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LETHABY SILVERWORK AND JEWELRY .THE ARTISTIC CRAFTS SERIES OF TECHNICAL HANDBOOKS EDITED BY W. R.
1 A and Librarians. With 160 Diagrams and 16 i2mo.40 net. APPLETON AND COMPANY. full-page Wilson. 12 cents additional. 20 Illustrations 8 collotype . in TTHE -'- series will appeal to handicraftsmen the industrial and mechanic arts. With By Douglas Cpckerell. By H. and Diagrams by Noel Rooke. Illustrations. Lethaby. Handbook for Amateurs. It will consist of authoritative statements by experts in every field for the exercise of ingenuity. R. and of bindings. D. imagination pendent arts. NEW YORK. ^1. $1. postage. Spooner.25 net postage. Edited by W.THE ARTISTIC CRAFTS SERIES OF TECHNICAL HANDBOOKS. Book for Students a Text- and Workers in Metal. SILVERWORK AND JEWELRY. 12 cents additional. ." — BOOKBINDING AND THE CARE OF BOOKS. Bookbinders. reproductions i2mo. By C. the whole sphere of the so-called "detaste. In Preparation : CABINET-MAKING AND DESIGNING.
.I THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRAP'"' ASTOR. LENOX AND TILDEN FOUNDATIONS.
.The Foundress' Cup : Christ's College. Cambridge.
A TEXT-BOOK FOR STUDENTS IN METAL WILSON. WITH DIAGRAMS BY THE AUTHOR OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS AND D.SILVERWORK AND JEWELRY AND WORKERS BY H. NEW YORK APPLETON AND COMPANY 1903 .
THE NEW YORK P!ir^''- LIBRARY 357689 ASTOR. 1903 . 1903 By D.. -'y^ii fights reserved ' r c Published February. Appleton and Company . LENOX AND T1LD€N FOUWPATION8... L 1503. c. R Copyright.
so much difficulty in the to-day which have the Mechanism has destroyed goldsmith' s art. 172. the habit of the to of intelligent personal effort on the part worker."An those Art can only be learned in the workshop of itJ*^ who are winning their bread by —Samuel Butler (* Erewhon ").) the imitation the — y5 /J . and his energies are now directed of the cold and arid regularity of machine. therefore. ii.\replace little by little that fascination which belongs is to everything shaped by the human hand\ be surprised that there less One need not. their unintelligence. When. their exactitude. more perfect than any mechanism. however. The hand of man. their even precision." vol. p. no dustry..** ** It is evident so that the value is of methods and apparatus simple as these dependent on the skill and talent of the worker who uses them. is everyzvhere seen in early goldsmith' s work. than in other branches of in- in procuring things charm of ancient work. the only thing does like it sure takes pains to know. mechanical methods develop. is to ** One may In Art : do whate'' er one likes That one —which make — Robert Browning (<'Pippa Passes")." "On Medieval Gold and Silver Work" (" VioLLET LE Duc.
and putting aside vain survivals. In the first place. Preface be well to state what are our general aims. are more and sculpture of an academic kind. and to set up a standard of quality in the crafts which tise. we hope to treat design itself as an essential part of good workmanship. During the last century most of the arts. were little considered. we wish to provide trustworthy text-books of workshop prac- from the points of view of experts critically examined the methods current in the shops. save painting sign. who have especially associated with deSecondly. are prepared to say what is good workmanship.EDITOR'S PREFACE In issuing this volume of the a series of it Editor's Handbooks will on Artistic Crafts. in doing this. and there was a tendency to look on " design " as a mere matter 9 .
we would have this lo . it came to be seen that it was impossible to detach design from craft in this way. and so on. proper finish. on the other hand. and indeed. and that. that ornamentation itself was rather an exuberance of fine workmanship than a matter of merely abstract lines. far more than mere ornament. there was was usually obtained by following in a mechanical way a drawing provided by an artist who often knew little of the technical processes involved in With the critical attention production. for special purpose. In the third place. contrivance workmanship. involving as it does the selection of good and suitable material. divorced necessarily unreal.Editor's Preface Such " ornamentation " as of appearance. expert — — be defined as a language addressed to the eye it is pleasant thought expressed in the speech of the tool. given to the crafts by Ruskin and Morris. ornamenfrom workmanship. is tation. in the widest sense. true design is an inseparable element of good quality. and. Workmanship when separated by too wide a gulf from fresh thought that is. from design inevitably decays. and quickly falls into Proper ornamentation may affectation. .
can fairly hope to succeed as painters and series Editor's Preface sculptors is . In the blending of handwork and thought in such deal as with.put artistic craftsmanship before people as furnishing reasonable occupations for those who would gain a livelihood. • • • • • Work ject in the precious metals. yet. Although within the bounds of academic art. the competition. as artistic craftsmen. It is desirable in every way that men of good education should be brought back into the productive crafts there are more than enough of us "in the city. is so acute that only a very few per cent. of its kind." and it is probable that more consideration will be given in this century than in the last to Design : and Workmanship. there every probability that nearly every one who v/ould pass through a sufficient period of apprenticeship to workmanship and design would reach a measure of success. far arts as we propose to happy careers may be found removed from the dreary routine of hack labor as from the terrible uncertainty of academic art. the is which dealt with in the subpresent II .
seems especially to have suffered from the slavish methods introduced.' Editor's Preface volume. to compete with machinery. we should rather aim at reasonableness. that of commercial dulness. have been signs of a danger that these crafts may be victimized by glaring affectations in design and by unashamed Of the two crudeness of manipulation. and from the general benumbing of the aptitude for design which affected so many of the artistic crafts during the course of the there On the other hand. last century. an introduction of unrelated splashes of enamel. at the natural de- 12 . and an endeavor to suggest ideas of luxury. perhaps. On this question of design it is essential to guard oneself from a merely capricious originality. faults are often found for violent curva- ture of form. a striving for exaggerated elegance. which last is probably the most enervating and repulsive characteristic of the name — latter is likely to certain forms of modern Symptoms of these in a preference taste. and the over-insistence upon tool marks and chemically treated surfaces. On the contrary. vulgarities and that of the blandishments which — assume the of "new art" be by far the worse.
of blowing glass. and the 13 . The best compliment to workshop practise is to study the old work stored in our museums. and at unobtrusive finish. or potter's clay. But any one who has watched the process of throwing a pot on the wheel. Now. or glass.traditional forms. be it for silver. The London the student should frequent Gold Room and Medieval Department of the British Museum. for instance. not rootless egoism. From this point of view all ancient art is a vast encyclopedia of methods and experience. without intention to copy specific types. and then to coerce the material into the preconceived form. the shape of some vessel. Editor's Preface gather ideas generally applicable. it is far too customary to " design. the general collection at South Kensington. will have noticed how dozens of vitally beautiful forms are produced on the way to the final dulness predestined by the drawing. but to velopment of pleasant. Of old the arts developed under the hand by the contact of tools and material. The true method of design is always growth." as it is called. or of beating up metal out of the sheet.
be allowed to say that in both those issued we have been given the best knowledge of expert craftsmen. have been willing to give out the combined results of their experiments and study clearly and without It is but I may now reserve. but will be a true form of self-culture . who.Editor's Preface He marvels of the Indian Museum. H I . that such systematic study will not only result in the accumulation of hints for trade purposes. and seals. for all history stands as a background to these objects bequeathed and the perfect to us by past civilizations knowledge of one thing includes the partial knowledge of many things. should also Study the devices on ancient It will be found coins. LETHABY. medals. R. . W. not for me to praise these books. having explored the past of the arts with which they deal.
This of necessity repetition. my intention to impose conceptions of design upon the student. the his- Author's Pref ace It is intended guide to some of the more simple processes of the craft. intended in the first place for students. These in most cases have been drawn from work actually carried out. The worst fault of such a text-book. but only to describe methods I have found to give the best results in 15 amount of but . causes a certain anything is better than doubt. however. I would be vagueto avoid this ness. have attempted by describing the operations of each process consecutively from beginning to end. For the sake of clearness the various chapters have been written round the diagrams inserted in the text.AUTHOR'S PREFACE This book does not tory of the jeweler's as a practical deal with art. It is not.
and natural forms. though they do little more than catalogue the objects. will These methods. poets. perfect his skill in handiwork. feed his imagination on old work. whatever is felt to lessen our power of work in any direction must be studiously avoided and whatever helps If the student will us eagerly sought. may be applied to form carried out in objects of whatever the same materials. his personality can It will safely be left to take care of itself. yet will often give most sug- i6 . with such changes as the common sense of the suggest. No student worthy of the name would attempt to copy the designs for himself. And a too little while nothing is more pitiable than conscious cultivation of our poor personality. attend faithfully to his instincts. it checks the development of the student's native powers and stunts his individuality. and travelers. The old inventories of church plate. infallibly find expression. historians. study methods. materials. One most valuable stimulus to the imagination is to be found in the descriptions of marvelous metal work by old writers.Author's Preface my own worker workshiDp. Not only is deliberate copyism dishonest.
^ ounces and a quarter. treasurer of the same church. of course. hints. finer Author's Preface and a lamb behind him with an (wanting one wing) and on the left side the images of Abel and Cain. points in his rendering. missed as many not being a craftsman. 2 ly . contains many lator. weighing 6. at the have endeavored to rectify this defect in the new renderings . given drie's end of this book but HenTheophilus will always be full of interest to those curious in the arts of the Middle Ages. published by Isaac. The treatise of Theophilus. It is. and I the technical descriptions are not as clear could be wished. in the year 1536: "Item. The trans- however.— ^ What could be than this from the inventory of the jewels and rehcs belonging to the cathedral church of Sarum. made by Master Thomas Robertson. a cross with Abraham offering gestive hints for design. impossible in a limited space to treat of a limitless art. Another valuable aid is that given by old descriptions of methods and processes. and straightway the mind begins to work on a scheme of its own. moreover." One sees the thing through the old scribe's eyes.. up angel Murray.
gold- lapping. coloring of gold. i8 . that the processes described in this book may help the student to acquire a tech- nique for himself If it does anything.Author's Preface many processes. frosting. however. I hope. such as wet and dry die-stamping. H. and electroplating and typing have too little connection with art to be considered at all. in that direction its object have been achieved. W. however will slight.
......CONTENTS PAGE Editor's Preface Author's Preface 9 »5 Contents CHAPTER Introduction I 25 CHAPTER Materials position of Pickle II — Educational Value of — Com— Repousse Work Process Pitch for 29 Tools . VII a 44 Hammer Work up The — — How CHAPTER Stakes — to Make Cup Planishing — — How Bossing to 19 ... 36 Wire-Drawing The Draw-Bench DrawPlate Tube-Drawing How to Make a — — CHAPTER V Draw-Plate .. CHAPTER III 33 CHAPTER IV Work Benches Best Form of Bench The Pin The Skin Tool Rack Board Sweep — — — — — .. VI in the — — 39 Repousse dure vior Work— Chasing— Method of — How Tools — The Behaof Metal — Work Round — The Proceto hold the CHAPTER Chasing of Castings ....
— — 97 20 . XI Sol' dering .. Use of 5 CHAPTER Candlesticks—The VIII — The Together — Scorer Socket— The Knop The . Polishing Candlestick Base — — — A Simpler Form of .. Shaft— The CHAPTER Spoons IX The Shape of the Bowl The Stem-^ The Handle or Thumbpiece Joining the Bowl and Handle— Second Method of MaBoxwood Third Method king a Spoon The Lead Matrix Ingots for Punches — — — — Handles .. .. -87 .92 Soldering —Use of Borax —The Blowpipe— Lamps . CHAPTER Settings XII Settings tings —The Kinds — — Paved Setting Close of Stones to Use Open Setthe Stone Settings .. ..1 Contents / Make Base a mentation in — Base for Beaker Position — — Snarling-Irons for a Cup — Soldering the Method Interlocking Joints for Hammer Sand-bag Work Drinking Cup with a Stem — — Beakers — The Polishing — Orna— Another the .. .68 Fitting . — CHAPTER X Silver — — 79 Silver Solder cible —The Cru— Use of Scrap Mold — Enameling — The Make Large Work— How — Ingot Solders for to Solder Ingot Molds .. . . CHAPTER . .
— . for the Pendant Polishing -137 CHAPTER XVII Hair Ornaments and Combs Silver Hairpin The Skeleton Sphere Hardening the Pin in Silver to — — — A Comb — How Make Prongs — The —The Head of Comb— Arranging —The Groups Joint the the the Stones 21 . . . .112 CHAPTER XV Brooches — —The The Suggestions for Design Mounting Making of Compound Twists — Joint and Catch . — . . Cleaning and Polishing . . . Hoop . . .130 CHAPTER XVI Pendants for Things to be Avoided Suggestions Design The Use of Enamel Setting — — the — Enamel — The .— CHAPTER Rings XIII PAGE Contents — Hoop Rings — Making Compound Wire — The Knot Ring — — The Wreath — The Table Ring— AnForm — The Carved Ring— The Polishing Filigree other Design of Rings . 1 04 CHAPTER XIV Necklace for — How Designed— The Arrangement — Chain-making— Mounts — Backing — Woven — The Snap — —Another Form of Necklace — What Study — How Use your — Pendants— Design — Loop Pendant of Stones Links to Filigree Pearls the Pearls Polishing to Studies Sugges- tions for for the .
Loops . . Gold Work Sweep the — Board —The Care of — Method of Treatment— — Drawing Hair Ornaments — The Wire — Making Grains — Leaves — — Nine-Carat Gold Flowers — Gold the Material CHAPTER XIX Ingot Alloys Solder for the Pin— Study of Old Work . 156 • . Wreathed Setting .183 Carving Necessary Metal — Where Carving Tools — Tempering— The — Making Wax Model — The Use of — The" Knop — The in is CHAPTER XXII the the Chisels Finishing Spiral . . to Drill Pearls 145 Bracelets Hinge Bracelet The Band The Snap The Hinge Fitting the Joints The Flexible Bracelet — The Hammered — The — — — — — and Bracelet CHAPTER XVIII Cleaning Burnishing . . . 177 CHAPTER XXI Locket or Pendant Casket Bezel the —The Frame— The —The Hinge —The Back — Hinge — The Tool — Swivel Fitting Joint . .— Contents °^ Leaves ting the Pearls — The Pin — How for the Hinge — PAGE Set.168 Lis CHAPTER XX Gold Necklace with Pendant Fleurs de The Brass over the king Fleurs — Gold Matrix — Another Method of Made — Engraved Mold Lis Burnishing the Matrices . . .187 22 .
. . Darkening. Coloring Copper . . . 235 CHAPTER XXIX Various Methods of Gilding — Mercury Gilding 237 23 . Enamel Work sites — General — Requi— Cloisonne Work — — Mounting — Champleve Enamel Enamel — The Tools — Use of Gold — Limoges Enamel— Network Enamel Enamel — Deep-cut Enamel Considerations Filling CHAPTER XXIV the the Cells Solder Setting the . XXVIII Gold Work ening Gold — — or Materials Oxidizing Silver and Required Dark- — .193 y ^^ — — U" .231 CHAPTER Coloring. 223 CHAPTER XXVI Moldings The Swage .— CHAPTER XXIII PAGE ContenB Casting— The Cuttlefish Mold— Flasks— The Loam Smoking the Mold Slate or Bathbrick Molds . 200 CHAPTER XXV Hinge for Casket Drawing the Tube The Mandrel The Liner The Joint Tool — — Soldering the Joints — — The — Pin . .Block Filing Grooves Drawing the Metal — — — the Polishing Required — — Work — A Method — Gold Work — Care of Waste— of Tools Materials CHAPTER XXVII Polishing Silver Simpler Burnishing Polishing . Polishing Cleanliness .
. .. . Casting Third Method of Casting . CHAPTER XXXIV On Old Work and Old Methods Notes on the Collotype Plates Collotype Reproductions Medieval Cups and Chalices (^Illustrations^ Practical Recipes. -256 262 CHAPTER On Inlaying . etc... XXXIII .. .— A Contents CHAPTER XXX PAGE A Method of Shaping and Cutting Precious Stones Cut Stone most —The —The Cements Required— Lathe — —The Stones the Softer easily Drilling ....... Glossary Index 283 .. Engraver'^ Polishing 240 CHAPTER XXXI Piece Model — The —The Sand — —The Mold — The Making Cores — The Back Mold — The Core Model — Arranging Gates — Dryof - Molding —The Casting Flasks - Flasks Filling the the Charcoal False the ing the Mold . 24 .. the the in 244 CHAPTER XXXII Casting by -Wax Process Model— The Sand— Casting Waste Flasks Bedding the Mold V without — Hollow the Flasks — The Wax Mold — — Castings ......
Etruria. their Intro- duction 25 . not only inherited skill to guide hands and eyes. The men who iiiade these things which fill us all with wonder had.. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The exquisite jewelry of Egypt. during which he was made free of the results of an unbroken tradition of craftsmanship. and Greece. added by one generation of craftsmen after Each worker brought his fracanother. to us is the sum of a series of small improvements in work and method. however. was the outcome of What remains centuries of development. His work lay almost in the open air there was beauty in all his surroundings. Each went through a long apprenticeship. 'aid up and tion of beauty to the stor who had bequeathed to him by thov gone before. work so fine as almost to appear miraculous.
that tentative. and 26 . almost stumbling steps perfection of skill has been attained. it is absolutely the most fruitful source of ideas. yet we are able to follow the line of development and almost to mark the fact that its stages. hand and the brain work together. farther the discoveries of archeology take us back into the past. As always the happiness of the worker was reflected in the work. can give adequate expression to his ideas. Each seems to have been content if he could surpass by ever so little the skill of his forbears. Apart from gradual perfecting of craftsmanship has been the way to excellence in the past. the more clearly we see by what slow.Intro- duction and inspiration waited on him continually. and those which are suggested by process are this invariably The healthy and rational. it is the only way by which the student can attain to confidence Lacking these no one and knowledge. the Yet Between the prehistoric fibula hammered out from a nugget of ore and the granulated cloak-clasp of Etruria and Greece the distance is enormous. Not only does the study of methods and the qualities of material enable him to give expression to an idea.
No amount of fumbling with a pencil The could ever lead to a like result. which is greatly to seek in most even of the best work of to-day. and on the material the creative Art idea engendered the work of art. example a Rhodian earring. What is it? a rough pearl. even by those who practise them. as if each were only another form of picture-making. material was there in front of the craftsman. This is not wholly untrue. a skeleton cube of gold wire. 27 .outcome of their partnership is a sanity of conception. a tiny pyramid of beads. and is craftsmanship plus inspiration in — . for more than a century the painter and the sculptor have stood before the public as the sole representatives of the Arts. What could be more simple ? yet the cunning collocation of these elementary forms has produced a thing of beauty that can not now be surpassed. and the Intro- duction consequence all the crafts and arts have been approached pictorially. The reason is perhaps that the zeal of the artist has not been tempered by knowlThe reason of this again is that edge. and a hook. only the methods of the painter do not always Take as the simplest apply in the crafts.
to the utmost its native beauty. The modern method izes the of cutting equalthe glitter color and intensifies of the gem. or emerald. splits and cuts forms of infinite many-faceted. His material is a screen and not a medium of expression. The old workman took the rough crystal of sapphire. keeping the stone as large as possible. his The gems modern workman into regular. geometrical ingenuity and intolerable hideousness. . which for the artist is its chiefest beauty. displaying inspiration memory . Stones and jewels to the early artist were means of adding emphasis to his work. The craftsmanship of the early workman was frank and fearless. To the former the jewel was an added beauty to the setting to the latter the jewel is a means of hiding the setting and the workmanship. but the glitter takes away that mysterious magical quality. and replaces that 28 . or were used as the germ of a design by the modern they are used as substitutes for design. the worker of to-day hides behind the stones he uses. and polished it.Intro- duction is the rush of unconscious along channels made by a habit of craftsmanship. or ruby. that inner luster of liquid light.
seeking to avoid these defects must begin at the beginning. learn thoroughly the ducuon has. as is. the to every cultivated eye. must learn to of handiwork rely at first as on excellence foundation of his The claim to be considered an artist. CHAPTER Materials II — Educational tion of Pickle — value of Process — ComposiWork it Pitch for Repousse The is student will first probably find that to Materials better at buy his silver plate already rolled to the thickness required. one cause of the mechanical hardness and lack of artistry so visible The student who is in modern work. reacted on the mounting. perhaps. machine-made perfection of the cut stone it were. 29 . one guiding principle of all true craftsmanship is this the forms used in design should express naturally and simply the the : properties of the particular material employed.beauty by a mechanical sheen offensive Imro- Moreover. and build up his system of design by slow degrees out of He the results of his daily experience. and rudiments of his craft.
In the process of work ideas are matured which would otherwise have lain dormant and useless. Electrotype copper. is 30 .Materials and have the wire drawn by the dealer. and sincerity which are found to a supreme degree in almost all old work. copper. He will in way get a knowledge of materials quite impossible of attainment under any this other conditions. full The old craftsmen took ties advantage of the native qualiof their materials. alloy copper. simplicity. which is very pure. should be used. is which For cloison wire. They are an abomination to 'all who the best. The copper used should be of the best French or Swedish quality procurable. can be used to alloy silver and gold. such as is used for enameling. but in all your work avoid electrotypes. and with and practise he can thin out small ingots of metal on a stake or small anvil any required thickness. very nearly pure. and these can only be learned by daily practise in working them. but later on he will find that he can draw small plate care to quantities fixed in a of wire with a a drawlittle vise. The design gradually acquires those indefinable qualities of naturalness.
square. The impressed ornaments on medieval chalices were often filled and attached to the body of the work by tin used both as solder and filling. and leaves. Brass wire of different sizes is useful for making temporary pins for joints. disks. backed in this way.. For tools the finest tool steel in round. if of good quality. ranging from 18 to the finest. weighing about 3 lbs. for making molds will also be useful can be roughly in which sheet metal beaten up to shape ready for chasing. few pounds of block tin will be useful for use as a for making molds. will also be wanted tying work together while being for soldered. Binding-wire of several gages. can be used in are Materials A making silver solder. Borax should be bought in crystals. A block of zinc. 31 ' . or flat bars should be used. used as a backing for work in thin sheet Much Etruscan work was silver or gold. and block on which to stamp up with punches It is less small beads. yielding than lead for this purpose and It can also be gives a cleaner result.^ have any regard to the qualities which produced by handiwork. and.
. A pound will will must not be allowed to burn or the work be stained and the stain is rather difficult to remove. Nitric acid pickle A = i i part nitric acid acid and 6 parts water. to grind small quantity of sulfuric acid. Hydrochloric pickle 8 parts water. The drying the work after washing. „ 32 . Sulfuric pickle = part and 6 parts water. 4 4 2 parts. .— Materials A it small piece of slate on which up can be got anywhere. and nitric acid will be wanted for the various pickling soluThey should be obtained from tions. a wholesale chemist. » Plaster of Paris ... Pitch for repousse as follows : work is best made Pitch . Rosin . = i part acid and sawdust or two of best boxwood be wanted and kept in an for It is used ordinary biscuit box. drying can be hastened by putting the box on an iron plate supported over The sawdust a spirit-lamp or gas flame. hydrochloric acid.
— a pipkin. while a few different sized A stakes to are quite the vise for hammer work indispensable . 6). very good ones can be made out of poker heads or the handles of fire-tongs. ^ inch square. : Melt the pitch and rosin together in and when both have been well mixed and stirred. 3 Tools one heavy and one 33 . light. and leave it to cool. put in a small knob of Materials tallow or an inch or two of tallow candle Now add the and again stir the mixture. plaster by handfuls and stir it in well. For winter work the pitch may be found It can be softened by remelttoo hard. Then pour it out into a box well whitened with dry whitening. fix in CHAPTER Tools III The tools most likely to be required are For Repousse work Chasing hammers (fig. horn mallet is almost necessary for raising work. Some boxwood sticks. two sizes. for polishing will be very useful. ing and adding another piece of tallow candle to the mixture.
such as touching up cast work.Tools Various punches or chasing tools (fig. from forty to fifty. and a small set square — and —round. A joint Two 34 tool for making or three pliers and ordinary. set of ordinary scorpers. A small cold chisel. hinges. An assortment of these. —round-nosed. block. Except for very special purposes. It is far better to rely on model- ing and design for producing variety of surface. These can often be purchased second-hand. doming flat. set Snarling irons. of engraving scorpers. . face. avoid the use of matting tools. or tools intended to produce a patterned or granulated sur7). and three- a set of needle files. These you can make for yourself out of lengths of bar steel. A A A A A A set of doming punches for doming of files the metal. A bench vise. Those which revolve on a pivot are the most useful for general purposes. will probably suffice for most simple work. pair of slide pliers. flat. few draw-plates.
and one curved. which should be one of the ordinary Swiss centrifugal drills drills. sand-bag.Two straight pairs of cutting shears. repousse tools. a pitch block with leather collar to keep the work in made A place. slips which can be of a flat-iron will do equally well A few of boxwood for making punches and for light mallets will be found very useful. very little indeed that the student can not make for himself. The bottom for this. A drill stock. one Tools A saws. Apart from the valuable experience to be gained in this way. will complete ments. The for this can either be bought or a its as the student desires. and a blowpipe and some form of spirit-lamp with a good of large flame. a tool that is made for a particular purpose is almost always In fact. fine piercing A of steel. there 3S . jeweler's frame saw and square bench stake. tools the list students' requireas The_student should as possible make himself? many is for This all particularly the case with drills. and dies and punches of is kinds.
to leather sheepskin nailed form a receptacle for the filings of gold and silver and to hold the tools while workMany jewelers prefer tin trays to ing. around the a bow of is the semicircle. while it the pleasure of having made for onefor more compensates the trouble.— I I Tools better self than one than that is bought. the with board. a small wedge-shaped piece of wood called " the pin " is inserted to form a rest for the work when filing or engraving. 2) of a hard beech board with a semicircular hole cut out of the front to receive the body of the worker when seated." which consists (fig. CHAPTER Work Benches Best IV Pin The Skin — form of Bench —The — Tool Rack— Board Sweep Work Benches The best bench for the worker is " the French or jeweler's bench. but the latter have this 2(> . so that there struck is no spring in the board when Underneath the hammer. The bench should stand very firmly and be fixed to the floor. In the center of this bow. catch the filings.
On the right-hand side of the bow the 37 .disadvantage. the bench is that work dropped from likely to Work Benches more be injured on the tray than if it fell into the skin.
Fig. If a lamp be 38 . If gas be used ordinary bench blowpipe is fixed for the fig. sufficiently near to the edge to enable the flame to be directed toward the center of the semicircular space. 2.Work Benches flame ranged (see arranged for the blowpipe should be ari. which shows a bench five workers).
the resulting ash well tried over with a magnet to remove any bits of iron wire. the sweep should be burned in an iron tray to remove any trace of organic matter. a sufficient quantity has been gathered. There should be a rack at the side of the bench for tools. will allow for catch the precious metal it may contain. CHAPTER V Wire-Drawing The Draw-Bench Draw-Plate Tube-Drawing How to make a Draw-Plate — — — Wire is made by drawing short rods of metal either by hand or by means of a Wire- Drawing 39 . and to prevent those which fall from being trodden The bench and into the floor and lost. and the sweep sent to the refiners. who.— it would naturally be placed in the same relative position. on the floor underneath the bench you may have to a movable grating of wood any stray filings. the floor underneath must be swept every When day and the sweepings preserved. arranged so that used Work Benches the tools can be reached with the least Fixed possible loss of time and temper. after making an assay.
40 .WireDrawing Fig. 3.
draw-bench (fig. but the principle of the operation is the same in both cases. 4. rod with beeswax and draw it through the plate the rod will be found thinner and longer. —when — it has down to care to the required size. Do this with the next hole. first hammer the end of the rod taper so that it will come through the hole nearest in size to the diameter of the This taper tip must be rod. and the next. 3) through the successively 'pousse Dra?'' diminishing holes in a draw-plate (fig. If the wire stance of the rod. 4). If the rods are small in section and the quantity of wire required is also small. taking anneal it frequently as each drawing naturally hardens and compresses the subFig. has to be very much reduced in size. the draw-plate can be fixed in a bench-vise and the rods drawn through by hand. until you have drawn it . To do this. it will be better to use a draw-bench. 41 . strong enough come through to stand the Rub the pull of a hand-vise. or if there is a large quantity to do.
strip of metal of the length and thickness you require. and If the tube is not large in caskets. Hollow tubes of any section can be drawn by using draw-plates with holes of the required section. so on until the desired size is attained. .WireDrawir-^ng Small tubes can also be drawn in this Cut a strips of sheet metal. The burnisher helps to keep the metal true as it folds round it while being drawn through the hole. . then draw the metal through the hole. The rough tube which results from this operation is annealed and drawn through the next smaller hole. boxes. and the breadth roughly thrice the intended diameter of the tube cut the end taper and with a hammer form it into anneal it and a sort of gutter lengthwise oil it or rub it over with a little beeswax inside and out and put the taper tip through the wide end of the hole which most nearly fits insert the tip of a pointed burnisher under the hollow of the trough of the metal and into the back of the hole (fig. 5). or the student can The 42 . diameter all the work can be done in the vise and without a draw-bench. student will find this very useful in the preparation of tubing required for hinges of brooches. lockets. and way out of .
'jpousse Fig. 43 . 5.
6) and punches (fig. and will strip the metal inhis own file.. first softening stead of compressing it. — quality CHAPTER Repousse VI of Procedure- Work— Chasing— Method How to hold the Tools— the Behavior of Metal —Work in the Round— The Chasing of Castings Repousse work is modeling in relief produced by working with hammer (fig. plorable.Wire- . and nothing can make up for the loss. shops is the dependence of the workmen on machine-made things. The taper must be very slight or the edge of the hole will be too sharp. Rather than melt an ingot and roll a small piece of metal for himself to the exact size he needs. he cuts a nearest strip from a sheet in stock which is The effect on the work is deto the size. The chief beauty— the given by human handiwork is absent. make flat Drawirving draw-plate out of an old it. 7) on the back of a sheet 44 . There are very few things necessary in the workshop which a student can not make The curse of modern workfor himself. then punching graduated holes with a taper punch of the required section filed up out of bar steel and properly hardened.
or by punching out the back and afterward finishing on the face. be obtained either by beating down ground of the ornament. The term is also used for finishing up the The required relief surface of castings. Chasing is work on the face of the sheet. Repousse Work Fic.of metal fixed on some yielding material. may the If the it may relief required is very slight. be obtained by laving the sheet 45 . 6.
higher relief the metal must be laid on a composition of pitch made as already described. tracing of the pattern is secured to the metal by bits With of wax at the corners. The tallow makes the thick Othe ^T\ •^'l Q 0© O f% Fig. or on a piece of I H fl VJ ff I) BH ^ \L ' For cork matting. gradually. 7- ^. take rounded punches and beat down the ground of the ornament according to your A Get the relief intention. The metal is warmed and laid upon the pitch block (fig. in even so that punches 46 the resulting furrow . if the work is too metal. let the blows be guide the force. carbon paper. 8). delicate to admit of this.^ composition more yielding. punch the a fine -pointed outline is delicately pricked through to the surface of the Or. a piece of soft pine. and more will be required in winter than in the summer.Repousse Work of metal on a block of lead. the design may be transferred with This done.
makes a continuous surface and follows Repousse the form you may desire to express. At on Work frequent intervals warm the metal the surface. remove it from the pitch. and anneal it by making it red hot. This makes the metal yield more freely (^l"^^^^^^ .
last stages.Repousse Work few shaped as in fig. In case (fig. is might have been Endeavor from the first to hand the appended diagram it clear. The student should practise until the trace of the punch on the metal is smooth and even from beginning to end. Unless this must be avoided until the or the metal will tear. 9 will be found very useful for modeling the surface. The punch held between the thumb and the first 48 is none at lo) will make . A is done much time will be spent in cor- recting defects which avoided. Any chaser will show this in a moment. acquire the right method of handling the hammer and holding the punch. and the lines from the tracer clear and unbroken.
io. afterward almost unconscious. shaped somewhat like the tip of the 4 49 . work may be done almost For this work punches. in the round. patience. annealings. the top of the third Repousse on the metal little as a pivot will and this Work guide. In high relief work the . and many back. A practise make action. at first difficult. relief is pro- duced by alternately working on the back and front driving the ground down from the front and the form out from the With care.and second finger rests fingers. Fig.
in the way described farther on. leaving a small hole in the back or where it will least be seen. These must be made by the student himself. is much less tractable. Work in the Round. It may be found. Avoid the use of matted or grained surfaces except in cast work. however. Brass. This must be done by putting in small pieces and warming the object over the lamp. Small objects birds. fine silver. Fill the inside with pitch. animals. This is especially true of copper. and with forms or spread over surfaces like so much hard wax. The student should be ever alert to seize the suggestions of decorative treatment of the metal which constantly arise led into care can be while his work is in progress. and rounded faced punches for the work on the front. are most useful for getting the from the back. little figures may be done in repousse by making the bodies in two halves.— Rqxjusse Work relief thumb. even the best. fine and sovereign gold. In all repousse work the main thing is to realize that metal is plastic. that the pitch boils over and therefore that the object — — 50 . Solder the two together. The behavior of the metal is more instructive than any teacher.
the object is then warmed and fixed to the pitch-block. Castings are chased as follows. and chased to the required surface. and the surface modeled over with matting punches. The rough productions and the pour which is left where the metal ran into the mold are first sawn off. warming the metal from time to time. Vents and other defects in the casting are remedied by soldering pieces of solid metal to make good the deficiency. will Repousse then Work Hammer Work How to make a Cup The Stakes Planishing How — for CHAPTER Vn — — Bossing — SnarUng-Irons — Ornamentation — Base Cup — Base —Another Method Beakers—The Use of Sand-bag — HamBeaker a — — up a to make Soldering the in Position Polishing a for mer Work — Interlocking Joints for Drinking Cup with a Stem Take cup is a sheet of metal.— not be filled up properly. and pegs of metal screwed in. You must take soft pitch and with a metal spatula or the flat end of a chasing tool press the pitch into the hollow. filed down. size 14 if the to be small to 16 if the cup 51 Hammer Work . Holes are drilled out cleanly. the marks of the seams are removed by small chisels.
Hammer Work .
as m fig. This rough cup or shallow bowl must now be hammered into shape with a hammer shaped as in fig. 12 on a stake shaped m 53 . the smallest about an inch in diameter.IS fairly large. These circles are to guide the hammer strokes. and keeping the elbow close to the side. 13. increasing the radius of the succeeding circles by ^ inches. Take Hammer Work the compasses and lightly scratch on one sheet a series of concentric circles. Cut out a circle the diameter of which is a little larger than the contour of the cup. take a round-headed boxwood mallet side of the Now Fig. Then begin on the inside and with the round-faced hammer. 12. beat and beat the metal into a rough cup shape by beating it into a cup-shaped hollow a wooden beating-block.
is The work 54 then continued and is . taking care to keep the blows in concentric circles to feel larly until' the and and to work regumetal begins to take shape Then anneal it. beat on the outside from the innermost circle outward. still using the same stake. 13. that the cup has become uneven in shape this can be remedied after heating by beating it out again from the inside.Hammer Work round ill circles. Care must be taken not to stretch the metal unduly . while doing this. into the cup-shaped depression on the beating-block. It may happen of the brim untouched. with the box mallet. springy. and. taking care to leave the thickness Fig. peat this. using the hammer from Rethe wrist and not from the elbow.
out. thickening the rim or the bottom or the sides of the cup as the may be necessary. These suggestions of form should always be noted and worked can naturally will often when the work in hand or frankly adopted as they arise. The form a cup beaten out of one piece. it must be planished by using a hammer with a polished face. on a stake When also polished for this purpose. by- face. metal to the required size. but it be found that the shapes taken by the cup during the progress of the work are much more interesting than those we set out to do.almost wholly done from the outside. carefully true be varied at will. making the diameter of the circle equal to the whole 55 . After done this leaves the surface and bright and covered all over with This method produces brilliant facets. either is done The beaker form (fig. turning the cup round with the left hand. Cut out your 14) or the beck-iron. still keeping the blows in circles. 15) is produced by the use of different stakes (fig. regulating the inclination of the hammer can drive the metal in any direction. shaping of the cup is completed. skilful Hammer Work A hammerman at this stage.
Hammer Work .
15. 57 .Hammer Work Fig.
concentric and the blows even in force. I 5a.. on this drive the metal away from you by regular strokes of the rounded edged Keep the circles of blows hammer. profile line you propose 15A). The recurved edges must be driven outward on the stake with the mallet 58 . Hammer Work length of the (fig. Make a central circle the size of the base of the beaker and place the tip of the curved stake against this line Fig. The metal will probably assume some- FiG. 16. thing of this section after a short time.
resumed before raised Hammer Work described. is part of the The Use of the Snarling-Iron. arm of the Z is fixed in the vise. 14) and the work of the hammer until the general shape has been It can now be planished as attained. causes the point of the snarler to strike against the inner side of the cup with nearly the same force as the original S9 — . These are cranked punches Z17). 17. the other adjusted beneath the cup which is to be raised. shaped with ends of different form one surfaces . beaker or the inside cup The may be body of the decorated with from (fig. 15). Fig. and the long arm of the snarling-iron struck This smartly with the hammer at A. produced by using snarling-irons (fig. The cup held in position with the left hand.(fig.
any one of these absolutely elementary forms. to the shape you require. which not only deadens the force of the blow but holds the metal up against the blow. zigzags. repeated rhythmically on the surface. When you have brought the cup. or combinations of these. This method is employed whereever it is impossible. much less force must be employed. you require must be such as expresses or Spiral emphasizes the forms of the cup. But as the metal is not supported by pitch. You will produce the pleasantest effect. must not set them out too exactly trust rather to eye and hand. it can be filled with pitch and fixed on a pitch-block or on a sand-bag and completed from the face with chasing tools. owing to the depth of the cup or bowl. and the operation of raising must be more gradual. Lozenges. to use the hammer or a tracing tool. chevrons. and with care almost any amount of relief can be obtained. the variation — — 60 . lines or flutes or ribs. may be made to produce the most delightful variations of surface. by the use of the hammer. Whatever ornament Ornamentation. and have planished it and made its shape true.Hammer Work blow.
will look dignified. Or you may workmanlike. human worker. rich. with a crescentshaped punch cut for the purpose. where the hand grasps it. with a chequer or continuous patterning of chevrons done by traced lines from the outside. slickness. make rings of petals round one of these punch marks as a center always using as suggestion the effects produced naturally by You will then the tools you employ.from geometric accuracy reveals the the meanest cup with a narrow wreath of strictly formalized leaves and flowers bordered above and below by broad band of plain surface. mere punch marks done from the inside. a good and then enriched below. and imbecility. It is the art of the 6i undying worm. from which escape seems — U almost impossible. . or you may. and it is the human touch which makes trace of the Hammer Work A raise a snarling-iron row of largish bosses with the and trace concentric lines round them and powder the surface with small bosses. and material precious. and encircled from the outside. be the less tempted to follow the vagaries of Art NouveaUy that corrupted compound of uneasy vermiformity.
are always best. The student must not forget that those these suggestions of design are only which have arisen in my own experience. rough with hammers on the stake in the you used for the cup. worker has really any imagination it. taking care to The simavoid too much elaboration. Or you may put the dome on pitch and shape it with repousse punches. with plest good broad surfaces to catch the light and reflections when polished.Hammer Work If it be desired to add a base to the beaker. chamfers. you will take a circle of metal bottom as much greater in radius than the of the cup as you wish the projection You will then of the molding to be. They are not to be taken as the only If the possible means of decoration. mirror of his mind. without active in for few are is imagination — only love Nature or Art —then A of beauty whether he will find the will its manibe shaped to man's work is the m way for himself. rounds. The joint between 62 the base and the cup . his spirit and festation in his work the thing he loves. dome to it up it get the finishing hollowed wood-block afterward shape. and hollows.
the base The flat center of must be cut away with the saw. tie the two together with clips of strong binding-wire so that they can not slip about. The same must be done for the rim. 63 . taking care to support the cup so that it does not get bent out of shape when hot. paint both with borax and water. any roughness about the joint filed clean. It must next be stoned with a piece of Water of Ayr stone to take away the outer film of oxid. It will now be necessary to replanish the cup on the stake. and solder with the large blowpipe and footbellows. See Chapter XI on Soldering. Let each be well pickled in diluted sulfuric acid. and the base made true on the . scrape the joins well on the base and on the cup.may now be made. Any refinement of outline can now be given. as the heat will have taken all the stiffness out of the metal.faceplate or upon a piece of plate-glass. The cup should be pickled again until quite white and frosted looking. Hammer Work leaving a broad fillet all round. and charge the joint with paillons of solder dipped in borax. Unless this is done you can not get any proper polish or show the real color of the metal.
In- stead of planishing you may prefer to add bands of zigzags or waves or moldings If so. and polished as before. on the melted and put a weight on the top until or. filed true. a conical tube workmanHke. and do without the it The first method is howpitch-block. 64 . hori- zontal base as round the cup make the solder to the base a ring of plain. fill the cup or a wreath of leaves. taking care to smear the inside with oil or with whitening and Warm water beforehand. the pitch on face the block. and let it cool. with melted pitch. then hammer it out on the beck-iron to any curve you please. always keeping much Turn up but less the hammer blows rings before. half-round. of metal and solder the joint carefully.Hammer Work There a IS yet another It is method of making easier beaker. Then sketch on ever the most secure. you can lay on a sand-bag. The cup can be planished. body on the base and makes it easier to tie the two together for the final soldering. press the cup sur- mouth downward cool. next in concentric . what is simpler. or twisted wire the exact size of the bottom of This steadies the the body of the cup.
you do not want the lines to show inside and firmly if you do.the ornament and outline lightly if it with a tracer. Hammer Work You Fig.block. for example. you wish to raise a rounded band around the cup near the Trace a line above and below brim. Then rewarm lay the the its cup on into the pitch. on the block. and take out the pitch. If. round the cup. will then remove the cup from the pitch. two traced lines can then be beaten out with rounded punches to the projection 5 65 . and press it well The space between the pitch side. warm it slightly in the blowpipe flame. 1 8. the distance apart all being the width of the molding.
Other projections which may
be required lower down within the cup must be done with the snarHng-iron,
finish as before.
Another kind of joint which may be used in metal jugs or vases, or in any case where the joint does not matter, is the interlocking
Cut out the metal
required, ^ inch longer than is necessary for a butt joint, giving thus a lap of ^ inch, and divide each of the edges to be joined into an equal number of spaces not more than ^ inch nor less than ^ inch ; cut these with the shears a little more than ^ inch inward and scrape
both sides clean.
the alternate lappets of
metal up and down on Fig. 20. each half, fit the two flushing the together and solder firmly, The resulting tube or joints thoroughly. cone can now be hammered into shape and planished almost as if it were in one
19 shows a
The cup would
above described, and the base would be made as if it were a beaker. The raised moldings on the stem (fig. 20) would be done with the snarling-iron and chased up from the
and moldings on the cup would all be done from the inThe cup and side. base would then be
soldered together as In the bottom of the cup you before. might place a small panel of the vine
in a silver
through wine a little cup looks as if done
—The —The — The Knop — The — Form —A
a disk of silver or copper, 10 inches in diameter, beat it into
before described. This is to socket of the candle. Next make the shaft, which may be six-sided and tapering. Take a piece of metal of
and draw upon
it one face of the tapering shaft, and then, using each side of this face as one side of the two neighboring faces, mark them out also (fig. 23) with a cutter made out of a file by bending the tang
sharpened to a chisel
point, the edge run-
ning lengthwise. Cut
the two inner angles until you have cut half through the metal, bend the sides
to their proper angle,
with silver solder. other half of the
and flush the angle Repeat this for the shaft, and tie and
solder the halves together.
visible joins clean
27) out of 10 gage
mouth gradually over on with the hammer shown
in fig. 25.
and then drawing the the curved stake
anneal it afterward. Boss out with a snarling-iron few shallow circular a bosses around the knop. Now fill the knop with pitch, and draw on the
might, for example, conventionalize the symbols of the constellations
dish with a circular rais-
ing in the center, to form
a base for the shaft; beat
a flat saucer,
and beat round
the edges other circular
on which you will you wish, i.e. symbols of the seven planets as being congruous with the first suggestion. Now make two circles of twisted square wire,
being right, the other left-hand
circle just fitting outside, the other just fitting inside the rim of the guard-dish, and solder them to this edge
the circular raising you will solder
a six-sided bearing-plate,
and just within
the edges of this bearing-plate you will
solder a line of strong square twist.
space enclosed must exactly
of the shaft, which will be strengthened by a band of thick metal, surmounted by a ring of twist, and just above the bottom edge a second row of reverse twist arranged to fit exactly over the twist soldered on the
on the guard-dish. To make the base, take a piece of No. 12, and beat it up into a cup with a flat bottom and tapering The rim of this slightly hollow sides. cup will of course be the bottom, and the edge should have a broad flat beading
and after bossing them out from the back. and turn up a band of metal about ^ inch broad to fit the shaft file 73 . fill the base with pitch and chase them up from the front. 25) the edges true. take them apart. and then dome up a shallow cup of 14 metal to cover the bottom of the knop. The socket for the candle is a simple cylinder of No. Cut a similar hexagonal hole in this. 8. and solder the shallow cup to the knop. and having two rings of twisted wire soldered round the upper edge. Next clean the knop in pickle and slip it into place on the shaft. long enough to project at least ^ inch above the edge of the smaller cup. and when it fits the shaft and the knop properly. round it to strengthen it.. You have now to fit the whole together. 26. I large enough to let the hexagonal shaft through to the proper height (see fig. You may arrange a few sprays of flowers round this base. 27) raised Candlesticks now • Fig. First cut a hole in the knop (see fig.
Candlesticks Fig. 27 74 .
all the parts carefully together. to cut plates of thick metal. and after drilling a hole the size of the center rod. the latter can now be slipped into position and riveted Candlesticks A firmly there. size 14 or 16. whole can be polished with oil and pumice and finished with rotten stone or crocus. square twist with a plain flatted wire between to the upper edge of this band. it means that the bearing surfaces do not place on the shaft with or rivets. to fit them inside the top and bottom of the shaft.Solder two rows of underneath the knop. and on the other end solder the shallow cup you You will now need have just beaten out. fit each other. its You can now fasten this in small screws Beat out a shallow cup out of 14 copper ^ inch deep. These plates are to prevent movement when the whole candleYou will now stick is screwed together. 75 . the be filed away. and screw If there be any movement the nut tight. similar but smaller band having been fitted to the upper part of the knop. Fit need a screw nut and a washer-plate. and about i inch Tap a screw on the outside diameter. end of a piece of ^-inch German silver wire about I inch longer than the shaft. and the inequalities must When everything fits.
beating then. or over the edge of a hammer held in the vise. drawn carefully from nature. and again polish and a little rouge. the smaller one for slightly with a leather : the top. chase a wreath of olive or laurel or vine leaves. and arranged spirally round the boss. Another form may be made thus Beat up two deep funnel-shaped cups out of 14 copper. and the work is complete. makes the top of the candlestick. Then wash it dry. it after filling with pitch. You will now need a boss to cover the meeting of the upper joint and lower portions of the candlestick. one larger than the other for the base.— Candlesticks but do not remove the hammer marks. make a shallow saucer-shaped cup a little larger than the top circle. and turn the edges over a stake with an edge to it. Then fit it on the top and carefully hammer the edge of the saucer down This until it grips the edge of the cup. and darken the whole surface with a weak solution of sulfid of ammonium in hot When water. 76 . When the shapes are true. up a This is made either by deep cup as before described. beginning at the bottom. it is all clean put it together finally.
Candlesticks Fig. 28. 77 .
one. beaten up out of a cylinder. 29. its top edge expanded and turned over (see fig. The candle-socket is Fig. and removing the pitch pierce the openings through with a sharp tracer. and a false beaten down carefully into a rim bottom is next soldered in. and then fit it into its place. has its edges . and fasten the two together with a central rod and a screw-nut. and the socket fitted lightly over the cylindrical head of Another boss the central shaft as before. 29). a little larger than the other. 78 .Candlesticks When can beat you have got the relief you after down the ground. may be made by beating up two cups . as described before.
annealing the You may find metal from time to time. ingot like a spread the 79 . as described for the top of the candlestick.— — spread out and turned over the lip of the smaller bowl. true it up on the rounded stake with a planishing Then take a piece of ^th hammer. 30) and beat it avoid the ugly modern shapes out with a boxwood mallet into a suitable First take it Spoons mark on — When you hollow in the beating-block. say lo gage. CHAPTER Spoons IX The Shape of the Bowl The Stem The Handle or Thumbpiece Joining the Bowl and Handle Second Method of Making a Spoon Boxwood Punches The Lead Third Method Ingots for Handles Matrix — — — — — — — — a piece of silver. or you may cast a thick taper Then gradually big nail. have got it nearly into shape. This makes a very simple Candlesticks and sturdy-looking candlestick. square wire or a strip of thick plate a little longer than the handle you propose and thicker. top out wedge-shaped with a hammer on the anvil. the shape of the bowl (fig.
neatly. and hammer them carefully into long When you have done this taper twigs. if so a triangular file file . Fig. the twigs will up as on fig. 32).that as the metal extends it will crack at Spoons the edge. leaving. Hammer the end of the handle taper. 31. take a chisel and this When into divide the wedge (fig. and further strengthen the joins by adding grains or groups of grains at the various points of junction. parts as shown in Anneal it well. You will now have to fix the bowl and handle together. however. and bend the cut portions outward (fig. it out a little prevents the crack you have spread more. a squarish projection at 6 81 . away the crack with from spreading. or in any please. 30. symmetrical way you may You now solder the coils to each other. anneal the metal again and coil the diagram 31).
the strain put upon the spoon in polishing will soon tear the bowl and 82 it .Spoons the very end of the handle. Unless the end of the handle spreads out over the bowl where joins. This is to give a broader base for the attachment of the bowl.
done planish the bowl upon a rounded stake. When you have tapered square Spoons the handle nicely. both to harden the metal and to correct any alteration in shape that may have come about in tie now the the soldering. Do the Fig. file a narrow strip of about -j^th thick and i^th wide and tie it firmly to the handle Take iron with wire. flatten out the projection fan-wise and it to fit the bowl. same with the handle.handle apart. finishing up with rouge. Another way is to cast an ingot of the 83 The work . can now be stoned and polished with pumice and oil. 33. You can bowl and handle together with binding-wire and solder This the two together. so that the iron projects beyond the spoon end of the handle by more than the length of the bowl.
when it is perlittle the whole near the fire fectly dry. 35). 84 . Place this mold upon the anvil. Tie this edging tightly round the cast with binding-wire.Spoons rough shape of the bowl and shank toThe whole spoon is gether (see fig. bend up a piece of thin sheet metal so that it makes an edging almost an inch high above the top surface of the cast (fig. the entirely- recovered. is that it is more wasteful of the metal. and fill up round the edge (fig. but if you preserve the lemel with waste can be almost suf- ficient care. An impression of this is taken in modeling wax. have a mold of pour melted lead. Over this cast or mold. and Trim a plaster cast made from the wax. the plaster-cast into a square block. after the ingot has been passed through the rolling-mill once or twice to consoliThe objection to this date the metal. of the cast with a Dry thin plaster. 23)then shaped up with the hammer and the file. Another way of preparing the bowls is to take a good-sized piece of boxwood 34) and carve it into the shape of the convex side of the bowl. and you will the concave side of the spoon. or in an oven until every trace of moisture has disappeared.
often as may a be necessary. Spoons wood punch drive the metal into the mold. annealing as will . and the crinkled edges 85 . You now have rough shape of the bowl the superfluous metal must be cut away.and a piece of lo-gage silver on the With repeated blows on the boxmold.
modern vice of putting in hammer marks . in the rolling-mill. 35. is more it is foolish. Do to make a bad form look than reprehensible 86 — well. and the end thinned out Fig. not be afraid of leaving the hammer marks where they are seen to have been necessary to produce the shape But the they will always look beautiful.Spoons hammered out smooth upon a rounded stake with a small tapping-hammer. The finishing can be as done with the hammer on the stake before. good deal of hammer work in the preparation of the handle can be avoided A by making the ingot more nearly the shape and size of the finished work. It can be flattened. .
and is moreover cheaper to make than 87 to buy. Solder Fig.— CHAPTER X — The Crucible — Use of Scrap — The Ingot Mold — Enameling Make Ingot Molds Large Work — How Silver Silver Solder Solder Solders for to It is best always to make your own solder. . Silver It will help to use up small scrap silver. 36.
Place the crucible carefully in the coke on the furnace. and put them in a small firesilver cuttings (fig. gradually increasing the force of must be taken not 88 the blast until the metal to give is fused. leaving an opening in front and on Then with the gas blowpipe the top.Silver Solder For ordinary work take two parts of and one part of fine brass cut small. Care more heat than . and foot-bellows direct the flame on the crucible. 2^) with a little borax. and put more coke round clay crucible Fig. 37. it.
>> I.050 . When you can roll it through the metal rollers down if to size 6 it thinner you want for metal gage. Solder Have well ready an ingot mold (fig. . or the zinc in the and the subsequent fusibility of the solder impaired. spelter or is If fine brass can not be obtained. and leave to cool. 7 parts fine silver to of fine brass. Fine silver Alloy copper . very hard solder for use in enameling made as follows A oz. is Silver brass will be oxidized. fine good pins will do equally well. 37) greased . dwt.: absolutely necessary. pour the fluid metal into the cool mold. grs. The lows : range of solder may i be as fol- No. . or very small work. i o o I 5 o For a large piece of work requiring many solderings the successive solderings may be safely done by using a more fusible solder for each operation.
and on one of the side file U cross nicks with a 3-square file. into the a shape of U 38).Silver It is. and place one on each side of the U. Take piece of square iron wire. These nicks low the air al- to escape the metal when is be- ing poured in. — If you one be a not an ingot can mold easily made. it bend long file up (fig.wire. and tie the whole together with binding. Solder so much care in the arrange- ment of the joints and in the regulation it of the flame will make with only one solder. the edges true. rarely necessary to use precaution . possible to do How have to Make got Ingot Molds. however. Then take two of thick sheet iron a little larger U. Ingots of pieces than the 90 .
Silver Solder B Cr Fig. 91 . 39.
First. although the process itself is exceedingly simple. take — . scraped bright lutely clean solder itself must be clean also. B. You will need broad ingots if you wish to roll plate.— Silver any size Solder can be made by varying the thickness and contour of the iron enclosing wire. and C). parts of the metal to be joined must be absothe that is. It demands only care and scrupuThe lous cleanliness of all the materials. A. CHAPTER Soldering— Use of Borax Soldering Soldering XI —The Blowpipe Lamps The art of soldering with the fusible alloys given above is one which is much written about and but very rarely described. lump of borax crystal grind up a little with water on a small piece of slate. 92 . 39. Several forms of ingot are given in the diagram (fig. Take a . By using narrow ingots you can cast slips of metal which can be afterward drawn down into wire through a drawplate fixed in a vise (see chapter on Wire-Drawing). narrow ingots for wire.
or else the solder when fused will run along the lengthwise down one angle instead of entering the joint. ing been scraped clean along the join. work should be Enough but not too closely.a slip of solder. cut a number of slits Soldermg end. . When this happens the work looks as if it were perfectly soldered. but on filing or putting any It strain on it the joint immediately falls to pieces. The pieces are now to be tied together in their Care proper positions by binding-wire. are both painted over with a solution of borax by means of a camel's-hair brush. snip off a number of tinyThese panels bits or panels of solder. by a few cross-cuts. must be taken here not to bring the edges of the metal too closely together. the joint is then moistened with a brush charged with borax solution 93 . and bound together as described with iron binding-wire. When the two pieces of metal are fitted. are then dipped in the borax. space should be left for the metal to run along the joint by capillary attraction. the pieces of metal havof borax. is therefore important for silver fitted soldering that the closely. so that they are completely covered by a thin coating Next. and then.
join has got thoroughly well heated. heating it gradually and evenly. flame is directed over the whole work. When this is dry a stronger then gently The work Fig. 40A. warmed in the flame of a blowpipe to drive off the water in the borax.Soldering the little chips of solder are then placed fairly closely is at intervals along the joint. taking care that no part of the metal except that When the near the joins gets red hot. a 94 .
the solder will immediately flush and run along the joint. If the work has been brought up to the proper heat. 40B. filling it in Wherever a portion of the every part. so that he may readily see the heat he is the bits of solder. metal has been allowed to grow cooler 95 . giving and the heat the work requires. When Fig.brisker flame may now be directed upon Soldering using the blowpipe be very careful always to direct the flame toward the worker and downward.
the metal cleaned by being dipped which is a mixture of one part into pickle hydrochloric acid and ten parts water . foot-bellows and hand blowpipe.Soldering will than the surrounding parts. The spirit lamp (fig. a stronger solution much used is half and half of each and then the operation begun — — all the joints are full. 40c. with an oil lamp or a spirit lamp. 40c). with the again until Fig. 40A) and the oil lamp (fig. generally are only suitable for small work. as almost all old work was done. 96 . Soldering can be done either with the gas flame and mouth blowpipe. as the amount of heat required But a for work of any size is very great. the joint there be imperfect. and the work must be cooled. or. with fans and small bellows. 40B). with the mouth blowpipe (fig. on a charcoal fire.
Both are very easy to manage.very great deal of work can be done with the spirit or oil lamp. and that the stone is well beveled. See that those you buy have a fairly level bed for the setting. color and form. set. use stones that are cut by Eastern The Oriental has an eye for lapidaries. and to this end the student should practise with two one for large and one sizes of blowpipe — for small work. 7 97 . Settings Select . by the jeweler are almost always well worth the attention of the artist. and has no foolish fears The stones rejected of so-called flaws. only in the case of the oil Soldering lamp more care is needed to keep a good flame and to avoid smoking the work. It is most important to acquire freedom in the use of the blowpipe. CHAPTER Settings XII — The Kinds — Setting the Settings Close Settings of Stones to use Open Settings Paved Stone — — — are avoid those that those that if you can are rounded or cabochon cut do so. so that the setting will hold In choosing stones to cut into facets.
over. and a close setting set in a large open-work as in early setting of branches and leaves. closed. closely to the contour of the stone. In incrusted work the stones are let into recesses carved out below the surface The edges of the opening drawn up to the stone by careful work with punch and burnishers. The open setting may be a mere rim without a bottom. the upper edge of which is rubbed over the stone. are then work. it fits closely over the stone you have fitted the band 41). open or The Settings may be closed setting is a box. strip bend the round so that (fig. a band of somewhat wider than the intendedheight of the setting. size 5 Setting. 41. file When the juxtaposed 98 I . This method is common in Indian and Persian of the metal. rubbing ? J . of claws. or a circlet Or the two may be combined. — Cut or 6 metal gage. cut off the superfluous metal. To Make a Close silver.Settings when it is rubbed over. French or German work. to allow for filing level and • p Fig.
41 it A. and the of the blue flame on the joint setting. 42. warm it in the flame. Settings and paint the in joint. dip the borax.ends true. and lay joint. If it has flushed the tip 99 25?689 . cut a it paillon of solder. on the Then put the setting thus charged on the wire mop or on a piece of charcoal. tie the setting round with fine binding-wire so that the ends meet (fig. and when the borax has ceased boiling direct Fig. 4 1 a) take the borax brush . The solder should run almost immediately.
This. and the whole made clean and workmanlike. and a little larger all round than it. the setting may be cooled and true by tapping it round with a light hammer on a taper steel mandrel made an old steel cotton-spindle makes (fig. tie the setting on with binding-wire (fig. is When the joint file complete. according to the use to which you intend to put the setting. 43). scrape the surface clean. and anoint the surfaces to be joined as before. the superfluous metal at the base cut away. and set a few paillons — — round the joint and proceed as before. gives the If desired. 42) an excellent mandrel and the bottom edge Then take a piece of silver. all round. a simplest form of setting. setting are then filed true.Settings the joint. and the work of rubbing over The edges of the is made much easier. bearing for the stone can be made by fitting a concentric but narrower band The stone is now supported inside this. Settings 100 . 6 filed flat. off the superfluous metal. if the work is properly done. or 8. and you will have a box which just takes the stone.
44.can be ^. or crown settings. take a sharo graving-tool. 44).rouped together and united by filigree-work to form brooches. Settings Open are settings. and soldering as before. or what- ever you wish. the stone small must fit and form the setting into leaves or claws. and cut away the metal inside the top Fig. edge so teenth as to leave the ledge about a file six- down in which Then take a (fig. but this will be described in a later chapter. bending it a little smaller than Then the stone. always remembering to leave enough metal at the top to hold the stone. necklaces . clasps. collets. or leaves may be carved with the round gravers to whatever shape is desired (fig. The outer surface of the claws. 45). wet the point. made by taking a strip of thick metal (lo gage). taking care first to block out the main forms. Or the drill may be used to produce lOI .
perforated patterns below the line of the in fact, there s no end base of the stone to the variety of forms which ma/ be pro;
secure the stone firmly in its place unless this is done in the first shaping of the
can not be done properly afterSettings.
scorpered out of the solid metal.
one which has been much abused, but
yet capable of
** of the stone is marked on the plate, the ground
the stone just
border round 102
You then cut a 46). the stone, sloping away out-
as wide as you wish, keeping this When border highest next the stone. the remainder of the
and stoned poHshed, the
while the metal
place, and held there burnished up against it
This work requires great care (fig. 47). and patience, for if not properly done the This stone will quickly become loose.
method can only be applied
to the harder
Figs. 48 and 49 show a paved stones. setting used in the center of a ring, with
tiny pierced fleurs-de-lis in the angles.
Hoop Rings The Knot Ring
— Making Compound Wire — — The Wreath—The Table Ring — Another Form— The Carved Ring — The Design of Rings
simplest form is a hoop of flatwire or a band of metal coiled
forms. pleasant-looking ring
may be made
a piece of half-round
about -j^th inch wide, solder two fine wires lengthwise down each side of it, then weave this into a knot leaving At an opening in the center (fig. 50). every one of the crossings of the knot solder a tiny bead of silver made by 104
cutting off snippets of metal and running them up into beads on a piece of charcoal ; then take a small stone, a garnet
or an opal or a chrysoprase, and set it Fit the setting inside in a close setting.
the opening in solder
the knot (fig. 51), and there, taking care to leave room
rubbing the setting over the stone. the band of the same compound wire, and solder two V-shaped bands to it as wide apart as the width of the knot then solder the knot in between these, arranging the arms of the V's so that they run in with the lines of the knots ; cover the joints with beads, either single or grouped three, four, or five together, or with single beads flattened out on the stake, then pickle the ring, stone it with small bits of Water of Ayr stone, or slips of slate, or with pointed slips of boxwood dipped in pumice powder and
lathe with the
after setting the stone
on the buff with rouge.
can vary this pattern to almost 105
any extent by using different sections of wire and different arrangements of the knots and beads; e.g.^ the central wire instead of being round can be flat with hollow notches filed out of each side before the side wires are soldered to
knot can be made more complete by interlacing thinner wires in and out of the others, or you can add twigs and leaves in
a wire of the to be,
thickness heat the
you require the twig end in the blowpipe
it in the borax, then direct the The wire will blue flame on the tip. quickly melt and run up into a bead (fig. 52). As soon as the bead forms, plunge the wire into water, and after flattening on the stake you can file it into whatever shape you please. Groups
of three or five of these soldered together and the leaves joined at the tips by tiny beads look very well (fig. 52) when combined with knot work of flat wire. Another form of ring is the filigree
in the rollers (see fig.
do as well, up the wire in-
to a simple wreathed symmetrical pattern.
take a piece
of modeling wax not modeling paste, corrodes the that
the — ....
Have arrange the wire wreath round it. ready some flattened beads, group them into simple patterns with the wreath (see fig.), and press ever so lightly into the
54 shows another form of table
Then mix with a pearl center.) a small quantity of fine plaster of Paris and place a good body of it over the
and when 107
quite dry and hard
remove the wax
in the plaster.
Remove the plaster with brush from between the joints and around the setting, but do this without Dry disturbing the pattern in any way. the plaster thoroughly in an oven or by the fire, then paint borax on the setting and over the crossings of the wire, and everywhere you wish
Ions in the necessary
places and play the flame over the whole gradually so that any chance moisturemay If be driven off. this is done too suddenly the plaster
then direct the flame on the setting and the wreath until the solder has run Then turn up a ring out everywhere. Take of a strip of silver and solder it. a coil of wire twisted from right to left and another twisted from left to right and a length of plain wire a size or two Boil out the band in dilute acid, larger. io8
branch pieces will go from side to side of the ring behind the filigree.coil the plain wire round it. ^^) the table of filigree. to the edge table ' ^yj^M'frf^^**' j give tie strength. 53). as if much is used the coils of twist will When the bare ring is be filled up. boil it out. and after tying it — — on with solder to it fine wire. also the setting and Take a piece of flatted wire the filigree. clean it a little pickle. finished in thus far. and their junction with the ring should be covered with a shield cut out of thin metal. twisted wire or ordinary round wire passed once or twice through the rollers and bend it to the outline of (fig. 109 . or a group of grains thing is like a flower. the middle Rm-^s of the band and solder wires coil the twisted on either side of it and solder them. that the joint The main must be covered. and arrange branch pieces of flatted wire or so as to double rows of twist wire. or a flatted bead. or a knot of twist wire. this p^^^ ^^^ Then to the ring with wire and solder the two together. using very small paillons of solder. strengthen the junction of the These ring with the table (fig.
or hammer a cast bar into the rough form . rungs The junction of the branch pieces with the table of filigree will then be strengthened by round grains soldered in. ^6). — of this kind. no . It is important to remember in all ring designs that there must be no spiky projections be rounded and smooth.. you will first cast an ingot of the shape you require (fig. have three proper. all ornament should be confined mainly Many things look well in to that space. and the bezel. up using a the effect on the ring itself. and all must As the field for pleasant to the touch. You will out what effect is best if you remember that every design must stones soon find the ring principal features the junction. 57). a sketch which look ridiculous on the finger. little hard wax to hold the pieces of silver and whatever you may use together. na ^'*^- It is best thereto fore build 56. Many old rings were carved out of the To make a ring solid metal (fig. the display of workmanship is only the upper area of the first joint of the finger.
with ordinary a rounded chisel. and put it on the Then sketch on the design in black pitch. and have ready a few chisels of various sizes made by sharpening a few tracers on an oilstone.then anneal the metal. This is a rule which should never be neglected . you can model the surface of the leaves and twigs or the figure as Rings Fig. chasing tools. Outline the ornament or the figure with round-edged tracing-tool. you must learn the form before III . water-color with a brush. and a small afterward cut away the groundwork with Then. have a bit of the natural foliage near never do anything in you as a guide the way of ornament without reference to nature or without having made a careful detailed study of the plant or form you intend to use. Remember always as you please. enough to do to overcome the technical difficulties without having also to puzzle your head over the form. You will have quite much to . 57.
let leaves reveals the quality of the artist. you can then carve the remainder of the band with a running wreath or a chevron. and charged with rouge. You must not imitate but translate. and the manner of the translation .— Rmgs you can use it. diameter. File and scrape the inside smooth polish with a ringstick. Avoid sprawling lines and twigs be well knit together. When you have modeled the wreath or the knot as much as you wish. let all the lines lead the eye to some central point. . or with a graver hollow out symmetrical cuts all round the band. and all pendants should I 12 I . All art is translation from one state into another. CHAPTER XIV Necklaces — How Designed—The Arrangement — Chain-making — Mounts — Woven Links — Backing The Snap — —Another Form of Neck— What Study— How Use your — Pendants — Design — Loop Pendant — Cleaning and Stones Pearls Filigree of for the Pearls Polishing to lace to Studies for Suggestions for the Polishing Necklaces Necklaces should be designed on a circle of 4^-in. which is a taper rod of wood covered with chamois leather.
. and twist up your wire to form knots or wreaths round the stones (fig. 58). the You will find that mere symmetrical arrangement of the stones round the circle will suggest almost instantly any number of methods of treatChoose what seems the simplest. and then sketch out the design which suggests itself when you have arranged the stones according to their pre- ciousness and color. Have ready the stones you desire to use. The only chain possible to use is that called Venetian chain. but The even that is not quite satisfactory. and some flattened wire or rolled twist. No pendants be arranged on radial lines. ment. Necklaces Cut a circle out of thin copper or brass 4^ in. and then arrange for the chains and loops which will be needed to link all up together. Avoid the use of shop-made chains they spoil the eflfect of the most carefully devised necklace. Make a few flattened beads. in diameter. This is done by taking a piece of flattened 8 113 . way to secure a good effect of chain-work is to coil best up the links yourself. should go beyond the semicircle or they will hang awkwardly on the shoulder when worn.
58. .Necklaces 114 Fig.
oblong in section. 59). with the edges rounded off with the file. Wrap a strip of thin paper spirally round the mandrel. or in a hand-vise if be thin. the wire. and secure it at each end with Necklaces a few turns of binding-wire. in a bench vise if the wire to be coiled it is thick. which may be simple or Then take compound as described for rings. 59. Coil round the mandrel very and regularly until you have used as much wire as you require (fig. This is to serve as the mandrel. and its size is regulated by the size of the links you desire. and fix the mandrel Fig. You can now withdraw the mandrel from the coil. which would be impossible were 115 . Heat the whole with the blowpipe on the wire spirally closely the mop until the paper is charred away.wire.
With a jeweler's fret- saw cut off the Hnks lengthwise down the spiral.Necklaces the paper not used. section and slightly larger. 116 .g. You can then coil on another mandrel of different. keeping this cut as clean as possible. 62) separately on the mop. circular. taking care by . as may be necessary Fig. another kind of wire. e. to give contrast to in the like first series. simple or compound. and saw these apart will manner. You then loop the two together in such lengths as you may need for connecting of the necklace the various features and you must solder each link (fig. 6o.
dome them or 6. work of (figs. whichever you prefer. Necklaces pleasant effect can be produced by setting A rough pearls or stones in background of wire a filigree (see - fig. make either close or open settings. wreath 6ia). take small size 5 pieces of silver.— using a small blowpipe and a small flame to confine the heat to the link you are soldering. and set them round the If you choose rough pearls metal circle. either on the lead-block or on the doming-block. Having fitted each pearl with a back. 117 .you must shape the metal backs with rounded punches on lead. to fit the I backs of the pearls. 60) or leaves and twigs 61 and must be made as follows: Take the stones you have selected. you can either file away the back until it can hardly be seen from the front. It or pearl blisters. f the pearls are ir- regular in shape. and up with a rounded doming-punch.
.Necklaces or you can keep the edge well file it to the front and or you into symmetrical shapes. 62. backs for the pearls or the settings for the stones. can border it with twisted wire or Fig. 64). with the wreathing lines of the loops and backgrounds of the stones or pearls. but to give the necessary contrast of broad. as described above. 63) and soldered. and F^«' ^3- loop the links 118 all together. arrange them round the metal circle largest keeping the best and or pearl for the center. with wire bent into a rippled shape (see Having made the fig. and solder the cups or settings on the wreath. simple surfaces. Then make oval links.^ Then make long interwoven loops of wire with naturally — stone circles or squares or groups of beads sol- dered at the crossings (fig. Bend up some flattened wire into woven knots. This is not only to strengthen the work. as shown in the diagram.
repeating the forms of the links in the central portion these will afterward be joined together very pretty by small subsidiary links.You will need a pendant for the center. if the student is advanced enough to do this. These. Take a piece 119 . 64. A Fig. link is made with groups of grains or beads soldered on both sides of the link (see fig. The catch must next be made. These grained loops must be so arranged that the points are not likely to stick into the skin or to scratch when the necklace is worn. alternately with loops coiled up out of flattened wire. They must all lie flat. should consist of links. look very sparkling and pleasant when polished. This can either be made out of a group of pearls or stones with a tiny panel of repousse or enamel in the center. and the connecting loops must be smooth. 66). or it may be a small group of figure-work. Necklaces You will now make the chain. This .
or the This the 65). 5 metal ^ inch wide. is to serve as (fig. so that it fits round the mandrel closely. mandrel Bend a slip of No. On one end you will solder a bit of the same size metal and a ring on the . broad. and solder the join. leaving a slot between the tube and 120 . file the angles until it is nearly oval in you may pass a piece of round wire through section. oblong in section ^ in.Necklaces of brass wire 4 or 5 inches long. and in this notch solder a narrow strip of silver. center of this the other end will file at you a notch half-way across the tube. rolling-mill.
this is to take the Necklaces In the center of the strip you will file out a notch dividing it entirely. and if not. it You will then file and clean when. and also the end of the tube for about |-th of an inch. the catch. so that when it pushed into its place the tongue may spring up and catch behind the slotted end plate of the body of the catch. up true 121 . file the it will fit sides of the slot neatly and truly/ until the tongue slips in quite easily and springs up and holds the catch in its place and does not wriggle about. having linked one part on each end of the necklace and soldered the joins the whole is complete. . solder a plate of No. Now try if the catch. and solder the two together at the opposite end to the This is the tongue of right-angled plate. Then take a slip of silver as wide as the tube and half as thick. body of the snap this must be soldered on the end of the tongue.the edge of tlie strip tongue of the catch. and you must leave a space between the end plate and the end of this is last slip or tongue. 5 metal at right angles on the end. then take another slip the same width as the first. A tiny slip of silver is now prepared which will just fit in the slot already filed in the .
using a little stale beer as Next wash it out in warm a lubricant. set the stones. the loops. for metal-work. you must avoid slavish imitation of accidental forms or the minute details of the In your studies be as minute as growth. He seeks forms typical of his subject and yet suitable to his material. time you may burnish bits of the orna- ment. buds.. You may wish to make a necklace entirely of silver. it is important that all the natural forms you employ should be generalized that is to say. The artist is known as much by his what he omits as by what he puts in work. a garland of roses. and rub the settings At the same over with the burnisher. you please. But when you translate these studies into work. We will suppose it is to be Now. while you can not study too closely the method of growth and the characteristic shapes of the leaves. with rouge to a brilliant surface. and fruit. leave out. and particularly the flatThen repolish the whole tened beads. Afterward polish the silver-work with the scratch-brush. 122 . Necklaces You will dilute acid until then boil out the whcle necklace in it comes out quite white. water. flowers. you can not be too painstaking put in everything you see. learn to .
66 and 67). Take a piece and outline the shapes of the panels. is Necklaces bush pierced repousse. mass of leaves we have large and small For bossy forms. require. Take your bit circle. each leaf being a symmetrical group of five Relieved against this subsidiary leaves. and sketch on it the main branches and mark the position of the 123 . the leaves and branches in lower and flatter relief. In these panels the roses and buds will be in high relief. and how many you may of silver. so that when the whole is polished the roses and buds will shine out brilliantly as jewels. alternately square and roundish (figs.for our immediate purpose a rosean assemblage of more or less symmetrically arranged masses of leaves. See how large you can make the panels. size 8. and lay it on a' of paper or on a sheet of wax rolled out. our necklace the simplest way is to arrange the rose boughs in a series of panels of Now. the panels afterward con- nected by loops andbeads. as before. the roses and the buds.
Necklaces bosses of roses. Lay the metal face down on a thick piece of cork or cork-matting and punch out these roses from the back. wormlike roots. either open or partly closed. and then punch out the smaller group of buds. clean Then lay each panel on it and pickle it. after heating the pitch. then outline the roses and draw the petals on the bosses. which will probably be the whole of the ground. and soon the tiny 124 I . Then with a sharp tracer outline the spaces to be pierced. distributing them carefully so as to get a sparkling effect. its face and file away the ridges made by the outlining tracer. and squirming forms. the leaves and branches. when you have done all and then you can to the repousse. lay the metal down after oiling You will now outline the under surface. Avoid curly leaves. take the silver off the pitch. Keep the drawing of the leaves clear and accurate and decided. keeping the arrangement as symmetrical and as simple as possible. coiling branches. When you have done this. Then.
scraps the ornament light. clean the whole in acid and recharge with borax and with enough but not too much solder. well and see that under and into the all solder flushes the joins. You can then pierce the drill to the and fret-saw. ornament. or wherever the joint may have Then been imperfectly fitted or secured. 125 ground out with a Do not saw too closely . and before cutting away the waste metal round the edge coil up some rings out of 14 wire and solder them on the back plate in contact with the panel where they are reIf these rings are simply soldered quired. slightly so between the joints. a little larger round than your panel. dome it up very that it may press against the When it backs of the twigs and leaves. leave a narrow fillet to be filed away afterward. tack the back and front together in two or three places round When the the edge and in the center. press the joints closely together wherever the metal has been warped by the heat. size 4 or 5. of the ground will drop out and will show clear against the Next take a piece of silver for the Necklaces all back of the panel. fits scrape the surface all over and tie the two securely together use plenty of borax . solder has run.
If you wish to make it pendant for necklace. The latter will be the least difficult. but should have somecentralpoint of interest. or you may prefer to put a nightingale singing in the middle of a bower of leaves (fig. after pick- be ready to be stoned and a polished. To loop up together. will the catch. 68). 126 .Necklaces against the panel they are apt to pull off after a certain these panels amount of wear. you will require loops or links which carry out the design of the main panels. and the whole. as the former supposes a knowledge of the figure. When make the circlet is completed. You may either read " The Romaunt of the Rose " and take thence whatever suggestion most appeals to you. or boughs twined up into closely knit bosses. you will ling. These may be either roses with a few leaves. this must not merely be an elaborated panel.
— — pad.though you might make a little gateway Necklaces with towers to the garden of the Rose. There numberless woods and copses near London which the nightingale may be heard and seen at almost any time of the day. and after take a boxwood or horn mallet 127 . sketch the outline the reverse way. or standard if left from the tool.watch one in singing. and when you get home take a piece of silver. which could be made very interesting. graybreasted bird against the sky and leaves. as many sketches as you can. — First are go and happily . Take an opera-glass and find the spot most frequented by the birds and least frequented motionless and watch sit by humans them while they sing. size 8 of fine silver if you are going to enamel. and beat the vise. with head thrown back and his throat Make throbbing in an ecstasy of song. and it must be a good deal larger than the size you propose to make the bird anneal it. and with a rounded doming-punch boss out the metal as much as you can on the cork . in Then fasten the same domed punch again annealing. If you have not seen one before. you will never forget the first sight of the little brown-backed. To Make the Nightingale.
the metal. When the wreath is complete you can tie the bird in its place and solder it to the 128 . taking care. of metal. When you have modeled the surface as you wish. taking care that you do not crack it in the process. driving the metal gradually round behind the back of the bird. and shape the bird carefully with chasing and re-. lay it on the pitch. size 6.Necklaces the metal still further round. and make the bower of leaves or branches within which the bird is to be set. and pickled and soldered. the pattern on the back being developed from that on the face. or a little less. You at will find it possible to get the for a body quite opening in the round save narrow the back. to drill a small hole where it will least be Then you will take another piece seen. The two can then be filed and fitted together. cut away the ground and solder a piece of metal over the opening. until the rough relief is as high as the thickness Reanneal through the body of the bird. You must keep it wreath-like and clear and simple in outline without any spikiness or too It should great irregularity of surface. if there be no other escape for the air. be made double. pousse tools.
You will probably find that a second drop or subordinate pendant the bird. 70). and after fastening the bird and wreath on the wax. and any irregularity must be corrected by lengthening or shortening links wherever necessary. or the pendant will twist about and will Then not hang truly. will (fig. and make the whole clean and workmanlike.bough you have prepared for it. When the work is clean you can then take a rounded graver and a cement-stick. probably find that six loops of flat wire enriched with twist soldered round alternate links. temporarily together should hang in one even curve. Fig. 129 . 69. you can sharpen up the modeling of the leaves. cut away superfluous solder. The loops must be fairly broad and not too long. leaves 9 Make a in is needed beneath pear-shaped group of and roses two halves (fig. loop the whole necklace It to see the eff^ect. with a rose boss in the center of the six links. The wreath can be hung to the necklace by one or two chains or loops. Necklaces You will be sufficient 69).
five links to the wreath. 70. ^j^^ unpleasantly white and bright.Necklaces solder top. surface gets as dark as CHAPTER XV Brooches — Suggestions for Design Making of Compound Twists Catch Brooches — Mounting—The and —The Joint Brooches should be kept rather small. them together with a loop at the this by means of three or seems as complete as you put it all in the pickle and Stone quite white and clean. as and be designed on the same principles 130 . This defect can be removed by brushing it over with a hot solution of ammonia sulTake care that it does not fid in water. and hang it all it. and polish it by hand with a wash-leather and a little rouge. Then wash clean with soapsuds and hot water. wash it clean in hot water. When the you wish. and dry it in It will look staring the sawdust. Fig. When can make it till it leave carefully and polish on the lathe with the scratch-brush and stale beer. get into the setting or the effect of the stone may be entirely spoilt.
or standing sidewise with his head thrown back or turned toward the spectator. and tion in another. Her symbol is a : Brooches — stag. 8 or lo if for high relief. or square. What is personal to one may be an affecta. and affected art is bad art. however. If I were doing it I should probably reason in this way " The moonstone suggests Diana. Choose some poetical subject suggested by the stone. that you choose to do a stag. a circle. an oval. Suppose. and if possible somewhat concave. take a piece of silver of suitable size and gage. 131 . should always be smooth. We will suppose you have a moonstone which you wish to set. Make a drawing of a stag running. like a moon rising behind trees. or you can use the antlers as part of a setting. The is subject shall be a running stag bearing the this moon in his antlers.pendants. however. 6 or 7 if for lower relief Fit your design within some simple set form. Having made the drawing of the stag as you wish. We will suppose you make him standing with his head and antlers thrown back." But only one way of looking at the subject the student must choose his own. You can either set the stone behind the antlers. The back.
is not pierced. pass it through the flattening-roller or hammer it into a ribbon. dome slightly a piece of No. or distorts the front by bulging it out in its weakest place. a length of smaller wire. for the silver necklace. double it and twist up tightly from right to left . and if the stone to be the background. When the repousse is done. 5 silver sufficiently large to leave a :^-inch margin all round. make and if the ground is a back as described If it to be pierced. size 12.Brooches beat the stag out in setting set in for the stone relief. Make it the its and fit into is place carefully. This is to let the air escape. or draw a piece of round wire through Take a draw-plate with oblong holes. You will now require a border. boil it clean. and see that the stone is placed nicely in relation to the rest of the enclosing space. and either bursts the back off. After the back and front are tacked together. arrange the horns so that they will take the setting of the stone. drill a couple of small holes. Take a round wire. otherwise the imprisoned air expands. about 4 in the metal gage. twist another piece 132 . one at each end of the horizontal diameter a little within the places for the joint and catch.
and twist the whole until the spiral is as close as you wish it. and it will be ready to receive the joint or catch. Take a piece of thick. the size of the silver wire before it was flattened. wire in the vise and one end in a handvise or a pair of slides. Brooches you can solder there. and afterward round your panel solder it in position on the brooch near. and after them in them here and tying their place. 133 .Take two lengths of from left to right. half-round wire and bend it into the shape of a C with a long tail (CL) . surplus metal from the back and round the edge. but it takes much longer When the border is made. using small paillons to fill and taking care not with solder. copper wire. and solder as a frame. it up the twists Now boil. either in repousse round the panel. Instead of doing this you can make a circle of small stars. You can then remove the copper wires and replace with the silver twists. The latter has the more sparkling effect. clean. file the to do. and tie one on each side of the silver ribbon with iron bindingThen fix one end of this compound wire. or you can make a number of groups of grains and solder them round. then file the bottom of the tail flat.
about fth inch long. 71). 72). about size 12 in the metal gage. 73A). Upon the flat side of this you will solder another and shorter length of tube (fig. take another piece of No. 5 and solder it at one side 134 . on a slip little of No. When the two fit perfectly. silver wire 73). a piece of fine tube. a larger each way stout (fig. File out of the center of the first tube a space wide enough to take the tube on the end of the pin (see fig. Then take piece of and run the end up Flatten into a good-sized bead (fig. and solder a short length. Take the hinge for the pin. the bead and file it into shape as shown.Brooches must make Next you but not actually on the edge. a 5.
it is best to 135 . 74). the pin catch being is bent down under the held in place by the elasticity of the metal Pins (fig.of the bottom joint (see fig. 73. If you have a close setting. joint. The last piece helps to make of an L. The flat end of the spring of the pin. The filed when true in up dered ^'°- and place. they are harder. ''''• ^^^ made of 9-carat gold are very much better than silver pins. clean. and have more spring in them. 73A) so that the two lengths of tube are in the angle Brooches MM Fig. can be sol- 74- The whole can now be boiled out and scratch-brushed. and the stone set. the pin catches against this .
This forms a subsidiary setting. You will then turn up You a Fig. Another way of setting stones in the background of back the stoLe with it to give any panel is to beat out a hollow from the back into which the stone exactly fits. 75). 75. 136 a . narrow setting of thin silver and file the edge either wavy or scalloped or serrated.Brooches a piece of white foil greater brilliancy. will then pierce out all of this except narrow piece just sufficient to retain the stone firmly. and solder it in behind as shown (fig.
and when all is complete the stone can be dropped into its place and a piece of round wire. The advantage of this that the work on the background can be carried round the setting without any of the awkward joins which are almost impossible to avoid when a separate setting the ground. scalloped. is. or serrated edges of the setting bent over the wire and burnished until the stone is Brooches set quite firmly. 137 . large or sprawl- Pendants Points. can then be fitted in behind the stone. The metal and a stone dropped setting must be frankly made to look like a setting. and roughnesses The lines of the should be avoided. not make the is soldered in or upon At the same time you must work look as if a hole had been made in the casually in. and the foliage or branches in the background must be made to lead up to the setting as the cul- minating point of the whole jewel. and the wavy. projections. bent to the curve of the setting. CHAPTER XVI Pendants sign —The Hoop —Things —The Use to Suggestions for Debe Avoided Setting the Enamel of Enamel PoUshing for the Pendant — — — Pendants should not be ing.
or to the For example. no take an aqua-marine less than the color. avoiding grotesque or extraordinary pay great attention to the bony and the set of the Look at any Japanese drawings of fins. boss the whole well out from the back. spirally to or . The design now suggested is merely a peg on which to hang the technical description. fish you can get hold of. After you have made the setting for the stone. . some point of interest within the The' back should be made interesting as well as the front. you ideas suggested by it. I try to make the ornament allusive to the gem. and follow their methods. draw the fish on the silver. arrange a 138 structure of the head . to its leg- endary history. follow whatever inspiration is given him at all costs. My method of design is to make each jewel enshrine some story or symbol. He must sible if the student is sincere. and draw fishes swimming from the stone as a center forms . at once suggests things Any other method is permisof the sea. the name itself.Pendants ornament should tend toward the center or to outline. Lay your stone or stones on a bit of silver. to its qualities. and in spite of everything. make studies offish.
and let the outlines of the fish be fairly undercut to give good hold for the enamel. Put a range of spiral curls rather high in relief all round to make a frame. A fial modern ship a is still as beauti- a thing as men make nowadays. When is the repousse finished. and careful it you should make one.hollow for the setting of the stone and fairly deep hollows between the fish to be filled with enamel. You it all can have in enamel like a sea. you intend to put an enamel sea. well. you must prepare a sunken ground wherever 139 raise . or you can put a silver ship with sails on sailing enamel waves. you must arrange for the back. drawing of the Take and care it that fills panel and chase it until it If is as complete as you can make it. and let the tip of the spirals lip over the bodies of the fish so that they are encircled Pendants by waves 76). (fig.
making it look like so much colored varnish. Nothing looks worse than enamel melting away into modeled work without a line to frame it and keep it in its proper place in the comEnamel is not a kind of paint position. and dust the backing (see chapter on Enamel Work) all over. Choose two or three good rich enamels. add a tiny drop 140 . and leave to dry. then paint the back of each plate. so that the silver itself frames the enamel.Pendants the enamel to come. Shake Then off the surplus. and employed in small quantities. wherever there is to be enamel in front. and the edges Is of the ground must be undercut. the ground and the back of the metal also is to be scraped quite clean and bright all over. as a means of hiding inferior work it must be treated as a precious material. and grind it up fairly fine. which can be applied anywhere . The modern tendency to cover large surface with enamel vulgarizes the material. ranging from dark to pale sea-green. You will then clean the metal by boiling out in acid. and wash it well till all milkiness disappears . take the ground greens. with gum traga- canth and water. and wherever the enamel comes. and this without any corresponding advantage.
silver. remove from the furnace. leaving projections where loops come. making the lightest green a little darker than the central stone. file away 141 . File the setting into in a similar way.of left gum to each mixture. you can remove any irreguof surface with a corundum file and water. narrow band of No. after soldering two Cut it a bend round strong loops to the central plate. 5 the outline. a wave-like line. a little larger outline of the pendant. When larities cool. so that you have. and when it fits solder the ends together. mark the outline all round with a point. Then fire carefully enamel flows smooth and shining. and cool slowly in a sand bath or in front of in the muffle until the the stove. You will now have to arrange the fitting of the two together. If necessary. and solder the whole to the plate you have sawed out. because everything for the sea. and. re-fire to get all smooth and bright. a Treat the other side skeleton setting. must lead up to that. then saw out the center leaving only a band |-th than the inch wide. as it were. fill in the spaces Pendants shading the greens from dark at the edge to light at the center. Take a piece of lo silver.
and chains. Make taper pins of silver wire the setting the holes. a little knop act as a spreader for the suspending to sug- You may make the knop 142 . the to hollow of which is not larger than the head of the pin. 77) or a hollowheaded punch. and make the whole smooth to the touch and pleasant to look at. Do this with the back also. grain the point over with a circular movement until the rough head of the pin is well rounded. insert the pins and press them firmly home. You will now need to make the loop. and. Cut them oflF close to the setting. This fixes the pin firmly in to its place. Take a fine drill.Pendants surplus metal. after rubbing the edges of the setting over with a burnisher. fixing the front in place. and take a small graining-tool (fig. drill a hole here and there through the setting and the relief. fit and.
shaped as in rounded doming-punch and hollow it well out from the back (fig. Cut the ground away again and whole true. . The Take loop a is made of a thick 8 or 10. — Take flushed care that the joins solder. 783). downward drooping wings. cut it away with a metal saw. Beat it up from a bit of 7 or 8 silver. No. the silver must be fine silver and you must solder on the back with 1 8-carat gold solder other solder is apt to be destroyed in the firing. 5 thickness. 78c. and solder piece of metal. 78A. the ends together.gest the Draw a sea-gull with outair. fig. stretched Pendants can either be cut away or it can be enIf enamel is amelled in different blues. are all well for up with Provide suspension loops. used. underneath you can place The ground a band of curling waves. Take a pair of round-nosed pliers and bend it as in fig. You can see them any day about the bridges on the Thames. all soldered on the back plate. file up the for and clean and stone ready polishing. coiled rings for the bottom. and a loop like this _3L_ ^^^ ^^^ top loop. If you prefer the pierced ground. Have ready the coiled 143 . and solder the bird on a back of No.
78. The enamel portion can be polished with putty powder the all the together. solder them together. polish with and a little water. They maylittle be shells or coiled fishes. 144 . and afterward finish with rouge. fig. solder loops top and bottom. and then loopthewhole up temporarily see to hangs. make them double. beat and little up four bosses. chains then scratch-brush and beer. After correcting any inequalities. and solder them to the loop (see 780). Make chain loops as before described.Pendants rings. it how solder Fig. and fix a grain between the two for the sake of strength no less than for appearance.
and solder the two halves together to make Leave a hole -| to ^ inch a complete ball. Combs and must be very Take a rounded iron doming-punch and beat out two half-domes out of No. and free from sharp ^^J^^^ ^^ The required angles or roughnesses. 2 or 3 silver. file the edges level. and press it into the pitch then take a fine tracer and trace spiral lines round the dome. Let us take the simplest first. wide in the center of one of the halt-domes and a smaller hole opposite this and fill it with pitch. or by building up the design out of wire or filigree. Then warm silver ball the pitch-block. and wet the . taking care not then to drive the punch in too deeply . and make a long pin for the hair. 145 . lightness is obtained either by using very thin metal.— CHAPTER XVII Silver Hairpin The Hair Ornaments and Combs Hardening the Pin A Comb in Skeleton Sphere How to make the Prongs The Joint Silver The Head of -Jie Comb Arranging the Stones — — — — — — — — The Groups of Leaves Setting the Pearls — How — The Pin for the Hinge to Drill Pearls other ornaments for the hair Hair Ornalight.
. very ^ slightly. the top of a tiny piece of round wire like a column. Hair Ornaments and with otAer punches chase the surface into rounded spiral ribs. narrow rib take twisted wire. This done. the get. and put a grain of silver in each angle (see fig. Next take two about rings of inch in diameter. or simply a series of Next rounded spirals. together solder a small bead at the Then solder this on top. either Combs with a between each pair. cut a piece of stout silver wire 6 inches long and file it into a taper pin . solder the chased ball on the top of this pin so that the end of the pin projects wire. smallest size you can and solder it into the hollows between the ribs. 80) then solder a tiny half- dome of the silver on . solder the two and crosswise.
better to finish soldering at the top of the sphere before proceeding to the other pole and when soldering the other ends.the top of the large ball and the skeleton Hair Ornaments and ball and pillar on the top of this again. the pillar meets the half (fig. . about a dozen times. . „ Fig. just large enough to let the J ^ ^- 8o. or whiting and water this will prevent the solder from melting and the rings from falling to The skeleton sphere can now be pieces. 8i) you must put a ring of fine wire to cover the joint Where dome Combs and make Now a neat finish. .. junctions you will solder two small rings of flat wire. bottom. Repeat this until you It is have a skeleton sphere. and solder a half-ring in each angle. . Saw the rings apart and solder two At the together as before described. strengthened by a row of tiny half-domes and groups of six grains alternately the . h inch in . pin pass through both at the top and the Cut the remaining rings in half. 147 . it is better to cover the part already soldered with loam and water. diameter. take a piece of silver wire and coil it on a mandrel.
and solder the rings round inside measure. 2 metal.Hair Orna. the outsides of the balls. join is made. Qj^g wires within the top and bottom rings. clean away the loam or whiting and boil the metal clean and white in Scrape the joint bright. spheres of No. ing to solder.Q j-j^g center of each rib. Solder Combs |. beginning at the Protect the half not being soldered top. Then protect the rest of the work with loam or whiting as before. make two and tie stout rings ^ inch them opposite each other where the pin and sphere meet. and having coiled up a number of small rings of fine wire or fine twist. and finish solNext make six small hollow dering. have ready a number of small beads of silver. and slip another ring on the pin to make a collar Before proceedunderneath the spheres. and let all the flowers and small half-domes be soldered to Next file away the crossingeach other. and slip the completed ball into its place on the pin best. find the point at a which and there solder collar it looks of wire on the pin. pickle. . You will now solder the skele- ton sphere in its place.width of each half-dome and flower being ments and exactly the width apart of the ribs. When the upper with loam or whiting. and put a grain in 148 .
or simply of circles ofwire. circle. and mark simple out three- or four- 149 . 79. alternate twist and plain.every alternate ball. 10 ordinary gage. Then solder a ring on Hair Ornaments and the top of each and make lengths Combs six of fine chain as described for necklaces. and loop three balls on each loop as shown in fig. Take a — a strip size of silver. To Make a Comh. The whole can now be cleaned and polished. large and small. Next hammer the pin carefully on to a bent stake make it hard and springy.
and sol der a length along the back of these prongs as at a in fig. 82. Fig. This was an arrangement of aqua84). and drilled so First that they may be mounted as roses. The pearls should marines and pearls. A You make will now require to to get a the top of the comb. up the edges clean and smooth. be of irregular shapes.pronged ments and fig. as de scribed before. The pattern must not be too regular. Then make strong twigs of thick wire hammered taper and soldered together in a simple interlacing pattern embracing the settings. 83. about inch in diameter.Hair Orna. Combs comb. 150 M . Draw a piece of fine tube. with different shaped bosses of metal and wreaths of filigree (fig. make settings for the aquamarines. and solder them on a back-plate hammered up into a domical section. best The way is few clear stones and arrange them into apleasantpattern. 83. as in the lower portion of Leave a space of at least threequarters of an inch before you begin the Then saw out the prongs and file prongs.
and solder them to- . soldered. 84. take silver wire and make leaves as before described.nor must the stones be of equal size or Hair Ornacolor. ments and When the main stems are soundly Combs Fig.
The of each leaf should be tanto the main curve (fig.Hair Ornaments and Combs gether in groups of five. and solder them. on you stout sheet-silver shaped as at b in fig. tie it firmly with wire. leaving enough of the twig to pass through the pearl and be riveted or grained over when the pearl is be done when all the fixed. with grains beThen make a tween each pair of leaves. and solder a calyx on the tip of each principal twig. and polishing has been Havcompleted. using loam or whiting to protect This will the center line joints. or strong clips of bent iron 152 . cleaning. calyx or skeleton setting for each of the pearl roses. and. ing fixed the position of the roses. soldering. having filed it up smooth. you can now arrange the groups of leaves order on the in stem. 85). gential When all the leaves have been soldered will need to strengthen the bottom plate both for the attachment of the hinge and to bind up the settings for the stones Take a piece of into a connected whole. 78.
86. This Fig. having slipped all the parts of the hinge the joint the head on a brass pin filed to fit. but not the best. 86). and the tang of the comb tie to- ^53 . to then file a groove with a rounded file along the bottom edge of the projecting tongue. and solder a tube of the same size as before into spaces into each file the groove tube to receive the projections in the other. the solder has flushed well in and around ments and Combs every joint boil the work clean in acid. as described for the casket hinge. and wire.— When Hair Omathe body of the comb. because it is almost impossible to file the joints of the hinge perfectly true and square without the joint tool. If you wish to spend more time on the work you can make the hinge in short lengths. There should be not less than five joints . and then. way of making it is is an easy one. three above and two below (fig.
When of In fixing the pearls you will need to use shellac to cement them to their settings. in the gas flame. take the work apart and solder it all firmly. — — ^jj-l^ ^ finy panel of solder do not flush the solder or you will spoil the whole hinge by running the solder As a precaution you into the joints.Q j-j^g j^g^^ . Take a stick of shellac. and solder a one to the end of pin (fig. Then heat the setting of . having drilled the other ball. you may set the stones as before described. and.Hair Orna.gether with the hinge between . is When the the comb pin will be finally fitted together securely riveted over the ball. 87) which exactly fits the hinge. When the parts are tacked. should paint the inside of the tubes and the faces of the joints with a little rouge and to each water. the whole is stoned with Water Ayr stone and has been polished. file a shoulder it just where on the other end of the pin comes through the hinge. then just ments and tack the tubes three to the tang and two Combs J. Next make two hollow balls. one end and after heating draw it out into a long thread.
one in each hand. slip the pearl over the peg while the cement is liquid . over the flame. when it is cold you can rivet the If the pearls have peg very carefully. and the instrument is complete. slip the collar until the pearl is firmly held. not been drilled. and wind a little of this thread Hair OrnaWarm the pearl. each stone. a graduated series of holes is drilled through the two contiguous halves. consists of a strip of brass bent as in fig. nients and of shellac round it.. you must drill them. Combs and run a little of the shellac in the hole then. 88. Put the pearl you wish to drill in the pair of holes that most nearly fits it. ^55 . It Fig. the inner edges of the holes are then slightly countersunk to prevent injury to the pearl. To do this you will need a holder. 88 and fixed in a hand-vise . a slip collar is made. holding the setting and the pearl.
CHAPTER Bracelets XVIII Bracelet — The Hammered the Joints — Bracelets Bracelet— The Fitting Band— The —The Snap —The —The Hinge Hinge Flexible Bracelet Cleaning and Burnishing BRACELET sizes range from 6|.— Hair Ornaments and You Combs can now drill the hole without danger of injuring the pearl or your own fingers.to 7 inches in circumference. specially valuable the peg may be keyed This is done by drilling a hole and on. There is no need to drill the pearl right through. . the wedge drives the two halves of wire outward and the peg can not be withCare It can only be drilled out. a well-made peg well cemented will hold quite well. is needed in doing this or the pearl may be split. drawn. round wires put together and soldered to the cap. even if it only goes If the pearl is half-way into the pearl. the two ends are then slightly filed away. making it larger at the bottom than at the The peg used is made of two halftop. and a very tiny wedge of metal inserted the peg is then cemented and The pressure on pressed into the hole. 56 .
and bend the ends to a sharp angle. so that the tips of the ends will just reach the extremities of this line.Take about a short length of thick silver wire Bracelets inch in diameter. again. anneal it. When you have stretched it out to at least two inches longer than the circumference required. and anneal out the right lengths of the bracelet. Solder on each bend a short piece of silver the Mark 157 . the diagram. 89). take a sharp chisel and i^g-th divide the fan-shaped ends as shown in Fig. 89. and flatten it out to a square section in the center and fan-shaped and feather-edged at the ends (fig. next open out the strips of metal and regular taper. Anneal the metal thoroughly. hammer them into a more Do this to both sides.
round-nosed pliers bend up the (fig. 90. bend the band round with two pairs of strong pliers into the shape of a flattened circle. the square bench stake. When has been done to both sides. With a pair of smooth. and file up the ends true and clean. and flattened with the 90) Fig. making the band of the bracelet just the right length. taper twigs into simple scrolls and connect them with each other by means of large beads made as before described. and the ends butt cleanly together. say a chryso- 158 . curve is perfect. take a small jewel. To avoid marking the metal you must hammer on this make thin copper or brass shields to slip When the over the jaws of the pliers.Bracelets thickness of the bracelet.
junction of the ends and yet give the metal play. Fig. The inside of the bracelet must be scraped and filed clean and smooth and rounded. the stone can be for whitening. an opal. the other This will cover the half standing free.prase. 91). It now ready and the polishing. and all roughnesses removed from every part of the work with the Water of Ayr is stone. final polishing given. so that one-half of the setting will be on the band. 91. so that it can be slipped over The the hand without difficulty (fig. stoning. When. be done upon pitch. set and This done. setting for it. Make a box and solder the setting on Bracelets one side of the band. This work will. or a garnet. ^S9 . and the surface afterward decorated with chasing-tools. of course. outside of the bracelet may be hammered into a rounded or softly beveled section.
6 or 8 sheet-silver as broad as you This can be wish to make the band. Solder the closely over the brass pattern. and cut a narrow slip of No.Bracelets unless can you wish to oxidize the work. the is whole To ellipse finished. — sheet brass a 92). decorated in repousse with very simple patterns of symmetrically arranged dots or a simple running pattern. This is to serve as guide when bending the band of the Take two lengths of square bracelet. Make Cut an a Hinged Bracelet. of the size required out of stout (fig. tie the band and the nngs 160 . which be done as described elsewhere. Bend the band to fit the outside of the oval rings. two ends together. silver wire and make two ovals to fit Fig. 92.
Into one half solder two lengths of the small tube. You have now to make the hinge and snap. and enlarge its this with the needle so that the larger tube will slip place. length of thin silver tube as wide as the thickness of the bracelet edge. 93. com- fortably into Now cut off a — length of the larger tube a little longer than the depth of the bracelet band. This makes the band of the bracelet. and halve it lengthwise with the framesaw. bracelet. 93). and another — a length just to fit inside this tube. file. Bracelets and solder the whole soundly together. with a space between them each piece being a third as long as the short II 161 .firmly together as in the diagram (fig. Draw a To Make the Hinge or Joint. Drill hole through the edge wires of the Fig.
first two (see 94). Fit these two halves of the joint together after painting each with water rouge and prevent them from sticking togetherwhile being a little to soldered bracelet. and with in place binding. See that the joint in the tube lies across the edge of the bracelet as in fig. or the solder may flush into the joint and spoil the work. Put some small panels of solder on each side of the tube.Bracelets joint —and Into the center of the other half solder another piece of tube filed to fit exactly between the fig. 162 . into the tie it Scrape the outside of the tube quite clean. 95. and solder it without giving too much heat.wire.
for the spring for | "^[^ ^^^ ^^* ^/cX« ^ I the a fit lower the bottom take it plate of the snap. spring-plate strip filed is a narrow ^ fit of the to same metal the groove C. the form at upper space plate. and can be hinged up temporarily with a brass peg. file the lower slot B. one for the back. and solder it at right angles to the back-plate(seefig.or 9-gage silver. is face into |— I . 97). File the fig. The p. The 96.hwise id down the joint. 98).File the ends of the tube flush with the edge of the bracelet. strip For this latter to of 8. Solder the end of it to the bottom plate so that the edge nearest the back-plate is separated from the latter by a space exactly the thickness of the at D 1 (fig. and one for the face of the Bracelets snap. the jracelet will come in two. and saw the through on the opposite side. The snap-plates can now be soldered 163 . The snap is made by cutting two strips of 8-gage metal. p^^ g you now file notches le band of the bracelet .
first The plate should be soldered in position. in it place. 100). All the constructive enrichment of the band as. and solder the back-plate of the snap to the proper half File the joint clean and of the band. made of a strip of silver. loop may be soldered on each side Fig. smooth. and release the snap by pressing the point of a file or a knife upon the tie rouge and wire. can now be soldered in position. a lining-plate. Fix the snapplate carefully it. and a slot filed at C to admit the thumbpiece of the snap. spring-plate through the slot C. but it is not safety-chain absolutely necessary. 100. with Scrape the back of the snap-plate and the end of the bracetie binding-wire let which abuts on this round the whole bracelet. A 99. for instance. . for the attachment of the if you wish. B. and the snap is complete. a panel of filigree- A — 164 . being soldered inside each half of the bracelet (figs.Bracelets to the Other end. The thumbpiece.
Make number with groups of three small grains added in the intersections of the circles (fig. or set stones —should are be Bracelets done before the joint and snap made. 102). Make similar 102. and coil it round mandrel. a good number. wire. How to Make a Flexible Bracelet. it. slip off the coils of and with the saw cut off the loops one by one until you have Boil the rings clean. Make a number of small half-domes — out of No. and arrange them together (see fig. 5 silver. a paper -guarded Take a silver anneal wire. coil a strip of thin paper round it. Take a mandrel of flattened iron or brass wire. a number of these a links. say twenty. otherwise the bracelet may not snap or close properly. about 20 gage. and 165 . and solder a half-dome in the middle and a grain in the intersections of the circles. Solder them all together.work. These are the ornamental loops to the chain of which the flexible part of the bracelet will be made. 10 1) on a level piece of charcoal. foliage.
the three central ornamental links can be !(•>(•): looped together also 1 8 (fig. would look well.as shown in fig. A squirrels in a bower of leaves. You can do them in repousse out of 8pair of little rabbits. group done should be in one piece.Bracelets after the paper flattened or half-round wire. or you can make the bracelet with a single row of ringedloops. or gage silver. This done. Saw these Hnks off. 103. 104. boil out and . now be You will 103).«!)(«=s#® Fig. is 104. and with them loop the first made links in groups of three and solder each link . one to hold the snap and the other for the catch-plate. be The Fig. down When it the modeling 166 complete. gage or 20. and the relief fairly should high. up the whole 6^ inch length easily. able to loop a. make the two end panels. leaving a clear line the center for the joint.
and file up clean. and brighten the it domes of each loop with clasp can also be a burnisher. the traces of pickle by boiling it in Polish it on the hot water and soda. 6 metal. the back-plate of the clasp. and each loop further strengthened by soldering a grain of silver on each side of it (see Now loop it all up together. and clean in pickle. 167 . except fiDr the loops. the panel in two. solder on stout These should links of wire. 105. and solder the slotted catch-plate centrally on one and the snapplate to the other. scratch-brush with beer. each half the proper the loops of the chain-band . When the thumbpiece has been added. position for Mark on boil move Then reout. The be gone over with the burIt nisher with well to great advantage. be circles and soldered firmly to Fig.Saw solder on a back of No. fig. File out a slot in the fit the two together. may mention that springs of catches made made in 9-carat gold last longer than those in silver. 105). the Bracelets catch-plate side and clasp is complete.
of the gold to be used depends on the nature of the work. For enameled panels i68 . not filed up out Gold. cost GoLD work. and it is the one most used The work must in all the finest is periods.— CHAPTER XIX Gold Work The Care of the Material Board Sweep Method of Treatment Alloys Hair Ornaments The Ingot Drawing the Wire Making Grains Leaves Flowers Gold SolStudy of der Nine-Carat Gold for the Pin Old Work — — — — — — — — — — — — Gold Work account of the greater of the material. Board sweep. Used precious material thin it gives a beauty quality unattainable by other means. lemel. polishings. so that value. it gives its utmost decorative be built up out of thin sheets or wires. the sweepings of the floor underneath the work-bench must all be carefully preserved for refining when a sufficient quantity has been The material should always be obtained. invites this method of treatment. on — used. by its very ductility of the solid. To work The in solid gold to waste needlessly. and malleability. needs very much more care on the part of the workman.
fine gold is best. original color again. is much harder to work. but it is very pleasant to work. The best alloy. much better than well gold-washed to a silver. and the effect of it is not. if alloyed with copper only. even 169 . perhaps. this. be allied with silver down to 12-carat. To give it hardness. 22-carat.. nearly fine gold next best is 20-carat. Yet it is as remember that the addition of small quantity of gold to silver gives a richness of color which can not be obtained in any other way. and is liable to crack if used for repousse work. but on account of its ex. both for working and appearance afterward. the greenish color silver by itself a two together gives the alloy almost the . Copper by itself gives the gold a red color. while the ordinary — But gold of trade jewelry is i8-carat. is naturally that which is most The viz. is not pleasant in color. but beyond 12-carat the alloy looks much more like silver than gold. and is very ducFor repousse gold may tile and kindly. If it is alloyed with silver only the alloy is paler in color than gold.Gold Work treme softness it will not stand much wear. it is alloyed with varying quantities of copper and silver.
Next run the ends into beads. You will . and after annealing draw it down with the draw-plate until you get it to size o.Gold Work will suppose you wish to make a pair of hair ornaments in 20-carat gold. onehalf. and snip off short lengths. . in all i dwt. Take lo dwts. and some small for berries. some large for leaves. add two grains of fine silver and two of alloy copper. it out on the anvil into a square wire. melt in and a ingot. and to every dwt. of this. narrow draw 1 06. will First you buy from any of the merchants i oz. When cool. Put cast it in a crucible with a little it borax. i6 bullion grs. /. e. hammer the tip taper. of fine gold. Coil it up and anneal it carefully on the mop boil it out in hydrochloric pickle.
108. 107). to every dwt. roll it out thin. like manner make Do many groups groups of the (fig. a piece of sheetinto a Now iron half Fig. ball the size of the proposed ornament. smaller beads up dome 109). lay stake (see tiny panels of solder over each junction. Take two or three dwts. add 5 grains of fine silver. as this until you have In you want. and melt on the charcoal block with a little borax flatten the resulting button of alloy with a hammer. and between them solder a ring of twist wire. 52). group them on either side of a central stem (see fig. Gold Work of the alloy you are using. plain wire. and cut it up into tiny panels readyfor soldering. and direct the flame till on each joint as in suc- cession the whole has been soldered. flatten the larger beaded ends into leaf shape with a few taps on the square bench fig. now need solder. Take the prepared bits of wire.. This 171 . a size or Make two rings of two larger than that used for the twigs and leaves.
Between each pair of rings you must now solder a group of three grains. Round the edge of the base put a double row of twisted wire to enclose the upright rings. solder this on a ^^ . take a file and file away the superfluous metal and having made an air-hole in one edgewise. no). and to the hollow bead and the base Make grains out of small (see fig. enough to fit just large in between the hollow bead and the base. but take care not to use too 172 . . domed slightly on the top of the tube up Next coil solder the gold bead. tie them all in position with bindingsolder them to the stem. and solder a grain in the angle between the ring and the bead and in the angle between the ring and the base. the wire being bent You will next dome up a ball of gold in two halves out of size i or 2 when the metal just fits the doming-block. Bend up a half solder the two together. wire. 109. six rings of fine twisted wire. circle of size 2. small strip of metal into a tube about 3^th inch long. lengths of wire or bits of scrap gold.Gold Work is for the foundation This circle circular band round the edge. band must be soldered to a of flattened wire.
Tie and the large ring already made on You can the iron ball with binding-wire. Gold Work boiled out clean. Have ready a numboil the work clean. now arrange the groups of leaves and berries in their places between the boss Each group must touch and the ring. the work will not be strong. this heat. I lO. two others and the top and bottom rings.much This. as a precaution against melting. ber of small grains also boiled clean. The solder itself should run more easily than that used for To secure this. about two grains of silver solder to each pennyweight of the original solder. using this both for ap- 173 . While soldering these it may be well to paint the parts not to be soldered with a paste of loam or whiting and water. When the soldering is complete. If this is not done. when or you will melt the rings. take the groups of leaves. or pipe-clay and water. and solder one in the angle between the twigs and the bottom. forms the central boss of the whole ornament. and add to it a piece of silver solder. as much of the first solder as you think you may require.
and tap with a female screw file up the ends true and solder it to the center of the three rings. e. iii). /. trefoil must now be soldered to the back of the bottom ring. again boil out clean. 7^ grains each of copper and silver to 174 . size 22. 113 shows another arrangement for This the bottom of the filigree dome. but with a boss of coiled twist-wire in the center instead of . and the first part of Fig. solder them together as in fig. Fig. This done. Take in the proportion of 9 of gold to 7^ of copper and 7^ of silver. knop complete. 1 14 shows the the work complete. Take of a short length tube. that first described. to make pin the attachment It should be of 9-carat gold. 112.Gold Work pearance and strength (fig. like that you made tral it for the cen- boss. is The the to next for hair. and having made three circles of wire.
the effect must be built out Design is the language of small details. no projectness ing points must be left. but most of all in gold work. crocus.grains of fine gold 9-carat gold alloy. and cast the ingot. In all jewelry work. work intended for wear should be smooth and pleasant to the touch. bend it in the center. 106). draw the ingot out into wire. or they will catch All in the hair and cause inconvenience. 113. Next make a hinge the end of the pin. 175 . out of a small tube as described for the brooch hinge (see On the 74). and rouge. melted it. . will make i dwt. size 18. Cut off a piece double the length of the pin. The work can now be stoned and polished with pumice. away all roughFig. 1 14). of Having weighed out Gold Work your alloy. pared (see File fig. and solder a segment of wire to make a complete This strengthens circle (see fig. centerportion of the joint solder a male screw to fit the female already prefig.
expression of your personality in terms One of the material in which you work. has only to look at any piece of early gold work. and open up Do not attempt to ideas for future use. will help you to apply these principles for yourself. texture. Etrus- you learn in skill can. to realize what rich effects can be prorepeti- duced by tion. Indian. grasp of the method of building up all work out of thin sheet. or Anglo-Saxon. Mykenean. tiful The beaupatterns Hinfrom evolved by Arab.Gold Work from your work. but study the principles of contrasted line. copy such work. and form. and as your handiwork grows. Persian and doo Fig. offer world of suggestion to the young craftsman. 114. artists the simplest elea ments. Egyptian. the It is separated from handiwork. A 176 . so will your Design can not be power of design.
which is merely a short taper handle of wood with roughened end. the cement while warm is pressed into any shape required by rolling it on a cold iron plate 177 . lump 1 Ar or good-sized engravers > Fig. lie. pierce out the shape with the saw.CHAPTER XX Gold Necklace with Brass Gold over the Another Method of Making Fleurs de Matrix Engraved Matrices Lis — — Mold — Burnishing Pendant Fleurs the de Lis — The Take thick a piece enough for the pendant. omitting the a 1 of course rings and loops for suspension. and file it up to the shape of the pendant (fig. 1 6). ^ cement is warmed in the flame of the blowpipe or spirit lamp and fixed on the roughened end of the stick. 115). Take cement stick (fig. it of brass large enough and Gold Neck^^" "'"" and having lace with ' ' Pendant carefully transferred to the outline ot your pattern.
When the firmly you have got the shape very nearly. move the brass mold from the cement. Take the brass model. Anneal the gold frequently at first. warm it gold. 117). with the point of the burnisher you can drive the gold into the angles. cement down round the edges with a wetted steel spatula. prevent the to In this case you the iron so Pendant warmed cement on that you get a level top (fig. and when cold take a piece of 22 gold.sprinkled lace with with ^hg water cement from y^i\\ pj-ggg sticking. anneal it well. clean it well. and you will find the work easier. warm and press it into the cement so that exit.Gold Neck. and refix it with its other Now 178 . Cool it in water. and with a rounded burnisher press and rub the gold over the brass shape. size 2. actly half remains exSmooth the posed. Reand finish the shape completely. and press on the cement until it sticks (fig. ii6).
115). 1 1 7. and file up the edges until the two fit perfectly together (see fig. and the ornament. cut l^^e with away the surplus metal from the outside Pe"^^"^ with the shears. process with another piece of gold. Take snippings of silver or short lengths of silver wire curved to fit the hollows at the back of each half. You will Fig.Repeat the burnishing Gold Neckface upward. now need to strengthen the two halves of may not get crushed out of shape after being fastened together. and boil them out. so that they 179 .
fine too closely.solder lace with i them in place with g-carat solder. of scrap. fitting the edges very closely to each other or the solder will not Remember that in gold flush properly. you use the scraps and filings from the 22-carat. on the contrary. tools. 180 . Any irregularities in the mold can be removed by chasing the surface with repousse fit work you can not work. or. When all the joins are soldered the work can be filed up and The smaller the hanging rings fixed. If you wish for more elaborate forms you can model the shape in wax. if tie the two halves together with binding-wire. clean. make a cast in type metal. the solder runs along the surface and not into the join. you can take a zinc cast of it in <a sand mold. boil the work dwt. and having made a plaster matrix. in silver if the work fits too well. made by adding panels of 6 grains Pendant ^f f^^^ silver to every dwt. or. of fine gold. 4 grains of fine silver to each This done. You can now rub the gold over the type metal cast in the same way as over the brass model . having made the plaster matrix. sizes will be made in like manner.Gold Neck. and rub the gold into it instead of over it.
and with it hollow out a matrix of the form you The surface of the ornament require. There must be no under-cutting or the work will not draw from the mold when you have beaten it in. and having hammered the surface with "endant carefully to make the metal uniformly dense and tough. i8i . either to the mold or the metal. seen by oiling the metal and taking frequent impressions in wax or modeling Into this mold the thin sheet paste. take a scorper.Another method piece of brass large is to take for a thick Gold NeckJace enough your pur- pose. and then filed off true. forces the If fine gold into all parts of the mold. silver is used it can with care be hammered solid into the mold. In all these methods it is well to remember that the forms must be clear. and studied closely from nature. gold can either be rubbed or beaten in with a hammer and a strip of lead (see The lead prevents injury fig. or based on some form which you have found by experience looks well in work. and by spreading out under the blow. 1 1 8). can be further modeled up with rounded chasing tools to almost any degree of fineThe effect of your work can be ness.
Gold Necklace with
The plan of engraving matrices in brass was one extensively used in old work.
of the elaborate necklaces shown room of the British Museum are made up of simple forms produced in molds like those just described, then
of wire Gold Neckstrong loops to 'ace with
the backs of these bosses, make some lengths of chain and a snap, and loop the whole together as before.
longer, and the side ones
ishing lengths from the centre.
small half balls of thin gold, solder backs to them, and put a ring of twist round the join. Fix two loops opposite
to each other
dants the necklace.
on the backs. These will linked up between the penand the main bosses, completing
Locket or Pendant Casket
—The Frame—The —The Hinge —The Back— Hinge The Tool — Swivel Loops
The student would be well advised to attempt this first of all in silver, as these
Locket or Pendant
by no means easy to make. and the hanging require very
wider than the
the shape of the outline in fig. 1 20, and solder the two ends firmly together. Next
two plates of back and one for the and solder them to
one for the
File the surplus metal from the edges
the center line
the sides of the
frame, and saw the box apart lengthwise You have now two halves 1 21 a). (fig. which exactly fit each other. Mark the sides, which should come together so that
you may readily fit the two in the place. Next take a strip of No. 5, a
deeper than the sides of each half locket,
exactly within the locket,
in place (fig.
Locket or Pendant
form the bezel on which the lid fits, and by which the lid is held
firmly in place.
the two todrawn a short
length of small tube from which to make the hinge, with a small round file or a joint file make a deep groove along the line of the It should be as joint (fig. 122). deep as possible, so that the tube may not project and spoil the outline
Fig. 121 a.
of the pendant. Cut off three lengths of the tube, so that the three together just fill the space provided for the hinge. File the ends of these short lengths true and Mark square in the joint-tool (fig. 120).
the position of the center one, and after taking apart the two halves of the locket,
of tube in
on one half of the locket and the The other two lengths on their half.
Locket or Pendant
It can be
either a plain or a swivel loop.
as already de-
scribed in the chapter on Pendants, only
instead of having the small rings at the
bottom a hole is drilled up through the point of the loop and a wire, beaded at one
slipped in, and bent over to form
ring below the loop
ring should be soldered.
This 123). swivel and
the hole must be painted with a little rouge and water, so that the solder may not run and make a solid instead of a Stones may be set on the swivel joint. front and the front panel cut away, leaving An enamel panel can then a narrow rim. be fixed in from the back, as described in
the chapter on Settings.
Carving in Metal
Making the Tools Tempering Model The Use of the Chisels The Spiral Knop The Wreathed
—Where Carving Necessary — The Wax — — — —
Small figures, wreaths, sprays, and animals and birds, can be very As carved out of the solid metal. tioned in another chapter, where the be enameled, it is is to necessary that it should be carved out of a material
perfectly even in
texture or the enamel will The tools required fly off.
are exceedingly simple.
few chisels of variefiis sizes made out of^^ort lengths of bar steel, a chasinghammer, and a few files and ordinary repousse tools will alone be necessary.
off a few 5-inch lengths of square bar steel of different sizes and different widths ; soften
the ends by heating them to a cherry red. File the ends Let them cool gradually.
a blunt bevel
(see fig. 124 shows an enlarged view
of the cutting end of the
the vise and
Fix each in
off the square edges along the sides and the top, so
that the tool will be more comfortable to the hand. It will be well to have one or two made with a rounded bevel like a gouge, and one with a rather sharp beveled edge for occasional use. Having got them filed up
shape, and the sides top made nice and smooth with emery-cloth, harden each byheating it to a cherry red and dropping it
into a bucket of cold water.
They will now need tempering. First brighten the metal at the cutting edge by rubbing it on emery-cloth. Then hold the tool in the flame until the first pale straw color comes. Have ready a vessel of cold
soon as the color appears,
have been treated, you will be ready to begin to work. Take your lump of silver or gold, hammer it well all over to make it more 188
will be found very useful for this. so that you can hold it in a small bench-vise while carving. Use the chisels now and then to remove any metal which by repeated working has become too hard to yield to the tracing-tool. and realize the form care always to drive the chisel along the line of the bevel more completely. with the smaller chisels you tail. taking which rests At this stage upon the work (see fig. If. it is useless to spend too much 189 . to have the metal longer than the object you wish to carve. however. Before beginning. get down to the surface of your model. the work is to be afterward enameled. and work it up with repousse tools. with a slightly rounded surface. out the principal masses with the gougeDo not be too eager to shaped chisel. it is wise to take the precaution of making a model in wax of Block the subject you intend to carve. Oval matting-tools.It is well dense and uniform in texture. It is better to get the action and movement before attempting modeling in deThen. Carving in Metal can go over the work. you may take the work out of the vise and put it on the pitch-block. With smooth punches and tracers you can get almost any degree of fineness of work. 124 c).
gage . out the interspaces. 1 6 . 190 .Carving m Metal time upon surface modeling a great deal must be left to be done in the enameling. See that branches or twigs stretch from each line of the spiral to the lines above and below it (fig. 126. Next. Now spiral draw with a fine brush and Indian ink twigs the and the masses of leaves. so that the spiral growth of the twig is emphasized. after wetting the tip of the tool and cut grooves lengthwise along the twigs. beat it into a dome of the size anddepthofyour Anneal knop. Suppose you wish to carve a spiral knop of nut leaves. begin with the round scorper. Fig. Sprays of leaves and flowers or knops of leafage can be very easily produced by this method in the following manner. This is in order that the knop may be strong With a drill and a fret-saw pierce all over. 126). the metal. Take your gravers. Take a piece of silver.
say 16. 1 • (fig. and divide it any number of equal parts. join the The enclosed last point to the center. 129) of twigs. as center draw circles as On the into make a semicircle. How to Carve a Wreathed Setting.A scorper cut the groups of leaves Carving Metal with a flat in show their overlapping.127 128. bend the metal up to fit the stone. a Draw on this (fig. With a small gouge you can now vein the leaves and so as to add any necessary finishing touches twigs. see that the various 191 wavy spiral . the sides till they meet. Produce this point From shown. to the still The knop may it be finished up further by putting upon the pitch and add- ing any refinements of detail you may desire. base Set out these on the larger segment. Cut this shape out with the shears. and solder the edges. and while keeping the design very open. 1 27). fig. form is that required to make the setting. Mark Fir ^^i^^^. — fine stone will often look well conical a wreathed setting carved out of thicksheetmetal in ^ ° out the section of the setting at A.
iz8. 192 .Carving in Metal ^^'i-X"^ Fig.
so that you can not see what you are doing. Pierce out the interspaces with the drill and saw. 13 193 . the skin all CHAPTER Casting XXIII —The Cuttlefish Smoking the Mold — Mold — Flasks —The Loam Molds Casting Slate or Bath-brick Very in rings small castings. heads. Unless is used the cement is apt to spread over the metal. well down upon the skin-covered surface. Then take an engraving-stick and a piece of gold-beater's skin. as before described. and shape it with a wetted thumb and forefinger just to fit the setting. press ti Carving in Metal the set- ng. keep it firmly in and when cold place. Place the skin over the warmed and cement. birds. You can now carve the work with scorpers. warm the cement on the stick. such as reliefs to set and sprays of foliage. also warmed. The will ^'^- '^9- cement will press the skin out through its the holes in the setting.— \ \ branches and leaves are well knit together.
so that you may get a perfectly clear impression. in the space between the pegs. re- 194 . cut it in half. Lay the pattern. and press the two halves of the mold carefully and firmly. and rub each face perfectly flat. Press the two faces together.. Fig. 130. fit absolutely close. • Take them apart. which must not be anywhere undercut. Choose a clean and perfect specimen cuttlefish. leaving plenty of room between for the pattern. 130). Insert three small register pegs in one face (fig. so that they etc.Casting can very easily be done in cuttlefish bone.
131). tie ^95 . make a funnel-shaped channel for the metal. 131. Make a little pit in a of charcoal large enough to take the gold or silver you wish to melt.move the pattern. and tie Casting the mold up with binding- FiG. also channels for air-holes. leading radially outward (fig. wire piece (fig. 132).
the charcoal to the top of the mold, so that the pit comes opposite the channel
or " pour."
another channel from
the hollow in the charcoal to the channel Now put your gold or in the mold.
the it with borax to aid the fusion, and when the metal runs into a clear shining molten globe, tilt the mold
the charcoal, melt
blowpipe, adding a
so that the metal runs in. and the task is complete.
Casting in Sand.
need a pair of casting flasks, fine casting sand or loam, some black lead and French chalk in powder, and a muslin bag full of pea-flour to dust over the patterns and the surfaces of the mold. Casting flasks are two equal-sized frames
carrying pegs which
into holes in cor-
on the other frame. peg side, the second
Lay the eye side flange side. downward on a perfectly flat, smooth Within this, rather near to the board.
funnel-shaped entrance to the flask, the will pattern will afterward be laid. suppose it to be a piece of relief work with It should be well rubbed over a flat back. with black lead, so that the sand may not
some handfuls of the molding sand and loam, wet the mixture with water sprinkled over it, just enough being used When you have to make the loam bind. mixed loam and sand thoroughly, press it down and beat it well into the mold with
Strike the upper surface level
with a straight-edge, and, having placed a bit of board upon the mold, turn it over Dust the surface of eye side upward. the mold with finely powdered brick dust. This is to prevent the two surfaces of the
which must be well brushed over
with black lead,
mold on the
upon the surface of the center line, but not too near
If the patthe opening into the niold. is placed too near the opening the weight of metal above the pattern will not
be sufficient when it is being poured in to force the liquid metal into all the crevices On the other hand, it of the matrix. must not be too far away or it may take more metal than you happen to have at your disposal. Take the pattern, press it half-way into the mold, dust the whole surface of the pattern and the mold with
fine brick dust.
place the peg side
in position, press the
by hand, and then beat it well in with Take the peg side off", blow the mallet. away loose particles of sand from each side, and very carefully remove the pattern. The mold must now be dusted with powdered charcoal or pea-flour, or smoked with a burning taper, and the pattern once more placed in position, the two halves
pressed firmly together, so as to take the Loosen final impression of the pattern. the sand over the pattern with a knife, and then drive it home again with reRemove peated blows with the mallet. the pattern, make the pour and a few air-channels leading away from any prominent part of the pattern, so that the
can escape when driven out by the The molds inrush of the molten metal. should now be put over a gas-burner to dry, which must be done very thoroughly. When it is quite dry melt your metal in a good-sized crucible, and while the mold The is warm pour the metal quickly in.
described are only
useful for comparatively
rough work to
be afterward chased.
must be made as described XXXI. and XXXII.
may be made bath brick. The forms desired can very easily be hollowed out of Bath brick, howany of these materials. ever, will only serve for a few casts, while
for simple objects
the others will last for a long time. There are several interesting specimens of these molds, with examples of the work pro-
duced by them,
medieval room of
Work— General — Work— — Mount— Enamel — Champleve Enamel — The Tools — Limoges Enamel— Net— Use of Gold Enamel — Deep-cut work Enamel —
use of enamel in jewelry is to add It should not be and color. used in large masses or the effect will be heavy, and the most valuable quality of enamel, which is preciousness, will be The colors used should be pure lost. and brilliant and few in number. As a general rule each color should be separated from its neighbor by a line of metal, and be also bordered by a line of metal. That is to say, where the enamel is used to decorate a surface it should be enclosed in cells, made either by cutting them out of the surface with gravers and scorpers, or by raising the walls of the cells from the back, or by soldering flattened wire bent to shape edgewise to form the cell
or cloisons the cloisons form a kind of network which encloses the enamel in its meshes and carries the metal con:
struction through the design.
and sheen of the metal outline harmonize the different colors with each other, and
give a greater brilliancy of effect than can be obtained by any other means. The color of the metal, in fact, is a valuable ground
of this method are
great, but in those very limitations lies the
strength of the student.
The scheme must
be completely thought out, the outline must be clear, and the color clean and Nothing can be left to chance. pure. Many valuable hints can be gained by a careful study of Indian enamel work that of Jeypore in particular is full of suggestEnamel may be used iveness and beauty. as a background for set stones, or an effect of color made the motive of a design, but in all cases care should be taken to secure a clear metal outline. For translucent enamel pictures themetal but in outline can not of course be used this case the whole picture should be small enough to set as a jewel. The burnished edge of the setting then takes the place of
the metal outline.
Large plaques of enamel are unsuitable ornament. If enamel is to be used on small figure subjects, the figures 20I
should either be beaten up in the round from sheet, or carved out of solid metal. Enamel rarely stands on cast work, partly because of the inequality of texture of the metal, and partly because the metal is so It will hold for full of minute air-holes. but sooner or a time, especially if soft later will fly off in the form of tiny flakes. This can in some measure be prevented by stabbing the ground of the enamel with a sharp graver, so that little points of metal are left sticking up all over the These hold the enamel fairly surface. well, but you can never be sure that it will not flake off just where it will most be The best grounds for enamel are seen.
fine alloy copper, fine silver, fine gold,
The various methods of enameling will probably be familiar to most students, through Mr. Cunynghame's recent work It will therefore be unon the subject. necessary to do more than to treat each process briefly, and refer those who may desire fuller information to that work.
following things will
be found useful china mortar and pestle. small agate mortar and pestle.
and with a good-sized burnisher rub it into a Draw a piece of gold-wire very flat dome. for small work. — How make — Take to • a Brooch a piece of 22-carat gold. crucible. A long-handled pair of tongs. size 4. A muffle-furnace. made by bending up the sides of a square that at 5 lbs. made of ^-inch tube. a in Cloisonne Enamel. A good strong painter's palette-knife. the size of a shilling. few pieces of sheet iron. Cloisonne. rounded hematite burnisher. Some bindlarge A ing-wire. small flask of hydrofluoric acid.A A A A nest of covered palettes as used for slab of Enamel water-colors. to the of rolled sheet-lead A A corundum file. Bend it into a ring a little Solder the ends than the disk. through an oblong-holed draw-plate until it /1 1 * is smaller about size 10. or. lead trough to use with this acid. Work ground glass about 12 inches square. 6-inch dipping-tube. A A — foot will do. to hold the enamels. of the wire together in the flame with 203 . few wide-mouthed glass bottles with corks.
and place it in position. then charge the work with snippets of 1 8-carat solder and tack the wires in their places. suppose opal for the ground. dip it into borax water. Now. the gold back is thick. Boil the work out and proceed until the panel is complete (fig. 133). 204 . bend the wire edgewise into the shape required . and solder the ring so that the makes a rim Have ready some flattened gold wire. blue for the dividing rays up each color separately in the small agate mortar. Some enamelers do not solder the cloisons. when the enamel is fired again the cloisons may Still if float about and get out of place. and a few of the main cloisons and the outer ring are soldered. the remainder can well be left to be fixed by the melting of the enamel. but if they are not soldered. to Make plate. and when it is like fine sand. both disk and ring it Work clean. green for the grind leaves.Enamel I 8-carat solder. and having decided on your design. It is not necessary to flush the joints fully. drawn several sizes smaller than the first. having chosen your enamel. Get a sec- tion of the design done in this way. wash away the milky portion of the enamel by pouring clean water over it until .
Enamel Work Fig. 133. 205 .
and dry Now. a little borax added. them in like manner. acid to surface. You will now make a support out of a square of thin sheetiron. sparkling. and remove the dark of oxide which has formed on the enamel fuses. place the work upon the support. fill the other cells. and 206 . repeating the process until the cells are full. place it in the muffle for about a minute until the boil in dilute scale Take it out. smooth the whole surface with a corundum file and water. and having dried the enamel on an iron plate heated by a spirit lamp or a Bunsen burner. with loam or whitening and water with When it is dry. is clear. having the center bossed up to fit the Paint this over underside of the brooch. You will find that the enamel on fusing has greatly shrunk in volume refill the cells with the same enamels as before and refire.. wash the grit away with a little hydrofluoric acid and water (use India-rubber finger-stalls for this work. When this happens. taking care that no grains of color get Drain away the into neighboring cells. superfluous water with bits of clean blotting-paper. and crystal- Work with a small spatula fill each cell or cloison with the proper color. Enamel the residue line.
7 gage bent polish — round flatwise into a flat ring and soldered. The catch and joint can now be made of 18carat gold. possible to solder the ring which takes the joint and catch on the back of the brooch before the cloisons are soldered on. to fit the enamel panel. You can now fire the work again. On the thin band. and a pin out of 9-carat gold. 3 or 4. frame and a setting for it out of 20 or the frame would be a piece 22-carat gold of flat wire or a strip of No.take care not to get any of the acid on your flesh). and after picking away the scale of oxid. When the frame and pin have been polished. with small half-domes of thin gold soldered on at intervals. The joints and the soldered 207 . size No. a Enamel Work Make it with putty on a soft buff. just enough to glaze the surface. the enamel center can be set and the edge burnished over evenly It is quite all round. In the angle between the edge of the flat ring and the upright face of the setting you this you will fix may nately with solder a row of small grains alterlengths of plain wire thus or double rows of right and left hand twist in short lengths.
134.Enamel Work Fig. 208 .
and make a flattened border round the dome (fig. however. will probably find fairly simple to cut and yet elaborate enough to give you plenty of opportunity for arrangements of color. and mark out upon it the Dome the center size of the buckle. if the work be small enough. is in the furnace. silver. silver solder eats holes in the metal when heated in the muffle.rim are protected from the heat by whitening or loam. size 15. Champleve Enamel How to Make a Take a piece of fine Buckle in Enamel. The pattern you devise had better be a simple one for That given above you the first attempt. 14 209 . Before setting to work on the silver it will be well to make one or two trials on copper. but if the last-named method is used for the catch it must be soldered with i8-carat gold solder. needed lest the joint or catch should drop Enamel Work The latter way is the simpler looking. 134). on an engraving stick. The brooch can also be made in fine silver. Fix the metal either on an engraver's block with cement or on an off in the muffle. slightly. — — ordinary pitch-block. the whole thing is then put Great care. or. and the possibility of an imperfect setting is avoided.
half-round. and go all over the ground with a rocking side-to-side motion of the tool. 136). and makes enamel hold 210 . flat. and driven by the pressure of the A little practise. palm. make a sloping cut round the borders of the parts to be sunk. First wet the tip of the tool. will soon put you in the right way. the deepest part of the cut being next the outline and a little within it. then remove the central portions with a half-round ^'°' '^^* scorper. or a few moments' instruction from a practical engraver. and a good Hold the scorper blade between oil stone. and the handle in the hollow of the palm.Enamel Have sizes ready a few scorpers of different Work and shapes (see figs. and pointed. of the tool The is point guided by the thumb. making a zigzag cut thus t • This roughens the the ground. then take a straight scorper. 135. the thumb and forefinger.
136. or with a specially hard alloy of silver and copper composed of 211 . this surface has a mechanical look which is rather objectionable. and solder them firmly with 1 8-carat gold solder. Work and if the sides of each cell are slightly undercut the quite well. If trans- Enamel lucent enamels are used. pattern cleanly cut you can now fix the bars which are to carry the belt. When enamel will hold you have got the whole Fig. however.— better than on a smooth surface.
Enamel Work Fine silver .
tragacanth dry waste . and bits of gold foil. The cells will need refilling and refiring until they are full. and let it dry. and sprinkle the enamel which results from the washings over the back from a pepper-pot or teastrainer shake off the superfluous enamel. pricked full of holes (with a bunch of fine needles set in a cork). covered over first with a thin layer of flux and then with a thin layer of green or a fine red. can be laid on the . and turn up the edge very slightly all round by burnishing it over the edge of a round-peened hammer fixed in a — vise. How to Make a Pendant in Limoges Take a piece of thin Swedish or Enamels. and the whole afterward polished with rouge. With a burnisher rub it into a slight dome shape. washed in hydrofluoric and water. Next pickle is it in dilute nitric acid until the metal perfectly clean. and adding the colors only after the first or in some of the cells a ground firing of flux can be laid. French copper of the size required. refired. Paint the back of the plate with gum and water. The surface can now be filed smooth with a corundum file. Now take the color you 213 .obtained by usingclear flux as the first layer. Enamel Work flux.
surface is evenly covered. and refire. dry. Have ready an iron cradle or support domed to fit the underside of the plaque. let it smooth enough when held over to reflect it. take away any superfluous moisture with a bit of blottingpaper or a piece of clean. repair the holes with fresh enamel. mix a tiny drop of tragacanth with the enamel. Enamel Work have selected for the foundation. You will now take some silver foil. Wash the surface clean. put it in a china-color saucer. grind and wash clean. cover each with a thin layer of flux. and cut out leaves. and painted with loam or whitening as before described dry the enamel over the spirit lamp. fix them in their places on the plaque with a little tragacanth. and when repair any faults in the surface by cleaning the metal in pickle and by rubbing down with a corundum file. Press the enamel down evenly and smoothly all over with a stiff palette-knife. Take cold cool slowly. and dab it over the face of the When the whole plaque with a brush. old linen rag.. as many as you need. and it fire in the muffle or in the crucible until is the surface it the palette-knife out. prick it all over with the needle. Now 214 . and fire it. and a piece of gold foil large enough for the rose .
but it must Enamel Work The not be too thick or it will flake off. but by is supported network within the substance of the enamel. and bend it into the shape of the enclosing line of this proposed panel. or a center for a buckle or clasp. This outline can be fixed It must not be fired too by being fired. Get a flat sheet of aluminum bronze or platinum about lo gage. or the particles of gold will sink into the enamel and the outline disappear. spray can now be outlined carefully and firmly with a fine-pointed miniature brush and shell gold. and This is burnish the surface quite bright. How to Make a Jour. Next take some cloison wire. as a panel in a necklace. or make by drawing round wire through a draw-plate with oblong holes in 215 a metal . effect of slight modeling by laying the enamel on the rose thicker at the top of the petals than at the bottom. much. and the You can get the rose with red enamel. to form the temporary ground.cover each leaf thinly with green. Next take a piece of stout silver or gold wire. which you can buy. The work can now be set either as a pendant. — In this Network Enamels or Plique method the enamel when finished has no ground.
frame. and again driving the punch through to the required distance. or the hole can be made smaller by beating the hole down with a rounded hammer. other.Enamel Work or the wire can be drawn through a square hole and flattened in the rollingit. 216 . and. the The strength of the work when depends on the thoroughness with which this is done. or the fish. fill up deficient. You can make a draw-plate out of a piece of an old flat file by heating it red hot. Take tied great care to have the whole well together (fig. ally. and solder the outlines together. the stems. fill the cells with ground enamel well washed. mill. lay the the burnished plate. or whatever pattern you may wish. and fire Let it cool graduin a fairly quick heat. The leaves should touch each 137). and driving a hardened taper steel punch of Larger the right size through the steel. and the cells where the enamel is When all the cells refire. Take the wire and bend it up to form the outline of the leaves. holes can be made by driving the punch in still farther. where possible. You now have the Boil it out and scrape skeleton design. finished work on the sides of the cloisons bright.
. 137.Enamel Work 'mmm Fig.
Hold the network panel upright. so that the enamel runs like water in It must be cooled carefully. the e. with If you have no aluminum bronze or platinum use a sheet of copper about size 5. openings in the network are small enough. 218 . Fire it quickly in a very strong fire. and when it is as thin as thin paper. The copper will be dissolved away. about ^th of an inch across. and when the enamel is complete paint the face over with two or three coats of varnish to protect the cloisons if they are of silver. and the released. If the be polished as before described. above methods can be dispensed with. if they are of gold no protection Place the whole in sulfuric is necessary.Enamel are completely full lay the table. with work on the Work the enamel upward. The enamel may then can be peeled off. and finished with rouge on a enamel will be polished buff. fix it upright on a support cut out of thin sheet-iron. and can be emery and water. — /'. and fill in the spaces with enamel mixed with a When done. and give the bronze a few sharp blows. crocus and water. one part of the acid to one acid and water of water. the spaces. very little gum tragacanth.
on your design. 138 would look well in a skeleton setting. but more result labori- ous. and vice versa. The pit is afterward filled up with enamel. 137). and the — lacks ^'°. take a piece of hardish as at modeling-wax and make a model in very A 219 . fired.^38. How to do an Intaglio or Deep-Cut Enamel. suppose a leaf pattern (fig. Another way is to cut out the spaces with a piercing-saw. the carving is deepest the enamel is darkest Having decided in color. and filing afterward. and would do either for a brooch or a pendant for a necklace. freedom the and life of the methods just described. This it does them down away with the need of solis der. and then ground and polished level Where with the surface of the metal.and not taken away from the heat too suddenly. leaving the cloisons slightly Enamel Work thicker. In this work the forms are carved or modeled below the surface of the metal. A panel like fig. at the bottom of a shallow pit. or the enamels may crack away from the cloisons and the effect spoilt. as it were.
1 • 1 in fig.. 139. on an engraving on a pitch-block. . cut nearly to the size and stick or shape you require. . put the enamel in and press When 220 . The sides of the sinkings must be kept upright if they have become irregular. Enamel low a relief. . A^^ mm IJlllllllllllil the finest plaster of give you a good idea of the depth of your cutting. the metal. and the surface of it everywhere bright. 139. make mold from This Paris. and your intention. or you will soon cut through Fix a piece of to the other side. B and C are the cutting edges. the modeling is as complete as you can make it. which IS a scorper ground with two cutting edges at an angle to each other as a . they Tj can be trued up with a iustifier. if for a leaf. and with spit-stick outline the design then cut the design deeply round the edges within this line. The stalks would be deep grooves. and the flowers carved to suggest them as nearly as possible. Copy this in silver or copper the metal should not be less than i6 in will — gage. the cross-section of your cutting would be thus Vw'. ^ riG. When it the outline Work definitely expresses is clean. Thus. .
and the enamel filt and polished. hands. . They can be strengthened so produced. can be set in a frame and fixed Panels for in a bracelet or a pendant. and the modehng still carried nishers. as it were. fine An work etcher's dry-point in the is useful for hair and features. and burnished over the relief in the same way that a schoolboy makes the foil copies of a shilWhen the metal impression is as ling.. eled. the relief is. you do figure-work. gold. Small figure-panels in raised gold or silver can be produced by first doing the work in ordinary gesso on a piece of Fine silver or fine smooth. complete as the gesso original it can be fixed on the pitch-block. candlesticks. 221 . can be etc. farther with pointed bur- This. hard wood. when enameled back and front. the faces. and feet can be left in metal and afterward engraved in line. The lines of the engraving can be afterward filled in with etching-ball or thick black paint or shoemaker's heel-ball. the backgrounds and draperies alone being deep cut and enamit . is then annealed. altar-crosses.down when fired. rolled to the thinness of common note-paper. transIf lated into a shaded drawing in color.
burnish the edge of the setting over the enamel and clean it methylated spirit and a soft rag. warm its the enamel place . can not be done if there is much undercarefully cutting. The thin metal is then rubbed and burnished over the type-metal and frequently Or the annealed during the process. in higher relief can be done by taking a cast in type-metal from a model in wax. of the setting which is inch deeper than to enclose them ^ or would be necessary for the enamel itself When everything is ready for setting the enamels. into and when with cold. stir it well. 222 . melt some rosin in a pipkin. and the thin gold or This. reverse of the model may be cast in typemetal or pewter. silver rubbed into it. however. slightly. of course. Figures serve the purpose equally well. Almost any composition with a resinous base which sets hard would. and add to it about half its bulk of plaster of 1^/ backing Make the wall :|^ Paris or powdered whitening and press it . pour it into the setting.Enamel W/jrk with cement composition.
it over inside and out with a little beesTake a steel mandrel. which is a wax. running one leg of the dividers down the edge as a guide Snip off the angles ai: one end (fig. and anneal it in the fire or While it is still hot rub blowpipe flame. 144). 141. it This is the end taper. Suppose the hinge to be ^th of an inch in diameter. 142). 143). Take of the strip as shown in to fig. in the vise a make will slip Now fix block of wood one inch wide in which you have made a few graduated semicircular notches (fig.CHAPTER XXV Hinges for drel the Joints —Drawing —The — The — The Pm Casket Liner the Tube Joint Tool —The — Man- Soldering Hinges for a strip of metal. say size 6. thrice ^^^"^^ wider than the diameter of the proposed hinge. one end until it is a rough tube-shape (fig. 140). the width of the strip of Mark this off the metal would be |. sheet with the dividers. so that into the hole in the draw-plate. 223 . and with the end of the hammer beat the strip of metal into a hollow gutter lengthwise Bend it still farther round at (fig.
and squeeze the 224 . as thick as the inside of the proposed tube.Hinges for Casket length of poHshed steel wire. 145). file the end taper (see fig. Place the taper end in the rough tube.
and take two strips of metal as wide as the edge of the casket and as long. 147). 141. draw-plate on the draw-bench. The tube is now comIt can be made plete. and draw it out either by hand or with the draw-bench. and draw the tube and mandrel together until the the nearly fits latter fits fairly tightly. so that the tube first Anneal just fit inside. Now put of the the reverse end into a mandrel hole in the plate which exactly fits it. Casket 146). saw the large tube in two halves lengthwise. mandrel and tube together through a slip suitable hole in the draw-plate. little In like manner draw another tube a larger in diameter. still smaller if necessary by drawing it through the Fig. and solder a half tube to File away the outside each (fig. . Hmges for Now fix the draw-plate in the vise.metal round the mandrel at the end (fig. holes in the plate without the mandrel. 15 225 made will both tubes . and draw them by hand through successive holes until metal becomes a tube which Now place the the mandrel.
145. 143. 'wmz. 142. 148. 146. Fig. Fig. 147. Fig. Fig. 144. Fig.Hinges for Casket Fig. Fig. 226 .
149). of the hinge (see fig. 1 50. cut the smaller tube into corfile or less 149- responding lengths. and with a small panel 150). accord. 151). the length of the casket an unequal number of small spaces from ^ inch to one inch.V^J^iO into /^rv p pj^_ ing to the greater length of the hinge . Take the two halves apart. Fit the two the hinge together. halves of of solder tack the alter- nate lengths to one side Fig. 148 and Hinges for Casket Divide 149) to allow for the lid to open.quarter of each semicircle (figs. Do pickle after each soldering. not forget to clean the work in The hinge is 227 . and lay the short lengths of tube along the groove close together (fig. taking care not to run the solder into the joints between the tubes.andsoundly solder each length of tube in its place. and the joints flat in the joint-tool (fig.
and each half and soldered into its place up clean. the smaller end being the exact section you wish the molding to be. filed The work may now be true. (see 152) with movable dies (see 153 and 154). made carefully fitted on the lid of the box. wise complete. The groove must be trumpet-shaped.— Hinges for Casket now ready for the pin. 153. In the upper surface of one of the dies a groove of the shape of the molding you require as in fig. this you will need a swage-block figs. be fixed until the casket other- FiG. This must be done file 228 . 151. is however. which may be a piece of brass wire drawn to the proper size and sHpped into place. The pin must not. Moldings —The CHAPTER XXVI Swage-Block — Drawing the Metal Filing the Grooves Moldings poR fig.
. Moldings 1 .
pressing the metal more closeRepeat this. Now cut a strip of metal slightly thicker and wider than the proposed molding. pass one end through the groove you have made in the swageblock. take tongs and pull the strip through with a steady movement. Pass the strip through the swage again and turn the ly into the mold. screw slightly. By modifying the section of the groove in the swage. Having annealed it. and by filing the lower sur230 .Moldings with great care. and screw the plain block down so as to press slightly on fix the metal. annealing the metal from time to timeuntilyou have made the as molding complete and as thin P^^ ^^^^ as you wish. as the smallest mark will show on the molding. Now the swage-block in the the drawvise.
few mops. — useful for polishing the insides of rings. A ring-stick. hollow moldings of almost any section can be produced. of course. crocus. and a leather A buff. scratch-brushes. — Silver work is polished in several ways according to the degree of luster desired. Polishing —A CHAPTER XXVII — Materials Required — Simpler Gold Work — Care of Method — Polishing Silver Burnishing — PoHshing Work Polishing Waste — Cleanli- ness of Tools The materials required will be polishing Polishing which are flat strips of wood covered on one side with chamois leather one for use with oil and pumice and one for rouge and water. will complete what is necessary for most kinds sticks of polishing. provided. For a very brilliant polish the method 231 .of the upper swage-block. rottenof charcoal. pumice-stone. that no face Moldings part is undercut. will be found sticks. together with stone. a round. tapering leather-covered rod of wood. and a small quantity of jeweler's rouge. Polishing Silver Work.
are stoned with thin slips of slate. Internal angles. taking care in each process to avoid lines. The object of stoning is the removal of the film of oxid produced by heat. narrow grooves. scratches. and 232 . when properly car: — ried out. The work must be wiped clean from time to time to see that the surface is being evenly polished. A more work lows then : — rapid method. and shallow lines. This process is laborious. The surface is next more finely polished with charcoal and oil . or marks of any kind. and the work washed in hot soap and water to remove all traces of grease. but the result. working with a circular motion to avoid scratching or grooving the metal. This done. is as folThe work is stoned as before and scratch-brushed on the lathe. and all marks of the tools and files. you can add a little crocus to hasten the process if you wish. used for ordinary or for polishing repousse. is most brilliant.Polishing IS as follows After the work has been pickled or boiled out clean in dilute acid. polish again with fine rottenstone and oil. the whole visible surface is carefully stoned over with sticks of Water of Ayr stone. The final polish is given with jeweler's rouge and water.
etc. the work. will look rough and Polishing A unfinished. and mix into a paste with — skewer do — dip oil. the oxidized surface at the bottom of the hollows will remain as whitish patches scattered over . Take a boxwood polishing-stick or a slip of any hard wood will the point in the oil and pumice. most carefully. little soap and water used with the tool makes it work more easily. after being carefully whitened in pickle. but unless both scraping and burnishing are most carefully done. as might be expected. Moldings. Indian workers The simplify the process still further. first described for Then boiled out as before and stoned. If this be not done. put a olive a little — finely powdered pumice it into a shallow vessel. cleaning out crevices. bosses. and rub over the whole work. ribs.. and afterward vigorously burnished with agate and hematite burnishers . sunk lines. or projections from the surface can be brightened still further by burnishing with a smooth burnisher. The process of Polishing Gold Work. polishing gold work is very similar to that The work is silver. surface of the metal.sprinkled from time to time with stale beer. is scraped over with the scraper.
the hollows get filled with dirt. Unless this be done. and polishing-brushes must all be kept perfectly clean and free from dust. of the hollows when polished often makes the work look richer and more full of color. The burnishers should be occasionally polished on the buff.Polishing the Otherwise polished surface with a disfiguring effect. the case of both gold and silver work. In time this defect is removed. It is better not to rely on the result of time besides. and the work looks more interesting. the reflected light from the bottom . and In completed with rouge and water. The burnishers. the polishings and scourings of the metal should always be kept and refined to recover the precious metal which has been removed in the process. 234 . When ess is you have gone over the whole surface with the oil and pumice. mops. the proccontinued with oil and crocus. the work mav be scratched and spoiled when most near completion. and kept wrapped up in chamois leather when not in use.
barium sulfid. Oliver and 11 J T^u1 his but the process can be hastened. The make sulfid — a simplest way of applying it is to hot solution of the ammonium not too strong.. always looks unpleasantly white Darkemng.p-^''^'^^"^ glaring. The work may be exposed to the fumes of sulfur. and 1 • Time will always remedy ^'. pends on the strength of the solution and the length of time the metal is exposed to to polished silver. amas sulfur. varying its action. and it gives a range *^ color from pale^lden straw through deep crimson to purple and The depth of the color debluish black. polished. monium sulfid. or Oxidizing Silver and Gold Darkening Gold Materials Required — Coloring Copper Silver work. such 1 1 this. The ammonium sulfid is what is mpst generally used. q^j^ ^^^. when newly whitened and Coloring.j^ can be done by oxidizing the surface with any of the compounds of sulfur.— CHAPTER Coloring. XXVIII Work — Darkening. or it may be washed with solutions of any of the chemical compounds of potassium sulfid. a pale straw color . etc.
and often takes the most beautiful shade of purple if the heating is arrested at the right moment.. will give about the proper strength. Alloyed gold can be darkened in the same way. . Do Darkening. and desire . . giving it a much richer. then swiftly wash the work in clean water. Copper can be darkened ammonium sulfid or by by the and if brushed over while warm with a stiff brush and a very little pure beeswax will 236 . . you perceive the color you wish for. gently with a chamois leather the film of oxid is removed from the projecting portions of the work. . this in the or Oxidizing C*l A 1 r>^^j\j^ Gold Work open air if possible. If the surface be now rubbed it..either heat. . 15 carat can be darkened by heat alone. . The chemical must not be allowed to penetrate behind settings or the brilliancy dry Neither of the stones will be spoiled.Coloring. -^ . only it is necessary to warm the metal until it is almost too hot to handle Gold or the sulfid will not act upon it.. older appearance. should it be allowed to remain on the hands or they will be badly stained. of 9. . as the odor disengaged is most offensive then brush ^ ^ a little of the solution over the work you Watch closely until to darken.. . 12.
. crucible and heat it on the forge with a blowpipe. often difficult and sometimes impos. and then polishing it in the ordinary is recipe for this way. and is still the best. It is the oldest way of gilding. and stir it into the gold with an iron rod until you have a Empty the crucible into a pasty mass.. Take 8 parts of mercury and one part Put the gold into a small of fine gold. long time. Gilding pour 237 .P^'^™"8 polish the 1 1 • ^- ^i Oliver and y^^^^ This looks unpleasant and incomplete.°^^. given at the end of the book. and when the crucible reddens in the mercury. difficulty can be obviated by first slightly gilding the whole work. sible to r mner portions ot tne q^^ ornament. because the gold is carried into the surface of the metal. A CHAPTER XXIX Methods of Gilding — Mercury Gilding — Cold Gilding Mercury gilding is done by means of an amalgam of gold with mercury. . and is not merely a thin skin more or less adherent.keep it is its luster and color unchanged for a Coloring. and when finished the work 1- In gold work of any intricacy Darkening.
Some workers mix nitrate the amalgam and the of mercury together. and remove all grease with hot soda. Boil out the objects you wish to solder. Because this excess of mercury contains a portion of gold it should be kept separate. and used when you wish to make amalgam again. in pure nitric acid in the proportion of lo parts of mer- cury to 1 1 of nitric acid dilute the solution with 20 times its mass of water. Take a small scratch-brush of brass wire. Next dissolve mercury . it Then take the amalgam. and keep it in a stoppered bottle for use. dip it first in the solution.Gilding bowl of clean water. shake the mixture well. place in a bit of chamois leather. first method is 238 . and squeeze out the remainder of the uncombined mercury. and spread it carefully and evenly over the whole surface to be gilded. and dip the The object to be gilded in the mixture. probably less wasteful. and wash the amal- gam carefully by kneading thumb and finger against the vessel. it with the sides of the This is to get rid of the excess of mercury. and dip the work in the solution of nitrate of mercury. and then take up a small portion of the amalgam.
drop a little strong nitric acid on the spots. afterward plunge the whole object in weak pickle (5 of water to one of acid). rags. Continue this until you see the gold-color appear then wash the object well. carefully preserving the Thoroughly clean the object wish to gild. and polish with the The work should on the coals.. mercury has evaporated rub the object with a soft brush. Another method in a is to soak linen rags solution of chloride of gold. or If the with rouge and water on the buff. and burnish the surface with a highly polished burnisher. Then hold the work over a charcoal a glass Gilding brazier placed in a fireplace with This enables screen across the opening. and evaporate as before. laid not be but in an iron pan or on When the an iron plate over the coals. Dry you and burn the ashes. scratch-brush and a little stale beer. and then touch the defective portions with fresh amalgam. and rub the ashes with a bit of damp leather over the surface. work appears spotty. The washings and every particle of the ashes should be carefully kept because they 239 . you to see the progress of the evaporation without the danger of inhaling the vapor of mercury.
Other methods are given in the Appendix. you will need a metal catch-pan. it is less likely to jar the Many 240 . the latter case it will be necessary to have a water-can. or with emeryIn wheels fixed on a polishing-spindle. CHAPTER XXX A Method of Shaping and Cutting Stones —The the Softer Precious easily Stones Drilling Required Polishing graver's Lathe Cements — — most Stone Cut —The —The En- Shaping and Cutting Precious The softer precious stones. be shaped either with the corundum file and water. as may thick as a pencil and 8 inches long. Gilding contain minute quantities of gold which can all be recovered when desired.. which will collect the drip and the water which flies from the The stone to be shaped must be wheel. fixed on the end of a rod of wood about turquoise. peridot. with a tiny tap soldered in the bottom. hung over the emery-wheel in such a way that a drop of water may the wheel at frequent intervals fall on while you are grinding. people use cane for this purpose being flexible. chrysoprase. such as moonand stones. To protect yourself from being splashed. opals.
the end again. Stones of the stick with a wetted finger to a roughly conical Warm shape (fig. with the finger. 155). water. opals often are. as. 155. the latter is pressed against the Shaping and Cutting Precious wheel but a piece of common fire-wood will it do just as well. Warm a lump of ordinary and mold on the end graver's cement. A fine surface can be given on a wheel of finer grain and the stone polished on a leather buff with fine emery and water. and press the the it stone.Stone when . This 241 made of 16 finely sifted wood ashes. well . If the stone is very tender. When the stone can be pressed against the wheel cool. for example. finishing up on another buff with putty powder and Fig. also into the slightly warmed. and shaped to whatever form you please. it may be well to use what is called soft cement for fixing the stone to the is polishing-stick. end of and mold the cement closely round cement.
yet in such a way that it may be pressed gradually against the edge of the wheel as the latter slowly cuts its way through It is useless to attempt to the stone. it for cutting turquoise opal matrix to does enough. patience. worked stone steadily The and with be slit should be cemented to a block of wood instead of a stick. anointed with emery. is used Much patience is needed. it is difficult to get well clean cut with or if Still. The advantage easily ruin a good stone. as it as a saw. The least hurry may hasten the process. and the block firmly secured to the table of the polishing-lathe. quicker result is obcuts very slowly. with oil and A lapidary's slitter is merely a larger emery.Shaping and Cutting Precious kneaded into melted suet until the re- Stones quired consistency is obtained. of the methods just described is that they 242 . The defect of the A small iron disk a is that it. Stones can be slit by using a bow made ^^^ ^^ ^ tapered rod of ash about 2 feet The wire long strung with iron wire. disk used horizontally. tained by cutting out a disk of soft iron and using it as a circular saw. This wire. so that the latter may be used as a handle. is fastened 4 inches away from the butt.
The drills themselves are small' tubes of iron. in engraving seals.and are within the reach of any one. with a small wheel revolving in a The axle of the wheel is a steel slot. with diamond dust to give a cutting surface. some of the harder stones can be shaped with oil and emery. rods. It must be remembered that ^^^^°"^' native workers in the East do their work with tools even more rudimentary than these. the final polishing being done on wheels of wood or with fine emery. and tiny wheels. and with Shaping Cutting care can be made to produce very good results. By using small wheels of thick copper screwed on the spindle of the polishinglathe. and the cut Small is given by means of diamond dust. taper knobs of different sizes. For drilling stones. The drills and cutting tools are fixed in this tube with melted tin or lead. lathe-head is a simple pillar of iron or brass. are used. tube working in tin bearings. followed by leather and 243 . with variously shaped ends. as it revolve is important that the drill should This with great speed and steadiness. a drilling or sealengraver's lathe-head will be needed. and polished on similar wheels of tin.
large enough to hold the model and give plenty of room for the pour of the metal.Shaping and Cutting Precious Stones putty powder but. and fill it with fine casting-sand made very slightly moist. Hampstead sand. and take a cast of it in plaster of Paris. Luke designed as one of the feet of a cross First make your model or candlestick. Next take a pair of casting-flasks. cut the stones for you quickly than you could. The sand must be such as will bind well under pressure. will much more CHAPTER XXXI Piece-Molding The Model— The Casting-Flasks —The Sand Filling the Flasks Making the Mold The Charcoal The False Cores The Back Mold The Core of the Model Arranging the Gates Drying the Mold — — — — — — — — — Piece- Molding Work that is undercut. Lay the lower or eye portion of the flask on a flat board. to make a piece-mold cast of the symbol of St. can only be cast by piecemolding or by the waste-wax process. for example. if any considerable amount of work is required. it is better to get hold of an intelligent lapidary. or in any way complicated. Suppose it necessary. who . in wax or clay. which 244 .
model. strike off the excess of material with a straight-edge. done. because the metal will have cooled in its passage the sides of the flask. a small quantity very useful for this pur- Piece- Molding pose. so that when you make the spout or pour for the metal there may be a good weight of Yet it must metal above the model.is naturally fine mixed with is of loam. take a metal spatula or modeling-tool and excavate a hollow in the sand just large enough to receive lay half the thickness of the model the model on its back in the hollow. and drive the sand well in by evenly Again distributed blows of a mallet. lay a stout board on the top. and great care should be taken to compress the sand well against when it may drop out This turned over. not be too far away or you will be in danger of getting a spongy cast. 245 . The sand must be well rammed with a mallet into the flask. and adding a few more handfuls of sand. so that every part of it into the tion of the . strike off the superfluous sand. and lay the model to be cast well within the flask. or the mold is Having fixed the posimold. and with some very fine sand fill in underneath the model.
Now dust some finely powdered brick-dust from a rough canvas bag a bag made of sacking or nailcloth will do perfectly well for this with a camel's-hair mop. These are movable portions of the molds so arranged as to avoid the Again dust the undercutting (fig. in fact. taking a little 246 . you have taken a partial impression of the surface. adthe false cores. all that does not to You will now proceed now make model Awith a little finely powdered French chalk. is — — . such as gilders use. 156). brush this well into the surface.Piece- Molding well supported until. and brush the superfluity away with the camel's-hair mop. and. and blow away here.
156. 247 . press it carefully with the fingers huild into the interstices of the form. Piece- Molding drive it home and also to consolidate and Then with the flat steel spatula shape it.fine sand. or modeling-tool cut away the sand along (see the line you have chosen for the seam F). 156. and sand up into a bloclc with sloping the With a small malsides (see fig. pare the surface of the block fig. both to let tap the sand all over evenly. B).
0. and having laid the flask on a flat board. and replace the core on the mold . and flask 1 half of the in 57). This you will will do in the back-mold. but not too vigorously. until you see that the core has separated slightly from the model.Piece- into a regular and even shape. Place this upper Having position. and dust the molded surface with finely powdered from a coarse muslin bag. a fork Now stick Molding made of two thick strong needles wood or pointed wires inserted in a slip of hard (see fig. 248 . I the opposite side of the model ^6. 156. tap it gently Proceed in like but firmly home again. tap the under side of the board smartly. lift it carefully away. You will now have to make the mold for the upper part of the head. C). 158) into the block. which be made in the peg half of the flask (see figs. charcoal manner with (see fig.
Now dust charcoal over the impression of the head and replace the upper half of the flask. 156. leaving the model and the false cores resting in the upper half of the mold. This is to give a regisit and down with the flat and to enable you to place the false cores in their proper positions when the ter mold 159). D. and you will have the impression of the false cores (fig. thus completing onehalf of the mold. 157 and shake out the sand which 249 . shows the section of the back-mold) and also a mold of the top of the animal's head. and then fill the whole mold with ordinary casting-sand and ram it well into place with the mallet handle and afterward with the head of the mallet. as before again pile on sand and drive board and the mallet. press some Piece- Molding of the finest sand over the top of the head of the model.dusted the false cores whole upper surface of the and the under mold. Strike off the superfluity as before. Now lift the peg half away. Carefully turn the whole mold over and lift the under half free from the model. is Now taken apart (see figs. With a spoon or a spatula scoop out two shallow hollows in what are now the upper faces of the false cores.
.Piece- Molding Fig. 159.
and instead of a smooth cast you get a The mold is rough and ragged one.— you had previously beaten into the under moid. and replacing the frame in position on the upper flask. about against ^ inch diameter and it i inches long. carefully press fine sand over the back of the model. dust before. in the mold the and upper part of the head of the bull in a little groove scratched in the surface as shown 251 . the new impression with charcoal. ing. fine edges and surfaces. and With a knife loosen replace the mold. incorporate the sand and the charcoal facIf this be neglected the cast will be ing. and fill up the frame as it well Again lift off the mold. all Piece- Molding the sand nearly fill and again pletely in down to the bottom. then fill in with the ordinary sand. poor. ram home. dust the mold over with brick-dust as before. if If you intend you wish it to make a : solid castwill to be hollow you need a core made thus You place will take a piece of iron wire. and ram the mold com- The object of this is to full. because the charcoal by itself can not resist the flow carries away the The latter of the metal. now complete save for the vents and the pour.
so model of the bull is the other half of that the complete built up in sand around the central wire 252 (see fig. replace the false cores in their position. space with the sand. Now open the mold. Now lay the core wire in position.Piece- Molding take a longer piece of to reach nearly to the bottom of the case and to project 1 inches beyond the head of the bull. and from the opening left between the false cores fill to half its depth with fine sand the place occupied by the model. i6o). and paint over the whole wire with stiflF This makes the sand adhere flour paste. to the wire. pressing it carefully into place. and carefully fill the remaining carefully. the and press down mold on this. and. Wind it round with a length of thin in the figure. Now pile on a little more sand to make up that portion of the model which projected above the false cores. This . close the mold Lift and turn it over. Now thick wire. having removed the model. between your thumb and finger. just long enough copper wire to give the sand a better hold. off the upper half. and use it as if it were modeling-clay. pressing it into its place against the sides of the mold with Take the sand up a modeling-tool.
- Piece Molding Fig. i6o. .
depth of the paring fixes the thickness of the metal in the cast. it may. For silver.Piece- Molding done. be a little less than ^ inch. for bronze or brass it should be rather more than ^. and that will depend on the metal you as use. It will now be necessary to 254 . above. cut away the surface of this core The to an even depth of nearly -^ inch.
metal. 163. sheet metal. Damascening which gold and is a similar process in silver are applied to the steel. decoration of iron and There are 263 . you can inlay with dentist's gold. fx 1934 The tool is held as de. or riveting hammer The work requires into the incisions. and have engraved it. filled The broader surfaces be by pieces cut out of the Fig. take fine gold or fine silver wire drawn a little larger than the thickness of the line.o. using small rounded punches to drive the soft. spongy metal into the recesses of the engraving. you will Inlaying tap the gold or silver gently with a small. and laying small portions at a time in the incisions. you have drawn the pattern on your work. When scribed for engraving or carving. only in this case the ground of the space must be carefully roughened all over by digging the pointed scorper firmly into the metal.On ones for spaces. so that it raises points which give a key to the inlaid If the surfaces are not very large. or tapping. much will patience.
In the next method the ground within the spaces to be covered is roughened with the point of the scorper as above. cross lines cut with the graver and. CHAPTER XXXIV On Old Work and Old Methods On Old Work and Old Methods What most impresses the student of all old work of the best periods is the clear shining sincerity of the worker and his patient skill. The worker's hand traveled 264 . or finished in any way you please. This operation must be repeated until there is a sufficient body of gold to give The whole work can the required effect. polished. and thin gold or fine silver hammered on the points and dents made by the tool hold the gold in place. by then be brightened. though naturally the most costly by far. burnish it in with the agate or blood-stone burnisher. The third and cheapest way is to roughen the ground .On Inlaying three principal first methods of work. which gives the best and most durable result. is In the spaces the gold hammered into engraved out. laying gold leaf on the space.
265 . In the words of a certain orator. it I mind how much honour and there ling is perfection in avoiding idleness. down and how sweet and pleasant it is to be occupied in works of divers utility. giving a kindliness of aspect enduringly attractMore than this. the preface by the eleventhcentury monk. ' Whoso increaseth knowledge increaseth work.^ What that spirit was." more clearly shows us " Most dear brother. Moreover his art has It is in most cases meretricious been greatly overrated. ' Cellini is not a case in point. a fault not to desire to learn. scurrile talk. he in the true sense of the word. moved by sincere love I have not delayed to insinuate to thy : On Old Work f]J .— lovingly over every part of the work. Theophilus. to his work on " Divers Arts. it bears a touching ive. it is ' To know aught is a merit. witness to the spirit of the worker. was an amazing blackguard. At the same time. " For it is clearer than light that whoso seeketh ease and levity giveth occasion to unprofitable stories. curiosity.' to learn of Nor let any one delay them of whom Solomon saith. and in trampslackness and sloth . which perhaps accounts for his immortality.' because the diligent in meditation can understand what growth of mind and body proceedeth thence.
I commend them without envy to thy study. and beheld a little chapel full of divers colours of every variety displaying the use and nature of each. Having with unseen footsteps quickly entered therein. that he may have to give to him that needeth." Again. and having tried them one by one by diligent experiment. ' But rather let him labour. which things are pernicious in the eyes of God. homicide.On Old Work and Old Methods wine-bibbing. I filled up the aumbry of my heart with a sufficiency of all things.' " I. drew near to the porch of Holy Wisdom. obedient to the precept of the blessed Apostle Paul. brawls. Theophilus thus admonishes the worker " Whatsoever thou art able to learn. theft. " By the Spirit of Wisdom thou knowest that all created things come of God. working with his hands the thing that is good. in another place. and the like. drunkenness. or devise in the Arts is ministered to thee by the grace of the sevenfold spirit. understand. desiring to be an imitator of this man. sacrilege and perjury. and having proved all by the eye and hand. and silence. who regard- eth the humble and quiet man working in of the Lord. in the fear : — 266 . bawdiness. fights.
By the without Him there is nothing. but with humility. but believing. and that of which thy mind is full thou dost utter boldly in By the Spirit of Piety thou dost public. and proportion thou mayest avail to apply By the thyself to the different work. working and teaching openly. govern what. By the Spirit of the Fear of the Lord thou art mindful that thou canst do nothing of thyself. nor dost thou think to have. and through pious consideration. or to desire. and giving thanks 267 On Old Work and Old Methods . variety. not beginning aught with slackness thou dost carry it through with all By the Spirit of thy power to the end. thou shalt moderate the price of thy reward. how much. for whom. lest the vice of avarice or covetousness creep in. aught but by the gift of God. thou revealest faithfully to those earnestly By the Spirit of desirous of knowledge. Knowledge conceded to thee thou dost dominate with thy genius by reason of the fullness of thy heart. confessing. and in what manner thou workest. Spirit of Counsel thou dost not conceal the talent conceded thee by God. Spirit of Understanding thou acquirest capacity of mind in what order. why. Fortitude thou dost shake off the torpor of sloth.
or birds. so that all the hollows of the modelling may be filled up. rolled round like slender candle. This is called the 'pour'. thou dost ascribe to the Divine Mercy. is his description of making casts of handles for a chalice by art the lost wax process. as long as the little the upper end being somewhat larger. " Take wax and form handles thereof. When they are dry. up each handle separately. and knew intimately what he wrote about. whatsoever thou or may be. for example. was a thorough craftsman. howwishest. so that when they get hot thou mayest pour out the wax. or leaves in whatsoever way thou On the top of each handle. and model on them dragons." This most delightful person. The wax being 268 . " Then take well-beaten clay and cover a finger. or beasts. who was at the same time skilled. Here. place a little wax. ever. this thou wilt fix to the handle with a warm tool. with his pen. again coat evenly over all. And he described his work as only a good workman could. and in like manner a third time. moreover.On Old Work and Old Methods whatsoever thou knowest. Afterwards put these moulds near the coals.
" There is no reason why this process should not be applied by any student toThe one thing needful to insure day. there be 4 ounces of silver. stand On Old Work and Old Methods in the silver at those places where thou pouredst out the wax. engrave with the scorpers in the same way 269 . but if more or less. which will not shrink or crack too much when the is mold is fired. example. turning the mouth of the moulds by which When they the wax ran out downwards. Again. and one finger long. When they shall have cooled. then melt the silver. and with files and scorpers ioin them to the chalice. then in proportion to the weight. break away the clay. They must be sound.: poured out. Otherwise the process identical with modern practise. for ing to it a little Spanish brass. them firmly up. the width of three or four fingers. and pour success is to get a loamy clay. glow like coals. add a quarter of an ounce of brass. addIf. and without flaw or fissure In this face thou wilt on the upper face. in his description of molds for stamped work " Iron stamps may be made of the thickness of one finger. place them wholly in the fire. Taking the moulds out of the fire.
broad and narrow borders of Methods 164). beasts. and much thinner than for repousse work. and having laid the iron upon the anvil with the sculptured side uppermost. strike strongly with the hammer. so that the lead may impinge on the thin silver and drive it so forcibly into the sculpture that every trace of it may be clearly seen. deeply. place a thick piece of lead over the silver. and having laid the silver over the sculpture. and with care. and little birds. This done fix thou the silver plate over any border. and thou dost with powdered and with a cloth dost polish it with chalk scraped over the clean it charcoal. Then thou thinnest out silver as long as thou needest . but moderately. metal.On Old Work and Old as for seals. so that when one part has been struck up 270 . and hold it evenly on the iron with the pincers. They must not be engraved too flowers (see fig. or dragons. " If the plate be longer than the mould draw it from place to place. with necks and tails coiled together.
for the covers of books. for shrines for the bodies of the saints. and the figures of the four The impresses of these on Evangelists. the four Evangelists ranged about in the shape of a cross. relief is suitable and slight it is easily done. gilt side down- wards. Images of little fishes. the lead is laid over it. The image of the Lamb of God is also carved in iron. being fixed on the rest of the ground of the bowl. An image 271 . on the iron. and polished. l borders for altar tables. and so on. they make therewith phylacteries or reliquaries and little shrines of the saints. and being stamped on silver or gilt copper. as described above. which.another is may be struck. birds. and beasts are also made. useful This work art enough when thou making ^ . gold or silver are used to decorate bowls of precious wood. for pulpits. gilded. until On Old Work the plate has been filled up. and in whatever places When the the work may be needed. and hammered until the pattern is visible. give a very rich effect. Thou laid canst do likewise with copper similarly Being thinned. The image of the crucified Lord is also engraved in iron. the image of the Lamb standing in the midst of the bowls.
can be seen in the shrine of the bell shown on Plate V. being stamped out of Spanish brass. their use. These being stamped in gold or silver on gilt copper give the greatest seemliness to those places on which they are fixed by reason of their delicacy and elaboration. Again. 165). They may have borders in the same metal in which little beasts or birds or little flowers which are not fixed together but soldered with tin. with which. Images of kings and knights are made in the same way. They may be filed 272 . basins whence water is poured on the hands are ornamented in the same manner as cups are ornamented with the stamped work in gold and silver. the description by Theophilus of the cutting punches. and other images of any form or sex. and the employment of the results produced. thick at one end. The delightful flower borders on the face of the shrine are all produced in the way described. is a model of clearness : " Iron punches are made as long as the finger. and tapering to the other (see fig." Nothing could be clearer or more pracThe result of the process tical than this.— On Old Work and Old Methods of the Majesty is made in like manner.
and made little On Old of convenient bigness. then. three-cornered. (fig. the shanks of which thou wilt make thus Mix two parts of tin and one of lead together. The smaller ends Work and Old are afterwards case-hardened. : i8 273 . or round. square. lay the carved end on the silver. so that the may be uppermost and the tinning underneath having taken which punch thou pleasest. is thinly tinned on the lower with the soldering bit used for soldering windows. i66). Then flowers are engraved out of the smaller ends in such a way that a cutting edge is left Methods round the border of the flower copper is polished on the upper face as described above. Thin laying thick lead on the anplace thereon the silver or gilt copper.. silver or gilded vil. i66). beat it out thin . and strike gilding with the hammer so that the design may appear and be at ^ the same time cut out by the punch (see fig. the sharp edge of " When thou hast stamped out all the silver keep the flowers by thee they will be the heads of nails.
* holding the slender iron in the left hand. seen in Anglo-Saxon ^ Resin would do just as well as wax. before which stands a copper vessel full of melted wax.On Old Work and Old Methods and long. dip the end of the wire in the wax. 274 . and in the right the tin wire rolled up like a ball. lift it little flowers lay may up and iron . and immediately remove it from the fire." The beaded wire so beautiful in its slight irregularities. placing side it Fig. The other end is fixed in a wooden handle. and draw it through the drawplate. the broader partbeing heated. upon the tinned so that in it it of one of the stick. which is broadened out at one end and hollowed a little to receive the head of the nail. about 6 inches long. so that thou hast a very long wire Afterwards make for not too slender. it 1 66. and. and when cold snip off a length of wire according to the length thou desirest for the nail. the hollow of the heated hold there until the metal runs. little Then sitting near the furnace suit- able for this work. thyself a slender iron.
and is pierced with two holes. and is somewhat thin. which receives the two pegs of the lower. And this upper iron is of the same size and length as the lower. 275 . finger. was produced by the beadingtool which Theophilus describes as follows " There is an iron instrument called the beading-tool. The lower part is as broad and as thick as the middle : On Old Work and Old Methods Fig. which consists of two irons. In it are two spikes by which it is fixed to wood below. 167. one at each end.— brooches as well as in many of the Greek ornaments. one above and one below. and out of the upper face rise two thick pegs which fit into the upper part of the iron.
. like lentils. In the large grooves place thou gold or silver rods beaten out long and smoothly round. in the next grains as large as peas are formed third ^j jff ^j p i i Mi^ lj } -^ and in the Fig. It is like stepping from the close atmosphere of a cramped workto the freer air of a new world. and the upper iron is smartly struck with the horn mallet while the gold or silver rod is turned round with the other hand. On Old so that they can be joined together. and he will find that he is brought into touch with sources of suggestion and ideas of the utmost value to him in his work. 168). and in both faces thou wilt groove out several rows of little pits in such a way that when the irons are joined together a hole may appear (see figs. and so on smaller." Let any student or worker try for himself any of the methods given by Theophilus. They Work and Old Methods must be joined very closely with the file. 168. 167. the more one compares the work of the past with the work of the present room 276 . grains are when formed as large as small beans. In fact.
and. inexpensive. the rich effects they will produce with an incredibly small quantity of gold or silver. lays. their beautiful cast work. and. if we look their at the work of their the in- with patinae. their many kinds of groundwork. To-day the cart is placed before the horse. their alloys. and incrustations. sincere in his craft. but most beautiful. to himself. incessant in study. unconsciously but surely. perhaps more astonishing than all. Again. any one of these worth a lifetime of study. more sensitive than any other to the suggestive beauty of things called common 277 . Japanese. as many think. by wild struggles after originality.day. They lead but to the eccentric and the morbid. This meagerness may not be remedied. one realizes that there is a whole world of new methods and new materials for study. yet not one of them is pracThe Japanese as a race are tised by us. Let the worker be faithful signs. the more one is convinced that the design in the past was the outcome of work. his will express that personal note which sooner or later will win him a place in the work choir of artists. work is the outcome of de- On Old Work ^ ^^ hence its thin and meager aspect.
the toad's -back ground. not merely with an eye to beautiful color in the metal itself. The once its foil and quiet emphasis. A water-worn pebble. entirely the result of native or alloyed. or is the work of some more than human artificer. as indeed everywhere. at is allied with some other. but for the color and quality of the film of oxid produced by time or chemicals." and many others. fish -roe ground. itself is Their workmanship no less perfect. the su278 . stonedimpled. a strangely marked stone. They show a a love of surface quality not even knowledge and dreamed of by the Western workman wallowing in the trough of commercialism. Everything they do reveals that intimate inherited knowledge which comes of centuries of study of the nature and properties of the materials used. In their metal work. Their alloys are made. very names of their surfacings reveal an intensity of observation unknown to us " pear-skin ground.: On Old Work and Old Methods by the heedless Western. are wrought and polished and added to until it is difficult to say whether the work is human intention or is the product of some kind of natural magic. each metal. In Japan. wood -grain ground. millet seed.
while the Anglo-Saxon . 1 69) one illustration of this. or beaded wires laid side by side. This holds good even when applied to art so widelydifferent as Methods Anglo-Saxon PP. into the repetition of forms made up variously twisted. ribbed.*. Yet the design of any itself.preme test of good workmanship was that every tool - On Old Work and Old stroke should be complete in itself and need no retouching. the same quiet perfection of work. or necklaces. in jewel resolves almost every inof stance. or little coils or shapes of wire soldered on the surface. Thesideviewof the Elfred jewel is (fig. and filled up with tiny grains almost in the Etruscan or Greek manner.- gold work. there is the same unhesitating skill. Whether we lookatbroocheSjbuckles.
All through Etruscan. is still used by every goldsmith in the world so also the The various patterns of twisted wire. in early French 280 art. molds. Comparative study of the goldsmith's art shows. if not fected. discovered probably by the first gold worker. Italian art one can trace the methods perby Greek invented. producing grains. and dies are all primitive methods of enduring utility. Again. the terms in the artist's vocabulary. some beautiful examples of . as it were. new art. the extraordinary persistence of primitive methods of workmanship and design even down The method of to the present day.On Old Work and Old Methods brooches and buckles in the collotype plates show other very beautiful examples of the rich results produced by simple means. artificers. while the influence of Greek art can be seen even to-day in the work of the Persian and Indian goldsmith as well as in those of early Ireland and Anglo-Saxon England. and it would be just as impossible to invent a new language as to discover new methods of work or a . among other things. They are. use of punches. Roman. and described in a former chapter.
but hints of new expreshe will learn what is indeed the sions sum of the whole matter. and spirited form.which are given the in Plate VIII. so clean. of firm outThe work is line. not of new forms. but of untried methods not new design. 281 . use of material leads to right ideas. It is a spiritual refreshment even to look at such things. and Work and Old Methods the student can not spend too much time in the study He will always find suggestion. so airy and bright. there is On Old Greek love of clearness. of them. . that it seems rather the handiwork of angels than of men. that the right .
and the workmanship of the whole exceedingly simple. The second shows a pierced setting for a pearl attached to a — Notes on Collotype rough piece of emerald. The third a similar pierced setting applied to a bit of emerald crystal roughly polished. The first shows the use of filigree and twisted wire and simple methods of using rough-cut precious stones. work. The first three specimens on the plate are earrings of Roman workmanship. but obviously made under the influence of Greek or Etruscan traditions. The gold is fine gold. The fourth Object is a piece of late Spanish it shows a beautiful way of using seed pearls.NOTES ON THE COLLOTYPE PLATES Plate I. Shows a Group of Personal Jewelry from South Kensington Museum. yet exceedingly efi^ective. but 283 . and as a piece of craftsmanship is very near akin to the first three.
but where a broad ring would prevent the finger from bending he has narrowed it down to a simple band. brooches are magnificent examples of the value of repetition and rhythm in design. The attention of the student is particularly directed in the case of the Abingdon plate to the rich color of the original. found at Abingdon .— No. cloison inlay. Silver These Brooches found at Faversham. and to the extreme ingenuity of the craftsmanship by which the thin coils of compound wire are twisted into almost realistic presentments of serpents. found at Taplow. and gilt and enameled. Anglo-Saxon Brooches from No. i.— Notes on Collotype Plates The vine leaves are scorpered out of thick sheet silver. A Gold Belt Buckle very fine example of the use of corded wire as a contrast to 284 . Plate III. The hand is also enameled. i and 3. to the sumptuousness of the design which is yet almost rudimentary in its simplicity. Gold Brooch the British Museum. Plate II. The Ring of Ethelwulf is a good example of the common-sense design. The craftsman has taken all the space he could on the top of the finger. i.
Perhaps the most 285 . Northamptonshire. —The Necklace the red garnet inlay. The Shrine of the Bell of This shrine of bronze and Conall Gael. Plate ^l. and the It would be figures are in cast bronze. showing the richness produced by concentrie rings of tiny scrolls enclosed by plain and twisted wires. The small brooches are fourteenth-century inscribed brooches of English workmanship given to show the beauty of severe and simple forms. Plate IV. found atDesborough. Plate V. It is given as an example of the use of uncut stones.—The Gold Cup of the Kings of France and England. and the fine effect produced by simple coiled wire. difficult to find a more romantic or more The crystal sphere on suggestive design.— Gold Brooch found at Dover No." The beautiful little panels of scrollwork were impiessed in stamps carved out of iron or bronze. This surface affords ^ A Notes on Collotype "^^^" an ideal foil for is of AngloSaxon workmanship. which the crucifix rests makes the whole work look quite magical. silver and precious stones gives an admirable illustration of several of the methods described by Theophilus in his book of " Divers Arts. 2.
An example of the beauty of absolutely simple craftsmanship. It given to show that all work to be decoby enamel should be simple in form. cabochon sapphires. the second carved The first is an example out of the solid. ful is can. and emeralds. The photograph. 4. French Brooches of the A 13M and 14M centuries. A No. an example of pierced and carved work. 3. claw settings for the stones. and carved and pierced dragon bosses as a contrast to the stones. model of built-up design. is. Plate VIII. built up of strands of thin metal united by a repousse boss as ornament. An English Gold Brooch^ fourteenth century^ set with pearls. 2. No. 5. Russian Pendant^ illustrating No. The first built up out of thin sheet metal. yf Gold Ring. No. Plate VII. Roman. 286 . An exrated — ample showing shaped settings for pearls. how- convey no suggestion of the wondercolor and splendor of the original. Gold Ring. No. good ever. A A Roman Ring of Gold^ coiled up out of thin wire and soldered into a solid band. the value of filigree surfaces as a contrast to the watery sheen of precious stones. i.— Notes on Collotype Plates beautiful piece of gold work as it in the world.
There is hardly a process which has not been used in its Twisted wire of every demanufacture. Every student should for himself. and the beauty which may result from the arrangement of rigid Italian. splendid example of the value of clearly defined spaces. This German workmanship cross is. as it were. Ciborium in copper gilt set with jewels and panels of enamel. design it could hardly be surpassed. simple cones of thin sheet metal wrapped round the stones.— — of the use of leaves made as described in Notes on Collotype Plates The settings are the chapter on Rings. stamped work. see this brooch and Plate IX. carved work. At the back of the brooch study it is a beautiful border in niello. and enamall unite to make a most beautieling As a study of compression in ful whole. a resume of the whole goldsmith's art. fourshapes within such spaces. cast work. — Plate X. A 287 . Plate XI. Chalice. teenth century^ A Processional Cross^ fif. teenth century. chalices A French thirteenth-century This illustrates the decoration of by impressed work described by ^ Theophilus. beaten work. gree of complexity.
Holy Mother and 288 . No.— T^^ Elfred Jewel. Brooches. teenth century. A Most emeralds. Plate XIV. enclosing an image Child. of the use of coiled and beaded wire. No. four^. Pendants. of the 1. This shows the possibilities of work in thin sheet metal. and a Ring by the author. i — . Plate XII set with in silver gilt. of the stones in the necklace were cut and poHshed by the method described in Chapter XXX. Plate XIII. Plate XV. Italian.j^g right use of enamel. In gold and jewels and enamels. An example of the decorative value of inscriptions. A Shrine i?/«|-. Plate XVI. Given as an example of enamel. Necklace in opals.— — Notes on Collotype Plates Pastoral St offin copper gilt. and the right use of enamels. and pearls by the author. Norwegian Bridal Crown .
Roman Earrings.— I. (South Kensington Museum. in Silver Gilt.) . 3. and Pearls. 2.I. 4. Enamel. i6th Century Spanish Pendant.
.THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY APTOR. LENOX AND TILreW FOUNDATIONS.
2.— I. 3.) . found near Abingdon. Anglo-Saxon Brooches. found at Laverstock. Anglo-Saxon Ring. 4. found near Favershara. (British Museum.II. Anglo-Saxon Brooch.
PUBLIC LIBRi^R"^' AftTOB. LENOX ^N0 .
) . Anglo-Saxon Belt Buckle. (British Museum. 3. Ang-lo-Saxon Brooch found at Dover. found at Taplow.gz?rr^-''iwn III I.
ASTOR. LCNOX AfJO TILCtK FOUNDATIONS. J .
IV.— Anglo-Saxon Necklace and Brooches.) . 14th Century English Inscribed (British Museum.
THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY ASTOR. LtNOX AMD TILDEN! FOUNDATIONS. .
1THF NE. LCNOX AMC TILDliN FOONQATl-.w York! PUBLIC r-'^'"^"^^^! ASTOR.. S. J .
-Shrine of the Bell of Conall Gael.) . (British Museum.V.
-Gold Cup of the Kings of France and England. (British Museum.VI .) .
4.) . z. 3. 14th Century. English Gold Brooch. Rings. -I. (British Museum. S.'^-'a VI I. Roman Gold Russian Pendant.
'PUBLIC ^ I .
14th Century. 13th Century. z. French Gold Brooch.— I. French Gold (South Kensington Museum. Brooch.VIII.) .
(Villingen.— Processional Cross.IX. .
TU OEN . LENOX FOUNDATIONS.PUBLIC LIBRARY' AND ACTOR.
(South Kensington Museum. -French Chalice. 13th Century.) .X.
RY' -I ..
W^-. (South Kensington Museum.) . in Copper-Gilt.0^ ^ _* ---i.^'>-s» XL— Ciborium.
- .-NOX AND -OONDATIONS .
(South Kensington Museum.— Pastoral Staff. Italian.XII.) .
?THENEV. L TILDe:n LENCX ANC kjjndatioms.yORK PUBLIC LID: -v ASTOfi.-. 1 .
) .XIII. (South Kensington Museum.-Norwegian Bridal Crown.
— Front View of Alfred Jewel. (Ashmolean Museum.) .XIV.
Rubies.— I.XV. and Pearls. and z. Pearls. Belt Buckle. with Enamel. in Pale Gold. Emeralds. in Pale Gold. set with Rubies. (By the Author. 3. Sapphires. Gold Ring. Pendant.) . with Beryl and Sapphire.
THE NEVA/ YOF<K l-^KLlC!. LENOX Ai^O i I TILDEN FOUNOATIONr. .RY ACTOR.'n«A.
XVI. . Pearls. The Lid is hinged and forms a Cover to an Enamelled Panel of the Holy Mother and Child.— I. in Gold. (By the Author. Opals. and Front View of the Lid of a Shrine Ringr. z.) Necklace. set with Emeralds. Sapphires.
Bennet Brothers. 21 321 . right of Plate I is that of the Foundress' cup given in the Frontispiece. The student is referred to " Old Cambridge Plate " (published by the Cambridge Antiquarian Society) for further beautiful examples of silver- work.The following sections of medieval cups and chalices. taken from Night" ingale's " Church Plate of Wiltshire (published by Messrs. Salisbury). are given as suggesThe section to the tions of form.
. oz. i^ oz. on a piece of bright. when it few moments. be covered with a film in (From •' The Jeweller's Assistant Gold. . common Recipes Boil the water in salts an enamel saucepan. i quart. will.) Greek Gildingfor Copper." G. clean zinc. I . water. place the article. Gilding Metal or Bronze.PRACTICAL RECIPES Contact Gilding. and conWhen you think it sufficiently concentrated dip the object to be gilded after it has been pickled clean. Allow to cool and preserve it in a stoppered bottle. after which add slowly a solution of 2 dwts. Gee. of chloride of gold dissolved in a little water. stirring it the mixture the while. Stir well with a glass rod. of gold. or paint it on with a brush. When boiling add the one by one. With mixture make a solution of centrate the solution fine gold by evaporation. Working b — the Dissolve equal parts of sal-ammoniac and cor- rosive sublimate in strong nitric acid. The solution will blacken it . after a and immerse it in the solution. —Take of yellow prussiate of potash. 2 oz. salt. and continue boiling for two or three minutes. little When required it for gilding take a of the liquid and heat then nearly to boiling-point. i Practical carbonate of potash. thoroughly cleansed.
use two leaves of The work must not be gold at each operation. vessel. Pour it out on a smooth oiled stone or marble slab. grind the surface of the 328 . stone. — After rubbing it down with the corundum and after file take a small rod of tin or pewter. to a corre- You will now apply the first layer of gold leaf and burnish it on lightly. — To Polish Enamel. This done. mercury. Scrape the copper or iron with the scraper and burnisher. ammonia.) Assistant in Working Fire-Gilding for Steel. Iron. heat equal parts bi- Recipes ^^^ object to redness. it anointing with fine tripoli or rotten- enamel evenly with Next take a stick of limewood and use this. and finish with putty powder and a buff stick. and when completely liquid stir in yellow ocher or red ocher in fine powder in a sufficient quantity to color the mixture. when Grecian Gilding. Gee. chloride of mercury and dissolve in nitric acid. —Take the gold will appear. Melt best pitch in an iron Cement for Engravers. it be it steel or iron. add small portion of gold chloride of chloride. articles. if . The work must next be exposed to a gentle heat and If you wish to make the another layer applied. in (From '* The Jeweller's Gold. that with rotten -stone in the same way. finally burnished bright until the last leaf of gold has been laid on and the vv^ork is cold. sponding heat. and dilute with water.Practical instantly if it be strong enough. another way. To gild silver brush the composition over them. coating of gold extra strong." by G. — warm the object. the work can be burnished. until it takes a bluish tinge if be copper. or Copper. and expose them to just enough heat to volatilize the This done.
Recipes add the gold. silver. — Fine gold. fine Practical copper.Good Solder for . i part . and Or if this be remove the part with the pincers. To Unsolder a Paint those joints Piece of Work. impossible owing to the nature of the work. 329 . dry scrape the portions next to the part to be unThen soldered and paint it all well with borax. before unsoldering fix a stout lift it iron wire to the part to be removed and off in that way. and when well mixed fine 2 parts. which are not to be unsoldered with a mixture or loam and water to which a little common salt has — When This will protect them. just give enough heat to melt the solder. I part copper and silver Melt the together. . been added. Gold.
Also. any combination of different metals by fusion. Annealing. fixed brass back. slender. or modeling of the subject is given by the different The enamel naturally appears depths of cutting. base metal added to silver or gold to give hard- Glossary ness or color. and kept for refining. Back-saw. the filings of precious metal swept from the work-board. it red-hot and Backing. softening metal by making cooling slowly. and tapering . the coating of enamel on the back surface of enameled plaques. Also. a saw made of dividing metal. the washings and wastings of ground enamel used to coat the backs of enamel plaques. a thin ribbon in a of steel. Beck iron. Bossing up. such as a clock-spring. used in enameling. used for Basse taille. . Board sweep. darker over the deeper cuttings and vice versa.GLOSSARY Alloy. low cut carving in metal beneath the level The drawing of the surface. beating out sheet metal from the back into rough approximations of the form required. the other has a flat upper surface. a T-shaped anvil or stake used in hammer The arms of the T are long one is work. — round.
way is are also called " drop " There cabochon. Chasing. or. taken by molten is melted away and its place metal. which. the upper end notched and covered with cement. highly pohshed. a short taper handle of wood. or flattened surfaces of hardened steel. The back then ground tallow flat. in the case of carbuncles. Cloison. Stones cut in this stones. Casting-sand. a natural or artificial mixture of fine loam also the double and sand. . tapering prism of steel with sharp edges. bloodstone. used for polishing by compression. Cabochon. knobs. which is naturally like two simple cabochons put back to back.wax process of casting direct from the original wax model. used to hold small objects while being engraved. a process of enameling on metal in which the ground of the pattern is cut away with scorpers into a series of shallow troughs into which the enamel is melted. agate. surface modeling of metal with hammer and punches. an enclosing ribbon of wire. Burnishers. the surface of metal away until it is evenly rounded and smooth to the is touch. or hematite. concave. Champleve. being sol- dered edgewise on a metal ground. Cement stick. the waste. The model having been enclosed in sand rammed closely round it. used to make molds for casting. used for enlarging holes and the insides of tubes. makes a trough into which enamel is melted. made of pitch or resin and powdered brick-dust. the surface being afterward ground smooth and polished. a method of cutting precious stones without The surface of the rough stone is ground facets. handled tools with points. a.Glossary Broche. Cire perdue.
Corn tongs. etc. the heart of a mold for casting hollow objects. used to support the pitch-bowl. for making hollow balls out of Doming punches. brass. low bench with a winch at one end. steel. or boxwood.. and used for drawing wire. of thick iron wire bent to various shapes. . bits bits Crown setting. used for picking up stones. which. a cube of metal with hemispherical depressions of various sizes in the sides. carrying the impurities with Doming-block. a flat plate of steel pierced with a row or rows of graduated holes. is used to draw wire through the drawplate held against stops fixed at the other end of be in a the bench. used to hold work together while being soldered. and adjusting them. made in the hollows of the doming-block. Glossary- sewn or together. Crucible.Collar y a ring made of riveted several layers of stout leather. small tweezers. and when melted the lead runs away it. used in gold and silver. so called because they were formerly stamped with the sign of the cross. acting on a broad strap attached by a strong iron loop to a pair of pincers called drawtongs. a muffle for purifying is The precious metal its wrapped the up in seven or eight times weight of lead. used for melting metal. used with doming punches sheet metal. Cupel. punches with sets to fit globular heads. a vessel of fireclay or other refractory material. of solder. a block of compressed bone ash with a cupshaped depression. Draw-plate. Core. Cramps. an open setting with rebated points to hold the stone. into bone ash. They may Draw-bench.
The facings most generally used are powdered charcoal. handle. used for rounding the heads of pins used in fixing parts 334 . Gallery. the hole or channel arranged in a casting mold for the access of the metal. the operation of giving a smooth surface to a casting mold by dusting on a finer material. Facing. used when filing. chamfer on the edge or side of any Flinking. sal-ammoniac. and from flaking away from the metal. borax. of glass. flour and charcoal. Gate or get. False core. Girdle. carbonate of soda. a square of thick steel plate with the surface ground perfectly level. that edge of a precious stone which is fixed in the setting. a setting with perforated sides for a stone or a panel of enamel. to test the truth of the work. Graining tool. or to aid to give a key to the film prevent it in the liquefaction or purification of metals when are necessary to melt them. common salt and sulfiir. powdered glass. saltpeter. a hollow-headed punch with a wooden of work together. French chalk. soot. iron frame used to contain the sand while being rammed round an filing a object to be cast. the process of stabbing with a sharp-pointed graver the surface of metal which Its object is is to be enameled. borax-glass. the removable section clearly arranged Flask. an to draw out of a casting mold from a piece of undercut work. These powdered charcoal. and pea-flour. any material used to protect the surface of metal from oxidation when exposed to heat. object.Glossary Face-plate. Flux. Flaunching.
Knop. the filings and scraps of precious metal collected in the skin of the I is carefully preserved and. used either for tube-drawing or for coiling wire. and in the base in the thickness ot the metal is a thumbscrew. Joint file. enough has been collected. Mandrel. a kind lines Graver. . a block of metal. cast into a convenient shape for rolling. a flat plate of steel handle and point oi pierced with a triangular hole. a scorper with two cutting edges at right angles. a small steel wheel with a concave edge pitted with tiny hollows. ocherous earth used in casting. is melted and the metal refined for subsequent use.of scorper or small chisel for cutting on the surface of metals. when work-bench. used in cutting bearings for the stones. the tapered rod of steel used in making rings. Hari s foot. any bulbous projection on a shaft or pillar of a cup or candlestick. etc. in the making of chains. steel When fitted in a slotted handle and run backward and forward along a wire soldered on a plate it produces a row of beads. a flat strip of steel which Joint tool. Loam. Glossary or remelting. It with rounded edges on is used for making fixed in a grooves for hinges. the triangle is The toward the handle. Justifier. Ingot. Knurling tool. used as a brush to dust away gold and silver filings from the board. the dried foot of a hare. The ends of a tube when secured at the apex of the triangle by the screw can be filed quite true. generally rectangular. are file cuts." filings). or wire-drawing. Also. a rod of metal of any section. Lemel (French "Limaille. a fatty.
Pickle. powdered brick-dust or bathbrick. hydrochloric acid. Parting sand. This solution is as strong as necessary for general use. tool. it When put on the polishing lathe. used for making convex beads on the surface of metal. Panel. used to sprinkle on the face of a mold. when the mold is complete. a snippet of solder. used for removing the films of oxid and sulfids from the surface of metal. ' Paillon. and the mold reformed for casting. made removable sections. the mother-form or mold for cast work. generally beech. The acids used are nitric acid.Glossary Matrix. Pin. casting 33^ . a mold for in undercut work. so arranged that. used for making a grained surface on metal. used to hold work up against the file. solutions of various acids in water. a chasing punch with a concave tip. a repousse punch with a flat. the temporary half of a casting mold arranged false to support the model while the cores are being made over it. granulated end. Also. the model removed. revolution. and sulfuric acid.wire fixed on a wire handle and used to support small articles Matt while being soldered with the mouth blowpipe. becomes rigid by rapid against The edges are then smeared with rouge and the object to be polished pressed it. and a very ordinary mixture is half acid and half water. Piece-mold. the wedge of hard wood. called false cores. a tangled boss of fine binding. it can be taken to pieces. Mop. Odd side. fixed in the bow of the jeweler's bench. a contrivance for polishing number of disks of calico fixed to a made of a wooden spindle. Perloir. a snippet of solder.
inlet Pour. Also. filled Sand-bag. the plate when coated with enamel. Also. Runners. gets its strength from variously folded ribbons of metal within the thickness of the enamel. or chasing. giving a plane or level surface to a sheet of metal by the use of a broad. the method of beating out sheet metal from the back with hammers and punches. Rifles. Plaque. a block of as wood covered with metal in pitch. used up the surfaces of castings and for cleaning up any surface for which an ordinary file files for filing can not be used. with curved and variously shaped ends. the slender rod of a similar air-channel wax arranged to when melted out of the in piece-molds. used Glossary a support for repousse work. the gate or the metal to run into a for casting.Pitch-block. a channel scraped out of one surface of a piecemold to allow^the escape of air. bag of leather used for bossing up metal upon. Plique h jour. in the same for way that a stained-glass window mold is strengthened. for a plate of metal slightly domed and same prepared enameling. in a waste- wax mold make mold. being without metal backing. transparent enamel which. Planishing. Also. Repousse. wax molds the rod of wax arranged to provide a similar channel when melted out of the mold. Riser. giving a smooth face to a beater's cup or other object in sheet metal by the same means. a flat circular with sand. channels for the entry of In wastemetal into various parts of the mold. smooth-faced hammer and an anvil. 22 337 .
a small anvil. Used Smooth. a chisel-shaped punch used in outlining for repousse work. Sweep. upright in the floor makes an excellent stake. Snap. used a vise for beating when fixed in A poker fixed up cups. and the metallic residue melted and refined for use in the same way as lemel. Tracer. a square block of iron faced with steel. 338 . used to old file engrave metal. Stake. Scraper. made in removable sections held in a frame by a screw. Treblet. from the bench stake. Snar ling-irons. arranged in the contiguous surfaces of two blocks. long Z -shaped levers fixed in a vise and used for bossing out the surface of vessels They act by rebounding from from the inside. the refiise from the floor of the jeweler's workshop which is collected. a taper mandrel of steel on which rings are made. or spoon-shaped ends. etc. burnt. fine cut file for finishings.Glossary Scorpers. a for scraping clean edges and surfaces to be soldered and for cleaning up work generally. bulbous. a tool made from an by sharpening the point on a stone to a three-sided pyramid. a spring-catch for a bracelet or necklace. the blow of the hammer near the fixed end. a modified draw-plate. Swage-block. and the size of the wire or molding can be regulated by the screw. They are of many forms. small hand chisels of various shapes. to the variously curved bars with rounded. Used The holes are for drawing wire or moldings.
I NDEX 339 .
235 Basins mallet. sticks Bathbrick work. 170 bronze for network Block Amalgam enamels. Borax. 00 scroll ends 158. 181. 279. casting. 55. tin. 31 . use of. 33. 264 . for molds. gold proportions Aluminum 169. for. 53 Beck-iron. 160. 237 sulfid. Binding-wire. 31 Borders in stamped work. 270 242 . pattern for. in enameling. 248 Backs for 117 pearls. 47 212 Book of " Divers Arts. Bossing up. 57. 3 Blowpipe. in Boil. silver. 184. in polishing. 85 for polishing. . 232 Beeswax. 182 Beer used in polishing. Band for hinged bracelet. darkening silver. Bench Bench 110 stake. 159 molds. 55 sizes of. 3 202 . sawdust. 56 35. 202 Alfred's jewel. 316 Alloy copper. Beating-block. in enamel work. for enameling. use of. 235 Annealing. 160 Barium sulfid for oxidizing. 53 Bow saw for Boxwood punches. 156 . 168 Ammonium use of. 58 Bearings for settings. 76. decorated with stamped for stamp for spoons. 163 . 34 Bezel for casket. 32. for gilding. 41 233 Agate mortar. 157. 156. Beakers. Bracelet. for ring. 35. for. 199 Beaded wire. 53. slitting stones. 177. 96 Board sweep in gold work. 215 of mercury and gold. used in dam- Beehive coils for gold work. 94. flexible. how to make. snap stone for." 265 Back mold. 182 . 274 Beading-tool. for Brass gold work. hammered hinged. Index ascening. 35 vise. for fillings. for. 272 molds 232 165. removing. 275 1 160.1 1 INDEX Agate burnisher.
248 Darkening silver. 204. relation of. in casting. 209 Burnishers. for. twisted wire border for. 231 . tools for. Corundum file. 133 . of leaves for. 241 . pearls in. best kinds to darken. in enamel. Core casting. 178. gold. 321 Cutting precious stones. loi Crucibles. use of. fittmg and soldering. 48 132 . for 50 setting the 154. 263 how to make. back for. 245 . use of in polishing. . 261 use of. Copper. 191 Carving in metal. 212 Cunynghame's book on enamels. 45 30. 20 Catch-pan lathe. in wax. how to make. care of. 203 for 1 enam- necklace. 1 1 Chalices. 1 3 i design. polishing soft 241 Cement stick for cutting stones. medallion setting for. 45. joint Chasing tools. skeleton setting 227 Casket. outlines for. 187. 153 . 176 . design for. 132. 42. 152 of.3 Index Brooch. 236 30 . 215 Close settings. 136 Brooch pins. 196. 263 Design and handiwork. 34 Carved knop. 1 01 Coloring metal. 30. for use with polishing Crocus for polishing. 272 Cuttlefish molds. 97 Candlesticks. 149 152. 43. 202 Cup forms. 183 Casting flasks. 130. 268 264. 235 Deep cut enamels. pendant. 135 Buckle in Champleve enamel. j . for brooch. 187 Casket hinges. 1 of. 242 Cire-perdue process of casting. 193 Catch. pearls in. 133. Damascening. 231 Crown settings. 200 Burnishing. 187 Chloride of gold for gilding. 233. Combs. catch subject for. for use in stones. in enameling. 219 Dentist's gold. 321 Champleve enamel. 68 Cold chisel. 239 Circular saw for precious stones. 235 Collets. groups hinges 150. 98 Cabochon. 231 Cloison wire. Cloisonne enamel. 240 Cutting punches. enamels. 1 78 Chain loops for flexible 165 Chains. how 244 sand. 240 265 for Cement backing 222 . I 133. 33. how to make. 2:^3 . 234 256. 190 Carved settings for stones. . eling. use of. prongs for. 209 Charcoal. Cellini. uses of. 193 bracelet. how to make. for. Chasing. 134. 256 Casting small work. 203 Cloisons. Chisels for metal carving.
115 French chalk. 244 Handiwork and design. 240 copper. cloisonne. 270 Draw-bench. Eg)p- washing. Engraved glio lines. 222 Hinge for a casket. 200 202 . stones. 239 Gates in a casting mold. 216. 196. 221 Gilding processes. for enameled gold Index Doming-block. Mykenean. 212 Engraver's lathe head. solder. in fitting pendant. 34 Dragon borders. 176 Hair-pin. 119 Graining tool. 193 Gold foil in enamel work. 89. 160 Holder for drilling pearls. 30 use of. 223 . 41. in 170 . in 223 Drilling stones. in cutting Enamel. 255 Gelatine molds in casting. of. intaglio. use of. alloy for. French work-bench. type-metal Enamel work. 210 . 170. 213 233 False Fish. 51 Hampstead sand. 213 Gold grains. use of scorper in. Enameling solder. 243 Gesso models panels. care of material. Gilt nails. 233 . general rules for requisites for. 177. Hematite 138 burnisher. 171. 36 Friction gilding. characteristics of Anglo-Saxon. how to make. 168 . 203 dan. 243 35 Drill stock. 41. 34. how to darken. 3 5 Electrotype Emery wheel. silver. 1 69 use of. gold. Gum tragacanth. 209 Gold work. 202 . locket. in inta- 172 Grounds for enamel work. color 237 make. Filigree 246 rings. 206 Enamel brooch. 145 Hammer work. Drills. 35.Diamond dust. 219 metal border 140 . 145 Flasks for casting. . 155. 274 of. 180 . cast- Hand vise. how to make. how to polish. 172 . 43 260 High-relief figures. 40 Draw-plate. for. use of. how to produce. how to Gold alloys. solder to be used in enamel work. dangers of use on cast work. use ing. necklace. use of. 244 Flower borders in stamped work. 155 how done. 272 Frame saw. how to make. 243 how to make. hair-pin. 212 . covering metal. molds for. 152 Hinged bracelet. 202 enamels. for. for comb. 183 . use of. 107 to draw. 43. 176. high relief. Gold-beater's skin. 261 343 . 236. how Hair ornaments. Etruscan. 34 Doming punches. enameled. protection for solder in. zinc molds 180 Grained links for chain. 221 cores. 222 . 142 Grains of gold. 203.
161 j for brooch. for 199. 98 Ingot. 183 Loops for nightingale pendant. . 129 Lost (or waste) use of. wax model 220 197 Locket or pendant casket. brass. 269 5 256. in en- 248 to amel work. 203 . Interlocking joint for hammer wax casting. mold for spoons. wax. 277 drawings of fish. 51 Mercury gilding. ing. 135 Moldings for gold hair-pin. 199 261 . 1905 carved. 206 Limoges enamel. small work in gela- British tine. gold. for four Evangelists. 227 220 156 Knop. dipping tube for hydrofluoric slate. zinc. for Agnus Dei. work. how to make. 34. 1 12. Molds. 181 . 271 271 Mandrel. 34. how to draw. 122. in epamel. Hydrofluoric acid. 201 Modeling wax. 67 Iron stamps. 203. use of. 268 for crucifixes. 203 . 206 Japanese craftsmanship. for for tube-drawchain-making. 344 . 100. for spoon handle. 187 Metal outline. 118 carved ring. use and value of. 199. Key work. how to make. 190 Knot rings. 181 Leaf settings for pearls. for gold work. Lapidary work. Horn mallet. "5 Materials. 228 1 74 . 177. silver. 256 Moonstone brooch. rose panels for. . 271 . 201 Joint for bracelet. Intaglio no Loam. how pare. 213 Links. 224 . for Matrices. engraver's. 180 Matting tools. 243 Lead. 79 for woven for necklaces. 73. use of. 242 Lathe head. j 29 engraved. . 75. use of. 182. in casting. bathbrick. 134 Joint tool. 240 Lapidary's slitter. Ingot molds. 1 3 1 . 168 Lifting needles. gold. gold 138 .Index Hollow ornaments in gold. how done. 199 acid. 90 262 enamels. Inlaying. 86 trough for hydro- Necklace. 244. 104 pegs for pearls. 257 Jeypore enamels. steatite. for. Iron supports for enamel plaques. in 179 32. Museum. Justifier. setting. fluoric acid. to make. stamped work. strengthening. 177. 106 Lemel. pre- Incrusted work. how to make. 33 Hydrochloric pickle. . 117 Leaves. in Greek work. 237 Metal-carving tools. 219 .
use enameling. 34 . 34 215 . 196. practical. 244 brooch. 138. 34 Repousse work. use of. silver Rouge necklace. in 211 design of Piece-molding. 33. 60 Ornaments. with or without temporary copper backs. preserving of. 234 j a quick meth232 of. use of. casket. 243 shaping.. chain for. Pitch. risers. 44 Paved settings. 139. 122. 221 in Recipes. 1 20 . 134 pendant. 102 Pea flour. Ring casting. Plaster cast. Pitch-block. design for. use of. 288. 210 . stick. 237 Paillons. 156 the enamel into. 196. 327 Repousse tools. stones for. 183 back for. Plaster of Paris. 104 to drill. 232 pegs for. 95 Old work and methods. 215. pearl filigree. balls to hair-pin. hollow. 143 . 1 Precious stones. 148 . Potassium use darkening silver. use of. circular. carved. Planishing. etc. to slitting. 264 Open settings. . for 126 . 100 Panels in raised gold for enameling. 127 Nitric acid pickle. Quicksilver. fitting Runners and 259 141 . 138. 180 of.123 in. Polishing. 35 Sand casting. 55 47 118. for repousse work. Needles. no. 107 lifting. enamel Pins for in. Norwegian crown. 231. Sea-gulls. loi Oriental stones. in sol- polishing. 139 various patterns of. 79 artificial. 143 345 . Polishing sticks. and links for. 231 sulfid. 219. for 177. 198 Pearls. Prongs for 243 . 235 in 97 Ornament. arrangement of stones . 215 Pliers. loop for. 122 248 dering small articles. how made. matrix for type-metal Network enamels. 231 Pendant. to make. how 155. how to use. Sand-bag. for polishing. settings for. gold necklace. Oxidization of silver. 231 Rings. Plique a jour enamel. gilding. 117. 244 Saw. how strengthen. for stone-cutting. Oil lamp for soldering. in Platinum. key Rotten-stone for polishing. 240J 242 combs. 1 50 j drilling. . polishing. 113. 218 Nightingale pendant. 233 materials 32 for. 35. 32 H3 Index catch for. 314 refuse od of. use of 242 Scorper.
(1) THE END 346 f-t y . 269 Spirit lamp for soldering. 36 Wreathed circlet for nightingale pendant. 89. Slitting stones Waste. 191 . 199 slips for work. 191 Shears. 269 Steatite molds. Swage block Sweep. 87. to polish. 97 . 234 Waste-wax process. for of potassium for oxidi- enamel. 224 Type-metal molds for gold enamel. . 199 Zinc molds. 242 Snap for bracelet. for paved. 186 139 Skeleton sphere for . for for necklace. in Limoges Tube-drawing. for gold work. . 219. "3 Washing polishing. Sulfid amels. 256. 92. goldbeat- Theophilus. 33. Spanish brass. 108. 117 how to carve. pearls. 39 229 Swivel loop for pendant. 120 Snarling-irons. 268 Water of Ayr stone. 231 Slate molds. 206 in polishing. for polishing. 305 Slide pliers. wreathed. 201. for 243 network encloisonne Sulfid of ammonium 235 for oxidi- zing. 214. for castings. 180 Venetian . 94 Spoons. . zing. 232 Wax for modeling. 34 with a bow saw.1 Index Seal engraver's lathe. 42. 31 180 . 36 er's. 107 hair-pin. Soldering. solder. 235 32 for moldings. 171 212 Wire-drawing. 235 . 207. to darken or oxidize. . 35 Ship as a subject for a pendant. 1 3 Stakes for hammer work. 79 Stag as subject for brooch. jeweler's. 48 Translucent enamels. Stamps. 56 Work-bench. iron. 166. 147 Skin. 256 Solder for enameling. 133 twist. loz. compound 109. flexible 163. 268 Tools. Settings. 76. Silver use of. chain for necklaces. Sulfuric pickle. 45. 213 193 foil. 34. bracelet. 87 Silverwork. 104. 54. use of. 39 Wire. Table filigree ring. 232 Villingen processional cross. 33. 127 Wreathed settings for pearls. 154. 265. 59 enamel.
Jl THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY REFERENCE DEPARTMENT .
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