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INTRODUCTION

The topic I present talks about the lack of grammar in the conversational English that
some high schools pretend to teach, but until these days, they have not achieved this matter.
According to the surveys I have applied to the students I have realized that adolescents do
not have a real comprehension of this language. This aspect awoke in me the interest to
develop this work in which I have written the most relevant points which exemplify some
possible problems that students have to face up at the time of learning English, therefore I
have also written the possible methodologies that could help in this task and others that could
be useless.

The purpose of this document is to help teachers transmit this language as best as
possible. Another reason is, to exhort professors to use several methodologies instead of one,
so that the student can capture the information by different ways. The constant observation
has helped me to become conscious of the necessary investigations and to discover the
motives they have had in the acquisition of this language.

The difficulties brazen out when developing it were few, I only confronted the lack of
information sources which almost did not support the use of grammar for being considered as
obsolete to transmit and less understandable for teenagers, changing this subject into
something merely communicative. When I applied my surveys, I could noticed the
deficiencies they presented at the moment of structuring sentences, therefore they were not
developing the writing skills and the little comprehension of the dialogues they had to perform
was a common characteristic. Students have argued that the preceptor did not explain
grammar aspects, for that reason, their comprehension towards these dialogues was
minimums.

One of the main purposes is that students when they complete school are to have a
great domain of this subject for personal use or for professional purpose. It is important that
they learn the basic stuff since they are in high school, because when they incorporate to
superior institutes they may continue its improving.

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In the fist chapter we have an introduction of how was the teaching of English in past years
and the changes that has suffered through the time. Motivation as an enhancing aspect fot
the students at the time of attending classes, a short reference of how error can be something
productive instead of being something negative if we use it pedagogically.

In the second chapter I have exposed the advantages and disadvantages that present
both methods (old and modern) in which I have pretended to find the rights and the failures to
balance them. Another intention is to exhort teachers to speak in English when they give the
lessons because it is something incongruent if we are trying to teach this language but using
the mother tongue.

In the third chapter I have exposed a variety of methodologies that some teachers use to
teach this target language in which I have detected which of these and according to my own
experiences the most qualified to this language. When I have to apply my proposals students
never objected letting me to explore the intellectual of the students.

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STUDY THEME

Education, is what the majority receives,


many transmit and few have.
Karl Kraus

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The study of a second language, has been something very complex for the human
being since we must take aside all our grammar knowledge and syntax, to be able to acquire
the new grammar and everything that this represents, and to adapt it without combining both.
It has been verified in a scientific way that learning a new one is very similar to the process
that a ten months baby has when increasing his. Several theories exist about the education of
a verbal communication that helps us to understand the possible steps that are made at the
moment in which we developed our language.

One of them is known as the Behaviorism theory. This talks about an imitative learning,
which is improved by the time and practice. We also have the Activist. This theory explains
that when the child reaches twenty-five months, not only imitates everything it listens, but
assimilates it being solidified in its linguistic system. Finally, I will mention Noam Chomsky’s
theory; this author defends the idea that the infants are biologically programmed for the
language, comparing this with the walking process.

Chomsky mentions the imaginary existence of a "black little box " located somewhere
in the brain and which contains the universal principles of the human languages. It is truth that
we do not know how we learn or acquired the language; but what is certain is that at the time
of teaching it, we forget the functional grammar, focusing education in a conversational form
or by functions. Throughout my career and thanks to the observations and practices made in
several secondary schools, I have realized the little interest that has been put to the grammar
items, giving more emphasis to the conversations. Young people develop and present them
without understanding at all, or paying little attention to the construction of statements, verbal
times, etc. Therefore it is important that the apprentices practice the conversations that are
designed for each subject marked by the Plans and Programs, but also that they understand
the way they are structured and not just memorize them, because at the time of presenting
them in an oral way, it is observed that any change in the dialogue causes a stuck, and limits
their favorable advance.

However, a clear control since the beginning generates a suitable handling of


unexpected circumstances, which the teenagers will face in a real life situation in where
acquired knowledge will be shown. Since they have to confront every day situations in where
the use of the English is very necessary, like in television programs, Internet, and Anglo-

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Saxon music, it is crucial to see the learning of this foreign language as a tool and not as a
useless subject. According to Chomsky: "When developing its language the human being has two
stages the competence, what one knows of the linguistic system referring to the grammar rules and
vocabulary, that as linguistic elements can be combined to form acceptable statements, and on the
other hand, is the individual performance that is linked to certain limitations such as: disturbances,
errors, false starts, pauses, hesitations, omissions and repetitions. Although we focus in the second
phase, we need the first one for a good development of the language.” 1

All the above mentioned arose in me the desire of basing this receptional work in the
theme, "Lack of Grammar in the Conversational English in the Secondary Students", because
now a days, at this level, the grammar teaching is omitted, causing that the adolescents tend
to show certain apathy towards this subject, which is reflected in its scarce participation and
their constant errors when doing the exercises applied by the teacher in class, as well as in
the exercises book.

This Document has its basis in the Thematic Line Nr. Two, "Analysis of Educational
Experience ", immersed in Nucleus Nr. Two, "The Didactic Competition of the Teacher in Formation
for the English Teaching ", corresponded with the Subject, "Intentions of the Specialty and their
Relation with the Secondary Education", taking into account the following Specific Spects:
"Capacity to reflect on the importance of the learning of the English contents based on the
necessities that the adolescents face; Knowledge of the characteristics (purposes,
approaches, subjects and contents of the English) of the Curriculum of secondary education,
valuation and critics carried out; The ability to make programs adjustments or adaptations
based on the adolescents needs; Abilities to establish bonds between the English and the
other subjects which are integrated in the Curriculum, and the personal development of the
linguistics and communicative abilities and their repercussion in the educational activities ". 2

To insert my document in this Thematic Line, allowed me to accomplish this work,


because it helped me to relate the experiences that were generated when I was with the
secondary school groups, as the functions of a second language. In addition, I combined the
knowledge, initiative and pedagogical imagination that I developed during the practice of my
1
Noam Chomsky, Syntactic Structures, Mouton, La Haya 1957
2
Orientaciones Académicas para la Elaboración del Documento Recepcional, México 2003, pages 22,23 and Guía de Trabajo y Material de
Apoyo para el Estudio 7º y 8º Semestres, México 2003, pages 34, 35, SEP
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initial formation. At the same time, I learnt how to design, analyze and apply congruent
educational activities according to the purposes of the secondary school and with the foreign
language that favored me in the application of didactic proposals. I also applied the
systematic analysis of the function that I carried out as a normalist student at the time of
applying the educational strategies during the accomplishment of the conducted activities.
This allowed me to register in the daily log the evidences produced in the classroom, such as
the observations, development and advance evidences and, the students’ works, which were
very useful to achieve this recepcional document.

Throughout this career I identified and took control of capacities that were determinant
for my growth, such as: the dominion of the foreign language, the understanding of the
processes implied in the learning of a second tongue for the adolescents and the factors that
favor or obstruct it, the knowledge of its structure, the acquaintance of Literature and literary
sorts, the didactic competition to select, to design and to apply to strategies and resources of
education that contribute to the development of the communication abilities, and finally, but
not less important, the capacity to organize and to develop the learning process. As a future
teacher it is obligatory to have a total dominion of the subject to be able to design didactic
proposals with education activities that will help the students in their learning, in order to
develop and to sustain this subject, I consider that this is the propitious moment to formulate
questions that will led this investigation. We have already spoken about the grammar and the
linguistics functions but,
• How was English taught in the earlier years, and how is it handled at the present
time?
• What advantages and disadvantages these methods present?
• What are the consequences of the lack of grammar when applying the
communicative approach in the adolescents?

These questions will open a breach to deeply and clearly analyze about what is
happening with the education of the English, that, being a universal language, the students
continue showing stationing and apathy towards this useful language with all the technology
and marketing research designed mainly for this language. During the process of this
document, several goals were settled down, one of them was to fulfill satisfactorily with the
1999Curriculum which marks us certain activities, such as the recepcional work and docent
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practice corresponding to the seventh and eighth semesters, another one is to complete the
profile, because as future teachers we must reflect about the abilities that we must have.
Some of them are: the understanding of the written material, the habit of the reading, to
express ideas with clarity simplicity and correction in written and oral form, to analyze and to
solve problems generating own answers from our knowledge and experiences. Besides, it is
necessary to know the purposes and contents, and the education approach of the subject, to
have dominion of the specialty, to handle without doubt and fluently the topics included. At this
moment I am doing my Social Service and Professional Practices in the General Secondary
School Nr. 3 "Club de Leones", Tampico, in the morning shift, having assigned the second
grade groups E and F and, the third grade groups, “A” “B” and “C “.

Thanking in advance for the unconditional support and the kind treatment that this
school of great quality showed when allowing me to deepen in a teacher’s work, since due to
it, I am developing more and more my intellectual skills, which are allowing me a great
refinement at the time of realizing my didactic proposals. This secondary is located in 403
Hangars street, corner with Escuadron 201 in the Airport colony. It has an excellent site, since
two of the most important and journeyed avenues such as, the Hidalgo Avenue and the
Adolph Lopez Mateos Boulevard are near the school, favoring the students’ arrival in a
comfortable, accessible and fast way. There is a single public transportation route called
Tampico -UAT- Echeverria, which circulates in front of it.

Surrounding the institution, there are several establishments, such as: stores, small
restaurants, candy &treat shops, an ice cream parlor, two cyber coffees, a pharmacy, a barber
shop, a small church named "Our Lady of the Refuge", the kinder garden "Bertha del
Avellano" and, round the corner, we can find the Elementary School "Granja Club de Leones”.
The school is located in an urban context with excellent illumination, and in addition nearly all
the streets are paved. The social class prevailing in this institution is high, for the simple
reason that a great amount of parents pick up their children in a vehicle and on the other
hand, I have been able to observe that their school items are of a great quality. The security
within the secondary is reflected in the little or almost null arrival of "gangs" who could cause
problems between the young people, this reference I do it for the morning shift, since I do not
have evidences of what happens in the afternoon.
This school was founded more than 36 years ago having as the first principal,

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Professor Rafael Zúñiga Acuña. Its quality, prestige and academic development have been
kept to the present time, being therefore one of the secondaries of greater reputation in this
city. When entering, the slogan "To embrace education, proud of the human being quality,
elevates the spirit", can be appreciated. Turning to the left we find Social Work and Prefecture
departments, and around this, Contralory department, the Administrative Offices, the
Assistant director’s offices for both shifts, the principal’s secretary office and back of this, the
direction of the school are located. Turning to the right, we find the English laboratory,
equipped with a great number of computers, a television set, a VCR, a DVD; all exclusively
for this classroom, beside this one we find a dining room, only for teachers, called "La Casita"
and the computer center is located nearby. In front of it, we observe the main square of the
school where all the civic acts corresponding to the scholastic cycle are carried out.

Crossing the patio the library, the videotech and another computer center are located,
and around them, there are some classrooms, the water deposits and the young ladies’
restrooms. Straight ahead, we locate the Physics, Chemistry and Biology laboratories. In the
back part,they have dress industry, cooking, shorthand and typing, electronics, automotive
mechanics, metallic structures, carpentry, and beauty workshops. This school also has 19
classrooms, a cooperative, a doctor's office, an intendance warehouse, men’s toilets and a
teachers’ room equipped with a small living room and working tables where they can rest in
their free time, there is also a sports field in where the activities corresponding to Physical
education are made. It is necessary to emphasize that the buildings in general are in perfect
conditions as well as, their cleanliness, ventilation and electrical system. One of the factors
that influence in the good conduction of the school is the arduous participation that the family
has, since they constantly attend to the teachers’ call and to observe the performance of their
children as well as their behavior.

The academic expansion of the teachers is pertinent since the majority fulfill the
essential requirements that are needed to give a class, such as: class plans, varied didactic
material, and the most important, their continuous preparation, leaving to a side the
improvisation and the indolence in the classroom. This is reflected in the disposition the
students have at the moment of attending the classes. The scholar context is pleasant, and
this foments the development of a huge range of abilities that will serve the adolescents for a
positive performance outside and inside the school.

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In order to develop this document, I chose the third grade group "B" due to the little
interest they presented in the subject and to the difficulties shown in the course of the
classes. This made me reflect on the failures and accomplishments that we have when
teaching English. The tutor’s disposition with their students and with me created an excellent
atmosphere inside the classroom, which generated a conduction of an effective education.
Applying my didactic proposals in this group is going to let me develop and sustain this
recepcional document. The primary target is to help young people to better understand this
subject so that they can apply its functionality in a real life situation.

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CHA PT ER I

THE TEACHING OF EARLIER ENGLISH EDUCATION


VERSUS
THE MODERN ONE

The ordinary educator speaks. The good educator explains.


The superior educator demonstrates. The great educator inspires.

William Arthur Ward

In the English education, at the time of our parents and several generations back, it
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was common that structures were overloaded with grammar aspects and the people who
studied it understood clearly and concisely texts described in books of this language, but what
happened with this form of education? It was that the auditory understanding and the oral
expression were neglected. The communicative function was suppressed and, as a
consequence, it produced that when listening the language, students did not comprehend by
the lack of a suitable development of this ability. Although, the writing level of the students,
was superior compared to the one we have at this time in our apprentices. This type of
education totality focused in the grammar structures such as verbs, verbal times, preposition,
grammar aids, rules, etc. With this, a production was generated in the writing and the reading,
marking emphasis in the correct pronunciation of the words contained in books. In those
times the communication was not considered as something excellent, centering its purposes
in the already expressed.

Now, methods have changed and they continue modernizing day bye day for a better
education, confirming this in the Plans and Programs 1999 book that says: "the new proposal
has as a first objective, the development of the communicative competition... In the
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communicative approach the grammar correction is not so important ". Of course it is
relevant! The human being must write correctly, as well as the communication must be
coherent, for that reason it is precise that we establish a strong bound between both.

The problematic of a contemporary conversational teaching.


At present, the English education is suffering a modernization process, in order to make it
easy for the secondary students. It works with communicative functions. Nevertheless, the
reality is other, although these ideas are apparently novel, instead of advancing we are still
delayed. Essential segments of this language that are the facilitators to understand this
language have been suppressed. On the other hand, the little grammar that is introduced in
secondary seems to be underestimated by teachers, excluding it from the classes. The
educators are just worried about covering a program and to make their pupils shine in a
dialogue or performance that they just mechanically repeat, without comprehending their
meaning. As Ausubel says: “ ...tends to think that this is in great measure a repetitive verbal
learning process. As in the practice of patterns as well as in the memorized dialogues there is no
knowledge about the meaning of part of the phrase or in most of the cases, the total phrase. For this

1
Libro de Planes y Programas 1999, México, page 307
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reason the student does not understand neither the syntactic functions of the component words, nor
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the denotative and syntactic contributions of the individual words to the phrase meaning”.

What grammar is.


It is a system of rules to speak and to write a language correctly. This is why we must adopt it
in the teaching of English in the secondary schools, so that when the young people leave this
level, have a correct dominion of the studied language.

In order to reach this, they need to develop the writing skills, as well as the oral
communication. It is precise that both abilities be linked at any moment, since the
communication goes from everything we read, to what we listen, write and speak. Teachers
must introduce somewhere in the class, a little grammar so that the adolescents can find a
sense in words in order to produce coherent ideas. Moreover, it is vital that we as future
teachers analyze how English teaching is being carried out. According to my observations, I
have realized that most of the apprentices are still learning by the "imitative" method. They
listen to the conversation, repeat it and, after several repetitions, understand what it says and
adapt just what is clarified in their mind, dispatching all the rest, keeping just a small part that
is significant for them, this process will depend on their development level.

What a significant learning is.


It is the one that the student attains when he is capable to bond the abstract concept
with its cognitive structure. This is the kind of learning we must stimulate in our secondary
students. It is very common that pupils mechanically memorize the knowledge that we are
trying to teach, this produce the failure in its acquisition because it lacks in meaning.

“There are three basic kinds of significant learning which are: the representations,
concepts, and propositions learning”. 3

The first one is related to symbols or isolated words. As an example, when the student
is learning the meaning of the word “tree”, perhaps the sound is potentially significant,
although this has not meaning to him until the image of the object is shown, when he can

2
David p. Ausubel psicología educativa, un punto de vista cognoscitivo, México, page 79
3
Joseph D. Novak OP. Cit., page 53
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relate it with the sound, as the word is pronounced, he will automatically produce a compose
image of the different trees that he has been in contact with before.

In the second one the individual words are combine in order to form sentences, which
represent concepts. In this way, the teenager will be capable to associate it with other
representations such as big, green, etc to create something with more sense as: “it is a big
tree” producing in his mind a complex profile of it. The learning of concepts is bounded with
the learning of representations, due to the fact that the objects as well as the concepts are
represented with words or names, this is a higher representations apprenticeship, which
follows the second one (learning of concepts). It is necessary to know how to symbolize the
new learnt concept with a similar in meaning word, but to know what the concept itself means,
which consists in acquiring its criteria attributes (the part that help us to distinguish or to
identify it) implying a very different kind of significant learning.

The third one is composed of capturing the meaning of new ideas expressed in a
proposition form. In this one, the student connects the new concept with the previous
knowledge in order to formulate a new meaning. Now he will be capable to structure
something like this: The oak is a big, leafy tree perfect to give shade.

“In the real verbal propositions learning, one learns the meaning of a new composed idea in
the sense that: a) the proposition is generated combining or connecting one and others, many
independent words, each one of them representing a unitary referent, and b) the individual words are
bounded in such a way (generally sentences) that the resulting idea is more than the sum of the
individual component words meaning”. 4

From theory to practice.


To acquire this language correctly, it is indispensable to introduce first theory and then
practice, but with the education modernization, pupils are just exercising it in a conversational
way, although at the time of evaluating, teachers continue applying "the famous" grammar
written examinations in where they must apply the learned. I believe this is something
incongruent, and nevertheless, they continue doing it. The evaluations are attached to the
traditionalism and, it is a reality that the students do not accredit the subject in a satisfactory
way. This is comprehensible, since they are being trained to react in "a real situation" in which
4
Op. Cit., Pág. 53
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its evaluation would need to be less rigorous. I believe the application of these examinations
must agree with the communicative purposes, if this is a conversational one, the tests must
be according to real situations. It is necessary to take into account that the natives, at the time
of being evaluated, pass through complicated situations in which factors such as the
environment, social context, human errors, nervousness etc. intervene in this action.

Therefore, my question is, why do we still subject the students to this kind of
explorations? This is an important point and its negligence has occasioned one of the failures
in the teaching process of this language. It is therefore, that teachers should evaluate in an
oral and not in a written form being careful that the students do not notice that they are being
examined, since factors as nervousness, insecurity, or panic might affect their performance.
However, a disguised application will allow a satisfactory development. Chastain (1976), tells
us that the students must be familiarized with the rules of the new language before we
request them to apply it to generate language, as well as the teacher and text books must
introduce them in situations that promote the creative use of the language, besides that the
learning should always begin from the well-know to the unknown items.

This is why the grammar must be explained and be discussed with the entire class,
focusing clearly in the cognitivism. The learning must be always significant; the students need
to understand in all circumstances what they are requested to do. “Consequently the solution
does not focus on the elimination of the practice of linguistic patterns, but to make them become
meaningful. The learning of another language obviously requires to over learn the characteristic and
basics structural patterns, of it; but only if the apprentice appreciate the exact relation between the
verbal manipulations practiced and the changes in meaning he introduces with such manipulations the
practice will not be rather transferable”. 5

A class that balances grammar and functionality.


In the second practicing period, I applied a didactic proposal regarding the
"Superlatives", beginning with a warm-up, which I had previously applied in other sessions,
but students requested me to put it again, so I did not have any objection. This small exercise
is originally a song used to teach the parts of the body "head & shoulders, knees & toes" but it
can also be used to develop their auditory skills, since when requesting our students to touch
some part of the body, attempting to confuse them, we can touch some other parts that do not
5
Op. Cit., Pág. 79
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agreed with the first petition,

Once we have concluded the exercise, I arranged myself to begin the exposition, but
before introducing them to the main subject, I began to remember the use of the "comparative
form ". I solicited the support of them to help me "to remember" how the use of it was, I
exploited drawings which served me to make comparisons of equality as well as superiority.
The subject immediately flue to the young people’s mind, although they did not know how to
structure the sentences because most of them presented problems with the use of the
endings "the, er - est" since some adjectives show regular as much as irregular changes; it
was there when I took advantage to introduced little rules to clarify and to reaffirm what was
already seen. Once we finished with the feedback, I began to explain the superlative rules
and the correct form to structure it, I did it fast, because I did not want them to focus all the
attention in these, otherwise they will be bored and away from the objective. Then I requested
their attention to watch a video that I had already prepared suggesting them to approach, so
that they could listen and appreciated it better.

This film showed in an attractive way a dialogue structured in superlative, but in a


subliminal form, since it was done in a modern context where some parts of Tampico city
were described, mainly the most concurred by adolescents. This generated their attention,
and besides being amused by the tape, they also reached to the conclusion that the class
was about the superlative form. At the end of the video I asked if they had understood,
because it was obvious that everything was narrated in this language. The answer was
satisfactory; most of them deducted the content perfectly. I projected the tape once again
because it hid another objective, the consolidation of the present perfect. While it was
developed I bombed them with a series of questions using this time. Once again, I was
pleasantly surprised with the answers of the pupils. They had already a great dominion of this
verb time, so it turned into something significant for them. In order to continue with the
exercises regarding the main subject, I exploited this resource to the maximum, which served
to reinforce the learned. With this procedure, the students apprehended the subject easily and
in addition, they did it significantly. I can conclude that the proposal applied was a success
and I demonstrated that both aspects, the functionality and the grammar, could be combined
satisfactorily, as well as, the introduction of a novel material that is practically not used by the
conventional teachers and is highly motivating for the young students.

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Motivation as a facilitator of the learning.
A very important aspect is that the students are really motivated at the time of attending
the classes, but how can we motivate them? Without as much explanation, I dare to say that
the students firstly need to be listened to and not to be ignored, as future teachers we
acquires enough data of what can be used in the classes of English, for example: their likes
about music, the places that they frequent more, sites to eat concurred by them, whit the
purpose to create an endless scenes as well as conversations, statements, exercises,
dramatizations etc.

They are the ones that suggest us the use of novel and attractive situations, that we
did not listen, and we want to impose what it becomes to us easier, although, the truth, is that
we do not accede to their requests because it means more work for us, like being
investigating, to get deepen in their preferences and therefore, to plan the classes based on
these. Perhaps it is exhausting to do it although, they can facilitate part of the work if we just
requested them, motivating them to that they investigate voluntarily, something that they
would like that we present. We would be in charge to accommodate the information compiled
according of the Purpose and Contents of the specialty. At the moment of analyzing my
participation in these practices; I have perceived that the motivation is a fundamental factor in
the development of this subject.

Motivation and learning


“These are two aspects of great importance in education that, in order for the learning to take
place, it is necessary to count with the participation of the subject who learns; and being motivation the
leading aspect of the factors that promote the action, the close relation between both processes turns
very clear. In order to direct motivation towards the learning tasks, it is necessary that the subject has
covered its basic needs, that the tasks can be performed, and that, as its previous experiences as the
assignment proposed, be positive for him; that is to say, that they interest or report some benefit to
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him ".
The lack of positive motivation in previous years excessively affected this subject
teaching, many young people deserted school or even worse, they presented apathy, and as
a result of this, they did not value the importance that this tool which now a days is "the
universal businesses language". Another factor that produced a remarkable impediment was
2
Enciclopedia Ciencias de la Educación, Psicología y Pedagogía, Colombia 1998, Page 424
16
that the teachers did not know how to apply knowledge in an understandable way for the
students, or they did not explain them, either the functionality the tasks had, nor the exercises
that had to be done. Jesus Alonso Tapia says: "If the task is boring or if the utility is not
perceived, they automatically look for a way to avoid it " 3

The students demotivate if they do not know how to learn.


The good teacher must know how to lead the education activities so that the students
realize why and where they will use what the professor teaches. When the students recognize
and relate it to their daily life, they will be able to do a great amount of things such as to
create sentences and conversations with the language, adapted to their personal expression
necessities without being limited. As future teachers, it is fundamental to motivate the
adolescents and to generate a pleasant aulic context, allowing them to develop and create
their own language, feeling confident to commit mistakes, without the fear of being mocked by
their partners, in which they can feel secure to ask anything, no matter the simple it seems,
since simplicity often originates the complexity, not allowing this to happen, removing it since
the very beginning. A characteristic example is the use of the so feared verb "to be". If the
student does not understand the essential, he will not be able to perceive the modifications in
the simple past or to use correctly the composed times, like the present continuous.

Mistakes also favor learning.


In the observations I have had inside the English laboratory, I have been witness of the
infinity of mistakes that apprentices have committed, nevertheless, it is not so serious,
according to the constructivism, its meaning radically changes. This one no longer seems as
a deficiency of the student but, as a new process of learning. The tutor teacher that I had
when I was doing my social service and docent practice uses a very little common way to
correct when a student is mistaken, in pronunciation or writing aspects. When this happens,
she says: "his friend when pronouncing badly this word set a standard to us to reaffirm the
correct pronunciation of the word". Another way to do it when a young person commits an
error, for example when he says” I am eating a rock", although the structure is correct, she
makes them to think in relation to the logic of the statement, because, is impossible that
someone can eat a rock. Besides the correction of grammar, she also foments the
development of a congruent thought. Moreover, the corrections are not absolutely on her part

3
Jesús Alfonso Tapia, Motivación y Aprendizaje en la Enseñanza de Secundaria, Page 114
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exhorting the whole class to pay attention of their friends when they read or they participate in
some conversation urging them to gain extra points when they detect some failure on those
that are participating. This way, not just foments the self-correction, and the rectification
between equal, but also it stimulates them to participate without fear, and to show respect for
all of them, obtaining a propitious atmosphere so that the construction of a significant
knowledge is generated. When we are interested in their failures we realized the deficiencies
and the advances that appear.

This process allows us to be aware on how they adapt the knowledge as well as the
development of their language. We have seen in too many occasions that some teachers
punish the "error", and how many times we have listened to the old phrase " I have explained
it already and I am not going to repeat it again". This attitude showed by the instructor is
unforgivable, because some of the students are not guilty of it. Now a days "failure" acquires
the status of indicator and analyzer of the intellectual processes.

Provoking the error in the students is also educative.


I applied this concept with 3 "B" group in a class in which I had to read the best known
“magic papers”, we underlined cognates, nouns, preposition, verbs, frequency adverbs,
articles, personal pronoun etc. This is something that my tutor does and in my personal
opinion, it is a very useful exercise because it helps young people to identify the grammar
structures in simple parts, they marked them with different colors to make it identifiable, and
simple. Once they recognized the basics parts of the lesson, I arranged myself to read aloud
and asked them to pay attention. I began reading the first paragraph, pronouncing the word
transportation incorrectly -exactly, as it is written- "transportation". When the pupils listened to
me, they interrupted, arguing that this word was mispronounced and, I responded with certain
doubt – are you sure, what word?

This caused that more than six tried to correct me. These kinds of actions allow us to
reinforce what is already learned. In another class, I changed the strategy. This time, I used
the written form. We were reviewing present continuous time statements, one of the most
difficult verbal time for them. I wrote some statements using it. After several examples, what
provoked the failure in the students was when I wrote in the whiteboard "I are jumping in the
bed", translated in Spanish as "yo estamos saltando en la cama", I did this exercise with the

18
intention to reinforce the verb to be because in their writings they commit many orthographical
mistakes accommodating the structures wrongly. After I had placed all the examples, I
requested them to repeat after me. The purpose of this was to make them realize by
themselves the incorrect statement. The result was optimal. When arriving at the incorrect
statement, the students pronounced it as it was, but they did not take much time to recognize
the incoherence and rectified almost immediately that the verb to be was not conjugated
correctly, arguing that the auxiliary verb for the first person was "am". Once again, the
objective was fulfilled.

19
CHAPTER II

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES THAT THESE METHODS


PRESENT

The truth is irrefutable and unattainable

Alex

One of the questions that seize our attention is, what method is more favorable at the
time of teaching English? Doing a conscious analysis, we can appreciate that both methods
present certain advantages, as well as disadvantages; however, the importance of this is not
to know in a superfluous way how they are, but to find a balance that allow us to use them for
20
a better lead in the classroom.

On the one hand, we have the grammar education that most of the teachers do not
comprise and, on the other hand, the conversational one that does not fulfill the Plans and
Programs of secondary education requirements, since one of its purposes is that students
have dominion of the communicative skills when concluding their studies.

Is it necessary to now all the grammar in order to teach it?


One of the most common preoccupations for English teachers is that their knowledge
of grammar is limited; I think there is not a person who feels secure about its knowledge to
this respect. Jim Scrivener’s “Learning and Teaching” book says: "You do not need to know all
1
the English grammar in order to teach it". According to my experiences, this thought is quite
opportune; the constant practice of which one already knows is the key to classroom success.
At the time of working with the students and planning the lessons in a suitable way, is when
we can discover the unknown parts of the English and thus, it is how grammar becomes
useful.

Something that is basic when teaching this or any other language is to know what we
are trying to explain, and also to adapt it, to later apply it in the easiest way for us. Doing this,
the teenager become more productive in the classroom. An example of the previous is: I’m
running in the Park right now”, the first we must know is the meaning of the sentence “estoy
corriendo en el parque ahora”. If we isolate the parts of the statement, we realize that it is not
more than mere vocabulary words put together, in order to give them sense. "Grammar is the
art to put the correct words in the correct places". 2
Subject “I", or person which we talk about,
"AM" verb that means as much “soy o estoy” and that in this case its function is an auxiliary,
"RUN" to run + completion Ing. Ando yendo, both verbs are composing the present
continuous, "in" preposition of place, "the" article, equivalent as el, La, los in the mother
tongue "Park" noun and finally "right now" frequency adverb that indicates the time of its
execution. If the teacher knows what he is talking about, he can easily explain. Once we have
the understanding of this simple statement, we need to consider that the boys are strongly
attached to the mother tongue, Spanish in this case. If we do not understand our language
first, it would be very difficult to try to understand the grammar of another. I say this, because
1
Jim Scrivener, Learning and Teaching, a Guide for English Language Teachers, Thailand 1994, page 102
2
Charles E. Eckberg, Brighter Grammar, London 1975, page 5
21
most of the times, we have little dominion of our language, most of the time we do not know
what a noun, predicate, subject, direct and indirect complement, etc., are. As future English
teachers we must understand our language before using the other one.

What disadvantages still predominate in the education?


One of the disadvantages the old educational methods presented was the lack of
communication on the part of the students and teachers that limited the development of the
communicative skills. How many times have we heard the phrase "I understand English but at
the time to speak it turns difficult to me". This is because teachers focus more in the exact
dominion of the pronunciation, understanding of readings and of the control of grammar rules.
If we contrast it with the new one, neither a good pronunciation, nor a reading understanding
has been obtained by the part of the pupils.

This new method pursues, as main objective, that the scholars when finishing their
studies can communicate, besides having a good control of the writing and the reading skills,
as well as the creation of texts, in which they can apply all the previous in a real life situation.
At this moment I stop and think how can students develop the four skills if they are centered
in those of the speech? And how can they dominate those of the speech, without the other
two? This would simple be translated as the popular saying "you want to run without knowing
how to walk" as well as when kids, we must develop the motor abilities, the secondary
students also need to develop the four skills, at the same time and in a balanced way.

The modern method presents certain anomalies, one of them is the monotonous
repetition of conversations, which are not understood by them, besides the generation of new
dialogues does not occur. These should be only lineaments or guides so that they could
develop their own texts. The reality is that this is not being carried out; teachers do not
request them to produce this type of writings. If we skip this part of work, we are just creating
an uncertain atmosphere of doubts that the student does not get to clear. Thanks to
dramatizations requested, is how they acquire a certain understanding, and I say "certain"
because any change or modification in the dialogue causes in the student a mind disorder.
This was what happened in a student-student conversation about a travel agency:
Student 1: Hi Sir, good morning!
Student 2: Have a sit, please.

22
Student 1: I would like to travel to (New York City)
Student 1: changes the name of the city because it does not remember the one
described in the dialogue.
Student 2: ...(?)

When 1 changed the name of the city in the dialogue, 2 loses the sequence of the
conversation and remains quiet. The teacher told student 2 "do not be confused, he just
changed the city", but because of memorization, the student could not pronounce a word and
he could not continue.

A problem in the conversational English that the secondary school teachers intend to
teach is that they do not give their classes in this language, arguing that the students do not
understand. My question is: How can students develop their auditory understanding, and how
can teachers expect them to become familiar with the English Language if they teach it in
Spanish? I totally disagree with this " reactionary " thought, and I support this, according to
my experiences in the laboratory in where I totally presented a class in this language. I must
recognize that at the beginning, it was difficult, because of the vices that are already part of
the students; I realized that learners are accustomed to listen to the instructions in Spanish
and rarely in English.

A class totally taught in English.


When I arrived at the class, I greeted the group, and told them that the topic we would
see was totally new and, therefore, I requested their attention because the class would be in
the English language and that all of us have had contact with "warnings and advices". As an
introduction, I asked them in which places was not allowed to run, most of them did not
understand, until I began to run around the classroom and later I made an indication with the
finger as a refusal. They quickly began to name some places -which I automatically proposed
that they pronounced in English- all of them remained quiet, thus I help them saying that a
school was a place but, I needed more, another young person responded "park" and
immediately boasted because she was the only person that answered, later I requested her to
reanalyze a little because we can actually run in the park, I wanted the opposite. A phrase
caused that the students began to pronounce several places "It is participation" I could
noticed that the teacher has accustomed them to accumulate participations in the list when

23
any positive intervention, this is something favorable because it is an extrinsic motivation but I
am trying to eradicate it, step by step, so that the motivation becomes intrinsic in them.

Once I introduced them to the subject, I showed a drawing of a bottle and I requested
that if somebody knew how the pronunciation was. I began to form a description of the
drawing about the color, its form, its components etc. When I finished the description of the
object, I asked them the same thing, in which places you could not drink? They were already
activated and the answer was greater and faster than the previous activity and I solicited them
to write the examples in the whiteboard, to have an order and consequently, not to repeat the
places, the intention was to activate to the maximum its vocabulary and not to limit their
possible answers besides, more drawings were waiting when they finished the written
exercises I began to show another drawing and I requested exactly just like the previous
exercise, this drawing represented keeping silence, this was very fast, the speed increased,
there was no moment for taking a rest, they were enchanted with this working form, I
continued showing drawings and taking participation without problem.

To consolidate the topic, I had prepared exercises for a voluntary participation. Five
people offered to participate without knowing what it was about. The thematic was very simple
I distributed five envelopes; each one containing an action to be performed in the classroom.
The first participant had to eat inside the laboratory. I ordered them to pay attention to the
representation and, immediately asked them: - what is he doing? To which they responded,
"to eat"; - it is correct but, how do we say when the action is happening right now! , Eating? A
young boy with a question tone responded. - Exactly, now tell me, can he eat inside the
laboratory? - No, he cannot eat here! This exercise attracted their attention; they felt more
productive and participative. I continued with the dynamic. The second participant would
represent a person throwing papers on the floor. I made the same questions; the students
continued responding in an assertive way the examples presented by their partners. This time
I approached towards the participant and argued that he could not do such atrocity, so I
suggested him as an advice, to deposited the papers in the waste basket, this was a little
improvised by my part, it served to change the activity a little.

The other participants played their role and the young people without more problem
responded to my questions that were very similar to the previous exercises. After playing,

24
learning and finishing my proposal, I had to apply the magic papers supplied bye the school in
where they handled certain examples of warnings and advices obligatorily. We made several
choral repetitions to practice the pronunciation and after that, I had to dramatize the examples
so that the student could deduct their meaning.

What resources were used?


I proposed myself that the teenagers became more familiarized with this language and
without feeling intimidated, I was involving them little by little, before radically giving the
classes in the language in process of learning, I began by the use of instructions and
commands that cannot be forgotten in the English classroom, which I enlist:

Greetings Good morning, Good afternoon, Good evening, How are you?
Farewells Good bye, Bye, See you later, Good night
Classroom May I _____? It’s your turn, How do you spell____? How do you say_____?
Basic
What’s the meaning of_______?
Language
Instructions Pass to the____, Open your book to page___, Take out your notebooks,
Answer these exercises.
Exclamation Good luck! Wow! What a surprise! That sounds great! Really?

These are just the basic items for an educator who teaches this language, if we do not
apply them daily; the result would be that any method would not succeed. Something very
simple, but very productive is the "total physical response method" which complemented with
the mimic technique, become useful when exposing our classes in this language. We have in
our hands a very powerful and practical tool, in addition, very attractive and amusing for the
secondary students.

Advantages of its application.


Getting to know how to properly apply them, we can distinguish that both are beneficial
for the students, on the one hand we find the traditionalist method in which the developing of
almost perfect writings by the students was presented, on the other hand, we find the modern
method in which, at present they are not carried out by the English trainers, even though
these skills cause a better performance in them, besides, their understanding towards the
readings, allow them to produce the conversations with a better pronunciation.

Another aspect equally important is the developing of the writing abilities, which allow
25
the pupils to present the examinations with a greater facility. Unfortunately although the
approach is communicative their abilities are being evaluated in the same way. About the
conversational teaching method, the advantage is that they keep constantly practicing this
language and they get even more familiarized with it, obtaining a semi-improvement. This can
just be obtained when the four abilities are being developed.

We have referenced several techniques and some educational methods used for this
language. Therefore, I will define them for its better understanding:

The grammar translation Method.


This method is not new, it has had different names but teachers who teach languages
have used it during many years. In a time, this method was called classically used for the first
time in the education of the several languages as Greek or Latin. At the beginning of this
century, it was implement in order to help the students to read and to appreciate the Literature
of foreign languages. They also hoped that, through the studied language, they became
familiar with their own language grammar, helping to speak and to write better in their mother
tongue.

Finally, they thought that the learning of the foreign language would help the students
to grow intellectually, it was recognized that probably never they would use the study object
language, but that the mental exercise of the learning would be beneficial anyway. The
predominant characteristics are: to introduce the maternal language when teaching, to learn
the vocabulary as isolated words, the extensive explanations on grammar details, to use texts
as grammar exercises instead of paying attention to them, debilitating translation practice
from a language to another, to ignore the pronunciation.

Direct method.
This, as the previous one, is not new. Language teachers have applied their principles
during many years. Recently it was revived, as a method in where its goal of instruction was
how to learn to use the language to communicate. Ever since the grammar translation method
was not so effective preparing students to use the foreign language in a communicative way,
this became popular. The German educator Wihelm Viëtor at the beginning of 80´s.
introduced this method focusing its instruction in the oral language. Giving the classes in the

26
studied language, learning daily vocabulary, to talk by means of questions and answers
between teachers and students, to learn the grammar in an inductive way, to use real objects
to learn the new vocabulary, to make emphasis in the use of the speech and the auditory
ability, to insist on a correct pronunciation and grammar are some of their characteristics.

Audio lingual method.


It was developed in the United States of North America during World War II. In that time
people were needed to quickly learn languages for military intentions. Whereas the goal of the
direct method was the communication, there was a time in which new and exciting ideas
about the education of languages emanated of disciplines of linguistic description and
psychological conductivity. Some of their principles are very similar to those of the direct
method, but many are different being based on the language and learning concepts of these
two disciplines.

This present certain characteristics which identify it, such as: the proportion of
information in form of dialogues, the learning is but imitative than of memorization, the
grammar structures are acquired by means of the repetition, the explanation of grammar rules
is almost null, the vocabulary to acquire is limited to the context that is being carried out, the
use of cassettes and visual means is essential, the pronunciation is very important, most of
the teachers teach in the language in learning process and, are concentrated more in the
content than in the grammar.

Cognitive Method.

This emerges as a response of the audio lingual Method. There is an emphasize in


the communication or communicative competence. Its acquisition seems as a formation rule,
grammar explanation in a deductive form is preferred. Pronunciation is less emphasized
because it is worthless to think that most of the students will try to speak it as natives.
teamwork and the individual instruction is marked. There is a renewed interest in the
vocabulary that teenagers are learning, specially, the expansion of passive vocabulary with
reading purposes. The teacher is more a guide than an absolute authority figure. The
importance to audio comprehension is given. Mistakes are considered as inevitable failures
resulting from the learning process, the systematic study, the interpretation and the work with
them. The writing skills (reading and writing) and the oral skills (listening and speaking) are
27
considered in the same importance. Repetitions are not accepted and silence becomes useful
and sometimes necessary. The use of the mother tongue and translations is valid.
Contextualization of all the learning point through the use of audiovisual resources, short
stories, and other appropriated ways for the activity that is being taught, is given.

The total physical response method.


It is an example of a new general approach to foreign languages instruction, which
allows the student a clear and direct comprehension. Its goal is to develop the auditory
understanding. The idea to focus the auditory development during the early instruction of the
foreign language comes from the observation of how children acquire their mother tongue. A
baby spends several months listening people around it before pronouncing a word. The kid
has the time of giving sense to the sounds it listens. Nobody tells him when to speak it does it
when ready. In order that this method works, the classes have to be totally in English, bring
into play images, using as less as possible, maternal language. It was developed so that the
students lost the fear to communicate in this new language, enjoying the experience.

We have seen part of the diversity of methods applied in the instruction of this language and
the necessity to use all of them to realize how useful they can be at the moment of teaching,
and which one students feel more comfortable, activated, dynamic, more participative. When
we apply them we are not just searching the best, as future instructors, we develop our
capacities to a high level, amplifying our own methods to teach this as best as possible.

28
CHAPTER III

IN SEARCH OF THE EFFECTIVE METHOD


WHEN TEACHING ENGLISH

"Not everything that is faced can be changed,


but nothing can be changed until it is faced."

James A. Baldwin

We must be conscious of the importance that the English language has at this moment
and, that our work is to find the way to instruct it, so that the students can use it in real
situations. At this moment, foreign influences such as, companies, and communication
methods in where English plays a fundamental role surrounding us. After having seen the
used methods in the instruction of this language, we arrive to the questions, which is the best
method? Which fulfills or satisfies the students’ necessities?

29
The teacher’s role with the students.
The teacher must be a guide, supervisor, leader, a friend and also an excellent
observer who can distinguish, the advance of the adolescents, to detect who learns faster and
who does not, and with which method they respond better. When using diverse activities we
can help learning to become really significant for them, leaving monotony to a side. Many
teachers continue planning the classes with the same activities in the same way. Being
continuously applying new educative proposals is how we can attract our students towards
this subject that is seen by them as something difficult to learn.

What students expect from an English class.


With respect to all the observations made and to the opportunities that I had to
participate within a classroom, I have been able to identify and to value the performance of
the adolescents in this subject. Something that came to my mind was the fact that the
apprentices are more worried to have their notes in order, to participate and to memorize the
dialogues proposed by the teachers or to increase their scores, than to the learning of this
useful language. When applying interviews, I could notice that the learners hope that the
subject will not be instructed the same way every day, but something different for them, they
argued that the teacher, when directing the class in a monotonous way causes that they
totally lose the interest towards this language.

A radical change is what they wish for their own benefit. It is necessary to remember
that all the activities or the subjects that are distributed cannot be destined for all the groups,
and I could verify it at the time of exposing the same subject in two groups using the same
exercises. The result was not the same, is necessary to make conscience about the diversity
of groups that work in different way. In the secondary, which I did in my service social and
practice, I helped in three groups of third "A" "B" and "C". The first group emphasized by its
written participation and they were not distinguished being a very communicative group,
presenting its dialogues with certain shyness. On the other hand the second group they were
a little "difficult” because they did not like to work, but they had to be interested in the activity
otherwise thy just fulfill the aspects of evaluation. At last the third group was very participative
and generally they found their own interest to the propose activities no matter how showy or
flashing they could be.

30
A class plan as an indispensable instrument to give a lesson
We have been witnesses of the lack of a correct planning in classes given by high
school teachers that feel comfortable due to the possession of a total dominion of the topics
that they have acquired through the time and the experiences lived in a classroom, putting a
little effort in to create or innovate the next sessions. This is a problematic and most of the
time produces the apathy of the adolescents decreasing the interest towards this subject. I
have the opportunity to read a variety of class plans designed by teachers of this subject, and
I could notice that is only the development of the texts book (exercises). In these are
contained a semi controlled description about the things they have designated for each
season, as an example I present a class plan used in different groups of third grade:

Topic and objectives The use of interrogative words (will, won’t)


Skills to develop Reading, listening, speaking and writing
Warm up and feed back Emphasize that the auxiliary (will) always goes
before the verb
Introduction and presentation When will you go to La Fe disco? Next Saturday will
your sister go with you? No she won’t she will go to
Victoria City
Practice Students will answer exercises 1 and 2 of page 42
(interrogative words, will and won’t)
Application By planning future actions students will be capable to
use the acquire knowledge or information.
Group organization In pairs
Didactic resources Check mate book, dictionary, markers, bond paper
Evaluation By oral participation, the exercise will be checked
whether they are correct or they don’t
When observing this unqualified class plan, we can see that there is nothing
extraordinary or motivating also for the students who have manifested that they are tired of
solving exercises from the books. Analyzing this design deeply, we found in the section of
skills to develop it is pretended to cover the four abilities. This is something that I disagreed,
and the reason of my posture because of the scarce exercises that involved teenagers in a
way they can assimilated on their own rhythm and not with systematic work which just
develop writing skills, because the oral participation is almost null their innervations seemed
to be limited in to give answer at the exercises solved in class. When we start with a warm up,
this must absolute attract pupils to the lesson about to be given, besides it must involved
physically also. This kind of activity helps us as teachers to “break the ice” with teenagers,
31
moreover we prepare them to the next activity, which would be active and functional. In this
step, we do not set useless explanations because in the practice we can perfectly take out
those doubts and to clear details just as is shown in this plan “emphasize that the auxiliary
Will always goes before the verb”.

The introduction and presentation that is expressed in here it would be settled as a


warm up, flashing questions with the auxiliary will are shown which activate students in a high
level to start working with the teacher. In this step is contained all the activities and the
materials in which we want to teach the lesson so as the resources that will be employed.
Once, we get to practice we must not limit our students to solve written exercises to later
respond them in oral form. There are three types of practice that might help in the
development of sort specific skills. One of them is the “controlled practice”. In this one the
teacher asks students to repeat after he does, as an example. The second one is the semi-
controlled practice in where the preceptor guides students in the way they can express
themselves better.

In the free practice adolescents, once, they have comprehended the topic they will be
participating with out fear and using less the help of him. The evaluation that is marked in this
designed, in mentions that it will be realized taking into account whether the answers of the
pupils are correct or not. In this process of evaluation the teacher would not be based on
correct answers because in this one a lot of factors impede students from a good
development such as nervousness, shyness, panic might provoke an inefficient development
an this does not prove that they have not understood the lesson.
Proposing a Class Plan.
We have to take in to consideration two aspects before we develop this class plan: the
material and the resources. Most of the time we have believed that the creation of this
instruments is necessary to later recollect everything that will help and support during the
class. According with my own experiences I have observed, that is less complicated to give
an exposition when we posses all the supporting tools in our hands, planning becomes easy
when you have all the items instead of working imaginarily. There are important aspects
inside this instrument, which are: warm up, presentation, practice, application, and
consolidation in where. Each ones cover certain information of work that must be specified at
the moment of its elaboration. In the warm up teachers must activate the apprentices with

32
dynamic, physical and mental exercises so this way they capture their attention and interest
that will be ascending during the class, and this one will depend on the teacher side. It is quite
common to use the mimic and the total physical response. I emphasize that everything is not
just work; we can combine it with joy and fun. In the presentation all the material is shown so
the vocabulary ad the resources that will be used. Teaches does a little feed back of the
vocabulary already seen in past lectures. The realia helps a lot of the students to familiarize
and to connect them to the topic.

Everything we can smell, touch, see, fell is quickly and easy to assimilate by the brain.
When beginning the practice, the instructors guide the students in a sort rhythm they can
follow because maybe is a new lesson is given when they have practiced enough; we exhort
them to participate, taking in to consideration that they are not going to do it right the first
time, we pay attention also to the difficulties they might have, we stop the class to explain
again to clarify any doubt. To prove the student’s comprehension we ask for his participation,
but in this occasion we let him alone, we have named this step “free practice”.

The next procedure is application in where pupils have to demonstrate if the objective
has been reached or not. Exercises must be focused to real life situations. The intention of
these trainings is to help students to imagine that they are interacting as foreign people. In
this way students feel more comfortable at the moment of acting in some events of this kind.
The fact that we need to consolidate it represent to us to do a detailed observation and check
if a problem or a misunderstood aspect are presented. Now we can balance how many
percent of them understood and if they did not, exemplify it one more time taking out possible
doubts. At the end of this plan we do an evaluation, we take in to account everything that can
be produce by teenagers no matter if it is correct or not. We do not base this process on
limited exercises but in the efforts, interest, and disposition to learn this language.

Classes developed on the basis of the different methodologies.


In a present perfect class, the teacher distributed leaves to them using this time, first
thing requested was that they underline all the cognates so that they could give him sense to
the reading later I suggested them to identify all the verbs that were appearing.

Once they finished they began to underline the unknown words for them, so later they

33
investigated them in the dictionary when finishing it I wrote examples of preposition and
frequency adverbs, and proposed that they marked them with different color, not to be
confused in the reading, after finishing the exercise, the teacher requested them to transcribe
it in their notebooks all the colored aspects by sections. In a part of their notebooks they had
to write all the verbs and to accommodate them by the different times (present, past and
future) in another one they wrote all the preposition and all the frequency adverbs at last they
would give answer to questions regarding the subject. In this class the use of the English
language was not necessary, students did not read aloud and practice pronunciation.

All were grammar exercises and as a result of this the students will have a meaning of
the reading since all the grammar items and with the cognates automatically students had
understood what the writing was exposing. When finishing the class I approached to some
students with the intention to know if they had understood the lesson, which they responded
that they were not very sure about the meaning. This type of activities obstruct the learning so
when they try to translate, loses the sense, stopped in a word losing the whole story, however
an interpretation would be better.

Based of the direct method. This time I had the opportunity to expose a class and I did
not doubt in give it in the English language, I also wanted to know the response students
towards this method. The subject was a description of Tampico using the present perfect.
When I entered greeted the boys, and immediately I spoke in the English language what it
cause a disagreement on the part of them since was something new, and were not
accustomed, I requested them to take magical papers to begin the corresponding reading, I
did not obtain satisfactory answer reason why I had to repeat the instruction once again but in
this occasion it uses my hands and I showed the leaves to them in which we would work,
immediately somebody I attract the idea and quickly the voice was run of which it had said.

I began to read in a clear way and with very good pronunciation paragraph by
paragraph, at the end I asked if they had understood and they responded - It is about
Tampico teacher. It was obvious that they had idea since title was the name of this city, so I
returned to read but this time I used the mimic to give life to this important reading. When
seeing my corporal movements, my gestures, could take in a little more than the first read.
Later I requested to them that they read and that as advice I suggested them they respected

34
the orthographical signs so that one took control of order and all followed a same rate. I must
confess that the first time I leave much to be desired, although does not leave them continued
with the lesson was a total disorder chooses to divide the group in two parts, of a side they
would be in favor the young ladies and by another one the men.

The dynamic was very simple I organized a mini competition as far as the reading.
What they had to read with the as best as possible respecting the orthographic signs, the
result was better that the previous one although they are not accustomed to read in group he
was something very amused for them to others of which the reading in group form practices.
Use of this time formulates questions doing, to continue practicing and although the answers
they were favorable were not responding suitably a simple one "if" and "" they were not the
possible answers on the part of them.

Try to lead them towards the most correct answers and I exposed an example: Teacher
- have you to ever visit the metropolitan Park? Students - yes! Teacher - yes, but completes
the statement! Students - Masterful yes I have. - it is correct but, what else! Students - yes I
have visited the metropolitan Park. This small exercise allows them to interact and to make
use of this language and also them aid answer of, of correct way the questions that in their
majority are used in the examinations written. Like using the method of total physical
response. This method allows the student to relax before beginning the class, the type of
dynamic that I apply, are on the basis of actions that with the help of corporal movements we
can lead the students to that they execute them without having to request them in the
language mother, and on the other hand they help to develop them of mere gradual a its
auditory ability.

The use of material on real scale or allows the adolescent to associate the meaning of
the expressions of the language ingles without the use of the small translation and that is very
similar to when we learned to develop our maternal language when. Something of extreme
importance is that al to apply this type of activities, must be continuous and constant it stops
that the students do not desmotivante and half remains in a del way, with which could be the
propitious factor for an adapted development of this auditory ability. And n the classes
exposed during my practices educational, I proposed several activities using this fabulous
method, stops that the young people of secondary could create their own concepts adapting

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them in their dialogues so that these were more showy and more credible.

Eclectic method. The use of a this propitious diversity of activities, because it is not based on
a single method but on a set of several for the facilitations of this language, the best method
is not concentrated in only one, and when using it allows to us like teachers to offer attractive
and educative classes for the students, and so will be causing the constant activity of the
students. When gliding the classes we can be identifying in which moments of the class we
can be applying the different methods and that type of activities can be adapting to obtain an
ideal class for the pupils. The teacher who leads this methodology must consider the different
styles from learning of the students, his interests and necessities as well as to activate them
of different attractive and dynamic ways, to be positive, to correct with discretion appreciating
the effort of the students.

The professor must foment the language inside and outside the classroom. To make
investigations diverse to optimize our educational performance, has knows to recognize that
we are not an inexhaustible source of knowledge if not anybody that always this ready to
learn new things day after day. The eclectic method is the use of diverse currents
methodologies and was without a doubt some the one that I predominate; although the used
methods were not many were combined such as the direct, audio linguistic method and the
total physical response.

The form of pick up of the language on the part of the students depends on you mature
it and the attention that this needs, since these are seen in the necessity to dominate it by the
great demand at the present time, due to this to establish communication with the others, to
which it opens the doors of his future as well.

The constant practice increases the learning.


Once I have exposed the classes based on different methodologies most used by
teachers, I concluded that one of the main factors in this process of acquisition is “practice”,
nevertheless, how is practice seen in secondary school? We have had the wrong concept that
this is the distinctive mark of the repetitive learning, which improves the apprenticeship in two
basic ways: a) after the instruction, before students forget it, and b) after a while when factors
such as forget ness, confusion of similar ideas, has been presented letting them to clarify

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difficult aspects. The revising done by professors let them to know which are the failures or
rights to reinforce points that obstacle the learning or acquisition of new knowledge, due to an
inefficient exposition.

The constant revisions of the exercises must be programmed with certain space inside the
class Why is necessary to do this? Most of the time we dedicate a big part of the time in
teaching some kind of knowledge that might be relevant but we miss the errors and the
clarifying of the initial failures of comprehension. What is pretended with this order?

 The link of new ideas wit the ones we have acquired before.
 The participation of the pupil in subsequent classes of the same kind.
 The consolidation of previous knowledge and the ones we already acquired.
 To facilitate the learning of new topics.
 The development of the four skills.
 Increase the retention of knowledge in large time.
 Help the students to detect failures and to design didactic proposals to facilitate
the student’s learning. It is a necessity to accomplish these points and certainly
not to carry out a repetitive practice or better yet just to follow the step number
three of the class plan.

CONCLUSIONS

To close this document I notify that a radical change in the way of teaching this
language inside the laboratory has been made, now most of the classes are carried out in this
spoken language. The use of didactic material has change also. It is not focused to solve
book exercises; on the other way students use this tongue as something useful exercising it
with functionality.

Students have a better comprehension towards this subject thanks to the

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implementation of different methods at the moment of introducing it, capturing as well the
indications and expositions due to the different techniques. One important aspect is the use of
this subject outside the class by them; most of learners repeated funny dialogues around the
scholar cycle, which I corrected discreetly.

The approaching of the students towards me was notorious; due to the interest they
presented to this subject by my side I offered all the attention and this disposition so they
improve their skills. When different strategies were used not jus the way of introducing this
tongue was renew but the concept communicative function does not need syntactic aspects
changed into the concept of “they are intrinsically bounded”. Something that was benefit for
them was the use of grammar rules, which helped them to have a better idea about the order
of the words in a sentence.

In the search of the efficient method we found that there is not just one that give you all
the tools to work with teenagers but to link all of them to in order to teach as well as we can.
As future teachers we need to be conscious in not to give a class with out preparation
because we can damage our students we need to prepare our classes using a class plan to
organize our work, distributing this one with order and quality.

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