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Waste Water Treatment Technologies_ a General Rewiev

Waste Water Treatment Technologies_ a General Rewiev

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United Nations



United Nations New York, 2003


Foreword Waste-water treatment is becoming ever more critical due to diminishing water resources, increasing waste-water disposal costs, and stricter discharge regulations that have lowered permissible contaminant levels in waste streams. The treatment of waste-water for reuse and disposal is particularly important for ESCWA countries, since they occupy one of the most arid regions in the world. The municipal sector consumes significant volumes of water, and consequently generates considerable amounts of waste-water discharge. Municipal waste-water is a combination of water and water-carried wastes originating from homes, commercial and industrial facilities, and institutions. The present study comprises a comprehensive survey of the various methods and technologies currently used in waste-water treatment, with emphasis on municipal waste-water. The study also addresses the management of treated effluents, including approaches to their reuse and disposal. Case studies of selected ESCWA member countries are presented, highlighting their prevalent water usage, and hence their need for efficient waste-water treatment systems. By incorporating state-of-theart methodologies into their waste-water treatment facilities, ESCWA member countries can significantly reduce water consumption and cut treatment and disposal costs. Studying the economics of different wastewater treatments is an essential pre-requisite to the identification of cost-effective solutions. This study devotes an entire chapter to comparison of the costs associated with the installation and operation of wastewater treatment facilities.


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.................................................................................. Economics of sludge treatment.......................... ECONOMICS OF WASTE-WATER TREATMENT. G.................. V.......... E................................................................. The water treatment cost estimation process ......................... Application of treatment methods ................................................ H.................................. WASTE-WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES.......................................................... A................................................. Egypt ............................................................................................................................................................................................ MANAGEMENT OF TREATED EFFLUENT............. NATURE OF MUNICIPAL WASTE-WATER ............................................................ D.... Economics of natural water treatment systems ..................... New directions................... A............................................ D...................................................... A.......................................... Artificial intelligence..................................................................................... E.... A.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. B....................................................... Jordan .................... INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL IN WASTE-WATER TREATEMENT FACILITIES .............................................................................................. D................................................. B.................................................................................... D............... F................................................ F..........CONTENTS Foreword ....................................................... WASTE-WATER TREATMENT IN SELECTED ESCWA COUNTRIES ........... Effluent disposal....................... Kuwait ................................................................................................................................................................................ Measuring devices ................................................................. Sludge treatment and disposal .............................................. E............................ C.................................................................................. New directions and concerns................................................................................................... Waste-water treatment methods ........................................................................................... Economics of effluent discharge ............. Page iii ix 1 2 5 5 21 22 27 37 40 40 41 42 43 44 45 45 45 46 47 47 48 48 49 49 55 65 67 69 71 74 77 79 79 81 83 85 86 III....................................................................................................... Data acquisition systems ......................... Chapter I...................................................................................................................................... Application in the waste-water treatment plant ............................................................. C........ Data display readout ............................... Economics of membrane and ion exchange systems................................................ Lebanon . Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................. IV.................. Abbreviations and acronyms .......................................... Effluent reclamation and reuse ........... Conclusions ......................................... Economics of effluent and sludge reclamation and reuse ................................................................................... VI............. B......... Natural treatment systems ................................................................... H................................................................. II.............................................................................................................................................................. Effluent guidelines and standards................................................ Control systems ....... D.................... v .. C............................... A................... Economics of effluent treatment.............. Signal-transmitting devices .......................... Yemen ......................... C...... G................................................. B..................................... New directions and concerns.................................................. B................... E....... C...................

..... Variations in waste-water flow within a community . 13...... 29.................. Characteristics of waste-water treatment plants in Yemen .... 22................................................................................................................................... Artificial intelligence systems. and sludge characteristics affecting cost ..................... 10................................................................. Characteristics of waste-water treatment plants in Jordan ..................................................... 7................................. 41.......... 39.................. Standard operation and maintenance cost factor breakdown ..... Typical constructions and O&M costs for selected NTSs ................... Other chemical applications in waste-water treatment and disposal.......................................................... Estimate of staff requirements for 50 and 5 mgd water treatment plants.................. Construction and O&M costs of various sludge treatment plants.... 19............................................... 14..................... Sludge treatment cost per ton of dry matter ............... 30................................. 2............................................................................................ 8............................................................................................. 28............................................ Levels of costs estimates ... Waste-water discharge quality in Yemen.. 12.................. Treatment plants scheduled to be upgraded................... expanded................................................... cadmium and chromium rinse waters .................................... Payback periods for nickel................................................................................................. Typical composition of untreated domestic waste-water ....... Cost comparison of different policies (US$ per pound of phosphorus removed) ................ and built....... Cost comparison of various RO membrane systems................................................................ Screen types ............................. Standard capital cost algorithm ......................................................... Annualized unit costs (USD/m3) for waste-water treatment plant of varying capacities ............................ 40....................................... 34.................................. Comparative costs of zero-liquid effluent technologies.............................. Removal efficiency of plain sedimentation vs.................................. 36....................... 43........ 42............. 23.......................................... Mechanisms of removal of waste-water constituents by SR systems ................................... Types of sludge drying beds... 5....................... 44............ 25.......................................... Annualized unit costs 9USD/kg dry solid) for sludge treatment plants of varying capacities ............................................. 38...................................................................... Advantages and disadvantages of aerobic sludge digestion................................... Types and applications of stabilization ponds......................................... Sludge incineration methods .................................................................................. 31............................................... Common anaerobic digesters .................. Costs of anaerobic treatment ............... 15......... 4.. Cost comparison of IX versus RO-IX for 50 and 200 m3 .................................................................... Percentage of total facility cost based on historical cost data ......... 20..................................... LIST OF TABLES 1......... Operational sages within a belt filter press .............................................................................. Basic flow equalization processes..................... 21. 17.................................... 26..... Characteristics of common disinfecting agents................................................................................... 35....................... 3....................................... Cost comparison of various natural waste-water treatment processes ....................... Estimated capital and O&M costs for an activated sludge plant............................. 18........ USEPA NPDES and ECEDR for discharges from waste-water treatment plants............CONTENTS (continued) VII............................................................... Page 88 2 3 4 6 7 9 10 13 14 19 24 29 31 32 33 34 36 37 43 44 47 50 51 51 52 52 54 57 64 65 66 67 69 70 70 71 71 74 76 77 79 80 80 81 82 82 vi ........................................................................................................ 9...................... 24............. Costs of various artificial recharge schemes in India (US$/m3)................................................. 6...... Benefits of instrumentations and control systems in waste-water treatment .............................. 32...... 11....................................... Extent of waste-water reuse in Jordan.... chemical precipitation............. Waste-water disposal methods currently practised in Jordan... 27............................................................................... 45................................. Important contaminants in waste-water ............... CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................ Aerobic composting systems..................... 16............ 37................... 33.... Flotation methods............................. Mechanical sludge drying methods............................................................................................ 46.........................................................

............................................................................... Cutaway view of a trickling filter ..........................................................1 mgd systems................................................................................. 10..... 40.......................... Characteristics of major waste-water treatment plants in Kuwait................................. Unit RO filtration total water treatment cost............................................................................. 4. 16.. 38................................ Settling basin with horizontal flow ................................. MF and UF treatment unit cost as a function of plant capacity.............. Waste-water treatment unit operations and processes................................................................................................................................................... 5.................................1 mgd systems. Belt filter press ....................................... 27... A typical granular activated carbon contactor.................... Various treatment levels in a waste-water treatment plant flow diagram ................... 20............................ 12.................................................................................. 43.... 11................................................ 36.............................. Typical flow diagram for RBC units................................................................................................................... Unit installed equipment cost of RO filtration plants.......................... 33..................... 39...... 31............................................................ 28................ 17....................... 21........... Sludge dryer technologies ...................................................... Unit RO filtration O&M cost ...... 26................................................................. Cost versus NF plant capacity................................ Typical flotation unit........................................................ A once-through chemical treatment system .... Cost versus permeate flux and feedwater recovery for a 50 mgd NF plant ............................................................................. Free water surface system ........................................................................................................ 19..................... MF and UF system unit cost as a function of plant capacity .... 29................................................. Incremental membrane treatment costs for three blending scenarios .................. Typical flow diagram for trickling filters.......... Typical flow diagram for stabilization ponds.................... Schematic of aerobic sludge digestion . RBC system configuration ..................... Waste-water reuse master plan in Kuwait.......................... 42....................................................................... 2.................... 37........... LIST OF FIGURES 1.............. 13................ 23........................................... 49......................... Examples of control systems..................................................................... 48......................................................................................................................... 7.... Composting process flow diagram.... 3........ 9..................................................................................... Typical flow diagram for aerated lagoons................................. 25. O&M costs of 1-0............... MF and UF plant capital unit cost as a function of plant capacity .................... Implementation status of waste-water treatment plants ............................. Subsurface flow system............................................................................ Typical flow diagram for an activated sludge process ... 35....................... Typical river diffuser outfall ...... Sludge incineration technologies ................ Typical anaerobic sludge digesters ........................................................................ 30.... 44................................................... 32......... Unit construction cost of membrane filtration plants .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6... Floating aquatic plants system ........................................................... Rapid infiltration treatment system ............................................................................... 24...................... 14................................................................... 8........................................................................................... Capital costs of 1-0........................ Sludge processing and disposal flow diagram ........................................................................................... Sources of waste-water...................................................................................................................... MF and UF O&M cost as a function of plant capacity ................................................................................. 2 5 8 9 11 12 15 16 16 17 17 18 18 21 23 25 25 26 26 27 28 30 30 31 34 35 36 38 42 45 46 56 58 58 59 60 60 61 61 62 63 63 68 68 83 84 85 vii ......... 22.............................................................................................CONTENTS (continued) Page 47........... 15....................................................................... 18........................... Typical control system components ............................................................................................................................... Overland flow system . 34....................................................................... Biological phosphorus removal systems ................................................ 41................................. Schematic of a vacuum filter system............

.. Tables and figures ................................... VI.. 4........ Common on-line process measurement devices and their application in waste-water treatment ........ Sustainability criteria for the assessment of water treatment technologies .... 3........................................................................... Cost calculation for discharge of a given effluent to sewer ........................................................................................................................................................................................ Zero-liquid technology in paper mills .......................... The Water spreadsheet tool .................................... LIST OF ANNEXES I................................................................................................................... Trading for phosphorus control....................................................................... 6........................................................ Membrane filtration cost data .............. 91 105 107 109 112 113 117 119 54 64 71 75 75 77 viii ........................................................................................................................... VII......CONTENTS (continued) Page LIST OF BOXES 1....................................... RO economics for an electroplating facility........................................... IV................................................................................................. II........................... Capdet/Works software ........... III.............................................................. Anaerobic digestion ................................................................................................................. Cost equations for treatment processes .................................................................... Comparison cost-effectiveness of RO or IX systems....... References .................................................................. 5.......... 2. V...........................

3(H2O) ASCE ASME BOD Ca(OH)2 CH4 Cl2.6H2O FeSO4.14. O3 COD DO EC EC EDR ENR EPA F/M Fe2(SO4)3 FeCl3.ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS AACE Al2(SO4)3.7H2O ft GAC GCC gfd H2S ha HRT IX KOH MF mgd MLSS MWTP N Na2S2O5 Na2SO3 NaOH NF NGO NPDES NTS O&M OF ORP P P2O7 PAC PO4-3 PVC POTWs RBC RI RO SBR SCADA SO2 American Association of Cost Engineers Alum American Society of Civil Engineers American Society of Mechanical Engineers biochemical oxygen demand lime methane chlorine chemical oxygen demand dissolved oxygen equipment cost European Community Environmental Directive Requirements Engineering News Record Environmental Protection Agency food to micro-organisms ratio ferric sulfate ferric chloride ferrous sulfate foot granular activated carbon Gulf Cooperation Council gallon per square foot per day hydrogen sulfide hectare hydraulic retention time ion exchange potassium hydroxide microfiltration million of gallons per day mixed liquor suspended solids Municipal waste-water treatment plant nitrogen sodium metabisulfite sodium sulfite sodium hydroxide nanofiltration non-governmental organization national pollutant discharge elimination system natural treatment system operation and maintenance overflow oxidation-reduction potential phosphorus polyphosphate powered activated carbon orthophosphate polyvinyl chloride publicly owned treatment works rotating biological contactor rapid infiltration reverse osmosis sequencing batch reactor Supervisory control and data acquisition sulfur dioxide ix . H2O2.

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS (continued) SR SRT SS TCC TIC TOC TOD TSS UF UNEP USAID USEPA UV WaTER WEF WWTP slow rate solids retention time suspended solids total construction costs total indirect cost total organic carbon total oxygen demand total dissolved solids ultrafiltration United Nations Environment Programme United States Agency for International Development United States Environmental Protection Agency ultraviolet Water Treatment Estimation Routine Water Environment Federation Waste-water treatment plant x .

as well as nutrients and toxic compounds. Untreated waste-water generally contains high levels of organic material. commercial or industrial facilities and institutions. Lebanon and Yemen) are presented in chapter 6. Finally. emphasizing in particular that more efforts are needed in the ESCWA region for the improvement of water reuse through an integrated. 1 Metcalf and Eddy. Devices and techniques used for instrumentation and control in waste-water treatment facilities are covered in chapter 4. with details on installation and operation costs for several treatment methods. in addition to any groundwater. numerous pathogenic microorganisms. The first chapter of this study identifies and briefly describes typical contaminants found in municipal waste-water. It thus entails environmental and health hazards. Chapter 5 is concerned with the economics of waste-water treatment. Kuwait. chapter 7 contains a number of recommendations. Wastewater Engineering: Treatment. Jordan. 1991).1 Due to the largely arid nature of the ESCWA member countries.. The ultimate goal of waste-water management is the protection of the environment in a manner commensurate with public health and socio-economic concerns. The case studies outline the current status of each country with respect to its waste-water treatment efforts and look at its future plans for the development of waste-water treatment facilities. surface water and storm water that may be present. waste-water treatment is of particular concern to them.Introduction Municipal waste-water is the combination of liquid or water-carried wastes originating in the sanitary conveniences of dwellings. Case studies on selected ESCWA member countries (Egypt. consequently. Disposal and Reuse. multi-disciplinary water management strategy. chapter 3 goes on to discuss the management of treated effluents and how they are reused and disposed of. and. . third edition (New York: McGraw-Hill. must immediately be conveyed away from its generation sources and treated appropriately before final disposal. Chapter 2 extensively illustrates various waste-water treatment technologies. Technical details on treatment methods and applications and sludge disposal are presented. Inc.

also fall into this category. Wide variations in waste-water flow rates may thus be expected to occur within a community (see table 1). Figure 1.. and the extent of meter services. Sources of waste-water Source: Metcalf and Eddy. VARIATIONS IN WASTE-WATER FLOW WITHIN A COMMUNITY Community size (population) 1 000 1 000-10 000 10 000-100 000 Variation in waste-water flow (percentage of the average daily flow rate) 20-400 50-300 Up to 200 Source: Adapted from D. oil and grease.H. odour. and turbidity. 2 . Insoluble contents such as solids. and biological characteristics. water conservation requirements or practices. Treatment and Reuse. living standards. Liu and B. Waste-water originates predominantly from water usage by residences and commercial and industrial establishments. Physical parameters include colour. surface water and storm water (see figure 1).G. fourth edition (New York: McGraw-Hill. Lipták. 2003). dependability and quality of water supply. 1999). temperature. community size. cost of water and supply pressure. Wastewater Treatment (Boca Raton: Lewis. NATURE OF MUNICIPAL WASTE-WATER An understanding of the nature of waste-water is fundamental for the design of appropriate wastewater treatment plants and the selection of effective treatment technologies. Wastewater Engineering.F. Consequently.I. chemical. waste-water flow fluctuates with variations in water usage. Solids may be further subdivided into suspended and dissolved solids as well as organic (volatile) and inorganic (fixed) fractions. in addition to the degree of industrialization. Inc. together with groundwater. TABLE 1. Waste-water quality may be defined by its physical. which is affected by a multitude of factors including climate.

3 . Important contaminants in terms of their potential effects on receiving waters and treatment concerns are outlined in table 3. acidity and alkalinity. hardness.. total organic carbon (TOC). Waste-water is classified as strong. fecal coliforms. depending on its contaminant concentration. chemical oxygen demand (COD). pH. 3rd edition. sulfides. Both constituents and concentrations vary with time and local conditions. 20ºC TOC COD Nitrogen (total as N) Organic Free ammonia Nitrites Nitrates Phosphorus (total as P) Organic Inorganic Chlorides Sulfate Alkalinity (as CaCO3) Grease Total coliforms Volatile organic compounds Unit mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mL/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L No/100 ml µg/L Weak 350 250 145 105 100 20 80 5 110 80 250 20 8 12 0 0 4 1 3 30 20 50 50 106-107 <100 Strong 1 200 850 525 325 350 75 275 20 400 290 1 000 85 35 50 0 0 15 5 10 100 50 200 150 107-109 >400 Source: Adapted from Metcalf and Eddy Inc. sulfates. Inorganic chemical parameters include salinity. as well as concentrations of ionized metals such as iron and manganese. Bacteriological parameters include coliforms. The effects of the discharge of untreated waste-water into the environment are manifold and depend on the types and concentrations of pollutants. medium or weak. TYPICAL COMPOSITION OF UNTREATED DOMESTIC WASTE-WATER Concentration Medium 720 500 300 200 220 55 165 10 220 160 500 40 15 25 0 0 8 3 5 50 30 100 100 107-108 100-400 Contaminants Total solids (TS) Total dissolved solids (TDS) Fixed Volatile Suspended solids Fixed Volatile Settleable solids BOD5.Chemical parameters associated with the organic content of waste-water include biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). specific pathogens. Table 2 shows typical concentration ranges for various constituents in untreated domestic waste-water. nitrates and phosphates. and viruses. Wastewater Engineering. and total oxygen demand (TOD). and anionic entities such as chlorides. TABLE 2.

mutagenic or teratogenic. Biodegradable organics are principally made up of proteins. Priority pollutants. Inc. Source: Adapted from Metcalf and Eddy. their biological stabilization can deplete natural oxygen resources and cause septic conditions that are detrimental to aquatic species. IMPORTANT CONTAMINANTS IN WASTE-WATER Contaminants Reason for importance Suspended solids (SS) can lead to development of sludge deposits and anaerobic conditions when untreated wastewater is discharged to the aquatic environment. carcinogenic. streams or lakes. and may have to be removed for waste-water reuse. including organic and inorganic compounds. Refractory organics that tend to resist conventional waste-water treatment include surfactants. 4 . If discharged into inland rivers. They are commonly measured in terms of BOD and COD. Pathogenic organisms found in waste-water can cause infectious diseases. Wastewater Engineering. Heavy metals usually added by commercial and industrial activities must be removed for reuse of the waste-water. 3rd edition. phenols and agricultural pesticides. may be highly toxic.TABLE 3. sodium and sulfate are often initially added to domestic water supplies.. carbohydrates and fats. Dissolved inorganic constituents such as calcium.

secondary. Natural systems are also used for the treatment of waste-water in land-based applications. Physical unit operations Among the first treatment methods used were physical unit operations. Figure 2 lists the unit operations included within each category. to intercept large floating or 5 . This section briefly discusses the most commonly used physical unit operations.II. they still form the basis of most process flow systems for wastewater treatment. A. waste-water treatment methods are broadly classifiable into physical. Sludge resulting from waste-water treatment operations is treated by various methods in order to reduce its water and organic content and make it suitable for final disposal and reuse. Waste-water treatment unit operations and processes Screening Comminution Flow equalization Sedimentation Flotation Granular-medium filtration Chemical precipitation Adsorption Disinfection Dechlorination Other chemical applications Activated sludge process Aerated lagoon Trickling filters Rotating biological contactors Pond stabilization Anaerobic digestion Biological nutrient removal Physical unit operations Chemical unit operations Biological unit operations 1. avoid interference with plant operations and prevent objectionable floating material from entering the primary settling tanks. In order to achieve different levels of contaminant removal. (a) Screening The screening of waste-water. WASTE-WATER TREATMENT METHODS As mentioned earlier. in which physical forces are applied to remove contaminants. chemical and biological methods are used to remove contaminants from waste-water. grating. More rigorous treatment of waste-water includes the removal of specific contaminants as well as the removal and control of nutrients. wire mesh. WASTE-WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES Physical. removes gross pollutants from the waste stream to protect downstream equipment from damage. classified as primary. chemical and biological processes. individual waste-water treatment procedures are combined into a variety of systems. and tertiary waste-water treatment. or perforated plates. Figure 2. This chapter describes the various conventional and advanced technologies in current use and explains how they are applied for the effective treatment of municipal waste-water. rods or wires. Today. Screening devices may consist of parallel bars. one of the oldest treatment methods.

The openings may be of any shape.3 The principal types of screening devices are listed in table 4.2-1. are constructed of parallel rectangular or round steel bars with clear openings.suspended material. wire mesh.5 0.2 The material retained from the manual or mechanical cleaning of bar racks and screens is referred to as “screenings”.2. as well as channel width and waste-water approach velocity.4 2 Metcalf and Eddy. Waste-water Engineering. but are generally circular or rectangular. or air forced through the reverse side of the openings.. and angle from the vertical. WEF Manual of Practice No. 6 . Inc.3 Fine screens consist of various types of screen media. fine screens must be cleaned continuously by means of brushes. Design of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants. steam. Fine screens 1.5-6 Reduce suspended solids to primary treatment levels Types of screens Manually cleaned bar screens/trash racks Mechanically cleaned bar screens/trash racks o Chain or cable driven with front or back cleaning o Reciprocating rake screens o Catenary screens o Continuous self-cleaning screens Rotary-drum screens Rotary-drum screens with outward or inward flow Rotary-vertical-disk screens Inclined revolving disc screens Traveling water screens Endless band screen Vibrating screens Very fine screens Microscreens 0. The efficiency of a fine screen depends on the fineness of the openings as well as the sewage flow velocity through those openings. grit chambers. 8 and ASCE Manual and Report on Engineering Practice No. 3rd edition. They are used ahead of mechanical equipment including raw sewage pumps.3 Reduce suspended solids to primary treatment levels Upgrade secondary effluent to tertiary standards Sources: Adapted from Liu and Lipták. spacing. Wastewater Treatment. Bar screens consist of vertical or inclined steel bars distributed equally across a channel through which waste-water flows.001-0. The coarse screen category includes manually or mechanically cleaned bar screens and trash racks. scrapers. and primary sedimentation tanks. Due to their tiny openings. Trash racks. or returned into the waste flow after grinding. They are usually followed by regular bar screens or comminutors. woven wire cloth and wedge-shaped wire. for their part. or jets of water. 4 Liu and Lipták. SCREEN TYPES Size of openings (millimeters) ≥6 Screen category Coarse screens Application Remove large solids. Criteria used in the design of coarse screens include bar size. 1992). rags. including slotted perforated plates. Design of Municipal Wastewater Treatment plants (Volume 1). Wastewater Treatment. and is either disposed of by burial or incineration. 76 (Vermont: Book Press Inc. and debris. and Water Environment Federation (WEF) and American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE).. TABLE 4. 3 Water Environment Federation (WEF) and American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE).

Equalization basin Influent Flow 1 Flow 2 Flow 3 Mixed Basin Treatment facility Effluent Treatment facility Effluent Influent Equalization basin Treatment facility Effluent Source: Adapted from Liu and Lipták. They are installed where the handling of screenings would be impractical. combined flow Completely mixed. The diverted flow is then fed into the system at a controlled rate. involves the gravitational settling of heavy particles suspended in a mixture.5 There are four basic flow equalization processes that are summarized in table 5. completely mixed. A basin that completely mixes multiple flows at the front end of the treatment process A large. Rotating-cutter comminutors either engage a separate stationary screen alongside the cutters. biological floc in the activated sludge settling basin. pollutant levels and temperature over a period of time. and prior to advanced waste treatment operations. Variations are damped until a near-constant flow rate is achieved. mixed flow An equalization basin to which a significant increase in flow is diverted. and chemical flow when the chemical coagulation process is used. prior to discharge into a water body. flies and unsightliness. holding basin located before the waste-water facility. minimizing the downstream effects of these parameters. (d) Sedimentation Sedimentation. A comminutor may have either rotating or oscillating cutters. e.g. BASIC FLOW EQUALIZATION PROCESSES Process Alternating flow diversion Description Two basins alternating between filling and discharging for successive time periods. Wastewater Treatment.5 (c) Flow equalization Flow equalization is a technique used to improve the effectiveness of secondary and advanced wastewater treatment processes by levelling out operation parameters such as flow. generally between the grit chamber and the primary settling tanks.(b) Comminution Comminutors are used to pulverize large floating material in the waste flow. or a combined screen and cutter rotating together. known as a barminutor. Illustration Equalization basin Influent Equalization basin Treatment facility Effluent Intermittent flow diversion Completely mixed. Their use reduces odours. particulate matter in the primary settling basin. involves a combination of a bar screen and rotating cutters. Flow equalization may be applied at a number of locations within a waste-water treatment plant. TABLE 5. levelling parameters in influent stream and providing a constant discharge. 7 . near the head end of the treatment works. a fundamental and widely used unit operation in waste-water treatment. A different type of comminutor. This process is used for the removal of grit. 5 Ibid.

Basins are usually made of steel or reinforced concrete. Four types of settling occur. Here. so that a smaller-sized clarifier can be used. Wastewater Engineering. The flow in rectangular basins is rectilinear and parallel to the long axis of the basin. it is important to bear in mind that the system must produce both a clarified effluent and a concentrated sludge. (ii) Solid contact clarifiers Solid contact clarifiers bring incoming solids into contact with a suspended layer of sludge near the bottom that acts as a blanket. They also provide a larger surface area. the bottom is conical and slopes towards the centre of the basin. Both types of basins are designed to keep the velocity and flow distributions as uniform as possible in order to prevent currents and eddies from forming. the slope is towards the inlet end. 6 Metcalf and Eddy. and there is no wind effect. Wastewater Treatment. The bottom surface slopes slightly to facilitate sludge removal. use inclined trays to divide the depth into shallower sections. and thereby keep the suspended material from settling. flocculent. (i) Horizontal flow Horizontal-flow clarifiers may be rectangular. In rectangular tanks. Settling basin with horizontal flow Influent Scum Trough B affle t W ater level Flow E ffluent Sludge pipe (a) Parts of a rectangular basin Water level Drive Skimming blade Scum scraper Effluent weir Influent Sludge pipe Squeejee flow Scum pipe (b) Parts of circular tank Source: Adapted from Liu and Lipták.. depending on particle concentration: discrete.6 In designing a sedimentation basin.Sedimentation takes place in a settling tank. The incoming solids agglomerate and remain enmeshed within the sludge blanket. whereby the liquid is able to rise upwards while the solids are retained below. solids contact and inclined surface. (iii) Inclined surface basins Inclined surface basins. horizontal flow. whereas in centre-feed circular basins. while in circular and square tanks. There are three main designs. 8 . square or circular in shape (see figure 3). thus reducing particle settling times. Many overloaded horizontal flow clarifiers have been upgraded to inclined surface basins. namely. 3rd edition. also referred to as a clarifier. Figure 3. It is common for more than one type of settling to occur during a sedimentation operation. the flow is laminar. the water flows radially from the centre towards the outer edges. Inc. also known as high-rate settlers. hindered and compression.

Wastewater Engineering. they can be skimmed out. After a short holding time. the pressure is restored to atmospheric level.. The saturation of waste-water with air either directly in an aeration tank or by permitting air to enter on the suction side of a waste-water pump. Wastewater Treatment. Chemicals further the flotation process by creating a surface that can easily adsorb or entrap air bubbles. The gas bubbles either adhere to the liquid or are trapped in the particle structure of the suspended solids. The scum is removed by a skimming mechanism while the settled grit is raked to a central sump for removal. allowing the air to be released as minute bubbles. FLOTATION METHODS Process Dissolved-air flotation Description The injection of air while waste-water is under the pressure of several atmospheres. The introduction of gas into the liquid phase directly by means of a revolving impeller or through diffusers. Flotation. causing the dissolved air to come out of solution as minute bubbles which rise with the attached solids to the surface. Inorganic chemicals (aluminum and ferric salts and activated silica) and various organic polymers can be used for this purpose. while a typical flotation unit is illustrated in figure 4. as currently practised in municipal waste-water treatment. The chief advantage of flotation over sedimentation is that very small or light particles can be removed more completely and in a shorter time. Particles that have a higher density than the liquid can thus be made to rise. TABLE 6. A partial vacuum is applied. at atmospheric pressure. 7 Metcalf and Eddy. Air flotation Vacuum flotation Chemical additives Source: Adapted from Metcalf and Eddy. raising the buoyant force of the combined particle and gas bubbles. flotation is used mainly to remove suspended matter and to concentrate biological sludge. usually air bubbles. Inc. various chemical additives can be introduced to enhance the removal process. Figure 4. Furthermore. uses air exclusively as the floating agent.(e) Flotation Flotation is a unit operation used to remove solid or liquid particles from a liquid phase by introducing a fine gas. Inc.7 The various flotation methods are described in table 6. Wastewater Engineering.. 3rd edition. where they form a scum blanket. Typical flotation unit Effluent weir Effluent Diffusion well Recycle suction Retention baffle Sludge collector Settled sludge discharge Pressurized air wastewater inlet Skimmer Float trough Float sludge discharge Source: Adapted from Liu and Lipták. 3rd edition. In waste-water treatment. Once the particles have been floated to the surface. 9 .

chemical unit processes have an inherent disadvantage compared to physical operations in that they are additive processes. flocculation and adsorption. Coagulant selection for enhanced sedimentation is based on performance. The waste-water to be filtered is passed through a filter bed consisting of granular material (sand. The phenomena that occur during the filtration phase are basically the same for all types of filters used for waste-water filtration. In semi-continuous filtration. Wastewater Engineering. 3rd edition. REMOVAL EFFICIENCY OF PLAIN SEDIMENTATION VS. 2. Inc.(f) Granular medium filtration The filtration of effluents from waste-water treatment processes is a relatively recent practice. in addition to the removal of chemically precipitated phosphorus. impaction. thereby enhancing the efficiency of suspended solid. In general. but has come to be widely used for the supplemental removal of suspended solids from waste-water effluents of biological and chemical treatment processes.3 H2O). BOD5 and phosphorus removal as compared to plain sedimentation without coagulation (see table 7). interception. whereas in continuous filtration the filtering and cleaning operations occur simultaneously. 10 . Chemical coagulants that are commonly used in waste-water treatment include alum (Al2(SO4)3. Chemical unit processes Chemical processes used in waste-water treatment are designed to bring about some form of change by means of chemical reactions. This can be a significant factor if the waste-water is to be reused. Performance evaluation uses jar tests of the actual waste-water to determine dosages and effectiveness. 8 9 Metcalf and Eddy.14. anthracite and/or garnet). Ibid.8 The operational characteristics of the various forms of granular medium filters commonly used for waste-water filtration are illustrated in annex figure 1 and reported in annex table 1 (see annex I). The cleaning/backwashing phase differs. disinfection. adsorption. Within the filter bed. dechlorination and other applications. That is to say. They are always used in conjunction with physical unit operations and biological processes. sedimentation.. including chemical precipitation. Design of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants. with or without added chemicals. reliability and cost. (a) Chemical precipitation Chemical coagulation of raw waste-water before sedimentation promotes the flocculation of finely divided solids into more readily settleable flocs. the filtering and cleaning operations occur sequentially. The degree of clarification obtained depends on the quantity of chemicals used and the care with which the process is controlled.9 TABLE 7. depending on whether the filter operation is continuous or semicontinuous. there is usually a net increase in the dissolved constituents of the waste-water. The complete filtration operation comprises two phases: filtration and cleaning or backwashing. CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION Parameter Total suspended solids (TSS) BOD5 COD Phosphorus Bacteria loadings Percentage removal Plain sedimentation Chemical precipitation 40-90 60-90 25-40 40-70 30-60 5-10 70-90 50-60 80-90 Source: WEF and ASCE. suspended solids contained in the waste-water are removed by means of a complex process involving one or more removal mechanisms such as straining. This section discusses the main chemical unit processes.

The water is applied to the top of the column and withdrawn from the bottom. ferrous sulfate (FeSO4. coagulation results in a larger mass of primary sludge that is often more difficult to thicken and dewater. The advantages of coagulation include greater removal efficiency.7H2O) and lime (Ca(OH)2). while the carbon is held in place. and is aimed at removing a portion of the remaining dissolved organic matter. ferric sulfate (Fe2(SO4)3).12 A fixed-bed column is often used to bring the waste-water into contact with GAC. which has a diameter of less than 200 mesh. flocculation and settling. adsorption with activated carbon—a solid interface—usually follows normal biological treatment. (b) Adsorption with activated carbon Adsorption is the process of collecting soluble substances within a solution on a suitable interface.. Particulate matter present in the water may also be removed. the chemical is added and completely dispersed throughout the waste-water by rapid mixing for 20-30 seconds in a basin with a turbine mixer. First. 3rd edition. Design of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants. The activated char can then be separated into various sizes with different adsorption capacities. the feasibility of using higher overflow rates. Wastewater Treatment. Activated carbon is produced by heating char to a high temperature and then activating it by exposure to an oxidizing gas at high temperature.11 The final step is clarification by gravity as discussed in section 0.6H2O). Wastewater Engineering.1 mm. On the other hand. Wastewater Treatment. Expanded-bed and moving-bed carbon contactors have been developed to 10 11 12 WEF and ASCE. and powdered activated carbon (PAC). Backwashing and surface washing are applied to limit headloss build-up. The two most common types of activated carbon are granular activated carbon (GAC). A once-through chemical treatment system Chemical Feed Flocculation aid Clarification Neutralization Effluent Flash mix Lime sludge Flocculation Alum sludge To sludge disposal Source: Adapted from Liu and Lipták. Metcalf and Eddy. Liu and Lipták. Flocculation takes 15 to 30 minutes in a basin containing turbine or paddle-type mixers. and more consistent performance. The gas develops a porous structure in the char and thus creates a large internal surface area.10 Suspended solids removal through chemical treatment involves a series of three unit operations: rapid mixing. Inc. A once-through chemical treatment system is illustrated in figure 5. Figure 5. A schematic of an activated carbon contactor is shown in figure 6. which has a diameter greater than 0. Organic polyelectrolytes are sometimes used as flocculation aids. In waste-water treatment.ferric chloride (FeCl3. It also entails higher operational costs and demands greater attention on the part of the operator. 11 . Coagulated particles are then brought together via flocculation by mechanically inducing velocity gradients within the liquid.

quaternary 12 . Commonly used means of disinfection include the following: (i) Physical agents such as heat and light.overcome the problem of headloss build-up. dyes. (c) Disinfection Disinfection refers to the selective destruction of disease-causing micro-organisms. Spent granular carbon can be regenerated by removal of the adsorbed organic matter from its surface through oxidation in a furnace. It is then allowed to settle to the bottom of the tank and removed. The capacity of the regenerated carbon is slightly less than that of the virgin carbon. sedimentation. Figure 6. In the expanded-bed system. soaps and synthetic detergents. (iii) Radiation. spent carbon is continuously replaced with fresh carbon. 3rd edition. Removal of the powdered carbon may be facilitated by the addition of polyelectrolyte coagulants or filtration through granular-medium filters. Waste-water treatment using PAC involves the addition of the powder directly to the biological treatment effluent or the physiochemical treatment process. filtration. PAC is usually added to waste-water in a contacting basin for a certain length of time. ozone. Wastewater Engineering. phenol and phenolic compounds. In the moving-bed system. A typical granular activated carbon contactor Air scour discharge Backwash effluent Regenerated carbon in Carbon column influent Surface wash in Top of carbon bed Carbon slurry motive water in Surface wash agitator Underdrain nozzle Plenum plate Plenum support plate Spent carbon drawoff Carbon column effluent Spent carbon out Backwash influent Plenum area Carbon column drains Air scour in Source: Metcalf and Eddy. as the case may be. A major problem with the use of powdered activated carbon is that the methodology for its regeneration is not well defined. which harbours a number of human enteric organisms that are associated with various waterborne diseases. alcohols. (ii) Mechanical means such as screening. mainly gamma rays. (iv) Chemical agents including chlorine and its compounds. bromine. iodine. heavy metals. the influent is introduced at the bottom of the column and is allowed to expand. This process is of importance in waste-water treatment owing to the nature of waste-water. and so on.

15 S. and Operation (Lancaster. It is important to note that dechlorination will not remove toxic by-products that have already been produced. Dechlorination may be brought about by the use of activated carbon. Inc. several factors need to be considered: contact time. number of organisms. Design.14 Table 8 shows the most commonly used disinfectants and their effectiveness. 3rd edition. must be generated as used Toxic High High Highly corrosive High Moderately low cost High Slight Slightly unstable Toxic High High Corrosive Moderate Moderately low cost High High Unstable.ammonium compounds. In applying disinfecting agents. altering cell permeability. Disinfectants act through one or more of a number of mechanisms. Qasim. 3rd edition.13 TABLE 8. (d) Dechlorination Dechlorination is the removal of free and total combined chlorine residue from chlorinated wastewater effluent before its reuse or discharge to receiving waters. Wastewater Engineering. and nature of suspending liquid. or by the addition of a reducing agent such as sulfur dioxide (SO2). must be generated as used Toxic High High Highly corrosive High Moderately high cost High N/A Must be generated as used Toxic High Moderate N/A None Moderately high cost Toxicity to higher forms of life Effect at ambient temperature Penetration Corrosiveness Deodorizing ability Availability/cost Highly toxic High High Highly corrosive High Low cost Toxic High High Corrosive Moderate Moderately low cost Sources: Metcalf and Eddy. chlorine is the most widely used. The most common chemical disinfectants are the oxidizing chemicals.. sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) or sodium metabisulfite (Na2S2O5). and various alkalis and acids. temperature. and Qasim.R. Wastewater Treatment Plants: Planning. Wastewater Treatment Plants. hydrogen peroxide. Chlorine compounds react with many organic compounds in the effluent to produce undesired toxic compounds that cause long-term adverse impacts on the water environment and potentially toxic effects on aquatic micro-organisms. gas High Slight Stable Sodium hypochlorite NaOCl Solution Calcium hypochlorite Ca(OCl)2 Powder. pellets or 1 per cent solution High High Relatively stable Chlorine dioxide ClO2 Gas Bromine chloride BrCl Liquid Ozone O3 Gas Ultraviolet light N/A UV energy Toxicity to microorganisms Solubility Stability High High Slightly unstable Toxic High High Corrosive Moderate Moderately low cost High High Unstable. 14 15 13 Qasim. altering the colloidal nature of the protoplasm and inhibiting enzyme activity. including damaging the cell wall. 1999). and of these. CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMON DISINFECTING AGENTS Characteristic Chemical formula Form Chlorine Cl2 Liquid.. Inc. Wastewater Engineering. Pennsylvania: Technomic Publishing Company. Qasim. Wastewater Treatment Plants. 13 . concentration and type of chemical agent. intensity and nature of physical agent. Wastewater Treatment Plants and Metcalf and Eddy.

into an aeration basin where it is mixed with an active mass of microorganisms. TABLE 9. O3 KOH. Anoxic processes. O3 O3 Cl2. TOC or COD) and nutrient content (notably nitrogen and phosphorus) of waste-water. with the main objective of reducing the organic content (measured as BOD. In these processes. continuous-flow system containing a mass of activated micro-organisms that are capable of stabilizing organic matter. used during fly season Temporary control measure Conversion of ammonia to nitrogen gas Plant effluent. O3 Remarks Added before preaeration Oxidation of organic substances Production of ferric sulfate and ferric chloride Residual at filter nozzles Residual at filter nozzles. The process consists of delivering clarified waste-water. Combined processes. rotating biological contactors and stabilization ponds. 3. convert the colloidal and dissolved carbonaceous organic matter into various gases and into cell tissue which is then removed in sedimentation tanks. H2O2. O3 Cl2. OTHER CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS IN WASTE-WATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL Application Treatment Grease removal BOD reduction pH control Ferrous sulfate oxidation Filter . H2O2. Anaerobic processes. the activated sludge process. overflows.. water. new cells. various other applications are occasionally encountered in waste-water treatment and disposal. and other end products. including trickling filters. These processes are further subdivided. Inc. aerated lagoons. Table 9 lists the most common applications and the chemicals used.(e) Other chemical applications In addition to the chemical processes described above.fly control Sludge-bulking control Digester supernatant oxidation Digester and Imhoff tank foaming control Ammonia oxidation Odour control Oxidation of refractory organic compounds Disposal Bacterial reduction Odour control Chemical used Cl2 Cl2. micro-organisms.ponding control Filter . H2O2. and stormwater Source: Metcalf and Eddy. which aerobically degrade organic matter into carbon dioxide. Biological unit processes Biological unit processes are used to convert the finely divided and dissolved organic matter in wastewater into flocculent settleable organic and inorganic solids. mainly bacteria and protozoa. depending on whether the treatment takes place in a suspended-growth system an attached-growth system or a combination of both (see annex table 2). Ca(OH)2 Cl2 Cl2 Cl2 Cl2. Pond processes. The bacteria involved in activated sludge systems are primarily 14 . This section will be concerned with the most commonly used biological processes. particularly bacteria. (a) Activated-sludge process The activated-sludge process is an aerobic. Biological processes are usually used in conjunction with physical and chemical processes. after primary settling. Wastewater Engineering. 3rd edition. Biological processes used for waste-water treatment may be classified under five major headings: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Aerobic processes. H2O2. O3 Cl2 Cl2 Cl2 Cl2. NaOH.

15 . (b) Regulation of the amount of returning activated sludge. The microbiology involved in this process is similar to that of the activated-sludge process. floc formers and non-floc formers. temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO). This problem can be controlled by chlorination of the return sludge. where the sludge is allowed to settle and a clarified effluent is produced for discharge. which also serves to keep the contents of the reactor (or mixed liquor) completely mixed. (c) Control of the waste activated sludge. nitrogen and trace elements and wide fluctuations in pH. However.Gram-negative species. 3rd edition. Wastewater Treatment. The turbulence created by aeration is used to keep the contents of the basin in suspension. include flagellates. Typical flow diagram for an activated-sludge process Screenings Grit Sludge Waste sludge CL 2 or NaOCl Influent Bar Racks Grit Chamber Primary sediment ation Waste sludge Aeration tank Settling tank Chlorine contact chamber Effluent Return sludge Control of the activated-sludge process is important to maintain a high treatment performance level under a wide range of operating conditions. amoebas and ciliates. turbine or diffused aeration. Wastewater Engineering. differences arise because the large surface area of a lagoon may cause more temperature effects than are ordinarily encountered in conventional activated-sludge processes. An aerobic environment is maintained in the basin by means of diffused or mechanical aeration.16. for their part. aerated lagoon effluent contains approximately one third to one half the incoming BOD value in the form of cellular mass. The principal factors in process control are the following: (a) Maintenance of dissolved oxygen levels in the aeration tanks. 16 17 Liu and Lipták. including carbon oxidizers. The process also intentionally wastes a portion of the settled sludge to maintain the required solids retention time (SRT) for effective organic removal. Depending on the retention time. Figure 7. Bulky sludge has poor settleability and compactibility due to the excessive growth of filamentous micro-organisms. nitrogen oxidizers. The protozoa. Waste-water is oxygenated by surface. Most of these solids must be removed in a settling basin before final effluent discharge (see figure 8). Inc. which can be caused by the absence of phosphorus. After a specific retention time. the mixed liquor passes into the secondary clarifier. Metcalf and Eddy.. The process recycles a portion of the settled sludge back to the aeration basin to maintain the required activated sludge concentration (see figure 7). (b) Aerated lagoons An aerated lagoon is a basin between 1 and 4 metres in depth in which waste-water is treated either on a flow-through basis or with solids recycling. and aerobes and facultative anaerobes.17 Annex table 3 presents a description of conventional activated-sludge processes and various modifications (see annex figure 2). The main operational problem encountered in a system of this kind is sludge bulking.

As the slime layer increases in thickness.19 After passing through the filter. This phenomenon is referred to as ‘sloughing’. The organic material present in the waste-water is degraded by adsorption on to the biological slime layer. The collected liquid then passes to a settling tank where the solids are separated from the treated waste-water. Deprived of their external organic source of nourishment.. Inc. Wastewater Engineering. 18 19 Liu and Lipták. An anaerobic environment is thus established near the surface of the filter medium. As the micro-organisms grow. Cutaway view of a trickling filter Distributor Filter material Filter floor Underdrain Source: Metcalf and Eddy. these micro-organisms die and are washed off by the flowing liquid. and through which waste-water is percolated. Wastewater Treatment. the thickness of the slime layer increases and the oxygen is depleted before it has penetrated the full depth of the slime layer. it is degraded by aerobic micro-organisms. 3rd edition. forming a biological slime layer. the organic matter is degraded before it reaches the micro-organisms near the surface of the medium. 3rd edition. Metcalf and Eddy. together with any biological solids that have become detached from the medium (see figure 9). It consists of a bed of highly permeable medium to which organisms are attached. Inc. Typical flow diagram for aerated lagoons Screenings Return sludge Chlorine contact chamber Sludge CL2 or NaOCl Influent Bar Racks Aerated lagoon Settling tank Effluent (c) Trickling filters The trickling filter is the most commonly encountered aerobic attached-growth biological treatment process used for the removal of organic matter from waste-water. Figure 9.18. The filter medium usually consists of rock or plastic packing material. A new slime layer grows in their place. Wastewater Engineering. A portion of the liquid collected in the underdrain system or the settled effluent is recycled to dilute the strength of the incoming waste-water and to maintain the biological slime layer in moist condition (see figure 10).Figure 8. 16 .. In the outer portion of that layer. the treated liquid is collected in an underdrain system.

Organic matter is degraded by means of mechanisms similar to those operating in the trickling filters process. It also promotes a variety of conditions where different organisms can flourish to varying degrees. Wastewater Engineering. increasing overall removal efficiency. Wastewater Treatment Plants. which are made of high-density polystyrene or polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Partially submerged RBCs are used for carbonaceous BOD removal. RBC system configuration Primary treatment Secondary clarifier Influent Effluent Solids removal Source: Qasim.20 Figure 11. The disks. are partially submerged in the waste-water. RBC systems are divided into a series of independent stages or compartments by means of baffles in a single basin or separate basins arranged in stages. the system thus enhances organic removal. and nitrification of secondary effluents. 17 . from which they adsorb organic matter. so that a bacterial slime layer forms on their wetted surfaces. 20 Metcalf and Eddy. As the waste-water flows through the compartments. A typical arrangement of RBCs is shown in figure 12. the bacteria are exposed alternately to waste-water. and to air. Completely submerged RBCs are used for denitrification. Typical flow diagram for trickling filters Screenings Grit Sludge CL2 or NaOCl Waste sludge Influent Bar Racks Grit Chamber Primary sedimentation Trickling filters Settling tank Chlorine contact chamber Effluent Return effluent (d) Rotating biological contactors A rotating biological contractor (RBC) is an attached-growth biological process that consists of one or more basins in which large closely-spaced circular disks mounted on horizontal shafts rotate slowly through waste-water (see figure 11). 3rd edition. The rotary movement also allows excess bacteria to be removed from the surfaces of the disks and maintains a suspension of sloughed biological solids. As the disks rotate. from which they absorb oxygen. Inc. A final clarifier is needed to remove sloughed solids. Compartmentalization creates a plug-flow pattern..Figure 10. combined carbon oxidation and nitrification. In general. each subsequent stage receives influent with a lower organic content than the previous stage.

producing ammonia. Anaerobic ponds. which are subsequently used by algae during daylight to produce oxygen. using a completely mixed biological process without solids return. The bacterial population oxidizes organic matter. Mixing may be either natural (wind. Typical flow diagram for RBC units Screenings Grit Sludge CL2 or Sludge NaOCl Baffle Influent Bar Racks Grit Chamber Primary sedimentation Settling tank Drive Motor Chlorine contact Effluent chamber RBC units (e) Stabilization ponds A stabilization pond is a relatively shallow body of waste-water contained in an earthen basin. anaerobic. Aerobic ponds are used primarily for the treatment of soluble organic wastes and effluents from waste-water treatment plants. Figure 13 presents a typical flow diagram for stabilization ponds. Stabilization ponds are usually classified. are particularly effective in bringing about rapid stabilization of strong concentratons of organic wastes. water and other end products. or aerobicanaerobic (see table 10). Typical flow diagram for stabilization ponds Screenings CL2 or NaOCl Influent Bar Racks Stabilization ponds Solids separation facility Chlorine contact chamber Effluent 21 Liu and Lipták. heat or fermentation) or induced (mechanical or diffused aeration). Wastewater Treatment. sulfates. 18 . for their part. Aerobic and facultative ponds are biologically complex. Bacteria then use this supplemental oxygen and the oxygen provided by wind action to break down the remaining organic matter. Aerobic-anaerobic (facultative) ponds are the most common type and have been used to treat domestic waste-water and a wide variety of industrial wastes.21 Figure 13. as aerobic. carbon dioxide. This is a treatment process that is very commonly found in rural areas because of its low construction and operating costs. Waste-water retention time ranges between 30 and 120 days.Figure 12. on the basis of the nature of the biological activity that takes place in them.

whether continuous or intermittent. Wastewater Engineering. Photosynthesis and surface reaeration provide oxygen for upper layers. A combination of these 19 . Aerobic-anaerobic (oxygen from algae) Facultative pond Treatment of screened untreated or primary settled waste-water or industrial wastes. 3rd edition. In the high-rate digestion process. usually followed by aerobic or facultative ponds. typically. acidogenesis and methanogenesis. Combination of pond types described above. Lower layers are facultative. except without supplemental aeration. anaerobic pretreatment pond Pond system Anaerobic followed by aerobicanaerobic Source: Adapted from Metcalf and Eddy. Recirculation frequently used from aerobic to anaerobic ponds.. and are retained. conversion of wastes Used for polishing effluents from conventional secondary treatment processes such as trickling filter or activated sludge Treatment of screened untreated or primary settled waste-water or industrial wastes. High-rate pond Maturation pond Aerobic-anaerobic (supplemental aeration) Facultative pond with aeration Deeper than high-rate pond. Complete treatment of municipal waste-water and industrial wastes with high bacterial removal. aeration and photosynthesis provide oxygen for aerobic stabilization in upper layers. A consortium of anaerobic organisms work together to degrade the organic sludges and wastes in three steps. and are retained for a period ranging from 30 to 60 days. consisting of hydrolysis of high-molecular-mass compounds. Bottom layer of solids undergoes anaerobic digestion. Sludge is introduced continuously or intermittently and retained in the reactor for varying periods of time. the stabilized sludge is reduced in organic and pathogen content and is non-putrescible. (f) Completely mixed anaerobic digestion Anaerobic digestion involves the biological conversion of organic and inorganic matter in the absence of molecular oxygen to a variety of end-products including methane and carbon dioxide. TYPES AND APPLICATIONS OF STABILIZATION PONDS Type of pond Aerobic Common name Low-rate pond Characteristics Designed to maintain aerobic conditions throughout the liquid depth Designed to optimize the production of algal cell tissue and achieve high yields of harvestable proteins Similar to low-rate ponds but very lightly loaded Application Treatment of soluble organic wastes and secondary effluents Nutrient removal. the contents of the digester are usually unheated and unmixed. The two most widely used types of anaerobic digesters are standard-rate and high-rate. Anaerobic Anaerobic lagoon. the contents of the digester are heated and mixed completely. The process takes place in an airtight reactor. After withdrawal from the reactor. Treatment of municipal waste-water and industrial wastes.TABLE 10. for a period of 15 days or less. Anaerobic conditions prevail throughout. Inc. In the standard-rate digestion process. Aerobic-anaerobic ponds may be followed by an aerobic pond. treatment of soluble organic wastes. As above.

which can be safely disposed of in a sanitary landfill after drying or dewatering. (g) Biological nutrient removal Nitrogen and phosphorus are the principal nutrients of concern in waste-water discharges. Wastewater Engineering. nitrification in an attached-growth system may be brought about either in the same attached-growth reactor that is used for carbonaceous BOD removal or in a separate reactor. and is used to separate the digested solids from the supernatant liquor. DO is a critical parameter. nitrification is brought about either in the same reactor that is used for carbonaceous BOD removal. or in a separate suspended-growth reactor following a conventional activated sludge treatment process. if produced in sufficient quantities. In denitrifying systems. The optimal pH lies between 7 and 8. Trickling filters. which can be used as a fuel source. that same slow growth means that only a small portion of the degradable organic matter is synthesized into new cells. Attached-growth denitrification takes place in a column reactor containing stone or one of a number of synthetic media upon which the bacteria grow. creation of a public health hazard. and waste-water that is less suitable for reuse. 22 Metcalf and Eddy. The disadvantages and advantages of a system of this kind. stem directly from the slow growth rate of methanogenic bacteria. In suspended-growth processes. Significant concentrations of nitrogen may have other adverse effects as well: depletion of dissolved oxygen in receiving waters. additional digestion and gas production may occur. Similarly. (i) Nitrification-denitrification Nitrification is the first step in the removal of nitrogen by means of this process. as compared to aerobic treatment. and so on. low DO levels (< 1 mg/L). and Nitrobacter. pH outside the optimal range (7.22 Aanerobic digesters are commonly used for the treatment of sludge and waste-waters with high organic content. An external carbon source is usually necessary for micro-organism cell synthesis. Biological removal of these nutrients is described below. Nitrifying bacteria are sensitive organisms and are extremely susceptible to a wide variety of inhibitors such as high concentrations of ammonia and nitrous acid.. chemical and biological methods. Inc.two basic processes is known as the two-stage process.and attached-growth processes. Biological nitrification is the work of two bacterial genera: Nitrosomonas.6). Suspended-growth denitrification takes place in a plug-flow type of activated-sludge system. Furthermore. the system produces a well-stabilized sludge. Some denitrification systems use the incoming waste-water for this purpose. A slow growth rate requires a relatively long retention time in the digester for adequate waste stabilization to occur. Periodic backwashing and an external carbon source are necessary in a system of this kind. A nitrogen-gas-stripped reactor should precede the denitrification clarifier because nitrogen gas hinders the settling of the mixed liquor. Its presence suppresses the enzyme system needed for denitrification. which convert nitrite to nitrate. On the other hand. Denitrification can be achieved through both suspended. toxicity to aquatic life. rotating biological contactors and packed towers can be used for nitrifying systems. 20 .5-8. adverse impact on chlorine disinfection efficiency. Discharges containing nitrogen and phosphorus may accelerate the eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs and stimulate the growth of algae and rooted aquatic plants in shallow streams. however. the fact that high temperatures are required for adequate treatment is a major drawback. Nitrification can be achieved through both suspended-growth and attached-growth processes. Another advantage of this type of system is the production of methane gas. Ammonia is oxidized to nitrate with either air or high-purity oxygen. 3rd edition. since the nitrified effluent is low in carbonaceous matter. which oxidize ammonia to the intermediate product nitrite. However. Nitrogen and phosphorus can be removed by physical. Denitrification involves the removal of nitrogen in the form of nitrate by conversion to nitrogen gas under anoxic conditions.

phosphorus is released into the supernatant. More phosphorus can be removed if one of a number of specially developed biological phosphorus removal processes is used. Settled sludge is returned to the influent end of the reactor and mixed with the incoming waste-water. The SBR system. Microbes utilize phosphorus during cell synthesis and energy transport. B.(ii) Phosphorus removal Phosphorus appears in water as orthophosphate (PO4-3).. the proprietary PhoStrip process. 10 to 30 per cent of all influent phosphorus is removed during secondary biological treatment. and organically bound phosphorus. This stresses the micro-organisms. nitrogen reduction and phosphorus removal. as described in annex table 3. which is subsequently treated with lime or some other coagulant. Inc. There. 3rd edition. APPLICATION OF TREATMENT METHODS In waste-water treatment plants. Biological phosphorus removal systems Influent Anaerobic stages Oxic Oxic stages Return sludge (a) A/O process Effluent clarifier Clarifie Influent Aeration Aeratio basin Direct return sludge Clarifier Clarifie Effluent Waste sludge Sidestream feed sludge Lime Reactor clarifier for chemical precipitation Waste chemical sludge Phosphorus stripped return sludge Supernatant return Anaerobic Anaerobi phosphorus Phosphoro stripper strippe (b) PhoStrip process Source: Adapted from Metcalf and Eddy. the unit operations and processes described in the previous section are grouped together in a variety of configurations to produce different levels of treatment. Typical biological processes used for phosphorus removal are the proprietary A/O process. primary. is also used to achieve a combination of carbon oxidation. As a result. The A/O process is a single-sludge suspended-growth system that combines aerobic and anaerobic sections in sequence. Wastewater Engineering. These processes are based on the exposure of microbes in an activated-sludge system to alternating anaerobic and aerobic conditions. and the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process (see figure 14). polyphosphate (P2O7). secondary and tertiary or advanced treatment (see figure 15). The phosphorus-poor activated sludge is returned to the aeration tank. Figure 14. 21 . so that their uptake of phosphorus exceeds normal levels. commonly referred to as preliminary. a portion of the return activated sludge from the secondary biological treatment process is diverted to an anaerobic phosphorus stripping tank. In the PhoStrip process.

1. and odour control methods. Natural Systems for Waste Management and Treatment (New York: McGraw-Hill. Wastewater Engineering. This is typically done through biological processes. and biological processes that occur in the natural environment when water. Crites. grit removal for the elimination of coarse suspended matter. heavy metals. flocculation and sedimentation. Other preliminary treatment operations include flow equalization. Preaeration or mechanical flocculation with chemical additions can be used to enhance primary treatment. Inc. Preliminary treatment Preliminary treatment prepares waste-water influent for further treatment by reducing or eliminating non-favourable waste-water characteristics that might otherwise impede operation or excessively increase maintenance of downstream processes and equipment. Secondary treatment The purpose of secondary treatment is the removal of soluble and colloidal organics and suspended solids that have escaped the primary treatment. biodegradable organics. and. namely treatment by activated sludge.W... phosphorus. Wastewater Engineering. The effluent from primary treatment contains a good deal of organic matter and is characterized by a relatively high BOD. or lagoon systems and sedimentation. 2. 1988). soil. NATURAL TREATMENT SYSTEMS Natural systems for waste-water treatment are designed to take advantage of the physical. plants. septage handling. E. C. Less frequently used processes include ion exchange and reverse osmosis for specific ion removal or for dissolved solids reduction. 3rd edition. All natural treatment systems are preceded by some form of mechanical pretreatment for the removal of gross solids. floating aquatic plants and constructed wetlands. They are frequently well suited for small communities and rural areas. fixed-film reactors. followed by filtration and activated carbon. 4. bacteria and viruses. and flotation for the removal of oil and grease.J. Primary treatment Primary treatment involves the partial removal of suspended solids and organic matter from the wastewater by means of physical operations such as screening and sedimentation. 22 . Inc. these systems can often be the most cost-effective option in terms of both construction and operation. abrasive grit. In addition to biological nutrient removal processes. namely screening and comminution for the removal of debris and rags. micro-organisms and the atmosphere interact. and Metcalf and Eddy.24 23 Metcalf and Eddy.23 Natural treatment systems include land treatment. unacceptably high peak hydraulic or organic loadings. Reed. odours. in certain cases.C. 3rd edition. These characteristics include large solids and rags. Primary treatment acts as a precursor for secondary treatment. unit operations frequently used for this purpose include chemical coagulation. chemical. Middlebrooks and R. Preliminary treatment processes consist of physical unit operations. 3. Where sufficient land suitable for the purpose is available. Its is aimed mainly at producing a liquid effluent suitable for downstream biological treatment and separating out solids as a sludge that can be conveniently and economically treated before ultimate disposal. 24 S. Tertiary/advanced waste-water treatment Tertiary treatment goes beyond the level of conventional secondary treatment to remove significant amounts of nitrogen.

Wastewater Engineering. water reuse.Figure 15. In most cases. and rapid infiltration (RI) systems. 26 25 26 Metcalf and Eddy. including sprinkling methods or surface techniques such as graded-border and furrow irrigation. The applied water is either consumed through evapotranspiration or percolated vertically and horizontally through the soil system.. crop utilization of nutrients and waste-water disposal. Various treatment levels in a waste-water treatment plant flow diagram Tertiary treatment Secondary treatment Primary treatment Preliminary treatment Offline flow equalization Backwash wastewater Cl2 Influent Screens & communition Grit removal Recycle Waste sludge Backwash water storage Primary settling Biological process Secondary settling Effluent filtration mixer Chlorine Contact chamber Effluent Flotation thickening Sludge processing facility 1. Middlebrooks and Crites. Water is applied intermittently (every 4 to 10 days) to maintain aerobic conditions in the soil profile. Treatment occurs as the wastewater percolates through the soil profile (see table 11). This technology incorporates waste-water treatment. Land treatment Land treatment is the controlled application of waste-water to the land at rates compatible with the natural physical. 23 . overflow (OF). (a) Slow rate SR systems are the predominant form of land treatment for municipal and industrial waste-water. Any surface runoff is collected and reapplied to the system. chemical and biological processes that occur on and in the soil. 3rd edition. the percolate will enter the underlying groundwater. Inc.25. The three main types of land treatment systems used are slow rate (SR). Natural Systems. It involves the application of waste-water to vegetated land by means of various techniques. or it may be intercepted by natural surface waters or recovered by means of underdrains or recovery wells. Reed.

with subsequent reuse or discharge.L. Inc.27. or surface methods such as gated pipes. sorption. volatilization. in contrast to SR and RI systems. plant uptake Soil adsorption. degradation Source: Reed. Recovery of water by wells or underdrains. Vegetation is not applied in systems of this kind. SR systems can be classified into two types. Groundwater recharge. ion exchange. Biological oxidation. assimilation and reduction occur within the top few feet of the soil. rather than crop production. Middlebrooks and Crites.. chemical and biological treatment mechanisms as it proceeds along surface runoff path. Natural Systems. Asano. Accordingly. soil storage Chemical immobilization (precipitation and adsorption). infiltration through the soil is limited. Type 1 and Type 2.TABLE 11. complexation Soil filtration. Type 2 SR systems. Application techniques include high-pressure sprinklers. the maximum possible amount of water is applied per unit land area. as their main objective. ion exchange and adsorption occur as the water percolates through the soil. are designed mainly with a view to water reuse for crop production. chemical. Physical straining and filtering occur at the soil surface and within the soil matrix. 24 . Type 1 systems are designed with waste-water treatment itself. (b) Rapid infiltration Rapid infiltration (RI) is the most intensive of all land treatment methods. Temporary storage of renovated water in the local aquifer. Waste-water is applied intermittently to the top portion of each terrace and flows down the terrace to a runoff collection channel at the bottom of the slope (see figure 17). since. in systems of this kind. exposure to other adverse environmental factors Photodecomposition. Relatively high hydraulic and organic loadings are applied intermittently to shallow infiltration or spreading basins (see figure 16). 28 Overland flow Overland flow (OF) is a treatment process in which waste-water is treated as it flows down a network of vegetated sloping terraces. and consequently the amount of water applied in a system of this kind is just enough to satisfy the irrigation requirements of the crop being grown. 3rd edition. The RI process uses the soil matrix for physical. Sanks and T. 28 Metcalf and Eddy. desiccation. predation. denitrification. Overland flow systems can be 27 R. precipitation. adsorption. Wastewater Engineering. The effluent waste-water undergoes a variety of physical. and biological treatment. Michigan: Ann Arbor Science. OF is normally used with relatively impermeable surface soils. MECHANISMS OF WASTE-WATER CONSTITUENT REMOVAL BY SR SYSTEMS Parameter BOD SS Nitrogen Phosphorus Metals Pathogens Trace organics Removal mechanism Soil adsorption and bacterial oxidation Filtration through the soil Crop uptake. ammonia volatilization. The RI system is designed to meet several performance objectives including the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) (c) Recharge of streams by interception of groundwater. 1976). low-pressure sprays. Chemical precipitation. radiation. Land Treatment and Disposal of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater (Ann Arbor. SR systems have the highest treatment potential of all natural treatment systems. in contrast. based on design objectives.

bulrush. Inc. Land Treatment. 30 (d) Free water surface systems FWS systems consist of parallel shallow basins ranging from 0. 3rd edition.. Middlebrooks and Crites. 25 . Rapid infiltration treatment system Evapotranspiration Surface application Zone of aeration and treatment Recharge mound Percolation Infiltration Old water table Source: Metcalf and Eddy.6 metre) or channels with relatively impermeable bottom soil or subsurface barrier and emergent vegetation (see figure 18). reeds and sedges. 2. Figure 17. and subsurface flow systems (SFS). Two types of constructed wetlands have been developed for waste-water treatment. 30 Figure 16.6 m) that support the growth of emergent plants such as cattail.3 to 2 feet (0.29. transfers oxygen into the water column. As a rule.designed for secondary treatment. Overland flow system Source: Qasim.1-0. Natural Systems.29. advanced secondary treatment or nutrient removal. Reed. Wastewater Engineering. The vegetation provides surfaces for the attachment of bacteria films. 29 30 Sanks and Asano. namely free water surface (FWS) systems. Wastewater Treatment Plants. Constructed wetlands Wetlands are inundated land areas with water depths typically less than 2 ft (0. preclarified waste-water is applied continuously to be treated as it flows through the stems and roots of the emergent vegetation. and controls the growth of algae by restricting the penetration of sunlight. aids in the filtration and adsorption of waste-water constituents. depending on user requirements.

Figure 18. (e) Subsurface flow systems SFSs consist of beds or channels filled with gravel. Waste-water is treated as it flows horizontally through the media-plant filter. 26 . Free water surface system Source: Qasim. sand. Floating aquatic plants This system is similar to the FWS system except that the plants used are of the floating type. nitrogen. Figure 19. Wastewater Treatment Plants. The floating plants shield the water from sunlight and reduce the growth of algae. Supplementary aeration has been used with floating plant systems to increase treatment capacity and to maintain the aerobic conditions necessary for the biological control of mosquitoes.6 to 6. ranging from 1.31 31 Metcalf and Eddy. Water depths are greater than in the case of wetland systems. metals and trace organics and in removing algae from lagoons and stabilization pond effluents. Wastewater Engineering. Wastewater Treatment. Systems of this kind are designed for secondary or advanced levels of treatment. such as hyacinths and duckweeds (see figure 20).0 feet (0.5-1.8 metres). Systems of this kind have been effective in reducing BOD.. 3rd edition. 3. or other permeable media planted with emergent vegetation (see figure 19). Inc. Subsurface flow system Source: Qasim.

Figure 20. This section examines various sludge treatment processes with emphasis on the most commonly used technologies. 1991). 2. Annex table 4 presents a comparison of major site characteristics. conditioning.33 Sludge thickening methods are usually physical in nature: they include gravity settling. in addition to organic solids generated in secondary/biological treatment and removed in the secondary clarifier or in a separate thickening process. McGhee. McGhee. containing 0. D. eliminate offensive odours. treatment and disposal are complex. Thickening. Stabilization Sludges are stabilized to reduce their pathogen content. wet-air oxidation and vertical tube reactors are used to treat or stabilize the organic material in the sludge.J. incineration. 1. typical design features. owing to the offensive constituents present. 32 33 T. and the expected quality of the treated waste-water from the principal types of natural systems. composting. which vary with the source of waste-water and the treatment processes applied.32 Sludge handling. SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL Sewage sludge consists of the organic and inorganic solids that were present in the raw waste and were removed in the primary clarifier. aerobic digestion and composting. Water Supply and Sewerage (New York: McGraw-Hill. A generalized flow diagram showing the various unit sludge treatment operations and processes currently in use is presented in figure 21. anaerobic digestion. centrifugation and gravity belts. depending on the treatment operations and processes used. Wastewater Engineering. 3rd edition. These technologies are briefly described in annex table 5 and illustrated in annex figure 3. Thickening Thickening is the practice of increasing the solids content of sludge by the removal of a portion of its liquid content. dewatering and drying are primarily used to remove moisture from sludge. and reduce or eliminate the potential for putrefaction. Sludge is treated by means of a variety of processes that can be used in various combinations. Floating aquatic plants system Transport of contaminants to plant roots by hydraulic mixing Settled solids Source: Metcalf and Eddy. entailing reduced size requirements for subsequent treatment units. heat treatment. 27 . Water Supply and Sewerage. The generated sludge is usually in the form of a liquid or semisolid.25 to 12 per cent solids by weight. Technologies used for sludge stabilization include lime stabilization. A modest increase in solids content (from 3 to 6 per cent) can decrease total sludge volume significantly (by 50 per cent). while digestion. flotation.

Figure 21. Sludge processing and disposal flow diagram SLUDGE FROM TREATMENT PROCESSES PRELIMINARY OPERATIONS Sludge grinding Sludge bending Sludge storage Sludge degritting THICKENING Rotary drum thickening Gravity thickening Flotation thickening Centrifugation Gravity belt thickening STABILIZATION Chlorine oxidation Lime stabilization Heat treatment Anaerobic digestion Aerobic digestion Composting CONDITIONING Elutriation Heat treatment Chemical conditioning DISINFECTION Pasteurization Long-term storage DEWATERING Vacuum filter Pressure filter Horizontal belt filter Centrifuge Drying bed Lagoon DRYING Multiple effect evaporator Flash drying Spray drying Rotary drying Multiple hearth drying THERMAL REDUCTION Multiple hearth incineration Fluidized bed incineration Vertical deep well reactor Flash combustion Co-incineration with solid wastes ULTIMATE DISPOSAL Landfill Land application Reclamation Reuse 28 .

b). Aeration occurs either naturally or by means of mechanical aerators and diffusers (see figure 23). two-stage and separate. Wastewater Treatment. This process is characterized by a rapid digestion rate. aerobic digestion affords both advantages and disadvantages (see table 13). Lime is added either prior to dewatering (lime pre-treatment) or after dewatering (lime posttreatment). the process is characterized by higher energy requirements. The first serves for digestion and is fitted with heating and mixing facilities. carrying oils and grease with it (see figure 22. 29 . This process also serves for conditioning. However. This process is a modification of the standard rate process. Hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2) and quicklime (CaO) are most commonly used for lime stabilization. Thermophilic digestion occurs between 120 and 135 ºF (49 and 57 ºC). Four types of anaerobic digesters are commonly used for sludge stabilization: standard-rate. This process. (c) Anaerobic sludge digestion This process involves the anaerobic reduction of organic matter in the sludge by biological activity. while the second is used for the storage and concentration of digested sludge and for the formation of a clear supernatant (see figure 22. increased bacterial destruction and improved sludge dewatering. The resulting gas rises to the surface. Standard high-rate Two-stage Separate Thermophilic Source: Adapted from Liu and Lipták. The untreated sludge is added to the active digestion zone. COMMON ANAEROBIC DIGESTERS Type of digester Standard rate Description This is a single-stage process in which digestion. a mixture of waste activated or trickling filter sludge with primary sludge. Mesophilic conditions are maintained within the reactor.(a) Lime stabilization In this process. This process is preferably used only for the treatment of waste activated sludge. The high pH environment inhibits the survival of micro-organisms. It involves the direct oxidation of biodegradable matter and microbial cellular material in open tanks for an extended period of time. As compared to anaerobic processes.760 kN/m2 for approximately 30 seconds. (d) Aerobic sludge digestion Aerobic sludge digestion is similar to the activated-sludge process. a). and thus eliminates the risk of sludge putrefaction and odour creation. which is relatively new. The solids loading is much greater. or waste sludge from extended aeration plants or activated-sludge treatment plants designed without primary settling. lime is added to untreated sludge to raise the pH to 12 or higher. pumping or mechanical mixing (see figure 22. standard high-rate. (b) Heat treatment This process involves the treatment of sludge by heating in a pressure vessel to temperatures of up to 500ºF (260ºC) at pressures of up to 2. The exposure of sludge to such conditions results in the hydrolysis of proteinaceous compounds. involves the separate digestion of primary and biological sludges. as the thermal activity releases bound water and results in the coagulation of solids. produces poorer quality supernatant and generates odours. These digesters are outlined in table 12 and illustrated in figure 22. This method features two tanks. TABLE 12. sludge thickening and supernatant formation take place simultaneously. The methane produced can be recovered and reused for heating and incineration. where it is heated by an external source. leading to cell destruction and the release of soluble organic compounds and nitrogen. and the sludge is mixed by gas recirculation. c).

Figure 22. Figure 23. Typical anaerobic sludge digesters Gas outlet Scum layer Sludge layer Gas Scum removal Gas outlet Gas Sludge inlet Supernatant Actively digested sludge Stabilized sludge Sludge outlet Supernatant removal Active mixing zone Sudge outlet (a) Standard rate Gas outlet Gas Gas outlet (b) Standard high rate Gas Sludge inlet Zone of mixing and actively digested sludge Mixed liquor Supernatant Supernatant Digested sludge Sludge outlet Sludge outlet (c) Two-stage Source: Qasim. Schematic of aerobic sludge digestion Primary sludge Excess activated or trickling filter sludge Clear oxidized effluent Settled sludge returned to digester Source: Qasim. 30 . Wastewater Treatment Plants. Wastewater Treatment Plants.

Aerobic composting is more commonly used than anaerobic composting.Supernatant liquor with lower BOD concentrations . biologically stable end-product . Wastewater Treatment Plants. During composting. Figure 24.Operation relatively easier . and type of tank . organic material undergoes biological degradation.The process is significantly affected by temperature. Disadvantages . Composting process flow diagram Sludge Sludg Mixing Mixin Bulking Bulkin Agent Agen Turning Turnin Market Marke Force Forced aeration d aeratio Curing Curin Drying Dryin Bulking agent Bulking recovery recover Storage Storag Source: Adapted from Liu and Lipták. Further curing and storage. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF AEROBIC SLUDGE DIGESTION Advantages .High operating cost (e) Composting Composting is used for both sludge stabilization and final disposal. Wastewater Treatment. windrow and in-vessel systems (see table 14).Volatile solids reduction approximately the same as anaerobic digestion . humus-like. 31 .Recovery of most of the basic fertilizer values in the sludge . Recovery of the bulking agent.Produces a digested sludge with poor mechanical dewatering characteristics . Composting includes the following operations: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Mixing dewatered sludge with a bulking agent. Final disposal. The resulting end product is stable and may be used as a soil conditioner in agricultural applications. The three major types of aerobic composting systems are the static aerated pile. resulting in a 20 to 30 per cent reduction of volatile solids.TABLE 13. Aerating the compost pile by mechanical turning or the addition of air.Production of an odourless. Enteric micro-organisms are also destroyed due to the rise in temperature of the compost.Higher power cost associated with supplying oxygen .Lower capital cost Source: Qasim. location.

34 (b) Thermal conditioning Thermal conditioning involves heating the sludge to a temperature of 248-464 ºF in a reactor at a pressure of 1. Windrows are similar to static piles in terms of mixing and screening operations. irradiation and elutriation. Qasim. deodorized. 3. The electrolytes adhere to the surface of the sludge particles. for its part. Wastewater treatment plants and Metcalf and Eddy.35 34 35 Qasim. breaks down the gel structure and reduces affinity for water. Windrow In-vessel Source: Adapted from Liu and Liptáak. AEROBIC COMPOSTING SYSTEMS Type Aerated static pile Description Consists of an aeration grid over which a mixture of dewatered sludge and bulking agent is placed. The applied heat coagulates the solids. causing desorption of bound surface water. no mechanical aeration is used. The supernatant from the heat treatment unit has a high BOD and may require special treatment before redirection into the mainstream waste-water treatment process. Inc.720-2. temperature and oxygen concentration are mechanically maintained. ferric chloride forms positively charged soluble iron complexes that neutralize the negatively charged sludge solids. Organic polyelectrolytes dissolve in water to form solutions of varying viscosity. The cured compost is screened for recovery of the bulking agent.34 (a) Chemical conditioning Chemical conditioning is associated principally with mechanical sludge dewatering systems. is ordinarily used with ferric iron salts. It reduces the moisture content of incoming sludge from 90-99 per cent to 65-85 per cent by causing solids to coagulate. Wastewater Treatment Plants.760 kN/m2 for 15-40 minutes. so that the absorbed water is released. causing them to aggregate. Lime. Air flow. Wastewater Treatment. Composting takes place in a closed container. The two most commonly applied conditioning methods are the addition of chemicals and heat treatment. However. charge neutralization. 32 . Ferric chloride also reacts with the bicarbonate alkalinity in the sludge to form hydroxides that cause flocculation. Both organic and inorganic chemicals are used for this purpose. Wastewater Engineering. dewatered sludge.TABLE 14. The sludge and the bulking agent are mixed by means of a rotary drum or frontend loaders. Conditioning Conditioning involves the chemical and or physical treatment of sludge to enhance its dewatering characteristics. and agglomerization by bridging between particles. resulting in a sterilized. Upon being added. Aerobic conditions are maintained by periodic mixing of the compost. Organic polymers are also widely used in sludge conditioning. Other conditioning processes include freezing. thus creating a granular structure that increases sludge porosity and reduces sludge compressibility.. It reacts in the sludge to produce calcium carbonate. 3rd edition. The two most commonly used inorganic conditioners are ferric chloride and lime.

consist of shallow earthen basins enclosed by earthen dykes. 33 . 3rd edition. The surface of the drum is covered with a porous medium (cloth belts or coiled springs) and is divided into sections around its circumference. Wastewater Treatment Plants and Metcalf and Eddy.4. filter press and belt filter press systems. the sludge is either disposed of in a landfill or used as a soil conditioner. Two types are commonly used: a drainage type and a decanting type. the sections function in sequence as three distinct zones: cake formation. (a) Sludge drying beds Sludge drying beds are typically used to dewater digested sludge.. centrifuge. TYPES OF SLUDGE DRYING BEDS Sludge drying beds Conventional sand drying beds Paved drying beds Description Typical sand beds consist of a layer of coarse sand supported on a graded gravel bed with perforated pipe underdrains. (b) Drying lagoons Sludge-drying lagoons. These consist of beds constructed from artificial media such as stainless steel wedgewire or high-density polyurethane. which are suitable only for the treatment of digested sludge. These are similar to conventional beds in terms of their underdraining system. which is a physical unit operation aimed at reducing the moisture content of sludge. Sludge is placed on the bed and allowed to dry. Mechanical equipment is then used to remove the sludge cake. Drying occurs by evaporation and drainage. The selection of the appropriate sludge-dewatering technique depends on the characteristics of the sludge to be dewatered. The various types of drying beds in current use are described in table 15. Inc. Wastewater Engineering. Wedge-wire beds Vacuum-assisted Source: Qasim. The drainage type involves agitation to facilitate dewatering and uses a front-end loader for sludge removal. Wastewater Treatment Plants. Wastewater Treatment. Mechanical dewatering methods include vacuum filter.37 36 37 Liu and Lipták. and moisture content requirements of the sludge cake for ultimate disposal. cake dewatering and cake discharge (see figure 25). In this system. When land is available and sludge quantity is small. The sludge is first placed within the basin and allowed to dry. The drainage process is controlled by an outlet valve. dewatering and drying is accelerated by the application of vacuum to the underside of porous filter plates. The sludge cake is removed manually. The decanting type uses low-cost impermeable paved beds that rely on supernatant decanting and mixing of the drying sludge for enhanced evaporation. An internal vacuum that is maintained inside the drum draws the sludge to the filter medium. enhancing the dewatering process. natural dewatering systems such as drying beds and drying lagoons are most attractive. As the drum rotates. After drying. TABLE 15. Qasim.36 (c) Vacuum filtration The vacuum filtration process consists of a horizontal cylindrical drum that is partially submerged in a tank of conditioned sludge. available space. Dewatering A number of techniques are used for dewatering. The supernatant is decanted from the surface and returned to the plant while the liquid is allowed to evaporate.

It prepares the sludge by forming a firm sludge cake that is able to withstand the shear forces within the high-pressure zone. forces are exerted on the sludge by the movement of the upper and lower belts relative to each other. (d) Belt filter press Belt filter presses use single or double moving belts to dewater sludge continuously. Wastewater Treatment Plants. Gravity drainage zone Low pressure zone High pressure zone Source: Qasim. Low pressure zone. In this stage. a rotating drum attached to the press. High pressure zone. Gravity drainage zone for excess water.. The filtration process involves four basic stages (see table 16 and figure 26): (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Polymer conditioning zone. Sludge is thickened by the gravity drainage of free water. TABLE 16. This is the area where the upper and lower belts come together with the sludge in between. 34 .Figure 25. Schematic of a vacuum filter system Metering Ferric chloride mixing tank Metering pump Filtrate Air to atmosphere Cloth Filtrate tank Filtrate return to primary Water to primary Sludge pump Agitator Filter drum Conditioning tank Sludge cake Conveyor Washings return to primary Sludge inlet Agitator Vat Filtrate pump Water Vacuum pump Source: Adapted from Metcalf and Eddy. OPERATIONAL STAGES WITHIN A BELT FILTER PRESS Filtration stage Polymer conditioning zone Description Consists of a tank located close to the press. Inc. This section may be vacuum-assisted. 3rd edition. Wastewater Engineering. The resulting sludge cake is removed by scraper blades. as they go over and under a series of rollers with decreasing diameters. or an in-line injector Consists of a flat or slightly inclined belt.

high chemical costs. so that the liquid is forced through the cloth and plate outlet ports. The fixed-volume filter press consists of a series of rectangular plates that are supported face to face in a vertical position.38 5.. Wastewater Engineering. The plates are then separated and the sludge is removed. Inc. 38 Metcalf and Eddy. Mechanical processes used for this purpose are described briefly in table 17 and illustrated in figure 27. with a filter cloth hung over each plate. 35 .Figure 26. dewatering is brought about by the use of high pressure to force the water out of the sludge. making the sludge suitable for incineration or processing into fertilizer. Drying is performed mechanically by the application of auxiliary heat. The variable-volume recessed-plate filter press is similar to the fixed-volume type except that a rubber diaphragm is placed between the plates to help reduce cake volume during compression. Inc. Wastewater Engineering. filtrate clarity and high solids capture. high labour costs and limited cloth life. the system is characterized by high mechanical complexity. On the other hand. Drying The purpose of sludge drying is to reduce the water content to less than 10 per cent by evaporation. The conditioned sludge is pumped into the space between the plates and subjected to high pressure for 1 to 3 hours. Belt filter press Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Shear and compression dewatering Chemical conditioning Sludge polymer mixer Sludge Gravity drainage Conditioned sludge Wash spray Polymer solution Wash spray Filtrate Dewatered sludge cake Wash water Source: Adapted from Metcalf and Eddy. (e) Filter presses In a filter press. The two most widely used filter presses are the fixed-volume and the variable-volume recessed-plate types. Advantages of the filter press are high sludge cake concentration.. 3rd edition.

Sludge dryer technologies Feed Exhaust Vent fan Air Atomizer Air Cyclone Divider Wet feed Product Product (b) Spray dryer Mixer Oil or gas Cage mill Air heater Air Feed Air heater Blow Product out (a) Flash dryer Source: Adapted from Liu and Lipták. Thermal reduction The thermal reduction of sludge involves two main processes: (a) Total or partial conversion of organic solids to oxidized end products. Heated air and products of combustion are passed over finely pulverized sludge that is raked continuously to expose fresh surfaces. either by incineration or by wet-air oxidation. Multiple-hearth dryer Source: Metcalf and Eddy. Centrifugal forces atomize the sludge into fine particles and spray them into the top of a drying chamber. the central cell containing the sludge material is surrounded with steam.TABLE 17. while in indirect-heat dryers. 3rd edition. primarily carbon dioxide and water. Liquid sludge is fed into a high-speed centrifuge bowl.. Direct-heat dryers bring the sludge into physical contact with hot gases. Wastewater Engineering. Figure 27. MECHANICAL SLUDGE DRYING METHODS Dryer type Flash dryer Spray dryer Rotary dryer Description Sludge is pulverized in a cage mill or by means of an atomized suspension technique in the presence of hot air. Inc. Wastewater Treatment. Involves direct or indirect heating. (c) Rotary dryer 6. 36 .

including gases. Energy management. consume large quantities of energy. either by pyrolysis39 or by starved air combustion. where it falls to the subsequent hearths and continues downward until sterile phosphate-laden ash is discharged at the bottom. is becoming an essential aspect of the design and operation of waste-water treatment facilities. E. The sludge is fed through the furnace roof by a screw-feeder or a belt and flapgate. such as aeration in biological treatment. tar and charcoal. For example. Wastewater Engineering. Inc. A reactor held at high temperature (200-300 ºC) and high pressure (5-20 kN/m2). Sludge is mixed quickly within the fluidized bed by its turbulent action. SLUDGE INCINERATION METHODS Type of incinerator Multiple-hearth furnace Description A steel shell the interior of which is divided into a series of hearths. as required for final disposal. 4th edition. cylindrical. NEW DIRECTIONS AND CONCERNS42 Increasingly. Sludge and sufficient air pumped into the reactor are oxidized in a liquid phase. Wastewater Engineering. Pyrolysis. involves heating of organic matter in an oxygen-free atmosphere (Metcalf and Eddy. Inc. 3rd edition.. In addition. refractory-lined steel shell that contains a sand bed and fluidizing air orifices to produce and sustain combustion. Wastewater Engineering.. Wastewater Engineering. improved UV disinfection systems. The liquid and solid residues are separated by settling or filtration. However. oil. too. and consequently the selection of energy-efficient equipment and the design of energy recovery schemes are assuming progressively greater importance. 40 Starved air combustion combines some of the features of both complete combustion and pyrolysis (Metcalf and Eddy. 3rd edition.. these computational methods can be used to improve the performance of ongoing operations when integrated into the process control system. A vertical. Inc. resulting in evaporation of the water and combustion of the sludge solids. Treated and digested sludge may be used as a soil amendment and conditioner. Sludge disposal and reuse There was a time when sludge was commonly disposed of in sanitary landfills and lagoons. Wastewater Engineering. sedimentation tanks and chlorine contact tanks are being designed using computational fluid dynamics. Some operations. also known as destructive distillation. Inc. in order to eliminate sources of inefficiencies. 3rd edition. Sludge may also be treated chemically for use as landfill cover or for landscaping or land reclamation projects. TABLE 18. Wet air oxidation Fluidized-bed incinerator Source: Metcalf and Eddy.. The principal thermal reduction methods are described in table 18 and illustrated in figure 28. Metcalf and Eddy. 7. 41 42 39 Metcalf and Eddy. advanced computational methods in fluid dynamics are being used for the design of new treatment systems and the optimization of existing ones.(b) Partial oxidation and volatilization of organic solids. Inc. 3rd edition.. Rotating rabble arms and rabble teeth push the sludge across the hearth to drop holes. the beneficial uses of sludge are attracting more attention nowadays. 37 .41 The main objective of this conversion process is the reduction of the volume of solids.40 to end-products with energy contents.

In addition. New treatment technologies may be required if these compounds are to be removed effectively. or alternative disinfection methods are being used. owing mainly due to the improvements that have been made to these systems during the past ten years and their declining capital and operating costs. high rate clarification. Ultraviolet radiation is gaining ground as an alternative to chlorination. New technologies now in use include vortex separators. In many countries. membrane bioreactors and membrane filtration. There is growing awareness of the need to repair. Future studies and design efforts will address these ageing issues and look for ways to improve the performance and increase the capacity of existing facilities. Figure 28. Sludge incineration technologies Exhaust and ash Oxygen Influent Pressure tab Sight glass Treated effluent Freeboard for bed expansion Sand feed Burner Sealed cased well Thermocouple Sludge inlet Fluidized sand bed Tuyeres Fuel gun Pressure tap Refractory arch Fluidizing air inlet Windbox Reaction zone Startup preheat burner for hot windbox (a) Fluidized bed (b) Wet air oxidation 38 . the waste-water treatment infrastructure is now old and undersized.As discharge regulations now require lower or even undetectable chorine residues in treated effluents. expand and upgrade existing facilities. Technological changes in industry mean that industrial effluents are also changing. dechlorination units are being installed. there is a growing trend in the direction of facilities designed for even higher levels of treatment and more compact size. A trend towards the development of proprietary treatment processes in response to the privatization of treatment facilities is also observable. Industrial wastewater now contains larger quantities of heavy metals and new synthetic organic compounds.

. and Liu and Lipták. Wastewater Treatment. 3rd edition. 39 .Figure 28 (continued) Clean gas to atmosphere Waste cooling air to atmosphere Floating damper Induced draft fan Cyclonic jet scrubber Filter cake screenings and grit Grease skimmings Fly ash slurry Makeup water To disposal Ash pump Ash hopper Cooling air (c) Multiple hearth Source: Adapted from Metcalf and Eddy. Wastewater Engineering. Inc.

and high user costs. surface and groundwater pollution in the absence of adequate management. Highly treated waste-water effluent from municipal waste-water treatment plants can be reused as a reliable source of water for agricultural irrigation. which is the main factor dictating the selection of the waste-water treatment process sequence. and boating. recreational uses. filtration. and disinfection to achieve a total coliform count of fewer than 3 per 100 millilitres. Some constituents in reclaimed water that are of particular significance in terms of agricultural irrigation include elevated concentrations of dissolved solids. owing to growing demand for water and unsustainable rates of consumption of natural water resources. 1995). recreational lakes for swimming. The main consideration associated with this effluent application method is the quality of the treated water and its suitability for plant growth. Irrigation Treated waste-water effluent can be used for the irrigation of crops or landscaped areas. toxic chemicals. Environmental regulations. EFFLUENT RECLAMATION AND REUSE Effluent reclamation and reuse has received much attention lately. Recreational uses Reclaimed water is widely used for recreational purposes. industrial recycling and reuse. A. Each type of reuse is associated with a number of constraints on its applicability. guidelines and policies ensure acceptable discharge of waste-water effluent. for example. protozoa and viruses. Handbook of Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse (Boca Raton: Lewis. the higher the treatment level required. snow making and fish farming. including landscape maintenance. waste-water is either reused or discharged into the environment. non-restricted recreational water use requires the treatment of secondary effluent by coagulation. MANAGEMENT OF TREATED EFFLUENT After treatment. 1. Concerns vary with the intended irrigation use and the degree of human contact. boiler-feed water. corrosion. the use of reclaimed water in cooling towers. non-potable urban reuse or even potable reuse. groundwater recharge. process water. These problems are also encountered when fresh water is used. notably the cost of pumping effluent to irrigated land. Another highly important consideration is public health and safety hazards resulting from the potential presence of bacterial pathogens. Rowe and I.45 43 44 45 Qasim. fouling and foaming. If not reused. aesthetic impoundments. but less frequently. Industrial uses of reclaimed water include evaporative cooling water. treated waste-water is commonly discharged into a water body and diluted. D. residual chlorine and nutrients. Industrial use Reclaimed water is ideal for industries using processes that do not require water of potable quality.44 The required treatment level for reclaimed water is dictated by the intended use: the greater the potential for human contact. intestinal parasites.44 3. Abdel-Magid. fishing. A major concern in reuse applications is the quality of the reclaimed water. Potential constraints associated with the use of reclaimed waste-water for irrigation include the marketability of crops and public acceptance. Wastewater Treatment Plants. while process water quality is dependent on the requirements of the manufacturing process involved. For example. 40 .III. This section describes the various effluent reuse applications with emphasis on effluent quality issues. creates problems of scaling.H. biological growth.43 2.R. Reclaimed water used as boiler feed water must be softened and demineralized. ornamental fountains. landscape irrigation. and irrigation and maintenance of the grounds and landscape around the plant. Wastewater Treatment Plants. Qasim.

B. 1996). EFFLUENT DISPOSAL Treated waste-water effluent. These factors include flow velocity.L. Surface spreading utilizes flooding. Discharge into rivers and streams Waste-water effluent discharge into rivers should be such as to ensure rapid vertical mixing of the effluent over the full river depth and avoid foaming problems. Groundwater recharge Groundwater recharge using reclaimed waste-water serves to mitigate water table decline. This section addresses major considerations that need to be taken into account when treated waste-water effluent is discharged into water bodies. and infiltration basins. Handbook. depth stratification due to salinity and temperature. ridge and furrow. Excessive quantities of organic material may cause rapid bacterial growth and depletion of the dissolved oxygen resources of the water body. lakes. outfall structures must be designed for adequate dispersal of the effluent in the receiving waters in order to avoid localized pollution. Wastewater Treatment Plants. Specific mathematical models devised to assess the effect of effluent discharge on receiving bodies and to aid in the design of outfalls will not be discussed here. is disposed of either on land or into water bodies. notably the determination of appropriate quality criteria for such water. It takes advantage of the self-purification capacity of natural waters to further treat the effluent. In addition. A diffuser is a structure that discharges the effluent through a series of holes or ports along a pipe extending into the river (see figure 29). shape. 46 47 48 Rowe and Abdel-Magid. Direct injection involves the pumping of reclaimed water directly into an aquifer. unsaturated zone and aquifer. 1. and seas and oceans. and store reclaimed water for future use. Accordingly. Potable reuse The issue of the use of reclaimed water for drinking purposes has been approached with extreme caution because of public rejection and because of health. constructed wetlands.46. safety and aesthetic concerns. Depending on the characteristics of the receiving waters. waste-water effluent discharge must be based on sound engineering practice if the receiving environment is not to be adversely affected. At the present time. Drawbacks of this method include high effluent treatment cost and the high cost of the necessary injecting facilities. Theory and Practice of Water and Wastewater Treatment (New York: John Wiley and Sons. the option of direct potable use of reclaimed municipal waste-water is limited to extreme situations. The major disadvantage of groundwater recharge using reclaimed water is the increased risk of groundwater contamination. However. This can be achieved by using a multiport diffuser that extends across the width of the river. changes in pH or concentrations of some organic and inorganic compounds may be toxic to particular life forms. Groundwater recharge methods include surface spreading in basins and by direct injection into aquifers. many factors are considered for proper mixing and dispersal of effluent.4. if not reused. This application method improves the quality of the reclaimed water considerably as it percolates successively through soil. Discharge into water bodies is the most common disposal practice. protect groundwater in coastal aquifers against salt-water intrusion. The disposal area should be downstream from any location where water is to be withdrawn for human consumption.47 5. 41 . Qasim.48 The temperature and salinity of the effluent should also be taken into consideration. R. reversal of current and wind circulation. including rivers and streams. Although extensive research is being conducted in this field. many constraints remain. Droste.

Inc. Waste-water is of lower density than seawater.gov/npdes/techbasedpermitting/sectreat. the plume will rise to the surface. which slow down the decomposition of organic matter. represent the minimum level of effluent quality attainable by secondary treatment in terms of BOD5 and TSS removal. industrial. The discharge may be through a single-port or a multiport outfall structure that is similar to a river outfall (see figure 30). In shallow lakes. If the water is not stratified. enhancing waste-water dilution. Environmental standards are developed to ensure that the impacts of treated waste-water discharges into ambient waters are acceptable. Accordingly. upon discharge.Figure 29..cfm. the effluent forms a rapidly rising water plume which entrains large amounts of ambient water. governing the performance of secondary waste-water treatment plants. Regulations and procedures vary from one country to another and are continuously reviewed and updated to reflect growing concern for the protection of ambient waters. EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS A significant element in waste-water disposal is the potential environmental impact associated with it. municipal. secondary treatment standards were established by USEPA for publicly owned treatment works (POTWs). 2. Under this programme. which apply to all municipal waste-water treatment plants. where the waste-water will be diluted by ambient currents. Typical river diffuser outfall Clean-out port 2. effluents are adequately dispersed by wind-induced currents that ensure appropriate mixing. A marine outfall should be designed to ensure sufficient dilution of the effluent before it reaches the surface of the water or is carried inshore by ambient currents.epa. 42 . Consequently. 50 United States Environmental Protection Agency. lakes are subject to temperature stratification and less pronounced natural mixing via currents. Consequently. Inc. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) developed the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit programme in 1972 to control water pollution by regulating point sources that discharge pollutants into waters.49 The outfall carries the wastewater to an offshore discharge point through a pipe laid on or buried in the ocean floor. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System: Secondary Treatment Standards (2002). 3rd edition. Discharge into lakes Being larger and deeper than rivers. the lower strata in a lake are usually subject to conditions of low temperature and low dissolved oxygen. it is essential to ensure that appropriate mixing occurs when waste-water effluent is discharged into a lake in order to prevent the formation of an anaerobic stratum.0 ft typical Flow Eccentric reducer Eccentric reducer 45 inch bend Bottom of excavated trench Source: Adapted from Metcalf and Eddy. Wastewater Engineering. 3.50 Table 19 lists the NPDES limitations for secondary wastewater treatment plants and the European Community Environmental Directive Requirements (EC EDR) for discharges from urban waste-water treatment plants. and other facilities are required to obtain permits if their discharges go directly into surface waters. C. Wastewater Engineering. Discharge into seas and oceans Oceans are extensively used for waste-water disposal because of their great assimilation capacity. and consequently. 49 Metcalf and Eddy. Standards play a fundamental role in the determination of the level of wastewater treatment required and in the selection of the discharge location and outfall structures. http://cfpub. 3rd edition. These technology-based regulations.

NPDES AND EC EDR FOR DISCHARGES FROM WASTE-WATER TREATMENT PLANTS 30-day average concentration 30 mg/L 30 mg/L 6-9 NPDESa/ 7-day average concentration 45 mg/L 45 mg/L Percentage of removalc/ 85 85 EC EDRWDb/ Concentration Percenatge (mg/L) of removalc/ 25 70-90 35-60 70-90 125 75 10-15 70-80 1-2 80 Parameter BOD5 TSS PH COD Total nitrogend/ Total phosphorusd/ Sources: USEPA. Inc. USEPA. Municipal Wastewater Treatment in Central and Eastern Europe: Present Situation and Cost-Effective Development Strategies (Washington. carbon adsorption. potential microbial and chemical water contamination. has less volume and can be safely reused.54 Sludge landfilling and incineration continue to decrease due to stricter regulations and increased public awareness.: The World Bank Group. however. In satellite reclamation systems. and consequently direct potable reuse of reclaimed water is likely to remain impracticable. 1998). 4th edition. waste-water flows are withdrawn from the collection system. new technologies offering significantly higher removal rates are being designed and implemented. In response to these increasing concerns. c/ Removals in relation to influent load. 51 52 53 Metcalf and Eddy. These technologies include pressure-driven membranes. including high-solids centrifuges. Dual water systems involve the supply of potable water and non-potable water through two separate distribution networks. Shanahan.53 At the same time. increased attention is being devoted to the production of sludge that is clean. and L. Developments in this area have been slower than in the field of waste-water treatment. and are expected to become the predominant treatment technologies in the near future. egg-shaped digesters and powerful heat dryers. as water shortages have intensified. D. but a number of new technologies have emerged.TABLE 19. Somlyódy and P. Wastewater Engineering Treatment. are now being tested for the production of highquality water for indirect potable reuse. has become a growing source of concern.. 54 Class A biosolids are biosolids in which pathogen concentrations have been reduced to below detectable levels. b/ European Community Environmental Directive Requirements for waste-water discharges. ion exchange and air stripping systems. especially from new trace contaminants.C. This has led to an increase in the use of dual water systems52 and satellite reclamation systems. Membrane technologies. Other developments include temperature-phased anaerobic digestion and auto-thermal aerobic digestion processes. NEW DIRECTIONS AND CONCERNS51 A worldwide trend toward acceptance of the concept of reuse is currently observable. and then reused locally in order to minimize transportation and treatment costs. d/ Limited to sensitive areas subject to eutrophication. treated. The current trend is in the direction of more reuse opportunities through the production of class A biosolids. In the field of sludge reclamation and reuse technologies. 43 . Volume reduction with a view to decreased disposal requirements is also an ongoing concern. advanced oxidation. which destroy volatile solids more effectively and yield enhanced production of class A biosolids. D. which were formerly restricted to water desalination applications. a/ National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System for secondary waste-water treatment plants. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System.

Computer and central control room. owing to the multitude of benefits that they confer in terms of process improvement. Typical process disturbances include process inputs and conditions such as variable flow rates. Signal transmitting device. chemical and biological composition. TABLE 20. Wastewater Treatment Plants. 44 .D.IV. Instrumentation and automatic control allow continuous monitoring of process variables. The use of instrumentation and automatic control is growing nowadays. temperature and density55. Virginia: Water Environment Federation. equipment performance. Figure 30 illustrates a typical control system. and immediate automatic execution of corrective measures when needed. Gilman et al. 1993). Data display or readout. which generally comprises the following components: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Measurement device. Manual of Practice No. INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL IN WASTE-WATER TREATMENT FACILITIES Waste-water treatment processes are characterized by continuous disturbances and variations that cannot be detected by manual measurements with the precision and within the time span necessary for maintaining proper operation of the facility. and convenience to personnel (see table 20). Instrumentation in Wastewater Treatment Facilities. BENEFITS OF INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS IN WASTE-WATER TREATMENT Purpose Process Benefit Improved process performance and better process results Efficient use of energy Efficient use of chemicals Process changes detected in a timely manner Automatic execution of corrective measures Greater ability to control complex processes Immediate malfunction alert signal Diagnosis of problems in a remotely located equipment item before malfunction occurs Status at all times Automatic execution of corrective measures and automatic response to potentially disastrous situations Increase in running time Timely and accurate process information Safer operation Efficient use of labour Capability to solve analytical problems quickly Minimized potential for human error Feasibility of an overview of plant operation Decrease in manual paperwork More complete records that may allow an overview of plant operation and plant behavior. 55 H. and design of future expansion Increased security Equipment Personnel Source: Qasim. rapid transfer of data to the operator or manager.. Control system. 21 (Alexandria.

Electronic devices are often comparatively small in size and relatively inexpensive. C. and totalizers on panels or computer 56 57 Qasim. MEASURING DEVICES Measuring devices. A. level. or electronically by means of voltage and current. pulse duration. These variables fall into three categories: physical (flow. 45 . recorders. DATA DISPLAY READOUT Readout devices display the transmitted operation in a configuration that is usable by the operator.57 Electronic signals can operate over great distances without causing time lags. referred to as sensors. indicator. etc. by means of the movement of a pen. In tone transmission. SIGNAL-TRANSMITTING DEVICES The function of a signal-transmitting device is to transmit a process variable signal from a sensor to a readout device or controller. dissolved oxygen. sludge growth rate. turbidity. continuously or intermittently. or tone. specific conductance. the length of time the voltage is transmitted is in proportion to the measured data. The signal may be transmitted mechanically. electrical hazards have been eliminated by intrinsic safety techniques. Gilman et al.Figure 30. and they can handle multiple signal inputs. Sensor devices can measure variables directly.).). and they can be maintenance-free. they can be made compatible with a digital computer. Moreover. TOC reduction rate. indirectly or by inferential means.. etc. measurements may be performed on-line or off-line. The most common types of readout devices are indicators. In pulse duration or time-pulse transmission. Instrumentation. chlorine residual. measure or compute the process variables. temperature. Wastewater Treatment Plants. Furthermore. oxidation-reduction potential. pneumatically by means of a detector or an amplifier. signals are transmitted by milliamp direct current or by voltage signals. B. Radio/microwave transmission has recently been developed and put into practice. In voltage and current transmission. chemical (pH. float or cable. Wastewater Treatment Plants. standard telephone lines are normally used to transmit signals. include instruments that sense.56. pressure. This transmission method is particularly advantageous where the gathering points are scattered over a large area and where telephone lines are either not available or prohibitively expensive. Electronic and radio/microwave control systems are becoming more attractive for a number of reasons.57 Some commonly used on-line process measurement devices and their applications are summarized in annex I. Typical control system components Final control element Manipulated variable PROCESS Disturbances Measuring device Controller Transmitter Display devices: recorder or indicator Source: Qasim. and so on) and biological (oxygen consumption rate.

or transmitted as a combination of the two. Operator Motor Valve C. The control element may be feedback and feedforward control loops and control systems or controllers. Figure 31. or automatically by an internal process-generated event. Analog control systems. Analog data may be reused and transmitted unchanged. 46 . The operation may be initiated manually by the operator. Facilitated manual control. requires analog measurement for its input and manipulates a final control element as its output. Automatic control systems may be discrete or continuous. D. Automatic feedback control. or at a central operating room for the whole facility. C. 58 Qasim. D. (b) Analog control. Automatic feed-forward-feedback computer control. in contrast. on the other hand. Examples of control systems A. B. Operator Control Panel Meter Controller Logic computer Motor Valve Feedback Position indicator Meter Feed-forward Feedback Note: A. float or pressure switch. using a push button. Automatic feed-forward control. Wastewater Treatment Plants.screens. In discrete control. Operator Controller Motor Valve Feedback Position indicator E. which originates from a position. as demonstrated in figure 31. The transmitted signal. Manual control. open/close. alarm/normal). close to the equipment site. converted to digital form. Operator Control Panel Meter Controller Set point Motor Valve Feedback Position indicator F. and F. Continuous control. concentration and level. the status of equipment and status changes (digital measurement) are correlated with a preset value or programme of events. Operator Valve B.58 Control loops and control systems may be set up in a variety of configurations. CONTROL SYSTEMS Time control systems used in waste-water engineering fall into three categories: (a) Digital control. Operator Control Panel Control Panel Set point Motor Valve D. (c) Automatic control. The devices automatically regulate the control variable. limit. Remote manual control. transmit data as a range of values measuring flow rate. The data display is placed either locally. E. Digital control systems have two positions (on/off. indicates a status change.

fuzzy control systems. Three systems have been developed for that purpose. can provide accurate. Automatic or manual actuation of final control elements is also performed at the central control room. Instrumentation. 60 59 Gilman et al. 47 . Expert systems were the first to be developed. F.59 Table 21 describes the three systems and their applications.. . “Instrumentation.Uses expert systems to control plant operations . pump scheduling. record. reduces energy demand and improves overall system performance Provides the computer system with learning capabilities System is supplied with a set of input data and a set of expected results or output data. and so on. the system is capable of solving problems by comparing the inputs to its previous experience and plant historical data Potential disadvantage that no warning may be given if the process reaches a state that has not occurred previously Fuzzy Control System Neural Networks System Source: Qasim. important events and alarms in a centralized location. and Gilman et al.. Modern data acquisition systems. and neural networks. Qasim. Wastewater Treatment Plants. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE New technological advances have made it feasible to use artificial intelligence for the monitoring and control of operations in a waste-water treatment plant. expert systems. followed by fuzzy control systems.” Water Science and Technology. with the result that fewer personnel are required to operate a large treatment facility. Instrumentation. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE SYSTEMS Artificial intelligence system Expert System Description Involves mathematical models that incorporate concepts and facts used by experienced operators for decision-making Consists of an interactive interface allowing operators to meet their information needs May be regarded as rudimentary compared to the complexity of the treatment operations Experts may disagree on proposed rules Consists of a reasoning system that incorporates qualitative and/or quantitative models of processes and mixtures of automatic control and expert systems techniques. 21-25. Neural networks are relatively new and have not yet been extensively developed for use in waste-water management.E. air supply. reduces operator workload. displaying treatment information. and then learns by adapting its internal recognition formulations Once trained. Garrett Jr. DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS Data acquisition systems effectively accumulate.. 37 (1998). Data acquisition systems are located in a central control room. format. In addition to data accumulation and processing.Expresses experts’ operating methods with IF-THEN control rules Executes data and performs feedback control of the process Allows smooth control of processes. impartial documentation of process measurements and operator actions. and display data transmitted from sensors. commonly referred to as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems.60 TABLE 21. namely. reduces chemical use.M. SCADA systems can produce the necessary process corrections such as chemical solutions. Wastewater Treatment Plantsn and T. Control and Automation Progress in the United States in the Last 24 Years.

automation. tanks. where microbiological techniques. waste-water characterization is likely to improve in the years to come. as it influences the design of the entire system.G. The decision to use instrumentation. including RNA and DNA typing. This is especially true for biological treatment processes. Instrumentation. Annex table 6 outlines the functions that can be monitored for various treatment processes. the size and configuration of existing vessels. and availability of instrumentation maintenance personnel. As process modeling becomes more accurate.62 61 62 Gilman et al. made possible by more sensitive detection methods and advanced analytical techniques. will also yield more knowledge about the behavior of waste-water constituents and their relationship to process performance. APPLICATION IN THE WASTE-WATER TREATMENT PLANT There are many factors that determine the need for instrumentation and control elements in wastewater systems. With devices that can measure values of micrograms and even nanograms per liter. NEW DIRECTIONS As new and more sophisticated instrumentation is developed. Inc. Wastewater Engineering. help optimize process performance. reliability requirements. 48 . 4th edition. Ultimately. hours of manned operation. most of the resultant decisions are made on an economic basis. channels. Improved characterization of waste-water.. H.61 There is a wide range of variables that can be monitored within each treatment unit used at the facility. and that stricter limits imposed on waste-water discharges will be met. This means that a broader range of compounds will be monitored. These factors include the size of the facility.. and control in waste-water treatment systems should be made early in the conceptual design phase of a facility. complexity of the process. contaminants that are present only in trace amounts will be accurately detected. Metcalf and Eddy. the design and operation of waste-water treatment facilities will be greatly enhanced. pipes and mechanical equipment will frequently have to be substantially altered to accommodate good instrumentation and control practices.

63 Resources are the capital. Qasim. and all design engineers must take part in the process. Other authorities have defined a fourth level of estimate. American Water Works Association (AWWA) and ASCE. preliminary and definitive. Wastewater Treatment Plants. operation and maintenance costs. In general. experience and sound judgment are necessary. In this section. THE WATER TREATMENT COST ESTIMATION PROCESS The process of evaluating and selecting appropriate water treatment technology usually begins with a technical feasibility study that depends on the nature of the application. Levels of cost estimate64 According to the American Association of Cost Engineers (AACE). 63 64 Qasim. The preliminary design cost estimate determines the financial feasibility of the project and provides a cost baseline. but also social and environmental costs. It is a genuinely multidisciplinary effort. while differences in capacity can be resolved through proper factorization. In addition. The processes used in both projects must be similar. the cost estimation process is described in general terms. 1990). ‘a cost-effective [waste-water treatment] solution is one that will minimize total costs of the resources over the life of the treatment facility. ECONOMICS OF WASTE-WATER TREATMENT The selection and design of waste-water treatment facilities is greatly dependent on the costs associated with treatment processes. which comes between the order-of-magnitude and preliminary estimates.V. When the costs associated with two or more processes appear to be equal. This chapter examines cost estimation methodologies for various water treatment technologies and provides illustrative examples of cost estimates as reported in the literature. 49 . since there are a number of parameters that cannot easily be quantified. waste-water volume and characteristics forecast. At this stage. major facilities and equipment must be identified and sized. Historical data from similar projects usually provides a good order-of-magnitude estimate. 1. the following three levels of cost estimate are needed throughout the design process: order-of-magnitude. Water Treatment Plant Design (New York: McGraw-Hill. including the major process and work elements required. land requirements. a conceptual cost estimate is needed when alterations to an existing plant are under consideration. effluent and sludge management identified and compared in terms of their effectiveness. and monitoring costs. sensitivity analysis with respect to estimate inaccuracies must be performed to break the tie. According to S. Cost-effectiveness evaluation is undertaken only after existing and future conditions have been estimated. including capital investment. and the cost elements usually included in an estimate are indicated. Benefits from sludge and effluent reuse must also be included in the feasibility study. sludge handling and disposal. A preliminary definition of the scope of work must be identified. operation and maintenance. A. R. usually according to manufacturers’ specifications. which is known as the design-to-cost process. termed the conceptual level estimate. and process alternatives for waste-water treatment. Water treatment cost estimation requires a thorough knowledge of the mechanical elements involved.

50 . 3. contingencies may be expected to occur.6 65 AWWA and ASCE. including miscellaneous items. but contingencies will decrease. the total project cost is approximately 525 per cent of the equipment cost.When the design document is finalized. such as that given by the Construction Specification Institute. helps produce more accurate conceptual and preliminary cost estimates. For the purpose of conceptual or preliminary design estimates. TABLE 22. 2. for example. Contingencies In almost all projects. LEVELS OF COST ESTIMATES (Percentage) Type of cost estimate Order-of-magnitude Conceptual Preliminary design Definitive Level of accuracy + 50 to – 30 + 40 to – 20 + 30 to – 15 + 15 to – 5 Recommended contingency 20 to 30 20 to 15 15 to 10 10 to 5 Source: AWWA and ASCE. so that the total project cost will remain unchanged. installation. according to the following equation:65 Cost new plant = Cost existing plant x (Capacity new plant / Capacity existing plant) 0. engineering. a definitive level estimate can be produced. The definitive level estimate is commonly used as a contract price for construction contractors. Estimation of capital costs In addition to the cost of the treatment unit and its ancillary equipment. if it does. Examples of cost factors from two sources are listed in table 23 and table 24. Water Treatment Plant Design. primarily from vendors’ quotations. or when historical data are not available. high contingencies are allowed for estimates with low degrees of confidence. known as the six-tenths rule. A breakdown according to a standardized format. instrumentation and controls. Great care must be taken to ensure that all cost items have been included. These data are most useful when they incorporate enough detail to allow cost estimates for different plant sections separately. pumps. Of course. delivery and contingencies. Historical cost data are commonly used for capital cost estimates. The cost of the major process equipment must be known. This estimate is not expected to vary from the preliminary design estimate by more than 15 per cent. Vendor quotations for all equipment used must be confirmed at this stage. Another rule of thumb. is used to compare the costs of two plants using the same process but with different capacities. According to table 23. cost estimation factors can be used. Table 22 lists the levels of accuracy and recommended contingency for each level of cost estimate. the known project cost will increase. As the design process progresses. the capital costs of investment include piping. the reason for the deviation must be determined. Water Treatment Plant Design.

0 10.0 20. STANDARD CAPITAL COST ALGORITHM Factor Total construction costs (TCC) Equipment cost (EC) Installation Piping Instrumentation and controls Total indirect cost (TIC) Engineering Contingency Total capital cost Capital cost Technology-specific cost 25 to 55 per cent of EC 31 to 66 per cent of EC 6 to 30 per cent of EC 15 per cent of TCC 15 per cent of TCC TCC + TIC Source: USEPA. a 20-foot perimeter around each unit can be assumed.0 4.0 10. Detailed Costing Document.0 70.0 20.TABLE 23. EPA 821-R-98-016 (1998). Additionally.0 50.0 10. 100.0 420. TABLE 24.epa. Table 25 presents annual O&M costs 66 USEPA. treatment chemicals (if used) and residuals management (if needed).66 5.0 35. Land requirement equations have been developed for each technology. energy. The land requirements are further multiplied by the corresponding land costs to obtain facility-specific land cost estimates. 51 .gov/ostwater/guide/cwt. taxes and insurance. access areas. and so on). controls.0 5.0 65. Preparation of the O&M budget The annual O&M costs include the costs of maintenance.0 80.0 5. Land requirements for each new equipment item are based on equipment dimensions.0 40. labour. Water Treatment Plant Design.0 100. Detailed Costing Document for the Centralized Waste Treatment Industry. Land requirements The land requirements include the total area needed for the equipment plus peripherals (pumps. http://www. PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL FACILITY COST BASED ON HISTORICAL COST DATA (Percentage) Equipment cost Equipment installation Process mechanical piping Instrumentation and control Electrical Buildings Yard improvements Service facilities Engineering and supervision Project management and overhead Total percentage of equipment cost Subtotal percent of project cost for above Additional project cost elements Miscellaneous and unidentified equipment Miscellaneous and unidentified process mechanical Miscellaneous and unidentified electrical/I&C Percentage of total project cost Source: AWWA and ASCE.

for various systems derived by the USEPA from vendors’ information or from engineering literature. Major cost elements of the O&M budget are briefly outlined in the following sections. TABLE 25. STANDARD OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE COST FACTOR BREAKDOWN
Factor Maintenance Taxes and insurance Labour Electricity Chemicals: Lime (calcium hydroxide) Polymer Sodium hydroxide (100% solution) Sodium hydroxide (50% solution) Sodium hypochlorite Sulfuric acid Ferrous sulfate Hydrated lime Sodium sulfide Residuals management
Source: USEPA, Detailed Costing Document.

O&M 1998 USD/year 4 per cent of total capital cost 2 per cent of total capital cost $30,300 to $31,200 per man-year $0.08 per kilowatt-hour $57 per ton $3.38 per pound $0.28 per pound $0.14 per pound $0.64 per pound $1.34 per pound $0.09 per pound $0.04 per pound $0.30 per pound Technology-specific cost


Labour budget

Initial staffing cost includes recruitment cost. A continuing staffing cost is also added to the budget to account for employee turnover. The number of staff required and corresponding labour rates must be established. Staff requirements depend on the level of automation, the number of processes and the degree of plant spreadout. Table 26 presents an estimate of staff requirements for two 50 mgd and two 5 mgd conventional water treatment plants that differ in respect of their levels of automation. As will be seen from this table, a large-capacity facility that is fully automated will require a significantly smaller number of operators. Training cost is highest at initial startup, but is expected to continue during the lifetime of the facility, in order to stay ahead of a constantly evolving technology. TABLE 26. ESTIMATE OF STAFF REQUIREMENTS FOR 50 AND 5 MGD WATER TREATMENT PLANTS
Position Plant manager Operations supervisor Maintenance supervisor Operator Mechanical technician Electronics technician Instrument technician Laboratory technician Buildings maintenance Grounds maintenance 50 mgd water treatment plant Semiautomatic Fully automatic 1 1 1 1 1 1 15 5 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 5 mgd water treatment plant Semiautomatic Fully automatic 1 1 0 0 0 0 5 1 1 1 1* 1* 0 1 1 1 1** 1** 0 0

Source: AWWA and ASCE, Water Treatment Plant Design.

* Position split between electrical and instrumentation duties. ** Position split between janitorial and groundskeeping duties.



Chemical budget

All chemicals must be listed, and quantities for specific operational requirements must be estimated. Price quotes are then obtained from several vendors. A strictly maintained inventory is essential in order to regulate the use of chemicals, particularly those with a limited shelf life, and to avoid possible losses. It is also important to take the cost of providing adequate storage facilities into consideration, since suitable storage conditions will not merely preserve but actually extend the shelf life of chemicals. Adequate measures must be taken for the disposal of expired chemicals and other chemical wastes, and the associated costs must be taken into account. (c)
Utilities budget

The utilities budget includes the cost of power, gas, sewer and telephone, the most significant of these being power. Possible ways of reducing power costs should be considered, such as operating at off-peak rates, if available, and the use of energy-efficient electrical equipment. It is important to note that actual energy consumption may be much higher than the amount calculated for theoretical conditions. Distillation processes, for example, may require temperatures as much as 20°C higher than those indicated by theory in order to accelerate heat transfer in systems with small heat transfer areas, resulting in increased energy consumption.67 (d)
Equipment maintenance budget

This budget will inevitably increase as the waste-water treatment plant ages. It includes replacement costs for equipment, consumables and maintenance tools. When costly equipment is involved, replacement frequencies and cost must be envisaged in full detail, as otherwise the feasibility of the entire project may be jeopardized. In reverse osmosis, for example, membrane fouling rates affect membrane replacement costs and consequently must be estimated with a high degree of accuracy.68 6. Other cost considerations It is essential not to overlook unique project conditions that are not usually reflected in historical data, as these conditions may entail substantial additional costs. The most pertinent of these are geotechnical and site constraints.69 If, for example, the plant is located far from its primary water source, the cost of material transportation may be substantial. In some cases, soil conditions may be less than ideal for construction, with the result that additional foundation support is required. 7. Methods of financial analysis Common methods of financial analysis can be applied once the original capital and operating costs and interest rates are established, including for example, the payback period, the internal rate of return, and the net present value.70 Box 1 illustrates how the payback period method was applied to determine the viability of using RO for treating rinse water in an electroplating facility.

67 G.A. Pittner, “The Economics of Desalination Processes,” Chapter 3 in Reverse Osmosis: Membrane Technology, Water Chemistry, and Industrial Applications, edited by Z. Amjad (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993). 68 69 70

Ibid. AWWA and ASCE, Water Treatment Plant Design. Pittner, “Economics of Desalination”.


Box 1. Reverse osmosis economics for an electroplating facility
An electroplating facility is considering the use of reverse osmosis (RO) for the treatment of rinse water. Benefits are expected through the reuse of rinse water and metals recovered. Table 27 summarizes the results obtained through the payback period method. It can be seen from this table that payback periods depend both on feed flow and concentration. RO treatment of nickel rinse water seems to be economically feasible, with short payback periods, while it is less economical for chromium.

Rinse water Nickel Cadmium Cadmium Chromium Membrane Tubular cellulose acetate Spiral wrap polyamide Spiral wrap polyamide Spiral wrap thin film composite Feed concentration (mg/l) 2 035 588 223 1 840 Payback period (years) 5 m3/d 15 m3/d 5 m3/h 1.3 2.1 1.7 3.0 4.8 3.9 5.9 9.4 8.0 7 No net savings 9.9

Source: J.J. Schoeman et al., “Evaluation of reverse osmosis for electroplating effluent treatment”, Water Science and Technology, 25, 10 (1992): pp. 79-93

8. Water treatment cost estimation tools A number of computer tools have been developed to assist the designer in estimating water treatment system cost. These tools are helpful in arriving at first-level estimates, but should be used with caution, since they incorporate many simplifying assumptions. In this section, two examples of software programmes are discussed. The purpose is purely illustrative, and full coverage of these software programmes is not attempted here. (a)
WaTER software71

The United States Bureau of Reclamation, jointly with the National Institute of Standards and Technology, has developed a spreadsheet tool called Water Treatment Estimation Routine (WaTER) to facilitate parameter and system cost estimation. This tool is publicly available for download.72 WaTER cost estimates are based on cost curves published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)73 of the United States and a report by S.R. Qasim.74 The spreadsheet calculates dosage rates and costs for the processes listed below: pH adjustment with sulfuric acid; Disinfection with chlorine, chloramine, and ozone; Coagulation/flocculation with alum, ferric sulfate and lime/soda ash using upflow solids contact clarifiers; Filtration enhancement with polymer feed;

71 M.C. Wilbert et al., Water Treatment Estimation Routine (WaTER) User Manual (Denver: United States Department of the Interior, August 1999). 72 73

Available at: http://www.usbr.gov/water/media/spreadsheets/costpc.xls.

USEPA, Estimating Water Treatment Costs, Volume 2: Cost Curves Applicable to 1 to 200 mgd Treatment Plants, EPA 600012-79-162.
74 S.R. Qasim et al., “Estimating Costs for Treatment Plant Construction”, Journal of the American Water Works Association, August 1992.


ECONOMICS OF MEMBRANE AND ION EXCHANGE SYSTEMS Due to their steadily falling costs and improving performance. direct and indirect. cost data are needed to prove that membrane technologies are truly viable. In addition to the above. The advantage of this routine is that it facilitates sensitivity analysis with respect to process parameters. comparing the costs of an activated sludge system to those of a trickling filter system. Annex IV also shows some illustrative screens obtained from the demo version. The unit processes included in the software are listed in the table in annex IV. 75 Available at: http://www. (b) CAPDET In 1973. that allows designers to perform preliminary cost comparisons between possible treatment options.75 The software is graphical. process-specific input is required. A free demonstration copy of this software can be obtained from the Hydromantis website. and is designed to require only a minimal amount of user input. B. EPA joined forces with the United States Army Corps of Engineers in developing a model. Microfiltration as pretreatment to remove particulate matter. The general input screen is shown in annex figure 4. as illustrated in annex figure 5 for an RO-NF process. according to local values. Cost indices (February 1999 included).com/demos02. The major disadvantage is that user intervention and data manipulation are required to simulate a plant with multiple processes.html. Additional input in this case includes membrane data from manufacturers’ information sheets. Pumping: raw water. Demineralization with ion exchange.- Filtration with granular activated carbon and granular media. Annex figure 6 shows the output screen for an RO-NF process. system size. In addition. membrane processes are now able to compete with conventional treatment technologies. small land requirements and ease of O&M are uncontested. Water analysis. including water influent and effluent quality and the treatment strategy in question.hydromantis. CapdetWorks. including number of modules and vessels. and number of pumps. It uses design algorithms and cost estimation techniques to produce the process design and cost. The following input information is required for all processes: Planned plant feed flow rate in L/sec. electrodialysis and reverse osmosis. backwash and finished water pumping. cost indices (such as workforce wages and power cost) can be updated by the user. 55 . The CAPDET model was further developed by Hydromantis and implemented in a software tool. The output of the routine is the capital cost estimate. Desired plant product flow rate in L/sec. CAPDET. and the O&M cost estimation. While their performance.

4 1. 78 79 77 Elarde and Bergman. while the installation cost for the whole system usually amounts to 30 per cent of the RO equipment cost. Bergman.4 0.76 This section looks at the costs of RO.2 1 0. “The cost of membrane filtration”. “The cost of membrane filtration”.2582 During the 1970s and 1980s. control equipment and tanks.79 This drop in price is attributed to the adoption of RO technology by a number of industries in the United States. while economies of scale can be achieved with respect to the cost of the remaining equipment. MF.6 0. Elarde and R. Wagner. “The cost of membrane filtration for municipal water supplies”.77 Pretreatment equipment cost depends on the nature of the water supply. edited by S. equipment costs ranging between US$ 0. It follows that large-capacity systems are characterized by relatively low overall equipment costs. because the membrane module cost represents the largest portion of the overall cost (see figure 32).8 per gpd are common. however.4 and US$ 0. For other flux values. 2001).6946 x [capacity (mgd)] – 0. Polishing equipment cost is estimated at 30-50 per cent of RO unit cost. we obtain the curve defined by the equation:78 Cost (US$/gpd) = 0. As this figure shows. blowers. 56 .A. and gives an overview of IX costs for comparison purposes. Duranceau (Denver: American Water Works Association. Unit installed equipment cost of RO filtration plants US$/gpd 1. The table in annex E gives the membrane filtration cost data obtained through this survey. Note that the cost curve is based on a flux of 50 gpd/sf. UF and NF. This trend. Figure 32.6 1.8 0. Typical reverse-osmosis costs (a) Equipment cost RO equipment typically includes the following components: membrane module. membrane module prices held steady in Europe. 76 J. pumps. whereas they witnessed a steadey decline in the United States.J.R. clean-in-place equipment. Membrane module cost is proportional to capacity. Membrane Filtration Handbook. the cost curve must be multiplied by the ratio of the actual flux to 50gpd/sf. Data in this figure were obtained from a survey of 25 recently constructed facilities in the US and Canada. 1. Chapter 1 in Membrane Practices for Water Treatment.2 0 0 5 10 mgd 15 20 25 Source: Elarde and Bergman. it is estimated at 30 per cent of the cost of an RO unit for moderate pretreatment. including in particular the dairy industry.and alter long-standing misconceptions. Fitting the data points. becomes insignificant with very large systems (over 2 mgd).

When data are fitted.. dropped from US$ 1.000 Price is being kept high for political reasons Used mainly in oil emulsion treatment and whole milk Used only for very special products due to high cost Source: J. TABLE 28. valves. Elarde and Bergman.000 > 1. To illustrate: the price of a complete spiral-wound system. a pharmaceutical membrane system costs approximately US$ 200-300 per square metre. Wagner.80 The price continued to decline through the 1990s. The cost curve shows economies of scale up to a capacity of 5 mgd.700 3. Inc. internal piping and tubing. since suppliers’ profit margins are minimal Tubular sheet Plate and frame Fiber Ceramic 300–500 (low end systems) 1. However. depending on country. and as a result a dairy system nowadays costs approximately US$ 150-250 per square metre.4914 x [capacity (mgd)] – 0. 2001). Ibid.81 Table 28 provides a rough cost comparison between spiral-wound. pumps and control equipment. COST COMPARISON OF VARIOUS RO MEMBRANE SYSTEMS Complete system cost per m2 of membrane area (US$/m2) 300–500 Membrane replacement cost (US$/m2) Thin film RO: 15-25 Thin film NF: 20-40 Polysulfon UF: 25-50 Specialty element: 35–70 120 130–180 700 N/A Type Spiral-wound Remarks Prices are not expected to drop further in the near future. including membrane. Membrane Filtration Handbook: Practical Tips and Hints (Osmonics. “The cost of membrane filtration”. (b) Plant construction cost Construction costs of the surveyed plants82 are very scattered because of differences in pretreatment equipment. fiber and ceramic membrane systems. Ibid.3471 80 81 82 83 Ibid. These falling prices will undoubtedly widen the client base. Similarly.000–3.000 (high end systems) 2. 57 . but are also expected to make services and warranties less accessible and more expensive. a cost curve plotted against plant capacity is useful as a means of obtaining an order-of-magnitude approximation of construction cost (see figure 33).400 per m2 to US$ 370 per m2 of membrane area installed. while a water system typically sells for US$ 70-150 per square metre. Prices vary greatly. configuration and location.In fact. tubular flat sheet. the following equation is obtained:83 Cost (US$/gpd) = 2. the massive use of spiral-wound elements in the dairy industry at the end of the 1980s was a contributing factor in the sharp fall in the price of these modules.000–10. number of elements and element construction.

reducing agents.15 per 1. but do not vary greatly.5 3 2.8 1.2 1 0.000 gpd 2 1. 84 Ibid. Unit construction cost of membrane filtration plants US$/gpd 3. with capacity in excess of 25 mgd.4 1.000 gallons of produced water (see figure 34).4 0. 58 .2 0 0 O&M without labor Total O&M assuming 5 op erators 5 10 mgd 15 20 25 Source: Elarde and Bergman.Figure 33. antiscalant and dispersants. Unit RO filtration O&M cost US$/1. chemicals and power.5 2 1.1-0. These costs are proportional to plant capacity. The types of chemicals used include coagulants. (i) Chemicals The cost of chemicals is variable. O&M costs are in the vicinity of US$ 0. chemical conditioning agents. and thus economies of scale can be achieved up to 5 mgd. salt.5 0 0 5 10 mgd 15 20 25 Source: Elarde and Bergman. depending on location. “The cost of membrane filtration”.5 1 0.8 0.6 1.6 0. For very large plants. “The cost of membrane filtration”. (c) Operation and maintenance costs Excluding labour.84 Figure 34. critical O&M cost elements are primarily membrane replacement.

for example. This is attributable to the fact that the system must operate at higher pressures with lower recovery rates. depending on the quality of the water input. Membrane cost is usually depreciated over a lifetime of 3-5 years.000 gallons of product water. seal replacements and piping. thin-film composite RO system with a pump efficiency of 78 per cent and a motor efficiency of 93 per cent requires 4 kWh per 1. Figure 35. and may account for as much as four per cent of equipment costs for seawater RO. A single-stage. The cost of the chemicals required to clean averages some US$ 50. (d) Total plant cost After amortizing equipment and construction costs over 20 years and adding in O&M costs. while a double pass RO system consumes 8 kWh per 1. the total cost curve shown in figure 35 is obtained.4 1. costs approximately US$ 1.2 1 0. Maintenance includes the repair and calibration of equipment and pumps. Above 5 mgd. 59 . will consume approximately 25-30 kWh per 1. The quality of source water and target product water determines what type of membrane equipment must be used.000 gallons of produced water. The decreasing cost of membrane modules thus holds out the prospect of more widespread use of membrane technology. Power consumption is dependent on source water quality.(ii) Power RO processes are heavy consumers of power. but for seawater RO. Membranes are cleaned every six months on average. The same membrane module.000 gallons of product water. “The cost of membrane filtration”. (iii) Membrane cleaning and replacement Membrane replacement accounts for 6-10 per cent of the total water production cost. expressed in US$ per 1. Unit RO filtration total water treatment cost US$/1. (iv) Equipment maintenance Equipment maintenance accounts for approximately two per cent of equipment costs for brackish water RO. membrane cost becomes the most important factor (more than 50 per cent of the total cost).200. Seawater RO.2 0 0 5 10 mgd 15 20 25 Source: Elarde and Bergman.4 0. and thus is a major component of plant cost. the price of an 8 x 40 inch thin-film composite module is approximately US$ 1. Cleaning frequencies of more than three years for good-quality water supplies and one month for low-quality water supplies are common.000 gallons.000 gpd 1.8 0.6 0. By way of example. due to corrosion.700.

“Characteristics and costs of MF and UF plants”.1 1 10 100 Capacity ( mgd) Source: Adham.78 X-0. These include electrical supply. “Characteristics and costs of MF and UF plants”.01 mgd. MF and UF system unit cost as a function of plant capacity US$/gpd 10 8 6 4 2 0 0. 01 0. and that both UF and MF were characterized by similar plant capital unit costs for small-scale plants (under 1 mgd).38 Figure 36. Fitting the data points.5 per 1. Jacangelo and J. the following equation was obtained for membrane system unit cost (Y) as a function of plant capacity (X) (see figure 36):86 Y (US$/gpd) = 0. including the cost of the membrane system in addition to the cost of all other process equipment. Fitting the data points.29 X-0. MF and UF plant capital unit cost as a function of plant capacity US$/1. 85 86 87 88 S.M.000 gallons for plants with capacities in excess of 5 mgd. Microfiltration and ultrafiltration costs Larger-capacity MF and UF plants are becoming economically viable.000 gpd) = 1.000 gallons for plants with a capacity of 0. May 1996. 001 0. “Characteristics and costs of MF and UF plants. pumping and wash water recovery systems. 000 gpd 10 8 6 4 2 0 0. and US$ 2. Ibid. Adham.5 per 1. 60 .85 The treatment unit cost ranged between US$ 0. Jacangelo and Lainé. Jacangelo and Lainé. J.” Journal AWWA.1 1 10 100 Capacity( mgd) Source: Adham.01 0. Lainé. Jacangelo and Lainé.40 Figure 37. the following equation was obtained for plant capital unit cost (Y) as a function of plant capacity (X) (see figure 37):88 Y (US$/1. disinfection. “Characteristics and costs of MF and UF plants”. As regards plant capital cost.87 the survey concluded that economies of scale were possible.2. Adham. storage. Membrane system unit costs appeared to be similar for UF and MF. 001 0. according to a recent survey of 74 such plants worldwide.

presumably because of their lower power consumption and membrane replacement costs. 61 . “Characteristics and costs of MF and UF plants”.2 0.001 0. Ibid. MF and UF treatment unit cost as a function of plant capacity US$/1. due to the lower O&M cost associated with the former. and the value obtained was added to the O&M cost to obtain the treatment unit cost.000 gpd 3 2.8 0. the capital cost was amortized over a 20-year period with a seven per cent interest rate. “Characteristics and costs of MF and UF plants”. fitting the data points.5 0 0.053 Figure 38. MF plants appeared to have lower costs than UF plants.5 2 1. Jacangelo and Lainé. Jacangelo and Lainé. Finally.With respect to O&M costs.001 UF MF 0. The equations obtained for MF and UF were as shown below (see figure 39):91 UF: Y (US$/1.01 0.15 MF: Y (US$/1.000 gpd) = 0.20 X-0.56 X-0.6 1.01 0. Jacangelo and Lainé.4 0 0.1 1 10 100 Capacity(mgd) Source: Adham.1 1 10 100 UF MF Capacity (mgd) Source: Adham.000gpd 2 1. MF and UF O&M cost as a function of plant capacity US$/1.000 gpd) = 0.5 1 0.89 Again.30 Figure 39. 89 90 91 Ibid. “Characteristics and costs of MF and UF plants”. the following equations were obtained for O&M cost (Y) as a function of plant capacity (X) (see figure 38):90 UF: Y (US$/1. A lower treatment unit cost was found for MF than for UF.26 MF: Y (US$/1. Adham.43 X-0.000 gpd) = 0.78 X-0.000 gpd) = 0.

152/m3. Serra and Wiesner.181/m3 to US$ 0. when the recovery rate was fixed at 75 per cent and the flux was doubled from 10 to 20 gfd. Chellam. costs declined from US$ 0. the costs decreased from US$ 0. Figure 40. The results of this study are outlined in the following sections. This reduction occurred in spite of the fact that cleaning frequency increased fivefold.3. coagulation. 93 94 95 96 62 . Wiesner. sedimentation and granular media filtration. as were the effects of pretreatment with MF. “Estimating costs for integrated membrane systems”. Such as flocculation. 1998. “Estimating costs for integrated membrane systems. Serra and Wiesner. the effect of increasing capacity on plant cost was studied. Costs are shown plotted against permeate flux and feedwater recovery in figure 40. Nanofiltration costs In a recent study. Chellam. “Estimating costs for integrated membrane systems”. Cost versus permeate flux and feedwater recovery for a 50 mgd NF plant Source: Chellam. See figure 41.181/m3 as recovery rates increased from 30 to 75 per cent. In addition. C. Similarly. (a) Cost versus operating conditions93 Costs were estimated for different cleaning frequencies and various permeate flux and recovery values.92 the effects of permeate flux and fouling rates on the capital and O&M costs of NF systems were investigated in order to evaluate cost trade-offs. Serra and M. S. for example. Higher permeate fluxes and recovery rates were found to be associated with lower membrane lifecycle costs. (c) Cost versus pretreatment options95 The study investigated the result of the following blending scenarios on system cost: 92 Conventional pretreatment96 followed by NF filtration of 50 per cent of water flow.278/m3 to US$ 0. UF and conventional treatment systems. For a 50 mgd facility operating at a flux of 10 gfd.” Journal AWWA. (b) Cost versus capacity94 Economies of scale were observed for NF plants when capacity was increased to 5 mgd. Beyond 15 mgd. Ibid. November Ibid. plant capacity seemed to have little effect on cost.

06 0. “Estimating costs for integrated membrane systems”. Figure 42. MF and UF were assumed to be characterized by very similar costs.1 0. Cost versus NF plant capacity Source: Chellam.2 0. Incremental membrane treatment costs for the above options are shown in figure 42.16 0.08 0. Serra and Wiesner. May 1996. Note: Documents referred to in this figure: R. “Estimating costs for integrated membrane systems”.A.12 0. Stage I D/DBP Cost and Technology Document. and followed by NF filtration of 50 per cent of water flow. Conventional treatment50% NF UF-NF. 1997. “Cost of Membrane Softening in Florida.02 0 US$/m3 Conventional treatment. 50% NF UF-NF. 63 .14 0. and USEPA.18 0. Serra and Wiesner. The figure suggests that the addition of MF or UF treatment over conventional pretreatment is not cost-effective based on improvements in NF performance alone. 75% NF Initial NF membrane cost NF energy cos t NF membrane replacement cost UF capital cost Source: Chellam. there is little difference in cost between the 50 per cent and the 75 per cent scenarios. Furthermore. Incremental membrane treatment costs for three blending scenarios NF non membrane costs NF concentrate dis pos al cost NF chemical cost UF operating cos t 0. Figure 41.- Conventional pretreatment followed by MF or UF treatment of the entire water flow.04 0. Bergman.” Journal AWWA. Note: Cost of conventional pretreatment not included. MF or UF treatment followed by NF filtration of 75 per cent of water flow.

between six and 25 per cent. water and waste-water disposal costs. Box 2 presents a case study in which an IX system is compared to a combined RO-IX system in order to determine which is more economically advantageous. The IX system was found to be more dependent on feed TDS than the RO-IX system. For example. lined with natural rubber. such as caustic regenerant. depending on the standard to which the units are built. depending on water quality. power.htm. clarification and sand filtration. For order-of-magnitude estimates. Less expensive systems-costing one third or less as much as a high standard unit-are expected to operate for five to ten years. an IX system was compared with one using RO followed by IX polishing mixed beds.4/m3 80% Source: Dow Chemical Company. having 2 x 100% streams with cation-degasserlayered bed anion-mixed bed polishers containing uniform particle sized resins. Equipment installation cost is estimated at 30 per cent of equipment cost. Above a TDS value of 350-400 ppm as CaCO3. and may require some component replacements during that period. Both systems achieved economies of scale.6/m3 72% 200 m3 US$ 0. 97 Pittner. which are required every three to five years. Maintenance costs are estimated at two per cent of capital cost.dow. buildings and taxes were not included.500 + 16. The surface water input to both systems was pretreated with flocculation. since O&M costs represented the largest component of total cost.45/m3 80% US$ 0. COST COMPARISON OF IX VERSUS RO-IX FOR 50 AND 200 M3 IX RO-IX Treatment cost O&M cost as a percentage of total cost Treatment cost O&M cost as a percentage of total cost 50 m3 US$ 0. 3 The results of the comparison are summarized in table 29. a system that has 100 cubic feet of acid cation resin (cost US$ 45/ft3) and another 100 cubit feet of base anion resin (price US$ 160/ft3) would be expected to cost approximately 7 x (4. They are fully automated and have a useful life of 20 to 30 years. Chemicals account for the largest portion of O&M costs. TABLE 29. On the other hand. Because of these wide variations. Box 2. maintenance. (b) RO followed by IX: 1 x 100% line with RO-degasser-mixed bed polisher for 50 m3/hour and 2 x 50% lines for 200 m /hour. System recovery was set at 80%. Ion Exchange or Reverse Osmosis? http://www. IX was found to be sensitive to chemical costs. The characteristics of the two systems were as follows: (a) IX: packed bed counterflow regenerated (using H2SO4) design. The RO-IX system cost was dependent on power cost. and the same mixed bed design was used as for the IX system. a rule of thumb is to multiply the cost of the resin used in the IX unit by seven. Costly IX units are usually made of ASME code-stamped vessels. chemicals and water.5 man-year for both systems). “Economics of Desalination”.7/m3 70% US$ 0. They usually consist of fiberglass vessels and PVC valves. with simple electronic control. Both systems were studied at flow rates of 50 and 200 cubic metres per hour. Energy costs constitute some three to five per cent of total O&M costs.000.000) = US$ 140. The costs of land.5-0. while the total plant cost may fluctuate in the vicinity of 250 per cent of equipment cost. and also to evaluate the sensitivity of each of these systems with respect to system size and the cost of power. Operating costs included chemicals. Comparison of the cost-effectiveness of RO and IX systems For the purpose of determining which technology was more cost-effective. excluding anion and cation replacements. Ion exchange costs97 The cost of IX equipment varies widely. 64 . care is essential in making IX system cost estimates. and would not be recommended if effluent treatment cost was high.25-0.com/liquidseps/design/ix_ro. it appeared to be more economical to use RO-IX than IX alone.4. labour (1.

83 129. Keller et al.605 million USD An analysis performed in Scandinavia and Denmark99 compared the costs of several waste-water treatment combination alternatives.353 1.1535 35. c/ Capital and O&M costs are assumed to be 30 % higher than in the case of the conventional activated sludge process.5 51. ASCE and American Public Works Association. QE = 1. Electricity (8%).557 0. Financing and Charges for Wastewater Systems (Hyattsville.575 18.086 2.6 71.C. and garage Support personnel Subtotal 1.89 36.84 QDesign Anaerobic digester.130 0.059 27.89 1 273.4 276. ECONOMICS OF EFFLUENT TREATMENT The total cost of effluent treatment is primarily dependent on the influent flow rate to various processes within a waste-water treatment facility.2 15. Shanahan.882 4.98 Annex F presents a series of generalized capital and O&M cost equations for common primary and secondary unit operations and processes used in a waste-water treatment plant. TABLE 30.9 QDesignb/ Anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic systemc/ Final clarifier. laboratories. QE = 1.16 1 273.89 1 273. cost of activated sludge plant Piping (31%). QE = 0.356 0. The flow rate. combiner sludge.229 1. and site preparation (5%) Subtotal 2 Engineering and construction supervision (15%) and contingencies (15%) Subtotal 3 Total cost of activated sludge plant Source: Qasim. Maryland: WPCF.178 8. Municipal Wastewater Treatment. including solid and organic loading.3 4. Table 30 illustrates the application of these equations for the cost estimation of an activated sludge plant. 1998 cost = 1996 cost × [(ENR Index 1998 = 5640)/ (ENR Index 1996 = 5572)]. a/ Capital and O&M costs are obtained from the cost equations in annex F and adjusted to the 1998 cost. shops. b/ Design average and peak flows are 440 L/s and 1320 L/s respectively.5 134.332 Annual O&M costa/ (thousands of USD) 172.717 0. instrumentation (6%).8 249. administrative offices.822 0. Table 31 presents the annualized unit cost data for the following five treatment processes: C. and thus constitutes the main variable in cost equations.W. Waste-water Treatment Plants. a/ Service years 15 30 50 30 40 15 50 50 15 20 20 50 Construction costa/ (millions of USD) 5.9 40.22 QDesign Biosolids recycle Landfilling of residues Miscellaneous structures.399 0..6 62. 65 . ENR = Engineering News Record. QE = 0.7 48. ESTIMATED CAPITAL AND O&M COSTS FOR AN ACTIVATED SLUDGE PLANT System components and description Lift station Preliminary treatment Primary sedimentation.91 QDesign UV disinfection Gravity thickener. is the primary determinant of required equipment size and the associated capital and operations and maintenance costs.4 16.013 0. These equations are often used for the comparison and evaluation of alternatives in a treatment facility rather than for actual cost determination. The cost equations there presented are updated to 1996 dollar values.119 9. 1984).95 QDesign Filter press QE = 1. 99 98 Somlyódy and P.

125 0. 8 Biological/chemical = preprecipitation followed by normally loaded activated sludge plant. It should be noted that the cost estimates presented below are used only for comparison purposes.508 0. Biological/chemical treatment with nitrogen removal.125 0.117 0.110 0.108 0.133 to obtain the initial investment cost.300 0. 4 Chemical low load = traditional chemical treatment (primary precipitation).592 0. leading to a capital recovery factor of 0.258 0.342 0. 1 The annualized capital cost is computed assuming a 12 per cent interest rate and a 20-year life.258 0. O&M = operations and maintenance costs. 6 Biological low load = activated sludge with sludge load of 0.558 0.175 0.000 capita O&M TC 0.083 0. 9 Biological/chemical including N-removal = Predenitrification/simultaneous precipitation in activated sludge plant with total sludge age of 13 days. TC = total costs.175 0.225 0.358 0.192 0. CC = capital costs.192 0. Accurate estimates are influenced substantially by site-specific or country conditions such as interest rates.180 0.333 0.000 capita CC3 O&M3 TC3 0.258 0.050 0.167 0.383 0.000 capita O&M TC 0.175 0.175 0.5 kg/BOD5/kg SS. Municipal Waste-water Treatment. 2 10.250 0. 7 Biological/chemical = simultaneous precipitation in normally loaded activated sludge plant.333 0.133 0. Biological/chemical treatment without nitrogen removal.417 0.133 0.433 CC 0.075 0. Q = 400 L/capita/day.450 0.467 0.108 0.633 - CC 0.d.283 100.167 0.142 0.233 0.083 0.2 kg/BOD5/kg SS.(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Mechanical (primary) waste-water treatment. Biological/chemical including N-removal = Preprecipitation followed by biofilm process with postdenitrification and external carbon source addition.133. WWTP = waste-water treatment plant.200 0.175 0.250 0.263 0.283 0.125 0.083 0. 5 Biological high load = activated sludge with sludge load of 0.275 0.102 Transportation costs are not included in the analysis.417 0.292 0.250 0.150 0. ANNUALIZED UNIT COSTS (USD/M3) FOR WASTE-WATER TREATMENT PLANTS OF VARYING CAPACITIES Plant capacity 10. Nremoval Predenitrification/ simultaneous precipitation based on activated sludge12 Postdenitrification/ simultaneous preprecipitation based on biofilm process13 2.342 0.150 0.367 0.200 0.383 0. TABLE 31.167 0.217 0.083 0.542 0. 102 The annualized cost can be divided by 0.d.283 0. Mechanical/chemical waste-water treatment.250 0.633 Process Mechanical Chemical High load6 Low load7 Biological High load8 Normal load9 Biological/chemical Simultaneous precipitation10 Preprecipitation11 Biological/chemical.225 0. 66 .417 0.275 0.160 0.233 0. Biological treatment (high and low load).225 Source: Somlyódy and Shanahan.200 0.225 0. 3 Chemical high load = chemically enhanced mechanical treatment.

with on-site systems being the least costly. published by the Water Environment Federation. Note: Figures given in 1984 dollars. depending on treatment goals and objectives.01-0. crop harvest included. on the other hand.10 0. d/ Pretreatment: screening or settling. Natural Systems. at a flow rate ~ 400 m3/d. and cannot be used for project cost estimation. vary between US$ 0. Reed et al.C. except for on-site systems. O&M costs per m3. Natural Systems for Wastewater Treatment. The unit cost of nutrient removal is about an order of magnitude higher than that of BOD alone. This is especially true for rural communities and other locations where large. These figures provide an order-of-magnitude estimate only. at a flow rate ~ 400 m3/d.10-0. with plant harvest. inexpensive sites are readily available.01 and US$ 0. 1990).000. NTS operating costs.10-0. flow rate ~ 400 m3/d. because it is a factor that is heavily country-and site-specific. at a flow rate ~ 400 m3/d.09 Source: S. such as energy.05-0. h/ Free water surface type. crop harvest included. TABLE 32. at a flow rate ~ 400 m3/d. The figures from the first reference.13 0. A discussion of the equations used to determine land area requirements will be found in following section. flow rate ~ 400 m3/d.100 are shown in table 32. Capital and O&M costs Capital and O&M costs of NTSs according to two different references are listed in this section. c/ With pretreatment to primary. D.08-0. capital cost per m3/d ranges between US$ 450 and US$ 3. ECONOMICS OF NATURAL WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS Natural treatment systems (NTSs) offer enormous savings by comparison with conventional treatment processes that produce the same water quality. Virginia: Water Environment Federation.. pretreatment: screening or settling. the estimated costs vary in a range of approximately 1 to 3. b/ Includes an allowance for pretreatment and storage. flow rate ~ 400 m3/d.16 0.14 0. for which the flow rate is 40 m3/d.07-0. g/ Pretreatment: screening or settling. Manual of Practice FD-16 (Alexandria. Furthermore. economies of scale significantly affect total costs.12-0. no regular harvest. As will be seen from table 32.. 1. f/ Partial mix aeration. are minimal compared to other treatment methods. with rapid infiltration being the least costly. which decrease with increasing plant size/capacity.1 0.According to table 29.03-0.2. 100 Reed et al. Land cost is not included in the capital cost data. TYPICAL CONSTRUCTION AND O&M COSTS FOR SELECTED NTSS System On-sitea/ Slow rateb/ Rapid infiltrationc/ Overland flowd/ Facultative ponde/ Aerated pondf/ Hyacinth pondg/ Constructed wetlandh/ Capital cost (US$/m3.20 0. 67 .d) 1 000-3 000 800-2 000 450-900 600-1 000 500-1 000 600-1 200 500-1 000 500-1 000 O&M costs (US$/m3) 0. e/ No pretreatment.15 0. a/ For daily flow rates up to 40 m3/d. The systems are characterized by the same flow rate of approximately 400 m3/d. no pretreatment.

1 to 1 million gallons per day. Sourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in Latin America and the Caribbean.Data obtained from a second source. oxidation ditch. 2. Natural Systems.d Source: UNEP. Available at: http://www. published by UNEP. laboratory and sludge drying beds. Sourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in Latin America and the Caribbean. Note: Figures converted from US$/gpd in original source.1 mgd systems Rapid infiltration Facultative lagoon Cons tructe d we tlands Aquaculture Ae rate d lagoon Ove rland flow Slow rate Sand filte rs M e chanical plant 0 100 200 300 400 3 500 600 700 800 US$/m .102 Here again.or. Capital costs of 1-0.d 3 2000 2500 3000 Source: UNEP. the cost of land is not included in the data. In other words:103 101 UNEP. Figure 43. building. Estimation of land area requirements A preliminary estimate of the land area (A) required for a small-to-medium size system (daily flows less than 20 m3/d) is proportionate to the daily design flow to treatment site (Q) and inversely proportionate to soil permeability (k). pumps.unep. 103 102 Reed et al. Sourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in Latin America and the Caribbean. 68 . O&M costs of 1-0. The cost range reflects a capacity range of 0. and includes the cost of a clarifier. and the figures given are in 1993 US$ per gallon of waste-water treated per day..jp/ietc/Publication/techpublications/TechPub-8c/. The mechanical treatment plant referred to in these figures is an oxidation ditch treatment system. These figures show the definitive advantage of NTSs over mechanical systems for water treatment. Note: Figures converted from US$/gpd in original source. Figure 44.1 mgd systems Ae rate d lagoon Facultative lagoon Cons tructe d we tlands Aquaculture Rapid infiltration Sand filte rs M e chanical plant Ove rland flow Slow rate 0 500 1000 1500 US$/m .101 are graphed in figure 43 and figure 44.

depending on local conditions and plant size. conventional activated sludge. Environmental Issues Series No. COST COMPARISON OF VARIOUS NATURAL WASTE-WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES Rank (1=best) 1 2 3 4 5 Initial cost MA AS OD AL SP O&M cost SP MA AL AS OD Life Cycle cost MA AS OD AL SP Operability SP AL OD AS MA Reliability SP AL OD MA AS Land area MA AS OD AL SP Sludge production SP AL OD AS MA Power use SP MA AS AL OD Effluent quality SP AL MA OD AS Source: UNEP. 106 105 These costs are highly variable. OD.jp/ietc/Publications/techpublications/TechPub-8e/. MA. Sourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in Some Countries in Asia. d) where p is a factor reflecting additional area requirements. and not for final treatment area sizing. 69 . but also according to multiple indices of effectiveness. AS. Table 34 presents a description of the level of construction and O&M costs of a sludge treatment plant. and the sludge characteristics for different treatment methods. reproduced from UNEP. The volume of treated sludge affects both storage and transportation costs. Cost of disposal of final by-product.unep. Table 35 presents an order of magnitude of the treatment cost per ton of dry matter.A (m3) = p x Q (m3/d) / k (m3/m2. Sourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in Some Countries in Asia. Marketing cost. E. This equation can only be used to determine whether a particular site is large enough. Note: SP.106 Sludge transportation cost. 7 (Copenhagen: European Environment Agency. AL. Flexibility and expandability are similar for all types. ECONOMICS OF SLUDGE TREATMENT The following cost factors must be considered for sludge treatment:105 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Construction and O&M cost of the treatment plant. International Solid Waste Association (ISWA). http://www.or. modified aeration activated sludge or trickling filter solids contactor. Annex table 7 gives typical land area equations and assumptions applicable for different NTSs. The selection of the best alternative depends heavily on local conditions and requirements.104 ranks various natural treatment systems with respect to cost. aerated lagoons. Quality control of sludge. 3. 104 UNEP. stabilization ponds. if sludge is to be reused. depending on the system under consideration. TABLE 33. 1997). Conclusion Table 33. Sludge Treatment and Disposal: Management Approaches and Experiences. oxidation ditches.

Cost (US$) 8–215 135–325 160–435 245–435 110–325 An analysis performed in Scandinavia and Denmark107 compares the costs of the following three sludge treatment alternatives: (a) Sludge dewatering only.TABLE 34. ~ US$ 80–US$ 350. fuel or top soil). 70 . (b) Anaerobic stabilization and sludge dewatering. depending on regulations governing disposal Not applicable Not applicable Source: Compiled from information in reference by the International Solid Waste Association (ISWA). SLUDGE TREATMENT COST PER TON OF DRY MATTER Treatment technique Raw sludge use in agriculture/forestry Composting Drying Incineration* Landfilling Source: ISWA. TABLE 35. Not including land cost. * Lower commercial prices are possible where marginal prices are paid for sludge incineration at waste incineration plants. box 3. AND SLUDGE CHARACTERISTICS AFFECTING COST Volume of treated sludge High Marketability/quality of treated sludge Moderate Treatment technique Composting Construction cost Moderate Drying High O&M costs Moderate (Energy costs can be high for forced aeration) High (especially power cost) High Low Incineration Landfilling Very high (justified only for treating large volumes. Sludge Treatment and Disposal. Municipal Wastewater Treatment. Sludge Treatment and Disposal. which can be very high Very low High (used as fertilizer. or for coincineration with other wastes) ~ US$ 67 per m2 of land. (c) Sludge dewatering and incineration. Treatment byproduct also marketable. Hygienic High. The costs of anaerobic digestion are discussed in 107 Somlyódy and Shanahan. CONSTRUCTION AND O&M COSTS OF DIFFERENT SLUDGE TREATMENT PLANTS. The results of this analysis are shown in table 36.

TABLE 36. large tanks are needed to store waste-water. places various constraints on the agricultural use of untreated sludge. F.117 0.217 0. dry solids and pathogens that it may lawfully contain. However.383 0. ANNUALIZED UNIT COSTS (USD/KG DRY SOLID) FOR SLUDGE TREATMENT PLANTS OF VARYING CAPACITIES Process Dewatering Anaerobic stabilization and dewatering Dewatering and incineration CC* 0. the use of sludge in agriculture is strictly regulated by legislation setting limitations on the heavy metals.192 0.108 0. (b) Farm equipment may not be suitable for spreading raw sludge.292 100. Effluent Treatment (Leatherhead. (c) Cost of transporting sludge from storage area to farmland. 1998). and thus investment in special equipment is necessary. Nesaratnam.000 capita O&M* TC* CC 0.158 0. TABLE 37. Box 3. Agricultural use of untreated sludge The spreading of untreated sludge on agricultural land is considered to be the cheapest disposal method.6 2.292 0.000 capita O&M TC 0. the costs of two anaerobic digesters in Europe are compared.175 0. Cost figures are expressed in US$ per kg of COD removed from waste-water.075 0.900 per cubic metre of bioreactor volume.509 Source: Somlyódy and Shanahan. * CC = capital costs. 71 . and this may mean higher capital costs.6 2. anaerobic digestion has the advantage of lower treatment cost. O&M = operations and maintenance costs. 108 ISWA. and the average obtained for several European case studies is shown. TC = total costs. These restrictions. Anaerobic digesters cost approximately US$ 1. ECONOMICS OF EFFLUENT AND SLUDGE RECLAMATION AND REUSE 1. combined with the fact that the spreading of sludge is seasonal. The law also restricts the types of soil and crops on which sludge may be used.267 0. due to the fact that it does not require aeration.183 0. and increase its cost. Anaerobic digestion Compared to aerobic digestion. Sludge Treatment and Disposal.1 Running cost (cents/kg COD removed) 10 24 16 Digester Completely stirred tank reactor at lager brewery in Wrexham Anaerobic filter in Denmark EC case studies data Year built 1986 1989 1994 Source: S. Surrey: Pira International. In table 37. since the process is slower. In contrast.117 0.200 - Plant capacity 10. Municipal Waste-water Treatment. COSTS OF ANAEROBIC TREATMENT Capital cost (US$/kg COD removed per year) 1. Cost factors that should be considered in determining the feasibility of raw sludge reuse in agriculture include:108 (a) Large storage capacity required to store sludge for seeding periods.

(iii) Additional treatment requirements: filtration and chlorination of secondary treated effluent. (d) Be more hygienic to use.roughly comparable to the cost of municipal water. sludge treatment will increase its cost to such an extent that it will be more difficult for it to compete with other. (ii) Transportation cost: US$ 0. 109 72 . a reduction in demand for drinking water due to reclaimed water use represents a cost saving in itself. However.000 gallons.9.C. Use of Reclaimed Water and Sludge in Food Crop Production (Washington. effluent collection and storage. Only costs associated with the additional level of treatment beyond what is necessary to meet waste-water disposal requirements must be considered. sludge will: (a) Occupy a smaller volume. National Academies Press. When treated. an attempt will be made to determine the economic factors affecting the use of treated effluent and sludge in agriculture. National Research Council. D. effluent transportation to farmland and irrigation management.000 gallons of reclaimed water amounted to US$ 0. (e) Administrative expenses in the form of farmer agreements.7 – US$ 0.US$ 215 per ton. 1996). since they will usually offset the high cost of reclaimed water. In this section. (c) Have controlled nutrient levels.15 . The total cost per 1. which is approximately US$ 0.5 million gallons for every 10 million gallons of input waste-water per day. Different sludge treatment techniques must thus be compared in order to identify the option that is most advantageous in economic and environmental terms. cheaper fertilizers. Agricultural use of treated effluent and sludge The above disadvantages of using raw sludge can be avoided if the sludge is treated before storage.1 – US$ 0. This value is much higher than the cost of water pumped directly from an aquifer. owing to its homogenous consistency. additional costs are incurred from advanced treatment. especially if a town is faced with the need to expand its drinking water supply system due to growing demand. (a) Standpoint of the municipal waste-water treatment plant From the standpoint of MWTP. The price of a ton of raw sludge used on farmland varies greatly in different countries. (b) Be easier to spread on farmland with conventional farm equipment.(d) Costly periodic analyses of both soil and sludge to ensure that legislative requirements are met. Indirect economic benefits must be taken into account. owing to its reduced water content. It is estimated to be of the order of US$ 80 .35 per 1. A study of the cost of reclaimed water use in agricultural lands in Florida yielded the following figures:109 (i) Storage: 2. 2. from the standpoint of both the municipal waste-water treatment plant (MWTP) and the farmer. For example..

surface water supply facilities also produce adverse environmental impacts. (c) Water treatment and injection cost. Sludge processing costs have been estimated at US$ 266 to US$ 925 per ton. Ground water recharge111 The economics of ground water recharge are widely variable for different locations. of course. the cost of drilling injection wells and the cost of transporting the treated waste-water to the spreading grounds must be taken into account. Other economic benefits of artificial recharge must be borne in mind when comparing this option with alternatives. (b) Farmer’s standpoint110 In considering the option of using reclaimed water and sludge for soil irrigation and fertilization. Strong demand is anticipated for the future. However. The cost of waste-water treatment and injection may be regarded as high. 1994). and the cost of recharged waste-water is lower than the cost of obtaining water from other sources.With respect to sludge reuse. In these water-short areas. Use of Reclaimed Water and Sludge. Crop price and nutrient requirements. The first condition. artificial recharge is a viable option.C. In 110 111 National Research Council. Its economic viability depends on a number of factors. Soil types that are poor in nutrients and organic matter. waste-water must be treated before disposal in any case. 73 . depending on the process used. farmers will take the following factors into account: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) The price and availability of alternative irrigation water and fertilizers. as those are found in the ESCWA member countries. is that there must be sufficient demand for additional water supplies. which may be summarized as follows: (a) Demand for additional water supply. 3. D. (b) Cost of supply from alternative sources. This is due in the first place to the growing scarcity of water and in the second place to the costs associated with building new surface supply facilities. which in turn will lower the cost to food processors. to the benefit of the end user. National Academies Press. Cost of applying sludge to farmland. The fertilizer value of sludge is approximately US$ 15 per dry ton of sludge. Seasonality and the need to store reclaimed effluent. Yield improvements and fertilizer savings have been reported in the literature. sludge handling constitutes about half of a plant’s treatment cost. In addition to the incremental cost of upgrading treated waste-water quality. In addition to their high construction cost. the cost of acquiring land for use as spreading grounds. such as the increased quantity of water that can be extracted at shallower pumping depth. In summary. and hence the economic viability of groundwater recharge depends only on the additional water treatment cost required to improve water quality to acceptable levels for spreading or reinjection purposes. These benefits will reduce the cost of raw food products. especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Monitoring cost to ensure compliance with regulations for sludge use (this cost may be subsidized by the treatment facility). the cost of water supply from surface water is expected to increase considerably. National Research Council. Ground Water Recharge Using Waters of Impaired Quality (Washington. if water demand is high..

G. the only viable option is to discharge their effluents to the sewer. COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH VARIOUS ARTIFICIAL (US$/M3) RECHARGE SCHEMES IN INDIA Artificial recharge structure Injection well (alluvial area) Spreading channel (alluvial area) Percolation tank (alluvial area) Injection well (limestone area) Spreading channel (limestone area) Initial cost 100 9 2 6 7 Running cost 100 10 7 21 6 Source: UNEP. total suspended solids (mg/l) content of average strength settled sewage. the trade effluent charge (C) is calculated by means of the following formula:112 C = R + (V +Bv) + (Ot/Os) B + (St/Ss) S + M Where C= R= V= Bv = Ot = Os = B= St = Ss = S= M= total cost per cubic metre of effluent discharged to sewer (US$/m3). ECONOMICS OF EFFLUENT DISCHARGE 1. COD (mg/l) of the effluent after one hour settlement. especially if the tanks are already available. treatment and disposal cost of primary sludge per cubic metre of effluent (US$/m3). Table 38.addition. Sourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in Some Countries in Asia. injection wells in hard rock areas are less expensive because they are shallower and do not clog. TABLE 38. COD of average strength settled sewage (mg/l). 74 . artificially recharged water is costly. This is usually done for a fee under an agreement with the municipal water treatment facility. published by the Confederation of British Industry in 1976. biological treatment charge per cubic metre of effluent (US$/m3). 112 Nesaratnam. Waste-water discharge to sewer For small industries that cannot afford to treat their effluents in-house. total suspended solids (mg/l) content of effluent after one hour of settlement at pH 7. reception and conveyance charge per cubic metre of effluent (US$/m3). whereas surface water supplies are subject to seasonal fluctuations. Only net socio-economic and environmental benefits might make artificial recharge projects viable. shows cost estimates for several ground water recharge schemes in India. The least expensive scheme is percolation tanks. Effluent Treatment. artificial recharge guarantees that water is available all year round. As the table shows. with pH adjusted to 7. According to the recommended guidelines for control and charging of trade effluents discharged to the sewer. except perhaps in a supplementary capacity during periods of water shortage. In general. additional volume per cubic metre if there is biological treatment (US$/m3). treatment and disposal charge per cubic metre where the effluent goes to a marine outfall (US$/m3). and then updated in 1986. Injection wells feeding an alluvial aquifer appear to be the most costly option. which is taken from a UNEP publication. primary treatment charge per cubic metre of effluent (US$/m3). and thus is not ordinarily used for irrigation.

Four cost elements are included in this formula, reflecting the services offered by the sewage treatment plant, namely: (a) (b) (c) (d) Reception and conveyance; Primary treatment; Biological treatment; Sludge treatment and disposal.

The first two cost elements depend on the volume of the effluent, while the last two are proportionate to the composition of the effluent as compared to average sewage. The formula thus gives an incentive to industry to reduce the volume and improve the quality of discharged effluents. The sum accruing from collected charges is ordinarily used to finance the treatment and regulation of effluent. Box 4 gives an example of the charge paid by a sugar beet factory that discharges its effluent to the sewer, while box 5 describes a technique for reducing effluent discharge as applied in a paper mill, and the costs involved. The disadvantage of this formula is that it involves continuous sampling and analysis to determine the average suspended-solids and COD content. An alternative calculation method is to define charge bands. In other words, standard charges are defined for different ranges of COD and suspended-solids values. This is particularly useful for industries with low effluent volume and invariable effluent composition.
Box 4. Cost calculation for discharge of a given effluent to sewer A sugar beet factory discharges its 10,000 m3 of effluent per year to the sewer. The effluent has an average COD (Ot) of 1,150 mg/l and an average total suspended-solids content (St) of 1,300 mg/l. The following parameters are used by the water service company that is treating the effluent: R = 16.1 cents/m3. V = 25.2 cents/m3. Bv = 4.9 cents/m3. B = 24.8 cents/m3. S = 11.8 cents/m3. Os = 456 mg/l. Ss = 383 mg/l. The charge per cubic metre C (cents/m3) = 16.1 + 25.2 + 4.9 + (1,150/456)24.8 + (1,300/383) 11.8 = 148.8. The total yearly charge is thus equal to 10,000 x 1.488 = US$ 14,880. __________________________
Source: Nesaratnam, Effluent Treatment.

Box 5. Zero-liquid technology in paper mills Zero-liquid effluent systemsa/ have been applied in the paper industry. With this technology, the effluent is first physically treated to remove fiber content. Membrane treatment is then applied to reduce dissolved organic and inorganic content. In the third step, mechanical vapor recompression is used to distill the effluent. Finally, the effluent enters a freezecrystallizer. The treated water can then be reused in the pulp mill, while the solid residue is disposed of. An estimate of the construction and operating costs of a system of this kind treating 2,000 m3 of effluent per day is given in table 39. Obviously, freeze crystallization is the most expensive step in the process. In evaluating the economic viability of this type of system, the total cost of the system must be compared to the alternative cost of using additional raw water and the treatment and discharge of additional effluent volume. __________________________
a/ A very brief description of this technology is provided here. For more information on details of the technique, the reader is referred to the original source (Nesaratnam, Effluent Treatment).


Physical treatment Physical/biological Physical/biological/membrane Physical/membrane Mechanical vapor recompression Freeze crystallization
Source: Nesaratnam, Effluent Treatment.

Operating cost (US$ per m3) 0.16 0.40 0.80 0.96 2.4 3.2

Capital cost (US$) 1 120 000 4 800 000 8 000 000 4 800 000 12 800 000 16 000 000

2. Discharge to controlled waters When industries discharge directly into controlled waters, a charge is imposed that depends on the agreed discharge volume and composition, and also on the type of receiving water. The formula that is commonly used for the annual charge is:113 Charge = R (V x C x W) Where R= V= C= W= the annual financial factor. the volume factor. the content factor. the receiving water factor.

Multiplying V, C and W together yields the number of chargeable units, while R defines the unit charge per year. The sum accruing from collected charges is ordinarily used to finance the costs of regulatory bodies responsible for the receiving water. 3. Pollutant trading Pollutant trading is a relatively recent policy that aims at achieving a mandated environmental target at lower cost. The World Resources Institute defines trading as a flexible strategy that “makes it profitable for sources with low treatment costs to reduce their own effluents beyond legal requirements, generate credits, and sell those credits to dischargers with higher treatment costs”.114 In other words, two or more sources polluting the same area agree together on the treatment level and amount of discharge, such that the sum of their environmental impact complies with the applicable regulations. In this way, a large facility with lower treatment costs treats its effluent to a level beyond what is required under the regulations, thereby giving a margin to smaller facilities with higher treatment costs. Cost reduction is achieved by taking advantage of economies of scale in the treatment process. This method has been successfully applied in other environmental areas, notably air emissions, and several new pilot trading programmes are currently under way in the United States. A difficulty arises when trading is applied between ‘point’ and ‘non-point’ pollution sources, such as a factory and farmland. While pollution from the first source can be readily quantified, non-point discharges, such as those originating from farmland, are usually seasonal and difficult to measure. In these cases, a large margin or ‘trading ratio’ is set, that will allow a safety margin for the area of impact. Box 6 illustrates the cost reductions that can be achieved for phosphorus control through trading as compared to other policies, in three locations in the United States.
113 114

Nesaratnam, Effluent Treatment.

P. Faeth, Fertile Ground: Nutrient Trading’s Potential to Cost-Effectively Improve Water Quality (Washington, D.C.: World Research Institute, 2000).


Box 6. Trading for phosphorus control Three cases were selected for study, all of them experiencing water quality problems related mainly to phosphorus discharge: the Saginaw Bay watershed, the Minnesota River watershed and the Rock River watershed. The three watersheds are characterized by different numbers of point sources, different sizes and different treatment levels. After analyzing the local conditions pertaining to each of them, the following policy options were defined: (a) (b) (c) Point source performance requirement: whereby all point sources are required to lower their phosphorus level; Conventional subsidy programme for agricultural conservation “best management practices”; Point source performance requirement coupled with trading;

(d) Trading programme coupled with performance-based conservation subsidies: an option combining the second and third scenarios, whereby point and non-point sources contribute equally to phosphorus reduction. Table 40 summarizes the costs of each option as compared to a theoretical ‘least-cost’ option that achieves the requirements with no constraints. This table clearly shows the savings achieved with a flexible trading strategy as compared to conventional programmes. The results were even better when the trading policy involved non-point (agricultural) sources directly.

Point source performance requirement 19.57 23.89 10.38 Conventional subsidies for agricultural conservation practices 16.29 5.76 9.53 Point source performance requirement with trading 6.84 4.04 5.95 Trading programme with performancebased conservation subsidies 4.45 2.90 3.82

Minnesota River Saginaw Bay Rock River

Least-cost solution 4.36 1.75 3.22

Source: Faeth, Fertile Ground. Note: The levels of phosphorus reduction from the base are different for each watershed.

H. CONCLUSIONS New technologies have made growing numbers of water treatment alternatives available. Cost may be a major determining factor, especially in developing countries. Cost estimation is a difficult and even costly undertaking in itself, because of the large number of parameters involved and the fact that those parameters are usually unclear until the design process is well under way. Historical data are very useful in generating preliminary cost estimates. When these data are sufficiently detailed, they are also useful for the purpose of deriving cost equations that reflect system cost variations according to basic system parameters, including capacity. These equations form the basis of several computer software tools for water treatment cost estimation that are now available. As the cost of membrane modules declines, membrane techniques become progressively more viable, especially for large-capacity systems. In fact, all membrane systems yield economies of scale up to five mgd capacity. However, system designers must bear in mind that downmarket membrane systems will generally entail higher maintenance costs and will be difficult to expand and upgrade. A balance must be struck, depending on system requirements and projected lifetime.


Natural treatment systems are very promising. ESCWA member countries are encouraged to pursue the construction of such systems. The environmental benefits associated with reduced demand for surface water may be the deciding factor governing selection of this technique. The economic assessment of a particular technology must take several criteria into account including: affordability. It is also desirable for technology assessment be based on a broad set of sustainability criteria that include. Agricultural countries should consider the reuse of effluent and sludge for farmland irrigation. Dischargers are therefore encouraged to reduce waste-water volume while improving its quality. environmental. Effluent reuse programmes must be regulated. socio-cultural and functional criteria. Ground water recharge is a costly undertaking that is feasible only when the cost of other water sources is very high. especially for rural areas and other locations where large areas of inexpensive land are available. compared to other mechanical water treatment systems of similar environmental effectiveness. waste-water reduction and treatment techniques can be highly lucrative. In conclusion.Effluent and sludge possess high fertilizing value. cost. labour and willingness to pay. subsidized and efficiently marketed in order to win wider use and acceptance. Waste-water discharge to sewer and controlled waters is costly where charges are imposed by regulatory bodies. such as those outlined in annex VII. 78 . thus benefiting twice over. in addition to the economic criteria referred to above. This policy has resulted in great reductions in total treatment costs while achieving even higher levels of environmental benefit. cost-effectiveness. Under these conditions. Great cost reductions are possible with systems such as rapid infiltration and aerated lagoons. Failure to consider all these aspects may lead to an inappropriate choice of treatment technology. Pollutant trading is a policy that has been successfully applied in different locations in the United States. economic criteria often determine which water treatment technology is deployed.

resulting in environmental problems such as groundwater pollution. including 50 per cent of the country’s urban population (see table 41). modern technology was introduced to collect and treat waste-water. efficiencies and costs. Currently. United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia). WASTE-WATER DISPOSAL METHODS CURRENTLY PRACTISED IN JORDAN (Percentage) District Urban Rural Jordan as a whole Public systems 50 2. industrial demand in the six GCC States (Bahrain.mwi. a paper presented at the Water Demand Management Forum.2 0. there are nearly 20 treatment plants around the country. Treated waste-water is widely reused for irrigation.gov. and their corresponding treatment methods. where primitive physical devices such as septic tanks and cesspits were in use.htm. including two that are scheduled to be put into service in the near future. are connected to the waste-water collection network. 1. Available at: http://www. the influent waste-water is characterized by high organic loads and high salinity levels. 56 per cent of the population of Jordan. Oman. some 2. A. Current waste-water treatment plants The waste-water treatment plants (WWTP) in use in Jordan. Available at: http://www.html. Qatar. representing approximately 35 per cent of the total treated waste-water produced in those countries.8 Source: Adapted from Water Authority of Jordan. As population increased. an average of 700.e.8 56 Cesspools 50 95 43. Najjar and S.fluidknowledge. March 2002. since only 10 per cent of the biological load originates from industrial discharge. Wastewater Sector.116. 116 F. waste-water collection in Jordan had been restricted to the town of Salt.VI. JORDAN Since 1930. receive about 82 million cubic metres per year. Background on Water and Wastewater Industry (2000). the waste-water is comparatively low in toxic pollutants such as heavy metals and organic compounds. Wastewater Sector.idrc.jo/waj/ WAJ%20Web%20Page/wastewater. particularly in the arid Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. On the other hand.117 TABLE 41.2 Others 0 2.5 million people. Effluent from these was often discharged to gardens. waste-water treatment and reuse practices in selected ESCWA countries will be described. WASTE-WATER TREATMENT IN SELECTED ESCWA COUNTRIES Most countries in the ESCWA region practise waste-water treatment and reuse.com/ waterlist/html/waterindustry. Thirteen facilities are conventional mechanical treatment plants and six employ waste stabilization ponds. Due to the high average salinity of potable water (TDS = 580 ppm) and the low average water consumption (about 70L/capita/day).ca/waterdemand/docs/english/jordan. Wastewater Reuse. Malkawi. their waste-water loads. Table 42 lists operational treatment plants in Jordan. 115 Water Authority of Jordan.115 In this chapter. 79 . to some extent. Kuwait. Furthermore. i. M. At the present time.doc. Bataineh. Available at: http://www.000 cubic metres per day is used to meet irrigation and. Amman. 118 117 Ibid.118 Fluid Knowledge.

CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTE-WATER TREATMENT PLANTS IN JORDAN (Percenatge) Plant As-Samra Aqaba Salt Jerash Mafraq Baqa’a Karak Abu-Nusir Tafila Ramtha Ma’an Madaba Kufranja Wadi Al Seer Fuhis Wadi Arab Wadi Hassan Wadi Musa Irbid Treatment method Stabilization ponds Stabilization ponds Extended aeration Extended aeration Stabilization ponds Trickling filter Trickling filter Activated sludge Trickling filter Stabilization ponds Stabilization ponds Stabilization ponds Trickling filter Aerated lagoon Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge and trickling filter Hydraulic load (m3/day) 170 752 2 000 3 403 2 072 1 847 11 185 1 231 1 617 707 2 340 1 892 4 266 1 889 1 113 1 218 5 985 Organic oad kg BOD5/day 35 768 3 510 8 393 4 043 1 485 1 155 848 4 400 1 680 1 574 1 552 1 700 1 615 3 120 2 388 1 440 18 900 3 060 8 800 Efficiency 80 73 98 96 62 92 92 95 96 71 81 69 96 93 97 98 96 Treatment cost (USD/m3) 0.099 0.248 0.307 0. BOD5 = biochemical oxygen demand (5 days).190 0. Najjar and Malkawi.074 0. Waste-water Sector.166 0.248 0.513 0. EXPANDED OR BUILT IN JORDAN WWTP As-Samra Aqaba Mafraq Karak Tafila Ramtha Ma’an Madaba Kufranja Wadi Zarqa Naur North Queen Alia Airport Al Jeeza Um Al Basateen North Shuna Wadi Shallala (Irbid East) Torra Type Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge To be decided To be decided Activated sludge To be decided Activated sludge To be decided Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge Expected year of operation 2004 2005 2005 2003 2005 Under construction 2005 Under construction 2002 2009 2008 2005 2005 2005 2003 2003 2012 Capacity (m3/d) 267 000 18 000 5 000 5 000 5 000 5 400 5 000 7 600 7 000 146 000 5 200 31 000 5 000 1 000 12 000 15 000 3 100 80 . including projected capacities and type of treatment.087 0.054 0. TSS = total suspended solids.171 0. especially in rural areas.058 0. TABLE 43. Wastewater Reuse. TREATMENT PLANTS SCHEDULED TO BE UPGRADED.193 0.190 4 610 Source: Adapted from Water Authority of Jordan. Plans are under way to upgrade several existing plants in the near future and to construct new ones in other parts of the country. and Bataineh.TABLE 42. Table 43 lists plants that are scheduled to be constructed in the next five to ten years.106 0.027 0.169 0.

5 150 1 000 24 0. olive trees Forest. forest. olive trees. olive trees Forest. in the King Talal Dam reservoir) and subsequently used for unrestricted irrigation in the Jordan Valley. the quantity of treated waste-water effluent is expected to amount to 265. YEMEN In the Republic of Yemen. alfalfa Olive and citrus trees Olive and fruit trees Forest. treating a total actual flow of about 92. barley. forage crops. Najjar and Malkawi. ornamental trees Private farm Olive trees. ornamental trees Forest. there are currently nine operational treatment facilities. some olive trees.32 MCM. WASTE-WATER REUSE IN JORDAN Treated effluent (m3/day) 1 587 6 683 149 589 10 626 1 036 4 526 1 969 1 194 1 629 1 704 3 272 1 488 1 852 3 307 702 714 5 611 Planted area (ha) 0. B. ornamental trees. Wastewater Sector.3 million cubic metres. sudan grass. waste-water treatment plants produced 72.TABLE 43 (continued) WWTP Kofur Asad Al Mazar Al Shamali Mashari’e Dair Abi Sa’id Jerash West Dair Alla South Shuna Type Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge Activated sludge Expected year of operation 2007 2010 2003 2013 2009 2004 2003 Capacity (m3/d) 6 000 3 100 3 100 3 100 6 000 6 000 4 300 Source: Adapted from Bataineh.119 TABLE 44. forage crops. olive trees Forest. flowers Forest. sudan grass.8 per cent of all water available for irrigation (521 million cubic metres). olive trees. olive trees Excess effluent flow King Talal reservoir none King Talal reservoir King Talal reservoir none Jordan River King Talal reservoir Wadi Karak Wadi Kufranjeh none none none none Wadi Shieb Ghor Fifa Jordan River Kafrein reservoir Source: Adapted from Bataineh. forage crops Forest. alfalfa Forest.5 50 7 7 60 25 50 6 1 15 WWTP Abu-Nusir Aqaba As-Samra Baqa’a Fuhis Irbid Jerash Karak Kufranja Ma'an Madaba Mafraq Ramtha Salt Tafila Wadi Al Seer Wadi Arab Irrigated crops Forest. Wastewater Reuse. accounting for approximately 25 per cent of total water available for irrigation.000 cubic metres per day. Wastewater Reuse. Table 44 shows current reuse applications for treated effluent from operating WWTPs in Jordan. 2. palm trees Olive trees.5 million cubic metres per year. 81 . olive trees. See 119 Water Authority of Jordan. which amounts to 33. amounting to 13. Waste-water reuse Treated effluent discharged from the WWTP is used mainly for irrigation. Najjar and Malkawi. By the year 2020. forest Forest. Excess effluent is discharged to wadis. In 1999. where it is mixed with surface waters (for example. barseem.

doc.Y. three of which were under construction and expected to come on stream in 2002. WASTE-WATER DISCHARGE QUALITY IN YEMEN Parameter BOD (mg/l) COD (mg/l) TDS (mg/l) SS (mg/l) FC colony /100ml Sana’a 24 103 1 852 28 12 000 Aden N/A N/A 1 695 N/A 80 000 Dhamar 102 189 700 580 110 000 Al Hudeidah 106 348 3 110 128 1 366 Yemen standards 150 500 450-3 000 50 <1 000 Source: Abdul-Malik.025 0.Yemen’s Water Resources.idrc.d.25 0. Available at: http://www. CHARACTERISTICS OF WASTE-WATER TREATMENT PLANTS IN YEMEN Station Sana‘a Ta‘iz Al Hudeidah Aden Ibb Dhamar Hajja Mukalla Rada’a Aden (new) Yarim Amran Design capacity (m3 /d) 50 000 17 000 18 000 15 000 7 000 10 000 5 000 8 000 2 800 60 000 3 500 6 000 Treatment type Activated sludge Stabilization ponds Stabilization ponds Stabilization ponds Activated sludge Stabilization ponds Trickling filter Stabilization ponds Stabilization ponds Stabilization ponds Stabilization ponds Stabilization ponds Actual flow (m3/d) 20 000 17 000 18 000 15 000 7 000 6 000 1 150 6 000 1 500 Treatment cost (USD/m3) 0. N/A: not available. Yemen’s Water Resources and Treated Wastewater (Sana’a: Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation of Yemen. Non-controlled irrigation is commonly practised by farmers in the highlands and wadis to grow corn.025 Disposal method Uncontrolled irrigation Uncontrolled irrigation Sea disposal and irrigation Sea disposal and irrigation Uncontrolled irrigation Uncontrolled irrigation Uncontrolled irrigation Sea disposal Uncontrolled irrigation - Source: Abdul-Malik. Yemen’s Water Resources.ca/waterdemand/docs/english/yemen-english. The treated effluent is either discharged into the sea or reused in agriculture for controlled and uncontrolled irrigation.25 0. n.Table 45. depending on the method of treatment. Bagel and Zabid) are in the planning stage. including: (a) Odours and insects at some treatment stations. (b) Public health hazards and skin diseases among farmers. Yemen’s Water Resources.120 TABLE 45. Abdul-Malik. the capacity of the plant and operational circumstances.). and forage crops as well in some areas (Ta’iz area).03 0.03 0. The quality of treated waste-water at selected locations is presented in table 46.121 The quality of the treated effluent varies from one area to another.03 N/A 0. TABLE 46. There are six new treatment plants. 82 . particularly for the farmers who are the main users.03 0. Controlled irrigation is practised by the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation for green belt building and sand dune fixation or desertification control along the coastal plains. Q. Farmers are working with this water without any form of training or extension services. The three remaining plants (Beit Al-Faqih. 121 120 Abdul-Malik. and to grow vegetable and fruit crops (Sana’a area). The objectionable quality of the treated effluent has created a number of problems.

Drying in beds Riqaa Waste-water Treatment Plant Secondary treatment Commissioned in . Available at: http://www.htm.Primary aeration using bubble aeration .used for irrigation .Secondary settling Tertiary treatment .Secondary chlorination Sludge treatment .Sand filtration 3 to 180. the quantity of waste-water produced in Kuwait in 1994 was 119 million cubic metres.Grit removal Original capacity = .Thickening followed by drying beds Effluent is: .123 Four sewage treatment plants have been in operation in Kuwait since 1987.Secondary aeration using bubble aeration . A draft waste-water reuse strategy was under development in 2001.org/docrep/W4356E/w4356e0g. The characteristics of these plants are presented in detail in table 47.000 m /d Tertiary treatment .Aeration tanks . various water-related strategies.Balancing tanks with chlorination . 83 .pumped to the Ardiya plant to be pumped to the Data Monitoring Center Treated sludge is used as fertilizer 122 123 Abdul-Malik. (d) Plant diseases in crops irrigated with treated waste-water. (e) Animal diseases due to direct contact with the treated waste-water. 1997).122 C.(c) Soil salinity problems. Lately. Irrigation in the Near East Region in Figures (Rome: United Nations.Prethickening . KUWAIT According to statistics reported by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO).000 m /d . of which 103 million cubic metres were treated.Pre-aeration using floating aerators 3 100.Extended aeration using mechanical 1982 agitation Full capacity = 3 85. and laws in Yemen have been referring to treated waste-water as a water resource that should be utilized in a safe manner.000 m3/d Secondary treatment Final disposal Effluent is pumped to the Data Monitoring Center to be reused for irrigation Treated sludge is used as fertilizer .Sand filtration Sludge treatment . Food and Agriculture Organization. Yemen’s Water Resources. TABLE 47. Approximately 52 million cubic metres of the treated effluent were reused for agricultural irrigation.Post thickening .Digestion .000 m /d .Screening 1965 .Primary settling Capacity extended in 1985 to 150. CHARACTERISTICS OF MAJOR WASTE-WATER TREATMENT PLANTS IN KUWAIT General description Treatment processes Ardiya Waste-water Treatment Plant Preliminary and primary treatment Commissioned in . It supports the implementation of waste-water management activities in the form of targeted projects and programmes.Balancing tanks with chlorination Plans for upgrading .fao. while the remainder was discharged into the sea. policies.

Grit chambers Full capacity = .000 m3/d .Aeration tanks . Irrigation Source: Sanitary Engineering Department.Chlorination 1996). covering the period up to 2010. tree planting with a view to prime and subsistence environmental protection forestry would be initiated. Wastewater Treatment and Use in Agriculture.Thickening followed by drying beds Failaka Waste-water Treatment Plant Full capacity = .Screens 1982 .htm#9.fao.used for irrigation .org/docrep/T0551E/t0551e0b. vegetable areas Subtotal Irrigated area (ha) 1980 2010 70 149 50 20 3 808 401 20 46 4 544 670 589 200 213 7 826 46 9 544 124 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Once these two major objectives had been attained. 1992). The second priority should be the development of fresh forage/hay production in rotation with vegetables at other agricultural sites.5.Settling tank Projects to improve efficiency Tertiary treatment .124 TABLE 48. The Kuwait Sanitary Scheme (Kuwait: Ministry of Public Works.Discharged into the Gulf Treated sludge is used as fertilizer Sludge treatment .TABLE 47 (continued) General description Treatment processes Jahra Waste-water Treatment Plant Secondary treatment Commissioned in . the Ministry of Public Works initiated the preparation of a master plan for the effective use of treated effluent in Kuwait. State of Kuwait.000 m /d agitation .Extended aeration tanks with mechanical 3 70. WASTE-WATER REUSE MASTER PLAN IN KUWAIT Land use Western and northern sites Agriculture Forage: dairy enterprise Forage: open market sale Horticulture Extensive vegetables Forestry Maximum production forestry ‘Environmental protection’ at recommended irrigation rate ‘Environmental protection’ forestry at subsistence irrigation rate Others Existing trial site.pumped to the Data Monitoring Center . Available at: http://www.Secondary chlorination Final disposal Effluent is .A series of oxidation ponds with agitators 10.Balancing tanks with chlorination . wastewater treatment and human exposure control: Kuwait. For the western and northern sites (Jahra and Ardiyah respectively) the plans suggested that first priority should be given to the development of an integrated system of extensive vegetable production. Late in 1977. The general recommendations made under the plan are presented in table 48.Sand filtration . FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 47 (Rome: United Nations. 84 .Filtration .

including seven that are under construction. with a total BOD load of 99. 2001). The only large-scale WWTP that is operational at the present time is the Ghadir plant. and 10 for which no funding has yet been secured (see table 49). south of Beirut. Irrigated area (ha) 1980 2010 52 1 673 1 725 176 6 445 787 1 673 2 460 284 12 288 D.gov.TABLE 48 (continued) Land use Coastal village sites Forestry ‘Maximum production’ ‘Environmental protection’ forestry Subtotal Failaka Island ‘Environmental protection’ forestry Total Source: Adapted from FAO.lb/ledo/soer2001pdf/chpt15_wwm. State of the Environment Report 2001. LEBANON Lebanon generates an estimated 249 million cubic metres of waste-water per year. 126 125 Ministry of Environment. Since 1997. Available at: http://www.pdf. An exploratory study is being conducted on the economic feasibility of upgrading the Ghadir WWTP to provide secondary treatment before discharge into the sea. According to a Census of Buildings and Establishments conducted by the Central Administration for Statistics (CAS) in 1996-1997. and this has presumably improved the waste-water collection capacity of the country. IMPLEMENTATION STATUS OF WASTE-WATER TREATMENT PLANTS IN LEBANON Location/name Jebrayal Abdeh Michmich Bakhoun Tripoli Becharre Hasroun Amioun Chekka Batroun Jbeil Kartaba Khanchara Harajel Under construction Implementation status Preparatory stage Funding not secured X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Ministry of Environment of Lebanon. which provides only preliminary treatment. 85 . extensive waste-water works have been built.126 TABLE 49. The remaining buildings (62 per cent) used cesspools and septic tanks or simply released raw sewage directly into the environment.moe.960 tons. approximately 37 per cent of the nearly 500 000 buildings in Lebanon were connected to a sewer network. namely grit and scum removal. State of the Environment Report 2001 (Beirut: Government of Lebanon.125 Thirty-five waste-water treatment plants (WWTPs) are planned for the near future. Waste-water Treatment and Use in Agriculture. 18 for which funding has been approved and are in the preparatory stage.

In the absence of operational waste-water treatment plants. Most of these provide secondary treatment.200 millimetres in diameter which extends 2.6 kilometres out into the Mediterranean Sea. and of the waste-water that is collected. Most outfalls extend only a couple of metres or terminate at the surface of the water. there is no submersed outfall and thus no effective dilution of waste-water.127 E. There are approximately 53 outfalls along the coast.TABLE 49 (continued) Location/name Kesrouane/Tabarja Dora Ghadir Chouf coastal area Mazraat el Chouf Saida Sour Hermel Laboue Yammouneh Baalbeck Zahle Aanjar Jib Jinnine/Deir Tahnich Karoun Sohmor/Yohmor Hasbaya Jbaa Nabatiyeh Shakra Bint Jbeil Under construction Implementation status Preparatory stage Funding not secured X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Source: Ministry of Environment. only 15 per cent is 127 Ministry of Environment. is a submersed pipeline 1. streams. on open land or underground through dry wells. while effluent from inland communities is disposed of in rivers. Twenty-five per cent of the population has no sewerage service at all. The Ghadir outfall. Furthermore. 86 . dry river beds. however. producing water that is suitable for irrigation. State of the Environment Report 2001. which are inadequate to accommodate the volume of waste-water generated by the rapidly increasing population. mainly due to their dimensions. EGYPT According to 1994 statistics. State of the Environment Report 2001. and consequently the waste-water is adequately diluted. effluent from coastal communities is discharged into the sea. thus. most of the collected waste-water is not treated or is treated ineffectually owing to the unsatisfactory state of the existing WWTPs. sewer networks in Egypt are confronted with operational problems. The outlet point is approximately 60 metres deep. Delays in the construction of waste-water works in various parts of the country have prompted a number of municipalities and local communities to make their own arrangements with the technical and financial support of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that secure funding throuhg international donors such as the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Thirteen small community-level waste-water treatment plants became operational in this way in 2001.

(ii) Digestion and dewatering. and by the 1980s it was already incapable of coping with the growing strains imposed by an ever larger and still rapidly increasing population. Available at: http://www. the largest city in the Middle East region. there were at least six operating domestic WWTPs serving the Greater Cairo area: three plants discharging through agricultural drains to the Northern Lakes and the Mediterranean and one plant discharging into the Nile. The sewerage network was built in the early years of the 20th century. Final clarifiers. All urban waste projects include facilities for treatment up to the tertiary level and will produce water that would be reusable for irrigation purposes.128 To resolve this unsanitary situation.adequately treated. 19-22 June 1995.130 128 S. Gabal Al Asfar Treatment Plant. Joensuu. the Government launched a sewerage extension programme. including: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Screens and grit removal. with more than 16 million inhabitants. a paper presented at the third Nordic conference on Middle Eastern Studies: Ethnic encounter and culture change. Finland. (c) Sludge treatment. (b) On-nitrifying activated sludge process. is burdened with continued rapid population growth and spatial expansion. while 60 per cent is carried raw via open canals to the Mediterranean Sea. Cairo. current plans call for 84.000 hectares of desert land.html#fn7. while the effluent from the other two plants was used largely for desert irrigation and land reclamation (namely.org/ ressources/en/rapport2000/ chapter8.2 m in diameter. 2000).bbv-ltd. However. 9 m lift with screws up to 3. for example. In 1995. Chlorination of final effluent.no/smi/paj /myllyla.hf.pdf. (d) Utilization of produced gas in the power plant within the facility. 25 per cent is partially treated. GlobslEIATP. Cairo-A Mega-City and Its Water Resources. Available at: http://www. Black and Veatch. desert development).uib. With the new sewerage rehabilitation and extension projects. It consists of components listed below:129 (a) Inlet pumping station. which has an ultimate capacity of three million cubic metres per day and is designed to serve a population of 3 million people. Primary sedimentation tanks. 129 Available at: http://www. and was regularly affected by overflows due to damaged pipes and overload. The main treatment plant for the Greater Cairo Waste-water Project is the Gabal El Asfar Treatment Plant. the Greater Cairo Waste-water Project. 87 . many rural areas still lack such facilities. (iii) Pumping stations.htm.ciheam. Aeration tanks with surface aerators. will have facilities capable of treating up to 4 million cubic metres per day and producing enough treated waste-water to irrigate 168.128 Cairo. including: (i) Thickening. Of the remaining untreated water. Myllylä.000 hectares of land in Egypt to be irrigated with treated waste-water by the year 2000.com/Projects/WSTD/ 130 Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes (CIHEAM). aimed at providing Cairo with a sanitation network that would be sufficient to cope with the city’s growing needs. Annual Report 2000: Development and Agri-food Policies in the Mediterranean Region (Paris: CIHEAM.

public health. In recent years. 88 . governments must address the issue of waste-water reuse as part of an integrated water management strategy. In view of the fact that actual treatment costs are significantly influenced by site-specific characteristics and country conditions. public health hazards are often associated with waste-water reuse. ultrafiltration. It is clear from this survey that the ESCWA region would be well advised to strive to improve its waste-water reuse and establish information networks for the transfer and sharing of technology and experience. with multi-disciplinary coordination among various sectors including environment. it would clearly be desirable to mount a data-gathering campaign aimed at addressing the current lack of information about waste-water treatment costs in the ESCWA region. Lastly. addressing various aspects of waste-water management. It should be capable of accommodating various activities. While many ESCWA countries reuse treated waste-water for agricultural purposes. including appropriate and affordable waste-water collection. In this context. The present study begins with brief descriptions of the various technologies commonly used for waste-water treatment and indications of the estimated costs associated with each. including: summarizing and disseminating relevant information on research in the field. agriculture and municipal affairs. presenting relevant information on available training courses. crop water quality and soil and groundwater quality. microfiltration.VII. reuse practices. reverse osmosis. A model survey questionnaire covering data of relevance for a comprehensive assessment of waste-water treatment costs is found in Annex III. governments must regulate and monitor effluent quality. It is worth noting that cost estimates for advanced treatment technologies (namely. organizing online discussions among network members. responding to requests for information from network members. maintaining current information on research. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Effective waste-water collection and treatment are of great importance from the standpoint of both environmental and public health. Developments in waste-water treatment and reuse practices in the ESCWA countries could be facilitated through the creation of an information network. at the basin level. and maintaining and expanding waste-water management information with electronic access Finally. studies or projects undertaken by network members. The following section presents a brief overview of the application of instrumentation and control for process operation and monitoring at wastewater treatment plants. treatment and disposal technologies and practices as well as the planning and regulation issues that are fundamental to waste-water management. Extensive research activity in this field has led to significant improvement and diversification in the processes and methods used for waste-water treatment and sludge management. Most importantly. which can serve as a forum for the exchange of information and knowledge about applied research in the realm of waste-water management and practices appropriate to the developing world. and so on) can sometimes be obtained more readily from similar surveys targeting industrial facilities in Europe and the United States. since municipal WWTPs utilizing such state-of-the-art technologies are rarely encountered in ESCWA countries. industry. the status of waste-water treatment and waste-water reuse in selected ESCWA countries are discussed. Such a network must be broad in scope. this issue could best be approached through field surveys of waste-water treatment plants operating in selected ESCWA countries. there has been growing interest in waste-water reuse as a major component of water demand management. and consequently it is essential to disseminate knowledge and information about the danger of raw waste-water reuse and issue safe reuse guidelines. health.


90 .

Annex I TABLES AND FIGURES Annex figure 1. Types of filters used for the filtration of treated waste-water

2-3 ft

Sand or anthracite

1-2 ft 1-2 ft

Anthracite Sand Effluent

Effluent Underdrain system
Underdrain system

(a) Conventional mono-medium downflow

(b) Conventional dual-medium downflow
Overflow trough Effluent Grid to retain sand

4-8 ft


6-10 ft


Effluent Underdrain system
Retaining screen for sand


(c) Conventional mono-medium deep-bed downflow Vent to Variable atmosphere water surface Influent

(d) Conventional mono-medium deep-bed upflow
Washwater trough Traveling-bridge backwash mechanism

Variable water surface Influent

Backwash water

10 in


Returning screen for sand Air plenum chamber

sand 11 in

W ashwater Backw ash pump



Underdrain system open to Effluent the atmosphere

Sand support plate

Individual sand cells


(e) Pulsed-bed filter
Backwash water Weir Airline from compressor Effluent Sand washer

(f) Traveling bridge filter

Settling basin

Sand layer 2-3 ft

3-4 ft


Gravel layer

Tile underdrain

(g) Continuous backwash deep-bed upflow filter

(h) Slow sand filter

Source: Adapted from Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., Wastewater Engineering, 3rd edition.

Type of filter Conven-tional Semicontinuous, downflow Type of filter bed Monomedium Dual medium Multimedium Monomedium Filtering medium Sand or anthracite Sand and anthracite Sand, anthracite and garnet Sand or anthracite Typical bed depth (in) 30 36 36 Operation during the filtration phase Liquid is passed downward through the filter bed. Rate of flow through the filter may be constant or variable depending on the flow control method. Liquid is passed downward through the filter bed. Rate of flow through the filter may be constant or variable depending on the flow control method. 48-72 Liquid is passed upward through the filter bed. Rate of flow through the filter is usually constant. Operation during the cleaning phase When effluent turbidity starts to increase or the allowable headloss is reached, the filter is backwashed by reversing the direction of flow through the filter. Both air and water are used in the backwash operation. When effluent turbidity starts to increase or the allowable headloss is reached, the filter is backwashed by reversing the direction of flow through the filter. Both air and water are used in the backwash operation. When effluent turbidity starts to increase or the allowable headloss is reached, the filter is backwashed by increasing the flow rate through the bottom of the filter. Both air and water are used in the backwash operation. When effluent turbidity starts to increase or the allowable headloss is reached, the filter is backwashed by reversing the direction of flow through the filter. Liquid to be filtered continues to enter the filter during the backwash operation. Chemical cleaning is also used.

Deep bed Semicontinuous, downflow

Deep bed Semicontinuous, upflow


Sand or anthracite

Pulse-bed Semicontinuous, downflow




Liquid is passed downward through the filter bed. As the headloss builds up, air is pulsed up through the bed to break up the surface mat and to redistribute the solids. Rate of flow through the filter is usually constant.


ANNEX TABLE 1 (continued)
Type of filter Deep bed Continuous, upflow Type of filter bed Monomedium Filtering medium Sand Typical bed depth (in) 48-72 Operation during the filtration phase Liquid is passed upward through the filter bed, the medium of which is moving downward in the countercurrent direction. Rate of flow through the filter is usually constant. Operation during the cleaning phase The filter medium is backwashed continuously by pumping sand from the bottom of the filter with an airlift to a sand washer located in the top of the filter. After passing through the washer, the clean sand is distributed on the top of the filter bed. When the allowable headloss is reached, the individual cells of the filter are backwashed by reversing the direction of flow through each of the cells successively. The backwash water is removed through the backwash hood.

Travelingbridge Continuous, downflow

Monomedium Dual medium

Sand Sand

11 16

Liquid is passed upward through the filter bed. Liquid continues to be filtered while the individual cells are backwashed. Rate of flow through the filter is usually constant.

Source: Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., Wastewater Engineering, 3rd edition.


carbonaceous BOD removal Carbonaceous BOD removal. nitrification. carbonaceous BOD removal Carbonaceous BOD removal Carbonaceous BOD removal Carbonaceous BOD removal. carbonaceous BOD removal Stabilization. nitrification Carbonaceous BOD removal. nitrification Carbonaceous BOD removal Carbonaceous BOD removal. single-stage High rate. nitrification Denitrification Denitrification Stabilization. and phosphorus removal POND PROCESSES Aerobic ponds Carbonaceous BOD removal Maturation (tertiary) ponds Carbonaceous BOD removal Facultative ponds Carbonaceous BOD removal Anaerobic ponds Carbonaceous BOD removal Source: Metcalf and Eddy. carbonaceous BOD removal Stabilization. Inc. nitrification Nitrification Carbonaceous BOD removal.ANNEX TABLE 2. and phosphorus removal Combined suspended Single or multi-stage processes Carbonaceous BOD removal. MAJOR BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES USED FOR WASTE-WATER TREATMENT Type Common name AEROBIC PROCESSES Suspended growth Activated sludge process Conventional (plug-flow) Complete mix Step aeration Pure oxygen Sequencing batch reactor Contact stabilization Extended aeration Oxidation ditch Deep tank Deep shaft Suspended growth nitrification Aerated lagoons Aerobic digestion Conventional air Pure oxygen Attached growth Trickling filters Low rate High rate Roughing filters Rotating biological contactors Packed-bed reactors Combined suspended Activated biofilter process and attached growth Trickling filter solids contact. proprietary processes denitrification. waste stabilization COMBINED AEROBIC. waste stabilization Expanded bed Carbonaceous BOD removal. single-stage. nitrification Carbonaceous BOD removal.. 3rd edition. various Carbonaceous BOD removal. and attached growth denitrification. nitrification. 94 . Two-stage Anaerobic contact process Upflow anaerobic sludge-blanket Attached growth Anaerobic filter process Use Carbonaceous BOD removal. series trickling filter activated sludge ANOXIC PROCESSES Suspended growth Suspended growth denitrification Attached growth Fixed-film denitrification ANAEROBIC PROCESSES Suspended growth Anaerobic digestion Standard rate. nitrification Stabilization. biofilter processes activated sludge. Wastewater Engineering. ANOXIC AND ANAEROBIC PROCESSES Suspended growth Single or multi-stage processes.

Aeration volume requirements are typically 50 per cent less than in the case of conventional plug flow. Modified aeration is similar to the conventional plug-flow process except that shorter aeration times and higher F/M ratios are used. depending on the oxygen demand. Contact stabilization uses two separate tanks for the treatment of the waste-water and the stabilization of the activated sludge. Three or more parallel channels are commonly used. Step feed is a modification of the conventional plug-flow process in which the settled waste-water is introduced at several points in the aeration tank to equalize the food to micro-organism (F/M) ratio. Tapered aeration is usually achieved by using different spacing of the air diffusers over the tank length. and the amounts diminish as the mixed liquor approaches the effluent end. Air application is generally uniform throughout the tank length. Activated-sludge solids are separated in a secondary settling tank. The mixed liquor is settled in a secondary settling tank and return sludge is aerated separately in a re-aeration basin for stabilization of the organic matter. Complete-mix 85-95 Tapered aeration - Step-feed aeration 85-95 Modified aeration 60-75 Contact stabilization 80-90 Extended aeration 75-95 High-rate aeration 75-90 95 . flocculation. DESCRIPTION OF ACTIVATED-SLUDGE PROCESSES AND PROCESS MODIFICATIONS Process or process modification Conventional plugflow BOD removal efficiency (Percentage) 85-95 Description Settled waste-water and recycled activated sludge enter the head of the aeration tank and are mixed by diffused air or mechanical aeration.ANNEX TABLE 3. Settled waste-water and recycled activated sludge are typically introduced at several points in the aeration tank. thus lowering peak oxygen demand. adsorption. Process is an application of the flow regime of a continuous-flow stirredtank reactor. Adequate mixing is very important. The extended aeration process is similar to the conventional plug-flow process except that it operates in the endogenous respiration phase of the growth curve. The process is used extensively for prefabricated package plants for small communities. which requires a low organic loading and long aeration time. Varying aeration rates are applied over the tank length. The combination allows high F/M ratios and low mean cell-residence times with relatively short hydraulic detention times. During the aeration period. Flexibility of operation is one of the important features of this process. Tapered aeration is a modification of the conventional plug-flow process. High-rate aeration is a process modification in which high mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations are combined with high volumetric loadings. Greater amounts of air are supplied to the head end of the aeration tank. BOD removal efficiency is lower than in the case of other activated-sludge processes. The organic load on the aeration tank and the oxygen demand are uniform throughout the tank length. The stabilized activated sludge is mixed with the influent (either raw or settled) wastewater in a contact tank. and oxidation of organic matter occur.

a separate reactor is used for nitrification. Digester supernatant is added as a nutrient source to a portion of the return sludge in a separate aeration tank designed to nitrify. Inc. Secondary sedimentation tanks are used for most applications. Screened waste-water enters the ditch. pH adjustment may also be required. The sequencing batch reactor is a fill-and-draw type reactor system involving a single complete-mix reactor in which all steps of the activated-sludge process occur. In single-stage nitrification. both BOD and ammonia reduction occur in a single biological stage. 3rd edition.2 ft/s (0. The amount of oxygen added is about four times greater than the amount that can be added by conventional aeration systems. High-purity oxygen is used instead of air in the activated-sludge process. Wastewater Engineering. is aerated. The advantage of this system is that operation can be optimized to conform to nitrification needs. Mixed liquor remains in the reactor during all cycles. 96 . and circulates about 0. The oxidation ditch consists of a ring..or oval-shaped channel and is equipped with mechanical aeration devices. The deep vertical shaft reactor is a form of the activated-sludge process. Oxidation ditches typically operate in an extended aeration mode with long detention and solids retention times. In separate-stage nitrification.25 to 0. Mixed liquor and air are forced down the centre of the shaft and allowed to rise upward through the annulus. The shaft is lined with a steel shell and fitted with a concentric pipe to form an annular reactor. operating on a feed waste from a preceding biological treatment unit. The oxygen is diffused into covered aeration tanks and is recirculated.35 m/s). and this eliminates the need for separate secondary sedimentation tanks. The resulting mixed liquor is then added to the main plug-flow aeration system. A portion of the gas is wasted to reduce the concentration of carbon dioxide. A vertical shaft about 400 to 500 ft (120 to 150 m) deep replaces the primary clarifiers and aeration basin.8 to 1. Reactor configurations may be either a series of complete-mix reactors or plug-flow.ANNEX TABLE 3 (continued) Process or process modification Kraus process BOD removal efficiency (Percentage) 85-95 Description The Kraus process is a variation of the step aeration process used to treat waste-water with low nitrogen levels. High-purity oxygen 85-95 Oxidation ditch 75-95 Sequencing batch reactor 85-95 Deep shaft reactor 85-95 Single-stage nitrification Separate-stage nitrification 85-95 85-95 Source: Metcalf and Eddy.

Floating aquatic plants Storage may be needed for cold weather Depth to groundwater 2-3 ft (minimum) Not critical Not critical 97 .Annex figure 2. Wastewater Treatment. Selected activated-sludge processes Aeration tank Influent 1o clarifier Primary sludge Waste sludge 2o clarifier Aeration basin Influent Alternate waste sludge point 2 o Clarifier Effluent Return sludge Effluent Waste sludge (a) Conventional plug flow Aerator Influent Contactor Recycled solids LiquidsSolids separation (b) Complete mix (Q) Oxygen supply Crossover Surface aerators Effluent Influent Influent Effluent Partition (c) Tapered aeration Aeration rotor Influent (d) Contactor using pure oxygen Influent Return sludge Waste sludge Effluent Return sludge Waste sludge Air 2o Clarifier Flotation tank Effluent (e) Oxidation ditch Prim ary sludge W aste sludge R eturn sludge (f) Deep shaft process R eturn sludge W aste sludge Influent 1o C larifier Aeration Tank 2o C larifier Nitrification tank Nitrification E ffluent C larifier (g) Nitrification in separate stage Source: Adapted from Liu and Lipták. ANNEX TABLE 4. COMPARISON OF THE MAIN NATURAL TREATMENT PROCESSES Characteristic Climatic conditions Slow rate Storage often needed for cold weather and during precipitation Rapid infiltration None (possible modification of operation in cold weather) 10 ft (lesser depths are acceptable when underdrainage is provided) Overland flow Storage often needed for cold weather and during precipitation Not critical Wetland Storage may be needed for cold weather.

. and Reed et al.. mg/L) BOD Suspended solids ammonia nitrogen as N Total nitrogen as N Total phosphorus as P Required Optional Required <2 <1 < 0.1 <2 <2 < 0.ANNEX TABLE 4 (continued) Characteristic Slope Slow rate Less than 15 per cent on cultivated land.5 <3 < 0. 98 . 3rd edition. less than 40 per cent on forested land Moderately slow to moderately rapid Rapid infiltration Not critical. Inc. Natural Systems. excessive slopes require much earthwork Rapid (sands. percolation and runoff Required Surface Primary sedimentation Some evapotranspiration Need for vegetation Expected effluent quality (average.5 < 10 <1 < 10 < 15 <1 <5 <4 - - Source: Metcalf and Eddy. loamy sands) Overland flow Finish slopes 1-8 per cent Wetland Usually less than 5 per cent Floating aquatic plants Usually less than 5 per cent Soil permeability Slow (clays. silts and soils with impermeable barriers) Sprinkler or surface Screening Surface runoff and evaporation with some percolation Required Slow to moderate Slow to moderate Application techniques Minimum preapplication treatment Disposition of applied wastewater Sprinkler or surface Primary sedimentation Evapotranspiration and percolation Usually surface Primary sedimentation Mainly percolation Sprinkler or surface Primary sedimentation Evapotranspiration. Wastewater Engineering.

which gently agitate the sludge and contribute to its densification by releasing trapped gas and waters. Dilute sludge is fed to a centre feed well and allowed to settle and compact before being withdrawn from the bottom of the basin. This method is most effective with primary sludge. The solids accumulate against the wall of the bowl and the liquid is decanted. which distributes it evenly across the width of the moving belt. Two basic types of centrifuges are the solid bowl and the imperforate basket. 99 . . Inc. while the supernatant is returned to the headworks of the treatment plant. It is used for the thickening of raw and digested sludges after conditioning by the addition of polymer. the dissolved air is released as finely divided bubbles. Wastewater Engineering.The imperforate basket centrifuge consists of a vertically mounted spinning bowl. They involve the settling of sludge particles under the influence of centrifugal forces. the sludge is carried to the discharge end of the thickener. horizontally mounted bowl. or to the primary settling tank. It involves the introduction of air into a sludge solution that is being held at an elevated pressure. The sludge scraping mechanism incorporates vertical pickets..5-5 Centrifugation 4-6 8-10 Gravity belt Gravity belt thickeners consist of a gravity belt that moves over rollers driven by a variable-speed drive unit. A rotary drum thickening system consists of a waste activated-sludge conditioning system and rotating cylindrical screens. 3rd edition. The thickened sludge is pumped to digesters or dewatering equipment. Flotation 3. The conditioned sludge is fed into a box. DESCRIPTION OF COMMON SLUDGE THICKENING TECHNOLOGIES Solids concentration achieved (Percentage) - Thickening method Gravity Description A gravity thickener is similar to a conventional circular sedimentation basin. These carry the sludge to the top. Sludge is introduced continuously and the solids concentrate on the periphery. The conditioned sludge then passes to rotating screen drums.The solid bowl centrifuge consists of a long. Centrifuges are used to thicken and dewater waste activated sludges. When the solution is depressurized. where it is skimmed. First. . polymer is mixed with thin sludge in the conditioning drum. 3-6 Rotary drum 5-9 Source: Metcalf and Eddy.ANNEX TABLE 5. Dissolved air flotation is used for thickening of sludge that originates from suspended growth biological treatment processes. operating on a batch basis. which separate the flocculated solids from the water. As the water drains through. tapered at one end.

Wastewater Engineering. Common thickening technologies Handrail Turntable base Drive Water level Feed well Center column Center cage Weir Inlet pipe Stilts Center scraper Sludge pipe Squeegees (a) Gravity thickening Gear box Drive sheave Skimmings discharge Feed Feed Centrate overflow Thickened sludge Centrate Cake discharge Dense cake removal (b) Solid bowl centrifuge (c) Imperforate basket centrifuge (d) Gravity belt thickener Source: Adapted from Metcalf and Eddy. (e) Rotary drum 100 .Annex figure 3. Inc.. 3rd edition.

TOC. DO. pH. N Display red light (standby power required) Displays. DESCRIPTION OF THE VARIABLES MONITORED FOR VARIOUS TREATMENT PROCESSES Treatment unit Bar screen Sensing device Limit switch Time clock High-level override by float in stilling well (excessive head loss) Bubbler system in wet well Conductivity switch or float Limit switches Pressure switch Flow switch Pressure indicator Motor monitors Liquid level sensor in dry pit Temperature monitor and/or amperage monitor Sampling and analysis Purpose Monitors gate position Operation of rake Emergency operation of rake Description Displays green light Displays green light Displays red light Pumping station Flow measurement Aerated grit chamber Main circuit breaker. CH4.ANNEX TABLE 6. Routine chemical analysis TSS. displays. records and totalizes flow continuously Pressure gauges Display green light Display red light Displays green light Displays red light Displays. red light for malfunction Displays red light. trips alarm Displays red light Continuous recording on strip chart. records and totalizes continuously Displays green light Alarm signal Displays red light Displays rotational speed Displays and records Primary sedimentation Level detector Pressure indicator Magnetic flow meter Motor monitor Torque monitor Anaerobic zone Torque monitor Speed regulator Thermocouple Selective ion electrode 101 . Sampler to deliver water sample in the lab Monitor power outage Monitors influent flow to the plant Measures air flow to each chamber Monitoring of discharge pressure of air blowers Monitor on-off condition of blower motor Monitor spiral conveyer and bucket elevator Controls sludge and scum pumps and air agitator in scum box Monitors discharge from each sludge pump Sludge-pumping rate Monitors on-off condition of each motor Monitors motor torque for sludgeraking mechanism Monitors mixer motor for operation Monitors and controls rotational speed of mixer blades Monitors temperature. P. and ORP Display of liquid level in wet well Trips alarm Display green light Displays red light Displays red light Pressure gauges Display green light. BOD. auxiliary contact Venturi tube in force main Orifice plate with square root extractor and display Pressure indicators Motor monitors Torque monitors Controls pumping rate Liquid level in sump of dry well Monitor gate position Monitors seal water pressure for pump protection Monitors seal and water flow to pump for pump protection Monitors the discharge pressure of the pumps Monitor on-off condition of motor and motor malfunction Leakage and flooding Motor protection against overheating and burn out Sensors for pH. H2S. records and totalizes continuously Meters.

records and totalizes flow continuously Displays pump operation Displays. torque monitor 102 . DO. records and totalizes flow continuously Displays and records TSS. pH. torque monitor Torque monitor UV disinfection system Parshall flume Displays. records and totalizes flow Displays. displays. motor monitor. Sounds alarm for low and high levels Displays. NO3 Controls aeration rate Monitors air supply to each aeration basin Monitors the sludge level and actuates sludge return pumps Controls return sludge flow Measures MLSS concentration in aeration basin and actuates waste sludge pumps Monitors the discharge pressure of the pumps Monitor on-off condition of each motor Monitors motor torque for sludgeraking mechanism.ANNEX TABLE 6 (continued) Treatment unit Anoxic zone Sensing device Torque monitor Speed regulator Thermocouple Selective ion electrode Dissolved oxygen measurement Flow meter. records and totalizes flow continuously Displays red light Display red light Displays red light Displays light intensity and UV dose alarm Displays total hours in operation Displays and records the level. differential pressure type Ultrasonic sludge blanket in final clarifier Magnetic flow meter Suspended solids analyzer Purpose Monitors mixer motor for operation Monitors and controls rotational speed of mixer blades Monitors temperature. records and totalizes flow Displays sludge blanket level Displays and records Similar to those for primary and final clarifiers Electrical power module Thermocouples Lamp status UV light intensity sensor Totalizer Level control Gravity thickener Magnetic flow meter Venturi meter Ultrasonic sludge blanket detector Ultrasonic density meter Pressure indicator. records and totalizes flow Pressure gauges Display green light Alarm signal Aerobic zone and final clarifiers Pressure indicator Motor monitors. RAS pumps and blowers Measures flow upstream of UV disinfection facility to control light intensity Monitors electrical power to UV lamp Monitor temperature of UV lamp module Monitors burnt out lamp Measures UV light intensity Totalizes time for each lamp/row/bank Monitors liquid level upstream and downstream of UV banks Flow measurement of feed sludge Flow measurement of dilution water Monitors the sludge blanket level in the gravity thickener Monitors solids concentration in feed and thickened sludge Similar to those for primary and final clarifiers Description Displays red light Displays rotational speed Displays and records Displays and records Display and continuous recording Meters.

pressure indicator. pH. records and totalizes Red light and alarm Red light Tabulation of result and data logging Records and totalizes Display red light Filter press Dial display Displays speed Records and totalizes Records and totalizes Records and logs data Record and log data Record and log data Records and logs data Display as indicated above 103 . lab test Float and level indicator Magnetic flow meter Pressure switch.ANNEX TABLE 6 (continued) Treatment unit Anaerobic digestion Sensing device Magnetic flow meter Ultrasonic density meter Thermocouple. flow switch. and ORP of digester content and the recirculating sludge Monitor liquid level in the digester and level of floating cover Control hot water heating system Measurement of digester gas flow Gas storage pressure Monitors flame in building. motor monitor Pressure indicators Belt speed Magnetic flow meter Ultrasonic density meter Static scale Ohm meter. record and totalizes flow Similar to those for gravity thickeners Display and record Indicator Display temperature. selective ion electrodes Level indicator Pressure and temperature Orifice meter Pressure gauge Flame detector Chromatograph and calorimeter Venuri meter Pressure switch. flare status Determination of gas composition and calorific value Measurement of supernatant flow Monitor pump. motor monitor Source: Qasim. motor. pump operation Displays. H2S = hydrogen sulfide CH4 = methane N = nitrogen P = phosphorus BOD = biological oxygen demand DO = dissolved oxygen ORP = oxidation-reduction potential TSS = total dissolved solids TOC = total organic carbon UV = ultraviolet MLSS = mixed liquor suspended solids Purpose Flow measurement of feed sludge Monitor solids concentration in feed and digested sludge. compressor as indicated above Measurement of pressure and shearing forces exerted by belt filters Frequency drive controller for belt speed adjustment Monitors the flow of conditioned feed sludge to each belt filter press Monitors solids concentration in feed sludge Measures weight of sludge cake Determine moisture content of the sludge cake Measure level of polymer solution in storage and feed banks Measures flow of lime and polymer solution Monitor pump. compressor as indicated above Description Displays. motor. and mixing Monitor temperature. flow switch pressure indicator. Wastewater Treatment Plants.

8 m deep.9 x 10-3 x Q (m3/d) A (ha) = 16. 6-day HRT. LAND AREA EQUATIONS FOR SELECTED NTSS NTS On-site Slow rate Rapid infiltration Overland flow Facultative pond Aerobic pond Partial-mix aerated pond Controlled Discharge pond Facultative hyacinth pond for secondary treatment Hyacinth pond for tertiary treatment Aerated hyacinth pond for secondary treatment Duckweed pond for effluent polishing Free water surface wetland Surface flow wetland Area equation.d 180 day HRT. land application. Natural Systems.5 x 10-3 x Q (m3/d) A (ha) = 2. 50 day HRT. organic loading < 100 kg/ha. < 2 m deep.71 x 10-3 x Q (m3/d) -5 Assumptions All year operation possible in all climates Warm climate. < 0. 6 months/yr Warm climate. water temperatures > 7°C. water temperatures > 10°C.3 x 10-3 x Q (m3/d) A (ha) = 9. land application 12 months/yr Cold climate. monthly plant harvest 20-day HRT.2 x 10-3 x Q (m3/d) A (ha) = 2. organic loading < 50 kg/ha. organic loading < 30 kg/ha. 104 .d. 1 m deep.. 30 day HRT.ANNEX TABLE 7. 6 months/yr Winter storage not required. 2.d.1 x 10-3 x Q (m3/d) A (ha) = 3. depth< 1m.d Warm climate. land application 12 months/yr Cold climate.2 x 10-3 x Q (m3/d) A (ha) = 2. organic loading < 90 kg/ha. input of screened or settled waste-water. organic loading < 60 kg/ha.5 x Q (m3/d)/ k (m/d) A (acres) = 19 x 10-5 x Q (gallons/day) A (acres) = 28 x 10-5 x Q (gallons/day) A (acres) = 6 x 10-5 x Q (gallons/day) A (acres) = 9 x 10 x Q (gallons/day) A (acres) = 17 x 10-5 x Q (gallons/day) A (ha) = 5. 1. 50 day HRT.d A (ha) = 1. 1 m deep. land application.5 x 10-3 x Q (m3/d) A (ha) = 0.d Cold climate. input of facultative pond effluent 7-day HRT. organic loading < 150 kg/ha.d. annual harvest Secondary effluent input. ~ 60 day HRT.5 m deep. organic loading < 30 kg/ha.0 x 10-3 x Q (m3/d) A (ha) = 8. organic loading < 300 kg/ha. all year operation Warm climate. input of screened or settled waste-water.d. 1. 1. frequent harvest or vegetation 5-day HRT. input of screened or settled waste-water.5 m deep.5 m deep.7 x 10-3 x Q (m3/d) Source: Reed et al. 0. organic loading < 100 kg/ha.d 7-day HRT. A A (m2) = 1.5 m deep Very warm climate.1 m deep. water temperatures > 10°C.

gravity thickener Primary sedimentation. hotwater boiler Sludge lines. liquids Gas. Final clarifier. sludges Liquids Liquids Clean liquids Pressure 0-200 kN/m2 Pressure 0-350 000 kN/m2 Pressure 0-20 000 kN/m2 Pressure 0-35 000 kN/m2 Liquid head 0-11 m Liquid head 0-56 m Uncurling motion of noncircular crosssectional area of a curved tube Movement of a float riding on surface of liquid Measurement of back pressure in the tube bubbling regulated air at slightly higher pressure than the static head outside Pressure change in air on one side of the diaphragm caused by the liquid pressure on the other side of the diaphragm The sonic pulses are reflected from the target surface Detection of light in a probe by a photocell across the sludge blanket Detection of the ultrasonic signal transmitted between two transducers Current flows in a circuit made of two different metals Absolute pressure of a confined gas is proportional to the absolute temperature Change in electrical resistance temperature-sensitive element of Diaphragm bulb Liquid head 0-15 m Ultrasonic Sludge level Photocell Ultrasonic Temperature Thermocouple Thermal bulb Resistance temperature detector Liquid level in channel or basin Primary sedimentation. liquids Gas. Final clarifier. anaerobic digesters. liquids Liquids.Annex II COMMON ON-LINE PROCESS MEASUREMENT DEVICES AND THEIR APPLICATION IN WASTE-WATER TREATMENT Measured variables Flow Primary device Venturi meter Flow nozzle meter Orifice meter Electromagnetic meter Turbine meter Acoustic meter Parshall flume Palmer-Bowlus flume Pressure Weirs Liquid-to-air diaphragm Strain gauge Bellows Bourdon tube Liquid level Float Bubbler tube Measured signal Differential pressure Differential pressure Differential pressure Magnetic field and voltage change Propeller rotation Sound waves Differential elevation of water surface Differential elevation of water surface Head over weir Balance pressure across a metal diaphragm Dimensional change in sensor Displacement of mechanical connected to the indicator linkage Common application Gas. gravity thickener Anaerobic digester. sludges Clean liquid Liquids. water lines Bearing and winding temperatures of electrical machinery. hot-water boilers 105 .

thickened and digested sludge solids Variable-speed pump. chemical solution. 106 . hydraulic load cell or strain gauge Gamma radiation Measured signal Lever mechanism or spring. CO. current Loss of ultrasonic signal by the liquid between the ultrasonic transmitter and receiver Voltage produced by hydrogen ion activity Change in potential due to oxidation or reduction Flow of electrical current across the solution Electrical current across the membrane because of reduction of molecular oxygen.Measured variables Weight Primary device Weight beam. effluent Influent. effluent Dosing alkali to remedy acid production of nitrification Influent. aeration basin. effluent Ammonia Spectrophotometer Source: Adapted from Qasim. Anaerobic digester Influent. dimensional change in sensor Absorption of gamma rays by the liquid between the radiation source and the detector Voltage. pressure transmitted across diaphragm. returned. plant effluent Detection of hazardous condition in room or around covered treatment units Aeration basin Anaerobic sludge digester Respirometers using sensor Sensor. influent to aeration basin. combustion Spectrophotometer Electrical signal proportional to degree of coloured compound produced when stannous chloride reacts with a phosphate-molybdate complex Electrical signal proportional to degree of colour formed when nitrite and nitrate react with reagents to form coloured compounds Electrical signal proportional to degree of change that occurs when ammonia gas causes a change in the pH of an indicator solution Influent. effluent Nitrate/Nitrite Spectrophotometer Influent. or mixer MLSS concentration. CH4 Oxygen uptake rate Anaerobic biological condition Phosphate Carbon analyzer Sensor Sensors Influent to plant. blower. dewatering. CO2. anaerobic digester. Wastewater Treatment Plants. H2S. effluent Influent. thickened and digested sludge solids Influent. maintenance of proper DO in aeration basin. plant effluent Chlorine contact tank. Signal is temperature-compensated CO2 produced from combustion of sample Electrical output Various types of sensor modules utilizing electrical impulses Decrease in DO level over time CO2 and CH4 production rate Common application Chemicals Density MLSS concentration. returned. plant effluent Speed Suspended solids Tachometer Ultrasonic sensor PH Selective ion electrode Electrode Oxidationreduction potential Total dissolved solids Dissolved oxygen Conductivity Membrane electrode Total organic carbon Chlorine residual Gases: NH3.

Annex III THE WATER SPREADSHEET TOOL Annex figure 4. 107 . General input of the WaTER tool Source: WaTER software.

Annex figure 5. Annex figure 6. RO-NF input of the WaTER tool Source: WaTER software. RO-NF output of the WaTER tool Source: WaTER software. 108 .

109 .Annex IV CAPDETWORKS SOFTWARE Unit processes included in CapdetWorks • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Screening Grit removal Microscreening Equalization Dissolved air flotation Primary clarification Anion exchange Cation exchange Neutralization Coagulation Carbon adsorption Recarbonation Flocculation Two-stage lime treatment First stage recarbonation Second stage recarbonation Chlorination Ultra-violet disinfection Lagoon Aerated lagoon Activated sludge package plant Complete mix activated sludge Overland flow land treatment • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Plug flow activated sludge Srt-based plug flow activated sludge Sequencing batch reactor Contact stabilization activated sludge Step aeration activated sludge High rate activated sludge Extended aeration activated sludge Oxidation ditch Pure oxygen activated sludge Nitrification-suspended growth Denitrification-suspended growth Trickling filter Nitrifying trickling filter Rotating biological contactor Nitrifying rotating biological contactor Denitrification-attached growth Biological nitrogen removal Biological nutrient removal-2 stage Biological nutrient removal-3/5 stage Intermediate process pumping Counter current ammonia stripping Cross current ammonia stripping Rapid infiltration land treatment • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Slow infiltration land treatment Secondary clarifier Post aeration Filtration User waste-water process Waste-water flow splitter Influent sludge Aerobic digestion Anaerobic digestion Wet oxidation User specified sludge process Sludge flow splitter Gravity thickening Sludge flotation thickening Belt filtration Centrifugation Drying beds Filter press Vacuum filtration Sludge drying lagoon Hauling and land filling Fluidized bed incineration Multiple hearth incineration Source: CapdetWorks help file included in demonstration copy.

Activated sludge design and summary cost using CAPDET Source: CapdetWorks demonstration copy. Trickling filter design and summary cost using CAPDET Source: CapdetWorks demonstration copy.Annex figure 7. 110 . Annex figure 8.

Annex figure 9. Cost comparison of activated sludge versus trickling filter using CAPDET Source: CapdetWorks demonstration copy. 111 .

57 0.1 2. “The cost of membrane filtration”. OR Warrenton. TX Parsons. 112 .4 Equipment cost as percentage of construction cost 36 24 30 25 22 20 56 47 77 32 42 Location Meeteetse. KS Seekonk.49 0.07 0.6 3 3 3 4.42 0.9 0.46 0. CA Capacity (mgd) 0.7 0.90 3.03 3.32 0.53 0.05 0. TX Kenosha.. Ontario Loyalist Township. TX Pittsburg.03 1.47 0.42 0.3 6 6 7 7.38 2. OR Amherstview.27 0.42 0. Ontario Holladay.67 1. UT Parry Sound. TX Millersburg.Annex V MEMBRANE FILTRATION COST DATA Construction cost per gallon of installed capacity (US$/gpd) 2.73 2.1 2.39 0.51 0.4 2 2 2.29 0. Ontario Gibson Canyon. WI Olivenhain.50 0.45 1. OR Marquette.8 9 10 14 16 20 24 25 Construction cost (US$) 1 450 000 2 730 000 6 063 000 3 500 000 3 640 000 6 430 000 4 520 000 7 500 000 3 000 000 21 000 000 22 000 000 24 000 000 MF/UF equipment cost (US$) 438 000 525 000 650 000 640 000 980 000 1 800 000 880 000 800 000 980 500 1 260 000 1 540 000 1 380 000 1 590 000 3 000 000 2 500 000 2 525 000 3 500 000 2 300 000 3 170 000 7 000 000 7 777 778 5 400 000 6 800 000 10 000 000 Source: Elarde and Bergman. PA Appleton.46 0. CA Travis county. WI Del Rio. MA Pendleton. TX Georgetown.28 0.72 0. Water Auth. WA Little Current.49 0.48 0.5 2. Ontario Canyon Regional.75 1.96 Equipment cost per gallon of installed capacity (US$/gpd) 1.33 1.50 0. TX Canyon Regional.302 0. TX Bexar Met. MI San Patricio. WY Youngs River.38 0.5 0.9 1.

CC include flow channels and superstructures.d ActualDesignSurfaceOverflowRate 113 . gravity grit chamber with mechanical grit handling equipment.000002Q 2 + 3. chemical storage for 15 days.96Q + 25.O & M = 0.68Q + 22. grinders for screenings. Clarifiers and return sludge pumps are not included.842 .616 .O & M = 0.QE = QDesign × 32.611 .392 .6m3 / m 2 .834 40 .Costs apply for circular clarifiers with area > 46.CC include sludge return and waste sludge pumps .O & M = 4.CC include basin. air supply equipment and piping.Oxygen requirement is 1.O & M = 3.58Q + 36.389 . Clarifiers and return sludge pumps are not included.96Q + 25.Oxygen requirement is 1.043 .5 g O2 per g of BOD removed and 4.56 m2 Conventional activated sludge with diffused air Activated sludge with nitrification in single stage Final clarifier with aeration basin .6Q + 44.CC = −0.O & M = 1.6 g O2 per gram of NH3-N oxidized .O & M = 9.d ActualDesignSurfaceOverflowRate 50 .624 .56 m2 and diameter < 61 m and for rectangular clarifiers with area < 46.295 40 .CC = 90Q + 612.777 .O & M = 93Q 0.6 m3/m2.69Q + 11.d Ferric chloride addition .2 g O2 per g of BOD Aeration period is 6 hrs .038 Service life (years) 30 Included elements . mechanical bar screens.CC = 531Q 0. liquid containing 35 % FeCl3 and dosage of 100 mg/L.d . .29Q + 220.32Q + 5.5m3 / m 2 .376 .00002Q 2 + 19.Clarifier is deigned for an overflow rate of 32.CC = 72Q + 368.CC include plug-flow aeration tanks and aeration devices.QE = QDesign × 40 24.CC = 0.CC = 674Q 0. and price of building .CC = 2941Q 0. . and blower building.038 .Annex VI COST EQUATIONS FOR TREATMENT PROCESSES Process Screening and grit removal with bar screens Screening & grit removal without bar screens Primary sedimentation with sludge pumps Equation .609 .Q E = Q Design × FeCl 3 dose 100 mg / L 20 .5 m3/m2.CC include concrete rapid mix tank with stainless steel mixer. Parshall flume and flow recording equipment .The clarifier is a flocculator type with a design overflow rate of 24.

storage and handling facilities.d .56 m2 .QE = QDesign × 32.813 2 15 . feed and backwash pumps.The design hydraulic loading 9.00007Q + 56.3 m3/m2. mg / L 1mg / LSO 2 .598 .CC = 1170Q 0.d ActualDesignHydraulicLoadingOnFilters 30 Included elements .CC = −0.000001Q + 0.The SO2 dosage is 1 mg/L SO2 per mg/L residual chlorine . and miscellaneous equipment .O & M = −0.791 . injector and plug-flow contact chamber .CC include SO2 storage facility.058 2 30 .7 m3/m2.QE = QDesign × Dechlorination using sulfur dioxide ActualChlo rineDosage .CC = −0.CC include UV modules.Chlorine dosage is 10 mg/L and contact time is 30 minutes at average flow .56 m2 and diameter < 61 m and for rectangular clarifiers with area < 46.O & M = 194Q 0. walkway.8m3 / m 2 .656 .72 kg/m3 and hydraulic loading is 28.CC = −0. lamps.2Q + 5733 .00001Q + 14Q + 229. effluent recycle pumps.97Q + 15. mg / L 10 mg / L .8 m) and underdrains .− 3 × 10 −6 Q 2 + 1.CC include facilities for backwash storage. piping.77Q + 323. safety cleaning and monitoring equipment. piping.038Q + 4585 15 114 .85Q + 142.000003Q 2 + 5.CC include chlorine building.CC = 795Q 0.Costs apply for circular clarifiers with area > 46. chlorinators.− 3 × 10 −5 Q 2 + 11.Contact time is 30 minutes .439 . feed system.O & M = −0.Organic loading is 0. .Process High rate trickling filter Clarifier for highrate trickling filter Equation 2 .00005Q 2 + 44. operations building.QE = QDesign × UV disinfection ActualSO 2 Dosage . and filter building and pipe gallery .000001Q + 2. power source and distribution. piping. lamp displacement.693 . synthetic media (1.0002Q 2 + 156Q + 796.598 .O & M = −0.O & M = −0.6m3 / m 2 .CC include circular filter units with rotating distributor arms. carbon regeneration facilities and storage tanks .O&M includes power.8 m3/m2.O & M = 278Q 0.702 .6 m3/m2.d and a backwash ratio of 36.QE = QDesign × 9.55 . and internal piping .d .Design overflow rate is 32. mixers and reaction tank.89Q + 244.36Q + 24.CC = 2903Q 0. and others Activated carbon adsorption Chlorination .d ActualDesignSurfaceOverflowRate Service life (years) 50 40 Gravity filtration (dual media) . all feed and backwash pumps.h .CC include carbon columns. cleaning labour.505 .CC include sludge pumps. clarifier mechanisms.458 2 35 .

underdrain return and other structural elements .3 W/m3 .00005Q + 44.68 .784 .854 .000003Q 2 + 5.702 .O & M = 8.098 kg / m 3 50 .QE = QDesign × 29 .O & M = 0. kg / m 3 0.3kg / m 2 .00002Q 2 + 2.108 kg/m3 and 97.00002Q 2 + 23.Process Sludge pumping Equation 2 .O & M = −0.227 kg / m 3 ActualSoli ds Period Concentrat ion % 40 Two-stage anaerobic digesters .0000003Q 2 + 0.227 kg/m3 at 4 % solids .227 kg/m3 with 4 % solids content . and control building .CC = −0.7Q + 208.108 kg / m ActualDesi gnSolidsLo ading 20 115 .CC = 177Q 0. sludge piping. yr inDigested Sludge × 3 0.108 kg/m3 solids content at 2. heat exchanger.227 kg / m 3 50 Sludge drying beds .d ActualSoli dsMass × ActualSoli dsLoading 0.CC include sand beds.QE = QDesign × 20 days ActualSoli dsMass 4% × × ActualDige stion 0.d .− 0.QE = QDesign × ActualSoli dsMass .227 kg/m3 at 4 % solid concentration Gravity thickener .CC include covered digestion tanks.227 kg / m 4% ActualSoli ds Concentrat ion % Service life (years) 10 Included elements .Costs are based on sludge mass of 0.CC = −0.− 0.627 .6 kg / m 2 .3kg/m3.77Q + 323. cell dividers.67Q + 26.18Q + 4136 .486 .QE = QDesign × ActualSoli dsMass 97 .28Q + 471. sludge inlets.2Q + 5733 .00002Q 2 + 21.Digested sludge has 0. gas mixing and collection equipment.QE = QDesign × ActualSlud geMass × 3 0.5 % solids .57Q + 8003 . underdrains.54Q 0.916 .CC include 20-day digestion period and sludge flow of 0.CC include thickener and all related mechanical equipment .098kg/m3 and solids loading is at a rate of 29.6 g O2/g VSS destroyed and mixing requirements of 26.The sludge solids and solids loading on the beds are 0.Rate of combined thickened sludge is 0.6 kg/m2/year Aerobic digester .CC = 89Q 0.Thickening is at a rate of 0.O&M do not include polymer or metal addition .O & M = −0.Mechanical aerators provide an oxygen requirement of 1.

.5 % solids . and treatment .O&M include utilities and normal upkeep Includes manpower for supervision and administration.Process Filter press or belt filter Equation .CC = 1438Q 0.CC include site preparation. 116 .CC include filtration and conveyor equipment. O&M = annual operation and maintenance costs. machine shops.33Q + 87.031 ActualSoli dsMass inDewatere dSludge × × 0 .255Q 0.CC = 10.108 kg/m3 . Q = QDesign= average design flow through the facility.481 Service life (years) 15 . conditioning and sludge storage tanks.108 kg / m 3 QuantityOf Sludge 20 % Landfilled × ActualSoli ds TotalQuant ityOf Concentrat ion % Sludge Pr oduced 20 Included elements . and building. Detailed Costing Document.QE = QDesign ActualSoli dsMass inDewatere dSludge × × 0 .000003Q + 1.2571 . preventive maintenance.CC include transportation vehicles and application vehicles.00005Q 2 + 2.O & M = −0.108kg / m3 Landfilling .O&M include labour costs and fuel for equipment operation .− 0.026 .978Q + 22. sludge loading and unloading apparatus. QE = Adjusted flow rate.047Q + 76.000001Q 2 + 0. labour and material .97Q + 57.567 .348 . USD.O & M = 3165Q 0.349 2 50 - . and garage facilities .No land costs are incurred Biosolids utilization . laboratory work. monitoring wells.2 g/m3 FeCl3 or 10. leachate collection.Digested primary and secondary sludge is 0. clerical work.717 .QE = QDesign × ActualSolidsMassInDigestedSludge 0. CC = capital costs.000001Q 2 + 1.O&M include oil.108 kg/m3 at 2. laboratories. concrete pad and storage facility .790 .108 kg / m 3 QuantityOf Sludge 20 % UtilizedAs Biosolids × ActualSoli ds TotalQuant ityOf Concentrat ion % Sludge Pr oduced 20 Q E = Q Design Miscellaneous structures Support personnel .Digested solids quantity is 0. front-end loaders.− 0. chemical feed and storage facilities.− 0.00005Q 2 + 2.11Q + 25.Conditioning chemicals dosage is 4.− 0. Wastewater Treatment Plants and USEPA.31Q 0.CC include administrative offices. fencing.8 g/m3 CaO . & administrative costs Source: Qasim.O & M = 8. gas.

Lifetime of installation. intestinal parasites Resource utilization: Energy Energy used. organic micropollutants. R11) Photochemical ozone creation potential (POCP. Costs in relation to national/regional budget. operation and destruction of the waste-water treatment system. Cr. Indication of maintenance required: frequency/costs and time needed for maintenance. PO4) Ozone depletion potential (ODP. C2H4) (ECA. kg aeq. 117 . yr-1) Biodiversity Fossil energy carrier depletion potential (EDP. Indication of sensitivity of the process in terms of toxic substances. CO2) Nutrification potential (NP. K Organic matter Balance of C. Performance relative to costs. The amount of money spent by users on sanitation in relation to their total budget. maintenance costs and cost for destruction. shock loads. Zn. Indication of possibilities for implementation on different scales. equipment and labour). increasing/decreasing capacity. Cd. kg aeq. Number of employees needed for operation and maintenance. Pb. Indication of the amount of money the user is willing to pay for (improved) sanitation. m3 aeta) (HT. GJ) Global warming potential (GWP. Ni. Foreign exchange required in relation to national/regional foreign exchange requirements. Indication of sensitivity of the process in terms of malfunctioning equipment and instrumentation. Hg. kg hta) (ECT. Indications of feasibility of applying sustainable energy sources. kg teta) Final waste (kg) Toxic final waste (kg) Nuclear final waste (kg) Additional detailed information on emissions during operational phase: Heavy metals Balances of Cu. pathogens and nutrients. S Organic pollutants Indication of emissions of pesticides and other toxics Pathogens Bacteria. viruses. Energy ‘lost’ indicates the amount of energy no longer available due to emissions of waste disposal. Ar Nutrients Balances of N P. Net present value of the investment costs (specified for land. anticipated changes in legislation. materials. kg aeq.Annex VII SUSTAINABILITY CRITERIA FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES Functional Performance Adaptability Durability Flexibility Maintenance required Reliability Economic Affordability Costs Cost effectiveness Labour Willingness to pay Environmental Emissions: Acidification Depletion: Abiotic Biotic Depletion of fossil fuels Global warming Nutrification Ozone Depletion Photochemical air pollution Toxicity: Aquatic Human Terrestrial Waste production Acidification potential Mineral material depletion potential (ADP. kg aeq. seasonal effects etc. etc. Expressed in removal of BOD/COD. heavy metals. produced and ‘lost’ during installation.

Indication of the effort needed to control and enforce existing regulations. 118 . Note: Depletion is listed under emissions. Indication of nutrient quality. Source: Balkema. Sustainability criteria. as an indication of resource utilization in the installation and destruction phase. Amount of nutrients suitable for reuse. Indication of possibilities for economic stimulation of sustainable behaviour. Amount of organic matter recycled through sludge reuse. Indication of sludge quality. Performance relative to resource utilization. Number of engineers needed for installation and operation. Amount of organic matter recycled through biogas production. Indication of water quality. The total land area required. Indication of possibilities for technical stimulation of sustainable behaviour. Indication of embedding of technology in policymaking. replicated and improved locally (in the country) or only by specialized manufacturers. Indication of possibilities for participation by the end user.Functional Land area Nutrients Organic matter Resource effectiveness Water Social Institutional requirements Cultural Acceptance Expertise Stimulating behaviour sustainable Indication of the cultural changes and impacts: convenience and compatibility with local ethics. Indication whether a system can be designed and built or can be repaired. Amount of water suitable for reuse. Indication of the feasibility of integrating the waste-water treatment system (partly) in green areas.

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