Speed Control of DC Motors

- Anoop Mathew
Asst. Professor Electronics & Commn. Engg. Dept. Vedavyasa Institute of Tech. Malappuram Dist. 673632 Kerala
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Speed Control of DC Motors
Merits of DC Drives

Versatile control characteristics. High starting torque. (Traction purposes) Control over a large speed range. Speed control methods are simpler and cheaper as compared to AC machines.

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Demerits of DC Drives


Tailor-made machines. Bulky as compared to AC counterpart. Commutator sparking – not suitable for petrochemicals, mine and chemical applications.


Above 500 kW, manufacturing of machine itself is tedious.

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anoopmathew.com .Fundamentals of Drives Quadrants of operation © www.110mb.

com .110mb.Fundamentals of DC machines DC machine Compound Separately excited Series Shunt © www.anoopmathew.

Armature current distribution is maintained by the Commutators. © www. a back EMF is induced in the armature windings and it appears at the commutators. Due to the field.com .Fundamentals of DC machines Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Consists of stationary field winding and rotating armature winding.110mb.anoopmathew. Commutators reverse the armature current as armature pass from one field pole to next. Field magnetic field interacts with the current in the armature conductors and this generates a torque.

Also ώ α V Và terminal voltage Vbà back emf ώà rotational speed Φà flux Raà armature resistance ώ α (V/Φ) © www. ώ α 1/Φ Where.anoopmathew.com .110mb. (1) V= Vb = KώΦ ie.Fundamentals of DC machines Motoring Vb = V-IaRa = KώΦ Neglecting IaRa drop.

Speed control options n Drive Speed can be controlled by: Ø Armature Voltage control Ø Field Flux control © www.com .anoopmathew.110mb.

anoopmathew.com .110mb.Speed control using Armature voltage control © www.

com .110mb.Semi-converter fed separately-excited motor © www.anoopmathew.

110mb.com .anoopmathew.Waveforms (Continuous motor current) © www.

com .110mb.anoopmathew.Waveforms (Discontinuous Motor current) High power motors often have continuous current © www.

teminalVoltage.anoopmathew.Terminal Voltage Ø Avg.110mb. V = a 1 π π α ∫V m Sin ω t d (ω t ) V m / π (1 + cos α ) Vdc (min) = zero when α = π Vdc (max) = 2Vm/π when α = 0 Range of Vdc.com . 0 to 2Vm/π © www.

110mb.anoopmathew. (2) ? Find No-Load speed (At no-load. T=0) © www.Torque-Speed Characteristics ώ = (Va-IaRa)/KaΦ But Ia =T/Ka Φ And Va = --------------.(2) Vm /π (1+ cosα) ? Substitute these values in Eqn.com .

anoopmathew.Torque-Speed Characteristics © www.110mb.com .

110mb.Full converter fed separately excited DC motor © www.com .anoopmathew.

com .110mb.Waveforms (continuous current) © www.anoopmathew.

com .Home work. ? Find No-Load speed ? Find terminal voltage © www.anoopmathew....110mb.

110mb.anoopmathew.com .Speed-Torque Characteristics © www.

anoopmathew.Motoring & Breaking operation © www.com .110mb.

Regenerative braking cannot be obtained by half controlled rectifier since o/p voltage cannot be reversed.110mb. Rectifier output voltage can be reversed by 180o>α>90o – rectifier works as a line commuted inverter.com .anoopmathew. © www.Motoring & Breaking n n n n Rectifier supplies power to the load for 0≤α≤900 Reversing the rectifier output current by reversing the rectifier output voltage.

anoopmathew.110mb.com .Converter fed DC series motor © www.

anoopmathew.Single phase semi converter fed Series motor © www.com .110mb.

anoopmathew.com . n Derive equation for torque from the series motor fundamentals and terminal voltage equations.. © www.110mb..Class work .

com .110mb.anoopmathew.Speed-Torque characteristics © www.

com .Single phase full converter drive © www.anoopmathew.110mb.

anoopmathew.110mb.com .Waveforms © www.

110mb. n Derive equation for torque from the series motor fundamentals and terminal voltage equations.com . © www.anoopmathew.Home work ...

anoopmathew.110mb.Speed-torque characteristics © www.com .

com .anoopmathew.110mb.Speed control using Armature voltage control Chopper-fed DC drive © www.

anoopmathew.Chopper-fed DC series Motor.110mb.com .Power Circuit © www.

110mb.Waveform.anoopmathew.Continuous motor current © www.com .

anoopmathew.com .Discontinuous motor current © www.Waveform.110mb.

com α à duty ratio .α For discontinuous current: Va= Edc.110mb.N. α +Kres.anoopmathew.(T-tp)/T © www.Chopper-fed series DC motor Torque T ∝ I 2 a Ia à armature current Average motor voltage For continuous current: Va=Edc.

References [1] A. “Power Electronics”. “DEVELOPMENT OF CYCLOCONVERTERS”. TMH 2006 [4] Cyril W. IEEE Trans.S. Maamoun. “Power Electronics”.D. Weily publications 2005 [3] M. Rama Reddy “ Power Electronics”. Lander “ Power Electronics”.110mb. New Age Publications 2004 © www. McGraw Hill International Editions 2007 [5] Dr. Nirosha Publications [6] Vedam Subramanyam “ Power Electronics”.anoopmathew.com . Singh & K.B Khanjandani. 2003. [2] Ned Mohan et al.

110mb.Thank You Questions ??? anoopmathew@ieee.com .org URL : www.110mb.com © www.anoopmathew.anoopmathew.

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