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Android

Android

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Published by George B Sangma

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Published by: George B Sangma on Sep 14, 2011
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Sections

  • 1.1. Android Operation System
  • 1.2. Important Android components
  • 1.3. Security and permissions
  • 1.4. AndroidManifest.xml
  • 1.5. R.java, Resources and Assets
  • 1.6. Activities and Layouts
  • 1.7. Activities and Lifecyle
  • 1.8. Context
  • 2.1. Android SDK
  • 2.2. Eclipse
  • 2.3. Configuration
  • 2.4. Android Source Code
  • 3. Create an Android Emulator Device
  • 4. Error handling
  • 5.1. Create Project
  • 5.2. Two faces of things
  • 5.3. Create attributes
  • 5.4. Add UI Elements
  • 5.5. Edit UI properties
  • 5.6. Code your application
  • 5.7. Start Project
  • 5.8. Using the home menu
  • 6.1. Menus
  • 6.2. Project
  • 6.3. Add a menu XML resource
  • 7.1. Overview
  • 7.2. Using preferences
  • 7.3. Run
  • 8. Dialogs via the AlertDialog
  • 9.1. Overview
  • 9.2. Example
  • 10.1. Overview
  • 10.2. Create contacts on your emulator
  • 10.3. Using the Contact Content Provider
  • 11. ScrollView
  • 12.1. DDMS - Dalvik Debug Monitor Server
  • 12.2. LogCat View
  • 12.3. File explorer
  • 13.1. Android Debugging Bridge - Shell
  • 13.2. Uninstall an application via adb
  • 13.3. Emulator Console via telnet
  • 14. Deploy your application on a real device
  • 15. Thank you

Table of Contents 1. Android Development 1.1. Android Operation System 1.2. Important Android components 1.3. Security and permissions 1.4. AndroidManifest.

xml 1.5. R.java, Resources and Assets 1.6. Activities and Layouts 1.7. Activities and Lifecyle 1.8. Context 2. Installation 2.1. Android SDK 2.2. Eclipse 2.3. Configuration 2.4. Android Source Code 3. Create an Android Emulator Device 4. Error handling 5. Your first Android project 5.1. Create Project 5.2. Two faces of things 5.3. Create attributes 5.4. Add UI Elements 5.5. Edit UI properties 5.6. Code your application 5.7. Start Project 5.8. Using the home menu 6. Menus 6.1. Menus 6.2. Project 6.3. Add a menu XML resource 7. Preferences and Intents 7.1. Overview 7.2. Using preferences 7.3. Run 8. Dialogs via the AlertDialog 9. TableLayout 9.1. Overview 9.2. Example 10. ContentProvider 10.1. Overview 10.2. Create contacts on your emulator 10.3. Using the Contact Content Provider 11. ScrollView 12. DDMS perspective and important views 12.1. DDMS - Dalvik Debug Monitor Server 12.2. LogCat View 12.3. File explorer 13. Shell 13.1. Android Debugging Bridge - Shell

13.2. Uninstall an application via adb 13.3. Emulator Console via telnet 14. Deploy your application on a real device 15. Thank you 16. Questions and Discussion 17. Links and Literature 17.1. Source Code 17.2. Android Resources 17.3. vogella Resources

1. Android Development
1.1. Android Operation System
Android is an operating system based on Linux with a Java programming interface. It provides tools, e.g. a compiler, debugger and a device emulator as well as its own Java Virtual machine (Dalvik Virtual Machine - DVM). Android is created by the Open Handset Alliance which is lead by Google. Android uses a special virtual machine, e.g. the Dalvik Virtual Machine. Dalvik uses special bytecode. Therefore you cannot run standard Java bytecode on Android. Android provides a tool "dx" which allows to convert Java Class files into "dex" (Dalvik Executable) files. Android applications are packed into an .apk (Android Package) file by the program "aapt" (Android Asset Packaging Tool) To simplify development Google provides the Android Development Tools (ADT) for Eclipse . The ADT performs automatically the conversion from class to dex files and creates the apk during deployment. Android supports 2-D and 3-D graphics using the OpenGL libraries and supports data storage in a SQLite database. Every Android applications runs in its own process and under its own userid which is generated automatically by the Android system during deployment. Therefore the application is isolated from other running applications and a misbehaving application cannot easily harm other Android applications.

1.2. Important Android components
An Android application consists out of the following parts:

Activity - Represents the presentation layer of an Android application, e.g. a screen which the user sees. An Android application can have several activities and it can be switched between them during runtime of the application. Views - The User interface of an Activities is build with widgets classes which inherent from "android.view.View". The layout of the views is managed by "android.view.ViewGroups". Services - perform background tasks without providing an UI. They can notify the user via the notification framework in Android.

Content Provider - provides data to applications, via a content provider your application can share data with other applications. Android contains a SQLite DB which can serve as data provider Intents are asynchronous messages which allow the application to request functionality from other services or activities. An application can call directly a service or activity (explicit intent) or ask the Android system for registered services and applications for an intent (implicit intents). For example the application could ask via an intent for a contact application. Application register themself to an intent via an IntentFilter. Intents are a powerful concept as they allow to create loosely coupled applications. Broadcast Receiver - receives system messages and implicit intents, can be used to react to changed conditions in the system. An application can register as a broadcast receiver for certain events and can be started if such an event occurs.

Other Android parts are Android Widgets or Live Folders and Live Wallpapers . Live Folders display any source of data on the homescreen without launching the corresponding application.

1.3. Security and permissions
Android defines certain permissions for certain tasks. For example if the application want to access the Internet it must define in its configuration file that it would like to use the related permission. During the installation of an Android application the user get a screen in which he needs to confirm the required permissions of the application.

1.4. AndroidManifest.xml
An Android application is described the file "AndroidManifest.xml". This file must declare all activities, services, broadcast receivers and content provider of the application. It must also contain the required permissions for the application. For example if the application requires network access it must be specified here. "AndroidManifest.xml" can be thought as the deployment descriptor for an Android application.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android" package="de.vogella.android.temperature" android:versionCode="1" android:versionName="1.0"> <application android:icon="@drawable/icon" android:label="@string/app_name"> <activity android:name=".Convert" android:label="@string/app_name"> <intent-filter> <action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN" /> <category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER" /> </intent-filter> </activity> </application> <uses-sdk android:minSdkVersion="9" />

</manifest>

The "package" attribute defines the base package for the following Java elements. It also must be unique as the Android Marketplace only allows application for a specfic package once. Therefore a good habit is to use your reverse domain name as a package to avoid collisions with other developers. "android:versionName" and "android:versionCode" specify the version of your application. "versionName" is what the user sees and can be any string. "versionCode" must be an integer and the Android Market uses this to determine if you provided a newer version to trigger the update on devices which have your application installed. You typically start with "1" and increase this value by one if you roll-out a new version of your application. "activity" defines an activity in this example pointing to the class "de.vogella.android.temperature.Convert". For this class an intent filter is registered which defines that this activity is started once the application starts (action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN"). The category definition (category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER" ) defines that this application is added to the application directory on the Android device. The @ values refer to resource files which contain the actual values. This makes it easy to provide different resources, e.g. strings, colors, icons, for different devices and makes it easy to translate applications. The "uses-sdk" part of the "AndroidManifest.xml" defines the minimal SDK version your application is valid for. This will prevent your application being installed on devices with older SDK versions.

1.5. R.java, Resources and Assets
The directory "gen" in an Android project contains generated values. "R.java" is a generated class which contains references to resources of the "res" folder in the project. These resources are defined in the "res" directory and can be values, menus, layouts, icons or pictures or animations. For example a resource can be an image or an XML files which defines strings. If you create a new resources, the corresponding reference is automatically created in "R.java". The references are static int values, the Android system provides methods to access the corresponding resource. For example to access a String with the reference id "R.string.yourString" use the method getString(R.string.yourString)); Please do not try to modify "R.java" manually. While the directory"res" contains structured values which are known to the Android platform the directory "assets" can be used to store any kind of data. In Java you can access this data via the AssetsManager and the method getAssets().

1.6. Activities and Layouts
The user interface for Activities is defined via layouts. Layouts are at runtime instances of "android.view.ViewGroups". The layout defines the UI elements, their properties and their arragement. UI elements are based on the class "android.view.View". ViewGroup is a subclass of View A and a layout can contain UI components (Views) or other layouts

At any time the Android system may stop or destroy your application. This file specifies the view groups. You can avoid a restart of your application for certain configuration changes via the configChanges attribute on your activity definition in your AndroidManifest.ProgressTestActivity" android:label="@string/app_name" android:configChanges="orientation|keyboardHidden|keyboard"> </activity> 1. The most important methods are:    onSaveInstanceState() . A layout can be defined via Java code or via XML. Defining layouts via XML is usually the preferred way as this separates the programming logic from the layout definition. Activities and Lifecyle The operating system controls the life cycle of your application. You can also mix both approaches. Context . can be used to release ressource or save data onResume() . e. The following activity will not be restarted in case of orientation changes or position of the physical keyboard (hidden / visible). The activity is in this case restarted to enable the Android platform to load different resources for these configuration. By conversion this will create and assign a new id "yourvalue" to the corresponding UI element. If a UI element needs to be accessed via Java code you have to give the UI element an unique id via the "android:id" attribute. You typically uses Java code to generate the layout if you don't know the content until runtime. because of an incoming call. In the emulator you can simulate the change of the orientation via CNTR+F11. To assign a new id to an UI element use "@+id/yourvalue". Used to save data so that the activity can restore its states if re-started onPause() . XML based layouts are defined via a resource file in the folder "/res/layout".(ViewGroups).7. for example if your layout depends on content which you read from the internet.xml.always called if the Activity ends.8. can be used to initiaze fields The activity will also be restarted if a so called "configuration change" happens. In your Java code you can later access these UI elements via the method findViewById(R. The Android system defines a life cycle for an activities via pre-defined methods. 1. <activity android:name=". A configuration change for examples happens if the user changes the orientation of the device (vertical or horizontal).called if the Activity is re-started. It also allows to define different layouts for different devices. e. You should not nestle ViewGroups to deeply as this has a negativ impact on performance.g.g. views. their relationship and their attributes for a specific layout. layouts for vertical or horizontal mode.called if the activity is stopped.yourvalue).id.

2. Select the Google API 10 (Android 2. It is the interface to global information about the application environment. the Location Service . . Installation The following assume that you have already Eclipse installed.com/android/eclipse/ . Eclipse Use the Eclipse update manager to install all available plugins for the Android Development Tools (ADT) from the URL https://dl-ssl.3. We are using the Google version as this includes also the Google Maps which we might want to use later at a certain point. Avoid using spaces in the path name otherwise you may experience problems later. e. Android SDK Download the Android SDK from the Android homepage under Android SDK download . I placed it under "c:\android-sdk-windows". 2. As Activities and Services extend the class "Context" you can directly access the context via "this". Select Android and enter the installation path of the Android SDK.Context provides the connections to the Android system. 2. 2.google. 2.g. Context also provides the method which allows to receive Android services.1. Select Window -> Android SDK and AVD Manager from the menu. e. Configuration In Eclipse open the Preferences dialog via Windows -> Preferences. The download contains a zip file which you can extract to any place in your file system.g.The class android.content.4) version of the SDK. Select "Available packages" and open the "Third Party Add-ons".3. For details please see Eclipse Tutorial .

android. Create an Android Emulator Device The Android tools include an emulator. After the installation restart Eclipse. .android. Update site: "http://adtaddons.eclipse.ide. press "New" and enter the following.com/svn/trunk/source/com.update" and "http://adt-addons.binedit. Android Source Code The following step is optional. Each configuration is defined via an "Android Virtual Device" (AVD).com/svn/trunk/binedit/com.source. 2. During Android development it is very useful to have the Android source code available as Android uses a lot of defaults.ide.Press "Install selected" and confirm the license for all package.googlecode.googlecode.eclipse.update". Haris Peco maintains plugins which provides access to the Android Source code code. You can emulate one or several devices with different configurations. This emulator behaves like a real Android device in most cases and allow you to test your application without having a real device.4. 3. More details can be found on the project website . To define an AVD press the device manager button. Use the Eclipse update manager to install two of his plugins.

.

.We will select the box "Enabled" for Snapshots.This will create the device and display it under the "Virtual devices". After (a long time) your device should be started. To test if your setup is correct. At the end press the button "Create AVD". select your device and press "Start". This will make the second start of the virtual device much faster.

3. The project could not be built until build path errors are resolved. Your first Android project 5. If you having problems with your own code you can use the LogCat viewer as described in LogCat Viewer ..1. Unable to open class file R.java. is missing required source folder: 'gen' 2.4.. Create Project . To solve this error select from the menu Project -> Clean. Error handling Things are not always working as they should be. Several users report that get the following errors: 1. Project . 5.

vogella.android. Search for "vogella" for find this example. Select File -> New -> Other -> Android -> Android Project and create the Android project "de.temperature".Tip This app is also available on the Android Marketplace. Enter the following. .

.

The following description tries to use the rich UI but for validation lists also the XML. e.Press "Finish". via a rich editor and directly via XML. You can switch between both things by clicking on the tab on the lower part of the screen.xml". . in two ways. While "res" contains structured values which are known to the Android platform the directory "assets" can be used to store any kind of data.2. For example in the Package Explorer select "res/layout/main. strings and UI's. 5. This should create the following directory structure.g. In Java you can access this data via the AssetsManager and the method getAssets(). Two faces of things The Android SDK allows to define certain artifacts.

3.xml" and press "Add".g. These attributes can be used in your UI definition via XML or in your Java source code. Select "Color" and enter "myColor" as the name and "#3399CC" as the value.5. e. Create attributes Android allows you to create attributes for resources. . Select the file "res/values/string. for strings and / or colors.

<?xml version="1.Add also the following "String" attributes. String Attributes Name Value myClickHandler myClickHandler celsius fahrenheit calc to Celsius to Fahrenheit Calculate Switch to the XML representation and validate the values. Convert!</string> <string name="app_name">Temperature Converter</string> <color name="myColor">#3399CC</color> <string name="myClickHandler">myClickHandler</string> <string name="celsius">to Celsius</string> <string name="fahrenheit">to Fahrenheit</string> <string name="calc">Calculate</string> </resources> 5. String attributes allow to translate the application at a later point.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <resources> <string name="hello">Hello World. Add UI Elements .4. Table 1.

Hello!” in the layout. Drag this onto the layout to create a text input field. from the “Palette” view.Select "res/layout/main. drag a Button object onto the layout. You can switch between both representations via the tabs at the bottom of the editor. Then. All object types in the section "Text Fields” derive from the class "EditText". Now select the Palette section “Form Widgets” and drag a “RadioGroup” object onto the layout. Right-click on the text object “Hello World. For changing the postion and grouping elements you can use the outline view. Make sure that your code is the same as listed below. select Text Fields and locate “Plain Text”. Select Delete on the popup menu to remove the text object. This editor allows you to create the UI via drag and drop or via the XML source code.xml" and open the Android editor via a double-click. The following shows a screenshot of the Palette view from which you can drag and drop new UI elements into your layout. . they just specify via an additional attribute which text type can be used. From the Palette section Form Widgets. Make sure there are two radio buttons by deleting or adding radio buttons to the group. The result should look like the following and the corresponding XML is listed below. Please note that the "Palette" view changes frequently so your view might be a bit different. The number of radio buttons added to the radio button group depends on your version of Eclipse.

Switch to "main. Select the EditText field.com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent"> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/editText1" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:text="EditText"></EditText> <RadioGroup android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radioGroup1" android:layout_width="match_parent"> <RadioButton android:text="RadioButton" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio0" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:checked="true"></RadioButton> <RadioButton android:text="RadioButton" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio1" android:layout_height="wrap_content"></RadioButton> </RadioGroup> <Button android:text="Button" android:id="@+id/button1" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content"></Button> </LinearLayout> 5. select Properties-> Text and delete the content. right mouse click on it. This means no text will be initially shown in the text field. Edit UI properties If you select a UI element you can change its properties via the properties view. Most of the properties can also be changed via the right mouse menu.android.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. .xml" and verify that your XML looks like the following.5. <?xml version="1.

.Assign the "celsius" string attribute to your "text" property of the first radio button and "fahrenheit" to the second.

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com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:background="@color/myColor"> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/editText1" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:inputType="numberDecimal|numberSigned"></EditText> <RadioGroup android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radioGroup1" android:layout_width="match_parent"> <RadioButton android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio0" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/celsius" android:checked="true"></RadioButton> <RadioButton android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio1" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/fahrenheit"></RadioButton> </RadioGroup> <Button android:id="@+id/button1" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/calc" android:onClick="myClickHandler"></Button> </LinearLayout> .” from the popup menu.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. Select “Color” and then “myColor” in the list.From now on I assume you are able to use the properties menu on the UI elements. Switch to the "main.xml" tab and verify that the XML is correctly maintained. Set the "Input type" property to "numberSigned" and "numberDecimal" on your EditText.. Assign "calc" to the text property of your button and assign "myClickHandler" to the "onClick" property. <?xml version="1. Set the property "Checked" to true for the first RadioButton. Right-click on the view in Graphical Layout mode..android. then select “Properties”/”Background.

fahrenheitButton.length() == 0) { Toast. @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. celsiusButton.show().setChecked(true). android.setChecked(true).vogella.toString()). RadioButton fahrenheitButton = (RadioButton) findViewById(R.parseFloat(text.editText1).6.widget.getText(). setContentView(R. package de.Toast.onCreate(savedInstanceState). celsiusButton.id.setChecked(false). Toast.temperature. android. import import import import import import android. android.getText().android.view.widget. } float inputValue = Float. return.layout. android.EditText.isChecked()) { text.id. android.Bundle. "Please enter a valid number".valueOf(convertFahrenheitToCelsius(inputValue))).getId()) { case R.setChecked(false). fahrenheitButton. public class Convert extends Activity { private EditText text.radio1).valueOf(convertCelsiusToFahrenheit(inputValue))). } // This method is called at button click because we assigned the name to the // "On Click property" of the button public void myClickHandler(View view) { switch (view. if (celsiusButton.Activity.java" to the following.main).id. Code your application Change your code in "Convert.button1: RadioButton celsiusButton = (RadioButton) findViewById(R.5.app. .id. } else { text.os.makeText(this.RadioButton.setText(String . if (text. text = (EditText) findViewById(R.LENGTH_LONG).setText(String . Note that the "myClickHandler" will be called based on the "On Click" property of your button.radio0).widget.View.

} // Converts to fahrenheit private float convertCelsiusToFahrenheit(float celsius) { return ((celsius * 9) / 5) + 32. Run-As-> Android Application Be patient. Start Project To start the Android Application. right click on it.32) * 5 / 9). You should get the following result. } } 5.7. } } // Converts to celsius private float convertFahrenheitToCelsius(float fahrenheit) { return ((fahrenheit . . the emulator starts up very slow. select your project.} break.

Using the home menu If you press the Home button you can also select your application. 5. select your conversion and press the button. .8.Type in a number. The result should be displayed and the other option should get selected.

.

The option menu of your activity is filled in the method onCreateOptionsMenu() of your activity. Menus To use menus Android provides two ways. If you want to influence the menu later you have to use the method onPrepareOptionsMenu(). A context menu is activated if the user "long presses" the view. The method onCreateContextMenu() is called every time a context menu is activated as the . onCreateContextMenu() is only called once.1. First is the option menu which can be opened via the menu button. You get a MenuInflator via your activity with the method getMenuInflator().6. A context menu for a view is registered via the method registerForContextMenu(view). Menus 6. You can register here a menu via your code or use a XML menu resources which you inflate via a "MenuInflator". The second option to display a menu is to use the context menu for a UI widget (view).

3. .android. Project This chapter will demonstrate how to create and evaluate a option menu.2. right click on it and select New -> Other -> Android -> "Android XML File". The Android platform may also add options to your view. Select your project.com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent"> <Button android:id="@+id/Button01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Show Preferences"></Button> <Button android:id="@+id/Button02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Change Preferences"></Button> </LinearLayout> 6. Select the option "Menu". Change the UI in the file "/res/layout/main.xml" and press the button "Finish".xml" to the following: <?xml version="1. how to define preferences and how to navigate between activities via an intent .vogella.context menu is discarded after its usage. Add a menu XML resource Menus can be defined via XML files. enter as File "menu. "EditText" provides context options to select text. etc. e. 6.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. Create a project "de.g.preferences" with the activity "HelloPreferences".android.

We will have only one entry.Press Add and select "Item". Maintain the following value. . This defines the entries in your menu.

android. menu).view.view.android.Toast.onCreate(savedInstanceState). */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.menu.Change your class "HelloPreferences" to the following.menu.os. The OnCreateOptionsMenu method is used to create the menu.MenuItem. } . android.inflate(R.app. android.preferences. public class HelloPreferences extends Activity { /** Called when the activity is first created.vogella. inflater.Bundle. package de. return true.Menu. setContentView(R.MenuInflater. The behavior in "onOptionsItemSelected" is currently hard-coded to show a Toast and will soon call the preference settings.layout.widget. android. android.Activity.main). } @Override public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) { MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater().view. import import import import import import android. In case you want to disable or hide menu items you can use the method "onPrepareOptionsMenu" which is called every time the menu is called.

1. Your menu should be displayed.LENGTH_SHORT). "Just a test". Overview Preferences allow you to save data for your application. The two "Preference" buttons are not yet active.makeText(this. Preferences and Intents 7. } } Run your application and press "Menu" on the emulator.@Override public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) { Toast. Preferences are stored as key values. 7.show(). . Intents allow you to start Activities from other Activities. Toast. We will use them in the next chapter. return true. If you select the menu entry you should see a small info message.

vogella. Press Add.xml" this time of type "Preference".7.android.2. Create another Android XML File "preferences. add a category and add two preferences "EditTextPreferences" to this category : "User" and "Password".preferences" from the last chapter. . Preference values can also be stored as a XML resource. Using preferences We will continue using the example project "de.

xml".android.preference. import android.PreferenceActivity.vogella. public class Preferences extends PreferenceActivity { .To allow the user to enter the preference value you can define a Activity with extends PreferenceActivity. This activity can load a preference definition resources via the method addPreferencesFromResource().preferences.Bundle. Create the class "Preferences" which will load the "preference. package de.os. import android.

xml" and the tab "Application". Select "AndroidManifest.onCreate(savedInstanceState). Add the activity "Preferences".preferences). .xml. addPreferencesFromResource(R. */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super./** Called when the activity is first created.xml" file. } } To make this class available as an activity for Android you need to register it in your "AndroidManifest.

android. android.MenuInflater.Menu. android.Activity.Intent. package de.vogella. android.os.view. import import import import import import import import android.view.content.app.SharedPreferences. android.The first button will show the current values of the preferences via a Toast and the second button will revert the maintained user name to demonstrate how you could change the preferences via code. android. .preference.Editor.PreferenceManager.content.Bundle. android.content.preferences.SharedPreferences. android.

View.makeText( HelloPreferences.this. } }).show().getString("username".onCreate(savedInstanceState). // A toast is a view containing a quick little message for the // user. */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. button.getDefaultSharedPreferences(this).Toast. i--) { buffer. android. "You entered user: " + username + " and password: " + password.LENGTH_LONG). We give a little feedback Toast.Button.MenuItem. i >= 0.charAt(i)).".1. "n/a"). // We will just revert the current user name and save again StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer().Button02).LENGTH_LONG). android. Button buttonChangePreferences = (Button) findViewById(R.append(username.makeText(HelloPreferences.view.layout.putString("username". "n/a"). /** Called when the activity is first created. // Initialize preferences preferences = PreferenceManager.OnClickListener.view.id.this.view.length() .main).getString("password". } edit. android. } .getString("username". Toast.View. edit. String username = preferences. setContentView(R.import import import import import android.Button01). "n/a"). String password = preferences. Toast. android. "Reverted string sequence of user name.toString()).widget. buffer.id. Toast. for (int i = username. public class HelloPreferences extends Activity { SharedPreferences preferences. buttonChangePreferences.commit().show().edit().setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View v) { String username = preferences. Button button = (Button) findViewById(R.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View v) { Editor edit = preferences.widget.

@Override public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) { MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater(). } return true. } 7. Even though we currently have only one option in our menu we use a switch to be ready for several new menu entries.id. You should be able to enter your user settings then press the back hardware button to return to your main activity. return true. To see the current values of the preferences we define a button and use the class "PreferenceManager" to get the sharedPreferences.preferences: // Launch Preference activity Intent i = new Intent(HelloPreferences. } } We will update the method onOptionsItemSelected() to open the activity "Preferences" once you select the option menu. // Some feedback to the user Toast.menu. startActivity(i).}).LENGTH_LONG).this. } // This method is called once the menu is selected @Override public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) { switch (item. break.this.inflate(R. .getItemId()) { // We have only one menu option case R. Toast. menu).makeText(HelloPreferences.menu. The saved values should be displayed in a small message windows (Toast) if you press your first button. Press the "menu" hardware button and then select your menu item "Preferences". Preferences.class).show(). "Here you can enter your user credentials.3.". inflater. Run Run your application. If you press the second button the username should be reversed.

0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.xml". Maintain the following layout for "main. In this chapter we will use the class "AlertDialog".8.alertdialog" with the activity "ShowMyDialog". AlertDialog is used to open a dialog from our activity. e.g. Dialogs via the AlertDialog We have already used a "Toast" which is a small message window which does not take the focus.com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent"> .vogella. You should always open a dialog from the class onCreateDialog(int) as the Android system manages the dialog in this case for you. <?xml version="1.android. Create a new Android project "de.android. you can chain your method calls. This method is automatically called by Android if you call showDialog(int). This modal dialog gets the focus until the user closes it. An instance of this class can be created by the builder pattern.

main).Toast. builder.Builder(this).Toast. android.alertdialog. import import import import import import import import android."Activity will continue".layout.makeText(getApplicationContext(). android. setContentView(R.Builder. builder.AlertDialog. android. } . android.setMessage("This will end the activity").setCancelable(true).DialogInterface. android.content. } }). AlertDialog dialog = builder.onCreate(savedInstanceState).setPositiveButton("I agree". public class ShowMyDialog extends Activity { /** Called when the activity is first created.this. int which) { ShowMyDialog. builder. int which) { Toast.Dialog.app.os.OnClickListener() { public void onClick(DialogInterface dialog.show(). package de.app. } public void openMyDialog(View view) { showDialog(10). android.finish().show().LENGTH_LONG). dialog.view. } }). builder. new DialogInterface.Activity.Bundle. */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.OnClickListener() { public void onClick(DialogInterface dialog.View.app. android.create(). } @Override protected Dialog onCreateDialog(int id) { switch (id) { case 10: // Create out AlterDialog Builder builder = new AlertDialog.vogella.<Button android:id="@+id/Button01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Show Simple Dialog" android:onClick="openMyDialog"></Button> </LinearLayout> Change the code of your activity to the following. no".setNegativeButton("No. new DialogInterface.android.widget.AlertDialog.app.

This chapter will demonstrate the usage of "TableLayout". } } If you run your application and click your button you should see your dialog. TableLayout 9. Afterwards you put widgets into the individual rows. Overview In earlier chapter we have used the LinearLayout which allows you to stack widgets vertical or horizontal.onCreateDialog(id). If several columns should take the available space you .return super. More on dialogs can be found on Android Dialogs standard documentation.1. On the "TableLayout" you can define which column should take additional space via the "android:stretchColumns" attribute. 9. LinearLayout can be nested to achieve nice effects. You specify via the view group "TableRow" rows for your table. This layout allows you to organize a view into a table format.

layout. Per default each widgets creates a new column in the row.vogella.xml" to the following.android. Example Create the project "de.android.table" with the activity "DemoTableLayout". You can specific via "android:layout_column" the column a widget should go and via "android:layout_span" how many columns a widget should take.can specify them as a comma-separated list. Change "main. Similar you can use the attribute "android:shrinkColumn". This way you can for example add dividers between your columns. Via Java you can display / hide these columns via the method setColumnVisible().2. <?xml version="1. 9.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. which will try to word-wrap the content of the specified widgets and the attribute "android:collapseColums" to define initially hidden columns. You can also put non TableRows in a table.com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent"> <TableLayout android:layout_width="match_parent" android:id="@+id/tableLayout1" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:stretchColumns="1"> <TableRow android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/tableRow1"> <EditText android:text="Field1" android:id="@+id/editText1" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content"></EditText> <EditText android:text="Field2" android:id="@+id/editText2" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_column="2"></EditText> </TableRow> <View android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/view1" android:layout_height="4px" android:background="#FF0000"></View> <TableRow android:id="@+id/tableRow2" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content"> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Field3" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/editText3"></EditText> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:text="Field4" android:id="@+id/editText4"></EditText> </TableRow> . Columns will be automatically created based on the maximum number of widgets in one row.

Bundle.tableLayout1). ContentProvider 10. The following example will use an existing context provider from "Contacts". button = (Button) findViewById(R.setColumnCollapsed(1. android.TableLayout.isColumnCollapsed(1)). private Button button. import import import import import android. android.layout. if (layout. setContentView(R. public class DemoTableLayout extends Activity { private TableLayout layout. } public void toogleHiddenRows(View view) { // Second row has index 1 layout. package de. } else { button. .Activity. */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.os.android.id.main). !layout. android. android.setText("Hide second column").isColumnCollapsed(1)) { button. /** Called when the activity is first created.layout.widget.vogella. layout = (TableLayout) findViewById(R.</TableLayout> <Button android:text="Hide second column" android:id="@+id/collapse" android:onClick="toogleHiddenRows" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content"></Button> </LinearLayout> Change the activity "DemoTableLayout" to the following to use the button to hide the second column in the table.View.setText("Show second column").onCreate(savedInstanceState).id.table. } } } 10.widget.Button. ContentProvider do not store the data but provide the interface for other applications to access the data.app.view.collapse). Overview ContentProvider are used to provide data from an application to another.1.

10. Create contacts on your emulator For this example we need a few maintained contacts. .2. Select the home menu and then the menu entry "Contacts" to create contacts. Press Menu and select "New Contact".

As a result you should have a few new contacts. .

The resulting main.xml should look like the following.xml. and select the .android. Using the Contact Content Provider Create a new Android project "de. Also change the layout_height to "fill_parent".10.android. Rename the id of the existing TextView from the example wizard to "contactview". Delete the default text.contentprovider" with the activity "ContactsView".0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. Open the AndroidManifest. <?xml version="1.vogella.3.com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent"> <TextView android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:id="@+id/contactview" /> </LinearLayout> Access to the contact content provider require a certain permission as not all applications should have access to the contact information.

layout.contentprovider. package de. projection. public class ContactsView extends Activity { /** Called when the activity is first created. contactView.Contacts.READ_CONTACTS".contactview).DISPLAY_NAME + " COLLATE LOCALIZED ASC". String[] selectionArgs = null. contactView.android. android.getColumnIndex(ContactsContract.Uri.Permissions tab.append("Name: "). String sortOrder = ContactsContract. } } private Cursor getContacts() { // Run query Uri uri = ContactsContract. contactView.append("\n").IN_VISIBLE_GROUP + " = '" + ("1") + "'". android. and select "Uses Permission". while (cursor.Contacts.widget. String[] projection = new String[] { ContactsContract.Data.Contacts.id.CONTENT_URI.provider. return managedQuery(uri.main).onCreate(savedInstanceState).permission.Contacts.getString(cursor . */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.ContactsContract.append(displayName). String selection = ContactsContract.Contacts.TextView. import import import import import import android.moveToNext()) { String displayName = cursor. sortOrder). TextView contactView = (TextView) findViewById(R.DISPLAY_NAME)).DISPLAY_NAME }. selection. } } . android. From the drop-down list select the entry "android.vogella.Cursor.os.net.Activity. Cursor cursor = getContacts(). ContactsContract. android._ID. Change the coding of the activity.Bundle. android. selectionArgs. setContentView(R.app.database. On that tab click the "Add" button.

android. Create an android project "de.layout. setContentView(R.TextView. Create the following layout and class.android.app. android.Bundle.android.0"></Button> <Button android:id="@+id/Button02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Cancel" android:layout_weight="1. 11. <?xml version="1.vogella.view. If the view is to big the ScrollView will display a scroll bar to scroll the context. android.widget.Activity. android.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <ScrollView xmlns:android="http://schemas. .scrollview" with the activity "ScrollView".os.onCreate(savedInstanceState).com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:fillViewport="true"> <LinearLayout android:id="@+id/LinearLayout01" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="wrap_content"> <TextView android:id="@+id/TextView01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="This is a header" android:textAppearance="?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge" android:paddingLeft="8dip" android:paddingRight="8dip" android:paddingTop="8dip"></TextView> <TextView android:text="@+id/TextView02" android:id="@+id/TextView02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:layout_weight="1. */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. public class ScrollView extends Activity { /** Called when the activity is first created.scrollview.main).0"></TextView> <LinearLayout android:id="@+id/LinearLayout02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content"> <Button android:id="@+id/Button01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Submit" android:layout_weight="1.View. ScrollView ScrollViews can be used to contain one view that might be to big to fit on one screen. Of course this view can be a layout which can then contain other elements.Typically you would display such data in a ListView .vogella. Please see the ListView Tutorial for details. import import import import android.0"></Button> </LinearLayout> </LinearLayout> </ScrollView> package de.

DDMS perspective and important views 12. Open it to see the possible options. i++) { s += "vogella. . 12. } view.1.de ".TextView view = (TextView) findViewById(R. It also allow to set the current geo position and to perform a performance trace of your application.TextView02). String s="". } } The attribute "android:fillViewport="true"" ensures that the the scrollview is set to the full screen even if the elements are smaller then one screen and the "layout_weight" tell the android system that these elements should be extended. DDMS . for (int i=0.id.Dalvik Debug Monitor Server Eclipse provides a perspective for interacting with your device and program. This perspective includes the following views which can also be used independently and allows to place calls and send SMS to the device.setText(s). i < 100.

2. File explorer The file explorer allows to see the files on the android simulator.12.print() statements) via the LogCat view.3. 13. 12. Shell .out. LogCat View You can see the log (including System.

This allows you to simulate certain things. # Lists all devices adb devices #Result List of devices attached emulator-5554 attached emulator-5555 attached # Issue a command to a specific device adb -s emulator-5554 shell 13.g. Start the shell via the following command "adb shell". e. 13.13. To exit the console session. Android Debugging Bridge . set your current geocodes. Use "telnet localhost 5554" to conntect to your simulated device.2. etc. mkdir. // Assume the gesture file exists on your Android device adb pull /sdcard/gestures ~/test // Now copy it back adb push ~/test/gesture /sdcard/gestures2 This will connect you to your device and give you Linux command line access to the underlying file system. to receive an sms and to get an incoming call make the following.1. rm. The application data is stored in the directory "/data/data/package_of_your_app".Shell You can access your Android emulator also via the console. e. ls. Open a shell.3. Switch the the data/app directory (cd /data/app) and simply delete your android application. Uninstall an application via adb You can uninstall an android application via the shell. If you have several devices running you can issue commands to one individuel device. use the command "quit" or "exit". . Emulator Console via telnet Alternatively to adb you can also use telnet to connect to the device.g. change the network "stability". For example to change the power settings of your phone. etc. switch to your "android-sdk" installation directory into the folder "tools". incoming call. adb shell You can also copy file from and to your device via the following commands.

15. Select in the settings Applications > Development. select the "Run Configurations". Deploy your application on a real device Turn on "USB Debugging" on your device in the settings. You also need to install the driver for your mobile phone. Please note that the Android version you are developing for must be the installed version on your phone. For details please see Developing on a Device . To select your phone.# connects to device telnet localhost 5554 # set the power level power status full power status charging # make a call to the device gsm call 012041293123 # send a sms to the device sms send 12345 Will be home soon # set the geo location geo fix 48 51 For more information on the emulator console please see Emulator Console manual 14. Thank you . then enable USB debugging. select "Manual" selection and select your device.

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