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Published by Sulaiman Mohamad

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Published by: Sulaiman Mohamad on Sep 14, 2011
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Manufacture of Sulphuric acid

Stage II Sulphur enter a roasting tower Stage I

Stage III

Raw Material: Sulphur Oxygen Water

water Stage IV

air supply from bottom produces sulphur dioxide HABER PROCESS

Suitable/optimum condition : sulphur dioxide oxidised by air to form sulphur trioxide 2SO2 + O2 2SO3 Temperature : 450 0C Pressure : 1 atm Catalyst : Vanadium(V) oxide, V2O5


Stage I S + O2

Sulphur dioxide

Stage II

Sulphur trioxide

Sulphur burnt in air to produce sulphur dioxide Stage III Uses H2SO4
Making fertilizer Making detergent Making electrolyte

2SO3 + H2SO4


Sulphur trioxide dissolve in conc. Sulphuric acid to form oleum

Sulphuric acid

Stage IV 2H2S2O7


H2S2O7 + H2O

Oleum dilute in water to form sulphuric cid Environmental Pollution Sulphur dioxide gas dissolves in atmospheric water/water vapour/rain water to produce a acid rain. SO2 + H2O → H2SO3 ( sulphurous acid) 2SO2 + O2 + 2H2O → 2H2SO4 (sulphuric acid )

Sulphur trioxide not dissolve in water because very vigorous and produce large amount of heat

Effect of acid Effect of acid Rain: corrodes concrete buildings Depletes essential nutrients for plant growth Makes the soil acidic Lower the pH of water in rivers and lakes

Very soluble in water

Change red litmus paper to blue

Pungent smell Detergent

Make nitric

Prevent coagulation of latex

Colourless Base Ammonia + acid → salt + water


Make fertilizer

• • • Soap

Urea ammonium sulfat ammonium nitrat

Produce thick white fume with hydrogen chloride gas

Plants need various nutrients for healthy growth. One of the essential nutrients is nitrogen.


Ammonium Fertilizer Can be prepared through neutralization process 2NH3(ak) + H2SO4(ak)

Haber Process Volume ratio N2 : H2 = 1: 3

Nitrogen in air + H2 from natural gas N2 (g) + H2 (g) → 2NH3 (g)

NH3(ak) +

→ (NH4)2SO4 (ak) HNO3(ak) → NH4 NO3(ak)

Catalyst : iron filling Pressure : 200 atm Temperature : 450 oC

% nitrogen in (NH4)2SO4 = Mass nitrogen x 100 RMM = 28 x 100 132 = 21. 2 %

Ammonia (Haber Process)

Process N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3 Temperature 450 -550 oC Catalyst : Iron Pressure : 200 atm

Properties Make fertilizer Make soap and detergent Prevent the coagulation of latex

Uses Very soluble in water Colourless gas Pungent smell Produce thick white fume with hydrogen chloride gas

Production of Ammonium Fertilizer Plants need various nutrients for healthy growth. One of the essential nutrients is nitrogen. • Ammonium fertilizers contains nitrogen in different percentage . Preparation: (a) Ammonium sulphate Ammonia reacts with sulphuric acid through neutralization reaction to produce ammonium sulphate. 2NH3 + H2SO4 → (NH4)2SO4 • Formula to calculate % of nitrogen : Mass of nitrogen Relative molecular mass of the fertilizer 1.

Examples: Percentage of nitrogen (by weight) in ammonium sulphate, (NH4)2SO4 [ RAM : H = 1 ; N = 14 ; O = 16 ; S = 32 ] = 2(14) × 100 2 [14 + 4(1) ] + 32 + 4(16)]

= 21.21 % 2. Percentage of nitrogen (by weight) in urea, (NH2)2CO [ RAM : H = 1 ; N = 14 ; O = 16 ; C = 12 ] = 2(14) 12 + 2(14) + 16 + 1(4) 46.67 % × 100


100 %


Aim *To increase hardness *To improve appearance. *To prevent rusting

Defination ALLOY An alloy is a mixture two or more elements with a certain atom of impurities in which the major component is a metal

Weight Iron ball Metal block

Composition and uses of alloy Alloy Steel Brass Bronze Duralumi Cupronickel Pewter Composition Fe, C Cu,Zn Cu, Sn Al, Mg/Cu Cu, Ni Sn , Cu/Sb Usage Vehicle, ,bridge Electrical componen Medal, statue Airplanes Coin Souvenir

Pure Metal Draw the atoms arrangement


Pure atom has similar size and shape and arranged orderly but still space between atoms

Explain the atoms arrangement above

The presences of impurities atoms disturb the orderly arrangement of atoms in pure metal.

When force is applied to pure atoms, atom slide one another easily

Explain the atoms arrangement when forces is applied

When force is applied the layers of atoms, its prevent from slide one another easily

Explain why bronze harder than pure copper? - The presence of tin atom disturb the orderly arrangement of pure metal - The layer of metal prevent from sliding one another easily




Use biodegrable polymer


Polymer Starch

Monomer glucose amino acid isoprene

Uses food food Tyre

Way to solve problem:

Protein Natural rubber

Most of the synthetic polymers are nonbiodegradable and producing poisonous gas on burning

They are exist in living things in nature example: Protein, natural rubber

POLYMERS Environmental pollution Natural polymers

They are made in laboratory through chemical process. Example: Plastic and nylon

Synthetic polymers

Polymer Polyethene

Monomer Ethene

Uses Plastic bags, film, plastic cup



Pipe, wire



Bottle, Toy



Disposable cup and plate, packaging material

Type of glass 1. Hard 2. Transparent 3. Water impermeable. 4. Brittle 5. Compress resistance 6. Electrical insulation 7. Heat insulation. 8. Inert to chemical substance. Fused silica glass Soda lime glass


Properties High meting point Point High viscosity Low melting point, easy broken Transparent, high melting point, withstand heat and chemical reaction Soft and easy to melt, transparent, high density

Uses Lab. Glassware, lenses, optical fiber Bottle, mirror, light bulb Dishes,Laboratory Apparatus (boiling tube, conical flask etc) Crystal, prism and lenses

Silicon dioxide Silicon dioxide, sodium oxide, calcium oxide Silicon dioxide, boron oxide, sodium oxide, calcium oxide Silicon dioxide, lead(II) oxide, sodium oxide

Borosilicate glass

Properties of glass

Lead crystal glass

Main component of glass: Silica (silicon dioxide) Construction materials Ornamental articles Semiconductor Electric insulation. Artificial limbs, bones and teeth Uses CERAMICS Properties of Ceramic Very hard. High melting and boiling point. Able to extend high pressure. Very good as heat insulation/ electric insulation. Inert toward chemicals. Weak toward extension. Density less than most of metals. Composite Material GLASS Type of glass, special properties and uses Ceramic is produced by heating clay at high temperature. Main component: silicate Basic composition : Al, Si, O.


structural material that is formed by combined two or more different material Type of glass Reinforced concrete Composition Properties Strong, high tensile, strength and cheap No electrical resistance Uses Building, bridge Transportation and telecomunication

Cement, gravel, sand, water, iron Alloy of metal compound or Superconductor ceramic of metal oxide Silica, sodium carbonate and Fiber glass calcium carbonate Silica, copper Fiber optic and Aluminium Photo chromic glass Plastic strengthened with glass fiber Silica and silver chloride Plastic and glass fiber

Good insulator heat and electrical Transmitted in light form at high speed Dark in colour when exposed to bright light and bright in dark Very strong, light, withstand corrosion

Racket, helmet, small boat Electrical cable Optical lenses, glass window Body car, aeroplane, rod

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