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Silv Cam June13

Silv Cam June13

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IDMEC

ADMIRE Athens meeting, June 20-21, 2002
1
THE INFLUENCE OF COLD-WORK
ON THE STRESS INTENSITY FACTOR
OF CRACKED HOLES
AND PIN LOADED JOINTS
Silvestre T Pinho, Helder B M Martins,
Pedro P Camanho, Paulo M S T de Castro
IDMEC - Porto, Portugal
IDMEC
ADMIRE Athens meeting, June 20-21, 2002
2
• analytical and semi-analytical solutions for
residual stress distributions resulting from hole expansion;
elastic-perfectly plastic material using
Tresca and von Mises criteria

• relationships
• dimension of the plastic zone vs internal pressure /
mandrel interference,
• magnitude of residual stresses vs remote uniform
tensile stress required to open symmetrical radial cracks

• reduction of K for cracked open- and riveted-holes as
function of hole expansion, using numerical models; elastic-
perfectly plastic material and Al 2024-T3 Alclad
summary
IDMEC
ADMIRE Athens meeting, June 20-21, 2002
3
• to develop a simplified procedure to relate hole
expansion (internal pressure / mandrel interference) of
an infinite isotropic plate, with the residual stress field
and plastic zone

• to assess the reduction of K resulting from the cold-
work process, in both open and riveted holes.
objectives
IDMEC
ADMIRE Athens meeting, June 20-21, 2002
4

-110
-90
-70
-50
-30
-10
10
10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30
r [mm]
o |MPa]
Semi-analytical Solution
Numerical Solution
o
rr
o
uu
semi-analytical and numerical
residual stress fields (von Mises)
IDMEC
ADMIRE Athens meeting, June 20-21, 2002
5
-0.6
-0.5
-0.4
-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7
r/r
i
o/o
y
von Mises
Tresca
o
rr
o
uu
residual stresses
obtained using von Mises
and Tresca yield criteria
IDMEC
ADMIRE Athens meeting, June 20-21, 2002
6
plate with open hole
a
r
i

IDMEC
ADMIRE Athens meeting, June 20-21, 2002
7
-0.4
-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2
r/r
i
o /o
y
Residual circumferencial stress
Stress due to uniform remote tensile load
Resulting stress
stress field due to cold-work
and remote loading
IDMEC
ADMIRE Athens meeting, June 20-21, 2002
8
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85
Elastic-perfectly plastic material
Alclad alloy
p
3 3
/ 10 10
i
r
uu
c A × = ×
relationship between applied
pressure and radial interpenetration

central hole in infinite plate
IDMEC
ADMIRE Athens meeting, June 20-21, 2002
9
1
1.05
1.1
1.15
1.2
1.25
1.3
0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85
Elastic-perfectly plastic material
Alclad alloy
mesh size
(semi-analytical)
(finite element)
p
c
r
plastic/elastic interface coordinate
as a function of the pressure applied;
von Mises yield criterion;
central hole in infinite plate
IDMEC
ADMIRE Athens meeting, June 20-21, 2002
10

0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
dimension of the plastically deformed region / hole radius
o/o
y
a/ri=1.00
a/ri=1.05
a/ri=1.10
a/ri=1.15

a
ri
remote stress required
to open two symmetrically located
cracks in a cold-worked hole
IDMEC
ADMIRE Athens meeting, June 20-21, 2002
11

2024 Alclad
uniaxial stress-strain relations
IDMEC
ADMIRE Athens meeting, June 20-21, 2002
12
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
12 12.5 13 13.5 14 14.5 15 15.5 16 16.5
a (mm)
Alcalad Al 2924-T3
Elastic-perfectly plastic material
No cold-work
Case 1
Case 2
Case 3
( )
MPa m K
( )
285 MPa
y
o =
100MPa
t
o =

a
r
i

10mm
i
r =
K as a function of crack length
and cold-working
Alclad Al 2024-T3
IDMEC
ADMIRE Athens meeting, June 20-21, 2002
13

p
i
=0.85 o
Y

p
i
=0.65 o
Y

p
i
=0.75 o
Y

Boundary between elastic
and plastic zones
regions plastically deformed
for different hole expansions
IDMEC
ADMIRE Athens meeting, June 20-21, 2002
14


a
ri
riveted joint
IDMEC
ADMIRE Athens meeting, June 20-21, 2002
15
comparison between K solutions
for a plate with a riveted hole
2.4
2.45
2.5
2.55
2.6
2.65
2.7
2.75
2.8
2.85
2.9
1.2 1.25 1.3 1.35 1.4 1.45 1.5 1.55 1.6 1.65 a/r
K/K
0
rigid pin
Ref. [24]

a
ri
o
IDMEC
ADMIRE Athens meeting, June 20-21, 2002
16
cosine and calculated distributions
of radial contact stress
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
0 15 30 45 60 75 90
a ( º)
s
rr
/ s
o
rigid pin
Ref. [24]
o
IDMEC
ADMIRE Athens meeting, June 20-21, 2002
17

7.045E-4
1.409E-3
2.113E-3
2.818E-3
equivalent plastic strain
due to cold-work
IDMEC
ADMIRE Athens meeting, June 20-21, 2002
18
o
yy
stress gradient
cracked cold-worked pin-load joint
IDMEC
ADMIRE Athens meeting, June 20-21, 2002
19
o
yy
stress gradient
cracked cold-worked pin-load joint
detail
IDMEC
ADMIRE Athens meeting, June 20-21, 2002
20
K as a function of crack length
and cold-work
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
12 12.5 13 13.5 14 14.5 15 15.5
Elastic-perfectly plastic material
Alclad Al 2924-T3
a (mm)
Case 3
Case 2
Case 1
No cold-work
( )
MPa m K

a
ri
1mm u =
Al 2024-T3
IDMEC
ADMIRE Athens meeting, June 20-21, 2002
21
• analytical and semi-analytical solutions are derived
for the characterization of the residual stress field
and plastic zone sizes of cold-worked holes for
elastic-perfectly plastic materials

• the cold-working process is shown to reduce K for
different dimensions of plastically deformed regions,
and for different crack lengths, for both a remotely
loaded plate containing an open hole, and for a
riveted joint.
conclusions I
IDMEC
ADMIRE Athens meeting, June 20-21, 2002
22
• the reduction of stress intensity factor value for the
cracked open hole problem was found to be greater
than the K value reduction for the pin-loaded joint.
This implies that claims of fatigue enhancement
solely based upon the performance of open hole
specimens may be optimistic in actual connections
conclusions II

IDMEC

summary
• analytical and semi-analytical solutions for residual stress distributions resulting from hole expansion; elastic-perfectly plastic material using Tresca and von Mises criteria • relationships • dimension of the plastic zone vs internal pressure / mandrel interference, • magnitude of residual stresses vs remote uniform tensile stress required to open symmetrical radial cracks

• reduction of K for cracked open- and riveted-holes as function of hole expansion, using numerical models; elasticperfectly plastic material and Al 2024-T3 Alclad
ADMIRE Athens meeting, June 20-21, 2002
2

ADMIRE Athens meeting. with the residual stress field and plastic zone • to assess the reduction of K resulting from the coldwork process. in both open and riveted holes. 2002 3 . June 20-21.IDMEC objectives • to develop a simplified procedure to relate hole expansion (internal pressure / mandrel interference) of an infinite isotropic plate.

2002 4 .IDMEC semi-analytical and numerical residual stress fields (von Mises) MPa] 10 -10 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 r [mm]   -30  rr -50 Semi-analytical Solution -70 Numerical Solution -90 -110 ADMIRE Athens meeting. June 20-21.

1 1.3   von Mises Tresca -0.7  rr -0.2 -0.6 ADMIRE Athens meeting. June 20-21.6 1.IDMEC residual stresses obtained using von Mises and Tresca yield criteria y 0.2 1.5 1.5 -0.1 r/ri 0 1 -0.4 1. 2002 5 .1 1.3 1.4 -0.

June 20-21.IDMEC plate with open hole ri a ADMIRE Athens meeting. 2002 6 .

1 r/ri 0 1 -0.3 1.2 0.6 1.4 1.1 1.2 1.5 1. 2002 7 .4 1.7 1.3 -0. June 20-21.3 0.IDMEC stress field due to cold-work and remote loading  y 0.2 -0.8 1.1 -0.9 2 Residual circumferencial stress Stress due to uniform remote tensile load Resulting stress ADMIRE Athens meeting.

8 0.5 3 central hole in infinite plate Alclad alloy p 2.5 4 3.5 5 Elastic-perfectly plastic material 4.7 0.5 0.6 0. 2002 8 .5 0.75 0. June 20-21.65 0.55 0.85 ADMIRE Athens meeting.IDMEC relationship between applied pressure and radial interpenetration  / ri 103   103 5.

75 0.65 0.3 plastic/elastic interface coordinate as a function of the pressure applied.8 0.55 0.25 Elastic-perfectly plastic material 1.15 Alclad alloy (finite element) 1. 2002 9 . von Mises yield criterion.2 (semi-analytical) 1. r central hole in infinite plate c 1.1 mesh size 1.7 0. June 20-21.6 0.05 p 1 0.85 ADMIRE Athens meeting.IDMEC 1.

2002 10 .15 a ADMIRE Athens meeting.2 1. June 20-21.4 1.1 1.5 ri a/ri=1.15 0.10 a/ri=1.1 0.4 a/ri=1.05 a/ri=1.IDMEC remote stress required to open two symmetrically located cracks in a cold-worked hole y 0.25 0.2 0.35 0.05 0 1 1.00 0.3 dimension of the plastically deformed region / hole radius 1.3 0.

2002 11 .IDMEC uniaxial stress-strain relations 2024 Alclad ADMIRE Athens meeting. June 20-21.

5 16 16.5 15 15.5 13 13.5    t  100 MPa Case 1 ri Case 2 ri  10mm a AlcaladAl 2024-T3 Alclad Al 2924-T3 Elastic-perfectly plastic material  y  285 MPa  a (mm) ADMIRE Athens meeting. 2002 12 .5 14 14. June 20-21.IDMEC K as a function of crack length and cold-working K MPa m 24 23 22 No cold-work 21 20 19 18 17 16 Case 3 15 14 12 12.

2002 13 .75 Y pi=0.85 Y Boundary between elastic and plastic zones ADMIRE Athens meeting. June 20-21.65 Y pi=0.IDMEC regions plastically deformed for different hole expansions pi=0.

June 20-21.IDMEC riveted joint ri a ADMIRE Athens meeting. 2002 14 .

65 rigid pin Ref.8 2.7 2.85 2.55 2. June 20-21.6 2.6 1.75 2.4 1.35 1.25 1.3 1.2 1. [24] a K/K0 ri  ADMIRE Athens meeting.9 2.45 1.5 2.4 a/r 1. 2002 15 .65 2.45 2.55 1.5 1.IDMEC comparison between K solutions for a plate with a riveted hole 2.

IDMEC cosine and calculated distributions of radial contact stress s rr / s o 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 a 0 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 ( º)  rigid pin Ref. June 20-21. [24] ADMIRE Athens meeting. 2002 16 .

2002 17 .045E-4 1.113E-3 2. June 20-21.IDMEC equivalent plastic strain due to cold-work 7.409E-3 2.818E-3 ADMIRE Athens meeting.

2002 18 . June 20-21.IDMEC yy stress gradient cracked cold-worked pin-load joint ADMIRE Athens meeting.

2002 19 .IDMEC yy stress gradient cracked cold-worked pin-load joint detail ADMIRE Athens meeting. June 20-21.

5 14 14.5 ADMIRE Athens meeting.5 13 13. June 20-21. 2002 20 .IDMEC K as a function of crack length and cold-work K MPa m 119 Elastic-perfectly plastic material   No cold-work 118 Al 2024-T3 Alclad Al 2924-T3 u  1mm 117 116 115 114 113 112 111 12 Case 1 Case 2 ri Case 3 a a (mm) 12.5 15 15.

2002 21 . for both a remotely loaded plate containing an open hole. and for a riveted joint. ADMIRE Athens meeting. June 20-21. and for different crack lengths.IDMEC conclusions I • analytical and semi-analytical solutions are derived for the characterization of the residual stress field and plastic zone sizes of cold-worked holes for elastic-perfectly plastic materials • the cold-working process is shown to reduce K for different dimensions of plastically deformed regions.

June 20-21. 2002 22 . This implies that claims of fatigue enhancement solely based upon the performance of open hole specimens may be optimistic in actual connections ADMIRE Athens meeting.IDMEC conclusions II • the reduction of stress intensity factor value for the cracked open hole problem was found to be greater than the K value reduction for the pin-loaded joint.

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