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AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
In the document as follows, we will be studying about why Information Systems are required in a company in general. Also, we will be studying and analyzing these Information Systems used in IBM (International Business Machines), an American multinational technology and consulting firm. The major objectives of this report are as follows:  To learn about the various Information Systems  To know why these Systems are required in a company  To know about the working of a present day company  To know how these Systems work in that company  To know the applications of various Systems and their performance  To understand how these Systems help the company and make its tasks easier and more efficient

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2. TYPES OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS
Following are the major types of Information Systems used at various levels in a company: 1. Management Information System These systems assist lower management in problem solving and making decisions. They use the results of transaction processing and some other information also. It is a set of information processing functions. It should handle queries as quickly as they arrive. An important element of MIS is database. A database is a non-redundant collection of interrelated data items that can be processed through application programs and available to many users.

2. Office Automation System Office automation systems are configurations of networked computer hardware and software. A variety of office automation systems are now applied to business and communication functions that used to be performed manually or in multiple locations of a company, such as preparing written communications and strategic planning. In addition, functions that once required coordinating the expertise of outside specialists in typesetting, printing, or electronic recording can now be integrated into the everyday work of an organization, saving both time and money.

3. Transaction Processing System
2

These include calculation. These are not of recurring nature. Executives rely as much. Transaction can be any activity of the organization. Decision Support System These systems assist higher management to make long term decisions. Transaction processing systems provide speed and accuracy. 4. Some recur infrequently or occur only once. Executive Support System It supplies the necessary tools to senior management.It processes business transaction of the organization. There are some transactions. 5. if not more 3 . which are common to almost all organizations. A decision is considered unstructured if there are no clear procedures for making the decision and if not all the factors to be considered in the decision can be readily identified in advance. This provides high speed and accurate processing of record keeping of basic operational processes. The decisions at this level of the company are usually never structured and could be described as educated guesses. A decision support system must very flexible. These type of systems handle unstructured or semi structured decisions. Transactions differ from organization to organization. and can be programmed to follow routines functions of the organization. The user should be able to produce customized reports by giving particular data and format specific to particular situations. storage and retrieval.

so the system must be flexible and easy to manipulate. Decisions must be made in the context of the world outside the organization. on external data than they do on data internal to their organization. The problems and situations senior executives face are very fluid.so. always changing. 4 .

 IBM has been present in India since 1992. systems and software. among others. COMPANY PROFILE – IBM  International Business Machines (IBM) is an American multinational technology and consulting firm headquartered in Armonk. hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology. automotive.  The diversity and breadth of the entire IBM portfolio of research. government. New York. consulting. and it offers infrastructure.  Its distinctive culture and product branding has given it the nickname Big Blue. telecommunications and education. software and services to help forwardthinking enterprises. services.3.  IBM India's solutions and services span all major industries including financial services. healthcare. uniquely distinguishes IBM India from other companies in the industry.  IBM is a global technology and innovation company that stands for progress. institutions and people everywhere succeed in building a smarter planet. IBMers around the world invent and integrate hardware. 5 .  With operations in over 170 countries. solutions.  IBM manufactures and sells computer hardware and software.

and continues to transform itself to align with global markets and geographies to grow this leadership position. As a trusted partner with wide-ranging service capabilities.  Widely recognized as an employer of choice.  IBM has been expanding its footprint in India . IBM holds numerous awards for its industry-leading employment practices and policies.  IBM India has clearly established itself as one of the leaders in the Indian Information Technology (IT) Industry . IBM helps clients transform and succeed in challenging circumstances.and has a presence in over 200 cities and towns across the country . 6 .either directly or through its strong business partner network.

4. The following are set as a vision and mission for the company:  Automate error-prone IT tasks such as backup and recovery. Studies show over 70 percent of IT operations spending goes to maintaining and managing existing systems. THE IBM SCENARIO When it comes to information systems management. instead of developing new and innovative applications. cost-effective management  Deploy critical software updates and patches quicker and easier. 7 . deployment. and resource configuration for consistent. provisioning. No wonder that in a 2006 study. 77 percent of companies said their top operational priority was improving IT efficiency. not just pieces of it  Isolate problems quickly with end-to-end visibility. IBM Information Management System (MIS) is a joint hierarchical database and information management system with extensive transaction processing capabilities. many IT organizations just spin their wheels. reducing end-user downtime and information systems management support costs  Meet customers‘ expectations by monitoring the response time they experience for an entire transaction.

The first "MIS READY" message appeared on 14 August 1968. MIS is still going strong over 40 years later and. MIS's challenge was to inventory the very large bill of materials (BOM). over time. MIS is reportedly IBM's highest revenue software product. has seen some interesting developments as IBM System/360 technology evolved into the current technology. Watts joined IBM in 1956 and worked at IBM's Silicon Valley development labs until his death April 4. HISTORY IBM‘s first formal Information System designed was a Management Information System with Rockwell and Caterpillar starting in 1966 for the Apollo program. and it continues to grow. Now the company has a wide range of Information Systems which will be discussed further.5. 2009. Vern Watts was MIS's chief architect for many years. He had continuously worked on MIS since the 1960s. Mr. 8 .

a customer database may have a root segment (or the segment at the top of the hierarchy) with fields such as phone. THE MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM AT IBM 6. which are called fields.  Child segments may be added underneath another segment. For example. each order segment may have many children segments for each item on the order. (DB2 gets its name because MIS. which is quite different from IBM's later released relational database. one order segment under each customer segment representing each order a customer has placed with a company.)  In MIS. the hierarchical model is implemented using blocks of data known as segments. and age. name. In practice.  Each segment can contain several pieces of data. often all data in a segment may map to a COBOL copybook. you do not need to define all of the data in a segment to MIS.  Likewise. for instance. DB2. which was created first. A segment may be defined with a size of 40 bytes but only define one field that is six bytes long as a key field that you can use to find the segment when performing queries. 9 .6.  Unlike other databases.1 DATABASE The MIS Database component stores data using a hierarchical model.  MIS will retrieve and save all 40 bytes as directed by a program but may not understand (or care) what the other bytes represent. was DB1.

like SQL calls to DB2 or Oracle. Full function databases Directly descended from the Data Language Interface (DL/I) databases originally developed for Apollo. without the transaction manager component. 10 . 6. or Overflow Sequential (OSAM). In particular. and used by other systems. although Hierarchical Direct (HDAM) and Hierarchical Indexed Direct (HIDAM) dominate. a native z/OS access method. and Hierarchical Indexed Sequential (HISAM). The other formats are Simple Hierarchical Indexed Sequential (SHISAM).2 THREE BASIC FORMS There are three basic forms of MIS hierarchical databases: 1. an MIS-specific access method that optimizes the I/O channel program for MIS access patterns. OSAM performance benefits from sequential access of MIS databases (OSAM Sequential Buffering). a field may be defined in MIS so that the data can be hidden from certain applications for security reasons.  The database component of MIS can be purchased standalone. accessed using DL/I calls from the application program. Full function databases store data using VSAM. Full function databases can have a variety of access methods. Hierarchical Sequential (HSAM). Besides DL/I query usage. Full function databases can have primary and secondary indexes.

This "limitation" simply means that MIS customers will use multiple datasets for large amounts of data. so MSDBs are gradually disappearing. and. 3. MIS still limits a VSAM dataset to 4 GB. In the 11 . High Availability Large Databases (HALDBs) MIS V7 introduced HALDBs. and the MIS "logical" view of the database is referred to as the database "organization" (HDAM. better handling of extremely large data volumes.2. (Third party tools exclusively provided online reorganization prior to MIS V9.) Internally the data are linked using 4-byte pointers or addresses. Neither provide any indexing. etc. Fast path databases Fast Path databases are optimized for extremely high transaction rates. Virtual Storage Option (VSO) DEDBs can replace MSDBs in modern MIS releases. Fast path DEDBs can only be built atop VSAM. Data Entry Databases (DEDBs) and Main Storage Databases (MSDBs) are the two types of fast path databases. with some restrictions depending on database organization. DL/I databases can be built atop either VSAM or OSAM.) A HALDB can store in excess of 40 terabytes of data. an extension of MIS full function databases to provide better availability. online reorganization to support continuous availability. VSAM and OSAM are usually referred to as the access methods. Although the maximum size of a z/OS VSAM dataset increased to 128 TB a few years ago. HISAM. with MIS V9. HIDAM.

including 3270 and Web user interfaces) or another application. and maintains state throughout the process. When used alone with DB2 the MIS TM component can be purchased without the MIS DB component. MIS TM uses a messaging and queuing paradigm. A transaction manager interacts with an end user (connected through VTAM or TCP/IP. also known as MIS DC) — one of the "big three" classic transaction managers along with CICS and BEA (now Oracle) Tuxedo. MIS DB has grown and evolved over nearly four decades to support myriad business needs. operating through a CGI program (for example). Thus MIS TM is quite like a Web application. processes a business function (such as a banking account withdrawal). MIS TM typically uses either MIS DB or DB2 as its backend database. Collectively the database-related MIS capabilities are often called MIS DB. to provide an interface to query or update a database. 6.database datasets (DBDSs) the pointers are referred to as RBAs (relative byte addresses). making sure that the system records the business function correctly to a data store.3 TRANSACTION MANAGER MIS is also a robust transaction manager (MIS TM. An MIS control program receives a transaction entered from a terminal (or Web browser or other 12 .

In fact. introduced in 1982. if required. Federal Reserve. reading and updating MIS and/or DB2 databases. easy-to-use. 6. Today MIS complements DB2. assuring proper recording of the transaction. standard environment for high performance transaction execution. including the U. especially reporting 13 . MIS enqueues a response message back onto the MIS message queue. MIS TM provides a straightforward. IBM's relational database system. Once the output message is complete and available the MIS control program sends it back to the originating terminal. reliable. Relational databases have generally proven superior in cases where the requirements.S.4 APPLICATION Prior to MIS. much of the world's banking industry relies on MIS. MIS performs faster than DB2 for the common tasks but may require more programming effort to design and maintain for non-primary duties. businesses and governments had to write their own transaction processing environments. The message processing region retrieves the transaction from the MIS message queue and processes it. MIS TM can handle this whole process thousands (or even tens of thousands) of times per second.application) and then stores the transaction on a message queue (in memory or in a dataset). In general. MIS then invokes its scheduler on the queued transaction to start the business application program in a message processing region. Then.

This allows each kind of database to focus best on its relative strength.requirements. However. 14 . change frequently or require a variety of viewpoint "angles" outside of the primary or original function. A relational "data warehouse" may be used to supplement an MIS database. nightly copies of the MIS data may be copied to relational systems such that a variety of reports and processing tasks may be performed on the data.

Corel VENTURA. Corel WordPerfect) allows users at IBM to create. Word processing software. photographs. Desktop publishing software is used on a microcomputer with a mouse. reports.7.g.1 ELECTRONIC PUBLISHING Electronic publishing systems include word processing and desktop publishing. and print documents such as letters. and manuscripts.g. memos. images.. Microsoft Publisher) enables users at IBM to integrate text. store. These may be newsletters. THE OFFICE AUTOMATION SYSTEM AT IBM 7. and graphics to produce high-quality printable output. brochures. (e. 15 . Adobe Pagemaker. revise.. scanner. Microsoft Word. and printer to create professional-looking publications. or books of the Company. magazines. Desktop publishing software (e. edit.

It digitizes incoming voice messages and stores them on disk. or sound.2 EMAIL E-mail is software that allows users. This receiving fax recreates the image on paper. or forward them to other people. 7. Recipients may save messages for future use. prioritize. and is inexpensive.4 FAX A facsimile or facsimile transmission machine (FAX) scans a document containing both text and graphics and sends it as electronic signals over ordinary telephone lines to a receiving fax machine. delete them. and request automatic confirmation of the delivery of a message. forward copies of messages to other users. or file messages. send.3 VOICE MAIL Voice mail is a sophisticated telephone answering machine. offers fast delivery. Lotus Notes. via their computer keyboards. When the recipient is ready to listen.7. E-mail is very popular because it is easy to use. to create. The fax can then be 16 . the message is converted from its digitized version back to audio. and receive messages and files to or from anywhere in the world. Most e-mail systems let the user do other sophisticated tasks such as filter. 7. send "carbon copies". A fax can also scan and send a document to a fax modem (circuit board) inside a remote computer. and Microsoft Outlook. Examples of e-mail software used at IBM are Eudora. create and save drafts of messages.

This type of videoconferencing simulates face-to-face meetings of individuals. CUSeeMe) as well as a small camera installed on top of the monitor.g.5 DESKTOP VIDEOCONFERENCING Desktop videoconferencing is one of the fastest growing forms of videoconferencing. Desktop videoconferencing requires a network and a desktop computer with special application software (e.displayed on the computer screen and stored or printed out by the computer's printer. 17 . Images of a computer user from the desktop computer are captured and sent across the network to the other computers and users that are participating in the conference. it can be viewed and the employees at IBM India can also participate instead of making them travel all the way. 7.. If a conference is held in IBM office at New York.

6 ELECTRONIC COLLABERATION Electronic collaboration is made possible through electronic meeting and collaborative work systems and teleconferencing. including those that allow collaborative work or meetings. 7. 18 . and cooperate on projects regardless of geographic distance.7. whether that destination is in the local office on the LAN.7 TELECOMMUTING Telecommuters perform some or all of their work at home instead of traveling to an office each day. Electronic meeting and collaborative work systems allow teams of coworkers to use networks of microcomputers to share information. through a connecting network. small video screens are built into the table tops. At some conference halls. usually with the aid of office automation systems. and images across the network to any destination. mail. An OAS makes office work more efficient and increases productivity. a modem. Special software called groupware is needed to allow two or more people to edit or otherwise work on the same files simultaneously. A microcomputer. 7. voice. or in another country or continent. update schedules and plans. software that allows the sending and receiving of work. and an ordinary telephone line are the tools that make this possible.8LOCAL AREA NETWORKING The LAN allows users to transmit data. High-tech meeting rooms help companies make more effective presentations.

THE TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEM AT IBM 8. Three functions performed by BTP: CHEQUE CLEARANCE. Usually generate a group of bills at a scheduled time as this enables the user to effectively manage time and results in less disruption to main database. Batch approach is used for generating pay cheques etc.IBM develops a bill or invoice of services or products supplied to a customer. from where has the credit or debit been done. It is processed when convenient or economical to do so. This involves checking the that the cheque writer has enough money in their account to cover it usually taking 3 working days in which cheques are cleared in a group during a quiet period of the day. When one is issued to a person they deposit it into a bank account yet the money cannot be withdrawn until the cheque is cleared. Anytime the company has credited or debited from or to anywhere.A cheque is a written order asking the bank to pay an amount of money to a particular person.1 BATCH TRANSACTION PROCESSING BTP collects the transaction data as a group and processes it later after time delay as batches of identical data. Collected and stored offline using magnetic tape or paper.8. 19 . BILL GENERATION.Credits and debits have become a method of paying for goods and services. Large volumes have lower processing costs. automatically a report will be generated as to how. CREDIT AND DEBIT TRANSACTIONS. when.

machinery. This tells the capacity of the company to produce and send goods and services it offers. resources. raw materials.2 GOODS TRANSACTION PROCESSING GOODS AND SERVICES PRODUCED BY IBM . Also. equipment. furniture. ASSETS – The company‘s sold and bought material like land. REJECTIONS – Any rejected material or service brought back to the company is noted down by this system. Basically any up down of goods is registered for further improvements and record if required in case of loss of goods. it tells about the demand of the same.8. 20 . stationery etc is recorded in this system as it is required while calculating the costs per annum.Any kinds of goods or services have been sent out of the company are noted down by this system.

1 FINDING COMPARITIVE SALES FIGURES The higher management at IBM can find comparative sales in years preceding. It helps them in lowering the undesirable costs and enhancing their goods. The company officials find this easier. 9. This DSS helps them plot graphs related to the growth of the company profit and loss wise. It also helps them decide which areas are more profit generating for them. These areas are clearly identified by the higher management in this way. There are some places where the company generates high. This helps in predicting the future of the company. THE DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM AT IBM 9. 9. It also helps them to be easily answerable to the CEO and Chairman of the company. efficient and quicker than any other method.3 COST CUTTING The company finds out the costs involved in its various goods using this system.9. medium and very less customers for itself. Further. This helps them in determining which product line generated how much profit. this helps them in knowing what to produce more or less in comparison to the previous batches.2 FINDING SALES IN NUMBER IBM finds its products availability vs demand through another decision maker system. They make sure their services and products are available at hand 21 .

for any customer. 22 . This system focuses upon the grievances of the employees as well as the customers. If any change of policy is required or any changes in the legalities of the company.4 CHANGES IN POLICIES AND LEGAL ISSUES This is another thing which IBM keeps confined to the higher management. These decisions have to be made and applied by the higher management as middle or lower management might compromise on quality or other parameters. which may spoil the brand image and trust the company has won over the years of success. 9. They also bring in the concerned department while discussions are done and decisions are made. information reaches the higher management who look into the matters.

process. process and compliance software. manage ―unstructured‖ content requirements through an integrated information associated with employees  Reduce the inefficiency. faster. they state that it keeps the entire employee data ‗Hire to Retire‘ IBM‘s Enterprise Content Management software operation enables it to make better decisions. optimizing business processes and helping satisfy complex  Compliance infrastructure  More Than 13. IBM ECM delivers a broad set of mission-critical solutions that help solve today‘s most difficult business challenges:  Managing unstructured content. THE EMPLOYEE SUPPORT SYSTEM AT IBM The employee support system at IBM is called ECM – Enterprise Content Management. As the market leader in content.10. cost and documents off-site  Utilize electronic forms to improve accuracy capturing information and enable employee‖ transactions  Automate core HR processes to facilitate reduce administrative costs 23 and consistency in employee self-service  Access employee documents from create a ―complete view of .000 global companies. organizations and governments rely on IBM ECM to improve performance and remain competitive through innovation Inside the company it aims at:  Efficiently capture.

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