COMSATS INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

 Institutional

Model  Process Model  Rational Model  Incremental Model  Group Model  Elite Model  Public Choice Model  Game theory Model

POLICY AS INSTITUTIONAL OUTPUT

 Focus

of political science

 Authoritatively

determined, implemented, and enforced close relationship not become a

 Very

 Policy

does public policy

 Government

lends legitimacy to

policies
 Government

policies involve

universality
 Government

monopolizes coercion in

society

POLICY AS POLITICAL ACTIVITY

Political scientists – Policy Process – Outlines
    

Problem Identification Policy Formulation Policy Legitimation Policy Implementation Policy Evaluation

POLICY AS MAXIMUM SOCIAL GAIN  

"Maximum social gain“

Choice Of Policies
› Costs < benefit

Refrain from Policies
› Costs > benefits

No Policy adoption
› if its costs exceed its benefits

Policy Alternatives
› Decision Making

   

Preferences and their relative weights Policy alternatives available, Consequences of each policy alternative Calculate the ratio of benefits to costs for each policy alternative, and Most efficient policy alternative.

POLICY AS VARIATIONS ON THE PAST  

 continuation

of activities with modifications

past only

government incremental

 Constraints

prevents from identification

policymakers

 Policymakers

accept the legitimacy of established programs, agree and continue them about the consequences

 uncertainty

POLICY AS GROUP EQUILIBRIUM  

 Balancing

the interests of

groups
 Make

policy by continuously responds to:
› Pressure groups › Negotiate with there demands

POLICY AS ELITE PREFERENCE  

  

Very Powerful Manipuilate the masses It reflects the Interests, values & prefrences of Elite

POLICY AS COLLECTIVE DECISION MAKING BY SELFINTERESTED INDIVIDUALS  

 

Self-interests Mutual benefit of government and individuals In short, interest groups, like other political actors, pursue their self-interest in the political marketplace.

 

POLICY AS RATIONAL CHOICE IN COMPETITIVE SITUATIONS 

Game Players  Decision in favor of public

Perhaps the suggestion of a "game" is unfavorable, suggesting that the game theory is not really appropriate for serious conflict situations. Game theory is a conceptual and deductive model of

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