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Carpenters and Builders Layout, Foundation and Framing (Audels) 7th Ed - M. Miller, R. Miller (Wiley, 2005) WW

Carpenters and Builders Layout, Foundation and Framing (Audels) 7th Ed - M. Miller, R. Miller (Wiley, 2005) WW

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Published by: Sithara Shyaman on Sep 13, 2011
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  • Selection of Site
  • Staking Out
  • The Lines
  • Laying Out with Transit Instruments
  • Method of Diagonals
  • Points on Layout
  • Summary
  • Review Questions
  • Slab-on-Grade
  • Crawl Space
  • Basement Construction
  • Pile Foundation
  • All-Weather Wood Foundation
  • Need for Strength
  • Bracing
  • Economy
  • Fastening and Hardware
  • Lumber for Forms
  • Practicality
  • Texture
  • Size and Spacing
  • Stripping Forms
  • Stripping Forms for Arches
  • Special Forms
  • Prefabricated Forms
  • Ladders
  • Setting Up a Ladder
  • Ladder Shoes
  • Ladder Accessories
  • Special Products
  • Ladder Safety
  • Scaffolding
  • Scaffolding Components
  • Scaffolding Safety Rules
  • Block Building Materials
  • Standard Masonry Units
  • Mortar
  • Block Building Methods
  • Basic Block-Laying
  • Laying Blocks at Corners
  • Building Walls Between Corners
  • Construction Methods
  • Walls
  • Building Interior Walls
  • Sills and Plates
  • Installation of Heating and Ventilating Ducts
  • Electrical Outlets
  • Insulation
  • Flashing
  • Floors
  • Methods of Framing
  • Balloon-Frame Construction
  • Post-and-Beam Construction
  • Platform Frame Construction
  • SILL
  • Framing Terms
  • Sills
  • Girders
  • Joists
  • Subflooring
  • Headers and Trimmers
  • Walls and Partitions
  • Ledger Plates
  • Braces
  • Studs
  • Bridging
  • Rafters
  • Lumber Terms
  • Standard Sizes of Lumber
  • Framing Lumber
  • Construction of Girders
  • Placing Basement Girders
  • Types of Sills
  • Anchorage of Sill
  • Setting the Sills
  • Floor Framing
  • Connecting Joist to Sills and Girders
  • Built-Up Corner Posts
  • Preparing the Corner Posts and Studding
  • Erecting the Frame
  • Framing Around Openings
  • Headers
  • Size of Headers
  • Opening Sizes for Windows and Doors
  • Interior Partitions
  • Partitions Parallel to Joists
  • Partitions at Right Angles to Joists
  • Labor and Material Costs Reduction
  • Types of Roofs
  • Roof Construction
  • Length of Rafter
  • Rafter Cuts
  • Common Rafter Cuts
  • Hip and Valley Rafter Cuts
  • Side Cuts of Hip and Valley Rafters
  • Backing of Hip Rafters
  • Jack Rafters
  • Shortest-Jack Method
  • Longest-Jack Method
  • Framing-Table Method
  • Jack-Rafter Cuts
  • Method of Tangents
  • Octagon Rafters
  • Trusses
  • Dormers
  • Prefabricated Fireplaces
  • Contemporary Design
  • Slope of Roofs
  • Selecting Roofing Materials
  • Roll Roofing
  • The Built-Up Roof
  • Wood Shingles
  • Hips
  • Valleys
  • Asphalt Shingles
  • Slate
  • Gutters and Downspouts
  • Residential Skylights
  • Skylight Maintenance
  • Tube-Type Skylights
  • Installation
  • Box Cornices
  • Closed Cornices
  • Wide Box Cornices
  • Open Cornices
  • Cornice Returns
  • Rake or Gable-End Finish
  • Manufactured Doors
  • Sash and Paneled Doors
  • Flush Doors
  • Louver Doors
  • Installing Mill-Built Doors
  • Door Frames
  • Doorjambs
  • Door Trim
  • Hanging Doors
  • Swinging Doors
  • Sliding Doors
  • Garage Doors
  • Window Framing
  • Double-Hung Windows
  • Hinged or Casement Windows
  • Gliding, Bow, Bay, and Awning Windows
  • Window Sash
  • Sash Installation
  • Sash Weights
  • Glazing Sash
  • Shutters
  • Fiberboard Sheathing
  • Wood Sheathing

Girders can be built up of wood if select stock is used. Be sure it
is straight and sound (see Figure 7-1). If the girders are to be built
up of 2×8 or 2×10 stock, place the pieces on the sawhorses and
nail them together. Use the piece of stock that has the least amount
of warp for the centerpiece and nail other pieces on the sides of the
center stock. Use a common nail that will go through the first piece
and nearly through the centerpiece. Square off the ends of the girder
after the pieces have been nailed together. If the stock is not long
enough to build up the girder the entire length, the pieces must be
built up by staggering the joints. If the girder supporting post is to
be built up, it is to be done in the same manner as described for the

Table 7-1 is an example of sizes of built-up wood girders for
various loads and spans, based on Douglas fir 4-square framing
lumber. All girders are figured as being made with 2-inch dressed
stock. The 6-inch girder is figured three pieces thick; the 8-inch
girder four pieces thick; the 10-inch girder five pieces thick, and the
girders are used; 1.170 when 10-inch girders are used, and 1.180
when 12-inch girders are used. Other woods will require figures
based on the specific wood and grade.

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