 27 

  

     
 

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  


    

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 

   


  


 

       
   
 
 

   
       
  
 
     
       
 
  

      
        

      
 
      

        
                 
     
     
    

    

      
    
  
     
 

  
       
 

  (un iverse)         



 

  
   
    life)

   
       

 

(human

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 
  
 
 
  
   
      
  
          

      
  
         

           
 
    
  
       

  



   
    
  

         


  
   

  
    
 
   




       
       

  

     
 
   


o  
   

     
    
   
 

          
              
O    
  

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   
  

        

  

    

O
     

         

    

o

  
   

   

O         

o 

 

    
O 

        
     

  

o   
 

    

  
O    

 
      
   
 

   

o

    
 


     
  

    

          
O    

o   

   


   
        
     
   

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          
         
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      

     

  
     

       

    
 

 
 

      

        

         
  
     


         
       

      
 
       
             
              
        
        
          
O    
   

    
o 
 

        
  
   
 
         


      o  

 
      

       
     

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          
           
  O    
         
     
         
       
       

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 35 

           
  
    
     

O   

 

     

      

      
 

        


     

    

   

     

o  

 
    
      


        
   
   
o 
  

          
    
   
O        
   
   

        

            

    
                
 
    
  
          
       
          
 
      
O           

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  

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 36 

   

   

    

    o  

      

    

  

      
      
   


   
    

    
  
  

        
        
          
      
            
  
     
O    
    

    

      

 
   

o

       
     
  
 

     
   
      

    
   

      

   o  

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           
            
        O    
            
        
  
O          
    
  

 

 37 
       


      
  
     
o  
 

     
          


      

       

     


 

  

            
        
  
         
  
  

      

          
         
         
   
O    

     

  

      
 

         
          
              
        

           
    
 
  
   

o 

         

  

   


        
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  

 

 38 

 
     


O    

    
   

  

     
    

         
            
        
        
O   

o 


 

     

     
     
       
    

     

     
   

    

     
   

o    

       

     
 

          

 
   
         

         


   


       

 

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            
          
          
   
 
      
        
O   


  

 

 39 

   
  
   

   
 


     

o

  
     
     
  
       



   

           
O           
   

         
         

o   

        

 
      

         

    
         
 

 

       
            
    
O     
  
             
               

    


         
    O     
           

               

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  

 

     

o

       

 
      

 40 

        

    
      

       
     o  

       

    

    


   O        
          
           
            
    
     
O    
 -   

       
  

    

 

   o  
  
      

       

 
    
    
 

    
 
o  
  

         

 
      
     
   

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         
        
         

  

 

 41 

o 
  

        
   
   
 

o

          
      

o

     

        
o

       O   
        
   
O        
    

          
O  
   

  
        
O    
    
O     

 
 
  

o 

         

   

    

    
 
o  

 






          


   

      
     
  

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   

   

          
O          
  

          
        
     

  

 

 42 

    
   
    o     

 
     
      
     
     

       


  O       
 
          
 
          
  
O            
    

      


o  
 

       
  

    

    

   
 
  
   

     
  
    

    o   

 
      

  
    

      
     

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     
       
          
 O           
            
           
         

        
           
            
               
            

  

 

 43 


    
 
     
     
   

O       

     

     

  
 
 
    

    
    
          
 

       
     

o 

         


       
      

       

        
        
  




          

      

  

   
   
 
    

     

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        
           
         
      

       

  

 

 44 

   


O         

       

 


 
     

           
           
O  

o 
    


 

 
    

   
     

   
   

  


      
  
     

o
  

     
 
 
   


    

    
  
 
     

o

        

   
     
 
 
  

   

    

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           
         
             

O         
 

             
        
          
 
             
  

 

        

 45 

      
  
      

O      

  

  

       

     
  

       
     
   
    
    

 

      

o 

        
       

       



    
 

      
 
   


        
        
    O       
O       
   

   o 
  
      

       
o  
   

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  

 

 46 

    
    


        
  
   


 
      

 


       

   
  
  

           

  o    
       

 
      


   
  

      

     



   o
   

  
  
    

            
           
         
 O             
         
           
    O         
          
   O          
         
         
O   
 
 -   
 

 
 
 
  
        

  
    
        
  o  

 
 

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 47 

        

      

  
         

   
   
o  

    
    
        

     



   


        
  
     

        
  
 
     
  
     
     o



        
          
   

          
           
       O    
             
O          
    

   
    

     
     

  

 
  
 

      

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o 
 

      

      


     
     

  


     


 
       

       
o   

        

  

  

    
    
    
     
o  

 
      
         
   
   

o  

            
  
        
            
O   
  

      
  
       
   
O      
   

          
         

        
  


    
   
    
     

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O   

              
            
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 49 


      

 

  
  
  
      
      

o 


           
      
       
O    

   

       

            
                 
        
          

       
         
 
 
 
   
         
    
  
O            
     

   
 
 

    

o   

      
    

 
  
    

 
   
o  
    

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  
        
           
  
       
O      
   

  

 

 50 

   
    
 
 

        

             
O      

          

  

      

  

       
          

  

o 

  
 


    
 


o 

       

      
  
     

   

           
O     
  
 

o


   
 
   

        

       o

     

   o    

      
         

        o

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          
O       O  
        
          O 

          O  
O       O   
O         

-    
  

 

 51 

       
      



       
    o  
      

           

  o 
    
       

      
   o 
 
    
  

  o

     
 
    

o   


   
     
     

 o
   
   
   
 
  

         

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  O     
   O     
     O   
O 
-   

  

 

 52 
       

      o

      o 

o

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  

 

 53 

   



      

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  

  

 55 

  
 
      
 


   
   
       

     
        



  
  

  
  
 

   
 
 
   
  
 


    

    

       

    
      
     
  
            

         

    
    
       




 

 

               
     
 (Cosmology)

               

       

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


          
  

  

 56 

 
   
 
        

      o   


       
 

          

     
       
       
       
 

           
  O    
         
     
         
        
      

O     
   

         
  
      

         
  
     

 
 
  
     



      
o 

              
 

   
    
  

  
    

  
    
 
 
   

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  

  

 57 


          

  


          
      



   
   
          
   
              
                


                

 


           
   



      
       
  





  (cosmology)  
  
 
    

   
 

            

    
  (contemporary knowledge) 

    
 

   

       
 
          
  
 

     

       
 

   
          

   
    
          

     
   
 

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 58 

       
  (Creator) 
  
 




        (creation)  


     
 
      
 
 

        
 
       


          
   

  

      

        


      

   

 

         



 
      
 

     


 
       

  
      

    

        
       
  
   

   
     
   
  
  

     (internal
   (external

signs) 
 
   

signs)  


   

     
       
  

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  

   
       
 
      

 

       
        
    

      
    
 
  
      
 
   
      
         
  

     (conflict & contradiction) 

  

 

   
      

 
 
      
    

  
  
          

   
 
 
     

      

     
 
      
       

      
    
  
      

           

 
 
 
  

  

   
              
 
    
       

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            
  

       

      
  
   

 
  
         
  
    

   
     


 
    
  
  

       
    
  
 

  

             


    
   
        

           
    

         
 
 
    
    

     
 
       


 

           

   
   
(conflict) 

  

    

         
   
    
    
      
   
        

           
 

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 

          

 
    
         
 
         


           
    
  

 
    
      
       
  
        

        


  
-1
                 
 

  
   
         

  



 
 
         
  
      

     
        
 

(trial & error)     

        

 
 
      
     

        
   

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          
 
    

 
        
     
               

       
   
 
   
 
   
 
    
  

           
                   
(human

      
    

     

   ac q u i r e d

wis d o m)

 

        (God-gifted wisdom)


   
 
  
   
  
  


     
   

(certainty & finality) 
    
    
 
   
 
 

   
(degree of

 
      (hypothesis)


     
  
  probability)



     
   
(law)    
 
           

   
        
  
 
 
      
 
     
         
   
    

 

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
     -2

 
             
 

    
 
   
        


               

   
                 
     
        
         
       

             
                 

 
         
     
          

  
 
(meta

     


 
    (physical

world)

     
   physical world)
 
      (nature)   
         (supernature)  

         


      -3
 
   
        
     
           
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     
        

           
 
 

      
     
  
   
           
 
     

                 
   
 

(functions)    
  

       
        

 
            




 
 

(trial & error)        
  

        
   
    

      


  

 
     


 
   
  

 
       
   
  
    
 
  
   
   
 
 
 
    
          
   
 

  
  (ab so lut e )   (u n c han geab le )
   
          
  
  
               
 

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      
     
    

         
     
   

 
         (trial &

error)

    
 
     
   

    
   
        

            
 
     (trial & error)    
     
 

  

     (metaphysical)  
 
 
 

  
 
         

               

   

   

         
 
       

 
 



           
     
 

            
 
 

   
 
          


   

        
     

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    
            
 
 

   
  

 
  
 
 
     
            

    
  
 
      
 
           
    
  

  
    
       

        
      

    
            
 

    
         

     
         

     

  

  
 
         

 
    
  
  
 
     

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      
 
  

    
   
      

  
   
      
   

       
 
       

       
  
  
            
 
  
 

  
 
 
        
   
 

         
 
   

    
             

         
     


       
 
  

   
     
  

     
    

     

             

  
   
  
     

    
 
   1609 
  
 
    

         

          

     

    

     
     

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
 
   
        

  
   

     

      



 
 
            

 
    
       

    
 
          

      

  (r e ac t io n )   
      

     
 
  
   
   
 
 
      
     
 
           


             
          
       
          




     
  
      

          
     
   
        

  

   
     

   

          

                 


     
          

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  (B a g h d a d )    (S p a i n ) 
    
        
 (Damascu s)
 (Asian

section)   

     

           
    
     
  
       

      

      
 
     
      
    
        
    
        
     
    

         

(dark ages)   

     
     
     

           
     
             
 
          
   
           
 

 

      
      

        
   
  
 
 
 

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         
 
    

           

               
 

   
            
   
    
     
    


  
             


       
      
   
        

             
  (Theory

of Relativity)     

   
       

"S c ie n c e wit h o ut re ligio n is lame an d r e ligion
without science is blind".


 
 
        
  



 
          
 


            
   

        
 

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 71 

 
   
      

   
   
    
     

               

     
 
 
    
 
 

 

            
   

           

   
  
 
     
  
 

  

   
          

  
           
   
     
   
 
  
  
    
 
  
  

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 

 
     

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     

 
  
 

 

                
    


        

  






    
       

  

         
              
                  
                  

 
    
 
 
      
  
  
               

 
    
        
  

   

 
     
 



  
 
      
       
  

   
     
    
   
 

                 

  

         



  ( P l a t o )   (S o c r at e s )    
   
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
 
 
   (Aristotle)
    

  
    (Ale xand ria)    (Greece)

  

            
  
         
   

   
        
   
 
  
    
         

  

                   

 
 
             
       
    
     

 
    
 
 
 

 o

   
 

      

   O        
 
  O    
       O 
O  

          

   

   
   

        

    
 
   

o        
       o


o

O   


   

         


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o     
   

  
         

 


 
   
        
     
  

    
  
         
 

        
 
 
        
        
      

   
        

     

  
 
        
                 

          
  

  

  
          
         
     

  
       
    

                

  


 
  
  
 
      
  

       
      

      

  

     
 
   
 
(u n i ve r s al

 

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            
          
   

  

 78 

  

    ph e n o me n o n )

(human world)   

      
 

  

      

     
   
 


     
      
 

  
 
        
  
   

    
   
     

 
      

(sciences)  
    


  



    
    
    
   

       
   



         

  
  
  

       

      
                 


 
          
   150   

        
        

     

Catalogue of A rabic Manuscripts (xxi) Fasciule 2 by J.
J. Witkam, (Leiden University Press, Leiden, 1984)

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 
    
   

      
       
 


    (education & literacy)     
 
600   
  (Sic ily)   


                
   

        3,000 

  (B agh d ad )    ( Hal ab )   (Damas c u s) 
  (Jerusalem)   

  


  (Egypt)   (Mosul)
  (Central

Asia) 

 
 (Cordoba)

          
         
  
  
  6,000

(law

       
      

 63           and jurisprudence)
   4     11   52   
    

   (medical sciences)  
      
  631       
 

   



   
             

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 
            

 

   
      
  
  62  62
  
     
  



 
            96 
 86  
(mobile

  

 (dispensar ies) 
  

(medical aid centres)



  

medical units)

     
   
 
    

  
 indoor patients           
                 


            


 

1- Department of Systematic Diseases
2- Ophthalmic department
3- Surgical department
4- Orthopaedic department
5- Department of mental diseases
(medical    
  
medical

    ,     colleges)

(N o o rie

sc ie n c e

          

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 (Ibn-i-Tulun

Hospital)   
     Hospit al)

 

    
  
   
 
   
   medical sciences  
  
      

      
 
 
 
      

       
  
    371  (Azdi

Hospital) 
          


     (N o o r ie
(M o ro cc an

Ho s p it a l)

     

     (M an su r i

H o sp it al)

       
   
   Hospit al)
 

     

 


      
        
              


     
   

 
    


  ( Co r d o b a )  
  
     



  (Tarabulus)   

(Baghdad )    (Granada)

 
    
    



(Quranic Sciences)

   


  
 
     
 
    

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    
   
   
 

 
 
            
    

     
  
       


     
      
       
        
   
   77,450

  
      
     
(th eology)
(pro nun ciation )

(grammer & syntax)
(mor pho logy)
(exe gesis)
(linguistic s)
(science of fundamentals)
(science of branches)

 

   




  
 
 
 

 
 

 
(law & jurisprudence)   
 
  
(law of inheritance)  
(the olo gy)

(crimin olo gy)
(science of war)
(histor y)

 
 

  

(th eosoph y)  
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(oneiromancy)


 

(literature)

  

(algebra)

  

(rhetoric)       
  
(polemics)
(philosophy)
(psychology)
(ethics)
(political science)

  

 


 
 
  
 
 

 

(culture)
 
 

(calligraphy)
  

 

(economics) 
(sociology)

(chemistry)
(physics)
(biology)
(botany)
(agronomy)
(zoology)
(medical science)
(pharmacology)
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 
 


 
 
 
 
  

 
 

  
   

  

 84 


 







  

(embryology)
(cosmology)



 

(cosmogony)
(astronomy)
(geography)
(geology)

 

  
   
 
 

(archaeology)



(timekeeping)

  
      
   
   

  
     
       

           

 
 
  

        
(Astronomy)

   


 
       
  

   
  
  
     

   
     
     
 

  
  
       

 
  Prof Hitt i   

Not only are most of the star

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names in

   

  

 85 
Eu ro p ean langu ages of Ar abic o rigin s
nu mb e rs o f t e ch nic al t e rms

b ut a

are like wise o f

Arabic etymology and testify to the rich legacy of
Islam to Christian Europe."
(History of the A rabs, pp.568-573)

  
       
   



           
   
  

 
 
   
 

     

     
      
  
  
 
 Averroes
       

Gregorian




(sun spots) 

            
 
     
   
    
 
   (timekeeping)  
   
 
  
  

       

    

 
     
(timekeeping)  
    

  
           
         
      

  
              
 

   

  

(History of the Arabs, pp.373-378)
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   

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 86 

    
     

     

             
      
 
           
 
              
  

   

 
          

 
   

      
  

 
 
  

(o b se r vat i o n al

     

  

    almanac      astronomy)
             
  
           


    
 (figures of the stars) 
  


 
      
  
   
   

 
 
 
 

Alhazen

 
 

 (astrology) 
   (astronomy)    
    
 
 
   
 
    
  

          
 


 
     (Cordoba)  

   
(Planetarium)     

      
   

   
   
    
     


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   

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       
 
       

 (al-Biruni)      
          

 

equatorial instruments   (Azarquiel)

 


 
  
   
     


   
 
     (lunar & solar eclipses)
      
    

    
To le d an

         

        
 Astronomical Tables

        

"M uslim astr ologers also disco vere d (arou nd
the t hirt een th ce ntu ry) t he syste m for giving t he
ep h eme rid s o f t h e sun an d th e mo on --- lat er
extended to the other planets --- as a function of
concrete annual dates. Such was the origin of the
almanacs whic h we re t o b e so wid ely use d wh en
trans-oceanic navigation began."
(The Legacy of Is lam , pp. 474-482)



        
   
 



        
      
   


   
        

                

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   

  

 88 



    
      
(Mathematics, Algebra, Geometry)


   

      
 
  
  
   

algo r it h m


a lgo r ism     
 


              
 (al-Khwarizimi)

   
  
       

    
     
   

            (textbook)
  (integration)  
      

       
     (equation)
   trigonometrical functions
     

(zero)        

   tangents

   250       
 

       
 

       


               
     
 

 geometry algebra  arithmetic  

  
 
           
  
trigonometry


  
 
70


 
 

mechanics optics   

mathematics   

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 
  

   

  

 89 

          ,  



     
     
 

 
  
  
 mathematics

(Physics, Mechanics, Dynamics)



  


    

         
  

    
   

     
        
  
        



       

  (cosmology )  


  

  (Aristotole)     
   
 

 


       

 

   
  
   

   (velocity)    (motion)
      


 

       

     
 weight  measurements  atmosphere  density  
c ap illar y

 gr avit at io n  ve lo c it ie s  t ime  sp ac e


    
   attraction
   


 mechanics    
     (physics)  

  
 
         
 dynamics
  (optical

thesaurus) 
 

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 

    
 
   

  

 90 

 
 dynamics  


 
    

 

                 
  galileo        
 
    
      
   
 

momentum

gravitational force

    

   lever   
 

     

 
 
   
 liber karatonis   
 

mechanical

       

  
    
   godgets  devices
(Optic s)

 


  
    (optics)  

      (Arnold) 
     

   
     
     
   
"On

     
   
    
    

  
    

       Optics"
     
 

magnifying power  lenses 

  
 

  
  magnifying lenses
   


     

(nature of vision)    


   (rays)      

  
   

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   

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    

 91 

(external objects)     

    

(retina)   
   

   
  (brain)     optic

nerve    

Euclid          
   
  

              Kepler  
 
  
 (optics) 


    
 Peckham  Witelo

Roger Bacon     

  Newton  Kepler  

      
 light  velocities  
   

      

 mete oro lo gy  ast ron omical ob se rvations  lenses
  
  
  
  camera
       
     

     
(Botany )


 

        

Encyclopaedia Botanica     
    

     





   


  Strassburg  

"Anyho w it is asto nish in g e no ugh th at th e

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   

  

 92 
entire botanical literature of antiquity furnishes us
only two parallels to our book (of Dinawari). How
was it that the M uslim people could, during so early
a period of its literacy life, attain the level of the
people of such a genius as the Hellenic one, and
even surpassed it in this respect."
(Zeits chrift fuer As s yriologie, Stras s burg, vols. 25,44)

      
   
   



 
        

 
        
     

                  


    

            
  







     


   (Spain) 
     

biological science      
 

 
       


       585    
 

 
   
 (botany) 
 
  
 
 Hitt i 

"In th e fie ld o f natu r al h isto r y espe cially
botany, pure and applied, as in that of astronomy

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   

  

 93 
and mathematics, th e western M uslims (o f Spain)
enriched the world by their researches. They made
accurate observations on the sexual difference (of
various plants)."
(Ameer Ali, The Spirit of Is lam. pp. 385-387)


   
        



     
    
   
           

               
 

  
  
 
 

(Cordoba)  
      

  


 
 
     

       

 (botany) 

        


         (medical sciences) 

 
        

 
 

     
  
      
    
         
           
     
 
    
       


   

        
   
       
   
 



  
    
  

  
  (botanist) 
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   

  

 94 

 
         
    

 
    
           
    

   
   
 
   
(Medical Science)

 

       
     


     
        
   
   
  
   


          

       (medical colleges)     
 
   

(surgery) 
   
  (p harmacy)

(Islamic Science, S.H. Nasr, pp.156)




     
 
  
   

  200 (medical

science)  
     



   
           
40  
  1866

  1498   
   


   
 measles  smallpox 

 
     

    (Avicenna)      
     
     

(Canon of M edicine)

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 1650     
   
         
  
     

 

 


pharmacology

       

  
            
        ophthalmology


 textbooks   medical colleges     

 
   E. G. Browne  
 

           
 

 

   
      
     
   
         
  

The practice of medicine was r egulated in
the M uslim world from the tenth century onwards.
At one time, Sinan ibn Thabit was Chairman of the
Board of Examiners in Baghdad. Pharmacists were
also regulat ed an d t he Ar ab s p ro du ce d t he first
phar amc opia dru g sto res. Barb er sh ops were also
sub je ct to insp ec tion . Trave llin g h ospitals we re
kn o wn in t h e e le ve n t h c e n t u r y Th e gr e at
hospital of al-M ansur, founded at Damascus around
1284 AD, was open to all sick persons, rich or poor,
male or female, and had separate wards for men
and wo me n. One ward was set apart fo r fevers,

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another for ophthalmic cases, one for surgical cases
an d o n e fo r d yse n t r y an d kin d r e d in t e st in al
ailme n t s. Th e r e we r e in ad d it io n , kit c h e n s,
lecture-rooms, a dispensary and so on.
(E. G. Br owne, Arabian M edicine, pp.101)

  
     

          





   


 
   
 
   

 
 
   

       
     

      


   (mobile)     
 
   
  
 

   1284   
     

        
        
             
   
 (fever
(surgical

ward)

      
  

  

  


     

(eye ward)

(d y s e n t r y )

   

  
 

war d )

           (intestinal ailments)

   
    
       
 
      

  

  
         


             
  
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    
       
     
    

"Their medical studies, later translated into
Latin and th e Euro pean langu ages, reve ale d t heir
advan ce d kno wled ge of b lo od circ ulat ion in t he
human body. The work of Abu`l-Qasim al-Zahrawi,
Ki tab al-Tasri f, on sur ge r y, was t ran slat ed in to
Latin by Gerard of Cremona and into Hebrew about
a c en tur y later b y S he m-tob b en Isaac. An oth er
important work in this field was the Kitab al-Maliki
of al-M ajusi (died 982 AD), which shows according
to B r own e t hat t h e M u slim p h ysic ian s h ad an
elemen t ar y c on ce p tion of t h e cap illar y syst e m
(o pt ic) an d in t he wo krs of M ax M eye rh o f, Ib n
al-Nafis (died 1288 AD) was the first in time and
rank of the precursors of William Harvery. In fact,
he propounded the theory of pulmonary circulation
th r e e c e n tu r ies b e fo r e M ic h ae l S er ve tu s. Th e
blood, after having been refined must rise in the
arterious veins to the lung in order to expand its
volume, and to be mixed with air so that its finest
par t may b e c lar ifie d an d may r each the ve nou s
artery in which it is transmitted to the left cavity of
the heart.

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(Ibn al-Nafis and his Theory of the Lasser Circulation,
Islamic Science, 23:166, June, 1935)

               



   
    
      

     
 
      

 
   Gerard  Cremona       
 
   Shem-tob ben Isaac   
    

       
    982  
      
  
  
     
  
      

  
  
  
     
    


      
   1288    

  

         
        

  
   
    
   
  
 
     
            
 
           
  
    
  


             
 

    
    
(Pharmacology)

   

       Gulick   Seirton
 
 
 (collection of simple

drugs)   
     

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      
 (b otany) 

 
   
(Spain) 
          

    
    
 (Syria)  
  

      
    
  1,400   


 150        
    
Ibn al-Baytr wrote the Collection of Simple
Dru gs, wh ic h is r egar de d as t he gr eate st Ar ab ic
boo k o n bo tany of t he age. He c ollec te d plan ts,
her bs an d d ru gs aro un d t he M e dit er rane an fro m
Sp ain t o S yria an d d e sc rib e d mo r e t han 1400
medicinal drugs, comparing them with the records
of over 150 writers before him.

 (pharmacologists)       

 
          
  

        

   Albucasis  
 

    
 

  
 Aben Bethar 

    (Ibn Rushd)  
  medicine  
     
      
 
 
    
   

   (textbook)   
        
 colliget 
 

(Islamic Science , p.181)
  

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   

  

 100 
(Surgery)

  

  
         


  Hitti 

Albucasis (1013 AD) was not only a physician
but a surgeon of the first rank. He performed the
most difficult surgical operations in his own and the
obstetrical departments. The ample description he
has left o f the surgical instru men ts emplo yed h is
time gives an idea of the development of surgery
among the Arabs in lithotomy, he was equal to the
fo r emo st su r ge o n s o f mo d er n time s. His wor k
al-Tasrif li -Man Ajaz an al-Ta'ali f (an aid t o him
who is not equal to the large treatises) introduces
or emp hasise s n ew id eas. It was t ranslated in to
Lat in b y Ge rar d of Cre mon a an d vario us e dit io ns
were published at Venice in 1497 AD, at Basle in
1541 AD and at Oxford in 1778 AD. It held its own
for centuries as the manual of surgery in Salerono,
M ontpellier and other early schools of medicine."
(Hitti, History of A rabs, pp.576-577)

       
 
     



     

           
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   

  

 101 

            

   
       

   

  
Lithotomy

      
    

  

                  

     
   
      
  1497 

       Gerard  (Cremona)
  
      1778  
  1541   
      
   


       


        
 

  
   
 
   

Al-Zah rawi's ran k in the art of surgery was
paralle led by t hat o f Ib n Zuh r (Aven -Zo ar) in th e
sc ie nc e of me dic in e (1091-1162 AD). O f th e six
medical works written by them three are extent.
Th e mo st valu a b le is al-Tay sir fil-M u d awat
al-Tadbir (the Facilitation of Therapy and Diet). Ibn
Zuhr is hailed as the greatest physician since Galen.
At least he was the greatest clinician in Islam after
al-Razi. Ib n Z u h r wr o t e an ot h e r b o o k, Ki tab
al-Aghdh iyah (the Boo k of Diet s) whic h is amo ng
the best of its kind dealing with the subject.
(Islamic Science, p.181)

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 
      (medicine)     
 
  



             (surgery) 


    
 
      
    


     
 
 
        
   
              
      
  
 
      (clinic)

          
(Ophthalmology)

  

             

Tadhkirat al-Kahhalin

     

     
 
 
     
  
 
Tractus de Oculis Jesu

 

 
    

     
        

ben Hali

 
   

     

      
     
         
      
 

M u slim p h ysic ian s also ad d e d valu ab le
knowledge to another branch of medicine, Ali ibn
Isa wrote the famous work, Tadhkirat al-Kahhalin
(Tr e asu r y o f O p h t h almo lo gist s) an d Abu Ru h

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 103 
M u h ammad al-Ju r an i en t it le d Z ar rin d ast (t h e
Golden Hand) wro te Nur al-A in (the Light o f th e
Eye). The last book has served practitioners of the
art for cen tur ies. Ali ib n Isa's wo rks wer e taugh t
eve rywh er e an d eve n t r an slat e d in t o Latin as
Tractu s de Oc uli s J esu b en Hali . M any o f t h e
te ch nical te rms pe rt ainin g t o op ht halmo lo gy in
Lat in as we l l a s in so me mo d e r n Eu r o p e a n
languages, are of Arabic origin, and attest to the
influence of Islamic sources on this subject.
(Is lamic Scien ce , pp.166-167)

(Anaesthesia)

   

  

         
 
 


 
  
        

            
  
 
    
   
          
 

       
       

  

Ali ib n Isa was also t h e fir st p e rso n t o
propose the use of anaesthesia for surgery. Another
per so n ap pe are d at th is time in Tunis, Ish aq ibn
Sulaiman al-Isr aili, who p ractised oph th almolo gy
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   

  

 104 
and his works were also translated into Latin and
Hebrew languages.
(Is lamic Scien ce , p.178)

(Chemistry)

 

    
    

  
   

      
     



           

             
   

      (hypothesis
       
  

& speculation)

(objective experimentation)


        (A l c h e my )    


  crystallization  sublimation  evaporation

  
            
 

 

         
    
 

        The Jabirean Corpus  


   (The Seventy Books ) 
(The Book of  

 
         
     Balance)
          
   
 


   
      
    

    
 
      
 
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 
   
   Abucasis    Avicenna   
  Rhazes
          

  Alhazen
 
  
   

    

   
 
        
  (Arabic

     
origin)  

  
  

     

1. Pro f. Hitt i, History of th e A rab s, pp .578-579
(London, 1974).
2. A and R. Kah an e, The Krater and the Grai l,
Herm eti c S ou rc es of the P arz i val, Ur b an a
(Illinois, 1965).
3. Cor bin , En Islam irani en vo l.2, c hap.4 (P ar is,
1971).
4. F.a.Yate s, Giordana Bru no and the Hermetic
Tradition (London, 1964).
5. Syed Hu sain N asir , Islami c S ci en ce (Lon do n,
1976).
6. George Sorton, An Introduction to the History
of Science.
7. Briffault, The Making of Humanity.
8. Sc haclt. J and Bo swo rt h C.E. Th e Legac y of
Islam (Oxford, 1947).
9. Watt-W.M . and Cachina P, A History of Islamic

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Spain (Edinlwrgh).
10. Ro b e r t Gu lic k L.J u n io r , Mu h am m ad , Th e
Educator (Lahore, 1969).

 

(Fine Arts)


       
     



  
  (calligraphy) 
 
   
  
 (decorative art) 
      (architecture)
 
  
      


   
  

    
  
  
     
     
 
  

               

(architecture 
 (music)

 (calligraphy)  

      (painting) 
 & decorative

art)

  
  

 
   

      

     
  
     
(Law & Jurisprudence)

   

       
      


 

         
     
   
     

www.MinhajBook s.com

   

  

 107 

  
  
  
     
   
 

-1

  
private  public international law   
  

    
  
 
    international law
     
     
           
 
     oppeheim  strake      
   
       30
 
 
    (law)     
  
   

       
     
                  
    

         
  
 
     

  
  
 dark ages      
     
 
              


          
 
         

-2

   
     
    
      
      
 

   
         
 

       

   
 
 

   comparative case law

-3

  

         

 
       
  
    
  

 
   (c o n st it u t io n al
www.MinhajBook s.com

law)

 

-4

   

  

 108 

(The


  
      
     

    (articals)  63   Pact of M adina)

 
 
 
   
  
    
  
  
    
    

   
     

 
   



   King John   
 
  
     1215
    593      (M agna Carta)



    
   
 

  622 
  





    
  

 
        
   (written constitution)   

  
 

 
    

  

  
  

  


   
  
     
  
  
 
     
       
 
    322      300  
      500  

         
      

 (Athenian

Constitution ) 

       

         
   1891     
   
  
 

     
  
     

     
 
       
 
 

  
 
         
  
 
  
  

           
 
       
  
   
 
   

www.MinhajBook s.com

   

  

 109 

 

  
  
 

   
  
       
  


     

       
   
      

 
   
    
    
  
  
   

   

             
 
   
 
      
 
   

 

(judiciary)  (executive)   (legislature)


 
     
       
 
   
  
     
         
  
 



   
     
    

(juristic &

     Common law

-5

  

         legal codes)
  (parts & chapters)    
 
 (family
(penal

laws)

   (r e ligiou s


 (civil &

(procedural &

laws)

contractual laws)

      (fiscal

  

  

laws)

  laws)

    
  
  evidence laws)
  

   
      
        
  

 

  
    

   
       
  
  
    

www.MinhajBook s.com

   

  

 110 
  

   

     
  
    

 

        
 
      
         

    
           
  
   

           

 
  
     
  




 

  
  

     
       

   
 
    


 
        
 


   
  
       
       
  
    
  


      

  
 
  
  

       
 


                  

   
  

  
   
      
      
 
 Case

law     
  

  
  

  
  
    (judicial

decisions)  

    
        

 
   

 


 administrative

law

 fiscal

& taxation law

-6

                
     

  
   
 

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   

  

 111 
(Historiog raphy & Sociology)

   


 
       

   
   
        
    
 
        
  
 
   5     
    
     

  
     
       


             
       
 

   
 
    
   
 


  

              

    
  
  
 
   

  
  
  
   
    
   
 
 
 
  
  
  
 


   
     socio logy political thought  
  
 
  
    
  
 
 
 
 
  
  
  
 
   


(Geography & Communications)

   

     
    

  
     
      
  
  
    


(Egypt)


   (Central

Asia) 


 

 


   topo grap hy geogr aphy       
            
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  

 112 

 
            

 
     
  (alphabetic

order)

      
 
      

          cartography  
      (circular
   
    
 

shape)   

(mediterranian sea)

 
 9             
      
 (Nile)  
  
 
        


 6,670          

 (sources)  
   

 

      

   

 

  

  
       
 (dictionary) 
     

           
   (alphabetic
 
 (Image

of the Earth)

order) 
  

     

  


     
    

      
      

    
   

 
     Prof.
 

www.MinhajBook s.com

Hitti  

       

   

  

 113 
"The bulk of this scientific material, whether
ast r o n o mic al, ast r o lo g ic al o r ge o gr a p h ic al,
pene trated t he we st th rough Spanish and S icilian
channels."
(History of the A rabs , pp.383-387)

   
 
 
     
      





   
      

  
 

       (S p ai n ) 

         (Sicily)

     
  (geography)  


   1331    
           
       (official map)    (China)

    

(Islamic Culture, 8:514, Oct.1934)

 (Scandinavia) 
  

    
 

      (Russia)   (Kazan)    (Finland)  

    
    
      
Vasco de

     

         

          
 
   G a ma
  

         (compass)

          
 
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 114 

    tariff  monsoon  cable admiral  arsenal


       

        

 
  
       


 
    
   
    

 
    

  
    
 
    
         

  
  
   
      
     
   

      
  15  10   
    
    

      
 
        
  

      
    
     
 
              


           

 
 
  

     

             
        

  
    

                  

   
      


  
    
  

   
        

              
  


   

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   

  

 115 

       
         


 

    

       

          
  
  
      
 
    
 
 
  
       
 
       

The coming of Islam six hundred years after
Christ, was the new, powerful impulse. It started
as a local event, uncertain in its outcome; but once
M uh ammad c onq uer ed M akkah in 630 AD, it too k
the southern world by storm. In a hundred years,
Islam conquered Alexandria, established a fabulous
city of learning in Baghdad and thrust its frontier to
the east beyond Isfahan in Persia. By 730 AD the
M uslim Empir e re ac hed fro m S pain an d So ut her n
Fr an ce t o t h e bo r d e rs o f Ch in a an d In d ia. An
emp ir e of sp ec tacu lar str en gt h and grace wh ile
Europe lapsed into the Dark Age  M uhammad had
bee n fir m th at Islam was n ot t o b e a re ligio n o f
mir acle s, it b ec ame in int e lle c t u al c o nt e n t a
pattern of contemplation and analysis.

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   

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 116 
(J Br onowski, The Ascent of M an, London 1973, pp.165-166)



 
        



         
       
      630 
  
    
            

   



           
  
  730      

    
    
 
       
   
 
   

     
 
        
    
 
   
  
 
 
       

    
     
   

    
      
    Robert L. Gulick 
It sho uld be bo rne in mind, ho wever , t hat
the se aph orisms (maxims fou nd in ahad it h) h ave
been widely accepted as authentic and it cannot be
do u b t e d t h at t h ey h ave e xe r t e d a wid e an d
salu t ar y in flu e n c e . Th e wo rd s at t r ib u t e d t o
M uh ammad mu st assu re dly have st imulat ed an d
encouraged the great thinkers of the Golden Age of
Islamic civilisation.

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   

  

 117 
(Muhammad, The Educator )



    
               

     
     
  
    
   
  
     



     


 

      Robert 

 

     
  

These statements must not be construed as
idle and useless words. The results have been very
substantial. The strength of Islamic science was its
devotion to p rac tical matte rs r at her than t o th e
vague notions of the Byzantine Greeks.
(Muhammad, The Educator )

         

Robert L. Gulick

           



 
      
       

  
  
   

Robert Briffault   
 

    

It is highly probable that but for the Arabs,
moder n Euro pean civilisation neve r h ave assume d

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   

  

t h at

 118 
c h ar ac t e r wh ic h h as e n a b le d it t o

tr an sc en d all pr eviou s ph ases o f evolut ion . Fo r
although there is not a single aspect of European
growth in whic h the d ecisive influe nce o f Islamic
culture is not traceable, nowhere is it so clear and
momentous as in the genesis of that power which
constitutes the paramount distinctive force of the
mo d e r n wor ld an d th e su p r eme so u r ce o f it s
vic tor y, n atu ral scienc e an d th e sc ie ntific spirit .
What we call science arose in Europe as a result of
a n e w sp ir it o f e n q u ir y, o f n e w me t h o d s o f
in ve st igat io n , e xp e r ime n t ,

o b se r vatio n an d

measurement of the development of mathematics
in a form unknown to the Greeks. That spirit and
those methods were introduced into the European
world by the Arabs.
(The Making of Humanity, pp.190-191)

   
   
     


     
 
 

   
     
      
  

  

 
  
      

     
 
  
  
   
            
 
     
   
     
 
  
 
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        
    
    

       
   

  

There is no doubt that the Islamic sciences
exerted a great influence on the rise of European
scienc e; an d in this Re naissance o f kn owledge in
the west there was no single influence, but diverse
on e s; th e main in flu en c e was o f c o ur se , fro m
Spain, the n fr om Italy an d Pale stine t hro ugh th e
crusaders, who had mixed with M uslims and seen
the effect of sciences in M uslim culture.
(Joseph Schacht & C.E.Bosw or th, The Legacy of Is lam, pp.426-427)

         


  

       
    
    
  (Spain) 
 
   
   

      
  
  

      

          

Islam, impingin g c ultu rally u po n ad jace nt
Christian countries, was the virtual creator of the

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  

 120 
Renaissance in Europe.
(Stanwood Cobb, Islam's Contribution to World Culture)

 
    
   Stanwood Cobb

       
 
          

  
 


     
      

       Robert L.

Gulick

 

Th at imp o r t an t c o n t r ib u t io n s t o wo r ld
intellectual progress were made by the Arabs is not
open to question. But were these development the
result of the influence of M uhammad?
(Muhammad, The Educator )

      

 
 



 
   
 
        
   

    
    
 

 
             
 

  
   
 
   
    

            
 

   
  
 
  

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 121 

  
   Reverend George Bush
No r evo lut io n in h istor y, if we acc ept that
affe c t e d b y t h e r e ligio n o f t h e Go sp e l, h as
int rod uce d gr eat er c hange s in to t he st at e of t he
civilised world than that which has grown out of the
rise, progress and permanence of M uhammadanism.
(The Life of Muhammad )

            



      
   
      

     
  

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  

 
      


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   

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 125 


  

      
    (Iberian Peninsula)

   (Pyrenees) 


  (Spain)       
    
 
800 
     

    
(Portugal)

   

 
        
 
 
      
     
   


( N a r b o n n e )     
  

 (Toulouse)   (Carcassonne) 
  (Perpignan )
    
           

  
 
 (Gr anada) 
 


   
         
 
 

   
           
 
                 

           
    

            

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   

  

 126 

       
      

  
           
 

        
   

  

       
 
 773

  711  19

 1008



 773

 1091



 1008

 1145



 1091

 1214



 1147

 1232



 1214

 1492 2



 1232

 
   
 

  
 


 
   
 


 

-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7

 

   715 
 705     

           

 
  
  
     
 
   
   

     
  
    

     

     

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 127 

           

  
 



     

         
    
  

 
 

       
  
   
     
   
  
 
       
  


     

  
  
        

100  710    

  
 
   

            400   
  
 
   
  
    

   
 
      

        
      


     



 92   711      
 
        7,000   
  
       


13      

    (Gib ralt ar)    
 
   
  
         



   
           
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   

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 128 

          
    
  

  
     

      

      

      

      

       

     

 

  
   
 

            

  
       

       
    

  

     
   
 711  19  
 
    
 
  
         
 

 
          
   
    
             

    (Cordoba)  
 
 
    711
               

 
   18,000   
    712   
  

(M erida)   (Se ville) 
      


         (Tledo) 
   

     
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 129 


     
   

    

       

           
    
   
  
(Bay of Biscay) 
 
    



 
             (Gijo n) 
 
 
   
 
   
           

        
       
                 
 
 

(Cordoba)  
      
       

   
       
 
   
  
 
 

      

  

 756   714      
   
  

                 43 

          
 


22 

     
 
          
 
    
       

  

 
  
  
 

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   

  

 130 

 

 
      
 132   40

 
   
 
    
      
     
    
     
  
 
   20  
       
  


   
 
       
       
         

  5  

 
       
       

       
        
 

 
               



                 
     
       
            



 
 


     
  
   

          
 32 
788   756 
  
  
  
 
    
   

     
   
        



          
    

 
 
   
 
 

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 131 

  30            822

               

        
         
       
    
   
  

      
 
      

               
  
          
   
  

   


           

    (Iberian

Peninsula)

     
  
 

     
      912   21 
     

 
       

  
  
      

  
     
    
     
           
      

       
   49 
961   912


     
 
     


    

    
            

   

   
          
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 132 


      
     1010    
   21 
  1031   1010  
      

              9
  
        
   
   1031

   

     
      
    
   
      
   
  

  
 



  
   

 
   

 
 
  
   

 1 0 9 1 ) 
        
 

      
      
    (  1106

               
       
 
  
  
   
       
    
          
  
     
   
 
   

 
 
     

    
  
       


         
  
       
           
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
     
 12      100   1086
  
    
  

      

         8,000  (Se ville)

    
 (Leon)   (Zar agoza)  



     
   80,000      
 
20,000

            

 
       
   

  
 
         
   

   
  
 

   
 
    

     
  
  
     


(Se ville)  

 3,000             

 
    
   

      
    
 

           
  
 


                  

  1091       
    
      

   
 
 
   

 
     

     



   
 54 
        

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 134 

     
 
  
  1145 
 
  
  
     
 



 

   1120     

  
  
     
   
  
     
 
 
    

        
        
 
  
         
 

  
      
    
    1145            


  
 

           

 
  (Se ville) 
    (Cordoba) 
 
  

         

     
     
    
 
   
  
  
 
 
   

    
      
    
                 
     
    
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
    

 
      1 2 1 4
    

          


 
 


     
     

 


               


 

          
  
 

    
 1232  
   

 


     
           
   
    
 

   
  
 
   
  

   
     

700



 (Cadiz)   (M alaga)   (Alme ria)   (Granada)

 
  (Jaen)    (Baza)  

 260 
 1492   1232   
 

  
    
    
  
 
 
 
  

       
  
 
  
 
        

 
     1423   

     
  1492 2

    (Granada) 
    

          
       
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
     
 

        


       

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   
   

  
   

   ( B a g h d a d )           
    
     

(Damascu s)


 

    
        

 
  
   
    
   (Cordoba)

   
            


 
     

   
  
   
 
 
   


  

     
      

 


 
        
     
       
   
   
    
  
    
   
 

 
        
      

 

  

       
  
           
   
 

  

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 
       

        
 
        
     
  
    
     
     
         

   
  

        
     
 
      
   
   

     
  

Alr eady whe n th e fo rt un es o f th e M u slims
were in the ascendant, their learning had attracted
sch olars of all faith s. Sp anish Je ws in particu lar
were -- including the great M aimonides (1135-1204)
-- sat at the feet of Arabic-speaking teachers and
wrote their books in Arabic.
(W. Montgomery Watt A History of Islamic Spain P.157 )

            
 



       
       
 
      
   
  

  
    
      
     



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 139 

  
    
 

     

   
       
   

     
  



  
   

  

  


   
 
 
 
 

 
       



   

  


   


   
    
 
      
   
   

#
1
2
3
4

5
6
7

   

  

8

        

9



 

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  

 140 



  

#

 
          
 




10



  

 

   
   




   

    


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      





16


   

  

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   


  
 
        


  

  

 



  


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   






 
   

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   

  

 141 




  







 
 
   

 
   
      

 
   

   

      



   
  

 
 





    

#
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    
  

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
     
 

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  
 

    
    




 
     

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 

    
       

 

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  

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   

  

 142 






    
   


  

   

 
  

#
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  

 

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  
 
        

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
       

      
  


 
     
   

 



    
 
 

   

    
 
    


   



  
       

   

  



  

         

 


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
   




 
  

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   

  

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 143 



  

#

      

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  



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

  
  



   


   
 



   
  
 






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 
   

  


     

   
 
 

  

    
    


 
  

  
  
   

   
 

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   

  

 144 






  

  

#

    

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
   

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

              

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      



 








   

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 

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

71

   

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 

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  

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75

 



 
   







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   

76

 
 


77

 

79

      78



 

80

   

  

 145 



  

 
 



   

    
   
    
    
       






  
  



   

    
  

      
  
   
 


     
 
  

   
   
 

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 

   
 


 
 

    

  

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   

  

 146 



  

  
  

      



   

   

      



  

#



99



100

  
101


    102
   103


     







    

  


    
 
  


   
  
 

           

 
   

   

  
   

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  
 


  

     
  

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   

  

 147 






 


  




    
  

 


 



   


       
  



  


   

   

 
    
 



   
  





  
   


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
 

  

    

    


 


 

   
 

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


    

    
  

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   

  

 148 




  





  

      

  
  


  

         
   


  


  

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  


     
 

  

  
  
    

    




 


      
   
 


#
132
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140

 141
  142



  143
 

   

144
145

       146

    147

   

  

 149 


      

  

#

 

        148

 
  

 
       

  
 
  

   

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149

     

150

 

151

   

  

 150 

     
          

  
      
    

        961
 912   
      
  200    
  
               

       
          
      

        

         
   
 
      
      

      
   
      

      
   
     


          
 


   
      
  


 
   
  
 (a s t r o n o my )  
   
 
 (me d ic a l sc ie n c e )  
 (mat h e mat ic s )
 

  (botany) 
  (chemistr y)  
  (astrolo gy)
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 151 

  


 
   
      (geography)

 

    
  
      

 

       
   

    
        
   

    
             
 
            

       
      

   976 
961     
    

    
       


 

   
    
 
 20   


   
          

    
       

   
  

 170   
  
 
    

 (M alaga)   (Gr anad a) 
 (Cor do b a)  



  (Jaen)   (Se ville)   (Zar agoza)  

 
  
     
         
    27 

      
   
  
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   
 
     
   
     
 
    




       



   976 
 961 
     


   
  
   

  
       

  (mat hematics) 
  (astrono my)     
 (c he mist ry)   (ast ro lo gy)   (me dical

scie nc es)


 (lo gic )  (p h ilo so p h y)   (p h ysic s)  


4 
     (geography)    (history)
 

      6   
 
   



          44 
             
   
    
    
    

     


            
 
 

   
 

          
   

  
  

            
 
 
 

               

          
        
    
 (Cordoba)  
    
 
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    
  10,000       
  800

 


   
 

(Granada) 

 
   
 


           

       
   

 
         
         
                 

   


 70        
  
     
  
   
  

    

               

      
 
         
  
         
  

 
  
      
   
 
    

             
  
         
 
      

  
          
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          
  
 

          
  
  

    
 
     
   
 

         
    


  
   
 
  
    
           
 
   
   
 
         1155 
1065    

           

      
 
     
      

              

       
    



 
      

           


  
       
  
   
 


  (medical sciences) 
  (astrono my) 
      
    
  
   (botany)

  

 
      
  
  

  

   

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(Medical sciences)

 


            

    

   (M edical sciences) 

   
         
 

        

(translated)

  
       

               

              

          

         
  
 

      
         
    
 
         



         
 
   

    

   
 

     
  

  
        

 
    
 

   
            
    

 

 
    
  
    

 
      
  

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       
      
    

      
  
 
 (surgery) 
 




 

         
    
 

  

  
    

   
   24   

           
 
   

     
       

    


 
  
         

        
   
 
  
 

(clinic)  
 
          

                
 
             

   
 
        100  
 
               

   
 
  
    
 
 
 
      


  
 
     

  


 
   
      
      Frederich  
  Pare 

         

    
                  (anaest hesia)


   

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           (tonsils)  

  
             
    
 

         

       
  
 
  

   
 
   
           
    
       (surgery) 
 

       

    
     

         


       

  
           
    

   
       



       
 
  
     

 
  
 

   
   
      

   
    
    
         
    10   
      
 (expert)  
    
 
         
   

  
        
          

 (ophthalmologist) 
   

 
    
 
  
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 
       
  
 

              


       
   
      

                  
   
 
        
     
 
  
    
   
          

   
      

   
     

 
         
      


         
(Astronomy)

 

      961 
 912     


            
          
     

               
 
 
   
 (time keeping)  

  

 
    
     
      

           
   
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           




 
  
   (astrono my) 
 
 
        
 
  
  

 
  
   (a s t r o n o my )  
    
          
  
 
 (astrolo gy)

    
     
      
    

 
  
     
   

         
 
 
   
   
 
          

 


 
 
 
  
  
         
(medical sciences)  

      

 

     (astrono my) 
  

        

       
    
  

        
     

 


   

  (mat h e mat i c s )         
(medical science)    (astrono my)   (astrolo gy)

     
             
   
  

    
 

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        
    
 

     
   
            
    

  
    
  
 

   



         (Se ville)    
 

            
     
    
         (Arzac hel)
    

  
  
 

        
    

 
   (elliptic

orbits)  



   
  

    
  



   1514            

             
   
    
  
    

   
             
   

 
         

      
 

   

           
      (planetarium)    
    
  
        
 
  
     

 
   
   

 

  
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            
   
    
 (astronomical

table)    

     
        
    
        (astronomical

tables) 
 

  

 
            
 
              

          
       

  



     
      

 


          
   
 

              

   

(Bot any)


 

          


  

   

   
 
  
  
 

  

 
 
 
 
       

(botanists)        
     
 

   
    
      
      


(botany) 


     

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    
         

     
  
        
   
    

      

  

   

  (G u a d i x )       
     


(M ulhacen) 

  (Granada) 
 (Alme ria)
 

           

 
   
   (botanists) 

  
 

  (To le d o )
     (B e y asa )    (Ve le n c ia) 
 
    

        (Hijara
 

Valley)

 
        
  


         
     
      
  


(botanists)   

    
        
  
   


  
   
    


     
      
   

      
 
  
      

        

      
    
      
           

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  
 
        
 
   
 
   

             

  
 
  

    (Se ville)   (Guadix)   

         

    
 




cotton     alagodon        
  
 
  
 
    
  

  
            
       


 
  

   (sugar)      
 
    
   
         
          

        

  

     (botanists)   
   
   
         
   



  
  
    
       

        
        
   

    


      
      
  


   
            

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      
 
  

    


               
       
   
  


 
          
  
   

           
  
 
  
             

              


   
         

  
 
    
     
  
   
        
             


   

  


    
       
  
    
  
 

  
       
 

      

 
  

            

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  
          
 
         
     
 
    
       

     
  

  

         


   
       
     

            
   


(Cordoba)  

     




            
 

  
 
     

   
  

  
  
        
   
  

      

  
 
  

 
 
               

  
          

    
   

   

             

  
  
        
  

  
          

 
      
   
    
     
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            
 

   
 

       
       

 

          

     
  

           
            

   
 
     

               


              
          
     


          


  
 
 

          

  (Vale ncia)

   
        
      
 
 

  (Genil River) 
  (Guadalimor River)


 
 
 

    
     

 

      
 
        
 
       
   
   



     
 
           
 
       
  
  
     

          
     
  

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  

 167 
       
 
   
 

 
 

        

         

   
   

      
   

  
   

      

     

     

   
  

      

    

   

     


      


 


 

     












   
 



 



     

    
 

      
  
    


         

          
     

   
  
 
      

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 168 

    
  
      

     
   
   
   
              

             
  
        

   
 
               



   
 
        
   



  
    
   
     


     
        
 
 

   

 
            

       
  
    


      
         
         

     
       

                

(decorative art) 
  


        

 
     
        
      
              

  
      
 
    
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 169 

    (cook) 
 
          
       
         

               

            
  

         

       

  

          
   

 
   
          

         

   
   

           
     
                

       
  

 

 
       
      
 
 

  

           

  

      

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  

 170 


 
  

     
   
  
   
 

 
   

  
 12         


 
 
        
 (Cordoba)  

     (Bagh dad)        
 
      

 2,00,000      10,00,000  
 

       
     
  


 
   
     
    

  
  20,000      80,400    

    
     
     

    

   
 
    (dark ages)

        700  50   80 
 3,000
      
    

4,300

   
 

 
        
 
 
             


  
         
          

 
 
  

   
 12    
  
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   

  

 171 


   
      (Pyrenees) 


    
  

  
    

    
 
     
   
               

    
   
      
  

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       
    
       
 


   

           


  

  
     
    
   


           

  

 
 
     
    

 
   
 
     


     
       

  

       
    

  
 
  

  
 
 

  
 
   
        

      
 

      
   
 
 

          
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 173 

  

   

      

        

        
   

 
     
 
 
    
     
 
   
     

       
 
   
 

  
               
     
    


                
         
        

        


  
    
         
   
               
  

  

      
    


 
             

 
     

 
        
 

       

   
(Paper industry)

   




       

     
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


          
   
                 

   
     
     

     


  

              
  

 
   
      
 
     

         
 
    
       
  
  
   

 
            

   
         
 
      
   
  
    

  
  
      704 
   

    
     
   
 
    
         
      

   

 
     706   
     

  
         
    

      
          

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 175 




        
 

    794     
  
    



  

   
             

   (papyrus) 
       


              

   
        


     

       
Harun ar-Rashid's vizier, Yahya the Barmakid,
built the first paper-mill in Baghdad about the year
800. Th e man u fac t u r e o f p ap e r t h e n sp r e ad
westwards through Syria and North Africa to Spain,
an d it came in t o c ommo n u se. In t h e t we lfth
cent ury p ilgrims from Fr anc e to Compostela took
back pieces of paper as a great curiosity, though
Roger II of Sicily had used paper for a document in
1090. From Spain and Sicily the use of paper spread
in to weste rn Eur o pe , b u t p ap e r-mills we r e n ot
e st ab lish e d in It aly an d Ge r man y u n t il t h e
fourteenth century.
(W. Montgomery Wa tt, The Influence of Islam on Medieval Europe, p. 25 )

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             
 1085        

          (Xat iua)  
 
     
       
   
  
 (Xat iua) 
 
 
    

   

           


   (Xat iua) 
          


     (Granada) 
 (Vale ncia) 

 (Cordoba)
      

(Textile engineering)

 

   
 
  

 
    

             
          
 
 

           

  
       
     
     
             

   
          


 
   
   

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 177 
 
    
       

      
  

 


 

            
    
  


            
  

    
 
         
   (newly conquered)     

             
 
      
       
 
 
 (leade r)      

          

           (garments) 

           

 
 
            
  
    
      
     


    (Alme ria)      


  4,500   
      


               


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 178 

  

    

      

  
           

   

      (botanists) 
 
   
  

            
 

   
Cotton was in India and ancient Egypt but it
became an important textile only after the advent
of Islam. Indeed, one of the results of the M uslim
agricultural revolution was that cotton plantations
spread throughout all Islamic lands, in the east as
well as t he west . Fine c ott on was manu factu red
and exported to various countries, including China
and the Far East.
(Ahmed Y. Al-Hassan, Islamic Technology, p.181)

 
       

               
  
 
   
 
   
  
     

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 179 
(Watches)
(t i me

   
 


(a st r o n o my )



 

        
     keeping)

          
       

   
       

        
   
      
 
  
             

   
  
   
   
  
      
  
    

       
     
 
 
  
               
 

             

         
    

      
    
           
    
         


      
      

 
  
      
(Velenc ia) 
 
 

          

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  
    
  


 
  
       
  
 
       
 
  
      

    
  (timekeeping)  


           
(Kinetic energy)


 

            
     

          

  


     
        

   
 

       
  

  
 

      
      (wind mills)  
 

    
          
 
      
   
 

(water mills)

     
   
 
 
  

    
        


 
(Genil 
  (Guadalimar River) 
    
 
    Rive r)
  
      

        
    

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  
 
         
 

    

 (kinetic

energy) 
      

      
  
      
 
    
       





                

 
     (wind mills)

(Chemical technology)

 

         

        
 
    

        

    

           
      
        




          
      
 

    
           


              

      
  

  (Cordoba)
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        
  
      

       
    
 
              

       

  
      
  

   

      
     
  
     
        
     

 (Alme ria)       
 


          
 (M urcia)           
  (Co r d o b a)  
  (Gr an a d a) 
  (M a lag a) 

    (Beja) 
     (Lorca)
      
       





          

               

    (Beja) 
 (Cordoba) 
 
 


  

   

 
   
  
    

 
  cordovan   

  
     

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  


cordonniers    
 


 
     (Zar agoza)       
  
       
  (Bay


of Biscay)   


     
         
 
 
   
   
   
      
   
   (M urcia) 
 
   

        
     
(Ordnance)

 

 


         
   

     
  
    
    
           


            
 
         
    

 
    
      

  


             

     
         
              

  


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   (Toledo)      
     
          


  (Cordoba) 
           (Se ville)

  (A l me r i a)   (M u r c ia)   (G r a n a d a)

        (Zar agoza)
 
      
    
   
         



        
     
  692            

              
  

   
   
       

  1346    
    
     

  

(A eroplane)

  

        
      

 
 
     
      

      
  
  

  
 
     
 

    
  
 
       

                 
 

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
       


 
      
  
 

              
 
               
    
         
   

   

   
    
                 

  1903 17    

      
          
 
  
 
 

      1903 12  

                

 
   
              
 
     

         
  

            
 
  

     
         
  
       
  
     
                  


      

     
     

   
  

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 
      
   

    

   
       
   
   
    
   
 
  

         
  
   
           
    

 


(Civil engineering)

  

 
        

      
   
        
         

    
  
   
   

 
     
   

     

           
       
            


      
      
 


 
   
  

       

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    

           959   
 
  
   
  
   
  
             

       4,700        70

    
     
 
24,000  
       
 
     1,093
   
 
  

      
   

 

               
  
   
       
 
  

       
     

     
     
      
  

  
     

      
      
  

 
  
       

Whatever the human eye has witnessed this
is t h e mo st c h ar mi n g o f t h e m all , an d it s
craftsmanship and splendour are not to be found in
any of the ancient or modern monuments.

      
      
  



 


         
 

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 


   
 
   
 

 
  
          
        
         

   

        

  
     
         

       




     

  
           









        

           

 
  


           400   

    
  
   
      
  
 
 

    
  
    

     

    
      

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 189 





 
              
      
    
   

              
  

  

   
          

         
  
    

             


     
   
     
   
    

  
    
  

  

   



  
       
  


 
    
   
    
 
   

     
        


 
 
 

This palace is su ch a wo nd er o f th e wo rld
that a concept of the design of this type could not
oc c u r t o an y h u man be in g fr om t h e d awn of
cr e at io n t o t h is d ay an d h u man int e lle ct h as
thr ou gh t he ages faile d to p ro duc e a parallel or
even approaching it in beauty of design.
(Dr. Musta fa Siba', Some Glittering Aspects of the Isla mic Civ iliz ation)

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    
 
         
   




     
   
 
   
      

 

   
  




 (Guadalimar

River) 
    
 

            
  
           

400

  


 

 
       
  
    
 
 
 
    

  
 10,000     
 

 

 
   

    4
  
       4,316   
             
  
  
    
    
     

 


    
    

           

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 
 
 

 
           
2,200 

       
  

     

 
   
 

   
   
 

      


      
      

      
  
 
      
   

   

    

       
    

                 


                   
         


      


  
     

       
 
  
           

          
  (calligraphy)

         
   
 

 
    
  
       
    
       
   

            
 


 
 
  
     
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  

 192 

        

   
           
  

             
 
   
  

   
 
    

        (calligraphy)  

  
    
     



  

  
           

 

    

            
    


    

        


 
  

  
 
     
        


      
    
 

 
 E. Rosenthal

In M u slim days, Cord ova was t he c ent re o f
European civilisation and one of the greatest seats
of learning in the world. After the expulsion of the

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   

  

 193 
M oo rs fr om Sp ain , however, Cord ova san k t o the
le vel o f a pr o vin c ial to wn. Yet h er wo n d er ful
mo sq u e is a sup e r b legac y o f t h e d ays wh e n
Co rd ova was th e c ap it al of t h e Ar ab Emp ir e in
Spain. "Traces of Arabic Influence in Spain"
(Islamic Culture 11:336 July, 1937)


    

 
  
 
    



 
    
            
  
  

        



     



     Sir Thomas W.

Arnold 

 
      
     
     
 

  
         

           
 
      

       900   


 70      
  (Navarre )  
 (Leon)      
  


      

    

(Barcelona)  

 (Dressmake r)  
  (Architect)  
    
        


(Singer)

        

(The legacy of Islam)

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  

 194 

    C. H.

Haskins 


Th e b ro ad fact re main s t hat t he Ar ab s o f
Spain were the principal source of the new learning
for Western Europe.
(Studies in the History of Medical Science)

     
 
  

 



 
    

 

       H.

E. Barnes  

   
In many ways, the most advanced civilisation
of the M iddle Ages was not a Christian culture at
all, but rather the civilisation of the people of the
faith of Islam.
(H.E. Barnes, A History of Historical Writings)



  

   
    



             

 


  

 

"Ye t it was the c ultur e of th e Arabs whic h
became the matrix of the new Islamic civilisation,
an d all t h at was b est in th e old er and h igh e r
culture was assimilated into the new culture."
(W. Montgomer y Watt, A History of Islamic Spain , p.166)

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  

 195 

         G.

R. Gibb

   
      
   

 

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   

  

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