the supremum of f (x). . such that f (xl) > s . so that I f (x2) . Hence f(x) ? Jf(c) for all x in some neighborhood of x = c. Then lim f (x. Choose e = f (c) /2. . (c) We prove that f (x) attains its maximum. As a consequence. . b) for which f (x) < 0. .e/n. s . a 8 > 0 exists such that If(x) .) which converges to c.

when f (a) = f (b) = 0.l < e/2 for m. a < c < b. IL Then we assume an N exists such that Ix. show that a c exists such that f(b) . If f (x) is continuous on (a. X2. 44. This states that a necessary and sufficient condition that a sequence converge to a limit L is that given any e > 0. Cauchy Criterion for Sequences. . b).. . so that the . If f (x) has a derivative at every point of (a. show that the set of values {f(x) } is closed. there exists an integer N such that Ixn ... x2.. show that f (x) is continuous on (a. If f (x) has a derivative at every point of (a. xn. then f (x) = g(x) on (a. with n > N. 3. xN_. That the condition is necessary is obvious. But we also have . given an a/2. given any e > 0.xml < e for n >_ N. n >_ N. prove that f (x) is continuous at the irrational points of (0. m N. We ignore xi.xAi < e/2. Show that if two continuous functions f(x). . 44] INTEGRATION 97 Problems 1.xml < e for m. Hence Ixn+ < I xNl + (e/2). for IL . 4. b). show that a c exists such that f(c) = 0. .f(a) _ (b ... From the Weierstrass-Bolzano theorem this infinite bounded set has at least one limit point L. Let x1. . Why? 2. if. be a sequence of real numbers. . Choose any e/2 > 0. there exists an x. there exists an integer N depending on a such that IL . . since a finite number of elements cannot affect a limit point. b). Hence. N. 6. a < c < b. so that we need the Cauchy convergence criterion. q integers and relatively prime).SEC. 7. g(x) exist such that f (x) = g(x) for the rationals on (a. -. We say that L is the limit of this sequence. Given the function f (x) = 0 when x is irrational. b). n sequence is bounded. n ? N. If f (x) has a derivative at every point of (a. f (x) = 1/q when x is rational and equal to p/q (p.. 1) and that f(x) is discontinuous at the rational points of this interval.xnl < e whenever n > N(e). b). n > N implies Ix. However.a)f'(c). in most cases we do not know L. The proof of the converse is not as trivial.xnl < e/2. In the proof of (c) we exclude f(c) > s. xn.xml < e/2 for m. b). or that the sequence converges to L. 5. such that IL .

We shall be interested in those curves which are rectifiable.xml < e for all m > N. 45 the derivatives are discontinuous at P1j P2. PoPI. y = sp(t). Fia.98 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. 1/2. P3P4 are the regular arcs joined at P1. in .. P3. P3. called a Jordan curve provided that f (t) and (p(t) are continuous l and that two distinct points on the curve correspond to two distinct values of the parameter t (no multiple points). 1/3. a S t < 0.l < e/2 for all m. Notice that there are at most a finite number of discontinuities of the first derivatives. 2. . .x. converges by applying the Cauchy test. Show that the Cauchy criterion implies that the nth term of a convergent series must approach zero as n -. P2t 3. 1/n. . . Show how the convergence of a series can be transformed into a problem involving the convergence of a sequence. 46. Such curves are called regular arcs. Consider the set of points in the two-dimensional plane such that the set can be repreP2 sented in some coordinate system by x = f (t). or. 45. where f(t) and ap(t) are continuous and have continuous first derivatives. 45 I xm . and which points precede a given point. In Fig." that is. P2. Problems 1. . Regular Arcs in the Plane. From this we see that a Jordan curve is always "oriented. will be y = P(t). . . Show that the sequence 1. A regular curve is a set of points consisting of a finite number of regular arcs joined one after the other (see Fig.D. P1P2. 45. Q.o(a) = 9(fl) but otherwise no multiple points. n > N. Jordan Curves. A closed Jordan curve is a continuous curve having f(a) . P4 45).oo.E. it is always clear which part of the curve lies between two points on the arc. The locus i x = f (t) a < t 5 fl. 3. Hence IL .

x. .f(xo)I + I f(x2) .f(a) = A t=1 An example of a continuous function that is not of bounded variation is the following: f(x) = x sin 2x.f(xi-1)) = f(b) . that is. . . Now f(1 /n) = (1/n) sin (irn/2) so that N n (I If \n/ f \n } )I =1 +3 2 +2 5 2 +N We cannot bound this sum for all finite N since the series diverges as N -> w. . . n = 1. x. 47] IN TkGRA TION 99 other words. Functions of Bounded Variation. .1)I n _ i_1I f(xi) .. Now consider the sum I f(xi) .f(xc-1)I < A < -o (153) we say that f(x) is of bounded variation on (a. 2..Sr:c. N was chosen as an odd integer. 0< x 5 1 f (O) = 0 Let us subdivide 0 5 x <_ 1 into the intervals (n+1) Sx<n. we shall attempt to assign a definite length to a given Jordan are or curve. monotonic nondecreasing function is always of bounded variation since n n i=1 If(x=) . say a = xo. .f (xt-1) ± If the sums of this type for all possible finite subdivisions are bounded. b). + l f(xn) . x.)1 = I If(x=) . 47. A finite.-1) x = b. N. . . Let f(x) be defined on the interval a < x < b.f(xi)1 + . . . Subdivide this interval into a finite number of parts. if n s=x I f(xi) .f(xn .f(x=-.. .

and assume no multiple points. and conversely.8 1[x(ti) .f (ti--1) I . n x = f(t). .x(ti-1)]2 + ly(ti) . n (see Fig. Divide the parameter t in any manner into n parts. y = c(t). . ods of subdivision. . and hence the curve is rectifiable. i = 0.100 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc.p(ti--1) J 2J1 B = I IIf(t. f (t) and '(t) are of bounded variation.48 48. An important theorem is and sufficient condition that the curve described by y = 'P(t) be rectifiable is that f (t) and V(t) be of bounded variation. if f (t) and ap(t) are of bounded variation. Consider the curve given by x = f(t).y(tti-1)]2J} This is the length of the straight-line segments joining the points x(ti). ----x the following: A necessary F1o.ti-1) I < A I ti .ti-il. is bounded. Let A= {=1 [I f (ti) - f(4. y(ti).-1)12 + 14p(ti) . I f(4) .) f-l so that f(4--1)I + Ip(k) . then from the law of the mean. A is bounded. = I f (ii) (ti . a 5 t =< # and 4_1 5 Ti 5 ti. If f(t) and V'(t) are continuous. we say that the curve is rectifiable and define the length of the curve as the supremum of these lengths. obtained by all finite meth- 1) 2.v(4-1)I I A==<Bs /2A Consequently if the curve is rectifiable. Arc Length. . where A is the supremum of If(t)l. say a = t0 < 11 < t2 < ' and consider Sn = Y i=1 ' ' < to = . 46. If the set of all such lengths. 46).

a) Similarly.. a = to < ti < t2 < and let Osi be the length of are joining nates of Pi be Pi-1 to Pi. Let f (x. let K be the supremum of all sums when the minimum value of f(x. + * )} dt whenever So' and J' are continuous. y) is Riemann-integrable over the curve r.. = 6. If J = K. y) be a function continu- ous at all points of the curve r. We now develop the theory of the Riemann integral in connection with line integrals. Similarly. say f v. it will take on both its minimum and maximum for each segment Pi_1P. The Riemann Integral. p(t) is of bounded variation. so that the curve is rectifiable.SEC. Subdivide the parameter t < t. and form the sum n J = A fii (xi. J-K= n i-1 . y).-1)I < A 11(4i=1 . We need a curve over which an integration can be performed and a function to be integrated over this curve. is used. y) is continuous.till = A(# . yi) A8i Let . we say that f (z.f8 [(dt)2 + ( p)2J dt (154) 49.f(t. y) on this are..7 be the infemum of all such sums. Multiply each are length by the maximum value of f (x. Under these conditions it can easily be shown that the arc length is given by s . Let r x aSt y=¢(t) be a rectifiable are. say f. Since f (x. For. y) ds = LfI(t). That J = K for a continuous function defined over a rectifiable curve is not difficult to prove. and write J = K = fr f(x. Let the coordiinto n parts. 49] n i-1 INTEGRA TION n 101 E If() .

we can make the difference between J and K as small as we please so that J = K since they are fixed numbers. FIG. for a sufficiently large number of subdivisions. R is the nonshaded region. A region R is said to be connected if. y) we can subdivide the curve r into arcs such that the difference between the maximum and minimum values of f (x. y) on any are is less than any given e > 0 so that JJ . between K and K can be made arbitrarily small. In Fig. 50 and from the uniform continuity of f(x. Connected and Simply Connected Regions.I LYSIS [SEC. In (i). 50. 47. . we can join them by an arc. every point of the are belonging to the region R.102 VECTOR AND TENSOR A V. given any two points of the region. 47. Since the a of (155) is arbitrary. (i) is connected. 48. (ii) is not connected.Kl < e11lAsil < eL (155) We leave it as an exercise for the reader to prove that we can make J as close to J as we please and similarly that the difference R=R1+R2 (ii) FIG.

y. then (156) reduces to ff dr = fo' [x(t) dt + Y(t) dt + Z(t) dtJ dt (157) In general. The Line Integral. 1). We shall now work out a few examples for the reader. 0) to (1. and let the path of integra- tion be the parabola y = x2. (i) is connected. the integration being performed from (0. If f is a force field. the line integral will depend on the path joining the two end points of integration. An analytic expression for simple connectedness can be set up. y. Thus f = t2i + t6j. Let f = X(x. y = y(t). In (i) the curve r cannot be continuously shrunk to a point. If f f dr does not depend on the curve r joining the end points of integration. we say that f is a conservative vector field. z)j + Z(x. z)k and consider the line integral f ( f ds) ds along a rectifiable space curve r given by r = r(s). so that y = t2. we define fB f . Since dsds = dr = dx i + dy j + dz k we have Jr (f ds/ ds = fr X dx + Y dy + Z dz (156) We use (156) as a means of evaluating the line integral. we say that the region is simply connected. (ii) is simply connected. 51.dr as the work done by f as the unit particle moves from A A to B. 51] INTEGRATION 103 If every closed curve of a connected region R can be continuously shrunk to a point of R. In Fig. If the space curve is given by x = x(t). z)i + Y(x. We exhibit three methods of solution. (a) Let x = t. Example 55. r = ti + t2j. but not simply connected. y. 48.Sic. but we shall omit this. z = z(t). Let f = x2i + yaj. dr = (i + 2tj) dt .

that is. 1). We have f (111) 0) (0. f = -xj and dr = dx i. 0) x2 dx + y$ dy . 1) J(o. f = yi . We say that f is a nonconservative field. 0) to (1. z). Thus f x=1 v i f. 1) ((1.xj. f = 0p. o) 1. and let the path of integration be y = x2 from (0. Then (1 0. f = x2i + x6j along r. 52. so that 1 Jr (c) JO (x2 + 2x') dx = A xa r (1. 0) f dr = J(0. 52 and ft t of f dr = f. y. o) ro. 1) is independent of the path since x2 dx + y3 dy is a perfect differential. Let us assume that f can be written as the gradient of a scalar (p(x.104 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc. 0) to (1. Example 56. o) ( o. that is. x2 dx + ys dy = d[(xs/3) + (y4/4)]. f = yi .0)) 0.3 1+y'1. . o) f(1'1)ydx-xdy= f' x2dx-x(2xdx) _ f(" Next we compute the integral by moving along the x axis from x = 0 to x = 1 and then along the line x = 1 from y = 0 to y = 1.j. dr = dy j since x = 1 and dx = 0. Then the line integral JAB f dr is independent of the path of . o) Along the first part of the path.xj.7 0 4 (0 12 (c) shows that the integral from (0. since y = dy = 0.' (t2 + 2t7) dt = (b) Since y = x2 everywhere along r.--=o - f01-dy=-1 fv-o The line integral does depend on the path for the vector field f = yi . Along the second part of the path. and dr = dx i + dy j = (i + 2xj) dx. Line Integral (Continued).

z) . The region for which f = V(p is not simply connected since p is not defined at the origin. Let P(x.y. Thus lim AX-40 cP(x+Ox. we have d (tan_i )fo2T dO xJ 2r so that our line integral does not vanish. y.z) o(xo. YO. z) Ax and since the line integral is independent of the path joining P to Q. However. z) when evaluated at the points A(xo. we choose the straight line from P to Q as our path of integration. z) dx Ox = X (x. and if we integrate f over the unit circle with center at the origin. z) . y. Let us consider the following example. y. so that the line integral around any closed path vanishes if f = Vip. If our path is closed. yi. B(xi.z) =av Ax ax iim AX-0 f x+Ax z X (x.z) --P(x. y. the region for which f = must be simply connected. then A = B and (p(B) = p(A). that is. 521 INTEGRATION 105 integration from A to B since JAfdrJAVdrLd(B)(A) (158) Our final result in (158) depends only on the value of (p(x. Let f . then f is the gradient of a scalar V. yo. y. dr = dx i.) and in no way depends on the path of integration.SEC.y.yi LL xi =x2+y2 -rx2+y2 Then f = VV where p = tan-' (y/x). zo) f dr JP(fdr)ds (159) Now (P(x + Ax. y. zo).y. We now prove that if f f dr is independent of the path.(P(x. Example 57. z. z) = JP(z.

y. z).0 Y(xo. yo.P az k = VV (160) If f has continuous derivatives. assume V x f = 0. y. y. we see that ax ay ay ax (161) Similarly aYaZ azax ax az az ay This is the condition that V x f = 0.y.Y(xo.z)dx+f. Assume f = VV. z) = Y(x. y. z) aq _ -L. Conversely. z) . z) = Y(x. Now - y so that f= a(P ax av i + a7 + a. = Y(x. Let . y. az = Z(x. z) . ay dx+ -0Y Y(xo. y. Z(xo.)..106 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.z) f ax dx + Y (x.y. y. 52 from the calculus.z) = f:oX(x. z) + Y(xo. f. y. we can easily conclude whether f is the gradient of a scalar or not. z) dy + Now a'P z. or (1) X=-"`P.y. similarly We have assumed that f is continuous. (2) (3)Z= az Differentiating (1) with respect toy and (2) with respect to x. y. z) dz (162) ax = X (x. z) .P(x.

(163) If f = V or V x f = 0. then f = V p. 6. if jFf dr = 0. f = (y + sin z)i + xj + x cos z k. Let f = 2xyezi + x2ezj + x2yezk. Problems 1. y. that is.(x. Stokes's Theorem. z). 7. 53] INTEGRATION 107 Similarly 7. Show that if the line integral around every closed path is zero. evaluate f f dr along the curve y = x3 from the origin to the point P(1. 0 . Evaluate f x dy . 1). If A is a constant vector. show that /A dr = 0. Given f = xyi . The origin is excepted. 4.Sic. Now consider a closed .xj. Consequently axi+ayj+azk=Drp f We have proved that a necessary and sufficient condition for f to be the gradient of a scalar is that. Show that the inverse-square force field f = -r/r3 is conservative. f is said to be an irrotational vector. Show that /r dr = 0. 2.y dx around the unit circle with center at the origin. i j Then k Vxf= and JX a ax 2xyez a ay x2ez a az x2yeZ =0 = 2xy9 dx + 02ez dy + 02. We begin by considering a surface of the type encountered in Chap. 5. 3. jrAxdr=0 53. Show that f is conservative and find rp so that f = V p. 9 dz = x2yeZ so that f= V (x2yeZ + constant). 3. V xf =0 Example 58.

v) + (au du v) f except for infinitesimals of higher order. B.v+dv) D(u.v)+(-dvv)f . 49). and r will be the boundary of this surface. v). Consider the mesh A BCD. keeping our head in the same direction as the normal ar car x ) we keep track of the area to our left. C(u+du. D. consist of arcs of these parametric curves (see Fig. v + dv). 53 rectifiable curve r that lies on the surface. Now consider ABCD f dr The value of fat A is f(u. along the curve r. Let the surface coordinates of A be (u. Similarly f(u. at D it is f(u. C. Of course. in general. so that A(u. Now f (u + du. We now con- sider a mesh of networks on the surface formed by a collection of parametric curves. It is this surface au av u curve that we shall keep in touch with. v). B(u + du. We also assume that the parametric curves are rectifiable. the boundary r will not. at B it is f(u + du. v). We neglect the rest of the surface r(u. v curve Fia.108 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. 49. As we move. v). v). v) + (dru V)f = f(u.v+dv) =f(u. v + dv) are the coordinates of A. v) = f (u. v). v) + dfu = f(u.

but for infinitesimals of higher order. and dd = so that aux& du dv Or Or (166) IABCDfdr= (V We now sum over the entire network.Six. We thus have Stokes's theorem : fir f dr = f f (V x f) dd 8 (167) . Also over surface 8 I (V f f (V a as the areas approach zero in size. 53] INTEGRATION 109 Hence. Interior line integrals will cancel out in pairs leaving only fir f dr. We define ar ar Now d x a du dv = area of sector ABCD in magnitude. -auc1r f+ av Now fi au} dude (164) (v x f) for ar (au x av = (° x f) x au C\au an Or av °/ J av ^ L \av v)fI ar au (165) Hence e fiABCD f dr = (v x f) a x a du dv au av its direction is along the normal.

54 Comments 1. The line integrals cancel out no matter what subdivisions we use. 3. This is true." for a much more rigorous proof of Stokes's theorem.110 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. The limiting process takes care of this apparent negligence. Applying Stokes's theorem. We just neglect to integrate over a small area covering this point. 54. Since the area can be made arbitrarily small. y = b sin t. v) discussed in Chap.ydx (168) For the ellipse x = a cos t. Let r be a closed Jordan curve in the x-y plane. 2. Let f = -yi + xj. dy = b cos t dt and A= f27 ab(cos2 t + sin 2 t) dt = grab . but fortunately we need not worry about the inequality. We have proved Stokes's theorem for a surface of the type r(u. it cannot affect the integral. where no dd can be defined. we have ff ff S S or ax -y 0 =2ffdydx=2A Area A =- ay x az xdy . and for a fine network the contributions of those areas next to r contribute little to f f (V x f) dd. "Foundations of Potential Theory. Examples of Stokes's Theorem Example 59. 4. The reader is referred to the text of Kellogg. 3. The reader may well be aware that (165) does not hold for a mesh that has r as part of its boundary. dx = -a sin t dt. Stokes's theorem is also true for conical points. The theorem is easily seen to be true if we have a finite number of these surfaces connected continuously (edges).

z) exists such that pf is irrotational.(V xf) = 0 (170) and dotting (170) with f. pV xf+Vp xf = 0 f. If V x f = 0. V x (pf) = 0. Let f = f(x.dr = f f V x f. If V x f p4 0. Example 63. If f has continuous derivatives. (171) may be written XYZ a a a az ax XYZ ay =0 (172) In texts on differential equations it is shown that (172) is also sufficient for p(x. we have. since f VA x f = 0. where a is any constant vector. the equation (171) If f = Xi + Yj + Zk. a contradiction s Example 61. z)a. z) to exist. We see that an irrotational field is characterized by any one of the three conditions: (i) (ii) (iii) f = VP Vxf=0 f dr = 0 (169) for every closed path Any of these conditions implies the other two.dd > 0. Applying Stokes's theorem.SEc. then V x f 0 at some point P. z) an integrating factor. 541 INTEGRATION 111 Example 60. the normal to the plane being parallel to V x f. y. then Cf U. we have . Assume f not irrotational. assume f t dr = 0 for every closed path. If this is so. Example 62. We call p(x. y. V x f: 0 in some region about P. Cons versely. then a necessary and sufficient condition that ff dr = 0 around every closed path is that V x f = 0. y. Choose a small plane surface S in this region. dr = f f (V x f) dd = 0. From continuity. Then f. y. that is. Perhaps a scalar p(x.

f becomes a scalar f.g)dd-a f f dd (summed). .f f (ddxv) xg and dr x g = f f (dd x V) x g S (174) We notice that in all cases 0 dr * f= Jf(doxv)*f S (175) The star (*) can denote dot or cross or ordinary multiplication. 54 ff s x a) dd ff s a f f= a we have S f dd x a ff [a(V s V g) .f f (V. There- fore xdr = a. In the latter case.112 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.(a V)gl dd =a.

If fi E dr = that V x E = -cat Jf B dd for all closed curves. If f = cos y i + x(1 + sin y)j. 16. 10. Show that L. Prove that ff dd x r = s fir 2 dr. if a is constant. show that its curl either is zero or is tangent to the surface at each point. Prove that u Vv . By Stokes's theorem prove that V x (V(p) = 0. 18. Prove that fr dr = 0. Show that ff v x f dd = 0. 3. If a vector is normal to a surface at each point. o) 15. Prove that fdr = 0 from (175). 2.dr = JJvu x Vv dd..Sec. show s C at 12. 8 14. Find the vector f such that xy = f(O. ( o.f v V u dr. s 8. Does this contradict Stokes's theorem? Explain. 7. If f = r/r3.yi + xj)/(x2 + y2) is irrotational and that (f r f dr = 2w. Jf dd. 541 INTEGRATION 113 Problems 1. If a vector is zero at each point of a surface. Show that the vector f = (. S1 and S2. 9. where S is a closed surface.) f dr. where r is a circle containing the origin.X' Y. Show that fi a x r dr = 2a. --- 13. find the value of ff . s 17. 'dr x ri taken around a curve in thex-y plane is twice the area enclosed by the curve. Show that fi dr/r = f f (r/r3) x dd where r = Id. 4. Let C1 and C2 be two closed curves bounding the surfaces Show that . 6. show that V x f = 0 and find the potential yo such that f = Vsp. Prove that f u Vv dr = . S 11. show that its curl either is zero or is tangent to the surface. 5.dr around a circle of radius r in the x-y plane.

r 8 V (177) Equating (176) and (177). no sources or sinks appear. 20) that the net loss of fluid per unit volume per unit time is given by V f. We have seen previously (Sec. the component of the velocity perpendicular to the surface is V N.do=fJf(v.dd JJf.f)d. The Divergence Theorem (Gauss). let each observer measure the outward flow.114 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. fc. It is at once apparent that pV dd = f dd represents the outward flow of mass per unit time. if any. and then sum up each observer's recorded data. Now. there cannot be any point in the region V at which fluid is being manufactured or destroyed.f)dr V (176) Now since f and V f are continuous. 55 k. 55. Let us consider a region V over which f and V f are continuous. Consequently. We shall also assume that f can be integrated over the total surface bounding V. ki r122 dr1 dr2 = -4 fJ dal f f dd2 St s2 f. we have the divergence theorem: (178) . r122 dr1 x dr2 = . We shall assume that V is bounded by a finite number of surfaces such that at each surface there is a well-defined continuous normal. Hence the total loss of mass per unit time is given by Jff. that is.2 f f dot x ff dd2 Si s2 where r12 is the distance between points on the two curves. the total loss of fluid must be due to the flow of fluid through the boundary S of the region V. Consequently. the total loss per unit time is given by JfJ(v. At a point on the surface with normal vector area dd. no matter what physical significance f has. We might station a great many observers on the boundary S. where N is the unit outward normal vector. we can always imagine f to be the product of the density and velocity of some fluid.

Summing up (180) for all volumes and then passing to the limit. ." We now derive Gauss's theorem by a different method. for I Zet Aril 5 ZIel. Surround any point P of R by a small element of volume dr having a surface area AS. see Kellogg.0 as 2r --i 0.. so that all interior surface integrals cancel in pairs. OT S IEIo.dd div f = lim AT-40 As AT (179) We can write tardivf= JJ (180) where e -40 as Ar -* 0. By choosing rectangular parallelepipeds and using the method of Sec. we define Jff..=V.0 lira f As DT If this limit exists independent of the approach of Ar to zero. As Ar-. The sum of the ei Ar. 20. Form the surface integral JJf. Let f be a differentiable vector inside a connected region R with rectifiable surface S. vanishes in the limit. dd and consider the limit.. we obtain formulas of the type (180) for all of these regions. "Foundations of Potential Theory.SEC.do div f = slim AS clu c3v aw 49Z AT ax + ay + (182) . and if div f is continu- ous. we can show that fff.. 55] INTEGRATION 115 For a more detailed and rigorous proof. leaving only the boundary surface S as a contributing factor. If we now subdivide our region into many elementary volumes. IeI. we have fffdivfdr__ Jffdd (181) Inthe derivation of (181) use has been made of the fact that for each internal dd there is a -dd.

Applying (178). E. ffJ V. which corresponds to our original defini- Take f=r=xi+yj+zk. where S is the surface area of the sphere.dd= ffds=4fq .116 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SFC. dd = -r dS/e. f _f f 3 dr = f f a dS. 50). Applying (178). then S = 4aa2. Hence JJ. or 3V = aS. (r) dS = (ai) ( xi+yj+zk)dS Now V f =3. dd = a tion of the divergence. This implies that ff. The region V' has two boundaries. since the outward normal to the region V' is directed toward the origin and is parallel to the radius vector.dd= fff. Consider a sphere with center at 0 and radius a. () dr (183) reduces to f 8 r ad+J1 E r"d (183) In Example 25 we saw that V (r/r3) = 0. f dd = (1/a)(x2 + y2 + z2) dS = a dS on the sphere. Example 65. Example 6 6. 55 for f = ui + vj + wk. Let f = qr/rs and let V be a region surround- ing the origin and let S be its We cannot apply the divergence theorem to this resurface. If V is known to be g 47a8. We overcome this difficulty by surrounding the origin by a small sphere E of radius e (see Fig. S and Fzo. The divergence theorem can be applied to the connected region V'.do= (184) Now for the sphere 1. 50.!. gion since f is discontinuous at r = 0.

of necessity $6= fXzdx+o.aye Z = as.8-. Notice that g is not uniquely determined since V x (g + Vp) = V x g. A vector field f whose flux over every closed surface vanishes is called a solenoidal vector field. can we write f as the curl of some vector g? The answer is "Yes"! We call g the vector potential of f. From (178) it is easy to verify that V f = 0 for such fields. $. This theorem is of importance in electricity theory.SFe. Y = . We have.z) aY y + az) by assumption. We now show the existence of g. Is the converse true? If V f = 0. for an inverse(185) fJ f S dd = 4irq Example 67. . Then X = ay ay . square force f = qr/r3. Let f = Xi + Yj + Zk and assume g=ai+ij+yk We wish to find a. Hence a solenoidal vector is characterized by either /f dd = 0 or Now assume f = V x g. y such that f = V x g. and hence x =--ay ay a# az Y= Z as az ay ax (186) =--as ax as ay Now assume a = 0. 8z ax ax Consequently if there is a solution with a = 0. as we shall see later.z) o xos y=Now V f = 0 or ax Ydx+r(y.(y. 0. 551 INTEGRATION 117 since f f dS = The integral f f f dd is called the flux of s the vector field f over the surface S. which implies V f = V (V x g) = 0.

55 aY ay ay az JZo fx ax ax dx + + ar ay aZ az / . z)] j . z). Green's theorem. o(y. y." + az ar ay _ aa az .z)]j. z) = . v arbitrary g = (x2 + y2 + z2)#(y2 + Example 68. (187) g=[ faZdx+v(y. Y=-y. and f2 = v Vu and obtain z2) (-zj + yk) + VSP We apply (178) to fl = u Vv f f f V. y jX Y dx by choosing r = 0. we obtain f f f (u V2v . Applying (187) x -z dx y dx (x2+y2+z2). z Z=-ra where r2 = x2 + y2 + z2. g=[jz Hence f =Vxgwhere In general Z dx + c(y. (u Vv)dr= f f f R R R R ff S (188) f f f V V. then V f = 0.JZX(xo. j+1 (x2+y2+z2)$k+V .v V2u) dr = f f (u Vv . (v Vu) dr = f f f (v V2u + VV.X (xo. Now X=-g= and s. if f = V(1/r).as or ao az = X (x. S = I o Z dx + or (y.faVdxk.y. z) .v Vu) dd (189) R S .z) dz.118 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS Hence f [SEC. z) + ay - so that (186) is satisfied by a = 0. VU) d7 = Jf v Vu dd S Subtracting.foYdxk+Vp For example. y.

0 inside R. where a is constant. V x f = V x f1.¢ so that 1720 = 0 over R and 0=0 on S. Let V2(P = 1724. Assume two functions which satisfy Laplace's equation everywhere inside a region and which take on the same values over the boundary surface S. If cp tends to zero like 1/r. Let f1 be another vector such that V f = V f1. We have assumed the existence of Vp. 52 we saw that if V x g = 0.SEC. V g = V2ip = 0. then V<p tends to zero like 1/r2.dd = f R 0 s and hence fff (VV) 2 dr = 0 so that V p . We duplicate the above proof and need Jim f p VV dd = 0. Let f = f(x. we must have cp ='G. and f dd = f. We now prove that f is unique. with u = v = (p. 55] INTEGRATION 119 Example 69.(p . y. We immediately have that V g = V x g = g dd = 0. provided that f tends to zero like 1/r2 as r--. = 0 inside R and (p ='p on S.vodr=JJove. and f f cc V(p V. Uniqueness theorem. then g is the gradient of a scalar Consequently. The functions are identical. and since sc on S. R Hence 0 = constant = p -'p. z)a. so that f = f 1 inside R. dd tends to s zero like 1 /r as r oo.f1. We can also prove that f is uniquely determined if its divergence and curl are known throughout all of space. Hence f f f (V0)2 dT = 0. dd on S. In Sec. Let f be a vector whose curl and divergence are known in a simply connected region R. V¢ on S. We now construct the vector g = f . Another uniqueness theorem. Example 70. ao. we obtain . we have If! [V2cc+ (Vcc)21 dr = ff `p vv . R Now from (188) we have JJJov2odr+JfJvo. g = V<p. and R g = Vp . and whose normal components are given on the surface S which bounds R. Apply ing (178). Applying (188) cp.0. which implies V0 = 0 inside R. Example 71.do R Define 0 .

(fa)dr=a f f fVfdr s V V fffdd s = fff V V 7fdr (190) We leave it to the reader to prove that JJdo*f = Jff(V*f)dr s Problems (191) 1. where S is the surface of a unit b. By defining grad f = Jim 4. Prove that f f dd x f = f f f (V x f) dr. s sphere.do s 3. If f = axi + byj + czk. fffdd As 4. s y 2. Prove that ff dd = 0 over a closed surface S. 6. By defining div f = lim °3 A?--+O GT .dd 5. a.-+O OT snow that gradf = afi+ ay az afj+afk ax fff. show that = 4(a + b + c).) + e (r sin 9 fe) + a JfJ (P 0fdr. (rf. c constants. Show that f fJ . 55 aHence f ffdo= f f fv. show that div f = r2 sin 0 Lar (r2 sin of.)] for spherical coordinates. Jff.120 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.

v = 0.dd. 15.sin x)k. 0. Given f = (xyez + log (z + 1) . da = 5 fJJ r2 dr. 10.1)k. If v = Vp and V .yj + (z2 . Find a vector A such that f =. 11. do over the closed surface bounded by the planes z = 0. da over the part of the sphere x2 + y2 + z2 = 1 above S 14. 55] INTEGRATION 121 7. show that for a closed surface f J f V2dr = Jf pv. 12. z = 1 and the cylinder x2 + y2 = 1. show that f f f (V x f) dr = 0. 19. 18. z are cylindrical coordinates. V 13. If f is directed along the normal at each point of the boundary of a region V.SEC. find the value of f f f . show that '9 R v2dr = f f u xv.dd+ f f S R 8.zxj + (x2+y2)k = V xA. If f = xi .yzi . Let S. S ffv x f . Show that f J f w Vu . v = V x u. Show that f f r x da = 0 over a closed surface. (w Vv) dr 9. Show that f f IrJ2r . If w = V x v.f if u V . find the value of the x-y plane. Let r be the distance between two elementary . show that De and V log r are solenoidal vectors. Find the vector potentials. 17. If f 1 and f2 are irrotational. Vv dr = f f uw Vv . show that f 1 x f2 is solenoidal. and S2 be the surface boundaries of two regions V1 and V2. 16. dd . If r. Show that (xi + yj)/(x2 + y2) is solenoidal.

Conjugate Functions.1.f = Xi + Yj + Zk. y). Let us consider the two-dimensional vector field w = u(x. What are the conditions on u(x. y)j and an orthogonal vector field wi = v(x. y) + iu(x. fsI rm dd1 = -m(mn + 1) fV (IT2 1s= dd2 fs.f = show that V2X = for V2Y. log r ddl = - fv. y) which will make w and w1 irrotational? From Stokes's theorem ffv x w dd = ff s s { w1 dr = jJv = Jf w dr = irrotational is that 52). and dT2 of V1 and V2. IfV . Find a vector f such that V f = 2x + y . 56 volumes d-r. cIT2 f dTl V1 r 20.fs. dii2 and that fv. V2Z.a3 y z2' and find similar expressions 56. av av au ay ax dydx av au (192) ax- ay dy dx A necessary and sufficient condition that both w and w1 be ax . rn:-2 dT. y)j.ak. y)i .av = 0 (see Sec.122 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. Show that .au = 0 and . V xf ='1i+¢2j+4. 49 O Vxf=zi. - . Obviously w . y)i + v(x.au -. which must be satisfied for the analyticity of the complex func. ay ax a4 This yields av ax _ au ay av ay au ax (193) The reader who is familiar with complex-variable theory will immediately recognize (193) as the Cauchy-Riemann equations. i = .wl = 0.u(x. tion w = v(x. y). v(x.

Now to every point P(x. y). y) satisfy Eqs. the x-y plane and the u-v plane (Fig. Q(u. The curve u(x. y)i + v(x. 51). 56] INTEGRATION 123 On differentiating (193). v) given by the transformation u = u(x. (193) we say that The importance of such funcv P (x. v(x. Let r=xi+yj. v = v(x. 51. If now P(x. y). y)j corresponds to the vector r -. Hence the vector w = u(x. y) there corresponds a point Q(u. Let us now consider two rectangular cartesian coordinate systems. y) traverses a curve C in the x-y plane.SEC. Similarly. we obtain V 2U = a2u axe + a2u 2 = (194) 49Y a2v V2v=+a = axey a2v 2 and au av ax ax + au av ay ay _ they are harmonic conjugates. If u satisfies V2u = 0.xi+yj. y If functions u(x. we say that u(x. y) = constant in the x-y plane transforms into the straight line u = constant in the u-v plane. tions is due to the fact that they satisfy the two-dimensional Laplace's equation given by (194). yl Ix Fia. . y). v) will trace out a corresponding curve r in the u-v plane. y) is harmonic.

y2 = constant are orthogonal hyperbolas which transform into the straight lines u = constant. . 56 v(x. The curves u = 2xy = constant and v(x. and av ax = au ay = 2x av _ au _ _ 2 ax ay r y so that u and v are conjugate harmonics. y) = constant v(x. y) = tan-1 (y/x). Example 73.y2) j. Consider the vector field w = 2xyi + (x2 . 52).y2.124 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [Ssc. The two straight lines are orthogonal. y) = x2 --. in the u-v plane (Fig. ax ax + ay ay = Example 72. y) = constant is Vv = ax i+ yj so that Vu Vv = au av 0 from (194). and au ax y x2 + y2 ay au ay av x ax x2 + y2 so that u and v are conjugate harmonics. Consider w = ( tan-1 x) av i + J log (x2 + y2)j Here u(x. y) = constant intersect orthogonally? The answer is "Yes"! The normal to the curve u(x. v = x2 . Do the curves u(x. v = I log (x2 + y2). y) = constant is the vector VU =au ay i+u av av 49V a and the normal to the curve v(x. v = constant. Ou av Here u = 2xy. y) = constant transforms into the straight line v = constant.

Example 74. 56] INTEGRATION 125 I Y 0' Fia. y). we can find its conjugate v(x. If u(x. 52. 53). while the straight lines y = mx transform into the straight lines u = tan-' m (Fig. If v(x. The circles x2 + y2 = constant transform into the straight lines v = J log c. then . y) does exist satisfying (193). (3) (4) ------------ Fra. y) is given as harmonic.SEc. 53.

We have that Vxf=-t f = Vv. of x/(x2 + y2). y). y) are conjugate harmonica.126 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS f&c. v(x.jyOU dy + c a 1! 8x (195) As an example. that is. v(x. What do the straight lines y = constant transform into? 3. Hence v= fox .y2. 56 dv=axdx+-dy=aydx Now consider the vector field f = au ay ax au ax dy i . y) = sin x cosh y and v(x. y) = cos x sinh y are conjugate harmonics and that the curves u(x. show that the angle between any two curves in the x-y plane remains invariant under the transformation u = u(x. Show that u(x. 0 dy + c = . v = v(x." 2 . y).au j. consider u = x2 . y). v = fa au dx . y) = constant.f. which satisfies V2u = 0. Find the harmonic conjugate of xa . y Hence f is irrotational and so is the gradient of the scalar v. y) = constant are orthogonal. of ex coo y.2xy + c Problems 1. 2. y). .3xy2. and x + a2 ) k = 0 by our assumption about u(x. If u(x.2y dx . the transformed curves have the same angle of intersection.

l .E=0 (197) so that the divergence of the electrostatic-field vector is zero at any point in space where no charge exists. We assume that the reader is familiar with the methods of generating electrostatic charges. t and the coordinates of qi are xi. then ri = I(rS .3 (xi .(yi. (r/r3) = 0.7/)i + (zi -t)k an _ r. Electrostatic Forces.s. or field. It is found by experiment that the repulsion of two like point charges is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the charges and directly proportional to the product of their charges. V.)i -I. n. 127 . We have seen in Example 25 that V V.z. yi. provided that the unit test charge does not affect the original distribution of charges. Hence E is solenoidal except where charges exist. We define the electrostatic unit of charge (e.xi)2 + (. is given by E = (q/r3)r. If the coordinates of P are t.)2 + a ot r ri (pJ .CHAPTER 5 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 57. For a single charge q placed at the origin of our coordinate system. The electrostatic intensity at a point P is the force that would act on a unit charge placed at P as a result of the rest of the charges.)2]1. the electric intensity. For many charges the field at P is given by E=- 4'a s a=1 ra ra (196) where ra represents the vector from P to the charge qa. and V1 l ri ri rr. for there E is discontinuous.u. The forces act along the line joining the two charges.y.) as that charge which produces a force of one dyne on a like charge situated one centimeter from it when both are placed in a vacuum. zi. Consequently.

f d(p = 0. 58. for consider any small volume contained in the conductor and apply Gauss's theorem. We call w the electrostatic potential.dd=4irQ s (202) where Q is the total charge inside S. we obtain Gauss's law. . In Example 66 we saw that J f (qr/r3) dd = 4Tq. qara dd = 41r raa a-1 qa (200) Jf. I we have f E dr = . 58 so that (196) reduces to E = -Vp n (198) where P =a-1qa/ra. The theorem in words is that the total electric flux over any closed surface equals 4w times the total charge inside the surface. The charge on a conductor must reside on the surface. since . We define a conductor as a body with no electric field in its interior. for otherwise the "free" electrons would move and the field would not be static.p(-o) = tp(P).128 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. and For any closed path which does not pass through a point charge. Gauss's Law.^p dr = .p(oo) = 0. This is true for each charge q. VxE=O (199) We also note that f E dr = cp(P) . S Hence JS ! La a-1 For a charge outside 8. Hence the work done by the field in taking a unit charge from P to oo is equal to the potential at P. Thus E is also irrotational. inside S.do=JfJv. Example 75.()dr=0 and (201). (201) since there is no discontinuity in qr/r3. r > 0. Let S be an imaginary closed surface that does not intersect any charges. Adding (200) JJE.

Every body possesses some ability in conducting electrons. z) = constant. Fic. Actually there is no sharp line of demarcation between conductors and insulators. This is true for arbitrarily small volumes. If a body has the property that a charge placed on it continues to reside where placed in the absence of an external electric field. At the surface of a conductor the field is normal to the surface. for any component of the field tangent to the surface would cause a flow of current in the conductor. We shall show that the field outside the sphere is the same as if .SEC. we must have q = 0. The field is everywhere normal to an equipotential surface. 58] STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 129 f f E dd = 4xq and since E = 0. we call the body an insulator. Such a surface is called an equipotential surface. so that no excess of positive charges over negative charges exists. Example 76. Hence the total charge must exist on the surface of the conductor. this again being contrary to the assumption that the field is static (no large-scale motion of electrons occurring). Consider a uniformly charged hollow sphere E. y. for the vector E = -V(p is normal everywhere to the surface V(x. 54.

55 with unit cross-sectional area. Construct an imaginary sphere through P con(see centric with the sphere Fig. From symmetry it is obvious that the intensity at any point of the sphere is the same Fic. From symmetry the field is normal to the plates. Fic. Field w thin a parallel-plate condenser.130 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. We now determine the field in the neighborhood of a conductor. We apply Gauss's law to the surface in Fig. Applying Gauss's law. f f E do = E = 4ara (204) so that the field is uniform. 58 the total charge were concentrated at the center of the sphere and that in the interior of the sphere there is no field. Let P be any point outside the sphere with spherical coordinates r. or f fEdS=Ef fdS=4irr2E=4aQ so that E= r and E= Q r (203) Q We leave it to the reader to show that E = 0 inside I. 55. cp. we have f f E dd = 4. Consider two infinite parallel plates with surface densities a and -a. Example 78. 0. Example 77. 54). Moreover. We consider the cylindrical pillbox of Fig. 56. the field is radial. 56 and apply Gauss's law to obtain . as that at P.rQ.

From Example 78. 57. and (2) the field due to the charge resting on the area in question. conductor at the point P' situated symmetrically opposite P is zero from Example 75. Solve Prob. Two hollow concentric spheres have equal and opposite charges Q and -Q.SEC. A charged soap film thus tends to expand. The field at P' is E1 . say E2 (see Fig. Thus El = 2o per unit charge. Example 79. The outer sphere is negatively charged. . b > a.E2 = 0. Problems 1. Force on the surface of a conductor. 1 for two infinite concentric cylinders. Find the field due to any infinite uniformly charged cylinder. 58] STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 131 EA = 4raA or E = 47ro N (205) where a is the charge per unit area and N is the unit normal vector to the surface of the conductor. For an area dS the force is dE = (2av) (v dS) = 27rv2 dS (206) This force is normal to the surface. Find the work done in taking a unit test charge from the sphere of radius a to the sphere of radius b. El + E2 = 41rv. The field at a point outside this area is due to (1) charges distributed on the rest of the conductor (call this field E1). 3. We consider a small area on the surface of the conductor. Now the field inside the Ei+E2 P Fia. 57). 2.

x = B. Poisson's Formula. Point charges +q. sin (+ PA B) E_ -v In Sec. show that the equation of a line of force is n a-1 qa(x . 57. Show that the electric flux n through this circle is N = 121rga(1 . 58). .xa)z + y2]i = constant 6. Let the line L of Prob. charges exist between the planes x = A. The line of force that leaves A making an angle a with AB meets the plane that bisects AB at right angles in P. -q are placed at the points A. q2. 59 4. If no Y xa q3 x2 xl 0 x qa qi I 1 II ` I 1 I / Fia. 4 be the x axis. . .cos Sa). Let ql. where Na is the a-I angle between L and any line from qa to the circumference of C. q be a set of collinear electric charges residing on the line L. 5. Show that sin 2 = 59. B. 58.132 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [Sec. . and rotate a line of force r in the x-y plane about the x axis (see Fig. we saw that a-1 r.xa)[(x . . Let C be a circle whose plane is normal to L and whose center lies on L.

Now from Gauss's law ff 8 f f f pdr v . so that the limit exists. The integral f f f (p dr/r) exists if p is continuous. Let us surround the point P by a small sphere R of radius e. If f f "d*T =I fo2r fo= 0 pr sin a dr d9 d<p` < MT2E2 where M is the bound of p in the neighborhood of P. In much the same way we can show that E = f f f Ta dr and that at a point P where a charge exists (208) E(P) = lim f uJ . At any point P where no charges exist. Now let us consider what happens at a point P where charges exist. r = 0. We define 9 at P Y-R as lim f f f (p dr/r).SEC. Thus I i l xf p dT _ fJf Rp V I < M? (e2 + el ) where e' is the radius of the sphere R' surrounding P. for using spherical y-R coordinates. that is. r > 0.dr t r +0 converges. and we need not worry about the convergence of the integral. This limit exists. 591 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 133 For a continuous distribution of charge density p. we postulate that the potential is = fff pdr (207) where the integration exists over all of space. The Cauchy criterion holds.

Thus JJJ(v.p = 0.Vs.E)dr = 47r f f f p dr V (209) V Since (209) is true for all volumes.raa = -A/2. Poisson's equation V2.yl Also 42rc = (Er)r_a = -A/a. and the reader is referred to Kellogg's "Foundations of Potential Theory" for the proof of this. so that q = 2. 59 In order to apply the divergence theorem to the surface integral. Example 80. r=xi -f. p = 0. we have (211) and at places where no charges exist. it is easy to see that V E = 4irp provided V E and p are continuous.. and E=2r r2 (212) .134 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. from symmetry. holds. In cylindrical coordinates V 20 r L or (r Or + e r t90/ + 8z \r 8z/ J Consider an infinite cylinder of radius a and charge q per unit length. we have V2. V2. Thus r dr = constant = A vAlogr+B E_ -Vip= -A r. Moreover. so that Laplace's equation. At points where no charge exists. p depends only on r.p = -4ap (210) Since E _ . We assume this to be true.p = 0. we must be sure that V E is continuous at points where p is continuous.

uniformly charged. E = -Vgp = 0 so that Jff (vp)2 dr = 0 for all volumes V inside the conductor. 3. Solve Laplace's equation for two concentric spheres of radii a. V Therefore (VV)2 = 0. Does cl92 satisfy Laplace's equation? 8. 6. with charges q. Problems 1. 60. 601 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 135 Example 81. That this is reasonable can be seen from the following . If charges reside in a medium other than a vacuum. From Green's formula we have Jfpvcc. Find the field due to a two-dimensional infinite slab. Solve Laplace's equation and find the field due to an infinite uniformly charged plane. and find the field. Show that rp = (A cos nx + B sin nx) (Cell + De-Av) satisfies x+ a2 $ 49Y2 = 0. b. show that cpi + 4p2 satisfies Poisson's equation. Solve Laplace's equation in spherical coordinates assuming the potential V = V(r). Dielectrics. with b > a.co < y < oo. Here we have p = p(x) and must solve Laplace's equation and Poisson's equation separately for free space and for the slab.SEC. To prove that the potential is constant inside a conductor. Q. so that p = con- stant inside the conductor. 4. Prove that two-dimensional lines of force also satisfy Laplace's equation. of width 2a. 2. 7. The space occupied by the slab is given by -a S x < a. If Cpl and S02 satisfy Laplace's equation.rp2 satisfy Laplace's equation. and we must satisfy the boundary condition for the potential at the edge of the slab. show that cpl + 4o and Ipl -. Moreover. . and app ax = app ay = app az _ 0. it is found that the inverse-square force needs readjustment. for any surface inside the conductor. 5.ddJfJ(s7co)2dr+JJJrpv2codr Inside the conductor no charge exists so that V 2(p = 0. If (pi satisfies Laplace's equation and cp2 satisfies Poisson's equation.

..136 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. i=i i = 1. we do work against the separate . . This amount of work is glg2/rl2. 59 of glass consists of positive and negative particles. Applying this force. and x. Energy of the Electrostatic Field.. In the most general case. It takes no work to bring q.. Assuming that the molecular structure . where x > 1. P2. = K. To bring q2 to P2. It is found experimentally that E -_ (qq'/Kr9)r for charges in a dielectric. 2. the electrons being bound to the nucleus. . Poisson's equation becomes V D = -V (K Vg) = 4rp. where r12 is the distance between Pl and P2.d d= 4 Q K (213) f f 41rQ (214) where D is defined as the displacement vector. Let us bring charges q. In bringing q3 to P3. .. E = E. 61..++++ 0/0 --- / Glass -----j/ Fm. . . we see that Gauss's law is modified to read fjE and if x is a constant. q.. and calculate the work done in bringing about this distribution. 61 considerations. we see that the field due to the oppositely charged plates might well cause a dis- placement of the electrons away from the negative plate and toward the positive plate.. 3 where D = Dli + D2j + Dak. 59). from infinity to positions P1. . . . since there is no field. = Z x....E. work must be done against the field set up by Q1. we have 3 D. D = xE _ -x V.i + E2j + Eak. so that E = 47rv/x. to P. and for constantx 4rp x (215) For p = 0 we still have Laplace's equation V2(p = 0. q2. . . x is called the dielectric constant.+++++++++++. We consider a parallel-plate condenser separated by glass (Fig.. P. This tends to weaken the field...

W 87 S ff ff v Now p. n Since (pi = . The quantity W n is called the electrostatic energy of the field. n q.ri. continue this process and obtain for the total work W We =./rii.f f f Applying the divergence theorem. since p = 0 outside a fixed sphere. once as glg2/r12 and again as g2g1/r21.q'i (216) The J occurs because gig2/r12 occurs twice in the summation process. Hence lim f f cpD dd = 0. W (217) Now assume that all the charges are contained in some finite We have V D = 41rp so that fff fff 8. We may take our volume of integration as large as we please. we replace the summation by an integral. This work is gig3/r13 and g2g3/r23. 61] STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 137 fields due to q. we have W = gipi.SEC. and q2. so that s w= 8A f f f (E D) dr (218) .is of the order of 1/r for large r. so that W= jfff pv dr sphere. i=1 For a continuous distribution of charge. and D is of the order of 1/r2. while do is of the order of r2.al q.

r>> a r The total energy is and D=E=O. Discontinuities of D and E at the Boundary of Two Dielectrics. 60. We have = D = E = qr. 61). Since the field is conservative.r<a W=s- 22x x ffJ-sin O drdOdcp q2 2a 62. Let S be the surface of discontinuity between two media with dielectric constant K1 and K2.138 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. Example 82. ft dr = 0 or Er1 = Er1 (220) . Equation (219) states that the normal component of the displacement vector D is continuous across a surface of discontinuity containing no charges. (219) We have taken the pillbox very flat so that the sides contribute a negligible amount to the flux. For an isotropic medium. 62 The energy density is w = (1/8ir)E D. Assuming no charges exist on the surface of K1 discontinuity. Let us compute the energy if our space contains a charge q distributed uniformly over the surface of a sphere of radius a. 60). D= KE and W = (1/87r) Jff KE2 dr. = DN. we have DN. D2 n2 = 0.n2. We apply Gauss's law to a pillbox with a face in each medium (Fig. we have K2 so that n2=_nl FIG. We next consider a closed curve r with sides parallel to the surface of discontinuity and ends negligible in size (Fig. Si nce nl = .

62). ET. K1EN. then 02p = -4up. = 4arv. or K2EN. Let p be the volume density and a the surface density.SEC. for isotropic media. the surfaces being conductors. Our problem is to find . Green's Reciprocity Theorem. A new distribution of charges would yield a new potential function cp' such that V2sp' = -41ro'. If p is the potential function for this distribution of charges. Hence tan01_Kl tan 02 K2 (221) which is the law of refraction (see Fig. 63. 62. Combining (219) and (220). or E . dd = -4uo dS. ET. 63] STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 139 In other words. DN. we have DN. E. the tangential component of the electric vector E is continuous across a surface of discontinuity. Fio. Let us consider any distribution of volume and surface charges.. We shall make use of the fact that E = -Vp and that at the surface E. ET.

The conductor . and afterward. cp' = 1/a. a. Applying the reciprocity theorem. its potential is zero. p of the old distribution and p'. Let a sphere of radius a be grounded. that is. This is the total charge induced on the sphere when it is grounded. Problems 1. We desire to find Q.140 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS 1SEC.Pp '-V 'p)dr=4a f f('-rp'o)dS V s or f if rpp' dr + ff ' ds = f f f v p dr + jJ p dS (222) This is Green's reciprocity theorem. and place a charge q at a point P. we apply Green's formula JJJ V (vV2V . a reciprocal property prevails. o. Q = ?. q' = 1. b units from the center of the sphere. Example 83. It states that the potential (p of a given distribution when multiplied by the corresponding charge (p'. of the new distribution. We construct a new distribution as follows: Place a unit charge on the sphere. and assume no other charges in space. For the point P we have initially pp = ?.' S v v) dd which reduces to -4v ii (. o) in the old distribution. q = q. q' = 0. To do so. The charge q will induce a charge Q on the sphere. and afterward. A conducting sphere of radius a is embedded in the center of a sphere of radius b and dielectric constant K. The potential due to this charged sphere is p' = 1/r.(alb)q. For the sphere we have initially = 0. that is.1+vp-0Q'+q a b so that Q = . V = 1/b. Note that this method does not tell us the surface distribution of the induced charge.) in the new distribution and then summed over all of the space is equal to the sum of the products of the potentials (pp') in the new distribution by the charges (p.p) JJ(cV. b > a. we have 0. o'. 63 a relationship between the fundamental quantities p. .ip'V'.

0) and ask if it is possible to find a point Q(z.SFc. and a point charge q is placed at a distance r from its center. a point charge on the dielectric boundary induces equal charges on the inner and outer shells. Show that the change in the energy of the system is . 0. V2 are the potentials of two equipotential surfaces which completely surround it (V1 > V2). Prove that the work done by the electric forces is E2(b . 0) such that a certain charge q' at Q will cause the potential over the sphere x2 + y2 + z2 = a2. 4.2ab cos 0) = a2 a2 b2 0 . to vanish. A conductor has a charge e.e(V l . Thus s2 = a (a2 + b2 . 0. 5. Show that the charge induced on the sphere is Q = -Kabq{r[b + (K .b1)b-'b1-1. the outer conductor contracts from radius b to radius b1. A spherical condenser with inner radius a and outer radius b is filled with two spherical layers of dielectrics Kl and K2. a < b. 0. If. show that K1/K2 = b/a. when both shells are earthed. 63 we have 82 = z2 + a2 . and V1. 0) the image point of P(b. r > b > a. The answer is "Yes"! We proceed as follows : From Fig.a)-'V(a + Vt)-2 3.2az cos B t== b2+a2-2abcos6 We choose z so that zb = a2. Show that the rate of transfer of the induced charge (due to q) from the inner to the outer sphere is dQ dt = -gab(b . Under the internal forces. The inner sphere of a spherical condenser (radii a. We consider a charge q placed at a point P(b. 0. and call Q(a2/b.1 )K 1. b) has a constant charge E.64] STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 141 is grounded. and the outer conductor is at zero potential. A pair of concentric conductors of radii a and b are connected by a wire.V2) (K . 0) with respect to the sphere. Method of Images. 64. The space between these two surfaces is now filled with a dielectric of inductive capacity K.1)a])-1. 2. the boundary between being given by r = J(a + b). A point charge q is detached from the inner one and moved radially with uniform speed V to the outer one.

. (p is _ q (a/b)q [r2 (r2 + b2 .142 and VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. 64 The potential at S due to charges q and q' at P and Q is P= s. From the uniqueness theorem of Example 69.(2a2/b)r cos 0]1 (223) with = 0 on S and V24 = 0 where no charges exist. F of (223) is the potential function for the problem of Example 83. The potential at any point R with spherical coordinates r.2rb cos 0)# + (a4/b2) . The function of (223) satisfies Laplace's equation and is zero on the sphere. The radial field is given by Er 8 or q(r-bcos9) (r2 + b2 .(2a2/b)r cos B].-I.(a2/b) cos 0] [r2 + (a4/b2) .q t =-t Cbq'+qJ and p = 0 if we choose q' _ . 0. FIG. Now let us consider the sphere of Example 83. 63.(alb)q.2rb cos B)' (a/b)q[r .

We know that V2V = V2U = 0. and show that the charge is attracted toward the plate with a force q2 4f2 4g2a3 fa + (f' . we look for a solution of Laplace's equation V2V = 0. 56) will represent the lines of force. so that the conjugate function U(x. We now give an example of the use of conjugate harmonic functions. We know that these curves are orthogonal to the lines of force. 3.a')2 65. . If we take V (x. The curves V (x. or x2 + y2 = e2cie. y) = A tan-' y x (224) V (X. A charge q is placed on the bisector of the planes.SEC. What distribution of charges is equivalent to this system? Find the field and the surface distribution induced on the planes. If we are dealing with a two-dimensional problem in electrostatics. 2. Two semiinfinite grounded planes intersect at right angles. An infinite plate with a hemispherical boss of radius a is at zero potential under the influence of a point charge q on the axis of the boss at a distance f from the plate. y) = 2 log (x2 + y2) are conjugate functions satisfying Laplace's equation. y) = con- stant represent the equipotential lines. Conjugate Harmonic Functions. Find the surface density at any point of the plate. the field. y) (see Sec. y) as the potential function. and the induced surface density. then the equipotentials are the circles (A/2) log (x2 + y2) = C. 651 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 143 and the surface distribution is given by _ (Er)rs _ 47r q b2 . In Example 73 we saw that U(x. Find the image point.a2 4ir a(a2 + b2 .2ab cos 9)' Problems 1. A charge q is placed at a distance a from an infinite grounded plane.

. With the aid of the Schwarz transformation it is possible to find the conjugate functions associated with more difficult problems involving the twodimensional Laplace equation. then _ aV q 24ra (Er)r. find the potential function and lines of force for two semiinfinite planes intersecting at right angles. y) = 2 log (x2 + y2) = log r2 = A log r. 65 Hence the potential due to an infinite charged conducting cylinder is V (X. then the equipotentials U = constant are the straight lines A tan-1 (y/x) = C. The lines of force are the circles (A/2) log (x2 + y2) = V. 64. By considering Example 72. . Problems 1. U=U0 (0=0) If we choose U(x. As a special case we may take the straight lines 0 = 0. y) = A tan-1 (y/x) as our potential function.a 41r ar 41r r-a A 4ara so that A = -2q and V = -2q log r. 1e=Jr) U=U1 0 Frs. 64). the radius of the charged cylinder.144 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. r2 = x2 + y2 2 since A log r satisfies Laplace's equation and satisfies the boundary condition that V = constant for r = a. or y = x tan (C/A). If q is the charge per unit length. 0 = v as conducting planes raised to different potentials (see Fig. The theory of conjugate functions belongs properly to the theory of functions of a complex variable.

Integration of Laplace's Equation. Let P be any point of R. In order to overcome this difficulty. Using the fact that V2. If P is any point outside the closed surface S. = 0 inside R' (R minus the Z sphere). where V2cp = 0 inside S and r is the distance from P to any point of S. so that by letting e --j 0. r r8 r e$ and (1/r) VV dd is of the order eIV(pf.dd + // f f (p V 1 .¢ V2V) dr = f f (9 Vi' R DAP) dd We choose ¢ = 1/r. What physical problems can be solved by the transformation x = a cosh U cos V.dd r B (225) // Now V(1/r) = -r/r'. (225) reduces to v(p) = 4 ffir VV . at P. y = a sinh U sin V? Show that V2U = V2V = O 66. . we obtain 0= f8 f (9 V r r V-r) .r Vp) . namely.sa V r) dd (226) This remarkable formula states that the value of Sp at any point P is determined by the value of (p and V(p on the surface S. Let S be the surface of a region R for which V24p = 0.SEC. we proceed as in Example 66. We make use of Green's formula fJf (. 66J STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 145 2. show that f V(1/r)] dd = 0. and this produces a discontinuity inside R.p 02' . and on the sphere X. and let r be the distance from P to any point of the surface S. Problems f 1. where r = 0.P = V24. Surround P by a sphere Z of radius e.

show that P(P) = 4x If (1r V p . 67. 67 2. From Sec. 3. If P is an interior point of t. we obtain sin 0 R dr d8) d( r2 . Let rp satisfy V2cp = aX2 + 1P 2 2 = 0. 4. Let r be the closed y° boundary of a simply connected region in the x-y plane.ip v s T dd where the normal dd is inward on S. Use (226). Show that the value of p at the center of is the average of its values over the surface of the sphere. + aB (sin o + 49(p (sin 0 B (227) To solve (227). 23. 0. show that .2x 1 1) app a[log (1/r)] `log 1( r an `0 an ds where use is made of the fact that ff A (u V 2V .v V 2U) dA (u an -van) da ` n being the normal to the curve.P(.+ dR) 1 1 dr 0 d9 d8 4) sin 0 d(p2 d2= -- 0 .p) (228) Substituting (228) into (227) and dividing by V. Solution of Laplace's Equation in Spherical Coordinates. gyp) = R(r)6(0). If P is a point outside 8. we assume a solution of the form V(r. Let (p be harmonic outside the closed surface S and assume that ip --> 0 and rI V pl -> 0 as r -' oo.P(P) . Prob. 1. Let so be harmonic and regular inside sphere 7.146 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS a2 [SEC.J +-A (sin O .

while the righthand side of (229) depends on 0 and gyp. m being an integer.SEc. The solution of Finally. -m2. We choose as n(n + 1) r2 4+24+n(n+1)R=0 (230) It is easy to integrate (230). and we leave it to the reader to show that R = Ar" + Br-n-1 is the most general solution of (230). for on differentiating (229) with respect to r. This is possible only if both quantities are constant.1) sing 0 -- sin d0 (sin 0 de) (231) Since we have again separated the variables. 67j STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 147 Consequently _ d dR\ 1 r R dr dr 2 _- 1 d 0 sin 0 dB sin 0 d9 d9 . both sides of (231) are constant. so that R dr (r2 dR) or i J = 0. we have 1d 41) 'e = n(n -{. We choose the constant to be negative. (232) is 4) = A cos mtp + B sin mcp.sin 2 0 4. dp2 1 d4 (229) The left-hand side of (229) depends only on r. we obtain d LR d (r2 the constant of integration c = -n(n + 1). This choice guarantees that the solution of d24 d(p2 -I-mq =0 (232) is single-valued when p is increased by tar. dµ= -sin0d0 . Returning to (229). we obtain that 0(0) satisfies sin 0 d0 (sino)+[n(n+1)sin2o_m2Je=o (233) We make a change of variable by letting µ = cos 0.

m2]0 = 0 (234) If we assume that V is independent of p (symmetry about the z axis). .µ2) dµ [(1 ..148 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. so that (234) becomes dIA d (235) This is Legendre's differential equation. we obtain P. and P.Pn d [(1 _ u2) d µ"' +[n(n+1) -m(m+l)PPm=0 . 67 so that (233) becomes (1 . By the method of series solution. satisfy [(1 dµ .n(.'(µ) dµ = 2n + 1 We give a proof of (236).2) a . Two important properties of Legendre polynomials are following: f 11 P. d. and subtracting. we have m = 0. and (239) by P.µ2) + [(1 µ2)n(n + 1) .1)n dµn 2 -n! satisfies (235). the P (µ) are called Legendre polynomials.p!) dµn1 + n(n + 1)Pn = 0 (238) (239) Multiplying (238) by P.&)Pn(p) dµ the =0 if m : n (236) (237) J 11 P. it can be shown that 1 0 = P"(14) d"(µ2 .[(1 . P.

Integrating between the limits -1 and + 1.4. 1 PmPn dµ = 0 A particular solution of (227) which is independent of gyp. 0) = (Anrn + Bnr-' 1)Pn(cos 0).30u$ + 3) P.(0) = 0. so that the boundary conditions are fulfilled.m(m + 1)]P.(µ) = 4(5Aa . we try (241) as our solution. we obtain [n(n + 1) . B.(µ) = 9(35.6 . We list a few Legendre polynomials: Po(µ) = 1 Pi(µ) = A P2(p) = ."4 . that is.3µ) P.SFC.m(m + 1)J f i P. (3µs . from our previous uniqueness theorems involving Laplace's equation. aV = 0. n uneven Pn(1) = 1 Pn(-µ) _ (-1)"Pn(µ) . since (227) is linear in V.aPm = 0 (240.. then (241) will represent the only solution..1) P. If we can find the constants An. n odd P-(0) = (_1)n/x 1-3-5 . aip Now it is easy to show that any sum of solutions of (227) is also a solution.1) (242) 2. (n .nPn dµ = 0 and ifm -d n. Consequently a more general solution is V= n-0 (Anrn + Bn7rn-1)Pn(cos 0) (241) provided that the series converges. 671 or STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 149 -M2)(Pmddn-PndPm)] µ[(1 + [n(n + 1) . If we wish to solve a problem involving V2V = 0 with spherical boundaries. is given by V(r...

68. From (243) and (244) we obtain A=K-'Eo. Investigate the solution of VI V = 0 in cylindrical coordinates. = D. There will be an additional potential due to the presence of the dielectric sphere. 68 Problems 1.2 Eor cos 0 = 'V+ (245) + . B.Y. We have two unknown constants. or K a I = a II at r = a (244) (see Sec. If we let VI be the potential inside and V11 the potential outside the sphere. Applications Example 84. A. We cannot have a term of the type Cr-2 cos 0 inside the sphere. Similarly. 2. 67. VI= Vu at r=a DN. Prove (237).150 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. and two boundary conditions. Solve V2V = 0 for rectangular coordinates by the method of Sec. assuming V = X(x)Y(y)Z(z). for at the origin we would have an infinite field caused by the presence of the dielectric. A dielectric sphere of radius a is placed in a uni- form field Eo = Eok. we would have an infinite field at infinity due to the presence of the sphere. B_aaK-1Eo K+ 2 2 Eoz K x+2 so that VI = I . if a term of the type Dr cos a occurred outside the sphere. The potential due to the uniform field is p = -Eoz = -Eor cos 0. 62). we have VI = --Eor cos 0 + Ar cos 0 Vu = --Eor cos B + B cos 0 r2 (243) Notice that VI and Vn are special cases of (241). Assume it to be of the form ArPI = Ar cos 0 inside the sphere and Br-2PI ° Br-2 cos 0 outside the sphere. We calculate the field inside the sphere. 3.

. 65). from (ii) -A/b2 = -KB/b2. Let us calculate the potential distribution. the sphere Outside (246) VII = -Eor cos B + K . we try From spherical symmetry V = V (r). from (iii) Q = (K/4x) (B/a2) f f dS = KB. A conducting sphere of radius a and charge Q is surrounded by a spherical dielectric layer up to r = b (Fig. The boundary conditions are (i) (11) VI= VIIatr=b Q= 41r (iii) ff s at r = b Or = Or J2rJT (a D dd = K aVI _ aVII 47 T a2 sin 0 d9 dp J Hence From (i) Alb = (B/b) + C. so that FlG. 65. Example 85. 681 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 151 We see that the field inside the dielectric sphere is E_ -vVI=K+2Eo and E is uniform of intensity less than E0 since K > 1. is found at 0 = 0. aVII=Eocos0+2K + 2aa ocos9 For a given r the maximum E.1 _ Eo cos 8 K + 2 r2 The radial field outside the sphere is given by E.SEC.

There are two cases to consider: (a) r < b. 68 VI = Q' VII = Q +90C K 1 (247) Example 86. We assume a solution V = -Eor cos 0 + The boundary condition is B r Q = 4v Jf . Let µ = cos 8. A conducting sphere of radius a and charge Q is placed in a uniform field.152 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS (SEC. yielding .avlr-a dS f2v so that Q = 4 1 f- . 66). 8. We calculate the potential and the distribution of charge on the sphere.2rb cos 8)_. 0).2µx +2)-} Now (1 . 0. (E cos 8 + a a2 sin 8 d8 dsp = B and V= -Eorcos8+Q r For the charge distribution aV a- cIr 4" 4I(E0cos8+Q Example 87. gyp) (see Fig. The potential at P is V= 4 = q(r2 + b$ . x = r/b.2µx + x=)-} can be expanded in a Maclaurin series in powers of x. so that V= b (1 . Consider a charge q placed at A (b. Let us compute the potential at any point P(r.

V = (q/r) 0 (b/r)'P.. We find the potential at a point P for a <r <b. 0 and for r < b. we have .(cos 0) due to the charge q. Example 88.(--) The proof is omitted here that the Pn(p) are actually the Legendre polynomials. since V satisfies Laplace's equation and P. For r > b. V = (q/b) 2 (r/b)'Pn(cos 0). However. which satisfies Laplace's equation. A point charge +q is placed at a distance b from the center of two concentric. conducting spheres of radii a and c.SEC.(µ)rn is a solution of VI V = 0. earthed. 66. 68] STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY m 153 ( 248) _ m ()fl V=b n0 I n= b n0 P.. (b) r > b. a < b < c. we might expect this. z Fia. Moreover. In this case V = q I Pn6u) rn=0 /b n r (249) Notice that each term is of the form Pn(µ)r-n-1.

+ b-(n+1) _ Hence V2(P) = q b-n-1(C2n+1 - b2n+1) a2n+1 .154 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.rn+1 Pn(cos 0) (253) Problems 1.C2n+1) (rn a2n+1 -0 . A charge q is placed at a distance c from the center of a spherical hollow of radius a in an infinite dielectric of constant K. Hence For r > b: Vl = q I [Anrn + (Bn + bn)r-n-1]Pn(cos 6) 0 (251) For r < b: V2 = q 0 [(A. 68 an induced potential of the form V = q I (Anrn + Bnr n-1)Pn(cos 0) 0 (250) which is due to the spheres.. Show that the force acting on the sphere of Example 86 is F = kQEok. the An and Bn undetermined as yet.b2n+l)' - C2n+1)' A. Show that the force acting on the charge is . 2. + b-n-I)rn + Bnr-n-1]Pn(cos 0 The boundary conditions are (i) (ii) V1=0atr=c V2 = O at r = a (252) These yield the equations (i) (11) Ancn + (Bu + bn)c-n-1 = 0 (An + b-n-1)an + Bna n-1 = 0 a2n+1 (C2n+l so that Bn T bn+l (a2n+l .C2n+l n j m b2n+1 .C2n+1 bn+l(a2n+l .

is V= 9KE 9K . Instead of assuming that p is harmonic. z = zo inside the tube. Show that the potential inside a dielectric shell of internal and external radii a and b. 66. placed in a uniform field of strength E. we immediately obtain .K2)[(b/a)3 .2(1 . 691 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 155 (K .1] r cos 0 5.P(P) = Jff rdr+Jf (rVp . let us consider that 1p satisfies V2co = -47rp. y = yo.1/r2. By applying Green's formula as in Sec. Show that the potential is given by V = 8q I (m2a2 + nil m-1 to n2b2)-e-a-'b-'(mta'+n$t)i*(s-ss) sin n1rx0 a sin nrx a sin mTryo b sin miry b 69.jP 0 (254) If we make the further assumption that rp is of the order of 1/r for large r and that jVjpj . on which a dielectric layer of outer radius b and constant K exists. y = 0.n c cn { [(K +1)n + 1]b 2n+1 + (n +1)(K -1)a 2n+1 } Pn(cos e) c 0 m 4. then at large distances the potential will be of the order of I /r. Integration of Poisson's Equation. x = a. Show that the potential of this layer is V = (2n + 1 )b2n+1(rn . A point charge is placed at x = xo. y = b. we see that by pushing S out to infinity the surface integral will tend to zero.SEC.a2n+lr-n-1) q .1)g2'' c2 n(n + 1) 2n+1 .410n+K(n+ 1)(a/ 3. for if we assume the charge distribution to be bounded by some sphere. since we may consider all the charges as essentially . The walls of an earthed rectangular conducting tube of infinite length are given by x = 0. Our assumption is valid. A point charge q is placed a distance c from the center of an earthed conducting sphere of radius a.

rf From (256) (258) (259) VxW= JJJf xVdr 40 Now V x(V xW) = --V2W . n = 1. W = WA + W. If we write f = fli + f j + f k. 3. We now proceed to write f as the sum of irrotational and solenoidal vectors. so that V2W = -4. V2W. then f as uniquely determined by its curl and divergence.j + Wek. 69. 2. From Sec.156 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc.. then f W2 = f f f M ffrldr f2 dr (257) W3=fffr$dr 00 We assume that the components of f are such that the integrals of (257) converge and that I Wl .1/r.. Thus V(P) = JJf e dr (255) 70. Decomposition of a Vector into the Sum of Solenoidal and Irrotational Vectors. 70 concentrated at a point. I V W. we saw that if Ifl tends to zero like 1/r2 as r --> oo. Let f dr W(P) = JfJ (256) where r is the distance from P to the element of integration dr. = -4xfn.l '' 1/r2. In Example 70.

0.SEc. Show that (256) is a special case of (254). we have formed what is known as a dipole. 0. = Problems 1. Find an expression for (p(P) if V2(p = -41rp inside S and if P is on the surface S. so that M is called the strength or moment of the dipole. and let M = q dr. The potential at the origin 0(0. where dr is the vector from the negative charge to the positive charge. z) and Q(x + dx. and that due to +q is q/(r + dr).xz)k. If we now let q -p co and dx -+ 0 in such a way that q dx remains finite. where r = (x2 + y2 + Z2)I and r+dr= [(x + dx)2 + y2 + Z2]1 The potential at 0(0. 71. 2. 3. Dipoles. !drl = dx. 711 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 157 so that f =4-V X X -4 260) and hence f = V x A + Vcp where A=4-VxW. 0) due to -q is -q/r. Let us consider two neighboring charges -q and +q situated at P(x. We have (M r)/r8 = (qr dr)/ra = (qx dx)/r3. f = yzi + xzj + (xy . For more than one dipole. y. y. so that rp .qx dx/r3. 0) due to both charges is r + dr q q r g2dr r2 Now dr = x dx/r. z). the potential at a point P is given by . Express f as the sum of an irrotational and a solenoidal vector. Let r be the position vector from the origin to the dipole.

Let us consider a volume filled with dipoles. Electric Polarization. is the vector from P to the dipole having strength M.p = ds V p so that W = M as VV = M V(p.x)2 + (n . that is. be the potential at the charge q and c2 the potential at the charge -q.x)i + (n . Example 89. t belong to the region R and are the variables of integration. then the total potential due to the dipoles is A"o = I f f r ra.z)2]' Hence and V performs the differentiations with respect to x. (P/r) = (1/r)V P . and r = (E .IP2) = g as ao where ds is the distance between the charges. The coordinates t.158 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. The field strength due to a dipole is E _ --Vv so that r (262) E = V rs ) rs ra - - Example 90. 72 i= i (Mi. z. Let (p.z)k.[(P r)/r3]. 72. The reason that we have taken V(1/r) t= r/r3 instead of -r/r3 is that r = [( . P = lim (AM/or).y)2 + (J .ri) ri3 where r. (263) becomes `P=fffv.y)j + (r . y. Potential energy of a dipole in a field of potential V.(!)dr R fff R . If we let P be the dipole moment per unit volume. the coordinates of the point P at which V is being evaluated. ot. Now L app d. The energy of the dipole is ds = M W = spiq + IP2(-q) = q(spl . The potential due to any single dipole is given by (261).dr (263) Now V V.

it (266) E(0. By superimposing (concentrically) a sphere with an equal but negative polarization.0) f f ni + 'k)Po(k dd) Now for points on the sphere. show that the energy .dd_ fff_!d r (264) by applying the divergence theorem. Prove (262). If M1 and M2 are the vector moments of two dipoles at A and B. of the system is W = M1 4. 3. 0) = -frPok E is independent of the radius of the sphere.z)k] (265) E(0.y)j + (1' . The dipole-moment density is given by P = r over a sphere of radius a. Let us find the electric intensity at the center of a uniformly polarized sphere. we see that the field at the center of a uniformly polarized shell is zero. 52 +' 72+-2 = a2. and letting t = a sin B cos -o. Problems 1. Here P = Pok. z) = and ff S Pok dd x)2 + (71 . n = a sin 0 sin tp.0.z) 2]i E= fj S Po(k dd)[(E . Calculate the field at the center of the sphere. Hence (264) becomes sp(x.x)i + (n [(E-x)2+(7] -y)2+(J -z)2]$ . so that V P = 0 inside R. Example 91. y.y)2 + ( .SEC. Prove (266). is easily seen that (265) reduces to a cos 0. and if r is the vector from A to B.3(M1 r)(M2 r)r-6. Mgr-a . 72] STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 159 and (p - ff!. 0. 2.

We define the solid angle subtended at P by the surface dS to be (see Fig.160 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc. since all the laws of electrostatics were derived on the assumption of the inversesquare force law. = 0 always. 73 73. We consider a magnetic shell. that is. Let $ be the magnetic moment per unit area and . r3 The total solid angle of a surface is J'r. a thin sheet magnetized uniformly in a direction normal to its surface (Fig. since we cannot isolate a magnetic charge. 68). Electrostatics q EH Magnetostatics D ---) B (magnetic induction) K <---. that is. The same laws that have held for electrostatics are true for magnetostatics with the exception that OZcp. The magnetic dipole is the exact analogue of the electric dipole. Let S be a sphere and P the origin so that 12(P)= fJr 4rdS=4u r Example 93. which applies equally well for stationary magnets. We make the following correspondences. 67.B = µH 0 qm (267) 74.. Let r be the position vector from a point P N to a surface of area dS and unit normal N. Magnetostatics. 67) dct = P Fia. do = N dS. Solid Angle.do r S 3 (268) Example 92.u (permeability) D = KE F----.

R If there are no sources or sinks inside S. The total charge passing through a surface per unit time is given by ffpv.F(Q) =6U+$(4. it is found that certain phenomena occur (heating of the wire. dr = *(P) .dd=- dr . or Currents.do_ Jfj. then the loss of charge per unit time is given by . 68." H H. so that one is led to believe that a flow of charge is taking place.' Vp . W = f.aQ = - f f at dr. magnetic field). R Thus ffpv. dr = . We have .9) W = 4x-8 (269) 75. If two conductors at different potentials are joined together by a metal wire. We define current density by j = pv.p(Q) = -P(4ir .r. 75] STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 161 assume S = constant. The potential at P is given by f sf r.SEC. Let v be the velocity of the charge and p the density of charge.MdS=13 f f rras=On Now let P and Q be opposite points on the negative and positive sides of the surface S.dd Now the total charge inside a closed surface S is Q = f f f p dr.f. Moving Charges.11) so that the work done in taking a unit positive pole from a point P on the negative side of the shell to a point Q on the positive side of the shell is given by P Fur.

The power loss is P = dt = (1P1 . a = 0. This is Ohm's law.02 = RJ (another form of Ohm's law. 76 Applying the divergence theorem. which implies V j = 0. energy at (pi is qpl and at V2 is q(p2. We now compute the work done on a charge q as it moves from a point of potential p.gE#. Hence the electrical energy is converted into heat. j.162 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. where R is resistance and J current). we have 0 or (270) at = 0 Equations (270) are the statement of conservation of electric charge. since the flow is assumed steady. so that V2(p = 0 for the steady state. We define a steady state as one for which p is independ- ent of the time.(P2) dq. then j = XE = -A VM a (271) where X is the conductivity of the metal. we have P=RJ2 (272) 76. The loss in energy is W = (1v1 . Q = (. Ip2 > 92. to one of potential 02. 69=1 X = constant.p2)q. It has been found by experiment that if E is the electric field. Magnetic Effect of Currents (Oersted). Experiments show that electric currents produce magnetic fields.Iv2)q The This loss in electrical energy does not go into mechanical energy. The mathematical expression for the magnetic field is given by dH = Jr x dr (273) cra . For the general case. and the simplest case. and since 01 .p1 . = I Xa.

P is the point at which we calculate the magnetic field dH due to the line current J in that portion of the wire dr. = As (1 /c) f f f j dr/r. or 0 f f f is dr/r. Also V x H = -VIA.. since nothing new will be added to the integral yielding A. But when S is expanded to a great distance.y)2 + ( . z) Fra. Hence where V = i clx y H=1fiJVI c r c x(Jdr r since V does not operate on dr and J is a constant. j = 0 on S. 69.x)2 + (n . 69). A. so that that V A = 0. For a closed path Fig. where A = (1/c) J dr/r = (11c) f f f i dr/r is integrated over all space containing currents. r f is dr ff . 76] STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 163 where r is the vector from the point P. we may push the boundary of R to infinity. Now V A = fif V (j/r) dr f f (j/r) s dd.z)2]. Biot and Savart H= Now r = [(E Jrxdr cra (274) P (x. the ratio of the electrostatic to the electromagnetic unit of charge (see Q (tn'r) established this law for straight-line currents. so that if all currents lie within a given sphere. Now since A = (1/c) A. + j a + k az. Thus H = V x A.y. .SEC. = (1 /C) f f f j dr/r. and V(1/r) = r/ra. and c is a constant.

H dr = H(2irr) = Example 96. The magnetic field at a point P. 69 that V2A = -. Now [M][L] [712 [g612 f. is obtained by use of Example 94. r units away from an infinite straight-line wire carrying a current J. = qqm'/µr2 so that [q+x]2 [K][L]2 [µ][L]2 [M14[L][K]} and [J] [c] [dq. = qaq. The work done in taking a unit magnetic pole around a closed path r in a magnetic field due to electric currents is ff S c ff s For an electric current J in a wire that loops r. we have (276) Example 95./dt] [c] [g] [c][T] [c][T]2 F rom (276) . 4a c J so that H= 27 cr We compute the dimensions of c//. Work Unit pole = H .'/Kr2. 76 we have from Sec. Thus VxH=47j c (275) Example 94. and f.164 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.(47r/c)j. dr = 4'rJ c so that [M][L]2 _ [J] [gm][T]2 [c] .

77. [TL] We see that c// has the dimensions of speed. = V x A. Consider two closed circuits with currents J. so that from Newton's third law of action and reaction.SEc. 77] STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 165 and [Ml}[L]. and J2 (Fig. 70). any magnetic . where A. The magnetic field at 0 due to J. Mutual Induction and Action of Two Circuits. We shall soon (1) (2) Fca. f(2)J(1) r (277) The current element J2 dr2 seta up a magnetic field. dr. dr = c 1(2) (1(1) drl) dr2 Hence M= 1 C dr. r dr c (1)r We define the mutual inductance of the two circuits as the mag- netic flux through the surface B due to a unit current in (1). This is IM= f f L da= f f a a 1(2) A1. 70. is H. [7'][µl} [M]}[Ll'[K]i [c][TJ2 yielding L/i see the significance of this.=J.

. Problems 1. F is an attractive force. Find the force between an infinite straight-line wire carrying a current J. = d(1/r) dr.166 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. r = r2. dr2) . r12 In (279). = 0. if the currents are opposite. x V r OZ r x dr2 (278) and integrating over (2) we obtain f-J. Thus df = J 2 drz x H.(dr2 "V 1) dr..) = V 1 (dr. We have H. so that (C' f= Jc 2 J (2)1(1) 1) (dr. It is equal and opposite to the force of loop (2) on loop (1). F is a repulsive force. We find the force per unit length between two long straight parallel wires carrying currents J. From (278) show that f = J2 f f dd2 x (V X H./cd)i at right angles to the plane containing the wires. If the currents are parallel. and J2. di = 2J. dr2) (279) This is the force of loop (1) on loop (2).J2/cd.v(1/r)] dr. Hence df=Jzdr2x 2J.J2f drzxf C (2) (1) xdr. and a square loop of side a with current J2.cJ2 (L) dr. r r I2) and J 2) [dr2 . We use (278) and the result of Example 95. = (2J.). this being immediately deducible from (279) when we keep in mind that v-=-V1 1 r2. the . Example 97. = J. 77 field will act on J2 dr2 with an equal and opposite force.J2 dr2xi and the force per unit length is F = 2J. a 2. Now dr2 x (TI 1 x r dr.

for stationary currents. V D = 4. Up to the present we have. where r is very much larger than the radius of the loop and is the vector to the center of the circle. we have _ . A current J flows around a circle of radius a. 79. where 2a is the angle subtended by the circle at the nearest point of the straight wire.B = 0. and the shortest distance from the wire to the loop being d. and where M=c f f dd 78. It has been found by experiment that a changing magnetic field produces an electromotive force in a circuit. 791 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 167 extended plane of the loop containing the straight-line wire. . 4. V x E = 0. Law of Induction (Faraday).rp and. Show that the mutual attraction is 4irJJ'/c(sec a . show that A = (M x r/r$).=VxE C at (280) The time rate of change of magnetic inductance is proportional to the curl of the electric field. the flux through a surface S with boundary curve r is given by f f B dd.SEC. for an electrostatic field. Equation (280) is a generalization of V x E = 0. Show that A = (J/c) f f dd x V (1 /r) for a current J in a S closed loop bounding the area S. V x H = (41r/c)j. For a small circular loop. S The law of induction states that -ca f f Applying Stokes's theorem. If B is the magnetic inductance.1). 3. and a current J' flows in a very long straight wire in the same plane. Maxwell's Equations. which is true for the electrostatic case in which B = 0 and for the steady state for which atB = 0. V.

and (2) V j + charge.1 aB C at of charge.168 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS is [SEC. Maxwell looked for a generalization of V x H = (41r/c)j.(i C We call - aD t the displacement current. of (281) and obtain We take the divergence (282) so that V = . We rewrite Maxwell's equations V D = 4irp (284) V X 4c \1 + 41r aD1 t . a generalization of V x E = 0.V j = at = Oar at (V . 79 Now V x E_. D) aD 0 We can choose Z = so that +--aD) (283) VxH= w. He decided to retain the two laws: (1) V D = 4rp as the definition at = 0 as the law of conservation of Let us assume VxH=4w(j+x) C (281) as a generalization of V x H = (47r/c) j.

D=E. This result follows from Sec.sin wt). Show that the equations of motion of a particle of mass m and charge e moving between the plates of a parallel-plate condenser producing a constant field E and subjected to a constant magnetic field H parallel to the plates are md Given that = Be - dy d dx ML = He dt dtz d dt = x = y = 0 when t = 0.aB = 0. u are constants. 801 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 169 We have in addition the equation (v) f=p(E+1vxBJ \\ C (285) where f is the force on a charge p with velocity v moving in an electric field E and magnetic inductance B.B=H. (284) become 4. show that He z = (E/wH) (1 . Solution of Maxwell's Equations for "Electrically" Free Space. y = (E/(X) (wt .SEC. 3. Problems 1. 77. From (iii) of (284) show that V . where w = - m 2. From (i) and (iv) of (284) show that D) - at j=p=O. We have p = j = 0 and c. Equations .cos wt). Write down Maxwell's equations for a vacuum where 80.

c = 3 X 1010 by experiment. To illustrate. 80 (ii) VH=0 vxE= V E=0 aH (286) K aE vxHcat We take the curl of (iii) and obtain V x (V x E) = V(V E) . At any time t it is easy to see that y = f(x .Vt) and at= = V2f"(x .Vt) we have a2-y = f"(x . Similarly V2H - JLK a2H C2 8t2 (287a) Equation (287) represents a three-dimensional vector wave equation. We solve the wave equation V2f = Y2 at2 in spherical coordinates where f = f(r.170 (i) VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. z Example 98. and µK/c2 plays the same role as 1/V2. t). . so that c/V has the dimensions of a velocity (see Example 96).V2E _ or V2E = µK a2E C2 at2 (287) by making use of (i) and (iv). From y = f(x . consider a wave traveling down the x axis with velocity V and possessing the wave profile y = f(x) at t = 0.V0 so that a2y ax2 1 a2y V2 at2 (288) Equation (287) represents three such equations.Vt).

t) ax = 0.(rr/ )'r f.Vt) + h(r + Vt)] is the most general solution of (289). t) = rf(r. t) = g(r . t) = r [g(r . t)k . then 1 a2f V28t2 (289) af_1au Or u 02fi0 2u2au are 2 r Or r2 r are r2 Or + r2 and substituting into (289). t) j + H. so we choose E. t) Vr = f' r V2f = 3f+rf" = rf V . so that which implies aE=(x.(x. t). (290) Let us now try to determine a solution of Maxwell's equations for the case E = E(x. Our wave equation is 2 of are+rar Now let u(r. t) az 0. t)k and similarly H = Hy(x. t)j + Es(x. we obtain 82u are a2u V2 at2 of which the most general solution is u(r. H = H(x.f(r. t) ax + aEy(x. t). t) ay + 8Eg(x. Now V E = 0. t). Hence E = EE(x.r+V( 19 2f V. 80J STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 171 Vf = f'(r.(x. = 0. We are not interested in a uniform field in the x direction. 8E.SEC.Vt) + h(r + Vt) and so .

If we choose H = E. we see that (i) of (291) and (ii) of (292) are satisfied. H. c2 at= (294) 'These equations are of the type represented by (288). ax aH. . 80 Now we use Eq. which must satisfy (291) and (292). Hence a solution to Maxwell's equations is E = [E. E. . V x E _ .. we obtain (i) aH. so that i j k a az a a AaH. (295) Both waves are transverse waves. Differentiating (ii) of (291) with respect to x and (i) of (292) with respect to t.8H4 c ax at aE. H.Vt) + Eyes) (x + Vt)Jj H = [H..172 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.(') (x .Vt) + H. ax (292) c at The four unknowns are E. they travel down the x axis but have components perpendicular to the x axis. = 0. aH..{2>(x + Vt)Jk where V = c(AK)"}. on using (iv) of (286). ax2 Ax a2H.(')(x . (iii) of (286). i c ax ay at c at LaH... 8x K aE c at K aE. we obtain a2Ey UK 61% axe C2 at2 (293) We leave it to the reader to show that 82H. (i) OE.c axt . that is.. k 0 or Ey E.. at (291) Similarly.

t)k. + 2w.. = Er. We have here used the fact that (see Prob. H = Ho(x. Example 99.2 + E. = KE 2. Example 100. = 0.. and w = w.Eo C (296) 4r . 801 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 173 Also note that E H = 0. we can obtain another solution. z)e-.n= BH 2 =2 2 µH. = K(E. By letting H. We _ _ 2 _ 2 µH2 w. 1). t)j.H = 0 7E OH c at VxH=4c1uE+4v Assume a periodic solution of the form a/ E = Eo(x. so that E and H are always at right angles to each other. These two solutions are called the two states of polarization.-.'e z)e-'"e Substituting into (iv).tee V x Ho = t 4 1oe.SEC. we obtain e--.2). and for both waves w. Maxwell's equations in a homogeneous conducting medium are V. y.E=4p K V. = 2 . E = E. H = H (x.'eE0 2Kw iKW or VxHo 4a/ =-lo-.(x. the electric vector being always oriented 90° with the magnetic vector. y. We compute the energy density.2 2 = 2 =w.

show that H. obtaining c(H-V xE - xH) = -H aB at ID at (298) . a2y 3. where f and F are arbitrary functions. Dot Eq. Letr=x. show that P= Poe-4x'`i` 81.174 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. s =x+ Vt.Vt). where aV 2 H=-vx at -V(V. c 6. 2. the Hertzian vector.Vt). and show that. Show that the solution of (297) can be expressed in terms of a single vector V.Vt) + F(x + Vt). Our starting point is Maxwell's equations. provided that W satisfies V2W = e 7. Problems 1. Integrate this equation and show that the Or as general solution of (288) is y = f(x . 4. By considering (i) and (iv) of Example 100. (iv) with E and subtract. Prove that Maxwell's equations for insulators (a = 0) are v x H= KaE C at and V x E_. Derive (294). Look up a proof of the laws of reflection and refraction. By letting E = f(x . Poynting's Theorem. = VKIIA E.c a (297) 5. Hz = F(x -. Derive (287a). V = c/. (iii) of (284) with H and Eq. Prove thatE=-VxeH= at c 2W C2 at2 192W at2 isa solution of (297).W)+Kµa and V satisfies V2V =at2 . 81 This equation is the same as that which occurs for "electrically" free space with a complex dielectric coefficient.= aX2 2 1 a2y V2 at2 reduces to -ay = 0.Vt. 8. 9.

Now dr awmec. we obtain aw. and Maxwell's equations become . at 1 E aD at aw.c..Vt)k. 2.. at that we rewrite (298) as c V (E X H) = -41r theorem. Show that Poynting's vector represents a flow of energy into the wire.dd f f at dr J (300) where w is the total energy density. 3.. For charges moving with velocity v. If E of Sec. = pv. so aw. Find the value of E and H on the surface of an infinite cylindrical wire carrying a current. H V x E . we may find the flux through the boundary surface of the vector s = (c/4T)E x H and add to this the rate of generation of heat within the volume. find the energy density after finding the magnetic wave H. Find the Poynting vector around a uniformly charged sphere placed in a uniform magnetic field. _ 4ir at H aB 4r at 1 Let us write j = jo + jc where jo represents the galvanic current and j. j = pv. 82.E V x H = V (E x H). Equation (300) states that to determine the time rate of energy loss in a given volume V. 80 is sinusoidal. E = Eo sin co(x . and show that this flow is just enough to supply the energy which appears as heat. We define s = (c/4x)E x H as Poynting's vector. awM at at and from Sec.SEc. awm aQl + at + at + at (299) Integrating over a volume R and applying the divergence f if aQ dr + 4r f f E x H.a. 75 it is easy to prove that E ja is Joule's power loss = aQ Moreover. 821 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 175 Now from (218) aw.. Problems 1.. the conduction current. Lorentz's Electron Theory. It is natural to interpret Poynting's vector as the density of energy flow.

(302) where vA+c2 at Now = -K V2(p - K(--AKa2S0/ C at c at2 so that _ vg Kp.p 4rp K _ 14 cat c2 812 (303) . B = pH.176 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS 4irp [SEc. Let D= KE. and substitute into (iv). 82 (i) (ii) (iii) (301) V (iv) xH = 4c (pv + D) These equations are due to Lorentz. we obtain z v2A cl-p c2 at2 v + V j. From (ii) we can write B = V x (Ao + Vx) = V x A. We have I µ V x (V xA) = - r Ipv+ 4a( z at2A-vaC1 SO c t and since V x (V x A) = --V2A + V(V A). Substitute this value of B into (iii) and obtain V x E C v x Af or its equivalent 0 vx(E+catA/ I Thus E + A is irrotational. so that E + 1 A -vgp. 12.

If we can solve it.SEC. the Lorentz equations will reduce to four inhomogeneous wave equations and so will also be solvable. x. i aA° = Now B = V x A0 and E -v4p° so that + C at E = -cat where A = A0 + V.v. _ This is called the equa- tion of gauge invariance. This equation is called the inhomogeneous wave equation. 821 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 177 Equations (302) and (303) would be very much simplified if we could make VA+ KA a c. we must be able to solve it. Thus 1 c and I aAo cat . y. 4w K v25p-=-= K a2c C2 at 2 (305) P . and if the equation of gauge invariance is to hold. Let us see if this is possible.at _ O. t.vp 1a v((P° l aA (BA at aA0 at -cat °x = _ asoo c°) Iax _ C at 1 a2x C ate (p + constant aso at at Now we desire a' c2 at ao C z C at at21 or 2 vzx cz atz -v A0 a° cz (304) The right-hand side of (304) is a known function of x. They are v2A-c2 a2t2 = 4cµP.

P.. 83 Problems 1.1. Retarded Potentials. t) . x' = ct. yields V x H = at and Also aFj- aF#. show that aF. with H = V x A. Sec. y.2. Show that V E = 0. 4. 3.s = 0.p a2(p c2ai2 1 a2V the D'Alembertian. We call 2.Es --E. axf . A2. c show that for the Lorentz trans(y2/C2)]l formations P12 = -171 = trix P 1.. i = 1. -q'). = (A1.47rF(x. axa axs 3. If P. 0 Hr -HY E. show that 825.Hz . 1 a2p c2at2 a2tp a2. and E= 0 -cat .Es 0 E. x3 = z.p a24. 2. satisfying V2A = C2 at2' while p satisfies 2 V 2v = - 4. a. ll - Ht Complete the ma- 83. and show that _ F" 8C. y = 1.# axy -1 axr.H.3. Fit = -F. 0 Hx EY H. C axi _ aC. 2. the A. = x) x2 = y. Kirchhoff's Solution of 72 1 2 V2 av . i or j = 4. 11. A3. a2. otherwise Fu = F. Let X. For the Lorentz transformations (see Prob. 4. Consider the four-dimensional vector C. z. + axp + aH = ° ax.4 yields V x E _ 4 4 and V H = 0. 24). 2 i = 1.. 3. .178 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS (SEC.

fJ f R V2. radius e.p Vu') 9 (306) We choose for ¢ a solution of 'V24. 71). .SEC. 83] STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 179 To find the solution (p(P.2... and let S be the surface of a region R containing P (see Fig. . t) of the inhomogeneous wave equation at t = 0. We apply Green's formula to this region.V#) dd dd + f f (# V-p . + fJ a (307) . where f is arbitrary. V2f If (4. 71. = f(r + Vt)/r is one such solution.V2 a Equation (306) now becomes = 0.p dT = f f B Vp . We know that 4..p t_V actd-r-4'rfff FOd-r= f f R B . we surround the point P by a small sphere of Fia. .

jr + Vt[ > a. da .. so that for all values of r in the region R._ = 1 [f(E + Vt) Vf'(r + Vt)1t2 dr so that (308) reduces to 12 V2 f If [f(r + Vt) &p at r Ef'(E + Vt) E2 .} (309) Let us now return to a consideration of f(r + Vt). let us choose f ° 0 for jr + VtI > 6.+ f f s .. with the addias f(r + Vt) d(r + Vt) = 1..4 j:2 dt j f f F4. ¢ _ (1/E)f( + Vt) and j f + Vt)] dS (308) v o da = - ar.t: dt f(E + Vt) R] JJ ` f [f( Vt) 1 E . Since f is arbitrary. E 2 . t)dt dr = f. Moreover ft F f(r + Vt) dt = 1 fttip f(r + Vt) d(r + Vt) =Vj da F f (x) dx (310) for a fixed r. Hence f [f(r + Vt) &p r at L _ Vf'(r + Vt) _ t. It r since Ir + V121 > a. dT = f dt (if . Now if S is chosen very small. 83 Equation (307) is true for all values of t so that we may integrate (307) with respect to t between limits t = tl and t = t2. I r + V4J > S.180 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc.4w f if + 91 fiFf(r+ r t.+ Now on E. Notice that f = 0 for Ir + Vti > a. Now let us choose t2 > 0 and tl negatively large.. We obtain III at at 1:2 l rr dT . where 6 is tional restriction that arbitrary for the moment. the value of (310) reduces to approximately .

-r/V (314) . fs f i:' dtlf(r+ Vt)D L (rf' r 2 r2 Dr] dd = s ii fl' dt{f(r+Vt)Dp-Vr].p t--r/V 1 1 t3(o r rV at t. Vt).t dt r f'(Dr . dd + f f j i s rV f at dt (Dr dd) on integrating by parts and noticing that f} = 0. Finally. we see that lim e-. f . Dtp are bounded for a fixed a.dd r f .SBc.t dt s [f(r + Vt) r (313) + -f Dr] .-r/V -. tp.0 E ff rf(E + Vt) Dtp L E + (pf'(E + Vt) E R] dd = 0 since dd is of the order E2. Finally the right-hand side of (313) becomes equivalent to V sf f(rD t .f f j. dS = f(E + - v 47rcp(P) 1 (312) and for small 6. and f. dd) = ff f . 831 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 1 181 V r (F) z=o IL f(x) dx = 1 V (r t_-r/v Hence the left-hand side of (3' 09) reduces to 4V ()t_-r/vdr (311) Now considering the right-hand side of (309). We also have that lim since f f dS = E t: jI dt f f 'pE.

(312).-r/V pv di - (316) The solutions to (305) are thus seen to be A (P.i fJ (v . we obtain V(P) ` 1 JR J F= -r/ v S dr 1 . due to elements at a distance r from P. but by its previous history. The effects at P.(r/V). depend on the state of the element at a previous time t -.v(P. Had we considered the function f(r .t)'JLI x t . determined not by the state of the rest of the field (p. v) at that particular instant. when evaluated at t = -r/V on the surface S. have the value zero until a definite time T. Hence the surface element vanishes. ~ V r + rV at V r) t= -r/'V dd (315) Now let S recede to infinity and assume that (p. and V (P)= JJJ f fJ W t. and (314). 83 Combining (311). Physically this is impossible. hence the name retarded potential. we should have obtained a solution depending on the advanced potentials. The values of the magnetic and electric intensities at any particular point P at any instant t are. t = -r/V is negative and so is always less than T.(r/V) whe re V = Finally. since future events cannot affect past eventsl .Vt).182 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. t) = 4 Ie r t-(r/V) dr 317) . This is just the difference in time required for the waves to travel from the element to P with the velocity V = c/ V AK. dr B=VxA l aA E=-'cat-V (318) The physical interpretation of these results is simple. in general. For large r.

rc//J k and that in spherical coordinates \ c/l / Ae= .Iotsinwlt. E from E + c A .SEC. show that A= j-o1 cr sin w (t .c) + r sin w IC t . 831 STATIC AND DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY 183 Problem 1. j = pv = Io (sin wt)k. . and then E. -1/2 5 z 5 1/2.-) 1 (c) Find p from the equation of gauge invariance. (a) At distances far removed from the wire.V o. =O (b) Show that H. =jot sin wit ..r1 cos 0 A. and that Hw = cr sin 0 cos w Ct .Isin0 c// cr cr A.. A short length of wire carries an alternating current. = He = 0. E8.

CHAPTER 6
MECHANICS

84. Kinematics of a Particle. We shall describe the motion of a particle relative to a cartesian coordinate system. The motion of any particle is known when r = x(t)i + y(t)j + z(t)k is known, where t is the time. We have seen that the velocity
and acceleration, relative to this frame of reference, will be given by

v' dt i +dt
a=
d2x
dtz 1

dt

k
k

d2y

j
+

d zz

+

dtz

dt2

The velocity may also be given by v = vt, where v is the speed

and t is the unit tangent vector to the curve r = r(t). Differentiating, we obtain
(319)

a=dt
by making use of (95).

dtt+vdsdt

=dtt+Kv2n

Analyzing (319), we see that the accelera-

tion of the particle can be resolved into two components: a
tangential acceleration of magnitude dt, and a normal accelera-

This latter acceleration is called centripetal acceleration and is due to the fact that the velocity vector is changing direction, and so we expect the curvature to play a role here. For a particle moving in a plane, we have seen in Sec. 17, Example 18, that the acceleration may be given by
tion of magnitude v2rc = v2/p. a

- r ` de]R -}- r d (2 de P = [ dt
r
184

2r

2l

SEC. 84J

MECHANICS

185

and that its a c celeration is only radial. In this case we must
have r d [ r2 de1 = 0, and integrating, +r2 dte = h = constant.

Example 101.

Let us assume that a particle moves in a plane

From the calculus we know
that the sectoral area is given by dA = }r2 dB (see Fig. 72).
Thus dA = constant, so that

equal areas are swept out in
equal intervals of time. Example 102. For a particle
Fie. 72.

moving around a circle r = b
with constant angular speed coo =
d

we have dt = 0 and

(r2wo) = 0, so that a = -bwo2R.

Example 103. To find the tangential and normal components of the acceleration if the velocity and acceleration are known.

v=vt,
and

a v = vat
Also
and

so that

as =

v

axv=va,nxt= -vanb
an = I$)V,i°I

Problems 1. A particle moves in a plane with no radial acceleration and constant angular speed wo. Show that r = Ae"o' + Be at. 2. A particle moves according to the law

r = cos t i + sin t j + t2k
Find the tangential and normal components of the acceleration.

186

VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYST °

[SEc. 85

3. A particle describes the circle r = a cos 0 with constant
Show that the acceleration is constant in magnitude and directed toward the center of the circle. 4. A particle P moves in a plane with constant angular speed w about 0. If the rate of increase of its acceleration is parallel
speed.

to OP, prove that ate = 4rw2
5. If the tangential and normal components of the acceleration

d2r

of a particle moving in a plane are constant, show that the
particle describes a spiral. 85. Motion about a Fixed Axis. In Sec. 10, Example 12, we saw that the velocity is given by v = w x r. Differentiating, we obtain
dw dr a=wxa+dt xr

a=wxv+axr

(320)

where a is the angular acceleration --' Since v = w x r, we at
wl

have also

a=wx(wxr)+axr

_ (w - r)w - w2r + a x r

If we take the origin on the line of w in the plane of the
motion, then w is perpendicular

tororor = 0, so that

a= -w2r+axr
a x r is the tangential acceleracentripetal acceleration. If we assume that a particle P is rotating about two intersecting lines simultaneously, with angular velocities cal, w2 (Fig. 73), we can choose our origin at the point of intersection so that
Fm. 73.

tion, and w x (w x r) is the

vi = wl x r, and the total velocity is

v2 = 632 x r

V = V1 + V2 = (wi + (02) x r

SFC. 86]

MECHANICS

187

A particle on a spinning top that is also precessing experiences such motion. 86. Relative Motion. Let A and B be two particles traversing curves r, and r2 (Fig. 74). r, and r2 are the vectors from a point 0 to A and B, respectively.

r2=r+rl
written V4(B).

(321)

Definition: dt is the relative velocity of B with respect to A,

Fia. 74.

Differentiating (321), we have
dr2

dr

dri

dt - dt
or

+

dt

Vo(B) = VA(B) + Vo(A) More generally, we have

(322)

Vo(A) = V4,(A) + VA,(A1) + VA.(A,) + ..

.

+
Vo(A.)

It is important to note that V4(B) _ -VB(A).
Example 104. A man walks eastward at 3 miles per hour, and the wind appears to come from the north. He then decreases his speed to 1 mile per hour and notices that the wind comes
from the northwest (Fig. 75). What is the velocity of the wind? We have V0(W) = VM(W) + V0(M) G(ground)

188

VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS

ISEc. 86

In the first case

VM(W) = -kj,
so that
In the second case,

V0(M) = 3i

VG(JV) = -kj + 3i VM(W) = h(i - j),
so that
and

VG(M) = i

V0(W) = h(i - j) + i = (h + 1)i - hj,

3=h+1,

-k= -h,

VG(W) =3i-2j

miles per hour, and its direction The speed of the wind is makes an angle of tan-' I with the south line.

N

x.

E

S Fia. 75.

Fzo. 76.

Example 105. To find the relative motion of two particles moving with the same speed v, one of which describes a circle of radius a while the other moves along the diameter (Fig. 76). We have

P=acos0i-}-asin0j,
Q = (a - vt)i

adze=v

This assumes that both particles started together.

T -dQ=(-a sin0dO+v)i+acos0doi
VQ(P) = v(1 - sin 0)i + v cos 6 j

Sec. 87]

MECHANICS

189

The relative speed is
IVQ(P)I = [v2(1

- sin

0)2 + v2 cos2 B]} = 2}v(1 - sin B)}

Maximum IVQ(P)I occurs at 0 = 3x/2, minimum at 0 = x/2.
Problems 1. A man traveling east at 8 miles per hour finds that the wind seems to blow from the north. On doubling his speed, he finds that it appears to come from the northeast. Find the velocity of the wind. 2. A, B, C are on a straight line, B midway between A and C. It then takes A 4 minutes to catch C, and B catches C in 6 minutes. How long does it take A to catch up to B?

3. An airplane has a true course west and an air speed of
200 miles per hour. The wind speed is 50 miles per hour from 1300. Find the heading and ground speed of the plane. 87. Dynamics of a Particle. Up to the present, nothing has

been said of the forces that produce or cause the motion of a particle. Experiment shows that for a particle to acquire an acceleration relative to certain types of reference frames, there must be a force acting on the particle. The types of forces
encountered most frequently are (1) mechanical (push, pull), (2) gravitational, (3) electrical, (4) magnetic, (5) electromagnetic. We shall be chiefly concerned with forces of the types (1) and (2). For the present we shall assume Newton's laws of motion hold for motion relative to the earth. Afterward we shall modify this. Newton's laws are: (a) A particle free from the action of forces will remain fixed or will continue to move in a straight line with constant speed. (b) Force is proportional to time rate of change of momentum,

that is, f = dt (mv). In general, m = constant, so that

The factor m is found by experiment to be an invariant for a given particle and is called the mass of the particle. In the theory of

relativity, m is not a constant. my is called the momentum. (c) If A exerts a force on B, then B exerts an equal and opposite force on A. This is the law of action and reaction: fAB = -fha

190

VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS

[SEC. 88

By a particle we mean a finite mass occupying a point in our Euclidean space. This is a purely mathematical concept, and physically we mean a mass occupying negligible volume as compared to the distance between masses. For example, the earth

and sun may be thought of as particles in comparison to their distance apart, to a first approximation.
88. Equations of Motion for a Particle.
Newton's second law

may be written f = m dt = ma. We postulate that the forces
acting on a particle behave as vectors. This is an experimental fact. Hence if fl, f2j . . . , f act on m, its acceleration is given by
a
1
(fl+f2+....+fn)_
1I

m
,

mti_1

f f f,_ m

We may also write f = m d

dt2

where r is the position vector from

is at rest or is moving with constant velocity, then

the origin of our coordinate system to the particle. If the particle d
dt2

= 0, and

so f = 0, and conversely. Hence a necessary and sufficient condition that a particle be in static equilibrium is that the vector
sum of the forces acting on it be zero.

A standard body is taken as the unit mass (pound mass). A
poundal is the force required to accelerate a one-pound mass one foot per second per second. The mass of any other body can be compared with the unit mass by comparing the weights (force of f12/ m2 gravit y at mean sea leve l ) o f th e two objects. This assumes the equivalence of gravitational mass and inertial mass. Example 106. Newton's law of gravi-

tation for two particles is that every
pair of particles in the universe exerts
Fzo. 77.

a mutual attraction with a force directed along the line joining the particles, the magnitude of the force being inversely
Let

proportional to the square of the distance between them and directly proportional to the product of their masses.
f12 = (Gmim2/r2)R (see Fig. 77). G is a universal constant.

or equal areas are swept out in equal intervals of time. 78. we have 2 dA = Ihl. Moreover.(Gm. The force act- ing on the earth due to the sun is f = . Now d v) dt (r x dv = r x dt and hence d dt(rxv)=rx(-GMr) =0 r x v = h = constant vector This implies or rxa = dr (324) h Since Ir x drl = twice sectoral area.M/r3)r From the second law GmM rs r d2r m dt2 dv dt M so that dv dt GM r3 (323) Fia. 88] MECHANICS 191 the mass of the sun be M and that of the earth be m. and -GMrxh= -GMrx(rxv) (v x h) = d x h. and the motion is planar. r I r x dt ] = r h = 0. We shall assume that the sun is fixed at the origin of a given coordinate system (Fig. 78).SEC. Now a xh from (324). so that (v x h) GM d d r x (r x v) (325) . so that r remains perpendicular to the fixed vector h. This is Kepler's first law of planetary motion.

R2 dRJ (326) = GM ddR since R is a unit vector. where R is a unit vector. ddR t/ R . Integrating (326). so that r h'/GM 1 + (k/GM) cos 8 (329) This is the polar equation of a conic section. 88 Now r = rR. Let us now write the ellipse in the form S r 1+ e cos 9 where e= GM' p k . v Hence R so that (325) becomes \ d(vxh)=-GMrx (rxrR) / = -GMRx(RxdR) -GM K R . k) We choose the direction of the constant vector k as the polar axis. so that we obtain Kepler's second law. we obtain vxh=GMR+k and h' = GMr + rk cos (R. which states that the orbits of the planets are ellipses with the sun at one of the foci. For the planets these conic sections are closed curves.192 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS SEC. k) Thus (327) (328) r h2/GM 1 + (k/GM) cos (r.

3. a 16-pound shot leaves the putter's fingers 7 feet from the ground. for all planets (330) This is Kepler's third law..e2)1. and since the period for one complete revolution is T Thus T2 2A .e2)1 = G1Mi 0 _ GM = constant.ra2(1 . show that the equation of the path is (OW k2)i r = a sec C 0 - avo I 4. .e2)i Zral .h . 0 = it so that the length of the major axis is ep 2. 0) with the speed vo = k/21a2 perpendicular to the x axis. b2 = a2 . 2.a1GiM1(1 47r2 2ara2(1 .SEC. A particle of mass m is attracted toward the origin with the force f = . 88] MECHANICS 193 The curve ci osses the polar axis at 0 = 0. 0) with velocity vo > k/a perpendicular to the x axis.e2a2. area of the ellipse is A = Tab = .2)1. A bead of mass m slides along a smooth rod which is rotating with constant angular speed w. dt For an ellipse._ If it starts from the point (a. In a uniform gravitational field (earth). the rod always lying in a horizontal plane. A particle of mass m is attracted toward the origin with a force .(mk2/r3)R.(k2m/r6)r. At what angle should the shot leave to attain a maximum horizontal distance? . Problems 1. which states that the squares of the periods of revolution of the planets are proportional to the cubes of the mean distances from the sun.c2 = a2 . orb = a(l . If it starts from the point (a. show that the path is given by r = a cos 0.1+e + ep 1-e 2p 2h2 1-e2 GM(1-e2 The dA = Jh. Find the reaction between bead and rod.

d2r' (331) Unfortunately. so that we shall not try to find the motion of each particle but shall look rather for the motion of the system as a whole. Since Eq. f. we can sum up j for all the particles. System of Particles. we do not know. l m. in general. called the center-of-mass vector.. If r. Let us consider a system consisting of a finite number of particles moving under the action of various forces. A given particle will be under the influence of two types of forces: (1) internal forces. Newton's second law becomes for this particle f1( + f1( = m.('). 89 5. m' dt2 From Newton's third law we know that for every internal force n there is an equal and opposite reaction. Assume a comet starts from infinity at rest and is attracted toward the sun. f.11 . forces due to the interaction of the particle with the other particles of the system.(e) as the sum of the external forces acting on the jth particle. and f.r. said forces being called external forces. This yields n J=1 f'c6> + f'(i) . Show that the motion of the comet is given by r = 2ro/(1 + cos 0). by the equation Im. dt2 (332) We now define a new vector. Let ro be its least distance to the sun. 89.194 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. so that This leaves n n A f ®= 0.(i) as the sum of the internal forces acting on this particle. is the position vector to the particle of mass m. that is. ra =1' = n n n (333) 7-1 . then we shall designate f. (331) is true for each j. and (2) all other forces acting on the particle.=1 1-1 d 2r.

+ Mr2 = 0.SEC. is called the center of mass of the system. and d2r1 d12 _ -GM rl [1 + (m/M))2 rig . If our system is composed of two particles in free space and if they are originally at rest. 79.12)2 Since r. It is a geometric property and depends only on the position of the particles.(rl r2)2f M d2r2 dt2 GmMR _ (rl . For the earth and sun we may choose the center of mass as the origin of our coordinate system (Fig. Example 107. and r. ' dt2 . 89) MECHANICS 195 The end point of r. The equations of motion for earth and sun are m d2r1 dt2 GmMR = . = 0. Fia. 79). we have mr. = constant satisfies the equation of motion and the initial condition 0. since f = 0 so that d2° = 0.=1 so that (332) becomes n f )ml f. Differentiating (333) twice with respect to time. then the center of mass will always remain at rest. we obtain Md2r` _ dt2 n md?r.(e)=M 2_1° z (334) Equation (334) states that the center of mass of the system accelerates as if the total mass were concentrated there and all the external forces acted at that point.

Find the center of mass of a uniform hemisphere. Find the force of attraction of a hemisphere on another hemisphere. x f. Find the center of mass. 80.v1. Momentum and Angular Momentum. The results of Example 106 hold by replac- ing M by M[1 + (m/M)1-2. For a system of forces. j-1 We have at once that dM dt I mj j-1 n dv1 n dt = I f. or torque. 5. Torque. or Force Moment. j-1 (337) . x mjvj (336) whose end point lies on the line of action of the force (see Fig.196 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc. The total momentum of a system of particles is given by M = j m. 3. 2. The momentum of a particle of mass m and velocity v is defined as M = mv. 91 This shows that m is attracted toward the center of mass by an inverse-square force. Show that the center of mass is independent of the origin of our coordinate system. n Fla. 80). 90. f The total angular momentum is given by n j-1 91. Particles of masses 1. of the particle about the origin 0. Problems 1. the two hemispheres forming a full sphere. of f about 0. The vector quantity r x f is defined as the force moment. 4. The vector quantity r x my is defined as the angular momentum. 4. f be a force acting in a given direction and let r be any vector from the origin L = I r. 6. 7. 2. Let H = E r. 3. 8 are placed at the corners of a unit cube. (e) = f j-1 (335) We emphasize again that the mass of each particle is assumed constant throughout the motion. or moment of momentum.

negative. Prove that the torque due to internal forces vanishes. 2. . .SEC. Prove this first for a single force. the total torque about one point is the same as that about any other point. Hence rl x f = r x f. Show that if the resultant of a system of forces is zero. acting at an arbitrary point. Show that the torques about two different points are equal. 81). Show that any set of forces acting on a body can be replaced by a single force. Problems 1. plus a suitable couple.r) x f = 0 since ri . for The answer is in the (r. 81. provided that the resultant of the forces is parallel to the vector joining the two origins. 3. We are now in a position to prove that the time rate of change of angular momentum is equal to the sum of the external torques for a system of particles. The torque due to this couple is Fio. What of the torque due to two equal and opposite forces both acting along the same line? It is zero.r2) x f The couple depends only on f and on any vector from the line of action of -f to the line of action of f. L = r1xf+r2x(-f) = (r1 .r is parallel to f. 4. 921 MECHANICS 197 We immediately ask if the torque is different if we use a differ- ent vector ri to the line of action of f. 92. for r1xf+r1x(-f) =r1x(f-f)=0 Two equal and opposite forces with different lines of action constitute a couple (see Fig. A Theorem Relating Angular Momentum with Torque. Let ri be a vector to f and r2 a vector to -f.

dt2 n dri dri + j=1 dt x m' dt j-1 r' x I (f1" + f.(e) =L (338) 93. (Fig. n d2r. x dri m'dt we have on differentiating dH _ dt n Z r. Differentiating (339). 82). It is occasionally more useful to choose a moving point Q as the origin of our FIG.rQ) x m. the velocity of m. whereas the subscript Q stands for the fact that the lever arm is measured from Q to the particle m. is taken relative to 0. we obtain . that is. 93 Since H = Ir3xmjv j=1 j=1 r. di j-1 dri (339) The superscript a stands for absolute momentum.198 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS n [SEC. We define Let 0 be a fixed point and Q any point in n HQa = I (r. space. (') ) aii = dt j=1 I r. -. x m. Moment of Momentum (Continued). 82. x n f. coordinate system.

rQ) x (f.(') = 0 from Sec. Moment of Relative Momentum about Q.r. j=1 j-1 r1 x f. if LQ(e) = 0. 941 MECHANICS 199 nn` dHQa dt _ j=1 (dri _ (dt drQl X 7n.(e) + f . Center of mass at rest.(i)) j-1 Now Mr = j=1 m. In Sec. . 91. dr. 93 we assumed that the absolute velocity of each particle was known. dt d2r. drQ dre dt dt 0 In all three cases dHe dt = LQ(e) (341) In particular. -.rQ) dt x dt + j-1 dF I n x fj(e) dtQa LQ (e) -M Qx dt dtc (340) We can simplify (340) under three conditions: 1.SEc. 94. dt . and this is the law of conservation of angular momentum. so that dHQa dt = or M drQ (r. It is often more convenient to calculate the velocity of each particle relative to Q. This is dr. j=1 drQ dl n xLm'dt+I j=1 n dr1 n (r1 .. and n f. rQ) x "ni dt2 dt / + L (r.(i)=0. so that M dt = l1 m1 dr.drQ dt We now define rela- .constant. so that drQ dt =0 2. dt` = 0 3. Velocity of Q is parallel to velocity of center of mass. Q at rest. then He .

. . 94 tive moment of momentum about Q as n HQr = j-1 Differentiating.rQ) = 0 (344) Now (344) holds if 1. and each particle remains at a fixed distance from a point 0 in this plane.rQ) x mj dl (rj .rQ) j-1 (343) n We see that dtiQr a. Q moves with constant velocity. 2.rQ) (342) dt j-1 = (r' . Show that jet m4(r1 .rQ) x ` f3(i)) d2rQ dt2 x I m. rQ = rQ. (rj .rQ is parallel to n 2 dt' Problems 1. LQ(' + 'rQ d12 n x I mj (rj . A system of particles lies in a plane.rQ) x dt2 = M(r.rQ) = 0 d2rQ M dt2 x (r. .200 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. each . or Q is at the center of mass. l 3.rQ) js1 Under what conditions does dd Q' = Lo d2rQ n ? We need dt2 or x I mj(rj .rQ) x m' / (d2rj dl2 (fj(ei d2rQ dt2 (r7 . r. dHQ* (rj . 2 dQ = 0.rQ) x a rQ d2rQ dt2 2.

= j-1 m. . L dt (r.)]2 a)(347) 1 This proves that the kinetic energy of a system of particles is equal to the kinetic energy of a particle having the total mass . _ (dro)2 di dt dt _ dr. where I = I m. 95] MECHANICS n 201 particle rotating about 0 with angular velocity w. Kinetic Energy. dt +2 drd (r.=rr+(r. and show that Lo = I at 3. A hoop rolls down an inclined plane.-r n 1 n . j-1 r.2 2 m' r Fia. Now let r.r.2.-r-) so that dr. .1-1 1 fdrs\ 2 dt 1 (345) `r P. 83). r.r. .. 83.SEC.r-) I d.rc) ] 2 Hence 1 dr" T=2M (dr12 +dt dtJ d 2 + jn n 1 2 m' r`)] [dt (r' n (346) Now Mr. j=1 Show that Ho = Iw. dr. . It is obvious that r.-1 m1 alt (r. so that . . We define the kinetic energy of a particle of mass m and velocity v as T = jmv v. What point can be taken as Q so that the equation of motion (343) would be simplified? 95.r-) = 0. be the vector to the center of 0 mass C (Fig. T f=1 2 mv. [-d dt (r.rc) -{dt dt n + d dt (r.r. dt dr. and (346) reduces to T=IM ()2 -}- -1 2 m. C M For a system of particles.

n J`o mivi dt' dt = La i:1 fi(a) . Work. Vi and integrating and summing over all particles.) dt dvi = fi(e) . the work done in taking the particle from a point A to a point B is independent of the path (see Sec. f = -V(p. 52). v. .r2) = constant . If a particle moves along a curve r with velocity v under the action of a force f. dt m.202 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. If the field is conservative. (ri . plus the kinetic energy of the particles in their motion relative to the center of mass. Let r. 96 of the system and moving with the center of mass. vi dt + fee:' fi('i . the internal forces do no work. + mivi . and let f and -f be the internal forces of one particle on the other and conversely. 96.r2) (r. dt or n i=1 lmi[vi2(ti) . V1.vi2(to)l = W(e) W° (349) This is the principle of work and energy. and r2 be the position vectors of two particles whose distance apart remains constant.rk)2 = constant. Now (r. The change in the kinetic energy of a system of particles is equal to the total work done by both the external and internal forces. we define the work done by this force as W= fr f fr f t f acts at right angles to the path. If the particles always remain at a constant distance apart. . no work is done. Now dvi = fj(a) + fi(.

We postulate that we can subdivide the body into a great many small parts so that we can apply our laws of motion for particles to this system. 97. By a rigid body we mean a system of particles such that the relative distances between pairs of points remain constant during the discussion of our problem. A particle falls from infinity to the earth. where I = line of w. 97] MECHANICS 203 so that (r.. = to x r. .dr2 dt/ f 0 (350) W(o = ff f is parallel to r. Problems 1. md.v2) = a(r. the rigid body may not consist of a finite number of particles. Ave have f = a(r. but rather will have a continuous distribution.v2) = 0 from (350). 1 has a constant direction. at least to the unaided eye.J2.Sec. Moreover. this postulate implying that we can use second. n Show that T= 2. at least to a first approximation. n i-i Jm. . by using the fact that T = 4-mv. What if L is perpendicular to w? 5.2. . to 3. di . being the shortest distance from m.r2. A system of particles has an angular velocity w. Show that the kinetic energy of a system of rotating particles is constant if the system is subjected to no torques.0 miles per Use the principle of work and energy. Thus W(° = 0. . .r2) and f (v. .r2) (v. but for practical purposes there do exist such rigid bodies. Actually no such systems exist. d.r2) Also dr. . Show that it strikes the earth with a speed of approximately 7. Show that dT = w L.lw x r. show that T = }Iw2. If to of Prob.2 and that v. 4. Rigid Bodies.

Let 0 be a point of a rigid body for which 0 happens to be fixed. 98 the integral calculus. for if r is the position vector from 0 to P. 2 ( 351) J f f f(e) R R dt2 H = f f f prxvdr -it ff r x f(e) dr where f(. then all other particles of the body are rotating around the line joining these two points.204 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. since the body is rigid. Kinematics of a Rigid Body. Q. R p = density ff pr dr f f f p dr R dr.D. Let A and B be the fixed points and P any other point of the From above we have so that P is always moving perpendicular to the plane ABP. body.E. we have r .) is the external force per unit volume. Moreover. It is easy to prove that the velocity f V (P1 = yr of any other point P of the body must be perpendicular to the line joining 0 P to P. so that P moves in a circle . 98. 0. the shortest distance from P to the line A B remains constant. the following form: Our laws of motion as derived above take T = f f f -pv2 dr.r = constant throughout the motion so that r dt = We next prove that if two points of a rigid body are fixed.

so that (rP . B 1 FIG 85. so .rQ) ((a x rp . 84). = w.w) = 0 VA We leave it to the reader to conclude that w. . The proof proceeds as follows: Let 0 be the fixed point of our rigid body and let r` be the position vector to a point A. From above we know that the velocity of A.rQ)2 = constant.Sec. there does exist a moving line passing through the fixed point so that at any instant the body is actually rotating around this line. is perpendicular to rA. Construct the plane through 0 and A perpendicular to VA (Fig.rQ) (vp . 10 that the velocity of P VP =wxrp Is w the same for all particles? Yes! Assume Q is rotating about AB with angular velocity w. could be written We saw in Sec. 981 MECHANICS 205 around AB (Fig. x rQ) = 0 Thus x rP and rQ x rp xrQ = 0 (w. VA. However. so that we can construct the plane through 0 and B perpendicular to vB. x rQ. Both planes pass through 0..vQ) = 0 or (rP .w. so that vQ = to. Now choose a point B not in the plane. Now (rP . we cannot. We also have that vB rB = 0.' If one point of a rigid body is fixed. in general. hope to find a fixed line about which the body is rotating. 85).

. 1.206 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. and r. so that we have two fixed points at this particular instant. We have ei = a + r. = w x r.da dt dt + dr. is the vector from 0 to the jth particle. If w is the angular-velocity vector. 98 that their line of intersection..(vc-VA) =0 and (rc . Now consider any point C on this line. Similarly (re . We have vc rc = 0.rA) ° constant.rB) vc = 0. Hence from the previous paragraph the motion is that of a rotation about the line 1.0. and differentiating. dLD.o.(rc . Hence the projections of vc in three directions which are nonplanar are zero. so that (re-rA). where r. Moreover. dt . 86). 86. Now let us consider the most general type of motion of a rigid -r represent a fixed coordinate system in space. Let . then v. body.rA). Let and let 0-x-y-z represent a coordinate system fixed in the rigid body (see Fig. This means that FIG. (rc . passes through 0. since vA is perpendicular to (rc . and let a be the vector from 0' to 0. Vc . represent the vectors from 0' and 0 to the jth particle. .rA) .rA) VC = 0.

Then v. 0" does w change? (Fig. (352) that is.wl. 98] MECHANICS 207 Now l represents the velocity of Pi relative to 0."=0 0 and not parallel to the vector w . then r. We next ask the following question: If we change our origin from 0 to. Thus _dei = v' da dt dt +wxr.w x ri. the most general type of motion of a rigid body is that of a translation A dt plus a rotation w x r.-w) xr.) The answer is "No"! Let b be the vector from 0' to 0"." xr.a)+wi x (a -b)+w. xri Subtracting (352) from (353). Show that if r. ri = (a Thus vi = d +w x(b . at any particular instant. da But db dt and dt +w x (b . we obtain (353) (w .)= We can certainly choose an r.wl) x (b-a-r.b) + ri Fio. and r2 are two position vectors from the origin of the moving system of coordinates to two points in the rigid body.=0 or (w . say.. Problems 1. dt2 + r2 . 87.dtl = 0.a) -.wi) x (b-a)+(w.xr. 0 rf ' =t= + w. dri This means 0 is fixed as far as Pi is concerned.SEC. and from above we know that dt . . ° w. Hence w. 87.

d = w x is dt = w x it at dS Hence (355) becomes dSs dt . Show that the most general motion of a rigid body is a translation plus a rotation about a line parallel to the translation. 99 2. for S= is measured in the moving frame and so d _ t is the time rate of change of S. dS dt = dt 1+ dS=. But we do know that dt is the velocity of a point one unit along the x axis. Let S be an y vector measured in (Fig. 99. the moving system of coordinates S = S i + Sj + S.208 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. Hence dk = w x k. relative to 0. dk dS. 88). dS dt'+ . Find the point in the body which is instantaneously at rest. k suffer motions relative to 0'. j. . Relative Time Rate of Change of Vectors. Fin. A plane body is moving in its own plane.dt and i -} dS dt j + d k + w x (3j + DS S dt + w x dS. we differentiate (354). 88. 3. S1t) dS dt (356) where DS represents the time rate of change of S relative to the moving frame. j. k fixed since i. as measured by an observer in the moving frame.k (354) To find out how S changes with time as measured by an observer at 0'. _ di dj dt k+S= dt+Sydt+S'dt (355) We do not keep i.

Show that d dl 2. Obviously a + r. for not only does S change relative to 0. so that _ dp _ A dr v dt dt + dt Now r is a vector measured in the O-x-y-z system. The vector sum is the velocity of P relative to the frame 0'--i-r. S does not change length or direction if 0 is translated. It is the motion of S relative to the frame O-x-y-z and the rotation about 0 that produce changes in S. respectively (see Fig. 89)." for a translation of 0 only pulls S along. The reader might well ask. co x r is Dr is the velocity due to the rotation of the 0-x-y-z frame. dS DS dt dt = Let P be any point in space and let 9 and r be the position vectors to P 100. 1001 MECHANICS 209 Intuitively. so that 7t (356) applies to r. that is. A is the drag velocity of P. . we expected the result of (356). What of the motion of 0 itself? Will not this motion have to be considered? The answer is "No. but to this change we must add the change in S because of the rotating frame.SEC. from 0' and 0. 89. and the velocity of P relative to the 0-x-y-z frame. xr+Dr v dt -dt (357) This result is expected. From (356) show that di = w x i. Problems 1. For a pure translation show that 3. This yields dr _ Dr + to x r and dt t FIG. Velocity.

100 we saw that v=ac dv_d2p_d2a dt dt2 A dt+wxr+ Dr dt To find the acceleration. In Sec. we would have 2 0. we differentiate (357) and obtain dt2 + dt (wxr) + d d(Drl dt dt (358) We apply (356) to w x r and obtain d Similarly (wxr) = w x (wxr) + D (w x r) dldtl d2p d D xdt+d`dtl _ d2a dt2 dt 2 + w x (wxr) + Dr D2r do x r + 2w x dt dt + dt2 (359) If P were fixed relative Dr = D2r to the moving frame. J 01 101. and the drag acceleration reduces to the single term dta This is the translational acceleration of 0 relative to 0'. If the moving frame were not rotating. d2a dt2 +wx(wxr)+dt xr & This vector sum is appropriately called the drag acceleration of the particle. we would have 0 and consedt2 = dt quently P would still suffer the acceleration Let us analyze each term of (359).210 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS (SEC. 84 we saw that w x (w x r) represented the centripetal accel- eration due to rotation and d x r represented the tangential component of acceleration due to the angular-acceleration vector . Acceleration. Now in Sec. Now let us analyze each term of the drag acceleration.

0 over a short time. dta = 0. since jwl 27r/86.000)(5. Notice that the term disappears for par- ticles at rest relative to the moving frame. and (359) becomes D2r dt2 d2a dt2 . Also dt . Let us consider the earth as our rotating frame. It Now Newton's second law states that force is proportional to the acceleration when the mass of the particle remains constant.). gravitation. The quantity w x ((a x r) is small.2w x dt + m (360) d4. since from (359) we have d e = because w = Of dt2r 66 Let us now consider the motion of a particle relative to the earth. as the acceleration of P What. etc. Suffice to say. dt = that is. (359) and must be considered when we discuss the motion of bodies moving over the earth's surface.= 0 over a short time. Any other coordinate system moving relative to an inertial frame with constant velocity D d2 is also an inertial frame. named after its discoverer. then d p = m.d x r . also does not exist for nonrotating frames. then. We do not try to give a geometrical or physical reason for its existence.164 rad/sec. of the term 2w x dr? This term is called the Coriolis acceleration. (4. da d1 constant. it occurs in Eq.w x (w x r) ." We call such a frame of reference an inertial frame. Example 108. for then dt = 0. 1011 MECHANICS D2r 211 d We easily explain the term relative to the O-x-y-z frame. 2 1 0.SEC. If f is the vector sum of the external forces (real forces. push. It is found that the frame of reference for which this law holds best is that of the so-called "fixed stars. d2 . pull.280) feet. da .3 Dr f This is the differential equation of motion for a particle of mass m with external force f applied to it. and for a particle near the earth's surface. lrl .

101 so that (360) becomes D2r dt2 -2w x dt + m (361) Now consider a freely falling body starting from a point P at rest relative to the earth. Now f (force of attraction) has no component eastward. Let the z axis be taken as the line joining the center of the earth to P. Hence (w x d2x at) 0 = -wgt cos A. If h is the . at but to a first approxima- tion it is -gtk + Moreover. so that on integrating (362). The equation of motion in the eastward direction is given by yd1x t2 _ -2 (w x dj dt . we obtain dx dt =wgt2cosA 3ts cos A X= (363) (363) is to a first approximation the eastward deflection of a shot if it is dropped in the Northern Hemisphere. w = w sin A k + w cos A j (see Fig. so that (f/. 90. and let the x axis be taken perpendicular to the z axis in the eastward direction. assuming A > 0. and (362) dt' = 2wgt cos A If the particle remains in the vicinity of latitude A. we can keep A constant. 90). We shall denote the latitude of the place by A. m We do not know i.212 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. = 0. + Cf m / S Fio.

We leave it to the reader to show that the acceleration . 4. Using the coordinate system of Prob. Show that it strikes the ground 'jwh cos X (2h/g)1 to the west. 3. 91). then h = Jgt2 approximately. Let ii. 1011 MECHANICS 213 distance the shot falls. 3. CO Fio.2wcos0 y=0 dt dt dt +2w cos0dy =0 dtz-g-2w sin0dx =0 2 where 0 is the colatitude. i$ be the unit tangent vectors to the spherical curves r. Choose the x axis east. A body is thrown vertically upward. p. 2. Show that the winds in the Northern Hemisphere have a horizontal deflecting Coriolis acceleration 2wv sin X at right angles to v. and show that the equations of motion for a freely falling body are d2x W +2wsinU z. 8.SEc. z axis along the plumb line. 91. y axis south. let us consider the motion of the Foucault pendulum (see Fig. i2. so that x = 3 wh 2 cos X ( J 2gh1} Problems 1.

so that mgk has no component along the is direction. = sin0cosci+sin Bsin cpj+cos0k ail i2 = aB = cos 0 cos v i + cos 0 sin ail sin 0 k _ 1s 1 sin B ai . + (i i2)i2 + (i = sin 0 cos Tp it + cos 0 cos jP is -. Now r = i.sin B i2 11 i2 is -2wx-=2w cos A sin 0 sin P + sin A cos 0 0 and -sinAsin0 6 sine c (- 2w x -D dt r = #(sin A sin 0 sin ip + sin A cos 0) Equation (361) yields 2 cos 006+ sin 8. Finally. T = .Tit. j. The two external forces are mgk along the z axis and the tension in the string.sin rp is j = sin 0 sin Sp i. is and i. + cos B sin 'P i2 + C0803 k = cos 0 it . T has no component in the is direction.p = 2w(B sin A sin B sin rp + # sin A cos 0) (364) .sin sp i + coo sp j i3)is Thus i = (i il)i. so that we must find the relationship between i i2.sin X k). k. We wish to find the component of these forces along the i3 direction.cos A j . we must compute Dr The velocity vector is the is component of -2w x Dr dt _ Bit + sin 6 rpis Also w = w(.Tr = . 101 along the is vector is 2 cos e . Now k is = 0.06 + sin 0 0 when the string is of unit length.214 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.

w: f f f pyz dr] + k[ -w=f f f pxz dr .yzwy -. In Sec.wyf f f pyz dr + w=f f f p(x2 + y2) dr] (367) .(r R w)r] dr (366) Let w=w=i+wyj+w r=xi+yj+zk so that r2w . Motion of a Rigid Body with One Point Fixed.(x2 + y2)w]k We thus obtain H0? = i[w= f f f p(y2 + z2) dr .xzws]i + [-xyw. 102. Thus H0? = f f f pr x (w x r) dr R = fJf p[r2w . and (364) reduces to (365) .w f f f pxy dr .xywy .SEC. 94 we saw that -Or = Lo. The motion of a rigid body with one point fixed will depend on the forces acting on the body.w=f f f pxy dr + wyf f f p(z2 + x2) dr .yzw=lj + [-xzwz . Now Ho* = f if r x p dt dr.wz f f f pxz dr] + j[ .(r w)r = (x2 + y2 + z2) (w i + wyj + W k) + (xwx + ywy + zws) (xi + yj + zk) = [(y2 + z2)wz . Find the equation of motion by considering the i2 components of (361) for the Foucault pendulum. and let O-.be the coordinate system fixed in space. 5. Let O-x-y-z be a coordinate system fixed in the moving body. 102] MECHANICS 215 For small oscillations. 0 is the fixed point of the body. We can replace dt by to x r (w unknown). + (22 + x2)wy . = w sin X Hence the pendulum rotates about the vertical in the clockwise sense when viewed from the point of suspension with an angular speed w sin X. sin 0 0. At latitude 30° the time for one complete oscillation is 48 hours.

107). F are called the products of inertia. We assume the student has studied these integrals in the integral calculus. y.Ewz.D dt + C dta/ k WV + wy wt Aws . C are the moments of inertia about the x./ +j(-F + k \-E i dt . we have Euler's celebrated equations of motion : .216 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. z remain invariant because the O-x-y-z frame is fixed in the body. the scalars x. 102 The quantities A = f f f p(y2 + Z2) dr B=fffp(z2+x2)dr C = fffp(x2 + y2) dr D = f f fpyzdr E = f f fpzxdr F = f f f pxy dr (368) are independent of the motion and are constants of the body.Dwv+Ccos (369) In the special case when the axes are so chosen that the products of inertia vanish (see Sec. z axes. z. -Fws+Bwv .Fwv . -Ews .Dw=. dt + to x Hor L=i+Lvj+LA=i(A ds-F w dtE dts/ +Bdty-Ddt. y. E. y. That they are independent of the motion is seen from the fact that for a particle with coordinates x. and D. B. The quantities A. Now from Sec. 99 we have dHor dt _ DHor + w x Hor so that dt Lo = Hence DRO.

Cw.2 + Cw... dw.2 = constant This is one of the integrals of the motion.. = A d[ + (C .. dwa = 0 dt dt (372) Integrating yields Aws2 + Bw.SEc. 102.B)wYwz L = B dwY + (A . (ii). dt = 0 so that A 2w12 + B2wV2 + C2w.wx=0 C d. dws + BZwy'dw' dt dt + C2w.2 =constant (373) If originally the motion was that of a rotation of angular velocity w about a principal axis (x axis). dt + (B A)wzwy 103. = C dw. and adding. dt + Bw dwY + Cw.wZ dt (370) L.z. = 0 (371) B dt +(A-C)w. This yields AZ w. (iii) by we obtain Aws dws w.+(B-A}wZwY=0 Multiplying (i). 1031 MECHANICS 217. Euler's equations reduce to (i) A dwz dt- + (C B)wYw.. (ii). We obtain another integral by multiplying (i). Applications. respectively. Bw. L. (iii) by Aw. If no torques are applied to the body of Sec.C)w. and adding. then initially .

to and wswo. then (A .B) a2 = C > 0. so that now the body has acquired the very small angular velocities w. wt.C)wswo = 0 Cdt +(B0 (375) wo = constant Differentiating the first equation of (375) with respect to time and eliminating d s' we obtain B z dtzy + (.. Here we have used a theorem on the uniqueness of solutions for a system of differential equations. We can neglect ww: as compared Euler's equations now become B dty + (A .C) . wo(A . in (375). 103 0 ws(0) = 0 (374) and we notice that (371) and the boundary condition (374) are satisfied by wt(t) = -coo 0 wZ(t) = 0 so that the motion continues to be one of constant angular velocity about the x axis.C) (A ..B) w02w = 0 (376) If A is greater than B and C or smaller than B and C..C)((A . Now suppose the body to be rotating this way and then slightly disturbed.218 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS wz(0) = coo [SEc. and the solution to (376) is wy = L cos (at + a) Also ws = aBL sin (at + a) by replacing w.

Euler's Angular Coordinates. Find w and W. 2 a constant torque Lo is also applied in the z direction. 0. 104. In Prob. The x-y plane will intersect the x'-y' plane in a line. The positive directions of these angles are indicated in the figure. If the only forces acting on the sphere are applied at the center.. Let O-x'-y'-z' be a cartesian coordinate system fixed in space. 3. Show that a necessary and sufficient condition that a rigid body be in static equilibrium is that the sum of the external forces and external torques vanish. 4. Solve the free body with A = B for wzj co. Therefore and + dO + dt gives us the angular velocity of the O-x-y-z framed* relative to the fixed O-x'-y'-z' frame. called the nodal line N.SEC.. L' the angle between the x' and N axes. 2. A disk (B = C) rotates about its x axis (perpendicular to the plane of the disk) with constant angular speed wo. A constant torque Lo is applied constantly in the y direction. More complicated problems can be solved by use of Euler's angular coordinates. co. A sphere rotates about its fixed center. show that the initial motion continues. 5. 92). d(P represents the rotation of the O-x-y-z frame relative to the O-z-N-T frame. and (p the angle between the nodal line and the x axis. Now d represents the rotation of the O-z'-N-T' frame relative to the O-x'-y'-z' frame. and let O-x-y-z be fixed in the moving body (Fig. Let 0 be the angle between the z and z' axes. de represents the rotation of the O-z-N-T frame relative to the O-z'-N-T' frame. and finally. rp completely specify the configuration of the body.. Find w. 1041 MECHANICS 219 Problems 1. and ws. The three angles &.. d1 + dO + d (377) .

T as unit vectors along the x. j. k. Thus w = d k (378) wzi + w.j + wLk wz'i' + wy j' + wZ k' Fia. x'. N. k'.sin ' T' i = cos rp N + sin cp T . We now define i.220 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. Now it is easy to verify that j = . T axes. i'. T'.sinpN+cosjpT i' = cos 4. z'. y'. T'. N . z. 92. N. respectively. j'. 104 The three angular velocities are not mutually perpendicular. y.

Motion of a Free Top about a Fixed Point.cos0sin8dt dcp (381) wy d +cos6d 105.sin (p day day do W: = cos B d + at dp dt at Rewriting this. Let us assume that no torques exist and that the top is symmetric (A = B). 1051 MECHANICS 221 sin 4.SEC. we have sin 0 sin (P + sin B cos do cos <p dt wy = d4.. N+cos#T' sin sin psin B cosspsin 0 so that ws at at at ki sin p sin 0 d + cos s dB w = cos (p sin 8 --.dt8 sin So (379) wI = d cos 8 +Also d (dB 2 wi=wss+w2+(O2= (d)2 dd + do +Cdt d2 dcp d# + 2 cos 8 dt dt (380) For the fixed frame w=- a sin>Gt . Euler's equations become . .

suspended with its center of mass at the point of support. We obtain by i = A dt (w= + iwv) + (C .222 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS A [SEC. it is the z axis of the body which is rotating about the fixed z' axis with constant angular speed -a = [(A . 106. so that the magnitude of the angular velocity remains constant during the motion.C)cvxwZ = 0 (382) (iii) Cdts=O Multiply Integrating (iii). = constant.A)(wx + i wz + 2Wy = ae<'(C-A)/ALot ) Integrating. Now H = Awzi + Bw. Moreover. or that the gyroscope was balanced. and add to (i). and since H is fixed in space. so that no torques were produced. We choose the z' axis for the direction of H. The Top (Continued). = a cos at wy = a sin at (383) where a = [(C . + iwy) = iwo(C . Also H k = I HI cos 0 = Cwo. so that 9 is a constant since I HI = constant. so that H is a constant vector in fixed space.A)/A]wo. 106 (i) (ii) A d' + (A . We .. we obtain wz = w.iwz) = 0 or A d (co.C)/A]wo. that is. We say that the top precesses about the z' axis.A)/A]wo and a is a constant of integration. Now w2 = ws2 + Wye + ws2 = a2 + wp2 = constant.A)wo(wy .j + Cwk = Aa cos at i + Aa sin at j + Cwok (384) This shows that H rotates around the z axis (of the body) with constant angular speed a = [(C . We have assumed above that the weight of the top or gyroscope was negligible. so that co. d = 0.

(385) by wx. Euler's equations become Wl sin 0 cos p = A . we obtain Hence w: = coo.C)wws (385) 0=CdsforA=B Multiplying Eqs. 2 d (Awx2 + Bw"2 + Cw.SEC. respectively.Wl sin 0 sin p L. is not at the point of support. = 0 ZI Fro. Co. w".A)w"ws + (A .WI sin 8 sin (p = A dw= dt dwdt" + (C . 93. while still located on the axis of symmetry.. 93) : L = 1kx(. and adding. We now have the following situation (Fig. 106] MECHANICS 223 shall now assume that the center of mass.2) = Wl sin 0(wy cos w" sin (p) (386) .-Wk') = WI sin ON The three components of the torque are Lz = WI sin 0 cos 'v L" = .

/A.dte cos V sin (p sin 9) + Cwo cos 8 = constant or A d sin2 9 + Cwo cos 9 = constant = He. Let 16 = H. again using (379).224 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.w sin cp = de. (387) becomes ll2 x ( sin9 s 9/ +(de = a . we have A sin2 9 sine.. b = Cwo/A. Now since Le = L k' = 0) we have HZ. 106 From (379) we have wz cos P .a cos 0 (391) .= constant.p + d sin (p sin B cos + di cos2 V sin2 0 (388) . so that (386) becomes 1 d (A w=2 + 2 dt d8 B dt and integrating Awx2 + Cwz2 = -2W1 cos 0 + k or. Also H = AwJ + Bw j + Cwsk. (j)2 (dO)2 sin2 B + = a .a cos B (387) a and a are constants. so that sin 9+Cwocos0 = constant Replacing wr and w by their equals from (379). = wo = dt (389) cos B + LIP dt (390) Using (389).sin2 9 From (379) d4' w. so that (388) becomes d' -bcos9 dt .

1 . The moment of inertia of a rigid body about a line through the origin may be computed as follows.sin 6 2 -. Fm.z2) (392) t = fos [(a .bz)2 + Hence Cdt = (a . then we shall know d4. 94).dt The reader should look up a complete discussion of elliptic integrals in the literature. Inertia Tensor. 107] MECHANICS 225 Let z cos 0. so that dt = . and let r be the vector from 0 to any point P in the body.(g . and ( .az) (1 .z2' dt = wa d'y . 9-bz dip dt .z2) . r = xi + yj + zk (see Fig.az) (1 . 107.bz) 2]-} dz This integral belongs to the class of elliptic integrals. The shortest distance from P to L is given by . 94. Let the line L be given by the unit vector ro = li + mj + nk.SEC. If we can integrate and find z.

Ez . The normal to the surface is given by Vip. z replaced by x'. y'. z. y. . Now choose the .Ex z (395) Any orthogonal transformation (Example 8) will preserve the form of (393) and (395) with x.2mnD . .Dy .p(x.(r r0)2 _ (x2 + y2 + z2) . n by the variables x. y. The distance from the origin to this point of intersection is given by d = (1212 + m2t2 + n2t2)} = t = I-f (394) so that We know that a rotation of axes will keep I fixed. y. z' and A.Fy x By .2Dyz .2lnzx ..p(x.2n1E . y = mt. B'. First.2lmF)t2 = 1 or t2 = 1/I. F replaced by A'.Dz . . 107 D2 = r2 -. z) = Axe + By2 + Cz2 --. which yields the equations Ax .2n1E . We now attempt to simplify the equation of the quadric surface . . z) = 1. and let us consider the surface .226 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. m. so that we desire r parallel to Vv.2mnyz .2Fxy = 1 (393) A line L through the origin is given by the equation x = It. let us find a point P on this surface at which the normal will be parallel to the radius vector to this point. z = nt. .2lmF Let us replace 1. .2Dmn . z) = 1 for t satisfying (Al2 + Bm2 + Cn2 .Fx y Cz . P.(lx + my + nz)2 (12 _ 1l2(y2+ m2 + n2)(x2 + y2 + z2) . y.(lx + my + nz)2 = Thus + z2) + m2(z2 + x2) + n2(x2 + y2) . B. . for the line and the body will be similarly situated after the rotation. This line intersects the ellipsoid rp(x.2Ezx . y.2lmxy I = f f fpD2dzdydx = Ale + Bm2 + Cn2 .

z) is continuous on the compact set x2+y2+z2 = 1 such a point always exists.A') reduces (396) to A"z" + D''y. In the proof we made the assumption that there was a point P such that r is parallel to V o..D'/0 = C'. Since p(x. Under a proper rotation we have shown that we can write I= 0 0 A" 0 B" . y. We can arrange the constants of inertia into a square matrix I = -F -E -D B -D C -E (398) The elements of the matrix (an array of elements) are called the components of I. z) a maximum. which yielded (395). + cf/z. (395) by asking at what point on the sphere x2 + y2 + z2 = 1 is (p(x. Equations (395) are then easily deduced by Lagrange's method of multipliers. This yields .. which means that E'=D'=0 and (393) reduces to A'x'' + B'y'' + C'z'' . 0 0 0 C" (399) .2F'x'y' = 1 The rotation (396) x"=x'cos0-y'sin0 z" = z' y"= x' sin0+y'cos0 with tan 20 = F'/(B' .F= = 1 (397) This is the canonical form desired.E'/O = . y.SEC. We could have arrived at Eqs. z' _ satisfy (395). 107] MECHANICS 227 z' axis through P so that x' = 0. We have thus proved the important theorem that a quadratic form of the type (393) can always be reduced to a sum of squares of the form (397) by a rotation of axes. y' = 0.

Find the angular-momentum vector of a thin rectangular sheet rotating about one of its diagonals with constant angular speed we. Show that the moment of inertia of a body about any line is equal to its moment of inertia about a parallel line through the center of mass. . 107 In general. taking the cube edges as axes. under an orthogonal transformation. I. 3 (402) which is equivalent to the matrix form (401). 2. where w = w1 + wyJ + w 111 121 I31 If we write (398) as 1112 122 123 I32 113 I3 and Ho' = H. plus the product of the total mass and the square of the distance from the line to the center of mass. Referring back to (367). 8 that I is a tensor and so is called the inertia tensor. 3.E' C' .228 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. then (367) may be written 3 H. = I.i + H2J + H3k w=w1i + w2j + w3k. we may write A -F -E H _ -F B -D H= wZ Hz -E -D wb (401) C ws from the definition of multiplication of matrices. 2. Find the moments and products of inertia for a uniform cube. Problems 1. I will become I = -F' A' -F1 .E' -D' B' -D' (400) and the components of I in (400) will be related to the components of I in (398) according to a certain law. We shall see in Chap.-way aa1 j= 1.

a-1 coo = a-1 apawa. 1071 MECHANICS 3 3 229 4. If Hp = a=1 3 Ipawa.(y + z). y.2xy . Reduce I to normal form by a rotation of axes. Hp = I Ipacoa a-1 3 lip = I ap'Ha. This method may be employed to reduce any quadratic form to normal form. . a set of linear transformations from x. 3 for arbitrary wa. a-1 amt 6. Y = V"8.z. 2.y . a = 1.SEC. Let us consider the form I = x2 + 9y2 + 18z2 . 3 5.z)2 + 8(y + z)2 + 9z2 X2 +Y2 + Z2 (x where X = x . 2.2xz + 18yz We may write I = (x2 . Y.2xz) + 9y2 + 18yz + 18z2 (x-y-z)2+8y2+16yz+1722 y . Z = 3z. However.2xy . show that 3 3 1 Ipaaa = I Ia°apa. Z. the linear transformations may not be a rotation of axes. 3 = 1. z to X.

this force acts normal to the face... Call it Af. The science of hydrodynamics deals with the motion of fluids. but for many purposes it is simpler to consider the liquid as being incompressible. when studied macroscopically. AA. These are liquids which possess no shearing stresses. Let us consider the motion of the tetrahedron ORST (see Fig. If we divide Af" by the area of the face ORT. of motion in the y direction is given by The equation +f"oT=d = 230 p Az r dt° y (403) . we obtain the pressure on this face. We now show that the pressure is the same in all directions for a perfect fluid. We shall be interested in liquids and gases. P. All liquids are compressible to a slight extent. 95). and let p be the density of the fluid.. if the stress is continued long enough. Pressure.. appear to be continuous in structure. The face ORT has a force acting on it. also be highly interested in perfect fluids. Let f" be the y component of the external force per unit volume. since it is in contact with other parts of the liquid. We shall FIG. The y component of the pressure on the face RST is P cos l4. however small.. which. A liquid differs from a z solid in that the liquid will yield to any shearing stress. 95. = AAy f" The limit of this quotient is called the pressure in the direction normal to the face ORT. a liquid or gas being defined as a collection of molecules.CHAPTER 7 HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY 108. Under the above assumption.

we obtain M dd = f J fat dr s (405) Now there are only three ways in which the mass of the fluid inside S can change: (1) fluid may be entering or leaving the surface. The contribution due to this effect is JJ vp dd. 0 < 0. z.z. we have AA 0. so that if we assume f. For a source. We leave it to the student to prove that at the boundary of two perfect fluids the pressure is continuous. 109] HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY 231 since dt (p Ar) = dm dt = 0. or (3) matter may be destroyed (sink). P = P. y. 109. Since the normal n for the tetrahedron can be chosen arbitrarily. the pressure is the same in all directions and p is a point function... cos 0. (2) matter may be created (source). The Equation of Continuity.Pn) + fv A oAv dt Oz Cp As A --. = p. The net gain of fluid is therefore ffJ1dT_ jfpv.dd (406) Equating (405) and (406) and applying the divergence theorem.t)d-r M= ff R Differentiating with respect to time and remembering that x. 4. and for a sink. t) be the amount of matter created or destroyed per unit volume. Similarly.. we obtain . > 0. so that the total mass of the fluid inside S is given by p(x. so that (403) becomes (Pv . d i (404) p dt2 finite. z. z are variables of integration. we must have P = P.(x.y. y. Let 4.SEC. y. Consider a surface S bounding a simply connected region lying entirely inside the liquid. p = p(x. t). = P. Let p be the density of the fluid.. Now AA = AA.0.

if the normal velocity is zero at every point of the boundary of a liquid occupying a simply connected region. Showthaty= possible motion for an incompressible perfect fluid. y. u = u(r. then compute the velocity from v = Vrp. if f v dr = 0. t). t) = 1/r2. Problems 1.232 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. (407) reduces to 0 at + V . z. rp is constant throughout the interior of that region. if '(r. Prove that. (x2 + y2)2 i+ (x2 + y2)2 x2 + y2 kiss . For no source and sink. 109 ap + V (Pv) = #(x. and moving irrotationally. show that the equation of continuity is ap at + u ar + LP P a r2 ar (r2u) Solve this equation for an incompressible fluid. p = constant. If the velocity of a fluid is radial.1<)zj+ 2. t) (407) This is the equation of continuity. Is this motion irrotational? 3. z _2xyz x z . then so that the equation of continuity for an incompressible fluid possessing no sources and sinks and having irrotational motion is given by V2V = 0 (410) We call p the velocity potential. and (408) becomes Vv=0 V= (409) If the motion is irrotational. aP at = 0. We solve Laplace's equation for rp. that is.(Pv) = (408) If furthermore the liquid is incompressible.

. p dr is the mass of the volume dT.VP=p dv d or I dt f . so that pf . spherical coordinates.Vp)dr M = J117 pvdr and the time rate of change of linear momentum is dMd = fffpvdr I tf f pdT + f f f v(pdr) d (p dT) = 0. say. and this remains constant throughout the motion. 110. The total force acting on V is F = fff pfdr .p VP (411) This is Euler's equation of motion. rectangular coordinates. Let us consider the motion of a fluid inside a simply connected region of volume V and boundary S.f f pdd The linear momentum of V is = f f f (pf . f per unit mass.p dd. Express (407) in cylindrical coordinates. The forces acting on this volume are (1) external forces (gravity. However. 5.).Sic. we obtain fff(pf-vp)drfffpdr This equation is true for all V. Equations of Motion for a Perfect Fluid. 110] HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY 233 4. since dd points outward. (2) pressure thrust on the surface. since the volume V changes with time. then (p has the same constant value throughout the interior. so that Since F = dd . etc. . Prove that if v is constant over the boundary of any simply connected region.

so that (414) becomes at = -v l x + + 2 v2). so that (412) becomes av at +1VV2-Vx(VxV)=f-PVp 2 1 (413) 111. Thus v is parallel to the surface X + (p/p) + j v2 = constant. 22. a = 0. \ P (b) Steady motion. which moves under the action of conservative .234 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS SEC. so that an alternaVp (412) Also from Eq. so that f . Vv2 = 2v x (V x v) + 2(v . We have proved that for an incompressible perfect fluid. 111 From (76) we have that tive form of (411) is dvav dt at + (v V)v. Hence (413) becomes (IV - -vx(Vxv)=-V(x+P+2v2) \ (414) We consider two special cases: (a) Irrotational motion. If the external field is con- servative. (9) of Sec. The curve drawn in the fluid so that its tangents are parallel to the velocity vectors at corresponding points is called a streamline. so that (414) becomes l 1 vX(Vxv)=VlX++1v2 P For this case we immediately have that v. Equations of Motion for an Incompressible Fluid under the Action of a Conservative Field. v = V\p and V x v = 0.(1/p) Vp = -V[x + (p/p)] if p = constan t.V)v. f = -Vx.[V(x+p+1v2)]=0 p 2 Hence V[x + (p/p) + +v2] is normal everywhere to the velocity field v.

Show that . and hence that f V x f = 0. If a liquid rotates like a rigid body with constant angular velocity w = wk and if gravity is the only external force. 4. the expression X + (p/P) + -v2 rernains constant along a streamline. 1. the kinetic energy of R is 7. If the motion of the fluid is referred to a moving frame of reference which rotates with angular velocity w and has translational velocity u.gz + constant. show that the equation of motion is Dr du f--Vp=dt+dtdw Xr+wx (wxr)+2wxdt+ D2r dt2 1 P and that the equation of continuity is at (P Rdt-) r For a simply connected region R with boundary S. This is a necessary condition for equilibrium of a fluid.SEC. Problems If the motion of a perfect incompressible fluid is both steady and irrotational. A liquid is in equilibrium under the action of an external force f = (y + z)i + (z + x)j + (x + y)k. 6. dt = 0. 5. If X remains essentially constant. If the fluid is at rest. T=ifffpv2dr R Let the surface S move so that it always contains all the original mass of R. where r is the distance from the z axis. 2. and spherical coordinates. Find the surfaces of equal pressure. then an increase of velocity demands a decrease of pressure. show that x + (p/p) + V2 = constant. Show that V x (pf) = 0. The energy equation. Write (411) in rectangular. Why must pf be the gradient of a scalar if equilibrium is to be possible? 3. 111] HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY 235 forces and whose motion is steady. This is the general form of Bernoulli's theorem. cylindrical. prove that p/p = 1w2r2 . and conversely.

fdr. y2. z and if p = -f. place dr by r for convenience.f!Vpdr f f f v.+ y} + zk if we consider P as the origin and x. so that r = xi . and let vp represent the velocity of the fluid. 96). (416) By (dr V)vp we mean that after differentiation. V)vp from (75). 96. zy. The General Motion of a Fluid. We now reFio. f-D(t). . Let us consider the Let P be a point of the volume or region.(x + P + 2 v2) + C(t).2 + x + t 112. (12) of Sec. Equation (416) (417) y. 8. The veloc- ity at a nearby point Q is vQ = vp + dvp = Vp + (dr . 22. 112 dT dt = ffJ R -dv2 dt = If! = R v. z2.f f S f f f pdt(dr) R (415) Analyze each term of (415). Now r x (V x w) + from (9).236 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc. (10). the partial derivatives of v are calculated at P. etc. Now let w = (r V)vp = x av + y av + z avl al p ay p (418) azlp . For irrotational flow show that at = p(p). now becomes vQ = vp + (r V)vp. velocities of the particles occupying an element of volume of a fluid at P (Fig. z large in comparison with x2.

and =Vp+w. we can write and IV(r w) = axi + byj + czk We may now write (420) as VQ = VP + w x r + (axi + byj + czk) (421) where w = J(V x v)p.SEC:. The first two are rigid-body motions. by. we obtain Thus. v (418)]. which corresponds to a translation of the element. 107). cz. 1121 HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY 237 and hence -. (419) w = j V(r w) + J(V x w) x r Moreover. they could still take place if the fluid were a solid. Let us analyze (421). 2. so thatV xv =V xw = (Vxv)p [see VQ = VP+ -(V x v)P (420) It is easy to verify that r w is a quadratic form. that is. using (417). along the x. axi + byj + czk represents a velocity relative to P with components ax.P+yayay ax av ax ax ay av az avI P +z azazP IV P =w We did not differentiate the (' axP ayP I ' since they have been evaluated at P and so are constants for the moment. w x r represents the velocity due to a rotation about a line through P with angular velocity J(V x v) p. Axe+Bye+Cz2+2Dyz+2Ezx+2Fxy and so by a rotation (Sec. The velocity vp of P. The third term shows that particles at . which states that the velocity of Q is the sum of three parts: 1. z axes. 3. y. respectively.

Unfortunately. Hence the sphere is deformed into an ellipsoid. The vortex lines may change as time goes on. and stretched in the directions of the principal axes by amounts proportional to a. dy. assuming continuity of flow. It is therefore an intrinsic property of the fluid. rotated. since. Let us now find out how the circulation C= ff (V xv) dd (422) changes with time if we let the particles which comprise P move according to the motion of the fluid.238 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS (SEc. the spherical element is trans- lated. If we consider a sphere surrounding P. at some time t. Each point of the fluid will have the three principal directions associated with it. Now r r' where s is are length along the particular curve v. This third motion is called a pure strain and takes place only when a substance is deformable. 113 different distances from P move at different rates relative to P. At an instant later the curve t' has moved to a new position given by the curve r". As time goes on. c. Let us now calculate the circulation around any closed curve in the fluid. w will depend on the time. dx. in general. 113. Vortex Motion. This implies that dx = wz dx dy wy = dz where w. s r If V x v = 0. This is true while we keep the curve r fixed in space. The most general motion of a fluid is that described above and is independent of the coordinate system used to describe the motion. so that no single coordinate system will suffice for the complete fluid. If at each point of a curve the tangent vector is parallel to the vector w = J(V x v). dz are the components of the tangent vector and w=wi+wyJ+w L The integration of this system of differential equations yields the vortex lines. The velocity of the particles over this path is e= (423} . the closed curve will remain closed. b. these directions are not the same at all points. then C = 0. we say that the curve is a vortex line.

1141 HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY 239 slightly different from that over r.SFC. Kelvin's theorem. so that the curve r always lies on the vortex tube. 97. C = 0 for all time. then C= ff 8 s i nce dd i s normal to V x v. The parameter s is still a variable of integration and has nothing to do with the time. 1 1 There- fore 2I dt 2 _ --0d(V-J2) =0 (425) We have arrived at a theorem by Lord Kelvin that the circulation around a closed curve composed of a given set of particles remains constant if the field is conservative. 114. but not encircling the tube (see Fig.Vp = -VV. the unit tangents ds have changed. Applications Example 109. If we now consider a closed curve lying on a tube made up of vortex lines. where V = x + f dp/p.ds + v. Therefore dt dt ds ds + $6 v d dt Pdsl ds = T dt . 97). ds \dt/ ds (424) Euler's equation of motion (411) for a conservative field. ds Er. Let us consider the steady irrotational motion of an incompressible fluid when a sphere moves through the fluid . f = -VX is dv dt = -VX . provided that the density p is a function only of the pressure p. Fr om Fio. moreover. and.

so that we try 'P = (see Sec. We choose the center of the sphere as the origin of our coordinate system. Prob. Moreover. Or We look for a solution of Laplace's equation satisfying this boundary condition. so that the velocity relative to the sphere should be -vo.= A = s . Example 110.pop= and at 0 Hence Dr = so that V2p = 0. Now at points on the surface of the sphere we must have CYT)radWLY = 0. we have f . so that (a?Y-a = 0. Let the center of the sphere travel along the z axis with velocity vo. 6. For an incompressible . Hence aVs az z . Let us consider a fluid resting on a horizontal surface (x-y plane) and take z vertical.v o and P = -vo (r + 2r2 cos 0 (427) The velocity of the fluid relative to the sphere is given by v = Vsp and the velocity of the fluid is v = Vp + vok. 67). 110. at infinity we expect the velocity of the fluid to be zero. (Ar + ! r/J B a3 cos 8 (426) We need -CA- cosB=0 so that B = a2A/2. From Sec. 114 with constant velocity.240 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS ISEC. Let us assume a transverse wave traveling in the x direction.

>=) cos = 20 cosh (-.vt)] (430) The fluid has no vertical velocity at the bottom of the plane on which it rests.Vi) J = Ao(e(2r')= + ec2r/l. so that v. we have at -(x++2v2)+C(t) = and for a gravitational potential.Sec. 110. so that L(P az = 0 at z = 0.vt)] (431) From Prob. and a real solution to (428) is (Aoe(2r/X)z + Boe-(zrn*)z) cos L (x . 114] HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY z+az? 241 fluid °2`P-ax stituting into (428). This yields I2r (x . we obtain 2w 2 0 aLT(X-'i)t. (428) We assume a solution of the form p = A (z)e tZ_voi f Sub- e .(gz + p + 2 v2) + C(t) (432) We now assume that the waves are restricted to small amplitudes and velocities.z) cos [ xr (x . x = gz. at the . = A 0 = B0. 8. Sec.2 A (z) + d2A dz2 41x2 d2A dx2 I=0 (429) so that _ 41r2 \2 A The solution to (429) is A = Ape<zr° + Boe (2r/1`)'. so that we neglect Jv2. so that at . Moreover.

Differentiating (432). (v O)w . 1.Vt) g 2w- z cos I2r (x . 2. Show that for steady motion of an incompressible fluid under the action of conservative forces. wherew = D x v. Ao or Hence (435a) (.vt) ]identically zero in (435). and the Problems 1. we obtain a2( ate _ az . . Show that dt (Pl = \P of v for a conservative system. is essentially constant.z z In deep water z/X is large so that tank velocity of the wave is v = (Ag/2.r)*. we must have the coefficient of cos [(27r/A) (x . we obtain 2 -v2 a2 A0 cosh zcosLA (x .242 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. p.9 at dC + (433) dl and again at the surface at = vZ = az . so that dp = 0.vt) ] + dt (435) In order for C to be dependent only on t. 114 surface.(w V)v = 0. so that (433) becomes a2V a_p dC ate g az + dt (434) Substituting (431) into (434). the atmospheric pressure.v 227r2 cosh 27r z+ g sink 27r z=0 v2 = g tanh .

z)j + w(x. 1151 HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY 243 3. and let s be the displacement vector suffered by P. 4. y. y. the remaining points will be rotated about Po and will suffer a pure strain relative to Po. Verify that the velocity potential (p = A[r + (a2/r)] cos 0 represents a stream motion past a fixed circular cylinder. y. y. Strain Tensor. If C is the circulation around any closed circuit moving with the fluid. S = so+J(V xs)P. 5. t)j + w(x.SEc. that so po Is p r Fia. the particles (atoms. y. In the absence of external forces. This is . 115. Here we are interested in the kinematic relationship between the old positions p° r p of equilibrium and the new. Since we will be dealing with static conditions. z. Small Displacements. Show that v = 2axyi + a(x2 . from Sec. z)k From (420). Then S = so + ds = so + (r V)so (436) Let s = u(x. a solid body remains in equilibrium and the forces between the various particles of the solid are in equilibrium because of the configuration of the particles. If external forces are added. prove that dC = p d (1) if the field is con- servative and if the pressure depends only on the density. t)k. z. We expect. We are interested in the position of P after the deformation (now P') relative to the new position of Po (now Po ). z. and so the displacement suffered by Po (Fig. t)i + v(x.y2)j is a possible velocity of an incompressible fluid. z)i + v(x. y. Let r be the position vector of P relative to Po. s = u(x. 112. where (437) as as as w=xax PO +yay Pc +zoz PO since s = v At. We shall assume that the deformations are small and continuous. 98). molecules) tend to redistribute themselves so that equilibrium will occur again. 98 . in the neighborhood of a given point Po.

or r' = r+4(D xs)po x r + (438) Since J(V x s)P. 0 +2 and y Po + y2 ay PO ay Po + 2D aw zx azlPo + zy a P.so. az Po r+ 1 aul x Ci _y au + ax av + 2 Cay + y aw avl x (aw au ax! + 2 \ax + az J i av x (au +yCl+ay x (aw au av _z (aw 2y+ 8v az)+2Cay+az aw 1 az Jk (439) The partial derivatives are evaluated at the point Po. If we write r = x'i + x2j + xak and r' = y'i + y2j + yak (see . x r represents a rigid-body rotation about P0.244 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. we ignore this nondeformation term and so are interested in r + 'I'p(r w). 115 the vector r' = r `}. Let us now consider the matrix au i + ax 1 au av 2 ay + Ox lIsr'II = + + ax/ i aw aul i law 2 Cay y av az (440) 2 C 8x + azl 2 `ay + The nine components of this matrix form the strain tensor.s . Now auj aw a-l +2 D Cx tax +xyax +xz at av au awl I r + yz D xy 1 Po P.

2.r1 = \1 + ax) 1 + 2 (ay + au ax . and these directions are called the principal directions of the strain ellipsoid. Notice that Sii = s. the s/ are the components of a tensor. ( au 1 au av 1 aw a_ul ax 1 + 2 21 ax + az/ k we have (LU) By neglecting higher terms such as y uI _ Iril I 1+ Similarly j --> r2. so that the tensor is symmetric. the deformation is a pure translation. A 0 0 0 B 0 0 C 0 In the directions of the new x'. 8 that since r and r' are vectors. 115) HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY 245 Example 8).SEC. The ellipsoid which has the equation ( 1 + ax)xr+ 1 +a y2+ y aul ( avl aw (awl 1 (au au + az)z2+ aw avl ay +a xy zx = 1 (442) + (ay + az av yz + (ax + az is called the strain ellipsoid. Let us now compute the change in the unit vectors. y'. . 107 we know that we can reduce the ellipsoid to the form Ax" + By'2 + Cz'z = 1 by a proper rotation. The unit vector i has the components (1. z' axes. so that from (438) and (439) i . k . 0. then r' = r + I V(r w) may be written yi = sfix' + S2 'X2 + 83ix3. 0). then. or 3 i = 1. and lr2l = 1 + avl ay .rs. neglecting the rotation term. The strain tensor becomes entirely diagonal. of necessity. .3 y' = a-1 Sa'xa (441) We shall see in Chap. From Sec.

The volume of the parallelepiped formed by r1.246 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS awl . r3 is V r2xrs = 1+ ax + ay + V au av aw az so that _ V V _ au av aw ax+8y +az (443) The left-hand side of (443) is independent of the coordinate system. but now we consider all forces possible between two neighboring surfaces. Corresponding to any strain in the body must be an impressed force which produces this strain. u2=v. r2.V (r w) has the components ax au 2\ay+8x/ 2(ax+ az) 8v'\ av 1 1 au aw az av 2 (ay aw 1 + ax/ au ay 2 (ay av + az 1 (au 2 \ ax aui 2 (axl + + az axi/1I 2 \ay + az (444) where u1 =u. In Sec. u3=w. 108 we assumed no shearing stresses. I [SEC. Finally. Let us consider a cube with faces perpendicular to the coordinate axes.jjr2+ cos B = av v ay + ax' . so that V s is an invariant. The terms of the strain tensor are now fully understood. x1=x x2=y x3=z 116. we see that the deformation tensor due to the tensor . The Stress Tensor. 116 and fr31 = 1 + The angle between r1 and r2 is given by au +r. .

. As a consequence. then the components of the force f on this face are f. It is in immediate contact with other particles of the body. t. tzx. is the component of tx in the y direction. These are the components of the stress tensor. 99). component of tt in the z direction. and tzz is the .SF:C. the resultant force tx on the face ABCD can he decomposed into three forces: txx. We have similar results for the other two faces and so obtain the matrix tzz tyz tzz tzy tyy tzy tzz tyz (445) G. z y Fia. 108. where txx is the component of tx in the x direc- tion. dsy = j dd. dsz = k dd. we immediately see that if dd is the vectoral area of the slant face. 116] HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY 247 Let us consider the face ABCD (Fig. By considering a tetrahedron as in Sec. tyx. + tzy dsy + tzz dsz (446) where dsz = i dd. = tzx dsz + tzy d s + tzz dsz fy = tyx dsz + tyy dsy + tyz dsz fz = tzz ds. 99.

.. a=1 . tx fx. as. ds.. By letting V --p 0... + Applying the divergence theorem. z Let us now consider the resultant force acting on a volume V with boundary 8 (see Fig. = f.. 100).248 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. a cube with faces normal to the principal directions will suffer distortions only along the principal axes. + tx. 117 We immediately see that tyx = 3 Of. we have that the x component of the force per unit volume must be V . Relationship between the Strain and Stress Tensors. If we assume that the region is isotropic (only contractions and extensions exist). where f. . asv and that fi = I tia dsa. . Hence the principal directions of the . f2 = f. . = = fz _ JJtxzdSx + t. We shall see later that this explains why the ti. In the neighborhood of a point P in our region.. dss !s J t...JIf Jr V acZy acz= ax + 4-9t" ay + az dT (447) with similar expressions for F. are called the components of a dv tensor. where t = tz. k.dd t. 100....+ ax qty" y + tz 117. F. we obtain Fz Fio. (446) Wehavefrom fz = txx dsx + txv ds + tzx dst so that Y F. f3 = f. t12 = t. . let us choose the three principal directions of the stress tensor for the axes of our cartesian coordinate system.

a-1 i = 1. Probs. e3 apply only in the immediate neighbor- hood of a point P. 2. The reader should read Chap. 8 to understand what follows. e2. Example 8. Let us therefore transform the components of the stress and strain tensors so that they may be referred to a single coordinate system. at least for the present. If x1. x2. Experiments also show that extensions in fibers produce transverse contractions. 21 and 22 of Sec. and Prob. The constant for this phenomenon is called Poisson's ratio a. x3 are the coordinates above. 1171 HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY 249 strain ellipsoid will coincide with those of the stress ellipsoid.SEC. and if we change to a new coordinate system 11'. the principal directions will vary from point to point.. We thus obtain for the relative elongations of the cube in the three principal directions the following: -SET a el =E. Since points far removed from P will have different stress ellipsoids. 21 of Sec. 0 0 0 0 t2 0 0 (448) 0 Our fundamental postulate relating the shear components with those of the stress will be Hooke's law. T2. Hence no single coordinate system will exist that would enable the stress and strain components to be related by the simple law of (449). e2 1 t2 - (t3 + tl) = 1 r E (t1 + t2 + t3) (t1 + t2 + t3) (449) e3 = a 3 . which states that every tension produces an extension in the direction of the tension and is proportional to it. 3 (450) . 11. We let E (Young's modulus) be the factor of proportionality. If he desires not to break the continuity of the present paragraph. this coordinate system el ie17JJ = In 0 0 0 0 0 It.ti --(t2+t3) _ 1 E E 1 E(t1+t2+t3) t2 - or 0.(11 + t2) 1-r-at3 "- E The formulas for el. 23 where 3 x' = I a'xx. 15 will aid the reader in what follows. he may take formula (456) with a grain of salt.

250 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS (SEC.. we shall see that the components of the strain tensor in the x'-x2-x3 coordinate system are related to the components in the x'-a 2-x3 system by the following rule: 3 3 e. A similar expression is obtained for the stress tensor.. Moreover.aaia = S=i = 1if ij =0ifij (451) Equation (451) is the requirement that (450) be a rotation of axes. ei.aa1 ea# '6=1 a=1 (452) If we now let i = j and sum on i. furthermore. If. 0. 0) remains invariant. we obtain `3 3 3 3 :=1 L. 8 we shall easily show that this requires 3 a=1 a. =i=1 I Z a=1 I 0=1 aiaMeag 3 3 3 Saisea# = I eaa 0-1 a-1 a-1 so that e11 + 922+933 = e11 + e22 + e33 = el + e2 + e3 (453) This is an invariant obtained from the strain tensor [see (443)]. namely.Ti). Notice that the origin (0. we desire distance to be preserved. = 3 (xi) In Chap. since we are dealing with tensors. that 111+122+133 = t11 +t22+133 = t1+t2+t3 Equations (449) may now be written as el -1+0 t1+ E e2=1 e3=1Eor (454) ts+ . 117 then the transformation (450) is said to be linear.i = I I a. we must have 3 (.

117] HYDRODYN.5ij (455) 3 since 1j = I I aiaajalas = I aiaaala. 923 = 1 +Q_ 981 = 131 .E (tll + 122 + 133) 1 E +Q_ E 122 - oT 922 = - (111 + t22 + 138) O e33 = 1 1 912 = + 133 . is the invariant E (tl + t2 + t3) 3 (III + 122 + 133) From Eq.E. (111 + E22 + 133) +v_ E E E 112 l23 (456) 1+0.1IICS AND ELASTICITY 251 where 4. aiaaja (1 3 E to +) 3 1+ a and I aiaajala + Y' 1 aiaaja a-1 a=1 eij = E 3 3 1 + o of + 4. We have Q111 ell = 1 .4. 6=1 a -l a=1 Equation (455) is the relationship between the components of the strain and stress tensors when referred to a single coordinate system. (452) we have 3 eij = E aiaa. we obtain 3 3 1 aiaaJaeaa = I aiaajaea a=1 a=1 3 a -l F.SEC.8eas B=1 a-1 and since eap = 0 unless a = 6 [see (448)].

p the density of the medium. axl-2vax+ay+az v E 2au (ell + e22 + e33) o (au av aw J au av awt22 = t12=t21= t23 = t32 = av 2(1+o) ay+ax t31 . then Newton's second .v + (a2u 1 .252 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SFC.t13 = = 2(1+Q)ax +az [d?u ax2 Equation (447) now becomes F= E -}. we obtain t11 = 1+ [ell + 01 1 = tss 1+aLay1-2v (ax+ay+az)] E taw v 1+aaz+1-2QV*s E E aw E av 2(1 + v) \az + ay E (aw au (457) (au E rav =i+o. (456) for the t.az The forces per unit volume in the y and z directions are a (0 s) so that f= + 2(1 r) [V2S V(V s)] + 1 1 2cr (458) If we let R = RJ + R j + R2k be the external body force per unit volume. 11 Solving Eels.20 \49x2 . and removing the bars.. a2v a2w + ax ay + a2u a2v ax az a2w a2u 1 E + _ E -2(1+a)IV 2(1 + u) aye 1 ay ax av + az ax + az2 aw zu+1 -2aaxax+ay+ az J a (au 2(1+o) Fy [vu+ 1 1 2(1+a)[Dzv+1 12vay(V .s)I E {V2W+ 1 I-2o.

s2) 1 = p ate a2s2 However.Vt)i + v(x .) [V2s2 + 1 -2a °(° .V 'S2 = 0 so that E(1 T a) (1 +a)(1 . Let s= s1 + s2j where V s. This yields E V2s1_ p a2S. 2(1 + a) ate and 2(1 (461) E +a. Since (460) is linear in s. Equation (462) is also a wave equation. but the wave is not transverse. Let us assume that the wave is traveling along the x axis. Then s2=s2(X-Vt) = u(x .Vt)j + w(x .2a) V2S2 a2s2 = pat2- (462) In Sec. 117] HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY 253 law of motion yields R+ 2(1 +o. 70 we saw that a vector could be written as the sum of a solenoidal and an irrotational vector. and s2. 80.Vt)k V X S2 = =0 axJ+-k=0 clx .2a °(° 2 s) =p at2 (460) In Sec. = 0 and V x s2 = 0. (459) reduces to E 2(1 + a) [v2s = P + 1 . we saw that (461) leads to a transverse wave moving with speed Vt = E/2(1 + a)p.SEc. we can consider it as satisfied by s.S)] For the case R = 0. V X (V X 62) = V(V S2) .)[V2S+-Lv(V.

Why do we use ats instead of in in (459)? 8.placement of s-2 is parallel to the direction of propagation of the wave. longitudinal. If the strain of Prob. If µ = E/2(1 + v) (modulus of rigidity) and A= show that Eq. that is. (459) becomes Ea (1 + a) (1 . if s = s(r)r. f--. We are not interested in constant displacements. show that V2S + 1 -1 V(V s) = 0.Vt. A coaxial cable is made by filling the space between a solid core of radius a and a concentric cylindrical shell of internal radius b with rubber.254 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.2Q) R+AVss+ x Pats x 49 's 7. 3. 2. prove that the components P.Vt)i. 117 so that w and v are independent of x and therefore are independent of x . j'3 of this vector in a new cartesian coordinate system are related to the old 3 components by the rule J' = n=i i = 1. 5. 6.. this result being useful in the study of earthquakes. Problems 1. The speed of the wave is The wave is therefore V. Derive (451). If the core is displaced a small distance . 3 is radial. Assuming a = 0 for a long thin bar. If the body forces are negligible and if the medium is in a state of equilibrium. 4.= L'(1 . find the differential equation satisfied by s(r). If P. so that s2 = u(x . 2. find the velocity of propagation of the longitudinal waves. both types of waves are produced. using the coordinate transformation (450). and the di. 3. P. f3 are the components of a vector for a cartesian coordinate system.) P(1 + v)(1 2v) In general.o.

gravity. 118. v. If the fluid is moving in the x-y plane with speed v. w are the components of the velocity vector v (see Sec. the slower layers tend to retard the motion of the faster layers. 118] HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY 255 axially. we assumed no friction between adjacent layers of fluid. 112). It is found by experiment that the force of viscosity is directly proportional to the common area A of the two layers and to the gradient of the velocity normal to the flow. then the viscous force is since av is the gradient of the speed normal to the direction of flow. we must add the stress components due to the pressure field. so that ay P12 _ E av _ av 2(1 + v) ax = '' ax must be replaced by q. and e. the strain tensor for the fluid analogous to t.. which we assume to be -p I 0 0 0 0 0 -p 0 -p . Assume that end effects. be the stress tensor and u. conversely. For a fluid moving in the y direction with a gradient in the x direction. We are now in a position to derive the equations of motion of a viscous fluid. 17 is called the coefficient of viscosity. As a result of friction (viscosity). We shall let Pt. and the distortion of the metal can be neglected. find the displacement in the rubber. In the case of nonviscous fluids. Navier-Stokes Equation. and. We have _ P12 E au 2(1 + v) ay Ov + ax where u.Ssc. of the previous paragraphs.. Hence the term E 2(1 or) In addition to the stress components due to viscosity. we have u = 0 and au = 0. rapidly moving layers tend to drag along the slower layers of fluid.

au. = P.3 axi a`i . is the external force per unit mass.i axi .i axi P dt du: (465) where F.I V(0-11 + 022 + 033) .axi - . = 2+10.. I apt' -i Hence du. 118 The equations of (457) become P.i 17 = 2. P11 + P22 + P33 = (2rj + 3X)(ail + 022 + 033) . pF. au) 2 a(V v) +1 axi 3 = axi axi + ax' - ap a. Moreover.pa+i (463) where X is undetermined as yet.3p We know that P11 + P22 + P33 is an invariant and that for the static case P11 + P22 + P33 = -3p.axi a+i axi _ 'q a au. From (464) a0. we note that from (447) ap11 fl ax.256 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. . the velocity vector is given by v = u11 + 1627 + u3k and 0..1 . + 3X = 0. Consequently we choose 2. We see that Now let i = j and sum on j.i + X(911 + 022 + r33)aii .pa+i (464) for small velocities. + f1 = p dt becomes 3 pF.i = 1 auiax: 2 C axi + ' so that div v = V v = 011 + 022 + 033- To obtain the equations of motion.i = 2rio. + j =1 ap. 3 + 49p12 axe + axi 49p13 x1 = x where x2 = y x3=z = jG =1 3 c3 apli ax and in general f. so that (463) becomes p.i 2 a(diy v) ap ap.

. Choose the center of the sphere as the origin of our coordinate system. Show that the equation of motion is p aE = q V2v .Vp (467) For an incompressible fluid V v = 0.V(V v) . and that = r dr (r dr) Hence show that v = (A/4i7)(r2 . Consider the steady flow of an incompressible fluid through a small cylindrical tube of radius a in a nonexternal field.-37 a(V v) .ap -. and v = v(r). au.2 axi ax' axi (466) pat = pf +.SEC.q V2v . Consider a sphere moving with constant velocity vok (along the z axis) in an infinite mass of incompressible fluid. where A is a constant and LP = A. 1181 HYDRODYNAMICS AND ELASTICITY 257 and 3 api. The equations of motion (465) are p dt = pFi + v or dui J I 3 1 a aui ax' Cax' + au. Let v = vk and show that p = p(z) and +1 V2v = ap Show that the boundary conditions are v = 0 when r = a. 3 a au. r2 = x2 + y2. Derive (467) from (466).Vp and that the boundary conditions are v = 0 for r = a. 2 a (V v) ap 1-1 ax? + axi/ 3' ax. and pd Along with (467) we have the equation of continuity at =0 Problems 1.a2). 2. . v = -vok at r = oo . 3.

the other moving at a constant velocity. P= and show that V2w1 = 0. viscous fluid surrounding a sphere rotating about a diameter with constant angular velocity.1 V2p and V2w1 = 0. associated with the motion. 3. Find the steady motion of an incompressible. 5.(voa3z/4r3) + (3voaz/4r). 118 and that for steady motion a = 0 for any quantity 4.258 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.gvoaz 2r3 v= -V(p+wik=0forr=a v = -vok for r = co V2p = 0. Solve for the steady motion of an incompressible viscous fluid between two parallel plates. rp = coz . show that (i) and (ii) will be satisfied. No external forces exist. Let w. . one of the plates fixed. the distance between the plates remaining constant. We shall assume that v and the partial derivatives of v are small. = 3voa/2r. Now let v = -V(p + wlk and show awi 49Z that =v4o z Assuming p = -. p = -n V2rp 4. Show that this implies (i) Vp = I V2v Hence prove that V2p = 0. Moreover V v = 0.

x'. The index of summation is a dummy index since the final result is independent of the letter used.xi = a. If we are dealing with n dimensions. . xn).CHAPTER 8 TENSOR ANALYSIS AND RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY 119. . Our sum S now becomes n S= aixi (470) We can get rid of the summation sign and write S = aixi (471) where the repeated index i is to be summed from I to n. X11. Whenever a letter appears once as a subscript and once as a superscript. .xa = as0. .. Example 111. . We can write S = a. of the type We shall be interested in sums . x2. The superscripts do not stand for powers but are labels that allow us to distinguish between the various x's. we have from the . . calculus 259 . we shall sum from 1 to n.x' = a. x2. S = alx. If f = f(x'. x2. + a2x2 + . Summation Notation. x by superscripts. . This notation is due to Einstein. . we shall mean that a summation is to occur on this letter. . + anxn (468) We can shorten the writing of (468) and write n S = Z aixi i=i (469) Now it will be much more convenient to replace the subscripts of the quantities x:.

ipj 1. a subscript and superscript..=0.nd df dt . + .0. from I to 3. Hence S = g11x'x1 + 912x'x2 + 913x'x3 + 921x2x' + g22x2x2 + 923X2x3 + 931x3x' + g32x3x2 + 933x8x3 and S = gaoxaxa represents the double sum 3 3 0-1 a-1 We also notice that the gap can be thought of as elements of a square matrix gii 912 913 921 922 923 S = Z I g-Oxaxs 931 932 933 120. This yields The index a occurs both as Hence we first sum on a. 120 df = ax dxl + ax dx2 + . say.dx" CIx" _ = of axa dxa of dx' ax' .axa dt afdJxa Example 112. The Kronecker Deltas. We define the Kronecker o to be equal to zero if i . Let S = gasxax#.60 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.i=j We notice that Si = 52 _ b_ = 03 = 1 1 (472) = SA = 1.j and to equal one if i = j: a. = r +1 = u . say from S = 9iax'x8 + 92ax'x' + g38xaxe Now each term of S has the repeated index # summed. 1 to 3.

x" are n independent variables.se = 0 Now differentiate with respect to xi so that 028 axe and ax' . If all the superscripts and subscripts are separately distinct. . If at least two superscripts or at least two subscripts have the same value. ables x'. then i ax' axl = S. 120) TENSOR ANALYSIS 261 If xI. there is no change in the vari- able x' if we change x1 since they are independent variables. so that ax1 ax! = 0. or --1... x^. the delta has the value of + 1. or if the subscripts are not the same set of numbers as the superscripts. Let S = aaxa. + a. for if axe = 1. so that on summing on a we a(axa) obtain = a". accord- . ax" Example 114. x2..v + aiob = 0 a. . as= - = as ax . ..a. We show that a.SEC. and ax" as ga " ax Now Sµ = 0 except when a = µ. axi xa = 0 ax' ax' = aaflxaaf + aa$67x8 = 0 T = aaixa + a. .. Then cis Example 113. First differentiate S with respect to x' and obtain axa axp as = aa$xa + a.. then we define the generalized Kronecker delta to be zero. = 0. . 0 We define the generalized Kronecker delta as follows: The superscripts and subscripts can have any value from 1 to n. and if i j. and the subscripts are the same set of numbers Qs the superscripts. x2.+a. Let S = apxax# = 0 for all values of the vari.

.i..k + aki. Show that 612.-11 a123 = 0221 = 6312 323 0.. Show that the determinant I at at can be written a2 2 a1 1 z at a2' a2 = Etiiaia? = etiia1 2 and that at a1 2 8 a2 1 a3 at a3 $ a$ a2 z z = Eiika.. n. show that ai. xe). + a. ie = ax axi 9.a. Show that aij axa y i show that ayi yi e as = a?. 2. 3i..a.x#. Prove that bas = are .. . Write in full aaxa=bi. .. 6163 = 0.i= 1... If yi = yi(xl.i.. . Also a.aisr . Show that a2yi axa ax¢ 8yk ayi 492xa axa 8x8 ayi + Oxa ayi ayk -0 ..262 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.. If aae7xax8xY = 0.. = axe 8.ak = eiikai4a8 e'li2 ' ' i*. . 5. .n i. Prove that ei1i.arts a1 2 6.. i. 61231 = 1.. show that ayi ax" ai assuming the existence of the derivatives. 6. 120 ing to whether it requires an even or odd number of permutations to arrange the superscripts in the same order as the subscripts. show that zi = bas. 3. 2.. i.. 23 a1438 .i:. 3.. zi = by.a8r baBratYaapi = arst + airs + astr .. 6213 . 61213 =0 It is convenient to define eilh . a1 a2 8 7.sari . i = 1. 6x23 = 1. i. = 4. x2) .. If yi = aaxa. = (473) Problems 1... = and Eiji... 2.. ..1. For example.ti:'412 . + aJik + akii + aiki = 0.

x 2 . and if . = aoi . ..i. y2' . . Hence interchanging two columns (or rows) changes the sign of the determinant. If . We define the determinant lal by the a2 at a2 2 an at 2 an i. ayl 121.'a2 . As an . . n. n). .. The sign . The definition of a determinant as given by (474) shows that it consists of a sum of terms. .. ann = ei. x2(y).2.SEC. . C) p . different from zero. in general. . inal=a2 . . . Each term consists of a product of elements. . we can interchange them so that fail = Ei. . ann An interchange of the subscripts 1 and 2.i. . Determinants. a"n (474) The reader should note that this definition agrees with the definition for the special case of second. y2. nn in number. yn) = p[xl(y). n! are.. <P = 0(y1. . Since i1 and i2 are dummy indices. .. show that n. . Of these. 1211 TENSOR ANALYSIS = cp(x'.and third-order determinants which he has encountered in elementary algebra. show that ayayi equation a1 at a1 2 (ax# _ acs axe. will mean that an extra permutation will be needed on i2iii3 in. i"ai.. 263 10. .a1a2 a1 n an a2 n n an l all = Erik . however.. .. ina. .a?2 . axil axa) ay. xn(y)] y= arpi a Given 9. This changes the sign of the determinant. one element from each row and column. xi = xi(y'. yn) = xi(y) i = 1. of the term a a'a a depends on whether it takes an even or odd permutation to regroup i1i2 in into 12 . .

= Ei.bi') s.. n.264 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc.a2 . Es....... j2. . a.. If the ji.) { I ciI . an .44 . (475) If jl. 2 (ai. b2 . 2... . a. .. x ) where abi (476) We now derive an expansion of a determinant in terms of the cofactors of the elements.....ai. AQ is called the cofactor of a. we have Ia. . but not respectively. .(a1j1.. . i... Let us now examine the sum bill:. respectively. then we have interchanged the rows..bi.. . . We have Example 116. .. Hence . a'*) = aIAQ where Ao = In general. .. a... . . . (475) is zero.i. .. (477) Hence .i.bi'b2 .. . An even permutation reduces (475) to Ia. we know that (475) reduces to (474). . and an odd permutation of the i's reduces (475) to -Ia 1.. We have bri i.<1 and t.. b% = Ei.. . since if two rows of a determinant are alike it has zero value. 2. . j.. jn take on the values 1.i. an) (f4 not summed) aiAa = IaIB.i.b .i. 1 s..a is = . (Ei. i. i. . i= i (475b) Example 115. 121 immediate corollary. .i. take on the values 1.I. a'0-b5-Pa'-#-K +. . . I41 = Ei. We now derive the law of multiplication for two determinants of the same order.I = 0 if two rows (or columns) are identical.aia8 a. . = apAP. . j2. Ei.a`. (475a) ai Ehj.. j.. i. I ail Ibil IasIEC. . n. . . . If two of the j's have the same value. . ..

121] TENSOR ANALYSIS 265 Also aaA7 = IaI Example 117. Let us consider the n linear equations yi = aQxa. . .ayi axi ayl from (476). In the calculus it is shown that if ayi) 96 0 at a point P and if the partial derivatives are continuous. . that is.SEC. x"). x2. i = 1.. i . . y2. xi = xi(y'. . y") in a neighborhood of P. 2. ayi axa I O. Let yi = y'(x'. (477a) a..I ay ax . n.. we can solve for the x' in terms of the y's. . we obtain A°y' =a' Asxa so that summing on i.lax. Now we have identically ayi 8i ayi ay' axa axa ayi Forming the determinant of both sides. Hence The determinant I I is called the Jacobian of the y's with respect to the x's. we have from (477) A"y' = Ialaxa = Ialxx If IaI 0 0. n (478) Multiplying by Af. . . . 2. i = 1. We have shown that . then A°y' _ y'(cofactor of a' in IaI) IaI IaI - (479) Example 118.

. 49x1 a yi axa Let us consider j to be fixed for the moment.266 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc. . or a 8x8 S. yt a . y2. .y2. we have . where y' = y'(x'. x". .X2. . . . . . If Let Yi = 491. xn 1. x2. x22. we leave it to the student to prove that alai axp _ Aa aao 0 axµ (481) As a special case. ax y Now a` = t l al 0 ax11 then Ya(cotactor of a#" in lal) lal from (479). . cofactor of aye in cix1 1 ay ax (cofactor of Lyi in ax ay 8x and so 1 (cofactor of a? in ay ax ay 8x8 TX 8y1 Applying this to (481). Xi = ax -.ay. y xn) - (480) Example 119. '. xn). . x2. so that Yi = aQXa. ax. . If the elements of the (leterminant lal are functions of the variables x'.yry/Jfy'. 121 1 J \xl. . suppose a = ay i .

-. 121 a 7'EXSOR ANALYSIS a. Example 120. we obtain a2xµ o = ayk ayay' + As a special case. x2.a so that upon differentiating with respect to .D. We ax wish to prove that a2xµ ayk aye - axa ax'6 axA a2yi ayi ayk ay` axa axa Now S' = ax.y 267 8x axµ ay axa a2ya ax. .E. What is the cofactor of each term of a1 2 a2 a3 2 2 as l a3 3 2. ay 3-1 0.axa ayi a2xa axa a2yi axa ayk aye + ay. d 2x dy 2 = . . Let yi = y'(xl. (477). xn). ays ax). if y = f (x). Prove (481).Sic. axa or (482) a log la laxI axa a2ya axa ft" aya axµ We shall make use of this result later. yi yk. If JAI is the derminant of the cofactors of the determinant IaI. show that I:4I = IaJ"-'. 3. axa axa ayk 1+ (483) Multiplying both sides of (483) by ayi and summing on i.(dx3d2y dy dx2 al i Problems a2 z a3 a3 2 i 1. we obtain ayi axa 0 . axa axa axµ ayk ayi &2yi axa axa Q.

6. b.-s ayi ax . z. 0.. 0). Find an expression for ayi ayi ayk x2. y2. Vi = V. . y) are defined to be equal . y. . . = aaa axa axa aji !ii = baa axa axa ax a axi a 0. 0). = A. n-space. show that u{ = ua ax" axa a ax. two triplets (a. yn). 122 4. y. In the vector analysis studied in the previous chapters. = B )$B. 122.Xbifl = 0. If u{ = ua axa axa axa 82i 12. show that A{ = B. z). .. 1. If a = a. (a. .Ail = 0 provided that B. j. xi = x{(x1 x2 xn). or Vector. Arithmetic. -. Apply (476) for the product of two third-order determinants. A. y.268 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS aaxa [SEC.. 7. = B. If 9i. If u' = ua axa.00 10.. If z' = z'(y1. #. and we need never have introduced a geometrical picture of a vector. We chose three mutually perpendicular vectors i. 13. and all other vectors could be written as a linear combination of these three vectors. The unit vectors could have been represented by (1. = 9a$ a2i axi axi a { . a2{ _ 2 I _I 8.A. = gaa . clt. Any vector could have been represented by the number triple (x. 1). show that u{ = ua 11. and that IAI = IBI. y' = yt(x1. that J(z/y)J(y/x) = J(z/x). For example. If A. . If u{ = ua . and (0. x"). If gi. axa ax{ ax i 9. c). = gap _ . (0.!. A system of mathematics could have been derived solely by defining relationships and operations for these triplets. 0. z) -= xi + yj + zk.show that uaVU = uaVa. Is laI = jail in all cases? 5. k. show that X is also a root of Id. we set up a coordinate system with three independent variables x. 14. show that A. show a ia2i show that I#I = IgI -. show that gi. ui = ua axi azi . where we imply that (x. If X is a root of the equation Iai. where -.

0. The n-space of which P is an element is also in one-to-one correspondence with the set of (y'. -y) = as + bfi + cy. . so that we have a new coordinate system. Ac). but we have a new method for attaching numbers to the points. y2. x").0. can easily be defined. . the x' taken as real. . y"). b = P. It is at once obvious that the point P can be put into correspondence with the n-tuple (y'. b.c+y). as the arithmetic n-space. We shall designate V.. then A(a.. . .. . 2. c)+(a.n (485) and assume that we can solve for the x'.c+y) (484) is called a three-dimensional vector space. so that x' = x'(y'.. . x2. .#. By a space of n dimensions we mean any set of objects which can be put in one-to-one reciprocal correspondence with the arithmetic n-space.b+i. . tion of coordinates. f4. b. i = 1. the choice depends on the nature of the physical problem. c) (a. . . b. We define the scalar product as (a. . . If A is a real number. x"). . y2. ) 0). .. . .0). . i = 1. The vector product. or the arithmetic space of three dimensions.b. y"). Ab. We call (485) a transforma- . It is easy to generalize all this to obtain the arithmetic n-space. Let the point P correspond to the n-tuple (x'. . x^).1. . 2.b+$. We now consider the n equations y' = y'(x'.. . . . . . c) is defined as (Aa. differentiation. x2. Elements of this space are of the form (x'.y)=(a+a.SEC. We call the correspondence a coordinate system. . 1221 TENSOR ANALYSIS 269 if and only if a = a.. y"). c = y.0. (1. The set of all triples obeying the rules (i) (ii) A(a. the unit or basic vectors are (0. . . y2. . and. Addition of triples is defined by (a. .. Ab. in general. . n (486) We assume (485) and (486) are single-valued. . .y) _ (a+a. . b. The one-to-one correspondence between the elements or points of the n-space and the arithmetic n-space can be chosen in many ways. etc. Ac) (a. (0. . In particular.c)+(a. The point P has not changed.0.. c) = (Aa.. . x2. 0.

2. . are the components of a tangent dt dt' dt vector to this curve. . . . .. Generalizing. We immediately have that y' = y'(x1. If we considered all allowable coordinate transformations. . . . .ri dt 'j = 1. we would obtain the whole class of tangent elements. x2(t). . x"(t)1 = y'(t) as the equation of our space curve for observers using the y The components of a tangent vector to the same space curve (remember the points of the curve have not changed.n (489) Certainly the x coordinate system is no more important than the y coordinate system. . x") = y`tx'(t). of the type (485). x2. dx d dz . 123 123. Contravariant Vectors. z = x3. We now ask what relationship exists between the components of the tangent vector in the x coordinate system and the components of the tangent vector in the y coordi- . only the labels attached to these points have changed) are given by coordinate system. each element claiming s to be the tangent vector for that particular coordinate system. y = y(t).270 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. y = x2. n (487) Note the immediate generalization from the space curve x = x(t).n (488) Now let us consider an allowable (one-to-one and single-valued) coordinate transformation. 2. . It is the abstract collection of all these elements that is said to be the tangent vector. 2. at<_/i We We remember that = 1. We consider the arithmetic n-space and define a space curve in this V by x` = x`(t). We cannot say that dt is the tangent vector any more than we can say dt is the tangent vector. dyi dt i = 1. . . . z = z(t): In our new notation x = x'. . we define a tangent vector to the space curve (487) as having the components d. .

OX* . i = 1. Let X. then the components are known in all other allowable coordinate systems by (491). x2. . for dys 0y1 dxa dt axa dt (490) We also notice that d = ay. x') axa axa (491) under the coordinate transformation x= = 21(x'. 123] TENSOI? ANALYSIS 271 nate system. Example 121. . The vector is not just the set of components in one coordinate system but is rather the abstract quantity which is represented in each coordinate system x by the set of components Ai(x). . . xn) = Aa(xl. ing to the law . Y. We thus say that a contra variant vector is an invariant under a coordinate transformation. x2.. . xn). We immediately see that the law of transformation for a contravariant vector is transitive.. . A coordinate transformation does not give a new vector. xn). 2. . x2. . .Ai=Aai a2a ax _Aaax axa Then 8 A' _ A8 ax a = Aa ax a28 axa ate which proves our statement. are said to be the components of a contravariant vector. If the components of a contravariant vector are known in one coordinate system.dy s dl dx1 We leave it as an exercise that this result follows from (490) as well as from (486). for an orthogonal coordinate . . _ AL(P. n. . . . We now make the following generalization: Any set of numbers . 22. . Z be the components of a contravariant vector in a Euclidean space. We can easily answer this question. which transform accordAi(xe. it merely changes the components of the same vector. An object of any sort which is not changed by transformations of coordinates is called an invariant. Let A'=Aaa2i.SF(.

and let ds2 = dx2 + dy2 + dz2. The components R. Problems 1. whereas R. Z are the components of a contravariant vector in an orthogonal coordinate system.sin 0 X + cos 9 Y. 0 = tan-' (y/x). find the components'in a spherical coordinate system. R. 0. we obtain Or = . 9. What can be said of two contravariant vectors whose components are equal in one coordinate system? 3. where C" = ax' ar 2. If A' = Aa a ' show that A' = Aa ' a. Show that if the components of a contravariant vector vanish in one coordinate system. The components of this vector in a polar coordinate system -. 123 system. show that C'"(x) = A'(x)B'(x) transforms according to the law C*' = Cap axa ate. Z are the physical components of the same vector. Show that the sum and difference of two contravariant vectors of order n is another contravariant vector. 4.re ar R=X. By what must the 0 and Sp components be multiplied so that we can obtain the projections of the vector on the 0. Z are not the projections of the vector A = Xi + Yj + Zk on the r.+Yaar y ar +Zaz= cos 0X+ sin 0Y 0 Z=Xa +Yaz+Zaz=Z y ae ae X ax + Y ay CIO _ + Z az^ -sine X + cos e Y r r where r = (x2 + y2)4. z = z. which is the projection of A in the 9-direction. if the 0-component is given the dimensions of a length by multiplying by r. they vanish in all coordinate systems. Z are the vector components of the vector A in the r-e-z coordinate system.and (p-directions? 5. z directions. re.272 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. However. 0. If X. We multiplied by r because r d8 is arc length along the 0-curve. B'(x) are components of two contravariant vectors. If A'(x). Y. .

x"). We shall answer this question in a later paragraph. if J i=Aaa' L' (494) the A. called the gradient of gyp. Let A'(x) and &(x) be the components of a contravariant and a covariant vector. The remarks of Sec. 125. Scalar Product of Two Vectors.SEC. show that Ati = az 124. We form the scalar AaBa. We consider the scalar point function So = co(x'. show that Cs. are said to be the components of a covariant vector. 125] TENSOR ANALYSIS Caa N l-AI 273 6. Covariant Vectors. N i ax` ax' axa al$ i 7. . y"J are related to the elements of (492) by (493). x2. What is the form of AaBa if we make a coordinate transformation? Now Aa=A8axe' ax a Baaxa c12' . and form the n-tuple (492) Now under a coordinate transformation av ay' a(p axa axa ay' (493) so that the elements of the n-tuple l 1 y2 . . What is the difference between a contravariant and a covariant vector? It is the law of transformation! The reader is asked to compare (494) with (491). Referring to Prob. More generally. If Ai = ax1 Aa axa. 123 apply here. We say that the axi are the components of a covariant vector. We might ask why it was that no such distinction was made in the elementary vector analysis. . . 1.

q. If Ai = A. If A'Bi is a scalar invariant for all contravariant vectors A'.. . axa axQ axp axa AaBa = A"B. run through ing to the rule ax N 1 b. transforms according to the law . b2. .. aXa axa* axle.. Show that C = AB. axig a-. or inner product. . .B. (495) .. 2.. show that grad (vO) = c grad P + 0 grad cp grad [F(op)] = F'(. Problems 1. 126 so that AaBa = AFB. . alb. 126. axi show that A.C8 V axa .p) grad rp 5. The product (AaBa) is called the scalar. are scalar invariants.. . Tensors. b. the integers 1. .. where the indices a. show that Ci.. show that Bi is a covariant vector. transforms according to the law Oil = Cap axp C"i axa axe axa ax? 2. The contravariant and covariant vectors defined above are special cases of differential invariants called tensors. a. ax TaW*A:..b.. = Aa axi 4. . If Ai and Bi are components of two covariant vectors. The components of the tensor are of the form Ta4b . b1. . or dot. .274 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc. product. a 3. n. If p and J. .. . . and the components transform accordalas . of the two vectors. = A. a2. . b. anal . a2s = Asfl = AaBa Hence AaBa is a scalar invariant under a coordinate transformation.

..SEC.. . for if Tc . the tensor is purely contravariant. 8xrOxa axd axa . a.. A tensor density occurs for N = 1...d c. Let Tba = a axQ a2" alt T s axlaxa Ox 3 19i = a2 Sc or. ..d c. 02i so that = ax s (T bs') .. ax° axr axa ""T a Fa. atd axa then Ua.ax a To ... Consider the absolute tensor Atk - a ax0 axy axi AOY a2' axk axa . otherwise it is called a mixed tensor. 123 and 124 are absolute tensors of order 1.d _ Ua. 126] TENSOR ANALYSIS 1092X1 275 We call the exponent N of the Jacobian tensor field. The proof is obvious. we say that the tensor field is absolute..ax ax8 a2a all (TWO) a26 ax* ax" The new tensor is of weight N + N' = 3 + 2 = 5. otherwise the tensor field is relative of weight N..b _ axN d . alb ax" a ax0 b= A7c. We show this for a special case. . d laXlN S-.. the weight of the If N = 0. purely covariant... If s = 0.. c. The tensor of (495) is said to be contravariant of order r and covariant of order s. The vectors of Sees. (c) Contraction.. .... We can construct further tensors as follows: (a) The sum of two tensors of the same kind is a tensor of this kind...b) . Two tensors are said to be of the same kind if the tensors have the same number of covariant indices and the same number of contravariant indices and are of the same weight. .z ax N a2 ax' axb (b) The product of two tensors is a tensor.. and if r = 0. r age .b c.

are the components of a mixed tensor. (d) Quotient law. S.276 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. In general.i . then C = AiB. and obtain a new tensor. axa axs axi axa = 80 a = as a If Ai and Bi are the components of a contra- variant and a covariant vector. we must have f k = Bay result. sum on the repeated indices.k is a tensor for all contravariant vectors Ai. for a2 ax the desired The Kronecker delta. is a mixed absolute axi axa = ' aga axi' Example 123. 126 Replace k by i and sum. We call this process a contraction. axa axa B' _ B a ali - . We prove that B.k .Aay = Aay a = Apa 43X'9 axy axi axi axi axa M ax. for s Ai = Aa ax . for AiE1 = AQBay - CIO axy 492i axi ax. We illustrate the quotient law as follows: Assume that AiB.k is a tensor. We obtain A. axa x6 = A'Bay or axa axy ax axk Ai ` $.Bay axp avk l axa axy =0 axa axk Since A' is arbitrary. tensor. we equate a certain covariant index to a contravariant index. axa a = Aay axi sa ax axa 13x# y axi so that Ali are the components of an absolute contravariant vector. Example 122.

that is.. This method affords a means of changing absolute tensors into relative tensors.. we must have (see Example 114) .= axt ox' Example 115 twice. Let gij be the components of a covariant tensor ax-. we obtain lax Taking determinants and applying ax or Igl =1g1 l ax I#I} = IgIl a2 Now if Ai are the components of an absolute contravariant vector.9x# so that gi. ax- are the components of a vector density. dxu dx = g. Assume gap dxa dxO an invariant. = gap . dxu dx' °1° ^ 9u axu ax a0 dxu dx' = 0 (496) If we assume gap = gaa. so that gap or (9aO axa aaxu ax. then A{ = Aa ax Y so that B. so that Bi ° IgI#Ai 9aP d7a d2O = gp dxa dxfi a Now d2a = axu dxµ. 1261 TENSOR ANALYSIS 277 CO that C AaB# axa axe = Cs axa Ox' Example 124. Example 125.SEC. then since (496) is identically zero for arbitrary dxi. = IgI}A' = ax ax Ba2i aax Of IgI'Aa axa B.

= -C.. Example 128. . = 8 . If A = Aao axa ax0 ai axe. 126 axa axs 9µY = 9a$ axµ axY (496a) or the gµ.. we have that Cc.A3B2 0 -(A2B3 . . If A are the components of an absolute mixed tensor. 3. Show that A.. = A. be the components of two covariant vectors. Problems 1. = A. and B. 4. can be written as the sum of a symmetric and a skew-symmetric component. = Aaa axa axa ax' axe 2.A2B1 0 -(A1B2 . show that A... are the components of a covariant tensor of second order. Example 126. are components of a covariant tensor of rank 2.A3B1) A1B8 . is skew-symmetric. Outer product of two vectors. Let A.II = A1B2 . If the components of a tensor are zero in one coordinate system. is a scalar invariant. and if Aa#A$. are the components of a covariant tensor of the second order.A3B2) The nonvanishing terms are similar to the components of the vector cross product.A..A2B1) -(A1B8 . it follows from the law of transformation (495) that the components are zero in all coordinate systems. so that C. Example 127.278 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS ISEC. the outer product of Ai and B. This is an important result.B. = AaEp axa ax# axa a28 axti axe = C° axti axe The C:. The two tensors are said to be reciprocal. For a three-dimensional space 0 11C1. show that the Aal are the components of an absolute contravariant tensor... If Aa# are the components of an absolute covariant tensor. for C.AaBI A2B3 . Notice that C. show that A.B.B. By the same reasoning as in Example 127.

8. 22. From the relative tensor A of weight N. The Line Element.SEC. -K'Bii)v' = 0. (A. and that K = BiJuiui an invariant? 7. + (dxn)2 = bo dx° dxa If we apply a transformation of coordinates xi = xi(21...)ui=0 i. 6. 1271 TENSOR ANALYSIS 279 5. If Al. where ui = Ai°u. If Ami is a mixed tensor of weight N. 2. derive a relative scalar of weight N... AiiutuWhy i 10. 127. (497) . .uiv' = 0. vi be components of contravariant vectors satisfying (A.0 ax° axe dxµ dx axµ aV n We may write ds2 = vr d2" dz'.. Let Ail and Bit be symmetric tensors and let ui. .uiv' = Bi. show that Amw is a mixed tensor of weight N.uiul = Aiiu. 9. Show that the cofactors of the determinant lair.-KBi. and A1. show that axe are not the components of a mixed tensor. are reciprocal symmetric tensors.j= 1. 2' ) we have that dx' = axi d2a. In the Euclidean space of three dimensions we have assumed that ds2 = dx2 + dye + dz2 In the Euclidean n-space we have ds2 = (dx')2 + (dx2)2 + . . where 9vr = a°a axa 8x# a_ ax° ax° ax+' any . and if ui are components of a covariant vector.u. If Ai are the components of an absolute contravariant vector. show that A. n KX K is K Prove that Ai. . are the components of a relative tensor of weight 2 if ail is an absolute covariant tensor. .. . .. so that (497) takes the form ds2 = 6.

Notice that gas = Sap. . . y") such that ds2 = Say dya dy5. In a three-dimensional Euclidean space ds2 = tax 1)2 + (dx2)2 + (dx3)2 for an orthogonal coordinate sys- tem. Example 129..280 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEc. We can choose the metric tensor symmetric. g. so that 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 Let x' = r sin 0 cos p = y' sin y2 cos y$ x2 = r sin 0 sin rp = y' sin y2 sin y2 x3=rcos9=y'cosy2 Now axa 8x5 9ti(r. we say that the Riemannian space is Euclidean. If there is a coordinate transformation xi = xi(y'. for gii = Ij(gv + gig) + (gii . . Any coordinate system for which the g.ay: ayi + ay: ayi + ay' ayi .gii) dx' dx' contribute nothing to the sum ds2. 127 Thus the most general form for the line element (ds)2 for a Euclidean space is the quadratic form ds2 = gas dxa dx5 (498) The gap are the components of the metric tensor (see Example 125). The quadratic differential form (498) is called a Rie- mannian metric. w) = gas ay.gii) and the terms $(gt. are constants is called a Cartesian coordinate system. It does not follow that there exists a coordinate transformation which reduces (498) to a sum of squares. y2. . The terms J(g. Any space characterized by such a metric is called a Riemannian space. The y's will be called the components of a Euclidean coordinate system.i + gii) are symmetric in i and j. ayi ax' ax' axe axe OxI 49x8 . .

127] TENSOR ANALYSIS 281 Hence gll = (sin y2 cos y3)2 + (sin y2 sin y3)2 + (cos y2)2 Similarly 922 = (y') 2. We define the length L of a vector Ai in a Riemannian space by the quadratic form L2 = g pA°A# (499) The associated vector of Ai is the covariant vector i = gia It is easily seen that Ai = gipAp. Example 132. 933 = (y')2(sin y2)2. be unit vectors. We define gii as the reciprocal tensor to gi. so that L2 = gapg' g"'A"A. 4. If L2 = 1. Sec.f (see Prob. Example 130.=0 for i5j so that ds2 = (dy')2 + (y')2(dy2)2 + (y' sin y2)2(dy3)2 = dr2 + r2 do2 + r2 sin2 0 is the line element in spherical coordinates. the vector is a unit vector. We define the cosine of the angle between these . a spherical coordinate system is not a Cartesian coordinate system.2 gai = d. Let Ai and B. Since the g's are not constants..SEC. For spherical coordinates in a Euclidean space 1 0 0 1 0 r2 0 0 0 0 r2 sin2 B 0 0 2 r2 0 0 1 0 r2 sin2 9 Example 131. The gii are the signed minors of the g. gi. gi.i divided by the determinant of the gi. that is. 126). We see that a vector and its associate have the same length. Angle between two vectors..

127 two vectors by cos 0 = A'Bi = Aig. (500) If the vectors are not unit vectors. Similarly. it is easy to see that cos 0 = ± 1. Hence gaaAaBP < (gaaAaA8)4(gaaBaBa)} or .B. Example 133.AiB. uo) represents a ul curve on the surface.. ul = uo. A hypersurface in a Riemannian space is given by x' = x'(ul. gas(XAa + µB")(XAa + kB") > 0 or y = A2(gaAaAa) + 2Aµ(gasA"B1) +µ2(gaaBaBa) > 0 This is a quadratic form in A2/µ2. u2). Moreover. Hence I cos el < 1.cos 01 < 1. = gaa axa axa au'aui .. once that on the surface 2 We have at ds2 = gad dxa dxa = I gap . so that the discriminant must be negative. the vectors are orthogonal. x' = x'(ul. that is. gi. for if it were nonnegative.B1 = gi'A. y would vanish for some value of A/µ or µ/A. If we keep ul fixed.AiB' = giiA. we obtain the space curve x' = x'(uo. cos 0 = (500 a) If gi. we have 1Bi.A'B' = 0. if Ai = kBi. called the u2 curve. We must show that Assuming a posiI cos 01 < 1. Consider the vector AA' + tive definite form. u2).Bi = gi. du' du' where hi.-dui du' axa axa _ au' aui ca-1 axa axa g°a aui au dui du' (501) ds2 = h. gaaza# > 0 unless z' = 0.282 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. These curves are called the coordinate curves of the surface.

Vt) y=y z = 2 (502) xJ where. 2. 24). t = O[t + (V/c')x]. 9. y. z = 2. y = y. y. z. 1) represents the same event observed by S (see Fig. . the inverse transformation obtained by replacing the parameter V by . c is the speed of light. we obtain the identity transformations x = 2. for if where _ [1 . 127] TENSOR ANALYSIS 283 Example 134. t = t. 101). (2) the inverse transformation exists since 2 _ #(x + Vt). Let us consider the one-parameter group of transformations x = .(V2/c2)1-} and V is the parameter. (3) the result of applying two such transformations yields a new Lorentz transformation. The special theory of relativity. t) represents an event in space and time as observed by S and that (x. t = z.V. These are the Einstein-Lorentz transformations (see Prob.6 = [1 . Sec. The transformations form a group because (1) if we set V = 0. then x = (2.(W'/c')]-.B(x .1 + (VW/c) V-I-W ^ r1 _ `\ U2)-1 c I We now assume that (x.SEC.Ut) y=?! z t=fi -Ux c where U` :' .. 11.

y . The same is true for clocks fixed in the S frame. .284 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.7.7 14 -V S X S X z z Fia.q 'P1:Mf.xa _' _2 + 22 12 -4 . From (502) we see that 0 and 0 coincide at t = 0.C so that the speed of light is the same for both observers. 1. At this instant assume that an event is the sending forth of a light wave. 8 remarks that S's clock is running slowly. Let us now consider a clock fixed in the S frame. This is one of the postulates of the special theory of relativity. 101. 24 show that x2 + y2 + z2 t2 . and from (502) dt = 0 dt.cz dt2 = 0 an invariant. The results of Prob. Hence a unit of time as observed by S is not a unit of time as observed by S because of the factor 0 5-6 1. 11.V' showing that S moves with a constant speed . Sec. so that dx = 0. Starting with this postulate and desiring the group property. We have x = constant. we could have shown that the transformations (502) are the only transformations which keep dx2 + d y2 + dz2 . 127 The origin b has :f = y = 2 = 0' so that from (502) dx dt = . Similarly S moves with speed + V relative to S.V relative to S.

d y2 -dz2 = (dx') 2 .(dx2 + dye + dz2) = (c2 . 3. but takes care to distinguish between them.(dxa) 2 where x' = x. If we keep a clock fixed in the S frame. and the measurement of interval ds is real and proportional to the time dt. length and time.(u2/c2)]} dt and p = [1 _ mo . then + + \dt/2 d82 = c2 dt2 . 2. We shall describe the laws of physics by tensor equations. Now if we keep t fixed. If the speed of the particle is u.C2 ds m0 da ) d( dxa I [1 .u2)} dt = C [1 . 4 . dt d (m a dt ' a = 1.dx2 . then dx = dy = dz = 0. ()2 ()2 u2 as measured by S. x2 = y. so that ds2 = c2 dt2. This will guarantee the invariance of our laws of physics. The interval ds2 yields two types of measurements. x$ = z. dt = 0.m We define the Minkowski force by the equations f a . the components of the tensors subject to the transformations (502).(u2/C2)].(dx') 2 . The momentum of a particle of mass mo will be defined by pa = mo d8 . x' = ct.u2) dt2 so that mo dxa I mo dxa pa = (C2 . and ds' = . its absolute value denoting length as measured by meter sticks in a Euclidean space. 1271 TENSOR ANALYSIS 285 We choose for the interval of our four-dimensional space the invariant ds2 = c2 dt2 .(dx2) 2 .(u2/C2)]} -.SEC.(dx2 + dye + dz2) so that ds is a pure imaginary.

we have E Jmou2 for (u2/c2) << 1.(u2/C2)11 and integrating. Let the reader derive (285) by use of this theory. E = [1 . 2. with E = 0 for u = 0. Expanding [1 . 2.dxa j a1 mou du [1 .(u2/c2)1-1 in a Maclaurin series.(u2/C2))-1. The force on the charge as measured by S is given by (285). Show that for a hypersurface in a three-dimensional 8 Euclidean space.286 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS ISEC. For paraboloidal coordinates x1 = yly2 cos ys x2 = y1y2 sin ya x8 = 3[(yl)2 . 1. If w is the angle between the coordinate curves.(y2)2] show that ds2 = [(y')2 + (y2)21[(dyl)2 + (dy2)21 + (yly2)2(dy$)2. Vh11aul 4. show that and 18x 1 -V//-22aU2 . Problems 1. choosing the frame S so that at a particular instant the charge p is fixed in this frame. 82 for the application of special relativity theory to electromagnetic theory.mo)c2. h1 = a-1 1 axa axa t9lis au? 3.(m ddt for a displacement dxa is dE _ a-1 d (mxa) dxa I (mxa dxa + dd -4. The work done by the Newtonian force Fa = d.(u2/c2))-lmoc2 .moc2 = (m . 127 The Minkowski force differs from the Newtonian force by the factor [1 . and 3 of Sec. The reader is referred to Probs. Show that the unit vectors tangent to the ul and u2 curves are given by ax cos w = his/.

we obtain a coordinate curve. x2. . 0). ax Why does this show that the ax are the components of a covariant vector that is normal to the hypersurface? 6. (p(x'. Show that ds is a unit vector for a V". 2. f dx' dxa . . . Show that a length observed by S appears to be longer as observed by S.. . dx2. = 1a1 dx' dx2 . V=ff.. .. . _ gc.. 0. 7. . . ) 0. dx" gl dx' dx2 Using the result of Prob. ax' dx' . . .. are called the coordinate surfaces of Riemannian space. show that a unit vector normal to the surface is given by (g°8 ax. . x") = constant determines a hypersurface If dx` is any infinitesimal displacement on the hyper- surface. (0. i . . . How does S compare lengths with S? . . . ax' dx'. . 121.1. .. show that dx" We define the volume by . x2.. . of a V. . . 2. and interpret d2' dxa . . Show that the unit vectors to the coordinate curves are given by a. This determines subspaces of dimensions (n . . . ..1). Consider the new components for the vectors with components (0. 9g 10. dx" 8. n. . . The surfaces xti = constant. . and that the angle of intersection between two coordinate curves is given by r cosm. i = 1. Sec. Cax' dx'. 0). . Under a coordinate transformation the components become 2 " . . 9. 1 a aP gra avp . dx" is an invariant. 127J TENSOR ANALYSIS 287 5. . = 1//. . 0. . On these surfaces all variables but one are allowed to vary. we have a dxa = 0. dx").SEc. n. . axo axa 7. . 0. Consider the vector with components (dx'. . If we let only x' vary. If (p(x'. x") = constant.

128 11.a + g+sio + agxps xaxs + x° ve 2(ds/dt)2 dt2 d (ga:xa + 2 If we choose s for the parameter t.. (504) reduces to a 1 /agai 610 ague g'ax + 2 + axa agoal a o .-axti / x x = 0 (505) .#)} = Wt of ax' and 2f \ ax' 1 (aga9 zaxs d (af dt \az' Fz d (ga. we can compute the distance between two points of the curve by the formula s ri ( dxa dxO 4 dt . (146)] of dt ax' Now 0 (504) where f = (go '. dt2 from (502). 128. dt2. Let jx. jj. s = t. 40). Find dt2. p be the components of a vector as measured What are the components of the same vector as measured by S? by S. Let d2 x d 29 72 dz2 die' die' die be the components of the acceleration of a dz 2y 2z particle as measured by S. The differential equations of the geodesics are [see Eq. jz. dt = 1.` \g°a dt dt d (of of (503) To find the geodesics we extremalize (503) (see Sec.xa + gist dt \ 2 ds/dt 2 ds/dt / 2 (g. dtQ = 0. Geodesics in a Riemannian Space. 12. and use the fact that gii = gii.288 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. If a space curve in a Riemannian space is given by xi = xi(t).

1281 TENSOR ANALYSIS 280 Multiplying (505) by gri and summing on i. We have 1 0 1 0 1 {1gi?il = 0 (x1)2 + c2 0 (x')2 . Example 136.SEC.9g.# and ft" 0. we have ds2 = (dxl) 2 + + (dx") 2. For a Euclidean space using orthogonal coordinates.+ C2 Thus we have rill =0. Hence the geodesics are given by ds = 0 or d1 xr = ars + br. r21 = r14 = 0. Assume that we live in a space for which dal = (dx')2 + [(x1)2 + c2](dx2)2. the surface of a right helicoid immersed in a Euclidean three-space.99io + 2 d2xr + axa .0 0 2x' dx' dx2 d82 + (x')2 + C2 d8 ds = .-x1 . so that gap = a. 1 r212 x1 1r22 . Equations (506) are the differential equations of the geodesics or paths. d2x' (x') 2 + C2 r2 so that the differential equations of the geodesics on the surface are dx2 2 x 1 ds2 d2x2 T8 . Example 135. axi / dxa dxP (506) dS2 + r°a ds ds - where 9r r° (. a9oa ago axQ ra$ 2 \ ax$ + axa (507) The functions r" are called the Christoffel symbols of the second kind. a linear path. we obtain gri xr or `(89-i ..

.sro + g. From (507) show that axµ = g. 5. Now . 4. Let ds2 = E due + 2F du dv + G dv2. g''.7 axsax ax + ax ax ax show that r. Let the equations of the geodesics be given by d2xi d i J dxk ds2 and + r "k ds ds ^ 0 + P 2k d. j = 1. Law of Transformation for the Christoffel Symbols. . Derive the r. 129 Problems 1. are the components of a tensor.k of Example 136. axk axe a2x° axe 10..290 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS (SEC. Find the differential equations of the geodesics for the line element ds2 = (dxl)2 + (sin x')2(dx2)2. Set up the equations of the geodesics. xi in a Riemannian space. Obtain the Christoffel symbols and the equations of the geodesics for the surface xl = ul cos u2 x2 = u' sin 412 x3 = 0 This surface is the plane x3 = 0. als 7. For a Euclidean space using a cartesian coordinate system. 2.rlk.. 8. show that r. Obtain the Christoffel symbols for a Euclidean space using cylindrical coordinates. 6. = 0. Write out the explicit form for the Christoffel symbols of the first kind : { i.. i. If r = r. and the coordinates are polar coordinates.y . We now find the relationship between the r k and r. 3. 9. Write out the rk. Do the same for spherical coordinates.arp.V d2k _ (508) AV ds2 ds ds _ - ° (5 0 9) for the two coordinate systems xi. Calculate IgJ. 2.rry a. 129. Show that rqn = r'a. jk I = g.

ax# = garap + g°arPA = gas9°ar. Sec. + gang°aFBp so that = a.) rik aY axe axk axa + axi axk a2° axa axy axi a2x° Oxi (511) This is the law of transformation for the rk. we obtain &V d2xa a22 i dxa dxa ° axa ds' + ax# axa ds A + rik axi axk dxa dxa axe.p=2rµ C log axp _ ra p (512) . we see that (using the fact that rlk = rk. From (481) we have algl 8 = Iglgae ax' and from Prob. Example 137.. 6.SEc. 128. so that the rk may be zero in one coordinate system but not in all coordinate systems.rap + a1r00 or =rap+r. dxi ds _ _ a2' dxa d2x` axa ds and _ a2xi d2x° ds2 axa axa ds ds + axa ds2 Substituting into (509). We note that the rk are not the components of a tensor. ax" ds as 0 (510) We multiply (510) by axi and sum on i to obtain d2x° dx2 axe axk a22i 49x°l dxa dxa + (rijk axa axa axgr + axa axa a-V ds ds a2i 0 Comparing with (508). 129J TENSOR ANALYSIS 291 dxa dxa 9.

If.axY a2k gay ak a + j I02i x2a2 a2k a. k. we must have n n n dx° dx° _ ff-1 W-1 d2° d2. ax8 g'' = ga$ a2i a2.dxa dx8 . j.t._ C-1 a:a. we have ag.rdy afj a2k axa + 02i axk axa where ti a axs axY axi a2xa axi 511a) r" = 2 g°' (agk. = constants). - . + (dx") 2 In this case the r (x) = 0. b° are constants of integration.Ti axa 492X# ax0 aaxa (513) If we now subtract (513) from the two equations obtained from it by cyclic permutations of the indices i. In any other coordinate system. we have a2x° a2i TV a2k ax° If the new coordinate system is also Cartesian (the g. _ agile ax" Example 139. Let us consider a Euclidean space for which ds2 = (dx 1) 2 + (dx2) 2 + .i agar axY axa ax8 49. then r k = 0. axj + axle agi. furthermore. We may arrive at the Christoffel symbols and their law of transformation by another method. we obtain r . with respect to xk. Differentiating the law of transformation axe. or 82x° aP a2k =0 (514) x° = alga + b° where a'.292 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. we desire the distance between two points to be an invariant.. 129 Example 138. Hence the coordinate transformation between two cartesian coordinate systems is linear.__- axk .

iii 8x8 8x' (516) Now let us compare the laws of transformation for covariant and contravariant vectors. we see that n axa a-1 Aaa (518) so that orthogonal transformations affect contravariant vectors in exactly the same way that covariant vectors are affected [compare (517) and (518)]. = Sas (515) V-1 A linear transformation such that (515) holds is called an orthogonal transformation. We have A' = Aa Replacing 621 a2' _. 129] TENSOR ANALYSIS n 293 so that I a..a.SEC. = axa axe a:' CIO azf axe ' =g"° ax. This is why there was no distinction made between covariant and contravariant vectors in the elementary treatment of vectors. = Aa axa 82' (517) by a from (516). axe a' axe We multiply both sides by axp amt ax). Problems 1. so that = aaa is a = #0 axe . For orthogonal transformations.-. and sum on i. of all To ax.+ afj axk axe . reduces to S. From (511) show that _ r'k =ray a ax8 axy a2' 82xC. axa A.

k = axa + a2x' axi axi axk ax° . a = 1. 129 2. show that s0 0. . 3.. a. 1alogµ I'sa . az axk = a21° axi 5. . in other words.. xa(s) satisfies (506) and dxa dxs gas ds A = 0] remains a minimal geodesic under a conformal transformation. show that r. (x} + rPYaa + PSaY . and ra sy are defined by (507) using 8. u2. 6. show that ag{k axi = _gkxr h4 . xk ax = 0. . = gas axa axs u*). 021. and Taui and if 1 i {rik)h = 2 h. Derive (513) by performing the permutations. 2 aQ 4.)o axa axs axy axa a2xs + gas aut aui auk aui aui auk 7. n. Show that T.. (ah auk ahk. if h. . If xa = xa(ul. In this space (conformal) we do not compare lengths at two different points.9htrh. .ga°gstimo where 'Po = 2 axe gas and gas. By differentiating the identity gaga.kl + aui _ au° show that hair k)k = gap(ra.C axk . the unit of length changes from point to point. r < n. axa + axi axk at° a axA 8x' axi r. If 090 My axi r. Prove that a geodesic of zero length (minimal geodesic) [that is. 2.r(x) = r. Define gs(x) by the equation gas(x) = µ(x)gas(x).294 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.k = rPr ax. or.. ah. We see that the metric tensor gas(x) is determined only up to a factor of multiplication u(x). = S . . . If az.

and subtracting from (519). aA. Covariant Differentiation.s = Aa. For a scalar of weight N we have A=I- 821 A . r. with respect to xi. -A &V a 1' _ ( axa -Ar O aa Ox. is a covariant tensor of rank 2. we can construct a tensor by the following device: From (511a) (see page 292) ax' axr axa ax. so that A..a axa axa axi axi and A. we obtain aA. 130J TENSOR ANALYSIS 295 130. For a cartesian coordinate system.E = 0. However. axe aAa axa axa a2xa axa ax= ax' + Aa axi axi aA.1 = axe our ordinary derivative. axe (519) It is at once apparent that are not the components of a tensor. The tensor is called the covariant derivative of A. (522) we have that A.SEC. axe axo 82x. Let us differentiate the absolute covariant vector given by the transformation At-Aaaxa axi We obtain aA...=-Aa1 8x1 49A...7 axa (520) + axi axi ax" Multiplying (520) by A..axa ax' axe (521 ) so that if we define A. The comma will denote covariant differentiation.

then N.. It is called the covariant derivative of the relative scalar + axe .k = axk .. is a relative covariant vector of weight For a cartesian coordinate system it reduces to the ordinary derivative. 6.. (525) TW-a. a v. i a clx (524) Hence A. is a relative tensor of weight N. g i..s. so that from Prob.NA r-.296 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS (SEC.p Ain + Ta..g+Nr k ag.:::a. -= ax . aA _ laxe a2xs ax ax i ax Hence 82x0 axi - ax N aA axa latl axa axi axa + 2 N ax N axa H axs &V C120 A (523) Multiplying r* = n.a. Example 140. 130 so that axlN aA axa ax 8xa 02' aax' +N ax N-1 ax a lax ax and from (482). from (523).. In general.A :::8. _ N (claAx a ax ... We have gii..k = 0 (526) .a. 128.k . axa axa Hi axQ by NA and subtracting ..::: p. it can be proved that if Tp. of covariant order one greater than Ts.NAr`.NAr.gwl'. we have OA + axi ax a x. A. and it is called the covariant derivative of TB.ry" -A- is a relative tensor of weight N. Sec.1.

ax' ax' = o ax1 ax' Since Ai... dxi ds a axe ds . we know that Ai. as as Example 144. are tensors. aA1 It is called the curl of the vector Ai.A°`r`' dA.. (527) and write the intrinsic derivative of A. Hence Ai.. Intrinsic derivatives.5 .Ar. "' .. If the curl is identically zero. Let A. 130J TENSOR ANALYSIS 297 Example 141. are the components a-P.. It can be shown that the converse holds. = axj Example 142. If the A. Curl of a vector. Ai = curl A. aA. . = aaxA.1 and dx so that the curl of a gradient is zero. the covariant vector is the gradient of a scalar. The divergence of an absolute contravariant vector is defined as the contraction of its covariant derivative. We have a dxf ds We call it the intrinsic derivative of A.Aar .. of the gradient of a scalar.. _ gyp.. Example 143. A. dx1 aAi dxi 8A. be an absolute covari- . == a2ip axi then 621P . We have A. A. we call -p. as ds - `oar"ds BA. = ax the gradient of V..A.ax` is a covariant tensor of rank 2. ant vector. ds is a covariant vector.. dxi . If p is an absolute scalar.i axi . Similarly.SEC.

)=diva' Thus v 2(p 1. we have 1 `'9= so that 0 0 0 r2 0 0 r2 sin2 0 0 div A' = i a r2 sin 8 ar (r2 sin 0 A. The Laplacian of a scalar invariant. = as a logx IgI -4. 130 Hence div A' = A' = ax Now rQ.298 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS (SEC.p.. If p is a Car (r2 sin 0 A*) + a9 (r sin 0 A°) + a (rAc) J 1 scalar invariant.AarQ.)+ a. and the div (p.. -r. so that 1 div A _ a t ax1 + N/191 ax. from (512). d9 (r2 sin 0 AB) + app (r2 sin 0 Ac) and changing At and A" into physical components having the dimensions of A (see Example 121).91 a aaa (v' Fg19°° TX ) (529) . is the gradient of jp. Lapcp=VZ(p=div(g.) is called the Laplacian of . Aa div As = aa (V f gj Aa) a i = r2 sin 0 (528) In spherical coordinates. we have div A' = r2 sin o Example 145.

and y . then AaNa is also an invariant.i ..dd = JJA.For a Euclidean Cti Example 146. Now let A. so that 0A2 OA' div A'=axl+axe+ .c ... into a contravariant vector so that we could aThe associate of 0 r2 81P is g«i LIP. the rk = 0. If we let Ni be the components of the unit normal vector to the surface do... In cartesian coordinates the divergence theorem is JJ divAdr = ffA. 1301 TENSOR ANALYSIS 299 We changed apply (528). + aA^ axn The quantity A* is a scalar invariant. = kp.Sec.N&r In tensor form it becomes fJfAT = JJA"Nad r (530) We can obtain Green's formula by considering the covariant vectors 4O. axe ax' In spherical coordinates 1 0 0 i 7 0 0 t g' l = 0 0 0 I 0 0 r2 sin2 B r2 sin 9 so that VF = 1 r2 sin B r2 sin 0 ar \\\ 1 { a aF ar -1- a (sin B aF' + a / 1 aF' 00 \ 00a l\sin 9 app/) + Aar' . In Example 144 we defined the divergence of the vector A' as div A' = A Ma space using cartesian coordinates.soO.

2 = aFs aF2 axe .ax= .F In cartesian coordinates Fa. ds ds. 2. We now construct a vector whose components will also be those of the curl of a vector.P = ate. 4°Ar = 0 otherwise. and 1 = -EarilFR .v Lap ¢) dr = = Example 147.NQ do S ff S Svf.300 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS {SEC. Thus 41st -. We know that F. Now define 4ah = 1 w 1 if a.4"0''Fa. dv Let us consider the covariant vector Fa. We easily see that A' = g°i(4y.Q is an invariant and in cartesian coordinates reduces to + (ax1)2 + (ax2)2 a2_ a24 (ax3)2 _ Lap (p Hence. f f g°iA.. using (530). y is an even permutation of 1. dxa = F. 3..s is a tensor. 3.a = -j E2111F2 s + 021F3. ft.v. a29 Now g°'co.. we obtain f if (t' Lap so . is A° = g'=A. We multiply it by the contravariant vector d--° and sum on a to obtain the invariant F.s . ' 211 - is an odd permutation of 1.4. In Example 142 we constructed the curl of a vector. = g°. 1 -L 191 I 4132 = 1 411! = 0 We obtain a new invariant G" = .i). 2. which turned out to be a tensor of rank 2. 130 The associated vector of A.i(4.)N. which reduces to f dr in cartesian coordinates..

Prove that 14i = 0.#AaAO) j = gapA . Prove that axa (vflg g`-) + rQgas = 0. Show that the intrinsic derivative of a scalar of weight N is b = ds .J. 6.. . 1 0 (VTg_j A") .1 . so that if A is an absolute constant. Show that (g.2 0v .NAr. show that axi + Aara1 is a mixed tensor. = aA' + ax° r. ds.SEC..A' for an absolute mixed tensor A. form reads Hence Stokes's theorem in tensor f F. = g{aA'.Abr. 9.DO -}.). Use (529) to find the Laplacian of F in cylindrical coordinates. Prove that (g{aAa). By starting with Ai = All A. 4.' 11. 12. a ds ds = f a2i Oza do (531) Problems 1.. 3. show that the intrinsic derivative as ds + Aarocp ds is a contravariant vector.k -I..1 = AaBa. + A Ba. Show that A. 10. Prove that a. 0. Show that DZ(vo) 13.Ap + 9apAaA. pz9. 8. 130] TENSOR ANALYSIS 301 and similarly for G2 and G3. 1 7. 2. Show that Aaa = V. Prove that (A-B. 5. As in Example 143. gl exa .

J av. dx' dt and hence that the acceleration fc ° vanishes. We know that s. at + Ai.. 15.. Let f. is defined by the equations AF. be the force per unit mass acting on the mass in question. = TJNJ Ao- where AF. = A. 116).v'. If A. Let s..) dx' Show that the term 4(8.302 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [Sac.. S 16.. t) is a covariant vector. be the displacement vector of any particle from its position of equilibrium (see Sec. = +(s.J .. Let X. The relative displacements of the particles are given by as.) The stress tensor T. 130 14.J + sJ..8J.J by the equation Ei. that is.J dx _ 4(s.' XaN. 115). show that oA..6 da.. _ 8vi at at + v .(x. dT + f f TJNJ da = or using contravariant components.J + ss. = s. and apply s the divergence theorem to the vector TOXa.) dxJ represents a rotation. be an arbitrary vector whose covariant derivative Consider Jf Ta. Xa. Show that f j f pF.:) dx' + s. is a covariant tensor.$ = 0... is the force acting on the element of area Aa with normal vector Ni (see Sec. Hence show that fJ T aaNN da = ff7 T dT. at _ 8A. be the acceleration of the volume dT and F. We define the symmetric strain tensor E. dT fffa pF'dr+ f sf T*JNJda= fffR pf'dT . f f f pf.

8.qa) ate? I (534) because of the symmetry of ri.SEC.q°`) axk a21 axk ax' . The point xi = q' corresponds to the Now differentiating (533) with respect to x'.igr' = pfr or pFr --. we obtain a2x8 axa axs a2x' + (rae) a axk axi + (r10) a(x0 . can we find a coordinate system such that rk 0 at the corresponding point? The answer is "Yes"! Let (xi .q') + so that point x' = 0.k ds as where the Ik transform according to the law ask - ra sY 49x8 ax" axi 192xa axi ax axk axa + 491i axk axa (532) We ask ourselves the following question : If the I k are different from zero at a point x` = qi. q«)(xd .p.r = pfr [see (411)] 131. are given by d2xi as2 The equations of the geodesics dxi dxk = 0 + r. Q Differentiating (534) with respect to xk.4s) (533) a and I ax1i = 1. and moreover the transformaa tion (533) is nonsingular. we obtain axii a= + (ri OP ) Q(xa . Geodesic Coordinates. 1311 TENSOR ANALYSIS 303 Now deduce the equations of motion pFr + T = pfr If Tn = pgri. Hence 6z! = 6f.p. show that pFr .

k = A'kB7 + A'B1.. is a zero tensor for geodesic coordinates. \(Mi (As')O _ axi )0 + (ra. we obtain (rij k)o = (rfY)Qaj kaa - (rk)Qaa = (r k).E. 131 so that a2x' axk axj = .(r. since we could have added c.qP) (xr . = 0 at the origin. the covariant derivative.(ray) 4 ask Q ax° axe Q axe -(raa)Q6-50 _ -k Substituting into (532).304 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC..q7) to the right-hand side of (533) and still have obtained (r k)o = 0.)o(Aa)o = ax.k)Q = o. There are infinitely many such systems. )0 since rq. Any system of coordinates for which (r7k)P = 0 at a point P is called a geodesic coordinate system.D. +axi (A'+B'). becomes the ordinary derivative evaluated at the origin. The covariant derivative of a sum or product of tensors must obey the same rules that hold for ordinary derivatives of the calculus. In such a system. . Hence A + B`i . x' = xo.k Equation (533) yields one geodesic coordinate system.fiy(x) (x° . For example.(A' + B').). Q.(Ai + B'). and A'.1 is zero in all coordinate systems. so that A` + B`. when evaluated at the origin.q') (xa . . A special type of geodesic coordinate is the following: Let x' = x'(s) be a geodesic passing through the point P. for at any point we can choose geodesic coordinates so that A'1 OA' aBi _ a(Ai + Bi) ax' ax. We leave it as an exercise for the reader to prove that (A'B. and . _ (A' + B'). + B`.

dxgab 1. 131] TENSOR ANALYSIS 305 let xi r Define X' = Vs (535) where s is arc length along the geodesic. Each V determines a geodesic through P. The X' = `s are called Riemannian coordinates.p). so that rikl:'k = 0 (536) Since this equation holds at the point P for all directions t'.1 = 0 (see Example 140).SEc. Hence every point in the neighborhood of P has the definite coordinate xi attached to it. we must have r + r 1 = 21 k = 0. we have gaa° The intrinsic derivative is =1 Q a gas s e + gaak° as = 0 since (g. If ' is a unit vector. Usp + -r" $) = Hence gaat" as 0. and s determines a point on this geodesic. 2. and adx. Problems dx°. gQs° 0. so that the x= are geodesic coordinates. The equations of the geodesics in this coordinate system are d2z1 dS2 2 i d21 dxk 1 + r'k ds ds = 0 But ds = V and ds = 0. We see that the vector dx° dt1 is normal to the vector t'. Show that ds ds remains constant along a geodesic. r. Show that for normal coordinates 2. .2' k = 0. Example 148.

dx1 dxk ds2 r'k A TS What are the components for a geodesic? 4. Prove that bt (X"Ya) = sat Ya + Xa sat.Vik.k = axk' + v rak avt. we obtain v'.Vsk. show that the intrinsic derivative of the unit tangent has the components pi d2xs ds in the direction of the curve + . + V ar°`' On again differentiating covariantly. from the quotient law (Sec. Let us consider the absolute contravariant vector Vi. . We can obtain two new tensors of the second order by contraction.. It is called the curvature tensor.k must be the components of a tensor. 126).306 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS i [SEC. = V"Ba.k . 132 3. and Vi are tensors. + axk (a a + VOr.k . The Curvature Tensor. Its covariant derivative yields the mixed tensor v`. rak Interchanging k and j and subtracting. = a' ax. If s is are length of the curve C.viark ' 49xk = a 2V s axk 49x1 + aV a ri + Va arm. Va.k where (537) Since V'. a 132. we have Vt. .

the curvature tensor must vanish. and if we use the fact that a log "ICI ax" . ara i aa ara a. Since r. We could have deduced this fact by examining (539) directly. so that the Ricci tensor is symmetric in its indices. Riemann-Christoffel Tensor. The invariant R = gi"Ri. or covariant curvature.R. .. 133] TENSOR ANALYSIS 307 Let Ri' Ba. we have from (538) B'. We obtain another tensor by defining Si. 133.. Hence if a space is Euclidean. ara ara axa axa + r ara. = Be. ax1 axi (540) Evidently Si. = Si. Let us note the following important result: Assume that the Riemannian space is Euclidean and that we are dealing with a cartesian coordinate system.-k1 = 0. is called the scalar curvature. But if B'. the components are zero in all coordinate systems. .i. the space is Euclidean.k= = 0 in one coordinate system.ki = 0 (542) in this coordinate system. we have that a2 log axi ax1 a2 log -VIgl ax1 axi = 0 Now Ri.r%raa (539) This tensor is called the Ricci tensor and plays an important role in the theory of relativity. = -8. = 0.k(x) = 0.ra 1aµ. .SEC. tensor. The tensor Rhitk = gpaBk (541) is called the Riemann-Christoffel. We shall show later that if B1.

which are special cases of the more general system .. we have the Bianchi identity Bakj. a and adding.k(y) = ayj ayk axa and conversely.y(x) = 0.(x) = 0.. 134 If we differentiate (538) and evaluate at the origin of a geodesic coordinate system. . Euclidean Space. If there is a coordinate system (x'. if (544) holds. the r.ax° axk a2rak 8x° axj Permuting j. we obtain Bajk a a2raj _ . We write (544) as a2xa ayj ayk = ayi rk(y1 axe (545) which represents a system of second-order differential equations. Now rik(y) = rsY axfi axy 00 ayj ayk axa a2xa ayi + ayj ayk aXa .k + Baka. the space is Euclidean. We shall now prove that if the Bki = 0. Let us define u7-aycc so that (545) becomes axa (546) auk = u7Nkly) ayj (547) For each a we have the first-order system of differential equations given by (546) and (547). r. k.o + Ba0j. Now let us investigate under what conditions (544) may result. x2.1 = 0 (543) 134.308 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [Sac. then a2xa . We have seen that if a space is Euclidean. . of necessity Bike = 0. xn) for which (544) ayi r.

when referred to the system (546). Show that Rhijk = . 2. z2. x2.Rhikj and that Riijk = Rhikk = 0 2. show that R = nk. Paris. z".k.n+I (548) If we let z' = x°. it can be shown that the integrability conditions (549) are also sufficient that (548) have a solution satisfying the initial conditions z1. av ay' . yn) k=1. Hence. . Gauthier-Villars. 2 .. if f"kj = 0.. The integrability conditions (549). ." pp. y". (547). For the coordinate system (x'.2. Problems 1. . Eqs. z3 = 112i and (547) reduce to (548). (546) 2 We certainly must have aye ayj = ayj afk 8y1 yi.=0 1 nklua (550) The first equation of (550) is satisfied from the symmetry of the I'. z"+1. The reader is referred to advanced texts on differential equations and especially to the elegant proof found in Gaston Darboux. y`.. 309 azk ay' = f (z'. . and the second is satisfied if 19j"n = 0. .ay' + aZM ay' (549) k or afk ay' afk + fk u az" + azi. we can solve (545) for z' = x° in terms of y'.. If Rij = kgii.n .Rihik = . "Lecons sysOmes orthogonaux et les coordonnees curvilignes. 325-336. . . we have T k(x) = 0.. . and this implies afk az" + az _ aft af. become jkua aj"U'. . . Zn+' = un. x"). z2 = 211. . 1341 TENSOR ANALYSIS . Show that Rhijk + Rhkij + Rhiki = 0- 3. .SEC. 1910. j=1. fill ay fj If the f. . . are analytic.. y2. = zo at yi = yo.

7. 134 4. If R = gtiaR. For a two-dimensional space for which g12 = 921 = 0.. show that R12 = 0. show that (R'). = 2 ax. Derive (550) from (546). (547). 1 49R . 6. 811922 = R22911 = R1221 and that R_ R1221 911922 R:.. Show that B k1 76 0 for a space whose line element is given by ds2 = (dx')2 + (sin xl)2(dx2)2..310 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. 5.. = JRg.. (549).

= 0 or a3s 0. g°0A°. Let us define the curvature as K = 0} g°0 88 aas ° and the principal unit normal µi by aai as _ = Kµi (551) i Since pi is a unit vector. i Equation (552) shows that Ss + KAi is normal to V.. Let Ai = ds be the unit tangent vector to the space curve xi = xi(t). aµi as + KAi is also normal to µi. aµ0 Hence g°a A° as + Kg°aa°i8 = 0 or (B68 µs g°aa° + KAS =0 (552) since gp°µs = g°aX 'X 8 = 1. 2. 3. we know that aS is normal to pi. In Example 148 we saw that the contravariant vector t as is normal to Xi. Frenet-Serret Formulas. in a Riemannian space.us = 0. We 311 . and since 5Fdi as and Ai are normal to µi. so that the intrinsic derivative yields Sµa g°'eA° Now bA° + g°0 as µB = 0 bs since g°0. i = 1.CHAPTER 9 FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS i 135.

(Ki + Tv`) a Pa (558) + = Tµ ds .as is thus normal to all three vectors V.-#c? .r is called the torsion and is the magnitude of (i) =0 Since v` is normal to both X and µ'. we leave it to the reader to show that gaaµa (T/!a / . this is possible only if av TEIZ as = 0. Pi. (555). Af. (554). (554). or avi as formulas = (557) Writing (551). we have gaPvax$ g«avO'µP = 0 (555) By differentiating (555) and using (551).ava as =0 (556) The vector rµe . (557) in full.TY' = (554) where . we have the Frenet-Serret & ds dxP KAi ds i d+ ds µa s = .312 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. Since we are dealing in three-space. 135 define the binormal vi by the equation v' or aIAi as 1 T Sµ + KAt (68 (553) .

x2. We thus obtain dA = Ao From (511a) (see page 292) axe axa d. the r and (558) reduces to the formulas encountered in Sec. . 3. .y d2y .KTY'. why would (558) hold for all other coordinate systems in this Euclidean space? 2 . 24. . and show that K = 1/a.y ax' axa a2y 492' a22i a2xa a2i r~"° = a2y a2° axa a2xi - since r. x3 = 0.SEC. Derive (556). Using cylindrical coordinates. Since 'Xi = d3 . Show that Ss = as 4. x2 = t. 2i -K2X + U' ._ Aa 822' axfi 8xs axa (921y a2' axa A' = Aa axi a2a dxy since dA' = 0. 136.A°1. Since (558) is true for a Euclidean space using cartesian coordinates. 2. 1361 FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS 313 For a Euclidean space using cartesian coordinates. xn) in a cartesian coordinate system. ds2 = (dxl)2 + (x')2(dx2)2 + (dxa)2 and for a circle xl = a. Problems 1. . Expand (558) for this case. r = 0. show that d a Q dx + ra' ds dare the com ponents of a contravariant vector. = 0 . Consider an absolute contravariant vector Ai(xl. 5. axO axa ax8 axa axy axe from (483) (559) so that dAi = . Let us assume that the components Ai are con- stants. = 0. Now A' = Aa so that dA: . Parallel Displacement of Vectors.

the vector B' = WA'..p ds 1 dip r d(log y) d8 . Bi. if dAi ds or dx* °T ds aas= d-si+r. a Riemannian space is not Euclidean. 136 In general. for a geodesic we have ri ds2 °s ds ds so that the unit tangent vector d suffers a parallel displacement dxi along the geodesic. We generalize (559) and define parallelism of a vector field Ai with respect to a curve C given by x' = x'(s) as follows: We say that Ai is parallelly displaced with respect to the Riemannian V. if two vectors of constant magnitudes undergo parallel displacements along a given curve.A°ds =0 (560) We say that the vector Ai suffers a parallel displacement along the curve. along the curve C. they are inclined at a constant angle. In particular. cp = scalar. Two vectors at a point are said to be parallel if their corresponding components are proportional. d2xi + dxa dxe = 0. is parallel to A'. If A' is also parallel with respect to the V. Let us consider two unit vectors Ai.314 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. Notice that the intrinsic derivative of A' along the curve xi(s) vanishes.. along a curve xi = xi(s). we have Ss = 0. Hence. If A' is a vector of constant magnitude. We have cos 0 = gapAaB$ and a(cos 0) as _ gas SAa as B$ aBQ + gaaAa as =0 so that 0 = constant. Now aBi t as - 0A' as dc* + ds `4s ds d A' . Example 149. which undergo parallel displacements along a curve.

We start with the RieV. If a vector A' satisfies (560). Let xi(t). 4. x".. . . is the curvature tensor (see Sees.. u2. x2. U. be an infinitesimal closed path.y so that At suffers a parallel displacement along IF.. . . 133. Now ds2 = 94 dxa dxs = gab axa 8xs sub 8u1 . u2. ri (x) in Taylor series about xo = x4(0). show that it is of constant magnitude. . there may not exist U'. u"' is a point of V. ur). u2. . transformation 137. If we consider the xa = xa(ul.x0 dxy where Rte. If a vector Bi satisfies (561) along a curve r. m<n (562) we see that a point with coordinates ul. u2. The converse is not true. Parallelism in a Subspace. The change in the components of a contravariant vector on being parallelly displaced along this closed path is 1 Ai = -jrra. by letting At = #Bi show that it is possible to find . .Aa dxs. since m < n.A' xy dx# . from (560).SEC.. . 3. 137] FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS 315 We desire B' to be parallel with respect to the V along the curve. Expand Aa(x). show that AA' = }RO. . . . u"). . .. . and also a point of V. . 0 < t < 1. 134). = h. ds2 = gab dxs dxs. . . mannian space. so that a vector B' of variable magnitude must satisfy an equation of the type a13' B = f(s)Bb (561) if it is to be parallelly displaced along the curve.. du' du' . Show that if the vector At of constant magnitude is parallelly displaced along a geodesic. . 132.. 2.du' du. for given the point with coordinates x'. it makes a constant angle with the geodesic. Problems 1. . which satisfy xa = xa(ul. and neglecting infinitesimals of higher order.

we say that Aa a = 1. i = 1. we have dAa ds and axa dai au' A + dxy ds a2xa duy i a aui aui Ts 6Aa as dAa + (r *-y ay ds _ ax. 129) .. 9oa dai du' ds 9a«(ray>° CIO axy ax' aui au' auk h`k(r'i)h.. 2.. 137 so that the fundamental metric tensor in the subspace.. are the components of a contravariant vector in the V. . = aui ai ..j =gap a axa M aui au1 Now dxa = aua dui..k ds + ai ax.. is given by jE. . dxa are the components of the same vector in the V. where s is arc length along the curve ui = ui(s) or the space curve xa = xa[ui(s)] Differentiating (563).. . .. so that if due are the components of a contra- variant vector in the Vm. V. . + 9Qa a2xa ax°l aui aui auk auk SSsa h`k dst + ai ds (see Prob. In general. m. .dai a2xa du' as aui ds + aui aui ds + (rayaauui aui ds Hence 9'a ax8 axy du1 ax' Ma auk Ss _ .. 2. . . u»1). Ma We now find a relationship between and as.316 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. . See. if ai(u'. 6. . n (563) are the components of the same vector in the V.

. . show that auk is a contravariant vector of V. is parallel along C with respect to V. Consider the unit tangents to the 2. um).i ..ax° x. uk+'..Problems 1. If ai is parallel along C with respect to the Vm. aai 9ad. . Thus the theorem: i If a curve C lies in a subspace V. then Ss = 0. show that Ma is normal to the space V. Prove that if a curve is a geodesic in a geodesics. as i = it 2. the xa remain invariant. that is. . then it is also parallel along C with respect to V. . m. Under a coordinate transformation ui = ui(u'. .. . of V. a1. u2. .. 2.. M. tangent to the uk curve. . if as = 0. . that is. and a vector field in V..Sr. . xa = a au'. By considering k fixed. 4. . Hence show that axa . normal to the ui curves. i = 1.. of V.f agaa where the covariant derivatives are performed relative to the metric hi. = aa + ak(r k au' . . obtained by considering ul. uk-1. . u'" fixed in the equations um) xa = xa(u' 3. it is a geodesic in any subspace V. . that is.c. ... 1371 FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS 317 Hence ax" SAa 9aa _ auk as hlk I dal ds + hck (r'i)ha ds y dull J and ax" SAa 9°a Sat auk as as (564) From (564) we see that if ai is parallelly displaced along xa[ui(s)].

as. We have dbi rrkb. Generalized Covariant Differentiation. . aui axa a . = covariant differentiation is with respect to ui and h.. We consider a curve C in V. m. and Greek indices indicating tensors of the V. the -.. for each a. it is a scalar invariant and is a function of are length s along C. aya aui .. Show that A . Latin indices indicating tensors of the V. . .318 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS a [SFC.We propose to consider tensors of this aui our au' type. a = 1. parallel along C with respect to and let ca be the components of a vector field in V. n. for Greek indices and a tensor in V. . if we consider a as fixed. where and ya = ya(xl. Let bi be the components of a vector field in V.. 2.. .. Let us consider the tensor A7. parallel along C with respect to V. . However. for Latin indices. 138 ax. Its derivative is . .= . We wish to derive a new tensor which will be a tensor in the V. xn)... for if u' = ui(ul. 6. this product is an invariant (scalar product) for each i. 138. In V. 5.ai + x°. then _ aya axa CIO aui showing that the aui transform like a contravariant vector. . . for if xa = xa(ul u'") . are covariant vectors in the V. dd k ds dca + s dx# =0 (565) dsds=0 We now consider the product bicaA. i = 1. The quantities aui are contravariant vectors if we consider i fixed. . Show that ga$(x kxa + x {x k) + xaxIxk 0.. axa axa and we have . 2. = x. and in V. .... given by u` = ui(s) and by xa = xa(s) in V. u'n).

and d (b'c«A. 3. ds dx# dull ds . rag making use of (565).A. it follows from the quotient ds law that dA° _j + `4'r . Show that aA" Aa. since d3 .. by considering the scalar invariant b8c'daA'.i? ill 2. We may write (566) as (auk + A.Air?k (567) is the generalized covariant derivative of A7 with respect to the V. Problems 1... = r.Air. it follows from the quotient law that Aff:k =a aAuk° axe + A.. a ax? aut . a contravariant vector in V.SEc. Why is A ". k\ = bica d' + A. = aus. and that .k ds ) Since b1 and ca are arbitrary vectors. Show that x = x`.) is a scalar invariant. We call it the intrinsic derivative of A..Air. 1381 FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS 319 i ds (b°c«A. r«a auk aA° axe \ .r auk .)duk ds k k and since this is a tensor for all directions ds (the directions of C are arbitrary).A`r' k ds (566) is a tensor of the same type as A7. with respect to s.. ax* .:.r#rA au.rAflk is a mixed tensor.) bica dsi + ° biAi" ds + d ds c°A.

r . If Ni are the components of a unit normal to Vm. 139. Show that b. the point P and the direction Sa at P determine a unique geodesic. _ a2xa Show that ga$xQ4 k = 0.320 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS (SEC. b12 = f.i = gapx" NP. where ka dya = C ds p. Every pair of numbers at. Let us consider a point P of a Riemannian space. the tangent vectors to the surface.yx x = xai + FRxx4. we must have x = b. since the geodesics are straight lines and two vectors determine a plane.i du' dui the second fundamental form. given by a1Al + a2A2 = aiX.)Na. 35) for the subspace r = r(u. 4 are normal to the vectors 4k. k 5. and the geodesic surface is given by ya = a'8A1 + a2sX2 = ut?4 + u2A2 = uiX7 (568) j summed from 1 to 2 and ul = a's. U2 = a2s. Schur's Theorem. a2 determines a direction Ea.x = 0. v). The locus of all geodesics determined in this manner will yield a surface. A2. Hence the x"i are components of a vector normal to the subspace Vm. These vectors determine a pencil of directions at P. The x°i of Prob. The equations of the geodesics take the form ya = has. 139 44 = au' aui . The element of distance on the surface is given by ds2 = h. b22 = g (see Sec. We associate with P two independent vectors X. gas = as. If the V is a Euclidean V3. then hti = gap au' aui = gasX A aya ayo (569a) .xh + r. We now introduce normal coordinates ya with origin at P. We call B = b. In a Euclidean space the surface will be a plane.. and show by cyclic permutations that gaaxa.i du' dui (569) and if ds2 = gab dya dyfi for the V. show that b11 = e. Since the geodesics are second-order differential equations. Riemannian Curvature.

du= du'. to determine the R:. We need not make any reference to the embedding space.. 134..k1(u) = Rabcd(u) and aua aub au` and anti au' auk aul 81212 = Rabcd au!.kc can then be determined. and from Prob. we have that R1212 = R2121 = -R1221 = -R2112 = R2222 81111 = 1?1122 = R1122 = .. (570) =0 If we make an analytic transformation.. i = 1. = 81121 = .. Thus R 1212 =81212IJ1.SEC... we can determine the F. are intrinsic properties of the surface. . Let us note the following: The gas of a Riemannian space completely determine the Christoffel symbols r. aub auc and aul au2 aa1 au2 au1 au2 2 au1 au2 = R1212ka-lvau2 au2aul (571) by making use of (570). .a.. ds2 = h.. 1.k for this surface. The indices of R.--. and h. u2).. 2. We shall use Latin indices for the space determined by the metric h. 139] FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS 321 where the gas represent the components of the fundamental metric tensor in the system of normal coordinates. and Greek letters for the V.. Sec. = hab -.. Once the metric of a surface embedded in a V.kc be the components of the curvature tensor for the surface S with coordinates ul..k1 take on the values 1 or 2.so that aut alai aub . and the R... then R. All we are trying to say is that ds2 = h21 dus du' is the fundamental metric tensor for a Riemannian space which happens to be a surface embedded in a Riemannian V.LL aUa (572) Moreover. Now let R. V. is determined. uti = uti(ul. u2.. so that all results and formulas derived from the h. which in turn specify completely the RiemannChristoffel tensor Ras.k1 it is apparent that the ht.. can be determined without leaving the surface.

so that at the origin or... Y h1i 12 = gap ayr " (577) . 131).. 129) h.ar p = 0 at the origin (Prob. Sec. from (568). = 0. 6.(y) ay.. rP1(y) = 0 (see Sec. See. so that h. 6.1rik(u) = gaprs.. hit = gaN y* Similarly (576) since ag-0 = g. and it is called the Gaussian curvature. h11r`21(u) = of Riemannian coordinates XRX . = h1i [ar1(P) au2 ar'22(P)i au1 J (575) from (538) and (541).'X AgAk aya (574) since aui - At the point P. VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. Hence the curvature tensor can be written R1212(P) = h11Rg12(P) '' a2ya auk auj 0.irik = o or himhiir. 128). y and from (569a) auk = X'XOXk agy = 0. The coordinate transformation between the Christoffel symbols is given by (see Prob. We now determine an alternative form for K in terms of the directions Ai and X and the curvature tensor for the V at the point P. + g. It is an intrinsic property of the surface.322 IF = I hIJ 2.pr. 139 We rewrite (572) in the form R1212 Ih R1212 IhI (573) Equation (573) shows that K is an invariant.k = r.8y8 ayT au' auj auk + gaa ay° 8u1 auk aui a2yP which reduces to har3k = g. From (574).911.

2)gp. .ga... ..gpa) + K.X aj X 2'a1 2 (580) We are now in a position to prove Schur's theorem.gsa -. = gp K.) Adding and using Bianchi's identity. as).gw.gp..K..(ngp.K....ngp...gp.p(ga.Sec. .ga.gp.. = K..gpe) and so Rapa=. .) = K.. we have K.gp.gpp and gp..M) + K. we have K.gpa) so that Ihi = (579) Thus 7 K aps..ga. if n > 2.gp . For n = 2 there is no arbitrary orientation. X7i that Rap.. K is constant throughout the space.gp.n(ga. = (n . -..) + K.K..'.ga.gp. . If at each point of a Riemannian space. (543). = h12 h22 gap c3u1 c3u1 = ga9Xx1 = gaAX2 x7x2xip21'(gaagp. Ihl _ hll h12 h2l h22 hllh22 .(ga. 139] FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS 323 Using (538).) + K.2)K.. = K.gaogpa) Rap.ga.. Raaµ. (541).e = K..(ga. = 0 or (n . It follows at once if K is independent of X.. . .K. or 5. = K(gaagp. K is independent of the orientation (X "j. .(gp . (577)..(gaagp.gp.. it is easy to show that R1212 = A72A1t2Rapyr Finally.gawgpr) =0 Multiplying the above equation by ga° and summing.... (576).gpµ ..hit and aya c3y9 hi.N(gaegp.

For a V3 for which gii = 0. . Hence K = constant throughout all of space. show that R"a = l aR 2 axi 6. . This is true for all µ since IL can be chosen arbitrarily from I to n.n). t) If we perform a transformation of coordinates. . . and the time t: L = L(qi.. Derive (575). 3. Let L be any scalar invariant function of the coordinates q'.. . . 4i. . 42.324 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. show that R = giiRii = nk.Riaai 9hh 1 R. Lagrange's Equations. Problems 1. 4. q2. 2. 4n. . or Rii = (R/n)gii 7. . Show that a space of constant curvature K is an Einstein space and that R = Kn(1 ..Raica + . If Rii = kgii (an Einstein space). Rii = . j are unequal. = gaiRii. their time derivatives 41. qi. t) = L(qi. 140. Derive (578). 140 If we choose o = r X u. If R.Rhiih gii s 1 1 1 gii R= 9ii9ii Riiii 5. K. then qa = aga aqa so that 4a is a function of Now aL 84a aL aL aqa aqi = aqa aqi + a4a aqi aL aqa aL a2ga = aqa aqi + a4a a4i aq0 41 (581) . . = . q2. . the . qn. i. Derive (571). 2. = 0. qn) a = 1. show that if h. qa = ga(gl. . Such a space is said to be of constant curvature. i 54 j. n.

In spherical coordinates. a particle has the square of the velocity v2 = t2 + r262 + r2 sin2 0 rp2. . Then aL dt ax. We replace the x. .aV = (F*). q2. so that .. . = 0 for la Euclidean space and Newtonian ax vanishes in all coordinate W \-x systems.(aqa ma d are the components of a kinetic energy. =max. and Lagrange's equations of motion are d aL (. x2f x2f s 7 xn) s is the potential function. we obtain d (IL) dt / aqaq- d (582) aq' d 8L. where T is the 1 1 (ds.SEC.-(F.(FT).) _ aL aq= 0. Now also aL _ aL a4 aqa aq. qn which completely specify the configuration of the mechanics. _d _ aL ax. -d(magma) _ dt n _ m. ax. . 2 1 8ga0 x.x. . 140] FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS 325 where we consider q' and q' as independent variables in L.) L dt \aqa aqa c qla which shows that the covariant vector. .V.a2 ax * ' + aV -. Hence system of particles. by any system of coordinates q'. . aq' aL aqa aqa aqr so that dt \agi1 .)a. T For a system of particles. ifgaQ=aae and m. r= 1 ' 2' 'n (583) Example 150.ala a \aq"I + aq q8 aqt Subtracting (581) from (582). let L = T .12 _ :=1 2 I/ 2 e i1 2 2 s V (1 x1 x1 xI 1 x2.

V = m(r92 + r sing 0 #2) . so that Q. then - Qr .m(r62 + r sin 2 9 02) + aV = 0 c1r Since . 2)gapxaO is a scalar invariant. are the components of the force vector in a y'-yL -y" coordinate system. so that aW Q+ = ax' (585) . so that d (BT) aT Qr = dt aT axr (584) are the components of a covariant vector. the quantity r . dW.fa axf and aya Qr dx r = f a 49y a a dxr = fa dya is a scalar invariant.aV _d dt aL ar = mr and one of Lagrange's equations of motion is mr . If no potential function exists.aV represents the radial force. we can modify Lagrange's equa- tions as follows: We know that T = (m.V = 2 (t2 + r262 + r2 sin2 0 02) . are the components of the Newtonian force. 140 - L = T . The reader will immediately realize that fa dya represents the differential of work.326 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. the Q. In cartesian coordinates. is the generalized force vector.(r62 + r sing 0 02) must be the radial acceleration. If f.

. 2. since 6 = w.2sinocoso+R. 1401 FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS 327 . We obtain Qi by allowing xi to vary. q^. The only horizontal force is the reaction R of the tube on the particle. . xi-'. A particle slides in a frictionless tube which rotates in a horizontal plane with constant angular speed co. keeping x'. Qe = R(r de) do = rR. . so that (584) becomes mr" . q")gags. gR = 2mw dt. aT aq- q°°. The solution to (586) is r = Aew' + Be". Define p. p. = 0. A particle slides in a frictionless tube which rotates in a vertical plane with constant angular speed w. Set up the equations of motion. and compute xi+'.O AV i not summed Example 151.+wy)+jCwa Using Eulerian angles...mr02 = Q. If T = 4. and and assuming we can solve for show that the Hamiltonian .1 sino =Qe where R. = 0. . . T =JA(w. We have T = (m/2) (j62 + r2A2). show that 2T = oL(q. calculate the work A Wi done by the forces. d Qi = lim Wi -. dt (mr2o) = Qe (586) with Q. show that if Q. x2. = q* = gr(gl) .SEC. . For a rigid body with one point fixed.L. x% fixed. aq . A¢sin20+Rcos0=S 3. S are constants of integration. then C(O + cos 0 +') = R A#-A. Problems 1.

which will be independent of the coordinate system used. show that the result yields d dt aT Cair aV . ap'. pr . q"). the pr are called the generalized momentum coordinates. t) dl.V)gas dxa dxs 141. gn)gags. 5. Einstein's Law of Gravitation. . . By extremalizing the integral f " L(x1. . IT where T + V = h.dy2 . x'. We look for a law of motion. t. . show that aH . 141 II defined by H = pages . . Also a' all = g. Show that they are the components of a covariant vector.L satisfies II = T + V = It (a constant) where V = V (q'.r2 do2 .ax. show that Lagrange's equations result. the constant of energy.ax' = .V )gas '-6aA ] a 1 dX is extremalized. If the action integral A= f` e [(h dxs . describing the gravitational field of a single particle. the gas are constants and the space is . y. These are Hamilton's equations of motion. T = aas(q'.328 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC. The path of the particle is the same as the geodesic of a space having the metric ds2 = 2M(h . In the special theory of relativity.dz2 + c2 dt2 -dr2 . z. the line element for the space-time coordinates is given by ds2 = -dx2 . 6.r2 sin2 0 dp2 + c2 d12 (587) In the space of x.

and their deriva1 aR . R = g°pRay. We have 911 = and -ea. 134. We assume the line element (due to Schwarzchild) to be of the form ds2 = -e"''' dr2 .(r2 sin2 6)-1 g44 = e-'. vanish (see Probs.i axi rik = 2 9ii 1 gii kk (590) rkk = .. For a gravitating particle we postulate that the Ricci tensor Ri. 2. We also see that rii _ 1 agii 2 g .agi) i not summed If i. 944 = e' (589) g11 = -e.2 9ii axi Applying (590). R = gi°R°. Now r. and for j = 1. gii = 0. 1411 FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS 329 flat (Euclidean).i = 2 ax. We do not include terms of the form dr do. we have rik -r-2' agke g33 = . ago. i j gi.. 4 the 10 equations are essentially reduced to 6 equations. we have R . tives. Sec.. g22 g33 = -r2 sin2 0.r2 sin2 0 dp2 + e'(') dt2 (588) so that our space is non-Euclidean.k .k . so that BJk: = 0. then rk = 0.. ag.r2 d82 . 5 and 6 of this section).21' 9 i o e. we have agkk . = 0. k are different. because we expect our space to be homogeneous and isotropic. 3. j. where From Prob.SEc. a four-dimensional space yields n(n + 1)/2 = 10 equations involving the gi. Since Ri. = R. 7. g22 -r2.ax° iPd j (axk + ax' and since g'° = 0 for n Caxk + ax's . etc.

_ 1da Or g11 a92z 2g 2 dr = r22 1 1 = _ 1 2 or -re a _ = 1 g11 2 1 1 ag aa Or = -r sine 0 e-A _ 1 1441 --g . = 0 yields _ R11 1 d2v 1 (_f)2 2 dr2 + 4 Cdr 1 A dv 4 dr dr 1A r dr - 0 .. 141 1_ 1 .r1i(ri1 + rig + ria + r44) d2D 1(dv12 r2 r2+2dr2+r2+r2+4`drl l da 2r dr 1 da 2r dr l da dv 4 dr dr (592) by making use of (591).sin 0 cos 0 an. Hence Einstein's law R.. _ so that R11 a ar1R ar: 4 ar14 axe . From (539) R.r°raa + art.axa + r ar8.tag.k vanish.330 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS r11 [SEC. + Or 1 1 + 1 ar 1 Or rilril + risrs1 + ri3r 1 1 + ri4ril . agsa 1 933 2 1 rt = -29 4 ae 8g 44 Or = cot 0 1 dv 44 4 2 dr and all other r.. ._ ag44 or dv dr (591) z 2 112 = 2 s 1 gs2 ag zz Or 1 22 1 r raas= r1aa= _ gsa2 29 Or a9aa 00 = r .

. This requires that X and v approach zero as r approaches P. co.0 Dividing R44 by e'-x and adding to R11. Let y = so that dr = 1 dy and 'Y r yCl+ydr) or dy dr r 1-y and 2m r where 2m is a constant of integration. Hence \X + v = 0 or X From R22 = 0 we have ev C1 + r dr) = 1.k dx' dxk d ds = 0 CdLp)2 dr d_9 Z-2 + 2T E ds A + r33 Vs 2 J =0 . we obtain d +dr =o or X + v = constant = co We desire the form of (588). to approach that of (587).SEC.-a r_ 1 dzv L 1 (dv 2 4 1 dX dv 2 dr2 + 4 dr dr r drJ . The equations of the geodesics are d2x' (594) a82 + which yield d20 2 r. as r --f oo. 141] FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS 331 Similarly R22 = e-a C 1 2 C r (dr 1= 0 dr) Iv (ddr R33 = sine 8 R44 = 1+ 1 _ da 2r dr I dr .sin2 0 = 0 1 dvl _ (593) e.

sin 0 cos 8 a 2 (j2 ds 0 (595) If 0 = 2. a dB ds = 0 initially. Also d29 a 2I'19 dr dcp ds2 d21 ds ds = 0 or d2 ds2 +r + 2drdip dt dr + 2x14 ds ds - ds2 0 or d2t ds2 dsds dv dt dr dr ds ds =0 (597) .2 =0 +2 1 e v-' dt ds2 1 da (dr)2 ds + 2 dr - re a (thp)2 dv (dt)2 dr ds/ =0 (596) making use of 0 = 7r/2. we obtain r2 dt d d(p A = h dt c (599) or log + v = log c ds = y (600) where h and c are constants of integration. Equation (588) becomes ds2 = .r2 1 \ds2 + y or 1 (l (r d(p)2 .82 + 2 dr db r ds ds . 141 d20 d.0 (598) Integrating (597) and (598).1 dr2 . We also obtain ds2+ or 1'11(ds/2 ()2 -x ds+ r44(d.r2 r4 + y y z . then 0 = satisfies (595) and the boundary conditions.r2 d(P 2 + y dt2 y 1 or 1 - 2 y \ds2 .332 or VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.

p2+u =h2+h.w) approximately = h2 [1 + e cos (rp .co . w are constants of integration.SEc. + h4 ecos(cp-w) d2u This is Newton's solu- tion of planetary motion. we finally obtain d + u = h2 + 3mu2 2U (601) We obtain an approximate solution of (601) in the following manner: We first neglect the small term 3mu2 = 3m/r2.e)J. term 3mu2. . and we obtain m 3m3 6m3 W.co)] We now neglect certain terms which yield little to our solution and obtain 3 dz 6m' d2U + u = h2 + e Cos (. 1411 FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS 333 or Ch drl 2 . The solution of dz + u = h2 is ad z T =u=-[l+eeos((p-w)j where e. where e = (3m2.w) + h2 sin ((p .c2 . We substitute this value of u in the + h4 [1 + 23 33 cos 2((p .1 r2 dip/ + r2 C h.w) From the theory of differential equations the solution of our new equation is z U = h2 + e cos ((p . for large r. we obtain ()2 z - au + u2 = d2 h2 1 + h2 u + 2mu8 and differentiating.'h2)cp and e2 is neglected.2 2m r + 2m h2 r r2 and writing it = 1/r.p .

3. show that x = R + R(x2+y2)1 The term (m/R) (x2 + 2y2)/(x2 + y2)} is the small deviation of the path of a light ray from the straight line x = R. 2. dxa ds ' 0. 2y2 y = r sin tp. The asymptotes m x2 + are found by taking y large compared with x. When numerical results are given to the constants. Derive (593). ds = 0.3 h2 us 5. replace this value of u in 3mu2. dx4 %:W ds 1. x = r coa rp. on the basis of the Newtonian theory. 8x4 = 0.. Derive (591). and (601) becomes s d2u + u = 3mu2 2 (602) Integrate d Y + u = 0. Problems 1. then y = 1 . If R. show that if y = el. 141 When the planet moves through one revolution. is taken for the Einstein law. the advance of the perihelion is given by 8(w + e) = (3m2/h2) 3 = 6irm2/h2. 2.(2m/r) . it is found that the discrepancy between observed and calculated results on the advance of the perihelion of Mercury is removed. a = 1. 3. gap = 0 for a p& agaa gae 1. 4. . For motion with the speed of light. Show that they are x = R + (m/R) (± 2y) and that the angle (in radians) between the asymptotic lines is approximately 4m/R. and P obtain an approximate solution of (602) in the form u = co`p+ 2(coal jp+2sin2(p) where R is a constant of integration. This is twice the predicted value.334 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS (SEC.}are and d2U d2 + U = h2 + 3mu2 .. for the deflection of light as it passes the sun and has been verified during the total eclipse of the sun. h = oo. Since u = 1/r. Assume the following: ds2 = gap dxa dxi. so that from (599). = ag.

a(xl. x4 = ct. if 2_ = x'.s behaves like a covariant vector.). g. indices If we keep the coordinates of M2 fixed. x2) 8xi 8xg2 8-i - (603) then the go. x2 = y. With the assumptions of Prob.0( 1. What difficulties would one encounter for tensors depending on a countable collection of points? We may consider a two-point tensor field as special one-point tensors of a 2n-dimensional space subject to a special group of coordinate transformations. (xl.SEC. indeed.s(xl. i = 1. . Two-point The tensors that we have studied have been functions of one point. 142] FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS 335 41 _ J944+ constant xl = x. . . x2) which depend on the coordinates of two points. Indices preceding the comma refer to the point M1. and x2 coincide.A are the components of a two-point tensor.s(xl. ... A similar remark applies at the point M2. . xa = z. xs. .. We could. Indeed. 3. 142. If in the new coordinate systems xl. x2) dxi 8x 1 (604) so that relative to Ml. then (603) reduces to following the comma refer to M2. x. a covariant vector relative to Ml and a covariant vector relative to M2. consider a multiple tensor field depending on a finite number of points. We now allow independent coordinate transformations at the two points M1(x. x.. x2) dxi dxs (605) is an immediate generalization of the Riemann line element. 22 we have ga. we obtain the Riemann line . when x. M2(x4i x2. 22) = g. 5 show that R44 = 0 yields Laplace's equation V24 = 0. . . We leave it to the reader to consider the most general type of two-point tensor fields. xs) = gw. that is. The scalar invariant ds2 = ga. 2. Tensors. Show that the equations of the dzi geodesics reduce to Newton's law of motion die + a ' = 0. 6. Let us now consider the functions ga.

. dt (606) dt and obtain a system of differential equations. Assuming ds2 > 0 for a < t < 0. 142 element. Derive (607).p = 1 where . z: where 1 x$ + r: + ra+. xax2 + CO. Problems 1.o. 3. Show that rip.7r C` = 9"' . a mixed tensor relative to M1.'6x1 axe2= 0 a. a9µ. . 1 '(so) = a'. =g ''° a x ' a9°.."# = g°'' axe _ a9°.g(x x2) is a scalar relative to M1 and a covariant vector relative to M2.. and a covariant vector relative to M2.(xl. a2xi axi + ax. is a scalar relative to both M1 and M2. awl axi axa. we can extremalize fd sdtdt fB(ga'odx" dx. X2) are the components of a two-point tensor.) axiz dx. X '(so) _ Oo. x2) axi ax. xi(s). are called dyodesice. show that of necessity a2 9°`'0 = axi axQ where 4. subject to the initial conditions x1(8o) = ao. Show that the CQ.p.i = a.. x4(s).e r. 4. If also r: = r' ...#(x1.336 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS [SEC.x-°ze1 1 + C. ax` 9"'`9µ. ax1° _ ag°. = r . 2. is (2 1. (608) axµ IF x1 = ds The unique solutions of (606). xs(so) = o. x2) = r°". if and only if g. Show that the law of transformation for the linear connec- tion ri. 10=0 (607) rye. '9X' azi awl ax. or dyopaths.

142] FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF TENSOR ANALYSIS 337 5. rir2 dt1 = he-a ds dt2 _ _ Cie_ ds = C2e d2v d. d M Mm/hi << 1. dr2 . a.(mm2MM)2 r2 ' + r' el=(1+rl ex C1+m/ = show that the two-point tensors ax ar:' ax1 1 a 2 + ro.SEc.P2 + v L Mm M 11 + (m/M)]2h2l 1 + [1 + (m/M))'hi +3Mv2r1+(mMM)J 2 L provided that Mr2 = mr1.. a.r2eM dpi er dt. we have +v + 3Mv2. hi = (M/m)h. .a .r.T 9x° 2 vanish identically (m. M are constants). Show that the dyodesics satisfy rir2 ds1 = he-. If ds2 = -el. the Einstein solution for the motion of an infinitesimal particle moving in the field of a point gravitational mass M. dr. For m << M. v = 1/r1. dt2 e= e2µ-r [1mM2 (m + L M)2 rl J 1 1 11 .c T.

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"Invariants of Quadratic Differential Forms." George Bell & Sons. Kellogg. L. Inc.. H. "Advanced Vector Analysis." Cambridge University Press. 1944. London. Graustein. New York. 1933." Oxford University Press. "Vector Analysis. T. 1935. 1934. Ltd. D." McGrawHill Book Company. Glasgow. 1934. E. 1930. "Theoretical Physics. 1939." John Wiley & Sons. New York. O. Phillips." McGraw-Hill Book Company. 1933.." John Murray. 1931. New York 1946. New York. 339 ." The Macmillan Company. Inc. A. Van Nostrand Company. Y. L. "Principles of Mathematical Physics. London. G. Houston." G." Cambridge University Press. Page. "Static and Dynamic Electricity. A. "Applications of the Absolute Differential Calculus. McConnell. 1938." Blackie & Son Ltd. B. "Differential Invariants of Generalized Spaces. Ltd. New York. Brillouin. W. "Vectorial Mechanics. Milne-Thomson. London. "Matrix and Tensor Calculus.REFERENCES Brand. "Differential Geometry. 1934." John Wiley & Sons. "Elementary Vector Analysis. O.. C. R. C. M. Michal. Veblen. Stechert & Company. L. C. New York. "Relativity Thermodynamics and Cosmology. New York. "Introduction to Theoretical Physics." George Bell & Sons. W. Tolman. R. New York. Thomas. "Foundations of Potential Theory. E. V. J. Joos.. D. London. Weatherburn." D. New York.. 1929. "Theoretical Hydrodynamics. W." Dover Publications. Inc. New York. London." The Macmillan Company. New York.. 1921. Smythe. L." John Wiley & Sons. 1935. "Les Tenseurs. 1947. 1934.

"Theoretical Physics.10 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS "Differential Geometry.3. Methuen & Co. III. W. London." Cambridge University Press. I. 1927. 1940. 1942." Cambridge University Press. London.." vols. Ltd. 1933. 1931. London. . II. Wilson. "Riemannian Geometry.

30-31. 2 Angular momentum. 58. 69 Charges. 280. 128 field in neighborhood of. 81 Asymptotic lines. 130-131 force on the surface of. 238 Closed interval. 146 Christoffel symbols. 91 Bounded set. 13 Center of mass. 231-232 uniform. 90 Components of a tensor. 97 Cauchy's inequality. 90 Boundary of a set. 30. 52 Coordinate system. 290-291 Circulation. 89 Closed set. geodesic. 95 Contraction of a tensor. 312 Biot-Savart law. 127 moving. 163 Boundary point. 78 B Bernoulli's theorem. 81 Average curvature. 210-211 Action integral. 8 Characteristic curves. 274-275 Contravariant vector. 328 Addition. 194 Centripetal acceleration. 184 Ceva's theorem. 281 Associative law of vector addition. 162 Conservative field. 95 equation of. 98 rectifiable.INDEX A Acceleration. 186 centripetal. 71. 122. 103 Continuity. 292 Cauchy-Riemann equations. 8. 275-276 Contravariant tensor. 210-211 . 184 Coriolis. 305 transformation of. 131 Conformal space. 269 Coriolis acceleration. 98 Arithmetic n-space. 100 Archimedean ordering postulate. 92 Arcs. 30-31. 22 Are length. 268-269 Associated vector. 89 Bounded variation. 162 Conductor. 91 Commutative law of vector addition. 210-211 linear. 234-235 Bianchi's identity. 294 Conjugate directions. 270-271 Conductivity. 122 341 Cauchy's criterion for sequences. angular. 143 Connected region. 184. 100 regular. 3 Asymptotic directions. 269 Coordinates. 289-293 law of transformation of. 80 Conjugate functions. 275 of vectors. 3 Complement of a set. 102-103 Conservation of electric charge. of tensors. 308 Binormal. 303-305 Riemannian. 99 C Calculus of variations. 9. 196-200 Angular velocity. 83-85 Cartesian coordinate system. 274 Components of a vector. 98. 270-272 Coordinate curves.

168 electric. 274-275 Covariant vector. 45. 157 Electric field. 318-319 Displacement current. 295-296 intrinsic. 283 rules. 54-55 D D'Alembertian. 297-298 of a curl. differentiation. 40 Deflection of light. 324 special theory of relativity. 245 . 136 Distributive law. 160-161 moment of. 328-329 space. 157-158 energy of. 297-298 of a vector. 157 potential of. 194 Dyodesics. 170-173 Electrostatic dipoles. 21 Divergence. 334 Deformation tensor. 50. 78. 78 of a curve. 300 of a gradient. law of gravitation. 11. 69-70 Einstein. covariant. 311 Gaussian. Laplacian in. displacement. 259 Einstein-Lorentz transformations. 158 field of. 297 Couple. 295-296 generalized covariant. 93 Dielectrics. 70 Diameter of a set. 264 Developable surfaces. covariant.342 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS Direction cosines. Gauss's law of. 70 curl. 3. 120. 157-158 Electrostatic energy. 226 of strain. 307. 283286 summation notation. 29 Dipole. 7 Derivative. 189 Dynamics of a system of particles. 127 Electrostatic intensity. 54. 128 Green's reciprocity theorem of. 128 Electrostatic forces. 32 of vectors. average. 46. 306-307 Curve (see Space curve) Curvilinear coordinates. 139-140 Ellipsoid of inertia. 197 Covariant. 318319 Discontinuities of D and E. 161-162 Curvature. 127 Electrostatic flux. 127 Electrostatics. 55. 273 Curl. 44 Divergence theorem of Gauss. 297. 58. 168 Displacement vector. 158-159 Electromagnetic wave equations. 295-296 generalized differentiation of. gradient. Albert. 266 multiplication of. 42. 322 lines of. 138 polarization of. divergence. 114120. 297 Currents. 136-138 Electrostatic field. 320-323 tensor. 246 Desargues's theorem. 78 Riemannian. 178 Del (v). 138139 Covariant tensor. product. 299 Dot. 46 of a gradient. 336 E Edge of regression. 158 magnetic. 135-136 Differentiation. 10 Dynamics of a particle. 127 discontinuity of. 29 Determinants. 264 derivative of. or scalar. 38. 128 Electrostatic unit of charge. 263-267 cofactors of. 158 Electrostatic potential. 127 Electrostatic polarization. 13 Directional derivative.

129 Integral. 231-232 of gauge invariance. 90 Interval. 89 open. 95 properties of. 177 120 343 Gauss. for a fluid. 302-303 Equipotential surfaces. 123 Fundamental forms. 143 Heine-Borel theorem. curvature. 9 uniform. 177 solution of. 302-303 Newton's law of. 63 G Images. 211 Infemum. 288-289 minimal. 83. law of. 167 Inertia. 111 Integration. 249 Hypersurfaces. 62-63 normal. 129 Euclidean space. 94 Helix. 216 tensor. 36. 60. 167 Field. 282 I conjugate. 85 Evolutes. 66 Gyroscope. closed. 123 functions. 216 product of. moment of. 10 Fluid. 213-215 Frenet-Serret formulas. 128 Generalized force vector. 273. 233. of Laplace's equation. 155 Interior point. 216-217 Euler-Lagrange equation. equation for a fluid. 225-228 Inertial frame. 103-105 Riemann. 123. 303-305 Geodesics. 294 Gradient. 297 Gravitation. 178-182 Insulator. 92 Inhomogeneous wave equation. 233-236. 201 Envelopes. 99100 H Hamilton's equations of motion. 279. Einstein's law of. 190 Green's formula. 308-309 Euler's angular coordinates. 118. 71 second. 328 Harmonic conjugates. 122 continuous. 60 Hooke's law. 141-143 Induction. line. 9 conservative vector. 103 nonconservative vector. 62 osculating. 311-312 Functions of bounded variation. 62 rectifying. motion of. of continuity. 101. 139140 for a rigid body. 236-238 Force moment. 120. 299-300 Green's reciprocity theorem. 69 Equation. 219-221 equation of motion. 328 Geodesic coordinates. 222-225 F Faraday's law of induction. 74-75 Fundamental planes. 328329 of motion for a fluid. 8. 230 general motion of. 117 steady. divergence theorem of.INDEX Energy. 175 of electrostatic field. 145 Gauge invariance. 136-138 kinetic. 96 harmonic. first. 177 Gauss. method of. 89 . 101 Integrating factor. 326 momentum. 104 solenoidal vector. 235-236 of electromagnetic field. 322 of Poisson's equation. 78. 114electrostatic law of. 196-200 Foucault pendulum.

of a particle. 62 . 78 element. 49. 201 Kirchhoff's solution of the inhomogeneous wave equation. 184 plane. 191-193 Kinematics. 165-166 N Navier-Stokes equation. 98 Magnetic dipole. 167-169 for a homogeneous conducting medium. 162-164 Magnetostatics. 299 Law of induction. magnetic effect of currents. 55 in spherical coordinates. 90 Orthogonal transformation 292-293 Osculating plane. 190 Newton's law of motion. 189. 311 to a surface. 119 Laplacian. 58. 285 Maxwell's equations. 45. 283 Ohm's law. 234 relative. 285 Moment of inertia. 103-105 Linear function. of curvature. 73. 146-149 Mutual induction of two circuits. 89 Oersted. 56. 199-200 Motion. 162-165 Liquids. 61. 328 relative angular. 63 Invariant. 271 Involutes. 211 Nonconservative field. 329 of force. 8 Meusnier's theorem. 160-161 effect of currents. 123 integration of. 204-207 Kinetic energy. 107. 216 Momentum. 239 Kepler's laws of planetary motion. 15. 238-239 Moving charges. 298-299 in cylindrical coordinates. 101. 234 vortex. 232 Irrotational vectors. 233-234 Lorentz's electron theory. in a plane. 145 solution in spherical coordinates. 111 J Jacobian. 33 irrotational. 148-149 Legendre's equation. 160 Mass of a particle. 89 Open set. 279 of Schwarzchild. 175-177 transformations. 196 angular. 268-269 O uniqueness theorem. 162 Open interval. 178-182 Kronecker delta. 260-262 L Lagrange's equations. 184 of a rigid body.344 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS M Intrinsic equations of a curve. 139 Legendre polynomials. 148 Limit point. 187-188 steady. 196-200 generalized. general motion of. 90 Line. 255-257 Neighborhood. 104 Normal acceleration. 265 Jordan curves. 132 integral. 75 Minkowski force. 90 Newton's law of gravitation. 189. 109 Number triples. 324-327 Laplace's equation. 169-173 Menelaus' theorem. 64 Irrotational motion. 3 set. 62 to a space curve. 173 solution of. 167 of refraction. 161-162 K Kelvin's theorem.

230 Principal directions. 160 Planetary motion. 101 Riemannian. 1 curvature. 313-315 Parallelism in a subspace. 297 Laplacian of. 36. 89 closed. 288-289 hypersurface in. 276 R Radius of curvature. 48 Reciprocal tensors. law of. 307. 91 complement of. 90 linear. 329 Second fundamental form. 139 Regions. 155 Poisson's ratio. 97 Set. 285 momentum of. 323-324 Schwarzchild line element. 74-75 geometrical significance. 157 electrostatic. acceleration of. 89 boundary. 208 Resistance. 93 infemum of. 190-193 Point. 117 velocity. 320-323 metric. 189. 189. 102-103 Regular arcs. 203 motion of. 63 Refraction. 273. 232 Power. 90 countable. 128 vector. 280 geodesics in. 158-159 Potential. 90 neighborhood of. 45. 162 Retarded potentials. 211 rotation of. 273-274 Schur's theorem. 194 Perihelion of Mercury. 90 set theory. 93 diameter of. 307 Riemann integral. connected. 89 Poisson's equation. coordinates. 196 dynamics of. 307 gradient of. 189 kinematics of. 89 open. 97 Cauchy criterion for convergence of. 102 simply connected. 102 Quadratic differential form. 89 bounded. 187-188 time rate of change of vectors. 71 Particle. electric. 90 supremum of. 98 Relative motion. 307-308 Rigid bodies. 281 . 215-225 S Scalar. 174-175 Poynting's vector. 249 Polarization. 175 Pressure. 10. 334 Permeability. 91 theorem of nested. 209 Particles. 178-182 Ricci tensor.INDEX 345 P Parallel displacement. 162 Poynting's theorem. 315-317 Parametric lines or curves. 282 Riemann-Christoffel tensor. 22 velocity of. 210 angular momentum of. system of. 196 Newton's laws of motion for. 280 space. 92 limit point of. of a dipole. 30. 75 Sequence. 24 Recapitulation of differentiation formulas. 30. 184 mass of. 298-299 product of vectors. 305 curvature. 184. 77-78 Q Rectifying plane. 132-134 integration of. 90 interior. 90 limit. 93 Simply connected region. 280 Quotient law of tensors.

of Ceva. 70 are length on. 275-276 contravariant. 58. 63 Jordan. 294 Space curve. 23 Triple vector product. 3 Summation convention. 50 indicatrix. 184 conservative field. 274 contraction of. 275 addition of. 311 torsion of. 231 Solenoidal vector. 71 asymptotic curves on. 119 geodescis of. 276 reciprocal. 281 T basis. 35. 58. 31. 274-278 absolute. 59. 196-200 Torsion of a space curve. 109 principal directions on. 100-101 curvature of. ellipsoid. associated. 8 center of mass. 160 Source. 58 tangent to. 83 Unit charge. 281 relative. 259 Supremum. 80 U curves on. 14. 108 . 59 Triple scalar product. 58. 283-286 Spherical coordinates. 31 arc length of.346 VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS Tensor. 225-228 mixed. 3. 335 weight of. 8 Top. 59. 77 V second fundamental form of. 259 Superscripts. 312 Transformation of coordinates. 268-269 Special theory of relativity. 245 tensor. 307 Riemann-Christoffel. 275 Ricci. 8-9 Tangential acceleration. 31. 95 first fundamental form of. 78 conjugate directions on. 243-246 Streamline. 9 Stokes's theorem. 311 components of. 7 of Menelaus. 278 product of. 59. 335 Sink. 194 Tangent to a space curve. 58. 306-307 deformation. 117 Solid angle. 246-248 Subtraction of vectors. 73. 72 developable. 278 outer product of. 275 Theorem. 311 Space of n-dimensions. 234 Stress tensor. 98 on a surface. 275 Tensors. 81 average curvature of. 71 Uniform vector field. 72 radius of curvature of. 307-308 strain. 246 inertia. 300-301 Strain. 231 Space. 127 normal to. 91-92 Surface. 10 Gauss curvature of. 274-275 curvature. 24 Two-point tensors. components of. 8 of Desargue. 68 Steady field. 275 cross product of. conformal. 274-275 covariant. 222-225 Torque. 78 Uniqueness theorems. 243-246 stress. 312 unit binormal of. 246-248 two-point. 311 intrinsic equations of. motion of. 70 Uniform continuity. 269 Trihedral. 74 Vector. 107-112. 312 unit principal normal of. 275 quotient law of.

30. 273 curl of. 172. 232 Vortex motion. 40 physical components of. 177 longitudinal. 273274 irrotational.INDEX Vector. 170 inhomogeneous equation of. 270-272 covariant. 1 Vectors. angular. 117 space. 3 subtraction of. 249 . 117 solenoidal. 103. 275 angle between two. addition of. 253-254 transverse. 253 IN'eierstrass-Bolzano theorem. 156-157 unit. 184. 24-25 vector. 54. 136 divergence of. 238-239 W Waves. 120. 2. 1 differentiation of. 300 definition of. 23-24 triple vector product of. 1 fundamental unit. contravariant. 45. 313-315 scalar. product of. 10. 42. 22-23 linear. 29 displacement. 92 Work. 10. parallel. 297. 202 Y Young's modulus. 281-282 differentiation of. product of. 314 parallel displacement of. 111 length of. 55. 20-23 Velocity. 1. 2. 209 potential. 107. 9 347 Vectors. 1. equation of. 3 triple scalar product of. 268-269 sum of a solenoidal and an irrotational vector. 272 potential. 8 linear combination of. or dot. 29 equality of. 281 operator del (v). 281 zero. 297-298 field. or cross.

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