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Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates:

[CHAPTER 11:

Muscles]
A. CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO HISTOLOGY: 1. STRIATED - long, cylindrical, multinucleate fibers; a. MYOFIBRILS - longitudinal striations b. SACROMERES - repeated component of each myofibril c. MYOFILAMENTS - two species of longitudinally oriented proteins, ACTIN and MYOSIN d. SYNCYTIUM - single, functional unit of striated muscle fiber 2. CARDIAC - uninucleated, intercalated, can contract without nervous stimulation, innervated by fibers of the autonomic nervous system(ANS). 3. SMOOTH - fusiform, uninucleated, crossstriation-lacking myofibrils. Often in sheets. Innervated by ANS. B. MAJOR CATEGORIES OF MUSCLES 1. SOMATIC a. orient the body to external environment b. striated muscles( attached to ligaments, tendons, bones of axial skeleton, appendicular skeleton, and skeletal components of lateral and ventral body walls) c. innervated by spinal nerves and cranial nerves III, IV, VI and XII d. voluntary, skeletal e. derived from the MYOTOMES of MESODERMAL SOMITES 2. VISCERAL a. regulate internal environment b. smooth muscles of hollow organs, vessels, tubes and ducts, the intrinsic musculature of the eyeballs, and erector muscles of feather and hairs c. Innervated by the postganglionic fibers of ANS d. Involuntary, nonskeletal e. Derived chiefly from splanchnic mesoderm 3. BRANCHIOMERIC a. striated skeletal muscles b. Belong to the pharyngeal arches and their ontogenetic/phylogenetic derivatives from fishes to human beings. c. Derived from somitomeres i. Do not fully segment ii. Lack sclerotome and dermatome components d. Innervated by cranial nerves

OUTLINE I. Muscles and Tissues A. Classification According to Histology - Striated - Cardiac - Smooth B. Major Categories of Muscle - Somatic - Visceral - Branchiomeric II. Introduction to Skeletal Muscles A. Skeletal Muscles as Organs B. Origin, Insertions, Muscle Shapes C. Actions III. Axial Muscles A. Trunk and Tail Muscles of Fishes B. Trunk and Tail Muscles of Tetrapods 1. Epaxial 2. Hypaxial 3. Muscles of the Tail 4. Hypobranchial and Tongue Muscles IV. Appendicular Muscles A. Fishes B. Tetrapods - Extrinsic - Intrinsic - Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Hindlimb V. Somitomeric and Somitic Muscles of the Head A. Branchiomeric Muscles - Mandibular Arch - Hyoid Arch - 3rd and Successive Pharyngeal Arches B. Extrinsic Eyeball Muscles VI. Integumentary Muscles VII. Electric Organs

I. MUSCLES AND TISSUES =muscle: tissue, muscles: organs = specialized to perform a single function: to shorten when stimulated and recover thereafter. =the usual stimulus for muscle contraction is a nerve impulse, although this does not hold true for a cardiac muscle

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LEVATORS- raises DEPRESSORS- lowers ROTATORS- causes rotation on its axis SUPINATORS- rotators that turn the palm upward PRONATORS- make it prone(downward) TENSORS- more taut(e.g. eardrum) CONSTRICTORS- compresses internal parts SPHINCTERS- constrictors that make an opening smaller DILATORS- wider * most sphincter and dilator muscles are nonskeletal* * a few muscles move independently, most move synergistically*/ BASIS Direction of fibers Location EXAMPLE Oblique Rectus Thoracis Supraspinatus Superficialis Quadriceps Digastric Deltoid Teres Serratus Xiphihumeralis Stapedius Levator scapulae Risorius Major Longissimus

II, INTRODUCTION TO SKELETAL MUSCLES A. SKELETAL MUSCLES AS ORGANS 1. EPIMYSIUM - tough fibrous sheath surrounding a muscle 2. PERIMYSIUM - surrounds major bundles of muscle fibers (fascicles) 3. ENDOMYSIUM - continuation of perimysium supporting the muscular, neural and vascular components of each functional unit 4. TENDONS - continuations of the muscle beyond the site where the fascicle ends. *At the site of attachment the tendon of the skeleton, collagenous bundles of the tendon continue into and contribute to the perichondrium or periosteum of the bone to which they are attached.* B. ORIGIN, INSERTIONS AND MUSCLE SHAPES 1. ANATOMIC ORIGIN- site of attachment that remains fixed under most functional conditions, that is, the bone is not displaced when muscle contracts e.g. when biceps contract, the forearm is flexed. Therefore, the origin of the biceps is somewhere above the elbow 2. INSERTION- site of attachment that is usually displaced by contraction of the muscle e.g. biceps inserts on the forearm - a muscle may cause displacement of the bone of origin instead of the bone of insertion if the former is immobilized by other muscles e.g. geniohyoid 3. APONEUROSES- tough, thin, sheet-like expanses of mammalian tendons and ligaments e.g. galea aponeurotica- major component of mammalian scalp 4. RAPHES- long-seamlike tendons e.g. linea alba 5. TENDONOUS INSCRIPTIONS- fine nonmetameric myosepta-like traverses, strap-like muscles C. ACTIONS OF SKELETAL MUSCLES EXTENSORS- straightens two segments of a limb or vertebral column at a joint FLEXORS- draw one segment toward another ADDUCTORS- draw a part toward the midline ABDUCTORS- away from the midline PROTRACTORS- thrust forward or outward RETRACTORS- pull back

Number of subdivisions Shape

Origin/insertion Action Size

Basis for homology: -similarity of location, origin and insertion e.g genioglossus(mammals-insertion in tongue) to sublingual seed pouch(avians) -embryogenesis and innervation e.g. corascapular process of reptiles= supraspinatus and infraspinatus of mammals III. AXIAL MUSCLES = muscles of the trunk and tail = extend forward beneath the pharynx as hypobranchial muscles and as tongue muscles. = do not include branchiomeric or appendicular muscles =arise from segmental MESODERMAL SOMITES

Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates:

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B. TRUNKS AND TAIL MUSCLES OF TETRAPODS = tailed amphibians have retained the primitive metamerism of epaxial and hypaxial muscles =enables aquatic urodeles to swim by fish-like lateral undulation of the trunk and tail. = disappearance of epaxial muscles in amniotes gave rise to long, straplike or pinnate bundles = increased reptilian flexibility, mammalian arching, and greater lateral undulation = birds: rigid column requires few epaxial muscles caudal to the next make avian flights possible = hypaxial myomeres were gradually replaced by strata of broad muscular sheets. = Necturus: hypaxial myomere is split into three layers = Sphenodon: retained only epaxial myomeres 1. EPAXIAL MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK = extend from base of the skull into the tail for varying distances = functions: straightening the vertebral column, lateral flexion of the body = most anterior ones attach to the occiput = amphibians (except anurans): the epaxials retain their primitive metamerism.- DORSALIS TRUNCI =amniotes (except rhyncocephalans): most epaxials are long bundles =snakes: dorsoventral flexion and lateral undulation. All epaxial muscles are voluminous and complex =epaxial muscles became increasingly hidden by the expansion dorsad of the appendicular muscles and associated LUMBODORSAL APONEUROSIS as a derived condition in amniotes. a.) SPINALES- assist in maintaining stability(temporary rigidity) of the column in whatever degree of extension or flexion is imposed by other vertebral muscles. b.) INTERVERTEBRALS- deepest epaxial muscles, only ones to retain primitive metamerism, participates with longer epiaxials in maintaining a vertebral posture appropriate to the needs of the moment, c.) LONGISSIMUS-longest epaxial mass, dominant extensor in mammals. Plays virtually no role in generalized mammalian locomotion. d.) ILIOCOSTALES- lateral to longissimus, dominant epaxials in reptiles, and provide leverage for lateral undulation. * in turtles and birds, epaxials are only prominent in the neck because the vertebral column, and in turtles, the ribs are immobilized by fusion with the synsacrum or carapace.*

METAMERISM - enables fishes and aquatic tetrapods to propel themselves in water by lateral undulation - superceded by locomotion of limbs in terrestrial MYOSEPTA (MYOCOMMATA) - separate the muscles of one body segment to the next - anurans and amnions: abdominal musculature consists of broad sheets strengthened by tendonous inscriptions, and not myosepta. A. TRUNK AND TAIL MUSCLES OF FISHES = myomeres separated by myosepta to which longitudinally directed muscle fibers attach = for locomotion = except in agnathans, divided into EPAXIAL(dorsal) and HYPAXIAL(ventral) muscles, and divided by the HORIZONTAL SKELETOGENOUS SEPTUM -anchored to dorsal rib -ventral ribs in the lateral body wall of most fishes develop within the myosepta = myosepta is seen zigzag, elaborately folded deeper =cones become longer toward the tail, and the apices of caudally directed cones near the end of the trunk are often continued as tendonous extensions that insert on caudal vertebrae. =forces exerted by contractions are distributed over more than one body segment and become most powerful in the tail =successive myomeres exert a pull on the vertebral column, evolving rhythmic lateral undulation, which propel the fish forward =metamerism of hypaxial muscles of fishes is interrupted where the pectoral and pelvic girdles are built into the body wall =dorsally, epaxial muscles continue to the skull as EPIBRANCHIAL muscles, = beneath the gills, hypaxials extend the lower jaw as HYPOBRANCHIAL muscles. DORSAL RAMI - supply epaxial myomeres VENTRAL RAMI - supply hypaxial myomeres; larger since they innervate a greater muscle mass OBLIQUE FIBERS-lies superficial to the main hypaxial mass ventrolaterally in many fishes BLUEFIN TUNA - warm-blooded due to the heat generated by contractions of the voluminous axial musculature, thus warming the body to temperatures far exceeding that of surrounding water.

Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates:

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External intercostals Internal intercostals Transverse muscle of the thorax AQUATIC URODELES: external oblique muscle is split into superficial and deep parts. CROCODILIANS AND LIZARDS: all three layers consist of two sheets each

MULTIFIDUS SPINAE- spinales grouped with lumbar intervertebrals COMPLEXUS - cervical epaxials of birds that inserts on the interparietal bone and provides power for cracking the eggshell with the beak during hatching.

2. HYPAXIAL MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK a.) SUBVERTEBRALS- longitudinal bundles beneath the transverse processes in the roof of the coelom - Action of subvertebrals is in general opposite that of the epaxials. LONGUS COLLI in the neck of birds and mammals QUADRATUS LUMBORUM in the thorax PSOAS MINOR(tenderloin-connects the lumbar vertebrae with the pelvic girdle) in mammals

ANURANS: internal oblique is sometimes missing BIRDS: all sheets are thin TURTLES: vestigial c.) RECTUS MUSCLES OF THE ABDOMEN =extends longitudinally on either side of linea alba between pubic symphysis and the sternum =assists in flexing the trunk and in supporting the abdominal viscera in a muscular sling = urodeles: strictly segmental = anurans and amniotes: irregular transverse tendonous inscriptions PYRAMIDALIS MUSCLE - seen in ventral wall of marsupial pouch, a slip of the rectus abdominis d.) MAMMALIAN DIAPHRAGM = hypaxial muscles that have migrated accompanied by third, fourth and fifth cervical spinal nerves. = innervated by ventral rami = major component of the suction pump utilized in mammalian breathing 3. MUSCLES OF THE TAIL =continuations of the epaxial and hypaxial vertebral musculature of the trunk 4. HYPOBRANCHIAL AND TONGUE MUSCLES = origin: postbranchial somites, supplied by cervical spinal nerves (hypoglossal) FISHES - CORACOARCUALES - coracoid region of the pectoral girdle - CORACOMANDIBULARIS - Meckels cartilage

b.) OBLIQUE AND TRANSVERSE MUSCLES - external respiration (amniotes except turtles) - accessory role (mammals) - thought to be derivatives of the oblique sheets of primitive parietal mucles - support the abdominal viscera - compress the viscera for delivery of birth and egg laying and emptying of digestive tract PARIETAL MUSCLES External oblique Internal Oblique Transverse muscles of the abdomen CREMASTER MUSCLE loops around the spermatic cord, commences at the inguinal ring, inserts fibrous sheath in the wall of the scrotum AMNIOTES INTERCOSTALS- assisted by subdivisions of supracostal mscles that differentiate into: - Scalenus - Serratus dorsalis - Levatores costarum - Transversus costarum

Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates: - CORACOHYOIDEUS Basihyals

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B.TETRAPODS Extrinsic =arising on the axial skeleton or fascia of trunk =inserting on a girdle or limb =begin development within the embryonic body wall =secondary appendicular muscles(not intrinsic in limb) =most primitive, being extensions oflocomotoe musculature of ancestral craniates e.g. myotomal origin levator scapulae serrauts ventralis rhomboideus banchiomeric myotomal origin trapezius strenomastoideus cleidomastoideus Intrinsic =arising on a girdle or limb =inserting more distally on the limb =organize from blastemas within developing limbs =primary appendicular muscles =mesenchyme originate in somites, appendages are therefore myotomal embryonic origin =innervated by ventral rami e.g. latissimus dorsi iliopsoas

- CORACOBRANCHIALIS- ventral segments of gill cartilages - assist the branchiomeric muscles in respiration and feeding movements by: a. expanding pharynx and gill arches b. moving parts of hyois skeleton c. depressing lower jaw *Rectus cervicis - perform related functions in urodele* AMNIOTES = straplike and longer = stabilizes the hyoid apparatus and larynx and draw these cephalad or caudad TONGUE - is essentially a mucosal sac anchored to the hyoid skeleton and stuffed with hypobranchial muscles. a.) Extrinsic HYOGLOSSUS STYLOGLOSSUS GENIOGLOSSUS

1. EXTRINSIC MUSCLES a.) DORSAL GROUP LATISIMMUS DORSI o Tetrapods: primary appendicular muscle that inserts on the humerus o Urodeles: triangular muscle arising from superficial fascia o Reptiles: firm attachment to the tough fascia that is anchored to neural spines o Mammals: from the neural spines of most of the thoracic vertebrae caudal to the first few Deep into the latissimus dorsi in most amniotes are THREE EXTRINSIC MUSCLES that insert into the scapula: o Two Levators of the scapula: LEVATOR SCAPULAE VENTRALIS omotransversarius origin: transverse processes of atlas or basioccipital bone LEVATOR SCAPULAE DORSALIS originates on the transverse processes of the number of posterior cervical vertebrae o Rhomboideus group - arises from the occiput and neural spines o Serratus Ventralis (serratus anterior)arises by many separate prominent tendonous slips

b.) Intrinsic LINGUALIS develop in mammals and some reptiles, has no skeletal attachment.

IV. APPENDICULAR MUSCLES =insertion: girdles, fins or limbs. A. FISHES =muscle buds =chiefly extrinsic =differentiate from blastemas within the embryonic trunk and spread into the developing fanfold = disposed as ventral(preaxial) flexors(depressors) and dorsal(postaxial) extensors(elevators) =muscles of median dorsal fins organize from MYOTOMAL MESENCHYME that is giving rise to epaxial myomeres; those of median ventral arise from HYPAXIAL MESENCHYME

Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates:

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= mammalian deltoid: homologue of the DORSALIS SCAPULAE, expansion of a muscle in the same location in reptiles = teres major appears to be a SLIP OF THE LATISSIMUS DORSI = teres minor: SCAPULOHUMERALIS ANTERIOR in reptiles b.) VENTRAL GROUP Supraspinatus and infraspinatus: homologues of the SUPRACORACOID of reptiles Coracobrachialis: in mammals, originates on the coracoid process of the scapula. Present in reptiles, but very small in mammals Biceps brachii and brachialis: major flexors of the forearm of reptiles and mammals Anconeus: NOT HOMOLOGOUS with the anconeus of frogs Epitrochleoanconeus: partially encircles the elbow joint medially Pronators of the manus: insert on the radius and rotate this bone Flexors of the manus: originates on humerus by long tendon of carpals, metacarpals and phalanges Cleidobrachialis: extends from clavicle to humerus or ulna, o Seems to be a continuation of Basioclavicularis(cleido-occipital) of rabbits and cleidotrapezius of cats o Clavicles are vestigial in rabbits and cats o Innervated by spinal nerves o Muscles above the raphe is supplied by branchiomeric nerves = musculature of birds is essentially reptilian 3. MUSCLES OF PELVIC GIRDLE AND HIND LIMBS = pelvic girdles, especially in amniotes, are incapable of independent mobility CAUDOFEMORALIS o urodeles and reptiles: exerts pull in the tail, extends some of the proximal caudal vertebrae and the femur o Non-locomotor in urodeles o Pyriformis: part of the caudofemoralis muscle that ha sbecome locomotory in mammals =locomotor muscles of the hindlimbs are chiefly intrinsic, extend between the bones of the girdle MODERN REPTILES: o Puboischiofemoralis o Puboischiotibialis o Iliofemoralis o Iliotibialis o Iliofibularis o Femorotibialis

*Levator scapulae dorsalis is sometimes considered part of the serratus ventralis* TRAPEZIUS- survivor of the CUCULLARIS muscle of fishes o acquired attachments to the pectoral girdle and underwent same expansion as latisimmus dorsi o SUBDIVISIONS: CLEIDOTRAPEZIUS (cleidocervical) ACROMIOTRAPEZIUS (cervical trapezius) SPINOTRAPEZIUS (Thoracic trapezius) o Receives motor innervation by branchiomeric nerves CLEIDOMASTOIDEUS and Cleido-Occipitalis o acquired attachment to clavicle, but do not function as appendicular muscles o moves head when contracting

b.) VENTRAL GROUP fan-shaped pectoral muscles originating primitively on the coracoid cartilages and the associated midventral raphe PECTORALIS o chief adductor in urodeles o with the supracoracoideus in birds, makes up powerful flight muscles that depress(pectoralis) and elevate(coracoideus) the wings Procoracoid bone - elevates the wing because its tendon insertion passes to the dorsal surface of the humerus Supracoracoid is intrinsic in mammals 2. INTRINSIC MUSCLES a.) DORSAL GROUP = postaxial muscles inherited from ancestral amniotes DELTOIDEUS o Spinodeltoideus o Acromiodeltoideus TERES MAJOR TERES MINOR SUBSCAPULARIS LONG HEAD OF TRICEPS BRACHII = all insert on the humerus except for the triceps brachii, which inserts on the olecranon process of the ulna = distal to the triceps in mammals, two supinators of the manus connect the humerus with the radius =assortment of extensors of the hand and digits insert on the skeleton of the wrist and digits

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V. SOMITOMERIC AND SOMITIC MUSCLES OF THE HEAD A. BRANCHIOMERIC MUSCLES =operating the skeleton derived from the embryonic pharyngeal arches = fishes: food handling and respiration = did not and does not orient the body in the external environment =origin: somitomere 1. MUSCLES OF THE MANDIBULAR ARCH In Squalus: o LEVATOR PALATOQUADRATI - raises the upper jaw o Arises on otic capsule o Inserts on the quadrate end of upper jaw o ADDUCTOR MANDIBULAE- raises the lower jaw o Arises on quadrate process o Inserts on meckel cartilage o INTERMANDIBULARIS- elevates the anterior pharyngeal floor o Extends between meckel and strong midventral raphe o SPIRACULARIS(craniomaxillaris) In mammals: o MASSETER- originated in zygomatic arch o TEMPORALIS- temporal bone o PTERYGOIDEUS- pterygoid fossa =intermandibular of fishes is homologous to MYLOHYOIDEUS =one slip may have given rise to DIGASTRICUS of tetrapods =TENSOR TYMPANI: probably another slip of the firstarch =mandibular arch muscles of gnathostomes are th innervated by 5 cranial nerve 2. MUSCLES OF THE HYOID ARCH In Squalus: =principal muscles of hyoid arch elevate the arch or constrict the pharyngeal cavity(for respiration and feeding) =LEVATOR HYOMANDIBULAE and a DORSAL CONSTRICTOR origin: neurocranium insertion: hyomandibula and ceratohyal cartilage = VENTRAL CONSTRICTOR: - subdivisions: ventral hyoid constrictor and interhyoideus

ILIOPSOAS o humans and other mammals appear as separate iliacus and psoas major o PUBOISCHIOFEMORALIS INTERNUS of reptiles o insert on the lesser trochanter o protracts and rotates the femur

FUNCTIONAL GROUP OF THREE HIP MUSCLES o gluteus-reptilian iliofemoralis, o most powerful among the three o abducts the thigh o rotates the femur to turn the foot ooutward o pyriformis- reptilian caudofemoralis brevis o gemelli =origin: ilium and ischium =insertion: greater trochanter QUADRATIS FEMORIS consists of three vasti and a rectus femoris arises on ilium and greater and lesser trochanters VASTI extend the leg RECTUS FEMORIS adducts the thigh Other extensors of the thigh o Semi-membranosus o Adductor femoris o Adductor longus o Pectineus o Sartorius Longest muscle in human body o Gracilis TWO OBTURATORS Muscles flex, rotate and abduct the thigh Rise from the lips of the obturator foramen, and ischium and pubis, inserts at proximal end of femur BICEPS FEMORIS AND SEMITENDINOSUS Primarily flexors of the leg Former also abducts the thigh and the latter extends it Arise on ischium insertion on patella GASTROCNEMIUS - extensor of the foot Mammals: long tendon inserts at the calcaneus Birds: tarsometatarsus

Ankylosed pelvic girdle *refer to page 256 for more info about innervation (table 11.6)

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LEVATORS o Cucullaris Strong muscle sheet from the levators that raises the pharyngeal wall assisted by the levator mandibulae of the second arch Adductors o Deep in the gill arches; connect epibranchial and ceratobranchial cartilages o Causes the lateral pharyngeal walls to bow outward when muscles contract, expanding the pharyngeal chamber Interarcuals(dorsal and lateral) o Connect successive pharyngo- and epibranchials, drawing these together o Assists in further expansion of pharynx

In bony fishes: = DORSAL CONSTRICTOR is subdivided; part of it operates the operculum. = contraction of hyoid arch muscles results in movement of jaws *made possible by the joint between the upper and lower jaw and hyomandibula* In tetrapods: = hyoid arch muscles continue to serve some of the functions seen in fishes + acquisition of new roles In Necturus: = BRANCHIOHYOIDEUS muscle of the hyoid arch - origin: ceratohyal cartilage - insertion: epibranchial cartilage of the first gill - waves the gills back and forth in the eater for respiration =DEPRESSOR MANDIBULAE-opens mouth of urodeles and many reptiles =posterior belly of DIGASTRICUS-in mammals, help in chewing movements =STYLOHYOIDEUS- connects the styloid or jugular process of the skull with the anterior horn of the hyoid in mammals =SPHINCTER COLLI- collarlike overlying the origin of branchiohyoideus - thought to be derived from a portion of interhyoideus of fishes = in reptiles, spreads upward around the rear of the skull to insert to the platysma =PLATYSMA- in mammals, becomes the facial(mimetic muscles) =STAPEDIUS-originates on the posterior wall of middle ear cavity, inserts on stapes -homologue of the hyomandibular cartilages -contracts reflexively to impede extra loud airborne sounds that might injure delicate hair cells of cochlea -so named because of its distribution to the facial muscles =innervation to the middle ear by V and VII branchiomeric nerves *all hyoid arch muscles receive their motor innervation via the facial (7th) nerve* 3. MUSCLES OF THE THIRD AND SUCCESSIVE PHARYNGEAL ARCHES o muscles of the fish caudal to the hyoid: compress or expand the pharyngeal cavity and gill puches during respiration

=The coracobranchials in the floor of the pharynx are HYPOBRANCHIAL In bony fishes: =branchiomeric muscles caudal to the hyoid arch are much reduced as a consequence of the role of the operculum Refer to table 11 .7 page 260 for Chief branchiomeric muscles and innervation in Squalus and Tetrapods In tetrapods: =branchiomeric muscles have pretty much disappeared =remaining in ARCH III: stylopharyngeus- for swallowing posterior belly of stylohyoideus =remaining in ARCH IV- intrinsic muscles of the mammalian larynx cricithyroideus cricoarytenoideus thyroarytenoideus = TRAPEZIUS muscle of amniotes are derivatives of the cucullaris muscle of fishes -unknown whether homologous as to their counterpart in urodeles =STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID COMPLEX -aka sternomastoideus, cleidomastoideus, and in lagomorphs and few mammals, basioclavicularis, also known as cleidooccipitalis -has been thought to be of branchiomeric origin on the basis of innervation by the spinal accessory nerve -however discovered to be the history of this nerve is conjectural. OCCIPITOSPINAL Refer to table 11.8 for chief extrinsic eyeball muscles and innervation, page 261

CONSTRICTORS (dorsal and ventral) o In sharks, directly under skin covered by tough subcutaneous fascia, that compresses the gill pouches, expelling the water

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=FACIALIS- most notable integumentary muscle. Innervated by cranial nerve VII - BRANCHIOMERIC NERVE CANINUS- elevates part of upper lip that hides spearlike canine tooth AURICULAR muscles(non-humans) direct pinnas of ears towards faint sounds B. Intrinsic integumentary muscles: =develop entirely within the skin, in the dermis ARRECTORES PLUMARUM ARRECTORES PILORUM Both insert on feather or hair follicles, elevate fur or ruffle feathers. Both are smooth muscles in almost all species, innervated by sympathetic nervous system VII. ELECTRIC MUSCLES =certain muscle masses are modified to produce, store, and discharge electricity. =Torpedo(electric ray), Raja, Electrophorus(S. American eel), Malapterururs(water catfish) =ELECTROPLAX - each disc, a modified multinucleate muscle fiber embedded in a vascular jellylike extracellular matrix surrounded by connective tissue -nerve endings terminating on each disc induce the charge =No systematic distribution among fishes and probably evolved independently many times. =electric organ appears to be composed of modified skin glands rather than muscle tissue.

B. EXTRINSIC EYEBALL MUSCLES =striated, skeletal, voluntary =origin: orbital wall =insertion: fibrous sclerotic coat of eyeball In elasmobranches: =from the preotic somitomeres in the embryonic head =THIRD CRANIAL NERVE innervates four eyeball muscles: Superior rectus Medial rectus Inferior rectus Inferior oblique =FOURTH CRANIAL NERVE innervates the superior oblique eyeball muscle =SIXTH CRANIAL NERVE innervates the lateral rectus eyeball muscle = Eyeball muscles of other craniates are innervated by same nerves =Other than elasmobranches, eyeball muscles are myotomal in origin =Muscle inserts on: Pyramidalis of reptiles Quadratus of birds Levator palpebrae superioris of reptiles and mammals =Protractors and retractors of eyeballs of reptiles and depressors of the lower lids are not of similar origin to the eye muscles since they are innervated by 5th cranial nerve VI. INTEGUMENTARY MUSCLES Myotomal muscles innervated by spinal nerves: COSTOCUTANEOUS MUSCLES of snakeshypaxial integumentary muscles used in locomotion PANNICULUS CARNOSUS(cutaneous maximus) wraps around in mammals, enabling armadillos to roll, forms sphincter around abdomian puch of marsupials, and vigorously shake flies off horses. o Poorly developed in monkeys and absent in humans CUTANEOUS PECTORIS- maintains original attachment to the chest wall in anurans PATAGIAL MUSCLES- insert on the skin of wing membranes A. Extrinsic integumentary muscles: =developmental and anatomical origins are away from the dermis =insertion: under the dermis