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A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

CHAPTER I Introduction

A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

INTRODUCTION
1. What Is PERCEPTION? Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. However, what one perceives can be substantially different from objective reality. It need not be, but there is often disagreement. For example, its possible that all employees in a firm may view it as a great place to work- favorable working conditions, interesting job assignments, good pay, an understanding and responsible management but , as most of us know, its very unusual to find such agreement. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE PERCEPTION: A number of factors operate to shape & sometimes distort perception. These factors can reside in the perceiver, in the object or target being perceived, or in the context of the situation on which the perception is made. a) Factors in the perceiver Attitudes Motives Interests Experience Expectations

b) Factors in the situation Time Work setting Social setting

c) Factors in the target 2

A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

Novelty Motion Sounds Size Background Proximity Similarity

CUSTOMER BEHAVIOUR Behavior is a mirror in which everyone shows his or her image. Behavior is a process of responding to stimuli. Consumer behavior is to do with the activities of individuals in obtaining and using the goods and services. It encompasses the decision making process that precedes and determines purchases. In the words Prof. C.G. Walter and Prof. G.W. Paul it is The process whereby individuals decide whether, what,

when, where, how and from whom to purchase goods and services. Consumer or Customer behavior is all the psychological, social and physical behavior of potential customers as they become aware of evaluate, purchase, consume and tell others the products or services.

FACTORS INFLUENCING CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR

Social and Cultural Influences Culture is learned behavior that has been passed down over time, reinforced in our daily lives through the family unit and through education and religious institutions. Culture influences, therefore, are powerful ones and if the company does not understands 3

A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

the culture in which the particular market operates it cannot hope to develop products and market them successfully. It is important to recognize that culture although immensely powerful is not fixed forever. Change in culture tends to be slow and not fully assimilated until a generation or more has passed. Specific social influences 3.2.1 Social class This is the most prominent social influence. Traditionally, one of the chief determinants of social class was income. Since pay structures have altered a great deal in terms of the lower C2, D, and E categories moving more towards levels previously enjoyed by higher A, B and C1 categories over the past 30 years or so, classification of consumers on the basis of lifestyle is becoming more meaning today. 3.2.1 Reference groups

This can be described as group of people whose standards of conducts of mould an individuals dispositions, beliefs and values. This group can be small or large. Reference groups can range from the immediate family to the place of work. They can also be found in a persons social life. An individual is unlikely to deviate too far from the behavioral norms led down by the members of a club or hobby group. Reference group, but it does state that individualism cannot exist within a group, but it does suggest that even rigid independent thinkers will at least be aware of what is considered normal within a group. 3.2.3. Motivation Marketers are interested in motivation when it relates to purchasing behaviour. This behaviour relates to the motive for wishing to posses the goods or services in question, and it has been termed goal-related behaviour. It can, therefore, be seen that a 4

A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

number of motives might be at play when making a purchaser decision some motives stronger than others and the final decision might be a compromise solution.

CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

The liberalization and globalization of Indian economy has taken place almost a decade ago, the focus point in any organization is Customer satisfaction. The phase such as Customer is king in our business, service to customer is service to god are no more a myth but turned out to be a reality. Customer satisfaction is the base of any business expansion because of the stiff competition prevalent in the market. Whether the buyer is satisfied after the purchase depends on the offers performance in relation to the buyers expectation. In general; satisfaction is a persons feeling of pleasure or disappointment resulting from comparing a products perceived performance ( or outcome) in relation to his or her expectation. As this definition makes clear, satisfaction is a function of perceived performance and expectation. If the performance falls short of expectations, the customer is dissatisfied. If the performance matches the expectations the customer is satisfied.

4.1 Perception

Unlike motivation that requires a reaction to a stimulus, perception relates to the meaning that is assigned to that stimulus as marketers are interested in how buyers perceive and react to products in relation to such matters as quality, aesthetics, price and image, since products not only exist in partial terms but also how they are perceived by consumers in relation need satisfaction. This perception by buyers is affected by the

A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

nature of the product itself, by the circumstances of the individual buyer and by the buyers innate situation in terms of how ready they are to make the purchase in terms of needing it at a particular point of time.

4.2

Attitude

Our strongest basic attitudes are implanted in our formative years and these come largely from the influence of our close family group and other social interaction. More refined attitude develops later. In marketing terms, the sum total of our attitudes can be regarded as a set of cognitions that a potential buyer has in relation to a potential purchase or purchasing environment. This is why certain stores or companies go out of their way to engender favorable attitude and it is why manufacturer seek to induce loyalty towards their particular brand or product.

4.3 Learning In the context of marketing, learning is a result of information received through advertising or other publicity or through some reference group or other. In order to have an effect on motives or attitudes, marketing effort should associate the product with positive drives and reinforcing messages.

Literature Review
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A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

DETERGENT MARKET IN INDIA The Indian fabric wash products market was a highly fragmented one. There was a sizeable unorganized sector. Of the 23 lakh-tonne market, laundry soaps and bars made from vegetable oils accounted for around seven lakh tonnes with synthetic detergents making up the rest. Detergent cakes accounted for 40% of the synthetic detergent used, while powder accounted for the rest. Washing powders were categorized into four segments economy (selling at less than Rs.25 per kg), mid-priced (Rs.25 - Rs. 90 per kg), premium (Rs. 90 - Rs. 120 per kg) and compact (selling at over Rs. 120 per kg). The compact, premium and medium priced segments together accounted for 20% of the volume share and 35% of the value share. The economy segment made up the remaining lion's share of the market. The fabric wash industry in India was characterized by low per capita consumption, especially in rural markets. The major players in the Indian detergent market were HLL, P&G, Nirma and Henkel (through its joint venture with SPIC, a leading petrochemical company based in the south Indian city of Chennai).

MARKET SHARE

A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

Major Players:

Surf Excel Rin Arial Tide Nirma Wheel

A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

NIRMA

A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

NIRMA is one of the few names - which is instantly recognized as a true Indian brand, which took on mighty multinationals and rewrote the marketing rules to win the heart of princess, i.e. the consumer. Nirma, the proverbial Rags to Riches saga of Dr. Karsanbhai Patel, is a classic example of the success of Indian entrepreneurship in the face of stiff competition. Starting as a one-man operation in 1969, today, it has about 14, 000 employee-base and annual turnover is above Rs. 25, 00 crores.India is a one of the largest consumer economy, with burgeoning middle class pie. In such a widespread, diverse marketplace, Nirma aptly concentrated all its efforts towards creating and building a strong consumer preference towards its value-for-money products. Now, the year 2004 sees Nirmas annual sales touch 800,000 tones, making it one of

the largest volume sales with a single brand name in the world. Looking at the FMCG synergies, Nirma stepped into toilet soaps relatively late in 1990 but this did not deter it to achieve a volume of 100,000 per annum. This makes Nirma the largest detergent and the second largest toilet soap brand in India with market share of 38% and 20% respectively.

SURF EXCEL

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Surf Excel is currently running two campaigns riding on the popularity of the "Daag Ache Hain" ( Dirt is good) campaign.The new campaign too strikes a chord with the consumers. Continuing with the earlier campaign, the new ad features two kids taking a Puddle fight to distract their fighting parents fighting over a car collision. The voice over says " if some thing good happens because of dirt then Dirt is Good". According to a report in agencyfaqs, the creative team had a tough task in continuing a classic campaign and no doubt they have been very successful. The second campaign takes a cue from the World cup. The ad features a group of kids preparing for World Cup 2015.

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WASHING POWDER and CAKE

Name of the Product Multi National Company Indian Substitute Proctor and Gamble 01. Aril, Tide Nirma, India Ltd. 02. Surf-Ultra Hindustan Lever Ltd. Plus, 03. Rin Hindustan Lever Ltd. 555, 501, 255 04. Wheel Hindustan Lever Ltd. Chabi 05. Wheel(cake) Hindustan Lever Ltd. Ghadi 06. Sunlight Hindustan Lever Ltd. Doctor 07. Sunlight(cake) Hindustan Lever Ltd. Hipolin 08. Surf-Ultra (powder) Hindustan Lever Ltd. Fena 09. Check (powder) Henkel Spic India Ltd. Dhara Rebit and Colman India 10. White (powder) Date Ltd. 11. Vim(powder) Hindustan Lever Ltd. Dot Rebit and Colman of 12. Harpic Superfine,Vimal India Ltd. Rebit and Colmen India 13. Colin some of the soaps Ltd. 14. Bricks Henkel Spic India Ltd. of the local industries.

Sr.

MARKRTING STRATEGIES OF ALL THE MAJOR PLAYERS.

When Procter& Gamble India (P&G) entered the detergent , market of India at the beginning of the 1990s, the market had just calmed down after a decade long battle between HLLs Surf and Nirma of Nirma Chemicals. Though there were many detergent brands in the market Det, Key, Pont, Chase, Vimal, Vijay, Adhunik, Plus, Hipolene, Tej, Mazda , Sanzar , etc 12

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Surf remained the leader and Nirma the challenger. Choosing the price conscious, lower segment as its market and taking advantage of the concessions as an SSI unit, Nirma Chemicals offered a low-priced brand and promoted it aggressively. HLL had to defend Surf with all its might. The company stepped up its promotion of Surf, relying heavily on aspects like quality and value for money. In addition, HLL introduced a low priced brand, Wheel, and positioned it directly against Nirma in the same segment. HLL also introduced Sunlight detergent powder, a brand extension of its Sunlight washing soap taking advantage of its time tested brand image. Yet, within a few years, Nirma garnered a share of 35 per cent of the market and literally shook Hindustan Lever. The latter had been the market leader for years without any significant challenge whatsoever. Also, by then the detergents market of India had grown into a Rs 1,800 crore market. It was into this market that P&G entered with its Ariel as a direct contestant against Surf. In fact, the P&G-HLL battle finally turned out to be one of the major marketing encounters of the 1990s. P&G and Lever, the rivals around the world, were now combating on Indian ground.

How did P&G go about marketing Ariel? What marketing strategy did P&G employ? P&G Seeks leadership position in the industry: P&G laid down its marketing strategy in respect of Ariel: P&G aims at making Ariel the leading detergent brand of India, squarely confronting the exiting market leader, Hindustan Lever, and its leading brand, Surf. Our marketing strategy will be 13

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centered around this major theme. The company will stick to this plan even if it means sacrificing profits in the short run. P&G put Ariel on the Indian market in 1990, positioning it directly against HLLs Surf.

DETERGENTS UNDER SCRUTINY

The virtually unregulated use of pollutant chemicals in the Indian detergent industry is a situation that needs to be quickly reversed, says Toxics Link.

October 2002 - Cleanliness has been an important consideration for human beings from time immemorial, but the relation between personal and environmental cleanliness is a less obvious one. Soap making dates back to about 1500 BC, the earliest records indicate that a combination of animal and vegetable oils with alkaline salts was used to form a soap-like material. In ancient India too, people used soap preparations made from plant or animal fats. Modern technology has provided synthetic detergents that have slowly replaced soaps. The first detergents were used chiefly for hand dishwashing and fine fabric laundering. This was followed by the

development of all-purpose laundry detergents introduced in the U.S. in 1946. Today, India has a diverse range of detergents available off the shelf. The annual consumption of detergents in India ranges to hundreds of thousands of tonnes. The formal sector with its increasing ability to influence

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consumers via advertisements is expanding its market share aggressively. The detergent market has evolved into a highly competitive one where a myriad brands vie with each other to get the customers' attention. Each brand claims to clean whiter, boasting of technologically dubious terms such as fighting granules, power pearls, etc.

Detergents and health

Detergents are household chemical cleaning compounds used for laundering and dishwashing. They contain wetting agents and emulsifiers, based on non-soap synthetic surfactants. Synthetic detergent powders consist of surface-active agents, builders and fillers. In addition they have additives like anti re-deposition agents, optical fibre brighteners (whitening agents), bluing agents, bleaching agents, foam regulators, organic sequestering agents, enzymes, perfumers, and substances that regulate the density and assure crispness of the material they are used on. A study done to understand the Indian consumers knowledge of harmful effects of detergents on health and environment, showed that 77.6 percent of respondents had experienced some kinds of skin irritation due to detergents. Of these the majority comprised of dhobis and rural women. Conventional laundry detergents leave chemical residues on the clothes. 15

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These residues enter our bodies either through the skin or through the lungs. They cause many common health problems including allergies, skin infections and in rare cases, cancer. The fragrances used in laundry detergents can prove allergic and be highly irritating to lungs, causing serious health effects to people with asthma or chronic heart problems. The usual result of a continuous and excessive exposure of the skin to detergents is drying, fissuring and dotting of the keratin layer leading to increased permeability that causes sensitization, which may develop into dermatitis. Elderly people are more susceptible to infections that may lead to developing eczema.

Detergents and water pollution

Most laundry detergents in India are phosphate based. Phosphates are a major source of water pollution that has become the direct cause of 42 per cent of human and animal diseases. In India, per capita consumption of detergents in 1994 was 2.8 kg per annum. This is projected to rise to over 4 kg/capita by 2005. In rural areas the use of detergent bars is expected to grow 7-8 per cent annually. The figures are of concern because high quality detergents have as much as 35 per cent STPP in them. According to Prof Narinder K. Kauschik, Professor emeritus for environmental biology at the Canadian University of Guelph, "the main problem is that of phosphatebased detergents promoting eurtrophication of aquatic environments."

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Eutrophication or Nutrient pollution is a process by which water bodies gradually age and become more productive. Any natural process like this might take thousands of years to progress but human activities accelerate this process tremendously. The presence of excessive plant nutrients causes pollution of water bodies. These plant nutrients are supplied primarily in the form of phosphorus, nitrogen and carbon to water bodies in various ways. Sewage perhaps is a particular source of phosphorus when detergents containing large amounts of phosphates are drained during washing. The algal boom leads to consumption of the oxygen dissolved in water, creating hypoxic, and at times, near anoxic situation. This can lead to excessive eutrophication that kills the fish, cause odour and increase pathogenic animals.

Seasonal impacts

Run-off of phosphates into water streams is not only due to detergents, but also due to fertilizers and manures. Findings show that during the dry seasons when the run-off from agriculture is virtually zero, and manure runoff is down to one fifth of the total annual rate, detergents are responsible for additional loadings of rivers by about 7.3 per cent which poses significant eutrophication impact risks. In India, it is not uncommon to see ponds, lakes and part of rivers choking with algae or other aquatic plants. In the

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Indian context, this is a grim situation since these water bodies are the primary sources of water for a large section of the population.

The Detergent Industry

Detergent industry refuses to take any action due to a lack of mandatory legislations. As a proactive response to environment risks as result of increasing levels of phosphates, the industry needs to reduce the perilously high phosphate levels of 30 per cent to far lower numbers. Industry representatives have declined to do so on grounds that the amount of phosphate used in northern countries is higher as compared to that in India. The fact is that India relies only on Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) which are not fully functional even in metropolitan cities unlike northern countries where STPs are installed for every few households. Industry ought to label its products voluntarily for containing phosphate so that it can be left to the consumer to decide. According to Prof. Kaushick strict regulations in North America and Europe makes it mandatory for the multinational detergent industry to produce detergents with nominal phosphate content (or even phosphate-free detergent). The same industry absolves itself of this responsibility in India, where it manufactures detergents with a high phosphate content. The industry vehemently opposes any regulation of phosphate use in detergents.

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It is not prepared to indicate the percentage phosphate content on detergent packages.

Better options - Eco-friendly household cleaning powders

An environmentally superior detergent is the one that makes use of lesser chemical ingredients. The toxicity of detergents decreases by non-addition of additives like perfumes, colour and brightening agents. Minimal packaging can also reduce environmental harm substantially. Synthetic surfactants may be replaced by non-petrochemical surfactants or vegetable oil soaps; builders like phosphates can be replaced by sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate; dyes and fragrances can be eliminated or minimized. For a simple formula to make your own detergent, write to Toxics Link. Detergent use can never be a totally non-polluting activity. The consumer needs to be informed that the smaller detergent products can also be the least polluting ones. Consumers must press for implementation of labelling standards and regulation so that they may avail of environmentally friendly choices. Using 'green detergents' that do not contain non-essential additives like perfumes, colour and brightening agents in minimal packaging will go a long way in ensuring a cleaner and healthier environment.

Objective of the research

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1. To study the determinants of consumer prefrence against


detergent in durg & bhilai.

2. To identify most preferred brand. 3. To identify the major players of Detergents. 4. To study on the effect of advertisement on customers for purchasing the detergent.

CHAPTER II Research methodology

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Research Methodology
1. Research Methodology. 2. Research Design. 3. Data Source. 4. Data Collection METHOD. 5. Sampling Design. 6. Sampling Unit. 7. Sampling Size.

Research Methodology
The research comprises of defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating data, making deductions and reaching conclusion; and at last carefully 21

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testing

the

conclusions

to

determine

whether

they

fit

formulating

hypothesis. The research process is carried out to a series of step, which are required to be taken in chorological order. The major marketing research steps are as follows: Problem identification. Research design. Fieldwork. Data analysis & interpretation. Report Presentation.

Problem Identification
The first and foremost step in this research is to identify the problem chosen for investigation. The step has very significance, once it is said A Problem well identified is half way to solution. On the other hand if the problem identified vaguely, a wrong problem is identified, or research is not clarified, then the research result may be completely useless for the management, and the research effort of the investigation will be a futile exercise.

Research Design
A research design is a master plan or model for the formal investigation. Once the formal investigation is decided, the researcher must formulate the formal plan of investigation. A research design id the specification of methods & procedure, for acquiring the information needed for solving the problem. The formal investigation plan will concentrate on the selection of sources of information and the selection of methods and procedures for gathering the data. Data gathering forms are prepared. Questionnaires are tested, samples for investigations are planned. There are three basic types of research design:-

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Descriptive

Exploratory

Casual

In my research I have used the descriptive research design Descriptive Research Design The descriptive study is typically concerned with determining frequency with which some thing occurs or variable vary together this study is guided by an initial hypothesis. Descriptive studies are those studies, which are concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual, or of a group. Descriptive research includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different kinds. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs as it exits at present. In social science and business research we quit use the term Ex post facto research for descriptive research studies.

DATA SOURCE

There are two sources of data collection: Primary data source Secondary data source.

Source of Data
Primary Data: 23

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Primary data are those data, which are obtained for the first time by the investigator himself. In order words, by primary data we mean those data, which are originally, i.e., those in which little or no grouping has been made, the instance being recorded or itemized encountered. The source of primary data used in my project is the questionnaire. Primary are the raw data like raw material. Primary data are according to object of investigation and used without correction. The collection of primary data requires large sum, energy and time. Precautions are not necessary in the use of the primary data.

Secondary Data: Secondary data means data that are already available i.e; they refer to the data, which have already been collected and analysed by some one else. When the researcher utilizes secondary data, then he has to look in to various sources from where he can obtain them. In this cause he is certainly not confronted with the problems that are usually associated with the collection of original data. Secondary data may either be published data or unpublished data.

DATA COLLECTION METHOD


As a data collection method I have used the Questionnaire Method. Why a Questionnaire Method has been adopted? Questionnaire had been prepared to get the response of the people as per guided by the organizational guide. To provide the best end results without any kind of biasness, which can give a brief idea about sampling and would be beneficial for making inferences for tabulations and calculations with research instruments? I made a survey through questionnaire as prepared by me.

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SAMPLING DESIGN
Sampling plan consists of sampling unit, sampling size and sampling procedure therefore it is necessary to find out sampling plan if population is 100. Sample Design Consists of: Experimental Research design Exploratory Research design Descriptive Research design.

SAMPLING UNIT
Sampling/Unit is the total number of samples differed in different locality. S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. Classes Student Service class Business Class Household Total No.of Classes 25 25 25 25 100

Data have been collected through the survey method while surveys have been conducted in one city: i) ii) Bhilai Durg

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All the data are primary in the nature as they had been collected first and personally. All the area had segmented according the population of this area. I have considered 100 as sample size.

Research Plan
Research Design Data Source Research Instrument
Measurement scale

: : :
:

Descriptive Research Primary Data Questionnaire


Likerts Scale

Sample Plan
Sampling Design Sample Size Sample Location Sample Element : : : : Simple Random Design 100 Bhilai & Durg

STUDENT SERVICE CLASS BUSINESS CLASS HOUSEHOLD

25 25 25 25

Limitations

This study is only modest attempt and not be claimed as comprehensive one, further it is to be pointed that data are inebriation for the study and consequently the findings made out of it are reliable to the extend that the respondents have been forthright nourishing the same. During conducting this research I come across the following limitations: 26

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1. The research period was a short period to carryout study with almost precautions. 2. Sometime the respondents are not available at their place. 3. Very often the responded do not express their true feelings, in such case their habit, preference, practice cannot be assessed correctly. 4. Some of the respondents refuse to give the important information best known to them. However in spite of these limitations all efforts have been put to make the report correct, genuine, and fulfilling the objectives of the reports.

Chapter -III WASHING POWDER AND CACKE HISTORY


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Detergent is a compound or mixture of components ,intended to assist cleaning.they may be: 1) Detergent Soap 2) Detergent Powder Detergent Chemistry?

To understand what is needed to achieve effective cleaning, it is helpful to have a basic knowledge of soap and detergent chemistry

Water, the liquid commonly used for cleaning, has a property called surface tension. In the body of the water, each molecule is surrounded and attracted by other water molecules. However, at the surface, those molecules are surrounded by 28

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other water molecules only on the water side. A tension is created as the water molecules at the surface are pulled into the body of the water. This tension causes water to bead up on surfaces (glass, fabric), which slows wetting of the surface and inhibits the cleaning process. You can see surface tension at work by placing a drop of water onto a counter top. The drop will hold its shape and will not spread

In the cleaning process, surface tension must be reduced so water can spread and wet surfaces. Chemicals that are able to do this effectively are called surface active agents, or surfactants. They are said to make water "wetter."

Surfactants perform other important functions in cleaning, such as loosening, emulsifying (dispersing in water) and holding soil in suspension until it can be rinsed away. Surfactants can also provide alkalinity, which is useful in removing acidic soils.

Surfactants are classified by their ionic (electrical charge) properties in water: anionic (negative charge), nonionic (no charge), cationic (positive charge) and amphoteric (either positive or negative charge).

Soap is an anionic surfactant. Other anionic as well as nonionic surfactants are the main ingredients in today's detergents. Now let's look closer at the chemistry of surfactants. 29

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SOAPS

Soaps are water-soluble sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids. Soaps are made from fats and oils, or their fatty acids, by treating them chemically with a strong alkali. First let's examine the composition of fats, oils and alkalis; then we'll review the soapmaking process

.Fats and Oils

The fats and oils used in soapmaking come from animal or plant sources. Each fat or oil is made up of a distinctive mixture of several different triglycerides

In a triglyceride molecule, three fatty acid molecules are attached to one molecule of glycerine. There are many types of triglycerides; each type consists of its own particular combination of fatty acids

Fatty acids are the components of fats and oils that are used in making soap. They are weak acids composed of two parts

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A carboxylic acid group consisting of one hydrogen (H) atom, two oxygen (O) atoms, and one carbon (C) atom, plus a hydrocarbon chain attached to the carboxylic acid group. Generally, it is made up of a long straight chain of carbon (C) atoms each carrying two hydrogen (H) atoms.

Alkali

An alkali is a soluble salt of an alkali metal like sodium or potassium. Originally, the alkalis used in soapmaking were obtained from the ashes of plants, but they are now made commercially. Today, the term alkali describes a substance that chemically is a base (the opposite of an acid) and that reacts with and neutralizes an acid.

The common alkalis used in soapmaking are sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also called caustic soda; and potassium hydroxide (KOH), also called caustic potash.

How Soaps are Made

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Saponification of fats and oils is the most widely used soapmaking process. This method involves heating fats and oils and reacting them with a liquid alkali to produce soap and water (neat soap) plus glycerine.

The other major soapmaking process is the neutralization of fatty acids with an alkali. Fats and oils are hydrolyzed (split) with a high-pressure steam to yield crude fatty acids and glycerine. The fatty acids are then purified by distillation and neutralized with an alkali to produce soap and water (neat soap).

When the alkali is sodium hydroxide, a sodium soap is formed. Sodium soaps are "hard" soaps. When the alkali is potassium hydroxide, a potassium soap is formed. Potassium soaps are softer and are found in some liquid hand soaps and shaving creams

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The carboxylate end of the soap molecule is attracted to water. It is called the hydrophilic (water-loving) end. The hydrocarbon chain is attracted to oil and grease and repelled by water. It is known as the hydrophobic (water-hating) end.

SURFACTANTS IN DETERGENTS

<>A detergent is an effective cleaning product because it contains one or more surfactants. Because of their chemical makeup, the surfactants used in detergents can be engineered to perform well under a variety of conditions. Such surfactants are less sensitive than soap to the hardness minerals in water and most will not form a film

Detergent surfactants were developed in response to a shortage of animal and vegetable fats and oils during World War I and World War II. In addition, a substance that was resistant to hard water was needed to make cleaning more effective. At that time, petroleum was found to be a plentiful source for the manufacture of these surfactants. Today, detergent surfactants are made from a variety of petrochemicals (derived from petroleum) and/or oleochemicals (derived from fats and oils).

Petrochemicals and Oleochemicals

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Like the fatty acids used in soapmaking, both petroleum and fats and oils contain hydrocarbon chains that are repelled by water but attracted to oil and grease in soils. These hydrocarbon chain sources are used to make the water-hating end of the surfactant molecule.

Other Chemicals

Chemicals, such as sulfur trioxide, sulfuric acid and ethylene oxide, are used to produce the waterloving end of the surfactant molecule Alkalis As in soapmaking, an alkali is used to make detergent surfactants. Sodium and potassium hydroxide are the most common alkalis

How Detergent Surfactants Are Made

Anionic Surfactants

The chemical reacts with hydrocarbons derived from petroleum or fats and oils to produce new acids similar to fatty acids.

A second reaction adds an alkali to the new acids to produce one type of anionic surfactant molecule.

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Nonionic surfactant molecules are produced by first converting the hydrocarbon to an alcohol and then reacting the fatty alcohol with ethylene oxide.

HOW SOAPS AND DETERGENTS WORK

These types of energy interact and should be in proper balance. Let's look at how they work together.

Let's assume we have oily, greasy soil on clothing. Water alone will not remove this soil. One important reason is that oil and grease present in soil repel the water molecules.

Now let's add soap or detergent. The surfactant's water-hating end is repelled by water but attracted to the oil in the soil. At the same time, the water-loving end is attracted to the water molecules.

These opposing forces loosen the soil and suspend it in the water. Warm or hot water helps dissolve grease and oil in soil. Washing machine agitation or hand rubbing helps pull the soil free.

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A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

Marketing means understanding and responding to customer needs, a pre-requisite (condition) for any organization success. According to American marketing association, marketing is concerned with people and the activities involved in the flow of goods and serves from the producer to the consumer. According to W.J. Santan, marketing is a total system of business activities designed to plan, prices, promise and distribute want satisfying goods and services to present and potential customer.

NEED PRODUCT SERVICE WANTS DESIGN


PRODUTION SALES

SATISFACTION

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A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

Chapter - IV DATA ANALYSIS


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A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

DATA ANALYSIS Likerts measurement scale HIGHLY JUST LITTLE DISSATISFIED 3 2 1 0

Index Determinants Brand Advertisement Price Availability Parameters Fragrance STUDENT Colour SERVICE PERSON Safe side HOUSEHOLD Quality BUSINESS CLASS Size STUDENTS HIGHLY 13 2 21 0 JUST 11 21 4 20 LITTLE DISSATISFIED 1 0 1 1 0 0 5 0 TOTAL 62 49 71 45 38 X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9

Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4

X1 X2 X3 X4

A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

X5 X6 X7 X8 X9

6 0 12 21 0

13 4 13 3 2

5 17 0 1 16

1 4 0 0 7

49 25 62 70 20

SERVICE PERSON X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9 HIGHLY 5 0 11 2 2 0 14 12 1 JUST 17 3 14 7 18 1 11 13 6 LITTLE DISSATISFIED 3 0 18 4 0 0 12 4 2 3 20 4 0 0 0 0 13 5 TOTAL 52 24 61 32 44 22 64 62 28

HOUSEHOLD HIGHLY 6 0 22 2 6 0 8 24 0 JUST 19 15 3 16 16 6 17 1 9 LITTLE DISSATISFIED 0 0 8 2 0 0 7 0 3 0 17 2 0 0 0 0 15 1 TOTAL 56 38 72 45 53 29 58 74 33

X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9

BUSINESS CLASS X1 HIGHLY 16 JUST LITTLE DISSATISFIED 8 1 0 TOTAL 39

A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

65 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9 2 17 8 8 2 21 19 0 5 7 14 17 7 4 5 12 16 1 3 0 15 0 1 11 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 32 66 55 58 35 71 68 35

1.How much do you consider Brand in purchasing detergent?


Y1 62
Brand 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Brand

Brand

Y2 52

Y3 65

Y4 56

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A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

2.How much do you consider Advertisement in purchasing detergent?


Advertisement Y1 49
Advertisement 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Advertisement

Y2 24

Y3 32

Y4 38

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A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

3.How much do you consider Advertisement in purchasing detergent?


Price Y1 71
Price 74 72 70 68 66 64 62 60 58 56 54 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4

Y2 61

Y3 66

Y4 72

Price

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A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

4.How much do you consider Availability in purchasing detergent?


Availability Y1 45
Availability 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Availability

Y2 32

Y3 55

Y4 45

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A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

5.How much do you consider Fragrance in purchasing detergent?


Y1 Y2 44
Fragrance 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Fragrance

Y3 58

Y4 53

Fragrance

49

44

A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

6.How much do you consider Colour in purchasing detergent?


Y1 Y2 22
Colour 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Colour

Y3 35

Y4 29

Colour

25

45

A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

7.How much do you consider Safeside in purchasing detergent?


Y1 Y2 64
Safeside 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Safeside

Y3 71

Y4 58

Safeside

62

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A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

8.How much do you consider Quality in purchasing detergent?


Y1 Y2 62
Quality 76 74 72 70 68 66 64 62 60 58 56 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4

Y3 68

Y4 74

Quality

70

Quality

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A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

9.How much do you consider Size in purchasing detergent?


Y1 Y2 28
Size 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Size

Y3 35

Y4 33

Size

20

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A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

CHAPTER V conclusion

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A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

CONCLUSION

It is concluded that difference between the Parameters i.e Student, Service Class, Households and Business Class is Significant. Also the difference between the Determinants i.e Brand, Advertisement, Price, Availability , fragrance, Colour ,Safeside, Quality and Significant. The companies are therefore ,advised to give more emphasis on cleanliness factors and price where as less emphasis on fragrance and colour. They are also advised to make different strategies for different parameters as they are showing different purchase behaviour. Size is also

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A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

CHAPTER VII References

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A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1) Kothari C.R. Research Methodology New Delhi ,Willy Eastern Ltd. 1990,Second Edition. 2) Rampal K.M. Gupta S.1,Project Report Writing New Delhi ,Galgotia Publication 2001. 3) Encarta Encylopedia standard 2004.

Web-site www.wikipedia.com www.google.com www.altavista.com

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A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

Annexure
QUESTIONNAIRE

1. 2.

Age(in years) :

0-20

20-40 40-60 More than 60 Business Class Students 10,000 - 20,000 More than 30,000 Female

Occupation : Service Person Households Others (please specify):

3.

Monthly Income (in Rs.) : 0 - 10,000 20,000-30,000

4. Gender :

Male

5. Which detergent do you usually prefer? a. Surf b. c. Tide e. Rin d.

Arial Nirma

f. Other (Please specify) ..

6. How much do you consider brand in purchasing detergent?

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A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

a.

High

b.

On

an average

c. Little 7. How much do you

d. Not at all consider advertisement in purchasing

detergent? a. High c. Little b. On an average d. Not at all

8. How much do you consider price in purchasing detergent?


a.

High

b. On an average d. Not at all

c. Little

9. How much do you consider availability in purchasing detergent? a. High c. Little 10. b. On an average d. Not at all

How much do you consider fragrance in purchasing detergent? a. High c. Little b. On an average d. Not at all

11.

How much do you consider colour in purchasing detergent? a. High c. Little b. On an average d. Not at all

12.

How much do you consider safe side in purchasing detergent?


a.

High

b. On an average d. Not at all

c. Little 13.

How much do you consider quality in purchasing detergent?


a.

High

b. On an average 54

A STUDY OF CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS WASHING POWDER &CACK

c. Little 14.

d. Not at all

How much do you consider size in purchasing detergent?


a.

High

b. On an average d. Not at all

c. Little

YOUR OPINION: ........................................................................................................................ .. Place . Date .. signature

55