Compounds of Life

Four groups of ORGANIC compounds in living things: Organic Monomers are Elements Types Compound C, H, O Monosaccharides Carbohydrates Monosaccharides in a 1:2:1 ratio (glucose, fructose, Other info

Energy; Plants store starch; galactose) Animals store glycogen Disaccharides –double –liver & muscles; sugars (sucrose, Cellulose structural maltose, support of plants lactose)Polysaccharide s – complex carbs (starch, glycogen, cellulose)

Lipids
glycerol & fatty acids

C, H, and a little O

fats, oils, waxes (fruit/ insect coating), phospholipids (cell membranes), steroids (cholesterol)

May be used for insulation, energy, carrying messages, building cells, ……. See Saturated, unsaturated, polyunsaturated below table

Proteins

amino acids – have an C, H, amino group & a O, N carboxyl (acid) group

enzymes, cell membrane pumps, hormones (chemical messengers), cell movement; antibodies

amino acids link by peptide bonds (dipeptide, polypeptide) 20 types of a.a.

Nucleic Acids

nucleotides (nitrogen C, H, O, N, P base, 5-carbon sugar, & phosphate group)

Deoxyribo-nucleic acid; heredity ribonucleic acid

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Additional Info about organic macromolecules of life: Carbohydrates
• 2 monosaccharides may form a _______ disaccharide __________ by a _____ dehydration ______ reaction _____ (loss of ___ water ______) polysaccharides can be broken down into monosaccharides by Hyrolysis ( water splitting)

Lipids
Lipids may be: saturated: Solid at room temp. Atherosclerosis from build-up in Blood Vessels Carbon skeleton with maximum # of Hydrogen atoms Structural formula ex:

unsaturated:

Do not solidify at room temperature. may be made saturated by Hydrogenation less than max. # of hydrogen atoms due to double bonds Structural formula ex:

Polyunsaturated Fats:

carbon skeleton contains several double bonds

Proteins

Shape determines function: • enzymes usually globular • structural proteins (hair, tendons) usually fibrous Polypeptide chains may unravel/lose shape through denaturization May result from: excessive heat changes in pH changes in salt concentration

Nucleic Acids

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