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The past method of security included of Burglar Alarm The details
of these system are as follows
In this system invisible radiation like ultra violet rays or infrared
rays fall continuously on photodetector. When burglar crosses the path of beam,
the current in photodetector is cut off. The relay in the circuit is set in such
manner as to be operated due to this break in current and it starts the ringing of an
1) Burglar Alarm using Photo conducting cell :-
Here is simple circuit, which uses photoconductive cell LDR (light
dependant resistor). The LDR is made up of cadmium selenide or cadmium
sulphide. Its resistance is very high when it is dark and its resistance falls
considerably when it is illuminated. This light dependent properly of LDR is used
in construction of Burglar alarm system.
When LDR is illuminated by light from the resistance of LDR drops
to few ohms and transistor emmiter base junction in forward biased. This make
the transistor to go in saturation and sufficient current flow through the relay coil
this current is sufficient to actuate the relay. The between in relay ckt will not
Circuit Diagram of a Burglar Alarm
But when light from bulb is interrupted by burglar the LDR
resistance become very high. The base emitter voltage is very small. This small
voltage is insufficient to forward bias the base emitter junction of transistor. The
transistor is in cut off state. The current through relay coil is not sufficient and
relay current operate the bell and hence an indication of alarm. Stating that there
is some one to interrupt the light.
2. Burglar Alarm Using Photo emissive Cell.
We shall consider here the automatic burglar alarm. The photo
electric or photo emmisive cell forms part of grid circuit of triode, in plate circuit
of which there is relay which works burglar alarm. As long as light in incident on
cell the electrons keep the grid of triode more negative and hence, the relay is not
operated. Hence bell B does not ring. But as soon as some intruder or burglar
breaks into house and on entering comes in way of invisible beam, the grid
becomes less negative. The plate current increases and sets the relay. The bell
starts ringing and will continue ringing till the relay is reset.
Burglar alarm can be also be built with the help of LDR in
conjunction with 555 timer.
Disadvantage of security :-
1)This security system is Costly.
2)This security system cannot cover a large area under security.
3)Circuit Design is typical.
4)Security system is applicable for limited purpose only.
5)Numbers of Batteries Required to run the system is more.
2.2 SYSTEM COMPONENTS & DECRIPTION
11) Relay (12V, 200 ohm)
2.2 .1 IC 555 :-
IC 555 is a timer IC. It is important in consumer and industrial
The internal block diagram of IC 555 as shown below.
Control Voltage (5)
Out put (3)
5 k R
The internal block diagram consist of 6 main parts.
1) Resistor divider network.
4) Reset circuitry
2) Comparator C1 and C2
5) Discharge circuitry
3) Flip – flop ( Rs – FF )
6) Output buffer
The block diagram consist of two comparators that drives the set (S)
and reset ® terminal of a flip flop which is in turns controls the ON and OFF
CYCLE of the discharge transistor Q1. The comparator reference voltages are
fixed at 2/3 Vcc for C1 and 1/3 Vcc for C2 by means of voltage divider made of 3
The reference voltage is applied to control the timing.
The timing can be externally controlled by applying voltage to terminal 5.
If no such control is required then it is bypassed by a capacitor to ground.
The capacitor value is about 0.01 uf.
On the negative transition of the pulse applied to the trigger terminal and
when the voltage of the trigger terminal pass through Vcc/3
The O/p of C2 comparator changes. This changes the state of the flip-flop
and the O/p of flip-flop is low.
On the other hand, when the voltage applied at the threshold terminal of the
comparator C1 goes positive and passes through the reference 2/3 Vcc, the
output of C1 changes and this in turn changes the state of flip-flop and O/p
A separate reset terminal is provided for the timer, which reset the flip-flop
This reset voltage applied externally over ride the effect of the O/p of lower
comparator, which sets the FF.
The over rinding effect when terminal is less than 10.4 V.
When reset terminal is not in use, connected to Vcc.
Transistor Q2 acts as a buffer, isolating the reset terminal from the flip-flop
and transistor Q1.
The output of flip-flop is Q1; which is the O/p stage.
When the flip-flop is reset, the output stage is low and when set, the output
A capacitor is connected between discharge and ground.
When Q1 is off, the capacitor charges and when Q1 is on, capacitor
discharges through it.
PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 555
IC 555 is a 8 pin timer I.C.
The pin diag. is as shown below.
The function of various pins is as following
Pin 1 Ground :- All voltages are measured with respect to this terminal.
Pin 2. Trigger :- The O/p of timer depends on amplitude of external trigger pulse
applied to pin
Pin 3. O/p :- There are two ways load can be connected to O/p terminal either
between pin 3 and ground (pins) or between pins3 and supply voltage and Vcc
Pin 4 Reset : The device 555 is reset ( disabled by applying is negative pulse to
this pin when the reset function is not in use, the reset terminal should be
connected to +Vcc to avoid any possibility of flash trigerring.
Pin 5 :- Control voltage :- An external voltage applied to this terminal changes
the threshold as well as trigger voltage. In other words, by imposing a voltage on
this pin or by connecting a potentiometer between this pin and ground, the pulse
width the output waveform can be varied. When not used, the control pin should
be bypassed to ground with a 0.01 uf capacitor to prevent any noise disturbances.
Pin 6 : Threshold :- This is the non-inverting terminal of capacitor C1 which
monitors the voltage across the external capacitor. When the voltage at this pin is
greater than or equal to 2/3 vcc, the O/p of comparator C1 goes high, which in turn
switches. The output of the timer low.
Pin 7 : Discharge : The pin is connected internally to the collector of transistor
Q1. When the O/p is high, Q1 is Off and acts as an open circuit to the external
capacitor connected between pin 7 and ground. On the other hand, when the O/p
is low, Q1 is saturated and acts as a short circuit, shorting out the external capacitor
0 to ground.
Pin 8 : Vcc :- The supply voltage of +5v to 18v is applied to this pin with respect
to ground (pin 1)
555 Timer Operating Modes
The 555 has three operating modes:
An astable circuit has no stable state - hence the name "astable". The output
continually switches state between high and low without without any
intervention from the user, called a 'square' wave. This type of circuit could
be used to give a mechanism intermittent motion by switching a motor on
and off at regular intervals. It can also be used to flash lamps and LEDs, and
is useful as a 'clock' pulse for other digital ICs and circuits.
In the astable mode, the frequency of the pulse stream depends on the values
of R1, R2 and C:
The high time from each pulse is given by
and the low time from each pulse is given by
where R1 and R2 are the values of the resistors in ohms and C is the value of
the capacitor in farads.
To achieve a duty cycle of less than 50% a diode can be added in parallel
with R2 towards the capacitor. This bypasses R2 during the high part of the
cycle so that the high interval depends only on R1 and C1.
A monostable circuit produces one pulse of a set length in response to a
trigger input such as a push button. The output of the circuit stays in the low
state until there is a trigger input, hence the name "monostable" meaning
"one stable state". his type of circuit is ideal for use in a "push to operate"
system for a model displayed at exhibitions. A visitor can push a button to
start a model's mechanism moving, and the mechanism will automatically
switch off after a set time.
The output pulse width of time t, which is the time it takes to charge C to 2/3
of the supply voltage, is given by
where t is in seconds, R is in ohms and C is in farads. See RC circuit for an
explanation of this effect
Bistable Mode (or Schmitt Trigger)
bistable mode or what is sometimes called a Schmitt Trigger, has two stable
states, high and low. Taking the Trigger input low makes the output of the
circuit go into the high state. Taking the Reset input low makes the output of
the circuit go into the low state. This type of circuit is ideal for use in an
automated model railway system where the train is required to run back and
forth over the same piece of track. A push button (or reed switch with a
magnet on the underside of the train) would be placed at each end of the
track so that when one is hit by the train, it will either trigger or reset the
bistable. The output of the 555 would control a DPDT relay which would be
wired as a reversing switch to reverse the direction of current to the track,
thereby reversing the direction of the train.
Application of IC 555
1) A stable, Monostable, Bistable Multivibrator.
2) DC – to DC converter ( Chopper circuit )
3) Wave form generator.
4) Techometer – ( for speed measurement )
5) Temperature measurement.
6) Analog frequency meter.
7) Voltage regulator.
8) Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO)
9) Schmitt trigger ( sine to square wave generator )
10) Ramp Wave generator.
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