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LEANN YOUR LANGUAGE

based on the Mein Dialect

by
JOTIN O.E. ODISI

Edited by

KAY WILLIAMSON
KIERAN FLYNN

LESSION 19 School 1. Soiyc/,sukulu qbgg owcimg
2. Sutulu/
3. /sukultr/eYe tolumQ

LESSON 21 Hedth 1. /oybYg bgdltnqlr{ni

2. ti

owcV

tr{ rmsnl I

ki wui kV

cyqlggdY

4Jsukulumi a emi tonrgg<Ycmil

lal
5. Tolumqweimy'v.uro./ 6. /tung9-gbisa/daw4

r'oeidYaPsiqP-wui em" a. /coqpnl bibd
/dtoitr{trbolool 6Jntsi onuoUtrii mie ksomd TJdt4p-hp9fr/ s.14 irfontototunfllki i oqd gllip *co kimi a$ng/ lo.Iiiwl{dl kts{ br/ Po/
5.

7. /sukulu-anrmy'
8. /tolumgwei

9. sukulumi/kiribott/

lO./sukulu adakiri/dgbal

LESSON

Religim 1 J'Beirikurukunr ki stlg/

22

2/dein/binotu/dawaito. rg al andal

tid ;i€tl ki-ii kpq d ii" ru*q/ frt.pTmo/ " ;.w; ;hu.t /

dq"iY"i z-uz seri a $1i (or Kgri) 5. Abianl eseribo sd patng ;.iffi ki mi akpo./ owoi mq gbeleigba/oturo/ 7/ki owei mq gbeleighatimi ofuro/ 8. Jesu fi tiq ki Pri/
9. Jesu/akpgg $9 PrY

io.ri"ti d;kit"i
rz

iliiti.gt * eunitvpu-qe*i"i.ki'o
il. ti,i,e.*u
-rviisi

ru,si znryt ri-

ebd :Iq ms gal

ti-Ym.,

teni (kin eyij *""*"."Elsei tgmi$uo/

hqvqnry'sgqgha/

la.Tiyq ky' Jesu kai bal 15.ltinmini ogun'

87

ANSWERS

LESSON 13 The llouse t. Ekpedii/fini 2.ErGrinmlni 3.Egbmu/ 4.Eni/ s. /ygwqi f€/ 6Jozii fei

2.ldidgp
3.Tiefie/
5. /ini

LBS$ON 16 TheFarmland l.Eyintiygki sil
si (or tgry

kfl

4Jaifie I gborct
kirim/igina mg odu mS 6- /berebekiri. 7. Kiriologbo/ki €rni 8-Apaly'kgrppin/ 9, /Ipgotididg. 10-&gnbo.aqn/

7/algni 8. Mu olomrqia
e.rleide

l0/ogmtg/
LESIK)N 14

2.Tiycfl 3.rifeg a. ftnrm/

l.E&Ta/

lfixtet

f7 TheBush Adakatiyg ki yerin/ 2-Bosouwei/tga/
LESXS'ON
1.

5./cyoti@
6.Ani/fg/ ?-Eodpeftnlcmq fgf 8.TiyCfrn/ 9. $U a/ agbgkr/ dqp l0.Tibgky fE;say'.

3.Qproborilqmin/ 4.|$yelow€nl
seiyeaa/ 6.rbouaowgg bgmi.
5- Seiye (or

(c) J.o. E. ODISI

7- logmmltinl.
S.Bounama/disd

Ail Rights Rescrvcd
First

e.Kimi@/qe'
1O.

rboumy' opu-obori/

kinting lWl

LE$K)N 15 t.ftibgkqrry
2./cadi@gyg

lkRivcr

LESXS'ON

13

Thesky

t. inatumini.

3.'Aniuggtgin/ 4. Alrsiogtu ki di dq/ s. (tg1p)ygsbginl

Z.$rmmpgmi.
3.Agqngweil dtyEtl

4.lsgriil
5. Osuo/koro/ 6. Dein/erein/gbelei

6.Tgtpis€riil 7.lrybuwei/
8"

Bcni'cycri/

9.

Tin-uigb

7. Aqodg. 8. Abidoin (or
g.lagur.at

sei deiny

abodi/endi d9gy9 a

1O.

Bodg o bgm$n/b€ni

biri
86

lOAfri

ogbo ladg aba, kimi sg "Ewiri bodg, Ewiri bodg, Ewiri bodg" gbaa bo' kgri mgmg mu babamini. Mi kpg i na wEri dUni img gbami,i peldq egbcri ho-o-o-o-o-

1. 3.

24. 5.

Now a.ruwer the following qrestiotrs in lzqn Is it wnong to bite the finger that feeds you? Demonstrate your ensw€r from the pass4go. What is belief is portrayed by the Judge in applylng the music that was heard under his seat in.giving verdict? If you were the Judge, how would you give vendict in respect of this issue todaY? Mention, at l€ast, two effects of telling lies from thc passagc. Explain briefly the italicised words.

85

nam44rrra mg ki bo yari la ki gba a?" esin i bn nami'o bglgg seimi. . Tu akgn baimi"ab" ryryi.esin mi gbai zini kidikidi anda andagha ni nama'o mg bagha. Ewiri Afgfgin kgrir{. 'A anda oya timi n9 ki Er{6ir I efEei" gbmi. bo wasaidg ni klni s9 wari amrunini'mi, erln kiali bain bglgg mu wgri owggbirimi a keni qdqg rr sou wgriopc,ofomi'e sgwgi timi Ewiri konrmibo eygg la bo, qsi" -tsi iqr$arrra plnl _Ewiri kgrgmg gube Ewiri dimi. Ewiri misi brami aqmi -omini 6" U4 ,a-d par$

ni 'a daB rrq d-olai

tinmi. Misi amamifrmd€kim! s9 baki bamini 'A bo OgBIa SgqWarli lami,kimi sg nini bira gunti. Ogpla Sgg Wa{mi ogBlaa sg nasinng r4i, bai ka ogglaa pglg€mini gUami.6iin gLi

gbeinmg koromg wgri bainmi. Qsin pa bo wgri,"-"" Eyiri tu a Qsin kimisi bra kgn 'o migrni e bma nanri, -o trn pu esin

iqr-i.

brami

'a

tgrg kgrigha,

€bi. E*rt-r bi* sei . qsin bira Ji-.." Qsin Oggla pglg-oweimi kiri pei di a, numoumi fie bglgU b9lg9 ka mumini.'Wo Oggla Sgq Warii h peimi.'.A kimi *€ kpirei" timi pei a, mi numoumi mukpg fiemini,"Ogglarni Ewiri bira s€i. $in bia ebi. Ewiri bfia sci.Qsin blra ebi..." OgUla pglg-oweimi Ewiri bq, "Ewiri eni mig dUF sg gba e.n Ewiri gbtdt:omini zid bra niggha e. esin ki 'wo esisimg wgri'wo nama kgn bra ki'o mg nerni wgri emi ye." 'O baxi Sin kpg Ue pgi pE-i gunmi. 'A bari ma lQmi brbibo non€ mi, oggla pglgoweii gb4mi,"Mi ggqlTikgn zini pglggmq bra fa e. Kiri akpg a emi otubo kpq oeUta,ni Ewiri bjra ka sei emi bra ari wEi gba& mi o kiri ba q bm qrniama ni mgmg ogpla pglg asin seimqgm' timi ml o?" OgUla pglgowei ogglaa pelp aki Ewiri seimgni. Qsin ki og$arni bfia s€riimi. Ewiri kgn mu baamini 'o mg kgn angq a nmi *gri *ri kiri'a'o kgriimg orom rgnmini mi, Ewiri Warii duo desi pa *gri Ucni a "i, rnu fami. Aniki duoni Ewiri mg b€Nd ki yerin ogbo dgF emi y". .O Uo

mi,'a wd wari a mumi. bo bd ni og$Ia pe.lggmg efie ladg mi, ogpla pe.lg_oweimi mu mini perretimiyg a pe,retimii bo, esin awggbo kiriy" duobo-eygg la wgri ozi farimi.'A ozi faqmini mi'a keni tibi kpq d-i gba-i"ilbgUf.i '' Ewiri bira sei. bFa
sou sinng

ka seiimg bma ki padg. Deinmi, Qsin mg awggama mg kiri ye kiri ye duo sou mu Oggla Spg Warimi oggta pe.lgowei penetimiyg kiirii lami. .A mfsi bra

-iglTA"i

liki bibini duoni ogglanri'wo bira

arnba

kimi Ewiri- frr"i

'*itnanl

This book is dedicated to

_

-i"i

JOHN O.E. ODISI

who made it possible

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I wish to record my profound gratitude to the following from whom I obtained most of the pruisages in Part tr of this book: Miss Mercy Evinson of Ayamasa, (Bassage 2); Ml- Francis A. Egbain of Ayamasa,(passages 6 & 7); and- Mr. David Gbolokgmg of Kpakiama,(passages 4 & 5r, and who, in
addition, provided names of some months which enabled me to have a complete lunar calendar.

It is Not Good To Bite The Finger That
Egberi -o-o-o-oAlaghabo Adotimii gbirain koro emi. Kgni efie Ewiri mg gsin mq eyq kqri wgri

Feeds You

yerin timi kqni bai la a' narna ebemi okpan koromi. Nama ebee sg bgni wqri pesikiriyai bgr-rimgmi. Andami korodq b99 sg,'o gbo bqg ki nama padg' 'O.

.

mi.'A

I wish to declare that I found the following books very useful while miting this book lzgz Bibi Fun by Chief T- N. Onduku and especially lzgn-English Dictionary by MI.
Agbegha.

I

time, in spite of her pressurized activities, in going thrcugh tho manuscript on her own, and for having provided the opportunity to go through it again with me and making nec€ssary corrections and providing useful suggestions.
should like to declare that I am particularly grateful to Miss Mercy Evinson again, and my wife ---Mrs Monica Odisi who, in their respetive ways, provided such conducive atmosphere

am immensely grateful to Kay Williamson who speirt much

bein;'o bira digmq aki Ewiri primi, Ewiri andaygmi mugha. Misi bra'a rn' ko.n yerin timi titi UiUi"i amba te"i U"i ia a, Ewiri gbadq'o kpQ andaygmi muumini ye' Qsin bggha' ewiri tpg bogha, 'o mugln timi afima dqnmq e"O kpgn braa bo k$rp UqdE ni Qsin mg biberinmi- Akqn bai ki'a rra aada aadamini' - -Tfuni bo tu akgn lail{, Ewrir kqkq QBin'try rnurni"A mu andaki4 la a,'aanda y9r9i timi bo $in fpq pri pa mumi-'Wo U.tgbira ki-kqrimi' Kiri'a pa sB99 ki diibo, Qsin Vtgbixa k-on gbeinng-kqni opu U.tpbirn' Timi yoo'o ba ziniYai gbodg. 'a anda timi kgNd efie larni, Ewiri kpg owei tin pa mu Qgbq kqrimi' Andakirimi tgrg fini wqri anda dimi.tA anda osumei timi n9 bo wasa ke
sin-anda timi bo a, ba namabo

t

pami.

to*i g.titi

I

'a pa sUQ ki diibo' ba owei tin pa mu El99l9 ki kqrimi. Kiri 'O ba Elgo.ig Ewiri sibe gbeinng. q3in bo rnanaa nr:u'a runaa ki timimi. wqri erni namabo a kqni kqn'o zini- miggmg bra ia ni,'o pa ki mini ba d;irkidiq bra gbami. Bouu sg gbadg, mlsi bra ki'o m9 mig dggmini

ala,'ominiU.ttJbirakiken'odei.'.OkqkqU.tgbixakqn'odeimi'Ewiri
bo fomung.

which assisted greatly while writing this book. $ addition' I wish to say thar'l am thankful to Catechist Pius Ll. Sgqkgmor for his words of encouragemeirt. I wish to rhan$ Mr. A. P. Faotu;for assistance in the chapter on counting- Additionally' l am higbfy grateful to Mr. Jonathan Brake-ebi whose artistic desrgn is displayed on the cover page. I am also graleful to any other p€finn who, in any way, helped me to have unitteir
this book.

Finally,l have to say that I lack the fitting words to thank and
praise Rev.Fr. Kieran Flynn (SPS), for his differreirt ways of assistance offered me since the beginning of the projoctMay God, in His mcrcy Bless them all.

s€riiminii bo, Ewiri bUlqlr kqri bain mu wgri sibeye kqn owggbirimi a pidg tga timi Qsin konrmi. Kiri Sin bo ey99 laabo' Ewiri .iU"y". t"i"mi- $in sibeye fiee naa bo , 'omini ba wgri namab s9 gt"i"-g koromg wgri bain fami- Ewiri pa bo 'a sg tqlg aki wari mumi' rO *u warimi'o gbamini awgJbo primi, "Sin ki zini kimi pri gbo wEri i parg ni i n\o mi dqlaf aamabo np bo emi." -g*iti rnie braa duoni Qsin pa bira ka mu warl lami' Timi k€ni bai l8 mA Qsin awqg bo mg tei gbelei timi Ewiri ydbo p4 a, Ewiri "o"99Uo pd gbo wqri wo da+ pri parl Qsin VaiUo w€,rimi,n Ovi baimi, e dag ki'a oi:o -g dglai narnaarna bomi e:" Qsin awggbo mi egberii nami 'amini tqr t"u -iA da{ bimi,'A CaOi, nwiri awqgbo gbadg emini mi UqdE Aiq""ti:a pri gbo ki gbo wqri Ewiri p{ ki mini'ba wqci namaama kqn
83

fiti *a*

iii

yinbowei, tu

cffi kpg inie. I

yai, oormi--'*o!|bi[:bi m'o buiimini.'

kgni-yinbowei e. Sei k1p inie,

CONTENTS l. ThA&hrba
2.Formation of Words......;.........."....
,3. V€rb Teirses: The Past t@ss..........

Ani &mi al ox@i mr -i"i kgi-yinbo*rei lar{,'wo'o Dihi. 'Ti bra ki wo kf mr cai ercma kgqnmini yan o?' ''W'<r 'o pargmi,"i migemg bra mnigha e.' Th yemi gbamiffi b'ra ki wo np mig€mini ye. Wo ozi kgnng aba, o kgn bouu duo gbolo sgg muumini ye. Mi vo gboloomg brrmi. F:ngbou qmgbou tini tiyq ka €mi yan o. Emgbou erngbou kimi pbodq wo e kg4 mu aqr gUqg mi e. Emgbol erngbou kimi kg gBAeNng diri i,o bp@ k$pmq be Fmi ye. Frngbou emgbog kimi erriyo *iyqg sg pa bodq wn e kgn mu diri gggg mi e.' Mi brami 'o m9 nang aba,'o boitrnlni ye"' Mi brami'a mg gba pglg siinbo,'a ozi kgn wgri wgni bouu &ry rgqrni.'A dAlg w€ni sgg mun€ mi,'wo kgni-yinboweimi koro misg
t.bragbolomi.

t I

t
7
10

4.The Preseirt tense........... 5. The futuretense 6. Prcnouns--Personal...

:.

-...............

!2 t4
LI

7. Prronouns continud... 8. The use of some words...-..... 9. Miscellanmus
10. Numeration

w
tt
3S 3E

n
4l
45

'A gbolo sgq rumini mi, Emgou emgbou kimi gbolomini braa nimi.'O dgb beri ti@ kiri pei a,'wo ang tin r.vgri timi gbolomini. 'O pcr pgtg a,'o ffi kgn mu diri grtg dggmini ki bra 'o m9 nami. 'O gbarni, ' E yva-a, d&re i nu timi a ifada e, i kiali ba{nng ki kiri'a bo mi eyg laa ti Gbi &i!qi ye.'Ani q bm ki i mq migEmini yan o? I mi namaa kgn hts a,nitimilg bo i la w€ri i kgn mu diri ggggmini yo. ! nariaa "tri r6i fory @ bain'a bira duo tgii ki ebi dgin erni ye.' Anlibn kft[. 'o p $ @$ ryz @g *angln timi tuin a tibt tW?14. Ua bi-ylntoU*o bo eyqg lryri, Emgbou eingbou ki-i 'a mg adgh. 'A ertma bimi'{ t pargmi,*Wo ani gbo}o egberii naabo, 'o pa ki mgp sti ftq8ara @era bqin bouu dpg sggrri e.o Tu oweimi gbami, " fnnntep @ ba h e, q kiali hemaa. kgnng o bain saxarng 4ma a mu c.n 'A kgtq ne"rna sibc rgitremt ry bap ana a mumi. 'A @ hi, kiti ni bol tein+weimi mi narnaa digmq yarimq agbgi onrbo 19 yaini. Misg erein kormq bg$g a muu s9, mi kimi ba bitibi eye li yain yerinehs. Mi i na weri dry ni i mq gbami i pelde egberi bd fa o-o(x>
Nan

i1. Measuration 12. Currency..................-

lsson on the house......... Lesson on Market--Lesson on the river..."-...... L.sssca on farmland l,esson on the Bush."..-..... I8. Lesson on the sky............. 19. Lesson on school....
13. 14. 15. 16" 17.

47

v
56 58 60 66

50 52

20.Isson
23.

on parts of the body...........

21. I-esson on health.... 22. Isson on religion..

lsson

64,

on

(Iz. gn)

caleirdar.....

Paft tr Compreheirsion l. Why the cricket's teeth are singed?.."....
2. The hunter and the sow.....................--.. 3. How mosquitoes came to live....-........ 4. It is more painful to be beateir with words 5. How the He-goat bocare a domestic animaI.......... 6. Th_e hunter and the skeleton (man)......... 7. It is not good to bite the finger that feeds you.........

69 70 72 74
78 81 83

oswa tle fonwing in lzen t. S,hrtisfu themc ofrhis$ory? 2. Wbrtbssm(s) do yurderircftomit? 3. Ir t gpod to suspct yourmfubbdr?
4.. Ehdrh fo your own urcds ee ilalkiscd crpncosimg
E2

iv

INTRODUCTION

(6)

The Hunter And The Skeleton (Man)

It is corpletely tnre that the Izqn languago has suffer,ed taibly frrorn the hands of those living in the present
gaeration-specially the youths, who pursue westei:r values al the exp€nse of theirs which has producd some illoonqu€naes. Sequel to the above, the vocabulary is gradually dying. Many p;u,ents can iot teach their children in their own mother-tongue; ilutny youths regard it as a foreign language

Egberi-o-o-o-o-oAlaghabo Adotimii gbirain koro emi. Kgnl efie keni boutein-owei kgn! ama a timimi.'.Omini bou teindg fa ki timimi. Ania'omini bou teiyg dgg bodg aba, mini ba wgri emi narnabo kgn bitibi ki q fi timim!, zini kimi p4gha.'Ani taara kiryt ki 'a sla kgxiyinbo a pa emi. Kgni gerede eyg kpg'o m9 kqri wgrffi . Misi eygg kpg 'o ma ye ko.n p{gha. Ania 'o bou teinyg a mumiqi efie sg, kiri'o pa nama tein koromgg bo, emgbou emgbou-kimi eseribo sg a 1n, bo 'o m-omg narnaa dig dignini, ani duoni'omini ekise nama mo ki war! a mu mumini. Timi bo k94 b4 Ia a, "o tama'o bgmi, "A i yEe, tiye ki ducrni e yan o? E z-lra kqua end lg€ mo.mg ekise nama k-on wari a ba qri ye. Ani duonl i kpg mi gba o rngmg bou tei wgri erni arag m9 dig digmini teinyg a muumini.n A yei gbami, nf ta,'ye e pebi i nqmg mugha fa e." Ererna gba yei pargm!, "'Ye e rymg mugba aba, odu kp bibagha buru kp bibagha fa e.n Yetuni ba zini migqrng bra fa ni,'o pa ki k9k9 6 trla mumi. 'A bouu dug wgni s$g mu timi dgin kpg nama'a nq adgha" "A w4 boo mg ororo kpg torn sinng ki ki{ kgni nama'a mg arimi. Yeimi mini sibeye k4 wqri mi namaa teinmi, bira bggha, kqkg tein koro wgri erni. Kiri'a rna mu nanua kqn dggmini mi, emgbou erngbou kimi ba bo psmi. Kiri er€rna 'wo arli'bo 6 koro girigirigiri angg sgimi. 'O bo pami 'o gbami,"Mi gbai ma nama sg ki e mo.mg ba ma? Kimi kgni kpi ki wo m9 ye.n Bou tein-oweimi biberinmi. Emgbou egtou kimi gbami, 'Erema ki i mq kggnmini , e ba namaa korn ye.n Kirmimi ba miggnrg bra nemigha.'O bqgha gba a, emgbou emgbou kimi kgn'o migrng bra *o mg nemigha.'Wo erema ko.n'o p4 wgri mu ama a gbaamg bra kpg fa. 'O gba emgbou erngbou kimi primi,'Timi i konr e , i bomini ye.n Emgbou erngbou kimi biberinmi. Kimimi erlelna mg nailuta mg wgri bain amaamumi. 'O mu ama l,a ni pa brarni'o gba mini kgni-yinbowei, b$lEJ ye primi,'wo kgni-yinbowei gba'o diami. "E ba ba timi namabo kgni bai e ma dglg kqn i p4 wgri 4 akpotu pade kiri emini bo i tinmini a o?' 'O mu tu oweii ki la kpg,'o kpg tarik.umg bra gbami.'O mu mini eygowei la a, 'o kpg tarik.umg bra. 'O ba miggrng bra nemigha. Tumi 'wo kgni-

rnd have relegated il into a state of disuse. One of the greatest means of prbserving one's culture is to F€s€rve one's language. And one's language can hardly be preserved if it is not usod in everyday conversation and written down. Thus to pr€s€rve the lzgn language has been a challenge before us all. Unless somc self-sacrificing eirthusiastic and patriotic prcple painstaingkinly respond to face this noble and natural challeirge, no on€ could predict the fate of the langu4ge tomonow. Though very few have dared to face the challenge, I thought it not unwise and most useful to contribute my quota nl-earn Your l-anguagen. also which has come under the title In it, I cleated room for two classes of people to use: the natives and foreigners- Heirce, there is a serious attempt made to give the meaning of words which, to the natives who speak it, may be repelitive or boring. A particular attention has be€n paid to the demands of foreigners. In order to assist my audieirce, answ€ns to many qucstions which I think nocessary have beeir provided, bdid€s translafing each senteirce into F-nglish.

John O. E. Odisi

V
h

w€ti bgtfgn kgn dgsirymi.'Wo'o fidg a, kgn mi99m9 bra fa. Embe.lg kUrpmg b9 kpo bgmi. Okodi ba gba Kura primi, "i w4 mu 4ni diri kgnng i bomid e." Kura'o pargmi,'Mun€ bo e.l O-kodi ba bain mu Abedi lami,'o gba'o diami, nSisei ye, wai zini k-on bo e. Gbelei a sgndie sili e." Abedi kgkg ba zini tga 'o primi.'IVo'o k-on wai bain mu bonii lami. Kura'o bimi, "Mi ba ko.n ti bm ki mlgmini ye a o?n Okodi'o panlmi, nKuf,a, di ye, ernini'o kgn Kgngowei kp$n pu wgri mi dirii kgn'o dgsimg weri fidg Kura Kgngowei tlnmi, nKo.ngowei, kiali owou pa bo e.n Kgngowei kpg kgkg owou pa bomi.Kura kiali'o kpgn pumi. Aniibo bo.gnmi 'o rng ko.n 'o d€simqnri,'wo 'o {mi. Ko.n gbaamg bra fa. Okodi ba gba Kuna primi,"Tu pe.lg yemi kq emi e. { mu'o kqnnq i bomini e." Kurakpg ba biberinmi. Aniibo Okodi ba bain mu Abodi lami. 'O gbami, "Wd zini trla i p4 e.'Wo'o k-on wai mu b€Ndi lami. Kura'o brmi, "Mi ba kgn tiye ki migrnini yan o?" Otodi'o pargmi, 'Mi ko.n Anda-owei ka qa ffnini ye. Kura gbami,'Ani aba, timi i konr e. i kiali mu Andaowei dW keridE i bomini e.' Aniibo Kura kpira boru duo bain
aha, e rnu arna a trnamini e.o

LBSSON

1

TIIE ALPHABET

-T

This lesson is dividEd into four sections. Each sation dals with
particular aspect ofthe alphabet. Study thern conscientiously.

SBCTION I..THE CONSONANTS
This section deals with the singleJetter consonants only. They are-

*bd'F!Ff

o b

m
s

n,t*pr t*,rVW yz

(h) 'r' t( k

I

As of now there ale sev€,nte€,lr consonants only. Study ttwn proprly. Besides using it for exclamatory purpos€, nhn as a single-letter consooant has hardly any use in lzo.n. It can only be usd in exclamatims such as:-

mi, Okodi mini ta bgrni, nB4n efie ladg ye.o Mi'a kom 16un digha, torm digha bain tind bo ama la brami e. 'A bo ama ladg mi,Ourei-okodi gbanri, ni ta, o ba bou si kgrng e. Wo arna ka lgwa timi timi €yc dgg fi e." Aniki duoni Okodi mgnrg bou lagha e. Mii kpg i na -gri dq ni i mq gbarni, i pe.lqde egberi fa-o-o-o-

s-ugmi.

Oho! Ahaa! Ehee! Hei! Hu!

etc

'O gbein

sgg mu fadg

SECTION IJ-.THE VOWEI.S
There are nine vowels in fzgn, The consonants in section be used with them. They are:-

I

above are to

aegiiogu$
SECTION III--THE CONSONANTS AND TflEUOWELS
the consonnnts,you would have discovered that there w€re som€ spots marked with asterisk. They arre not inserted for decoration but to inform you that somethin! is to be added to each spot. If both the consonanrs and vowels are combined, the result will be as

Now answer tlrc following questiot s in lzgn 1. Was it ri&t for He-goat to have escap€d at the expeirse

tk

of

lives?

2. Was the any other way it could have planned such? 3. Do you think there is d4tlger if it decidd to go back to the forest? 4. Has it paid the debt it owed the Nile monitor lizard (Iguana)? -1, Whl was the total debt owed? 6. Why do you think the Nile monitor lizard was known as the seller of honey?

If you observed carefully while studying

follows:-

s (h)i i k mnogpr stuuvw yz
80

abdegf

I

Like some other languages in the world, when compared with the English alphabet, tbe fzqn language is short of some letters; it has no place for the following:-

c j q andx

It is obscrvod that "c", nj" and oqn are respectively replaced by "sn, and'k' but "x" has no such replacemeirt; these lettdrs have no function to
play in tho language, henco they are all deleted. nJn is not part of the alphabet as it It is argud by some people that tongue of any typical Ijaw. It is replaced by 'zo , as "c" and is not on thi nkn. Hence Jesus, James, John etc would in 'q" arc rcplacd by'os' and poctioo * pronounced asTsu,Tnrnis and @ni respectively. Besides nJnPersonally, I ihcrc iS no traditional word which begins with the letter am of the same opinion with this school of thought' part Ther,e are some other persons whq hold the contrary, that it was

nzn

of the alphabet. These argue that it was eveir used by some early workers in thc language; and exanrples could be eveir found in some works. that Howcver this is not a work to settle this argumeirt. It is obvious into the if it wcro not part of the alphabet before, it has be€n incorporated a$haba on the ground fh€t it is used like any other letter in most rrorks irLIZr,and it is heard on the lips of modein Ijaws who could not escap€ its usc. On this ground, it is usod in this book as well' Thclc rrcthreo digrapts and one trigraph in lzgn which are give'n below

SEETION IV-.TTIE DIGNAGPHS AND TRIGRAPH

kpg'ye eye liimini ye ." ani duoni a kiali b€nimi owein sararng e." Aniibo 'omini aka dr.u d99 timi'a dimi. Ala kagha timi Adaka pd bmi.Kgngowei Adaka bomini brami argg bo,'o qridi mu benimi oweinni.'A owein timi Adaka pri bo eygg lanf. Adaka Kgngowei bimi, n A Kgngowei, bodg i kpg benimi a sggg ma.n Ko.ng-owei'o panrmi, "B€nimi iniegha e, i kpg Okodi ki i sgq erni ye. Adaka Okodi bimi. Okodi biberinmi. Aniibo Adaka gbami, "Mi berdmi a mg owein sinng aba, a eye ki ba)kpg 'ye €ye fiimini, a ba eye ki baga kpg'ye eye lllmini e. Anf duoni a kiali b€nimi owein e." Aniibo 'wo ak a peretimi'a drmi. Timi ba d9l9 z9b9r9 mini bo, Kura bomini bra Adaka mg arimi.Aniibo, kimi kg'o be.gha mi,'o qridi b€Ndmi a sgg wgri oweinmi. Kura bo pab,'wo Adaka bimi, oA Adaka, bodg iftpq beirimi a sgg ma.n ddaka'o parymi, "i kpg bi ki bi srp emi e. Okodi ki beni ye." Aniibo Kura Okodi bimi,"Bodg i kpg sggg rna." Okodi'o pargmi;"See, Ko.ng.owei i bi a, i kp$ngha; Adaka ki i bi kpq i kpgngha. Ti bra ki miq ni e kiri i bi a i ba miq timi kpggnmg bra an o? Bo qridi sUe e." Aniibo Kura gba'a diami, "Mi benimi a mg oweinng a eirdi ki ba kpg'y€ eye qinini, a ba eirdi ki bagha kpg'yc eye fiimini. Ani duoni a kiali b€nimi owein ye." Aniibo'o koro bein 4kaa duo wqni dU wgri tginmi. 'A owein timi kgni efie laabo, Owd Okodi ghmi, "i bomini e." Kura'o bimi, nE tiyq ka mumini yan o?" Okodi'o pargmi, oSoe,Kura, 'ye ekeir eni bira duo bain elEi tEi a p emi yan o? i kgni awa ki k-on bain kpq'ani kiri eN{ kgni seri desi.ki tpn. i bomini e.i da{ kgni ebi diri nana wgri emi ni'ye'o kiri kqn eyog a mumini e." Kura gbami,nMu kgnng wa!
bo e." Okodi kqkg bainmg bggmg a eygrni a brasinmi.

gb gh kP and ngb-

is Thccc do not re,prescnt double sounds but only one. The ngff trigraph one used p6trlirl' to Kololrurna and sorre other dialecB but abseirt in the in icG--MED.I, and some others also. There ale tweirty-seveir letters

fzp crclusivcof

the digpphs and the trigraph'

Okodi bain mu Abedi lami,'o gba'o primi, 'A Ab€di, sisei kgni @gn ololo yeri i p4 wgri ye. I bo tu a e gbggmini e.' Kgni @gn ololom! taaxa sili ti Vqrimini .Abedi k9k9 kgni bo.gn ololo tga Okodi primi. Okodimi UqFnololoo kqn bain wai mu benii lami. Kura'o bimi,"Ti ki diirimi ni e mu ko.n ye mi yan o?" Okodi b-ogn ololoo parn-omi.'O gbami, "Mi dirirmi e." Kura'o bimi, "Mi dirimi kgn tiye ki migmini yan o?Kura 'o bimj,- "Mi dirimi kgn tiye ki migrnini yan o?n Okodi 'o pargmi,o Kura, di ye, emini Adaka kppn pu wgri mi dirii kgn'o dqsimg wgri 'o k-on f,dg aba, ye eye ariimini ye-n Kura Adaka tinmi,n Adaka, kiali owou bo e.n Arlaka kgkg owou pa bomi. Aniibo Kura Adaka kgn kporodaa kpgn w.gri 'o kg n kiri a korcmg
79

2

'Wo sggNrg a timi kqni bai la a' Erefighaowei 'o tinmi,'Angiri, koro bo e," Ab$kg gbami,' i koro bogha fa e-" Erefighaowei gbami'"imini Ayegeleftt, i kiri e tinmini Ye." - -Ab{kg kgkg koro bomi)O bo kiri lami,'o gba Erfighaowei primi' bira 'Eygp iqkb ebami e. Are;bibi kimi mq timi vsrp a , kqkq kimi do.n -tlttgg kgn e ki braa sq i mq brade e'E mi ko.n i dgin emi ye. i *o-.q mqmq *9*i *"i f1rimi i mq bragha timi ini fi €r€in laamini ye' rytq i eii 4"."i i t" titi a eye dgg qgha fa e." Mi AbUkg k9k9 Ereflghaowei wqri aggnq amu wgri timi yerinmini ye- 'AdtG kpq E tqgh"owei kgn 'wo alqimg braa duon! wai bo Erelighaowei ."gt"i biri sei'o p4 ni 'wo'o k-on gbein pgi weri'o kqn qmi;. Aniki duoni Adaka mq Ereflgha arg aba,'o kqn tin gbein pgi wqri 'o kgn S fimini ye. Mii sg i na wgri dU ni i mq gbarni i pqlgdgegberi fao-o-o-o-o-

LESSON

2

FORMATION OF WORDS
Having learnt the alphabet, it is now time to apply them to fomr words. Before we proceed to forming words which is divided into sections, there are some words which need to be mentioned first, and they arc t€atod in section 1 below; they are single-letter words.

SECTION I-. SINGLE.LETTER WORDS
Some singleletter words are:-

6-- which means You-- second person plural or she

i-e-

which means they which means You-socond p€rson singular which meians I !-b-- which means He or It

l. 2.

Now antswer thefoll.owing in lzgn What other tit(s) would like to give to the passage? Was it actually right for Monkey to have honoured the

SECTION II-- TWO.LETTERED WORDS
In this section, we shall treat two-letter words. Words are usually formd by the combination of vowel and consonant sounds. I-et us visit sections I and tr of lesson I. Taking b first and the other consonants in turn respectively with the vowels one by one-suffixing each consonant with a vowel, we shall arrive at forming two-letter words. Here they are in the order in which they are writteir.

3. 4. 5. (O

If

supPosod invitation bY Lion? you werc in the shoes of Monkey, how would you have reacted

to the rqu€st to come down from the tree? Was Lion actuatty in its proper seNrs€ to have takeir such action againstMonkeY? Do you think-Tortoise suceoded in fulfilling his saying?

How The He-Gmt Became A Domestic Animat Egberi-o-oo'+o Alaglabo, Adotimii gbirain koro emi' K€ni cfre okodi mg mini-eromn mg yerin timimi.'A yerin timi bo kgni oiiti a, ow-ei Okodi;ini ta b€mi, t'Bdq o mu beiri owein ye'n 'A "f kgtgurynibou sggni. ' -'A mil b*iqti owchmini mi, daghbbo, Kqng-owei bo eaqi' Ko.ngma? o owei Oksdi bgrri,;A Qkodi, iroCE i kpq e mo.mq benimioweiin Okodi'o pnqiti,'S-€o, G kiri lgl9 bo sggg mi e gba "' i b1 mig timi o? Bo fi{di sUq e'" Kqng-owei gbarni' mi benimi a beghmq ts;i; d"".it sinnf aba, a endi ki ba kPg'yo €yc fiimini, a ba endi ki bagha
78

ba be b9 bi bi bo b9 bu da de d9 di di do d9 du

ja je je ji ji jo jq ju jv ka ke k9 ki ki ko k9 ku kB la le 19 li li lo l9 lu l9 ma me mg mi mi mo mg mu m$ na ne ng ni ni no ng nu n\r pa pe p9 pi pi po p9 pu ptr tarergri4rorgrury sa se sg si si so sg su sg

ga ge 99 gi gi go 99 gu gg ha he h9 hi hi ho h9 hu hg

fafef9fiIifofgtury

bg dg

ta to va vo wt wc yl y€
7A
SEC''JION
Ze

tg ti vg vi wg wi y9 yi zg A

ti vi wi yi zi

to tg tu tg vo vQ vtl vtl

wo wq wu wU Yo Yq Yu YB zo zq ztJ AI

d'enr 9* this s€cton we shall treat how to form three-letter words. Three-letter first is to words could be formed in any order but the one to be treated pr€fix rnd suffix a consonant with the same vowel. Look at how they are fonrpd here;aba ebe 9bg ibi ibi obo 9b9 ubu gbg ada ede gdq idi idi odo gdq udu gdg

t

III.-T H RE E -IETT ER

W O R DS

afa efe gfg ifi ifi ofo gfq utu Ufu
imi
ete gtq iti
ezs gzg ui

Abgkq kgkg engeing bignmi. Adaka mini biralimgbisabo kgn ki erni, einbglggha. 'O gba Abgkg diami, "Wan ebi yaibo ki i rng d-ogmini ye." Abgkg 'o pargrni,'Mii ki ini a{anbo o, zini y4 ba fa o." Adaka'o bgrni, iF.ni wan ebi afianbo ki i mq dggmini ye, kiali 'a bign ye." Abr;kg ba kgkg €Nrgcrne sglglg dglo bignmi- Adaka ba mini bira-imgbisabo k-on 'a taki wqri dadimi.'A kpq mukpg tarikgrng bra ki emi. Adaka bo bira koromg AbUkq birii lglmi. n'Wo'o kgri pou w€ri'o lgli timi Abrfkq birii sg p4 bo kgni tibi a p9,p9l99mi.'O timi'o lglimini m!,Ere{ghaowei wai bo pami.'Wo'ani arimi,'wo'a bimi."Mi-€mi ti sye kl'a m9 migninf yan o?n Adaka'o parymi, "Abrlkg mini ebi {anbo biqn e gba a bggha ni i mq 'wo birii lg{mini ye." Erefighaowei garri, nAdaka an,rni bra ki ko.n migmini ki gba ma o? Emini Tgmgarary tgghg, anlki k!r! Abgkq peroe timi rnini aQanb<i bign, ba kBrp kpg miggba ye e. Adaka wgri qfidi'wo a brasin ye. E k9k9 AbUkq a{anbo ki q dggmini
afianbo tqki wgri kgn bibi a dadi a, k9k9 kolokolo

arna

omo-omgumuUmU

at^ azt

iti izi

oto gtq utu

gtg

ozo o.zg uzu gzU

ThA mcs not treated are left as an exercise for you. owB.

Try them on your

It is to NOTE: Some of the words formed in this way havd no meaning*n*""yourabilityinpronouncingandspellingwordscorrectly.Itis Ijaw quitc lndrstooA thal thi; rnay not be of great use to the traditional l|,holvrsbornandbroughtupwiththelanguage,butitisusefirlto

other sections forcigncc. This tye of exercise is repeatedly given in some as wcll.

Adaka kqkq gi4ngisin mini to.rgbo gbarni, 'omini birabe kpg 'O koro Tgmgararl tgghgrni. 'O timi misi bra migrnini mi,Ere{ghaowei lgg warii duo bain pa mu mlni do.g arg wqri s9w9iim9 .iyq*i a mu sgwgffi"Adaka AbUkq lgli brami kgrg bgg duoni, Abgkq ba eken kia[ weni a pagha. Fi odudu duoni,'wo angg kgrpmg kpUin bo gaan la wgrj Adaka warii sou wgri emi odo.g-tibii lami. Odgg-tibimi kgni Kiriowoso tirnimi.'Wo'wo owou a pagha.Angg kgro.mg bra ki'o mg k-on siki siki tiinmi kpomg owou mu timi biri laabo,'o ba ekengha ni 'o p4 misi eyg a embafoumi,'o san owou mu tin-birabo kg lagha. Adaka mini t9gh9 mig tirni bo dginng ni'omini birabo koromg ba mini tgrgbo fini a,'o ba kgnii bqg kpg arggha. 'O pa bo gaan h a, Erefi.ghaowei ba fa,aniaAbgkg'wo wai!-otumi a emi braki'o me a{mi. 'Omini aggnq oweu dlgha duod 'o pa ki kirii duo aran Uain yqqimi. Abgkq kpq deinne ni eken ba kgn bglgg owoumggha; tinmi'o mg kgri

aba, eni tgrybo gban e. Enf tgrubo a opoolo kpg Qa kgmg. Eni birabo kpg seriimg n! koro Tgmgaral kghg e ."

PART IT-IIING VOWEIS and b the erdiqg Put, thlE-lcttcr words were formed by prelixingway. suffixng a consomnt wttb tho rrnro vowcl. Now,lct us try anoiher

krppwg{cmi. Abgkq misi tin-birimi a timi taara dein baiQ ki'o dgh kgrg nana wgri kgn bglgg owoumg timi mu tin-birabo duo qlgrni.'O br misi .yq timi zini ma dein baimi; gbelei a sggnrgn dcin, kiri AbUkg fp bUleg
gUcinrnqmi.

77

f
i sonrdio kgn t1;a boomini ye, nein i mq {dg aba, e ba mamg kqn riFFi p.r Asiib 'a bsi kgn zgzq pdmi. timi bo {ni bli lami, Erefighaowei ba mumi.'O mu misi kiri disin uryd kgrgghl, sondie a dgn kgkg timi'o pri arimi.'Wo'a tqlg siinbo,
aba,

Instead of placing the sarno vowcl beforc artd after €, sa;fisr,.s&Eat, bansfer tho one beforo the consmmt to thc lrst position. For exarnple:*

abawillreadbz e& will readb*
baa

'o

kgNr

'O nnr vadi la a, Adaka mi gbai kpg wari a timimi. Adaka'o kqri aki siinbo, Erefighaowei mi dgnbo a kqni kgn bii gb€inmqmi. Adaka'o bimi, Erefighaowei'o p4gha timi zini ko.n bibi gb€inmqmi. Adaka timi bimini, "Mi ti €bi €y€ama o? i pridg i kpq'a fi rladii ma.n Erefi.ghaowei 'o peigha timi zini kgn ba fim!. Adaka gMg, 'Mi gbai kpq ye i prigha aba,'ye e mW zry nagha fa e." Ere{ghaowei bitlbi nein fi siinbo, kq mamgbo )o mg kgn'o primi. Adaka'a { di a, eyebo embglq hurgmg bg ni'wo Erefighaowei bimi, "Mi ti embgig eyeama o? Tiyo ki e mg duo'a nana ma o?' Erefighaowei gbami, 'Di ye, mi Abgkq bign afian-ama ye. Ye AbUkq bi ni'o bign e p4 de si, ye'a ko.n fidg ye." Arlaka'o bimi, "T! bra ki i mq timi Abgkq a4 *e4'o bggmini yan o?n Erefighaowei'o argmi,ndi ye, emlni pesigha {yd tin ye. E misi bra migng aba,'ye'o mo.mg boomini ye." Aniibo Ere{ghaowei'o mqmq nei-a dein kimi.'A zqzq brasinmi. Erefighaowei w4 bo timi Abgkq mq gbaleimi,'o gba Abgkq primi. "Mi-€mi Adaka eyg ki i mg duo bomini ye.Mi br$gg a neia dein pesigha fiy{'o mg kgn nanra ebee sg tiinmini ye. Emlni kpq bo ki gbami e." AbUkg gbam!, nAdaka warii kpo kimi mu la lamini ye?'Yeeken mugha fa e.' Eretghaowei gbami, "imini kpg duoni mu timi wai bo pamini ye mi, ti bra ki mig ni emini ki mg mu wgr! w4 bo a pagha fa o?n AbtJkq to bo biberinmi. kpir€in timi ng Timi bo ereiin lami, Abgkq mq Erefighaowei mq kqkq mumi-'A mu warii laabo, Adaka'a kgri akimi. 'A mu sgg alagha timi Ereflghaowei pri 'i bminl ye" gba wgri wqni pami- '.Omini mu sqwqiimq eyg E
d-ogrni. wEni padg mi, Adaka wari a gb-olg ka timimi' Abgkq duo paamq eyo fa. Adaka Ab+kq bgm!, "Wqri eni afianbo bigr ng k-on i fiimq e'" Ab9k9'o pargr{, oSee, ti bra kl mie ni emini ki i"i afia" ti {imq bra mi an o?

hlhg Wimqmi.

ber b99
mee m99

bii bii

boo beg buu bgg

nula

mrr mU moo nry.r mUU muu

sfi sii r* t"e ;;r * zaz zw zq ni 4l zao 14 zuu al$
see sgg

saa

PART rrr--SEgAENCE OF VOWETS There is still another way of forming thrco-letter words. &S iE can not follow any definite way a! tho oocc abovc. It is done by taking two
differeirt vowels together and plac.ing thern after any consonant. Look at the following:-

aandi:-

aandi:- b4 dd rai a and g:bag dary tag
i and a:- dia and kiali and
so on.

bai dai fai

ai, 4, ao, au, ag, ei, ei, eu, eB, ia, oi, gi,

ou, and gg,

There are only fourteeir given above. They may be more than thc above in other dialccts.

NOTE: Please do not commit the mistake of regarding the above as diphthongs because each may carry its own tone, wherreas with
diphthongs they would always carry only one tone.
S ECTION

'O

qmini eye kpg fa ini afianbo tpititpi[ ki emi o-7-1ni ebi eye ni i mq ryr{ni o.n Adaka'o bgmi, "E mi timi aremffi s9 o, €pg{ bci:nyai ki i ye efic ki kPodudumini ye.Kilai bign e."
76

IV -.F OA R.LETTER W ORDS There are numy ways of aniving at four-letter words but the rinciple given here is this; it is the reetition of two-letter words as follows:baba dede 5

flrarna

nini
sasa

o? Frnini gbade kimi arg bibi kgn o rTry a kommg e v!Fp9 dEin erni ki c kqtg

parfi,'Gesi
laabo'apki
Timi
ba

egberi ki i mq s€rirni.

a sggglia egberi

gh c primini yc.' Abghg'o bpf, 'Eni eye kgn wan gbamg.' A km bt$gt, tolng td tpi ofie

q gbui{

c dgn a|i tlni pd bira ?' Enillbrowci'o

zfiIA

CoryLic thc

rest bY Yourself.

SECNONV-FOXUATION OF WORDSWITE TIIE DIGRAPHS like It should be noted that the digraphs are used in forming words just nkpn nngn. The other two ngbn and thc other consonants, except "ghn and
arcnowusod.

gba gbe gbe gbi gbi gbo g@ gbu gbp @ kp€ kpg kPr kpi kpo kpg kpu kpg
W -V OW F,L NARM O NY

S ECNON

Look at the foll,owing words:-

ABC fpi s€ri erein ete

tabg kaoo gaqn ttla

grdg
Ambi
gggtti

tlkgk$i

b€reb€ gkPasg ggqimq
Whrtdid you notice? Now look at the table below:-

WIDE NEUTRAL
e

NARROW

i
o

.i

e

o

u

u

Frw the above, it is soen that the words in group A all fall into the nwIDE grorlp of vowols, while those in c fall into the'NARROW',
ttoup.

fto* itr B fatl into cither gloup. This is referred to "Vowol ftlfrny;. Tn most siryh wotrds, any vowcl after the ftst is always in
humny with it (ic. thc ffi
onc)

zini b4 la ni'a bo gbeleimi,'a ba timi wuru bot t@i mi, Erefighaowei gba Abgkg primi, "Angi{, kimi a,r,g bibi fgn i qpg mi aba i dgn aki ti-i p4 bira koromg i vgrp dgin emi !e." Abgkg bari'o fi;mi. Eref[baowei gbadg, nGerede egberi fi i np gbamini ye."'A lp bUtqtl teimg timi kgni efie laabo ,'a ba wasaimi. 'A yerin timi k€Nd bd lani, "a ba o gbeleimi. Mi Sbai Ab1kg nini lg gbein ogoun kp-o ko.n tga bo wgri emi.'A ba peretimi timi mini wru bou rcimini mi, Erefighaowei b bari gbadg,'fJni eygowei, di yc, ki-i arg bibi kg i vBre mi aba i dgn kgrpmg aki Li-i pdbifa koropg i rnlrp ania kq i kii dgin emi ye.o Kiri'wo atp pglgrnini mi, Abgkg nini lg gbein qgouu kgn'wo abebirimi a k€ni ak$ kiri a taara eyq trur ctq kimi.'Wo'o ki siin bo,'wo Erefighaowei wgri gbein aggnq ors ntu fami.Erefighaowei angqmi asinbo timi dalu dabu ki tgignini. Kr hrki to ma eten Sgin wgnimi. 'O wgni mu osi lar{,'wo osi bg mi, 'Sirci yc, bo€ni qhbo kgn ini eiro.gnbo gr19 e.' Osi k9k9 biberin wqri lwo agqpbo gggmi. Engpbo bo bibadg mi, F,refighaowei abebirimi bo gbi gbi ki timimi. Erefighaowei niini, Adaka mq eyg. Mis[ efiemi kiri bctri scri bomimi. Erefighaowi w€rli 'o bunr mumi. 'O mumini owqpi@, klni k$p ni kg'owggg disin wgri ye timimi.'Wo 'o di a,'o t-ua €mi ni 'wo 'wo anei-a dgn a{mi.'Wo'a tglg wgri kgn bglo.g wgnim@i. Adika warimi, odqU kiri ka opoolo sou wgri €mi. Wari bgbgtnl tpg Erefigbaowei duo mumini akgp ki dia emi. Adka kpg wili a tfuftni. Erefighaowei kiri mu warii duo sggg miEmini'mi,'o brtlqg kgni kpi @ kgn bibi gbinmgmi. Timi ba ?SW mi,'o marnq karamg ye kgn bibi gbeinmqmi. Adaka 'o bimi,"Ti €,y€ama ki e mg flnlni yu o?o Erefighaowei_'o pargmi,akpg eye atu bi $imi o.i 'A timi arpmini mi, 'o ba +i kgn bibi gbeinmmini mi, Adaka'o bimi, "Kgni kgn i Fi dadi :o a4rmi, "'Ye e prigha fa e." Erefighaorti kgkg ,ye-' Erefighaowei Adake di timi 'a s€ kgn fi simi. 'A tei timi kgni cfie lami, grciligDow€i '*o hsinni. Ercfigbaowci gbo Adaka pri wgri cmi, 'Ib i me wai boag
75

timi efin tu gbami.'A ba bo qgbg brmi,'o kpq s-oni.sqni cyce mig timi pa tuu qg gba' a primi. 'A Otongbolo bunr mu dggmini mi,'o ba kgn zini gbainmggm bg fa ni,'wo afq{ ki tEghErni.'O gbadg, " Afgti, mi-emi kgni opu eyee ki pa emi ni bou braa sg i kiri buru bomini ye. Ani duo-ni, ye {zo,n ebe a mumini mij tga f-ogn mu e, miki bou bra akpotumi! ma t-eiimini ye. Afgri kpg k-okg biberinmi. Di a, bou brami kgkg wan duo biri sei Otongbolo buru bomini. Otongbolo di a, di g@gha ni 'o keni tibi ka Af-ori @mi,"Mi-emi la ki ladg y€. " Agri kpg di a, ba efie kpoduumg tu fa. Kiri 'a bo eygg lami, Af-ori Otongbolo k-on puree efin !zo.n ebe a bodg. 'Anf efiee Fp-o si Otongbolo koro fz4n-otu mgyerin gbelei,'a br;d-on timi mi erein la emi ye. Mi kpq i nh wgri dB ni i mg gbami, i pEledg egbpri fa o-o-o-omiE Now arawer thefollowing questions in lzen 1. Was it by similar laughter that the Redless Tre Squirrel lost most of his toeth or it is natural with it? ? $[as it right forthe House fly to have kept flying into tho mouth through the anus, and back into the anus through the mouth, of the Elephant? your opinion, who do you think was the chief cause 3. In of the mishap' in the story? 4. Was it actually good for the Wind to have assisted Mosquitoe to escape from the danger that was approaching? 5. Expldn in iour own words the italicised expression in the passage.

LESSON 3

VF'RB TENSES
unfortunately, this is another topic in {z-on which does not eonuspond consistently with the English verb tenses. Howev€q, thma rre words which really indicate tenses, and they are given below.

THE PAST:
SECTION I--The Past Tense Th9 rast tense in {zgn is indicatd by suffixing omio to the verb afifoctod, and *ritten jointly with it. I-ook at these exartrples:Izgn Bo
Gba

Mis
Desi

Bain

English Come Say Do Jump Run

cbami Said Migmi Did

Pnsfr Tensc lzqn Engtish Bomi Came

Desim! Jumped Bainmi Ran

This is how the past tehse is formed in Izqn

To Be Beaten With Word Than Hand Egboi-o-o-o-o-o Alsgha bo Adotimi gbirain koro emi. Kgni efie Erefighaowei m9 Abgkg m9 eyg kgri werimi. Abqlg lU gbcinowei.'A yerin timi ng "a bo kgni eyp a gbelei, wuru pa a'a gbelei bou

(4) It Is More Painful

bakpf,i kiri'a wasai wasaimini. Mi brami'a mg yerin timi bo kgni b4 lami, ta timi mini ebe wuru bou teimii. mi, Ercfighaowei gba Abqkq primi,"Angiri,n 'ani Ablkq kilemi, "Kimi are bibi ko,n i vgrgmi aba, i dgn aki ki mi p4 bira koromg i vgrgg dgin emi ye." AbUkq'o b1d9 "Eyg, ti egberi ki e mg gbamini yan
tei, 74

SECTION II-The Past Continuous 'lhe past continuous teirse in Jzgn is formed by using 'timin with jointly but unitt€Nr s€pafttely from the word it goes-with. Look "min at the examples beilow, Tho words in soction I above are simpry repeatod hece. Parf Continu(xrf Tense English lzqn Izgn English Bo Come Bo tinaimi was coming Gba Say Gbatimimi was saying Mig Do Migtimimi was doing Desi Jurlp Desi timimi was ;umfing Harn Bain Bain timimi was runningNow give

3Peretimi

l.Bung slee,p ZFielarg ralk
sit

thre

past te,nse and past continuous tense of the following:-

4. ygg....to paddle

5. Wgni....walk 6.Z;1.... bearachild

F
kpgkoro z*ebaz€k€babainbouuduosg!ryi Nii ni' Otinikini kpq aqgg spn gbglqsi gbo.lesi timi gwgra t€biimini' Opu'obori nini 4l9tr diild* digh" bti" t9, bain timi mu Okirikini dan azs bq mu frdg' Eygoi NI oi, Opua"Uori Ofinitini emgbqs dan yainnnq wgri gil: g1pl bo kgn €neemq b'ra fa. Okinikini lpg -89 Oiriniiiini-a timi a seide, boumi uiCg, 'fiy" ki Opuobori atgiqtQ ai opl bain baiunini yrn o? Mi kpg htp oy" p. cnri-yc.' Eygmi'o dqnrrini brami hFq b99 duoni ,'o pabainmi. Egberi-o-o-o E-e'e-e-e- KPirasi kpirasi eghri {{-oI.liioi, Okinikini kor bain timi mu Perp*tain egbc ni, egbe brami qrp Udbiuoni PErEretain soi koromi. okinikinibainbglggamt Sdg' - 'Niini, rgo{oE kgi *qt oioaloto mi PErs*tairuni " bo Pgrpctain c.gbc-k@ u"'qU kpg *i wari buloumi a etni. Okinikini '"rri keni qbikr fi -i: ;"i;Okorikoko so.ngrrla awggbo warimi a ! "d si fimt-i"A si eyqduo !1.-i *ti Awao3bo dag m9 yinmq bo si ki ki fe"f i"gri,t"-i ;i ko'o eini bra ki'a m9 arimi.'A tu bi a, 'Okinitini c'' Pqrg{ain t+ U"i"i egbo ni, egbe brami tVtp UqQ ni'i mq soi koromi dqi oya kpg'a mQ -q gUfr.'A*i"i awqgbo dgg a, kgldi ki g sinng' arigha"A timi n9 ki kiri awqgbo'a mq arffi-:a sg nvqiq'cirotitoto ba ti"ti 4!i eve korugha' A pffi Pingii Phgii ni' seri lu-lou ba ogemi. Owei yougha yougha mi gtai €yoe bo hFgdf tibi fql tr-"'P I €Nro owei Okorikokomlni ta di a, di gbe.gha,'o bplo.g you gbel€imi''A you braa bo kgrp @ gbggha ni,'o koro mini ta

7.Mu SAnda

go

9. Eye gbein.....to sew

wrestlo

l0-Fiyai tgg...to cook

SECTION III-The Past Pedea ndgn or nngn jointly It is hard to get the past perfect in lzgn.But suffixing will give the past perfect to the verb affected, *d ryriting "Lf"separately in lzqn. Now look at these sentences:1. Obodou eYe

{dg ki'o -

bUnU

mi

Obodou had eaten before he slePt'

2.

Ebi<re'o weridq ki sUU Parni Ebi-ere nad iot"tiea him before the fight occured' 3. EbiPadq wgniPadq ki i bomi

**i

ry'

Ebipadq had walked out before I came 4. Obodo firii wEninE ki osuoo koromi bU"d" had done the work beforothe rain 5. Ebi-owei bUnUPg ki kimee Pami Ebi-owei had slept beforethe stdrm'

Sornctimesthewordnkiriniswrittenimmediatelyafter"kftoeffect Look at the seirte'nces give'n above with 'kiri" added'
"*phasit. 1. Obodou eYe fidg ki kiri 'o bgngmi 2. Ebi-ere'o weridg ki kiri sgg pami 3. EbiPadg wgniPadg ki kiri i bomi 4. Obodo fftii *e"i"e ki ki{ osuoo koromi 5. Ebi-owei bUngng ki kiri kimee pami
Now stndy this

duoni, bou brami bo b.enimi-

-9

table:English write Phy S"V

past pedect

lz+n G T; Cb" Si
Gb€i*
Fg; amu. -

TQni toUilttnrel- Tqninqki - .h'dli1to rnarket to go 6 mitttil Fgya-munq ki'nad gone
ioscw
Obcinneki
8

English lzqn hadwritten Gedeki Teideki na{ntgea Gbadqki ha{said. hadatt€Nrded oaneirdtoones Sidq ki to ones occupation ooatp"l,i- or duty
hadsew

.-Abobgrisinngmi,.aoweiokorikokobimi.oxyciotorikokopa bo'wo braa gba'u iiu-i. 'A peog*t"i" bi a,'O kpq Okinikini 5 bdg gbami' "A dilcimini egbeloromg braa gbami.:i bno*i"i bimi,'o }wgra tebii timi.Onu'oiori {*a ba enqg fi -gq sr;n gbqlgsi gbqlqsi timi bain boini abcbfuii d8n pri wan au, Lur".g ati,"L"i"u" kpe aigb" e'ne dan brami f-otp qq duoniini abebiri emgbggmi yai4mi c''Yc *i "i,'*oi u'"* g'Uggha nii mq *rt U.i" tihi *tt Pgrq-gtain €F YFt .o ptid99 kpq gbadg, " A diycimini t"-rd".:a uopuouori bia, ou-obori ki gw.ura ki tgbii timi emqmq pri wan duo abangba Ebanghr $anghl biibi efin boini bibi duo ,,tq *. Uign auo Pa, ba bign ero cfin cUQ bo nii mq d* p*,i-e. erremA-ba pglq kpg pete bqghfii di a" bdi e kqdq Uo AmAmq bimi, Amqmq kPq 4ini bain timi'm0 Okinikini.ifiti

".'e

73

(3)

efa$at Adotimigbirainko.t*i' - - Kimi !-L^-- mq y€nn . tg@g timimi e' Onrs€ri mf, otongpl'o u"" uigui ka gbcbighae. ---i;rri bo k€ni bai la a, qgQ mq otongbolo mq ki arp tei timi amqmq priboeYq lami. - KPirasikpirasiegbrioo arq tg timi bo kg'ni efie t*"i'*9-9}9ri Qgbe mq Ot"lg["f" tq (oln4, Otongbolo kiali Uira g@in mlni bibi a bo koromi. Aoaa.giJ ova' " rrr w€4 oy" yo*ni.'o gbad9,"-i*1**jl,d -ry9'"11mi ilnini mie -d-i"i-tibti kpg fgsn ova voumi' gsbe'o oV". " Ta. gbasi'oit'19 angq b99 ni'wo Sigtri timi oy" ot"Igutto, ti.ye ki-d ma o? Tive ki e me duo timi uit"i "i.

Being How Mocquitoes Came To Llve With Human Egberi'o'o-o-o-o E c'c-e-e'c-ce+

Give the

pa.st perfect

of the following:-

2.kqrt...
5. Sin

1. s9.... figbt

hold
save shave

6.korc... 7.Bibo...
8. qrki ..

fall
to gci eink in

thcriva

3. Brasin..."leave

swim

4.h19...,

...

9.8a..,
10-k9...

tqkill
pare (to cut fingernails)

Excrcis€ I . Give the past t€,lrse of each of the words giveir above-Section Itr 2. Write them in the past continuous tenso. 3. Give tho past perfmt of the words in section tr above.

il'itFi

dtffiro

G*i"i;*"{-'ittlt,

SECTION IV-The Past Pedcct Conlinuous The past perfect continuous is obtained by writing the give't word s€parately from its past continuous t€nso.
Look ar these examples:-

oYrYoumini Yan o?" Otongbolo'o pargmi' "qgbg, di yejmini u*iyti PT-t

a

timi efie m!'

bo anda.yq

mi buqbo rrrui + ;i ;-ipi *q"9-" egbemu.*i *g"iti " sal|'o pebi arq kps are pEle$a iik iq *eti."d"-G;*;ryi;.ib-;bq bo pe'lgryri' timi k€ni ou dgri G$"1 Dgri a, pgldL bqgha'Tffi I'o pami e k€ni kq-ni, e .wo otongbol" bi;1.-"i ot""iur",; kpa d;ti@ egteml kqn €ni kqinkqin rcri a mu anoa-uJra w€ri ni "*iti *g"qn* *gt| -ot-titi a mu timi rna o?n $@-b99 tpi rpq f" Ueqb" k{i+g
dbu

i

L; k.;'t bimini mi' 'o w.ai defi a birat4nni. ni' Ameme -o b15'A o' gbg' e "-t';ti Asbs d€rim$;""ti ol'tntono: la ka vai vo-o-3 deri dsfnini b*tti k-,fr bq{ t::-il"i"b" duoni sBg rpq,i b-ogha fa a. E mi-emi to.n ttrni 6i akabo a*i'pri pffi m'ye a
ugqkgriYo'" kgni aka p-logl -: Amqmq a kpq a pqlgigha -'s.o lua bibi#GQi**i bo,lgbg di a ene ebgsha"o kil4 efin .uedf. Amqmrg faaeabne q sob efin yqrgi timi bo opu-obori admi' cy99 duo s"rimi, o lii"i mtr opu-oboribibii duo Opabori Uwpa ki tebii timirni o*Fq "tio efin sUQ mu bo'wo bibfl duo syg kpi tiUi a muTiEe" Auo p"' U"-Uibp
Ci,i,

Izqn English Past Contintmus Past Pcrfect Contintmw (zqn) Gzo.n) bo botimimi 8o... come bo timimi Gba... say gbatimimi gbagbatimimi Wgni... walk wqnitimimi wqniwgnitimimi efin efintimimi efin timimi' Efin... fly sting tein timimi tein teintimimi Tein...
Now do tho same with the following:1.

.

2. Tubo.. to

'

11.sqi..' dance write price 12.Olo miq... play 3.TUa...puton l3.Tqghg... PxaY l4.Kari... worshiP 4. Dibi...bury 15.Si.-. (exPlained) 5.Fi... eat
Gg...
6. Tein...shoot

fri. --'6.uo.i

tii'"'111r*:. kqn'o migmini brami eire a €'!re o? Amo'me pa:mr gbtfhi.:Ottioi tlio UtOt, "tiv: fi-i boumi a 1an kqn bslqu bulqu ki Amo'mq pae \ppg tf rni t td;ht;''.'o di a' pdni"micvsi ma timi vani fade vc'" 'o
ki,g
i

etttqtttg ba p9l9 kpg pels

bqgha'

7-Tgin... flow
8. Gbo.lg...box

16-Fitri... 17-Fielarg...

op€rl

ralk
cK)ss

18.89in...
19.Furu...

9. Kgn... take

steal

l0.Gbein...throw

20.Kai...

lock

ffiffiilij'o;;-;{il'Gg

72
(

9

]-

LES$f'&N 4

TimitFi bri bmi,timii

rnaerebo

srrmi.Izf

crErnamini ymfuan

TIIB PRESEI{T:
SECflON I-Thc Pruscnt Shndo It is vcry difficult to get the preseirt simple in IzQn unliko thc othertenses trcatod, tmless it is give,n in seirteirces such as the ones below:Present Simplo English
I talk everyday

rEdml,'

E

I eaf everyday I sleep every night I brealhe ev€ry mom€,nt

lzgn 'Ye ereinbo tYe ereinbo

sg

aarymini

sg a €ye

fimini

! deinbo s9 a bgngmin! 'Ye eseribo sg a einba saragmini

SECTION II-The Present Pedcct ndgn or nng" The present perfect in Izo.n is obtainod at by suffixing either to the affected verb- and writing it jointly with it. Exarnplesr

English lz.gn Izqn do Mi€ Imiene Vgrp b€at lvgrgdg G9 (explained) Igde tie Fina I {nang Bain (explaind) [ bainng Kdi... z.Fgia...
4.

Presqt Perfed
English lhavedone thavebeate'n lhavewritten I havetied I haverun

pgn kimi a, cmfii cai &ro bo cyg ncmigha. Wri $idi cni nema 6[61p1t c. Emini nama ki tggn. Yc e,ni nama-ozimi arigha ni c mgmq i yci nana wgri emi ki tgn." A Uo mini angg a nemi ni d yci {ni €mi tnr $r tlmi pridg bra nemimi. A Ua Uinl fiegha, 6 \pirein tai fi-inni. Dein korodg mi,6 yei 6 rnemg bgng €Nni 4,A6yei @i. ' Yc ini emi braa gba pamgng e, wgri ini nama-ozii kp i pri e.' Yeimi kqtq {ni aama-ozii dibi wgri eygg duo 'o sou pary wgri'o kgn a primi. A 'o di a 'o bo budukubuduku ba kain kain ki fadg. Ania 6 pa'o tglq xrFi'o kgn tUa di a , pa mukpg te.tgmg mu mini ebe a sgg la emi: A,'o t{q sinng mi, k€ni d€in fmttyej tin perctimi wgri gba'o diAmi. 'i yci qye i mig ka mi e, ania mi-€mi mi, e ba i nana @3gha drmi 'ye yc hr.trrrng ye. Ebi tgrg tpa ini awggbo di e. Ye i tari kgpNng Ua i nq fpg yerindi ka wgri mi e. Ania \imi tgb-og eye miekiri kirimini ni c mp ni fpii wgnimi e. Ani ki bgA kg,'ye e mW zi awggbo eken mr i ryq wan yeringha fa e. Ani duoni 'ye eni peneE ken n1a mnrgba fr c. Mi koronlg bglgl a mu mi, ghdai gba kimi pri agUgghr qgbqi h gfb kl{ pri tgmg e. ! mung e, bai ye." A n4 Ura gh siinbo 4'wo brasin wgri deinmi r4ni bou sqqmi. A mu:lni €b€o lad€ni,'ad beriye akibaoge ggbidprimi. Kimii b9 nini pgp yerin kgn bglgg yerimq timi bo'rc li crcin
lami.

hg

Now give the preseirt perfoct of thdfollowing:6.D9n9... pluck 1. 7:Ier:i-.. roast 8.Yo.gpa... send 3. Firimg...

Mi lpe i na weri d+ ni i mq gbami, i p9l9d9 E++,+,+,+*x,<-e-

qgberi ba fa

o+o.o,

weed(grass) close

travel
pay

l.
3.

Now answer

tIrcfollowing qucstions in lzgn

Was it wise for the rnarr fs have refused the aninral,

Gbala...

carry a baby

9.Gbg...

tur€dinto humanboing,oftheslough heharolbclod?
Do you also believe that ft6 man's hter prqrerous life wrr nrade possible by his second wife? Have you sm anfthing similar in real life? How do srd
poople live,

5.Eyg

f,...

makefrieirds

10F9... ,\

buy

if your answ€r to this

4.

you give any convincing example ? If &e man hd revealod the socrctto his first wifc, *'hat& you tbink wouldhavcthefrtcof furm? Wbat candid hssondo you derive ftmtheposcago

Ercctlon is pocitivu?CouH

10

7t

(2)

The llunter And The Sow Egbcri-o-o-o-o- E-ee-€-c-c

SECTION III-The Prescnt Continwus
given word. Examples:-

AlShbo Adotimii gbirain konr eini. Klni @ kfi boutcin-owei kgni,ima a tinfmi-'Omini bou timi oroupa ki podt;'o sing'wo €ye bagha timi wari bomini bai-fa.'O nagha eyg kpg ba fr- bou-biraa sg ba izqn ebee sg kpg'o nang. K€ni bai )o rna bou teinyg mumi; akEnb{ .'Wo owggg duo sgg mu timi kEni eyq 14 a, owggmi bo mamg ki piidg,'o kgn-obira akgg duo sggni. 'O wgri slg na alagha mi, eye wgni fiong bra'o mg narni. WgNd brrmi'o disEgha duoni'wo eyg do.g sgwgimi.'O sqwqi emi mi, kg"i "pt €ygrp gnrbi ki timi wgri bomini bra ki'o m9 arimi. Kiri'omini sibeye kai wEi'o tein d-ogmini mi, mi -ombimi'o di timi timl d"irq.A"i "ygrp nama ozimi d mg kgn eyg dgg sgwgi wgni anrami fgg tuboyg a mumi. A mung mi, kimimi mu mi narna-oai k-on reri wgni ** a -urr4. A mu fou tubo timi w4 bomi,6 ba 6ni naura-ozimi adgha. Bourni 6 rna ririni t$rp dpU s9 ko.n'o dggmi, d'wo arigha. Kirni ki'o kgn wgri emi btl d bo mg ko.n tu a ororomi. Ani duoni 6 ani eyebo sg koromg wgri wal nmrymi a tu dgg eyg mumi. A tu Oo.g timi bo'o ko.n wgri emi bgmi arini. A kgn'o qghggha pa kpg fa, ania timimi bo.gha-. fumi-:a b zqz7 nrnuA bra btberinmi. Mi ma kimibo koro zgzg nanami. A lr4 mugha dmf, dni avgrbo mg ba wariotubo mg tgr$ di timi bo dginng ni , d kiniotu ti pd baOe b'ra E akimi. 'A yerin timi awggama zimi. Erema kpg yerin ebi fa. Timi kgN{ bai hmi,kimimi bglgg ercrnamini yei bimi. " A i yei, tiyq ki e mg duo mi crcma nana bo ma o?n Kimimi zini bra gba 4 diagha. Timi ba zini bai la ml, { ba'o bimi. nA i y.i, sisei ye, e dug mi ererna nana bo eygg gba i dia o.r A yei 6 bimi, "Tiye ki e nlg duo bimini yan o?n A 'o pargmi, n'Ye i yanfaran duo bo eyg nemigha mi ebigha ki tUBn."Ye aniki duo nerri dgt mini. Ti bra ti mie ni ma kimi kqni yei nana weri emi aba, mie rimi ?ere a$t nemigha timi yerin gbeleimini brami an o?" A bi braa bo kgrgdg, d ba duo bimini tuu kpg pei a ebi emi duoni , yeimi kgkg gba a

The present continuous tensc in lzan is obtaino<t by sufiixing

-T

sini

tstbc

{

English lzqn Iqn English Gba... say gbamini I am saying I WEni... work I (firfwgnimini I arn *orting G9... write I am writing { gnmini TUg... cook I am cooking I ryqmini Endi dgg..do fishing 'Ye (ki) endi dggmini I arn doing fishing Tolurng teach {tolumgnini larnteaching
SECTION IV--The Present Perfect Continuous The {zgn preseirt perfect continuous te,nse is arrived ar by doubting ltc verb and adding the preseirt continuous suffix. Now look at tbcsc

Present Continuaas

examples:-

{zgn Gba:.. say Fie... talk Gb€in... sew Mig... do Sgrg... wash

English

Present PcrfeA Continrmu English lqn ] gba gbamini I have boen saying { fie fiemimi I have been ra*t"g { gbein gbeinmini I have boeir sewing I mig migrnini I have beeir doing { sgrg sgrymini I have been washing
continrrcus of

pggrxgta
aba t[

diami. Nama duo dei bo kimi pa wgri 'o pq nana e,rema,,mi kimii 11rig , aniki 'wo ani emi haa gba kimi prigha fa bra duoni. A tpq ba kiali mini ama a muumq onoro UlUi A*"i

Now give the present continuous and present perfoct following:l. Tin.. to call 62i... 2. Kedi... to pluck T.Bqiat 3. kpa... to stoer acano€ s.Biyen fi... 4. Ororo... to think 9.Tei... 5.Y-og... to paddle lO.Gboro-..

t[c

tobarachiH
to fetch water to sw€ar to play
to plant

bo

Wyqktimi

bgqdg.

"r"ughajtiki

70

1l

LESSON 5

PART II
Thc Fufirre
at by lengtheningthe verb and adding

COMPREIIENSION
folbsing qu34jl@

Listcn to thi$ passage carefully and aoswcf thc

SECTION l-lhe Slmfu Fntue The sirplcfutur€itd* it Jt"O -minito il.EmnPIcs:'

(1)
po.g

SirnPlc Future

WhyThecricket'sTeethArcSlnged? Ekirikiri r4 Atggkudu mq timimi.'A ycrin timi kFi lr ffii' kgoi "n" '"'"y" r"gti-qgl.. El{{ki4 gba Atggkudu Prini,' A Atglhdu' "r"u rno eirrUi y"-" Atggkudu kpq bib€rinfti'Ani &oni'a wini Uodi ya r"o
*

Iz.qn...

Mu... go
Buou...

English Wi

nslhh

sleep oki... .Jt"

ss...

Imuumini I shall go ltgn1umini T1"{will.sleep Yb;kiimini fh"tt.:Y:"

'

eyee

dk A!e-.. "-h,

{-'uu^i"i lh: Yiu.fsht 'Ye arggminf I shalltalk

.to SECilON II-Thc Fttture Pedea ndgo or nngn the is $rmed by-zuffixing Thc futtrne perfect i" t; gt"* *.ti^."d wdting "ki" separar3ly.' Exnmvles:' before night falls. ^ shall have come I I bodg ki ouio xoioiini I shall have slept before his arival bfrngnE ti'o il"^i"iI

kpg'a mgb.eb"-kpq kgni opuar biqbi"A €mhi sinng-mi, Ekiritii glu Aiqi,LOopti,ti, "B-ulgg mi tqami oki b€in b99 ki mi oprmru tqa Uirpi fii"ti"i y"." atESzuCu kpq kqkg ba biberinmi"A koro okimi' rA lA'oki-ti-i nq kgni in" umi, EkfiHri Atqgkudu tirrmi' 'A oki Atggkgdu mi-€mi 6 bomi!i?" Atggkudu'o pan;mi, 'I bo.mi{ ye'' miai t#ik€"i efie lami, Ekirikiri ba Atggkudu tin didg, 'A Atg-utudu lo p*;*i, "I bomini ye'" ania prg bibiai cycri e uomlnff" Atg-ukudu kiri a mung. fr{i m'a mQ kqn arg z9z9 pri timi bo kgt{ "1" t" u".*.gh". Eki4ki4'o tin kpg, kpirein--bs bibi fiegha' Niini'

" koromi. pqg ladg mi,'a koro €Nrlbimi. 'A €mbi timi dqin kpq kfni 'A
-u

"

-i'

Fulare Pcded

Izgn..- English Kign... count

Kin... S9.." 8a...

hew

Konr--. fall
ngbt

Izqn 'O kienne ki t rinne ki 'O korodqki

'A

sgdq

ki

kill

A badeki

Englhh He willhave counted I shallhavehewn He will have falleir They wilf have fought She will have killed

Atggkudu beniPrl Ygimq famgng. oki @in wqri feni tUa tebii ba misi opunru FgFmi' Ekirikiri 'Wo'o nbi" -i-e mi,'wo 'o kqn qmi. 'O po.wgi k-ureNnq @ &mi'o m9 dEri kip kia timi mini andil kon mu bgr99 dpg'wo 4t9ry yq,l" inirin kudfi €dti y€. Mi i na wqri dU ni i mq ghmi i pelede qgDcti

bffi

mfq

ba fa o o

o. E--e--+-ff-

1 2

Now answer

thefoilowing qrcstions in lzgn

Which other title would you like to give to the lnssage? What reason(s) do think cricket had in mind fc zuggesting swimming across the river first before eating the only

fruit of

thcir

labour?

3srhatwiilyousayahoutAtg.ukudu'forhavingagrcodtohavc
undertake,n such veirture? \Idat will you say about the way cricket and

'Atggkqdu' thinks resPectivelY
5

?

6

What lesson do you derivo ftrom the passagc? Do you think it was a retribution effectod bt Ctod to crickct for having its t€cth singod or it was jurt rn aocident?

69

t2

while counting. Hence, in issues of age determination, those who were bonr in a yftr in which a particular event occurred are declared elders to those who were bom after such €v€,nt, and similar issues are settled in same way. Geirerally, there is the counting of a year ago, two years ago'five yea111 ago; that is,'Kgni kgrai @dg, ma kgrai bqdg' sgilpn a k.urai b.odq
etc

SECTIGN III-The Fature ContinaorN The future continuous tens€ is obtainad by by lcnthmnimg ahff hst vowel of the audliary verb "timin and writing -mini jointty to it. How rhrdy the following carefully. Fulure Continaous English Engtish lryn lzqn ,Ye Oki... swim oki timiimini I shall be swinrmlng
kC

Note that in place of bqdg','padg'could as well be used. Wheir referring to an ev€,lrt which is yet to come, two differeirt phrases are available for use; either ofthem could be used. They are:.........K9 or Mi bglo.g a ... ........ The number of days or period should bc ins€rted in the blank spaces. For exarnple, Ma dein kq' or Mi br$o.g a nn dein; that is, more two days or in two days time. Simailarly, weeks, months or y€axs are countd in
same way.

G9... Ar9...

bgng... slee,p W€ni... walk

Write talk

Irbt"t timiimini I shall be sleeping A wgni timiimini She will be walking .Oggtimiimini Hewillbewiting
A arg

timiimini

They

will

be

talking

SECTION IV-The Ffiurc Pedect Corrtinuous The fun:re perfect continuous in Izgn is arrived at by writing the giveir word twice separately adding timi and suffixing it with nne", and nriting "ki" separately. Ernnple:'Ye'o mie mie timine ki dein I shall have been doing it before night falls. ge gE timing ki eneiin laamini I I shall have been writing before the day.
Now study the table below.

Futare Perfea Contintuus
English !4n 'O gba gba-timing ki He will have beeir saying Gbcin...sew A gbein gbein timing ki She will have been sewing S9i... dance 'A sei sgi timing ki They will have been dancing Pei... listen I p€l p€r timing ki I shall.have been listeiring Tun... sing I tun tun timing ki I shall have beeir singing
Gba...

Iryn

say

English

Note the use of 'nnen inst@d

of

ndg" suffixed

to timi,

because

it

is

nasalis€d whe,n pronounced. This is because the nm!.of ntimin is nasal.

68

13

LESSON 6

SECTION III-Mmths

PRONOUNS
SECTION

l;Pcnorul
Slngdcr
Ye E;

Plural
O; wo/ owo... We

Again, therc is a diffenence in the traditional or hmr rnontb and the civil caleirdar in respect of the months in the year.Whilrc thc ciyil calcndar has twelve months in the year, the traditional has thirteen. Bascd on this information there is no correlation between the rcnths of thc civil calendar and thal of the traditional, but they are written down below.

I ..2ndperson: Y€..- You 3rdperson: ',O;'wo; owo He/[t She A...
lst person: f;

4... 'A...

You They

t.

1

January.."

Ebi aggmg+wei

-do-

These are the personal pronouns in IzQn' Study how

pro.cediilg There is one-point wiich ought to be treated fi'"t b€fore p€rson singular, it could be further. In the first persc*r plural and third d.t td that "wo/oio' app"at. In the dialect used, botb are preseirt but

ft?

T"

preseirted'

2 Febnrary... Birernqkiriry 3 March... Konu mo kiri mo 4 April.". !mgnemiwgriaiturugba 5 May".. Bou seinto okenyeir/I(efere 6 June.." KalaOkeyen 7 Opu Okeoyen...Opu 0keyeir

I August...

KalaAwaran
OpuAwaran

'wo'

shall always bo used anytime the need arises'

9 September.,.

Ijtusseehowtheaboveareappliedinseirte,nces.Firstthe ffrsLsocd and third p€rson singular'

l0Octotrer... Spgnuoweiyai
1l November... Bunibiriyai f2 Dece,mber... Benieyeri aggng-orei 13 Seiagqngorei

tnolv

bs@tls A f mugfu--. ldidnotgo
E

gbadg?--- Have

A uggha,.. 'O brtnUng... . Hehas slept; orlt has slept

You said it? Shedidnot agree

NOTE: Rernember that the traditional months do not exactly corrcspond

with the civil calendar.

SECTION fV-lteSeasons
Thene ale principally two seasons; narnely, the rainy scason and the dry s€ason. These arc respectively known and callod as 'Osuo ofic' and 'Baaraa efie. The Osuo efie is sometirnee designated'Buwei cfic'Ihar is, period of flood wliile that of Baaraa is 'Beiri eyeri efie';that is , period of

B'Yeendi badq"' lhavekilledafish
Ye 'o

badg?.-' HaveYou killod it? A okidg.-. Shehas swum
'Wo'o miq{ni.-.
He did

it

low water. word beginning

-f;ry sorre other wotds oo yoru own

NAIE:Thepersonal psonouns used in A always pt""{-" a vor'el' This is with a consonant ornii" tho*. in B a word beginqing with one used ,pgUjrc 1o any other dialoct(s) of lzgn which is similar to the iathisbook.Buttb€thfudp"oo"singularforfernaledoesnotobcythe or vowel. ,1o""; it takcs both cascs-iord$ beginning with a consonanJ
as treated

SECTION V--Years Years could be qnnipulatd to correspond with thG B.C md A.D systcrn of counting with the civil caleirdar, but traditinally suc,h is not in
practice. As thcrc is no markod or gcncrally rcccptd cvcnt rvhich cqrld serve as a base of oouting, references are mrdc to .somc pruormcod events

abovc'

SiJ pov lacvisit

thc

plunl personal Pronouns'

t4

67

LESSON 23

CALEIVDAR
DAYS Thc fzqn wock c Mitimat week doo not tally with the civil cateirdar. It has cigbt days as follows:-

A

SECTION II-PlamI O baFmi ... Wcru

AUainmi... YouSbrrn A bainmi .". Theyran

B

Wo okimi

a

okimi...

...

A okimi A okimi

... ...

We swam You swarn

1@ rwam
Sho swEm

SBCTION I-:Thc Treditimrl W€€k

NorE: In section l1 A
{D

2 Biribsi-". the middle day or day in-betweeir 3 &ryygbai-.. tkdaypriortomarketday ,f Akinboi-.. themarketdaymdayofrest 5 Akintgmreai 6 Btufroi 7 FWySbai I Atinboi It is obsavod thrl trcro are oly four days which have names that are rcpearcAty ountsdto mke up the eight days in the traditional woek; and therr are forty fiva (4t srd trditional woeks and about five days in the y€r. Bofh days aad th traditimm ryo* aro us€d in cormting days accordtng tu sitnlion ordesire" So we oftahsarpoople saying:Me doin bgdg; sgnry a dein bEdq; ma fqr b9d9; taraa fgg nrg nein a
dcin mg

t Atpf .monai... the day aftermarkd day

dialat.

above, as already preseirted, o tatcs t word beginning with a consonant while n'',on takes a word beginnrrr8 with sifh€r a consonant or a vowel. Know that the thftd person singular feminine has the samc tm vith the seond person plural-high tone. The above is precisely hor' ths personal prononns are usod in the

SECTION lll-Posscssiw Singufar
lst

Person:

Mine:

ror only one ob.iect for more than ono object

--do--2nd Person:

Yours:

@nwhfrt rcryGrtiycty ureans:Two days ago; five days ago; two rnarkets ago; thre ma*ets and four

Eniye... Enaiy{... F.Br.ii..

foronly oneobjoct formorc tttanoncdirt

-do--

days ago.

3rd Person:

Thc CiYil

SECTION II-IacCHWnk Uf6*, as gmal$r known, has seven days. Unfortunately the,re is no exacl y,uds in lzqn for these days but they could be read as folbws:l.Smday.-. Kaq bai
2-Mmday-"3.Trmday...Wednesday...

Plural Ist Person:

IIiV Its: 'Woye/ 'Oniye for on_ly onc objGet Woyay''Oniya/'On4...fin morc one

Ours:
Yours:

Woye... for only one object Woy{... for more tlian one obirt Aniye... foronlyoneobject Aniy4... for more rhaa one obJoct

2ndPerson'

.Br$qBbai

Mamolkramobai Taq Karamobai

5.Thrsday... 6.Riday.-. 7-SaUday...

Neinldanrn bai
Sqnrgn Karalno bai

3rdPerson: Theirs:'AqiJlc... foronlyoneoblf 'Aniy{ for morc tban w obJd

'Ani.....-..
15

{-

Embofoufai

6

I

3rd

Person

Hers:

Aniyo... for oniY

Itii'.i...

Anai...

one object for more th,ur on€ object

4.

.... gbadg....

gbeleimini

Our

-do--

say-thar poltergeist sornetimes come acmss human bcings. 5. ....tolu....seinigbq ...-. gh" Trial by ordeal does not always show a otlprlt:

fihcrs

SE

CTION IV

-Intcrtogdiv e

Which... Ti,endi Who-'- Tibg,Tibqkqd -do-Whom...
Whose...

G

TibqYeni'TibqkqYeni

In sent€nces:-

Whichhouse? Tiwarini?"' mie ni?"' Who did it? drq ki'o fiUqtqyenif"' Forwhom? is this? Mitild fq arunif"' Whose shirt pronouns in Izan are almost Note that tnu t n*tatioo,oith"'io,""rogative
the same.

6. ...mi a.....timi.....-ni? Who didnotmeet withany man before concqfion ia rhis wsIS 7. Meri......rni It was Mary who did not meet with any man before conception' Igho did Jesus die for ? 8. ........-ma? diod forthe whole world Jesus 9. ...q ......mi fO. .......tari...mi He said ererybody should love in his neighbour 1 1 .... .ki ...-kimi.....-ni? Wnat aid ni say tnat will happ€n to anybody who keeps €nmily?
12.

..--..ni,...a....

13.
15.

.....-aba...."--iti If

14. ........ a

I(alyad..

rna.....ni?

That p€rson will not go to heavcn holy water is sprinklod, it expels evil spirit' Where did they crucidy Jesus (to death)? At a mrmrain callod Cahnry'

SECTION

Adjoctiws This (1) That (2) Th€s{3)

Tlios{4)

of 1 and 2'respectivoly' But NOTE;Know that 3 and 4 are the plurals
togcthcr. Hcoce, we sometimes hear-

I

and2couldstill.beu'.oirwhatisrefcrlodtocanbe<nllectivelytaken

3 instead of 4 Ani wo nmaarna,
MiPgrgoycama,
instead of

Bso

h

PEr'g eyeama; aad

'Anai bo wo narnaanra

t6

65

I.ESSON

ZZ

LESSON 7

RELIGION

PRONOI'NS CONTII\TIJED
Personal Pronouns in the Ac{ive and Passive Voice NOTE It is difficult to get the Passive Voice in fzgn. Thereforc, what is preseirted below as the Passive Voice should not be taken for it.

'4

General SECTION

Plurul Singalar I Wo;Omg;Womg...Wcps lstPerson:'Ye;fm9... Me A; A mp...........You 2nd Person: E; E mg... You 3rd Person: 'O;'O nq... He,tlim,It 'A;'A mg.....They[hcnt '

A: A

"te...

She

SECTION II lst Fersan Singular 'Ye okuboo ko.nng 'Ye eirdi bade
Exrmples:l. Emini ti karibgg ka erri ni? Which religion do you belong to? I belong to traditional religion z.Imini oru ki karimini of "onr kari" to mean traditional religioa would be (NOIE The use
offensive to some PeoPJen'Wo dagotu k@ b99") I prefer the the following to it. "fzgn KaribBg" or Does swearing actually kill? 3.Biett pei k9k9 timi bamini?

Active Voice
I have takeir the money - Active I have killed fish - Voice

PassiveVoice Okubomi i mg kgnm! The money was takeir by rne

Endiimgbami
lst Ferson Pluml Wo eremaarimi

Fishwaskilledbyme
Active Voiee We sawthelady
We have done the work Passive Voiie The lady was seen by us The work was done by us

o q4i

wgnlng

.Wyqa

pei bign

5. Woyin-tpi

kiini ba diamgnini

Swearing tlrat done secetly does not

kill

Seeing Black blind snake is a bad omeir

Eremao mg arlmi Flrimi wo mg wgnimf
SECTION

Exrmples:l.Dadi-owei ........€lni Dadi-owei is possessed by "Benikurukunr" 2. Mi ... rni..ki.....i ke-ri-".rni Many people Ynestled with mo in my dream tast night 3. ....rry......,e.tinmi aba'obqrni arq seirng .....mini Do[d mtion anybody's naine' if you do the person ryill sue You fa chencfer assasination"

III
ActiveVoice
You have given birth to a baby. You have swunn acmss thcriver PossivcVoico

2ndPenon Singular
E tgbo.g zidg

E tgrymi oki bginng
TVbqU e mg zidg

TAqmiemgoki bginmi

A baby was borne by you The river was swum across by you)
17

&

ZtdPerron-Pluml
A furuowcikgride A gbclci finuowci vtpgrni
Furrrowcimi' a mq kqrimi'

Active Yobe You havc caugbt tho

thicf

Nowdothe following:1. Kirmi €kis€diri ........
2. ..-ki .-d€in emi yan?

You beat tho thicf jointlY

Slorn'c linimenrt shrivels a swollen part. Who is tho bcst masscur ia rhis towl?
Thc corpc hrr

PassiwVobc
Funrowcimi a rfigvgrgmi
The thief was @ught bY You The thief was jointly beateir by you

3.....&gn....n9

ba takcn to nsttary.

SECr|ON

IV

3rdPenon-'Singtbr
'Otpbo.g,t darimo.mi

ActiveVobe He rebuked the child
Shecookedthe food PossiveVoice The child was rebuked by him The food was cooked by her
Activc Voice They killed fislt They alldidthe work

s

A qv"iitsgrni

Iryorrumdhcal€d? 4.Eni.....d9? Thistrbhisinsipid 5. Mi.... ki emi Ala-ere has Ebdtd hcr pqnrey 6. Ala-ere ....Jrg. 7. Ala-ere ---.---. Ala-ere usually suffer from hard labour in chiH dcliv€ry My carbuncle is thmbbing prinfully. 8. .... -vamuvamu.-. Jnini Intestinal wonns could cause one to bem lcu. 9..-.-..rniniyo IncubusmHtill. 1O. -....a........erni

T$ggmi'omq darimqmi

Fiy.i-i

i-q,itg-i

3dPcnon-Pfurol 'A cndi bami 'A ry firii weoi mi
Endi'amgbami Firimi'a s€ mq wgnimi

PassiveVoice
Fish was killed bY them The work was done bY all of them

SECTION V-Passive Yoice Continued Thepa.ssivevoicein[zgncouldeverrbeeasilyexpressedbytheuseof passive voico the word "Pri", so *" ot* hear people speaking in the the with it. Now look again at the iollowing se'tences--the ones in passivc voice of all what we have just tr€ated above'

lst Penon-Singabr

okubomiiP4tqnmi Endiipdbami lst Pcnon-Phral

(1) (2)

The moneY was takeir bY me Fish was being killed bY me The lady was seeir bY us The work was being done bY us

(3) (4)

Eremao pri arimi Firimi o pd wenimi

18

63

'Exercises:1.

Ifthe boil has festered,
ki

please bave
e ra ma

2. E butlFsci moo, tiye

o?

it incis€d. oteinmi tgadg aba,'o kubu e

2nd

You look einaciatd, what is wrong with you? 3. Ofimqc eyc Qgha timi aladg aba, arru pr! oyamomini"y" regnqgnant lady goes withour cafid f* u ro"g ". i'imJ,rh" usaly

2nd Penon--plural

(5) TgbqUep{zimi A baby was being bom (6) Tgrgmi epri oki bgfnmi _- river was being swum by you The
Funroweimiap{kgrimi
Funroweimi apri gbelei

Penon-singalar

across by you

(8)

O

vypmi

1'$bq{"i anggga The chitd is sick. l'Tiy"ti tgbgBglamao? whariswrongwithGchild? !.1\fa.aweuve ki oyam-omini ft is suffering ioT.Jpapakaawuunmini "*"ot.to' I yawn frequently e dgnmini yan? Are you suffering iiom any pain? !. F_tq 9.'Ye asin asin ki bignmini iarn sufferin"e m_ frr*trry
10.

sUfre13

6ep dizziness.

The theif was being caught by ySu The theif was Ueing jointly beaten by you

s

Kiri'ye

aya aggno.woi seri

w9{ erni.

3rd Penon-singular (9) TBbgBm!'o pri darimgmi The child was being rebuked by him (10) Flyaimi a.p4 rr;gmi The food was being cooked by her 3rd Perxon-plural (11) Endi'ap{ bam! Fish was being killed by them (12) Firimi'a s9 pd wgnimi The work was being done by aII of them
is one drawback with the use of 'pri'; it is this. It sornetimes distorts the meaning and substance of some sentences. In rine with the above, senteirces I A $, tO and, l2suffer from this defect. In senteirce , money is attributed with the right or power to preveirt me f from taking it but did not use it.
as

eni angg lgg a Their, go and massage your body. i dgnzggwari ka muuminiNo,l would rather go to hospiral 14. E bign ki blgnnini aba, blg,ndiri bou e Ifyou are suffering ftom diarrhoea, take a purgalive. yamini My ear is irching me l:'Btili i l6.Angolokgn'osgglge Tickleitwithstubborngrass " l7. fngfiai{gn -g ggoporei mg ba m!_emi papa kimi k94sh;. small-pox and chickenpox do not affect poople frequently nowadays. i" ,ingwo.mz !!. fife ti tw fin Tggmini yan? unar is 19.'Ani prkimi birisei sare ka mi. Thar "rra g"t, leper "*ir! urfiofri *"ity 20. E lila gbcin rx)o, ye ofuru pglg eirri yan. spit often' are you newly pregnant? 21. amgloloku @ibg ki *. r"oo Mumps is contacted by making mockery of a victim
12.
13. Angbai ye,

r..yeangskis€riimini rj-t:liiHffiJff613yAniifn,mu

NorE

There

pfevent them from working b"t dii;;;;;ir pres€nt in sentences 6,tO ar:d 12. However, what is clear about iti use is that
things.

In sentence 4, work is rikewise attributed with the right or pow€r
we'. The

to

same defect is

it is usually aipliod to Iiving

NoIE:Ttble

not bas€d

preveiht in&cMcin-speaking district

gl

medicar ground but on the commoar saying arad its surroundmg

62

l9

-----F
I

LESSON

t

33.Bgtgasei... [ran,emaciatcd

THE USE OF SOME WORDS

pay special attention to In this lesson, the use of some words are treated,
how theY are treated.
nan: As a posposition ( Equivalent of the English Pre'position) not in/inside the house la..'

34. 35. 36.

Dgnzgg...

Duwei...

Medication
sPrain

Dgwgi-tr1a-wa4... MortgarY
Afterpains

37.Ereye...

l.

Wari a Ama a fa... Wari atimi'..

ry

38. Erezimg-wari MaternitY ElaPhantiasis 39. 40. Emba darag.. Breathe Woud, sore 41.

Eteghe...

Dcoi.... Benumbed Discin... Snoeze Dggn... Chcwing rtick Efm... Wcd E$in... PturylGs Esq$n... Intestinal wolms Emba... Br€ath.
.

Embglg...

not irVinside the town

.

live in house Funiolumg war.i/Sukulu a mu"' go to school go to river not in canoe T$9 a mu.arg a fa"'

,12.Eo.9n-f!na-bid9 Bandage 43. pyglgowei... Masseur
44.Fin...
45.

Eno.gn...

Eyqlge...
Eyqlgarag..
Fila... FgrT...

Sweet Massage Masseuse

Ringworm

and Nernbe Its conesponding substitute,"ghon is used in Kolokuma sentences
at, in' on' and to in dialects. "-Gho" in these orttrograptries takes which require its use' ExamPles:not in/inside the house Wari gho fa not inside Bulou gho fa in or on a tree Tin gho emi

Reddish The downY hairof 46. Dr;wgi-dumou newborm babies 47. [viadgnA{ama-dgn Rheumatism Incise(abscess) 48. Kubu Goitre; derbyshire a9.Lvi... MadnessJ-unacY 50. NlmU... Asthma 51. Ofolo...

Gerigeri...

...

Craw-crawScrbicd [mginidgn.. SrnallPox' Kiripglg... Meiroausc IQgnpolei... ChickcnPox Ligarncnt Niniyai... Nasal Muctu; cnot

triri

...

Spttle, Saliva Smell

52.Ofoni-do.n.. 53. Onugbonu...
54. 55.

EPilePsY

Nettle-rash

1a... Odin... Dune Ofoniorcin... Carbrmclc Okilo... L.arno

Oruru... Otein...

Cotton-wool

BoiI
Hump;hunch

did not do

s6. Qmbi...
57. Pgnki...

Opomboro... Stamrs Osobo... Ycllowfcvcr Oyindgn... hopcY

didnot saY didnot go
not the ones

Vomi 58. Sin... Suffocate se. sidi... Jerk 60. Siplrsipt]...
61.

Iry

hrmou... Siiri... Sikgi...

Futif,rfits

tub
Hiccqr

3. "Kgmg"
(a)

Taboloo...

Insipid
[.oathe; hale Teething fest€r;suppurat€

As nogativo

62.To.rya
Negative

sei...

Ttutb Tibi-akrl-gbglU Hqdecnc

S99n19...

Positivc MiP ... do G&... Eey Mu... io

63.To.rgbgin...
64.Tqa... 55.Temi...

Tgnl-otoin...

StYlc

Miq

do not do Gba kr1mg"""do not say

kurnq"'

Vamuvarur... Throb
Itc& intetc Tcrriojbob... Syrlryo

you notice? Cornpare the abova wtth 2 rbovc' What do

ii;... it-o

Mu kgmg"""'do not go Tig kurnq"' do not stand

Injection 66. Temi-noun.,. Needdlc forinftrtion 67. Wurrr-ogbudu Measlos 68. Zikgrj... Travail; to bc i! Irbou
61

Ya...

Ygp...

Bun

DpU{p... TctrnruJocltsw

20

LESSON 21

(b) As a quantifier

IIRdAlg
Engritth IzAn t. Dgna;gwari... nfrmaryf hospital 2.Dgnargbg.-. DoctorBhysician 3 Agbagbggbab$...TaAorary cramo

c

English Iz.qn . arteryrvcin D,tlwgidi... Incubus Dawai... Dream

It was only Jan timi tgmg ti 'o .ro mi Sgpr-on a bibi krprng ki'o mq fie mi. It w@.

three persons that killod

it.

4.,Fa'
This word is used differently as follows:-

numbness

4Asii... 5.Akafi...

Gonorhea

Gdnding of teetb
Toothache

6.Akatudgn..

Al.oB...

Omoun...

Seidawai... Nightmarc
Sweat

i. (a)

Fun

0

Cough

Apia fa... no cutlass Na / san fa... not yet in stock

fa...

no books

7.Akdq...
9. Amu...

Ulcer
Diziness

Sei-alg-u... T.B Anggfa... Sickjll

Kimi

fa...

no p€ffion

8: Akgasgma..infiamation of the groin

Anggri... Apgng... Aridgn...

Snore

l0.Amgbaloku

Anggs€rii..

Mumps
Squeeze

High fever Belch

O) Endi ba fa... no more fish DB ba fa.-. no more story Tin ba fa... no rcr€ trees
Note the addition of ba'incontrast to those in 4 t (a) above

l2.Asin...
13.Asin-bign...
15. 16.

11.Apipi...

Blood
Dysentery

14.Asinkpo.... Clotofblood
Asinmakpo.. internal clot of blooa Afian/Bignyai Feacesptool. excreta 17. Avi!'1i... I-gst l8.Awuun... Yawn

Malinger Asin-asin... Bloody Asinfa... Rloodlessanarnic Asisi... Abrade

Asgmai...

Aso.n...

Soap

Hiss Jigger (Hand)Fan
Expectorate

20.Ah...
23.Brh...

19.

Ayrrrvggye..

2l.Atpgyri... 22.Bd$.h...

C-onvulsion Sploen

Sputumphtegm

Afuga... A^tzt... Akpg... Pidi...
Bign...
Ban...

Awofie... Delirium; raving

ii. Consider its another use in the following:Bo timi fx... Keep coming for ever Y€drimih... Kee,p selling fmcver Byng tirni ft-.. Keep steeping for ever Eye Qr;mi 1a... Koep eeting forcver In fact timi fa'd€notes exist orreinain for ever
ar. Examine its

Pinch
Be blind

Furufa...

anothuse in sharp contrast to 4 d (a) above. full of stealing

Yellowpale
Pubic louse Purgative

Pass stool,dofocate

Z.Bigndiri..
25.

Bign-gbain... Costipation

Watery 27.Brcxa-f1m.... Earvax 28. Bgin....The folds in fte skin
sonre fat poople

26.8@ib€ni...

Bigndq"... Beni disg...
of

Dianhoea

Thirsty
!p
?

B€ri k-urp... hard of hearing

Beridgn... Eaxach€ Birikoro... Abortion
Birikoromg... Carse abortion Biba... (of wound)heal

Seifa--full of hadness tvtiey{ mlgfa... tull of imrnratity Etpefr..full of lies Kafa... full of stormtness Kgrpfr... full of power; power,frrl Kolifr... full ofshortness; dwarf

29, 30.
3

Biripuzi... Caosarian section Biris€rii... Intestinal colic
Milk todh
60

&

NorE: It should not bc wdtten separatcly ftrom the word it qualifiee as it could be seeir ftrom abovc if rhis use is applied, otherwise it wouH bcar a
ditr€rcntmeaning.

1. Bira sibe/I$ripo.:..Me,nstruate

32. Bunr-{-aka..

Bign-wari... ktrine Bulou-imgbi H€Nmiarupturc Br;ng@.Slecping sichs

2l

Part III-The Leg

5.

oFi"

below' (a) This word too has differtnt urcs'ut p'rasented go toborlowmoa€'y Musa{... I bave bornowod nroneY' I sa{de...
(b)
Consider the following: the. woman is d€ad Erc rna Ayapldiifide-.. the babY is doad Ebiis dead also

2 Emgbele... Knee 3 Erngbele-fqr9.- I(nee caP

Iz,gn 1 At9n9...

English Thigh

Izgn

EngEsh

8 Kunounbgqemgbisa Little toe 9 Bgg-teun'..
10 Bggkubu.-.

fidg... niiL'ipqde...
fi

4 Bgg-ogbo... Shins 5 B99 abg... InsteP 6 Opub99tibi... Bigtoe 7 BUg emgbisa-ama.'Toes

The hool Sole

l1Bg9ernbgl ... 12Bgqtgry.-.
13 Bg9 ofou-..

tuch Ankle
.Calf

(c) Examin€ the following: oarh' a-f"-tt" oig" qdg... AL-ere has sworn or takeil

ar*;*";... q.-.

Ala-ere has eateir her feaces

(d) Considerthe following also:'

;

to be friends fi.-. you - 'Ye e nvry €yq q dqB €nti I would like to rnake frieird with to be in-laws iii Fuo fi--. fuo fi dEf emi like to be an in-law to you -'Ye e momo: I should for 'f in this contcxt-s NOTE: The word'k tl' ;ld be substitutod
EYg

ii

to be co-wives Yanfaran 'Ye e mqrnq Yanfaranli dgg erni I would iif"to be a co-wife to your husband withyou I would lfteto marry the same husband

or

above.

6.

ncb€in"

(a)

Bfdq gbein-.- 'to sow cloth Amuna-ere bid€; Alabo bid€ bibi Ogun

uses:This is another word which has diffeneirt

gU"it"g"' ;;ott""U"'

Amuna-ere has sewn the clothes Alabo has hemmed the cloth

sl
q

(b) \-/

to waSo war ogun kqn Abalaotu gbeinmi ALm;ft -:Th" of Abala' p""Pb of enma wagd-war against the people

gbcin...

mi' Afarnaotr'rnOAbahottl mq ogrm gbein -:Th"-p""pdot.lfrma eUahwaged war against each other anA
59

22

(c)
LESSON
?.O

PARTS OF THE BODY

Part I-The Head and Neck

gbein... to nuke feast Abalaotu sei gbein mini - The people of Abala are making feast Asamaotu aya k-urai sei gbein mini - The people of Asama are making their new ycar feast.
Sei

Izo.n I Tibi...
2 Tibi durnoun... 3 Okodo... 4 Tgry etgrng... 5 Tg'rU... 6 Niniogbg... 7 Nini... 8 Niniopoolo... 9 Bibi...

Englhh
H€ad

{zgn l7 Amgba...

English
(d) Akain

Hair
Forehead Eye lashes

20Meqimq...

Cheek 18 Okeketu... Jaw 19 Mgnimg-ofoni Adam's aPPle

Aba-owei akain gbeinmini

ghin...

to make tharch

Aba-owei is sewing thatch

Thrcat
neck

a d

(e) Asu

gbein...

to pull a c:lno€ with a pole

Ey"
Bridge
Nose

21 Kgo.n-ernba mundness of the

E yin argmi a asu gbein timi mi. - Your mother was pulling the canoe with a pole
(Q LB

Nostril Mouth

ll Kiriekpe..-

l0

Bibiodu...

Lip

Chin The chest l2AkU... The face l3 Andi... la Agqneipo.4... Mustache
I

Neck 22Kqpl.n... 23 Kgo.n-busu...The length of the neck 24 Kglipgbg... Nape Ear 258ai... 26 Akpgbr$-og.-- The breast 27 Tgry-akpa-.. The eYelid

gbein... to cut oil palm fruit Asamaowei lg gbeinowei Asamaowei is oil palm fruit colloctor Asamaowei lg gbeinyg duo bode - Asarnaowei has come from collecting oil palm fruit

5 Asgmakara-aka. -.Canine

28 Blb!-btflq9-aka Incisor 29 MglqU/BUl-o9.. The tongue

(g) Ogbolo gbein... to tlrow sticks Ba ogbolo ko.n obirii gbcin k.um Do not throw sticks aI the dog agsin. (h) Ogbp ghin... to fish with a throwing-net E dag ogbg gbein mini Your father is fishing with a throwing-net

16 Tgng-okeke...

Eyebrow

Pril II--The Hand and Trunk of theBodY Izgn Izo.n English
1

12 Biraeggli... 13 Atgnlgbulou... 2 Biracggliyainmg joint 14 Angasara... Side Elbow AMomen/BellY 15 Bri-.. 3 Opubiratibi...Thumb 16 Ekokutu... HrP 4 Bira esangbalaama/ Biraelrngbisaama..Fingers lTAninatu/Apq'r$u--- Groin 5 Apanala... Theliver Navel 18 Ombu... 6 Ifunoubbira esangbala... Chest 19 Agbobu... finger The Little Breast 20 Endou... 7 Birakubu... Palm Nipple 21Endobibi... S Biratqry... The wrist kfthand 22 Kgng bira... 9 Amabira... Rigbthand The back 23 Abgbiri... AbU.." Bact 10 Buftocks 24Bien... 11 Amba".. BellY;bowels

Apcle...

Snriutder

English Elbow Amtpit

(i) Endi

gbein... to fish with a kind of spear with iron point. Embidg embiowei k-on eirdi gbein bami - Embidg killed a fish with a spear

(i) Kin

gbein...

to cut down

Ere ma 4in kin $

gbeinnq

The woman has felled the tnee

(k) Gb€in koromg... to fell an object by throwing something af it Aladu tin beinyai gbein koromgng Aladu has stoned down a Auit

{S

(l) Gbein gban... to coverahole/ gap with any objrrct Akala atg-u kgn opooloo gbein gbanng - Akala has covered the hole with mud.

23

58

7. nKidn This word too has differc,nt usm but only two ar€ t€atod below (a) In atrrmativc slrtcrrots: I apthc one who ssftl it I firi gtrni ... I am the one who tse the $irt tr kiri anru kantni(b) As anAdverb of

SECTION II Erendre I Aniwosukulumi. That is our school 2 Mi wo eye tolumgwari mi. This is ourclassrcom 3 Ada sukulumima eye tolumlwari ki emi
There are two classrooms in the school at Ada 4 Ani tibi tglumgoweimi That is the headmaster ,Omini 5 sukulu-awgg vprp bg He whips pupils too much 6 Atama sukulurni neretimi eyeamafa There are no seats in the school at Atama 7 Solobo sukuluamune. Solobo has gone go school 8 Ama-enefun gggnini Ama-ere is writing book 9 Asamaotu mg Ebiamaotu mg ki adanmini The people of Asama and Ebiama are wrostling 10In! tun-gggblsaa fadg My pen is lost

tire:

Mi

eyee paAe

ki kiri i bo mi - This

.hmg

had happenod before t cam€

mi

E. 'Mg"
(a) As aConjunction

Ebila

ry

Alale m9 binaotuama

Ebila and Alale are reliatives

(b) As an Adverb:

.-. 'O nq bainni -.tO
nrg bgngmi

Hothen slePt
He then ran

Now complete the following:-

9.

Imini ki namaa bami It was I whokilled the animal Note that'omini / Amini can go with it. Geirerally, it is used when ever there is a long prcnorm' 10. "Ni"
(a) As a relative Particle .-Ani
ere

"Ki'

As afocus marker

mani angqdgntimi arag ma-That bthe woman who was sick Mi tubgu ma oi yio *gri fi arar ma - This is the girl whose mother is l,ate
(b) As a linker Mo.,p.o kgri bg

ni'o

rng furu

mi -

He stolc

boutc

bc was too hlmgly
ft I

11, Consider the use of these words:etu; ekPudu; bo and esou Whe6 any of these words is su11ixed to a wo'rd, but colloctiveily"

A snake has bitten apupil .........teride The school has gone on vacation 3 Ani ..........eirdgna-...........emi ni? How many classrooms are there in the school at your town? 4 Mi ......dirimg lagha The blackboard in this school is not blackened enougb. 5 ......e kpg ..-..rna? Were you beaten by the teacher also? 6 Ala-ere kiri-..". kgn eye g99 ..-rnini Al;a-ere is beginning to lem writing with pen. 7 Ebi-er,e .........191i bg rni Ebi-e,re's school uniform is too dirty 8 { yei ........ My husband is a teacher 9 Wo ......-kgni ebi ...- nana wgri emi Our school has a beautifulgadql l0 Ani...rni ..ka r{- Yow school's field is very big.

1 ....ftqni...

2

it mkes the word plurat

*s

Kimi€fit...
Endi

acrowdofPoqilc Namadu.-- aPackofmimals

\

.24

etu---

aPackof fish(es)
57

The sarnp principle appli€s with the rcst; h€Nrce:-

LESSON

19

SCHOOL
English

ekPudu--. Nama ekPudu--.
kimi
Endi ekpudu...

a grouP of PeoPle a grouP of animals a group offish(es)

1

Izgn

Sukulu/

Funwar.i/

Funtolunqwari
2 Tohungowei... 3 Sutrututgbqrl PWiV

School Teacher
Stud€Nrt

Ilo.n tO f,*-gggbisa.-. ll Tqu--12 Sukulu-arg.-14 Eye

English
Pen

Chalk Uniform 13 Tom g99+Y€-.. Black-board

a

bo-.bo... Endi bo... Nama esou... Endi esou-..
Kimi
Nama
12. Errphasisers: a

the PeoPle the animals the fish(es) some animals
a haul of fish(es)

4 Apiatga... Fencing 5 Ada-kiri..- Fiold
6 Peretimi-eYe--. S€at 7 Kiribou-.. Garden 8Funkien/ Funtiin/ R€ad Fun go... 9 Omgbggb$UnBqli' Ball

Bag Akpa-.. Box/ PlaY ball 17 Gbgl-u.-' Fower l8 Apg-.Flowers 19 Apo.Yai--. Write 20Fun g9.-16

tolurngwari-.' Class room 15 Eye tolumg/EYedawai l'eam

o,

e,

ki, ni, all, tun, ya, and ye

Ti.bg ki eyee mi.e E ki4'o migmi

Who did the thing? Were you the one who did it? Who is it? Ti.@ ka o?... Osiarna firij wgni ni ya?... Has Osiama done the work? Abalama-bain ki bain timi mi..' Abatama was just running

n!?-.. an?...

'Obgngnie...

fl6haq slePt

NoTE|Thisword'bo.li'istheadulteratedformoftheEnglishword ball b."tu th$ of the nBalln. The fz4n *an i'n-_f* way 9f -plying played with at least two was

Wgribodq o mu a Alaba ki egberii gba ki

o..-

Come let us goplease

t+n It was Alaba who delivered
fi.gha

the message

westein world.It is called "omguggu$lgn.It sit opposite each other' with pairs of players- The pui* tf pfiy;;;[y lT of lhe two who sit opposite legs astride, anf eacUltay- fit* o* I" this way, two lines of players him/her into the *ioarJ"iui*no rcgrplece of cloth is folded into the shape are fomrd, *ftn tn"*ttt op*a ceirtre of the play€rs' The legs' of a sphere or globe, and it it pot the

13. Examine critically the following:bgnggha e..' did not sleeP mu @gha e... did not agrce to go wgn! saramggha e.-. did not walk fast These are all assimilated emphasisers

e.." did not die fiegha e"..did not talk

which lifted nJr, wiI ie "l and let fall rythmically usually is nglobe' ,o *fi to the rhe one side aad the other' It makes the legs at any

supporrd try {he

l4.Auxiliary Verbs:

H it falls out of the accornpanied by any enticing song' those who occupied that extreme' extr€me, their it is a goal ugui"ti its name bas
suffe,rod at $ay on the liPsthe

thi,

garne nowadays' and Unforhmately, one rarel5l sees that which has come to the expense ottn" adulterated wordnbo'li"

lzp

s

Note:They should be wwritte,n separately frompreceding vcrb'

€rni" wgri and sinNote the use of these words in seirte'nces' Exarnple:koro timi -.. to stay on / keep a falleir position koro emi... is falleir koro sin-'. complete falU a complete dofcat'

25 56

t5. Agcrt suffiCs rfrich arc definite thc c/or& tkY $telifv.For emnryf,e:'

articles are mitten together with

SECTION

f

II
The srm hqsnot risen This is amoonlitnight The harmattan is tm scvere

Oqpanreogtr

childrtn; Kiniotu"- peopb): Oc'ciottl"mcn; Aw$tbo"' the EYqr onr.-. wones; Yinbo"' trc mtks; fg"i-y-Uq..- full b'rother or sister;

and 16.In line with the introduction of ihe two vowels-ni" spelling of some words are changedfor example:-

"9"

a'

keme
Wart Aro

b€be

kimi"' P€nion now qrlt --rdo--- wari... house aq... canoe --do-bibi... word/mouth -do-

G

2 Miaggng-owcidcin 3 Okir€ngh@ikgpkami. 4 Aggng-ofonibo efi"-ini 5 Ereiin.fadg 6 Efin-ar1rydiye 7 Obudoubot€inmini 8 Aggg-oweimiagbadg 9 Ereiinseimini
10 Oko-owei agbaradagbunrdu

Tlebirdsare flying Thesm has set LookattbafuEraft The clouds uc flowing It is nowfullrnoon
The whoalheris getting bad

fri ton

UaAg

Ercwoubao -do-

other wotds fUe cnanges should Ue carenrUy ;"t"d There arc many Ueen enfist"O but tft which are likewise alfected and ought to navg
unwritteir.

Arao Ako Fc

-do-do--do--

erewgpba... girl

ara+"'

akF"' Fi""

hdY bitter/side
ear/die

11 Osuobggbo dgba Therain eopkts arcactuany big 12 Kg,g kime ki pa mig strurg stomr is apemachlng 13 Aggngoweimi bira k€*€mini The moon is diminishbg (in sizr)

kami mini

Okoowei is shocked dead by thunder

{

Now complete the following:Erein

2 ........gumugumu....... 3 ........mi..........de
4
Ow.nra ..........:bomini

I

It is lighteinniag
The day is toohot It is nowhalfrmn The sun is.rising It is about to rain There is an eclipsc

lT.TheHYPhen For exarrple' It is used io nypnenare (to Fin) cornpound words; '." Endi-bibi-ipqri"' ba$cls Endi-angg... Beni-seiye... water-snake Ariri-tqg"' meshoffish-net
18..Tones and low' Generallv. there are only two tonos in [zqn:-High fnJnieh tone is rnarked this on the word affectod' The low is marked with this high tone' Note thrt the third person fernale singuhr has

5 ....-ki .....d9gnrini 6 ....m9 ....mg....&i
7 Dein.............. I ........tipaemi 9 Mi......fadein l0 ..........mini

biri a ......erni

Night has fallen It is amoonless night This is a starless night Thewindis blowing

sign ' sign '

d

26

55

-,

1
.t

LBSSON

18

LESSON 9

TIIE SKY
1

MISCELTANEOUS
Engfsh

lzgn Agqng.

EngW
Up/skY/

Izo,n

83CTION I-COMPAR,ATIVE DEGNEEC

?4T€m<yelAgpgbiyot/
35 Agbaradagburudu....Thrmder

Atmosphere

2 Aggng-obudou..Cloud/Fog 3 AdynE... Whtulwind
Sun 5 pqra... 6 Aggng-owei..- Moon 7 AgUra... Star 8 Olielic... Wsgail 9 Aggrytgn;... Wearher l0 Bekc+gbein Mango

I Osuo...

Rain

Wind 36 Afgri... 37 Agbalakoko... River-eagle 38Aggngofoni... Btud 39 Okir€ngh@... Ilamaffan
40 Erein

ct

Athough there are three basic comparativc dctts h Ea1!lrb, thc lzgn Iangrrage does not exactly follow the same pattcm. Cctrh wofdt hrvc to bc us€d so as to arrive at the desired degree-For cxarnplc,la Enjllrh the wold big is usod to 6mfr€ objats as follows:-

p

Word Big

Comprdive Suptldiw bigger biggest
be

4lKirrrc...
43 44 Odon...

matu... I ightenning
Stum
Muning star Ycllow

42 Tgrgtonwein... Homet

But its [zd.n counteriart --d+ba can not of other words. Look at it now:-

used so, excqrt with addition

B{-kBi...

Word Dgba

Compralive dgba dgin erni

Supcrbive
dgba'a
s€ dg.in

emi

11
12 13 14 15

Ago-ago...
Obi...

Noo...

Blue
C'r€cn

45Dtufsq... .t6 Pim...

Btd

Asaisai...

Pled Kingfiser F1ying squinel

Whits 4?Gbongbolu.-. PigEY Kingfi sher 48Agbab9gbdbg... I{mbill
49

1a F.nglish, the comparative degree is usually

Koto... 16Fgpn...
17 Er€in...

Fdl
Blow(Wind) Day/$/hgather lYfosnlcss nighr

A{;n;...

Hd
Aftrnrft Mght
Toucan

50 Ein-arg...

applid when there are two objects--one is bigger than the other; it is the same in Iz$. "Dgba dgin emio means exactly 'is bigger lhann. Sometimes the focus marker --oki' is calld into play: For exarnple; 'Ebiotu ki bgtig Alaotu dgin emi"; that is, "Ebiotu is taller than Alaotu.'

doin... Bad Soi... 20 S9w9i... Hid€ Fli 2lEfin...
18 S€i 19
23 Akabofoni...

5f Dein... 52 Akanghan...
53

Kimi+bimgerein Twilight

54 Bdabata... Momingtwilight
55 56 Odele

22Abalabala... ButterflY

Esqeg......
Oge... Okilei..-

fubtud Vulfirc
Eagle

Ilaurk %Agbgitgrgkgrigha. Weaverbird STOdoko ... 58 Odudumgdu/Ifuukur Dove Kingfisher 25 Akiy{...

26At9l9bibi...

Parrot Egg

ZTAfpqhkpglq Honrbill

59 60

In English, the superlative degree is usually usad wheir there are at least three distinct ob!:cts. It is the same in IzAn. A long secte,nce has to be made to indicate the degrw, hence instead of having a single word we rather have "dgba 'a sg dgin einin;that is, nbigger rhan all of thernn or 'the biggest of alln.It could eveir be urritt€Nr ntA sg a dgba doin emin, it mcans the same thing- The seirse portrayed is this:there are al least throe distinct objects, and one is bigger than the others. There is not much proble,m, only to add 'dgin emin and n'a sg dgin €Nni" to the giveir word in the comparative and superlative degrees.
.+

Angg... 29 Apb... 30Ann...
28 33

Wing G€fin 3 I Arggbgli-owei...Wood Paker

Kite 6l Okpudukpudu..- Owl Swallow 62 otietie...
63 SeiofonilAkrangbelegbe Harmmerheadod stock

Now look al this table below.

s,

Word {zgn-.- English Finii... wide

Comparative

Superbive
finii'as€dgin661d

32AYinYin...

Elckpukpu...

DragonflY Pigoon

64 Apianpian
54

Hornbill

Koli...

short

finii dgin emi koli dginemi
pinadginemi 27

koli 'a sg dgin cnni
pina'a
8g

Pina...

white

dgin crni

KUry... strorg

Su...

weak

k-ufpdeinemi su dginemi

€mi k-urg'a dfin €mi sria sg
s€ dgin

Now complete the following: -

2 .......efiayeir ......mini. 3 .....ti €ye ki .....-ni?
4 Sala-owei......p4
..........wqri emi.

I

............minini?

Where docs lion live? The dwarf takes in snuff Whatdocs elcphanteat?

Now dothc samc withthe following:-

1Fio... 2 Si...
3 Sei...

6Wgni...
?

Ebi..,
Andai"'

good

8 Fanghaan.-. drYish

4 suq...

9 Fanghain.-. bent;crooked
10

5 Danghain...

c}

NOTE: Consider the following: objccts' Many, More, Most, in tnJsanre order--for uncountable

ComPntive Bin-Many Bin &in eini
lrt
us cxamine their uses

SuPrlaive Bin'a sg a dqin

Table

erni

II
English Monkey gingerJilY
Tsetsefly

Wesomstiffihearpoopleusingthosewords-Jbo.'andka'insenteirces.

2 Ogbuduu..3. Adein...

I

Izqn Abtrkg...

Izgn
2,0

English

Lepele..Brush-tailod Porcupine (Atherurus africanus) Blackcobra

Bin...

rumY

Bin bgmi

...

too rnany
great

4
6.

Akpgkg... Akpgwei...

Male lizard
Calabash

2l Mein-oweV (Mig-owei?)

SeibAn{. bad fl6666 ft6 F.nglish equivaleirt of b9' is too'

D\$a.., big

Dgba@mi toobig/too
toobad

5.Agba...

Sei...

Corkwood-tree
grasshoPPer

22 l-alal Akpara... SwamP Iron-wood 23 Akpg...

(Musanga cecroPiodes)

Now consider the following: -

The English equivalent for'ka' $eems to be degrees are ussd in lrc'n' The above is precisely how the comparative

actually iluny'muchmany kami"' D$bakami"' actuallY big'much big bad Sei kami "' actually bad'rnuch much'

Bin

7 Akpaikpai... 8 Amgmg... HouseflY Fox 9 Awiri...
10 Dein-asginsqin

Ekirikiri 11 D-oUn...
13

Cricket
Grub

Termites 24Ekatn... Mahogany 25 K9... 26 Odumaganlanga..Chamclon Putradcr 27 Ofo... Mountain 28 Ogun... 29AkaweilOka... Greenrnamba ...Boa 30

Okinikin...

12Elapglg-owei Mantis

31

Akpalakpa-tun....Wild-c8nna
.Giant Rat;

E19919...

Civet

SECTION II-. THE GENDERS and feminine' The neuter There are two geirders in fzgn-masculine g€Nrt€risaccording]yassimitateobythesetwo.I-ookatthaseexarrples:Mi'wo wari"' This islis louse - masculino Mi *i wari:" This is her house - feminine

Ele... 15 Engulei... 16 Esggn.-.
14

rs

17

Gboru...

GoniIa Maggot Intmtinal worm Red Squirrel

32 Or9... 33 Otongbolo...

34 Vtgbira... 35 K9d9k9d9...

Mosquito Antelope Assponkey

(Funisciunrs PYnhoPus)
1

Mi'wo wari"' This is its house'- neul€r AcarefirlilEminationofthes€l$€nc€saboveshowsthatthereisno
differe,ncobctweenthcseirteircesintbemascutineandneutergendersin 28

8 Ko. ngowei/Bousci.. J.eoPard 19 Qgbg... Redless Trce-squirel

Mangrove-tnoo 36 Angala.. Horse 37 Asi.... 38 Egctcbinasgi... tailor-ant

53

I
mssoN l7
[zgn.

with

animals or birds, the masculine/neuter is rnostly used. Very

THE BUSH
EngBsh
Bush/Forest

occasionally, the feminine is uscd.

2 Bor-oma-.(Bush)Wild animal 3 Borrezercba.-. Giart 4 Tin... Tree 5 Bousou-owei..- Dwarf
O Bila/OPuoUori.- ElePhant 7 Seiye/Kirirtani-eYe--Snakre S Ogbokoro-owei-.TerraPin CarerPiller 9

Iza.n 1 Bon...

{zqn

English

18 Angolo-.. Stubbom grass

20 Bein-owei... Hunter

19Odqg..- Hill 23Wangban...

22Pomu...

l-eat
Hare HoneY
,e

Ongsru...

24 25 Bgp-war!. JloneY-comb 26 Ambi.Nat(Urticaceae) 27 Tonwein..- WasP 28 Tonwein-wari..lYasp nest

Bgr;n.".

Now consider a hen trying to lay eggs. Qttzstion: What is that hen trying to do? - ncut€r Arnwer: It is trying to lay eggs or She is trying to lay eggs. - feminine In fzq,n: Questinn: Ani ofonimi ti eyekimie dqgmini yan? Arawer: 'Wo angg ki komnrg dqgmini ye- - masculinc/ncuter or A angg ki kororng dggmini c..-. - feminine
The first sent€,nce, which is in tho neuter gender in English, is spokcn of in the masculine/neuter gender n[zp.,but the secnnd retains it8 gCnder. These two sente,nces are used as alteirratives, but the onc in the masculine is more used than the other. Except in sorne cases ufrcrc the neuter gender finds such uses in the ferninine, it'is mostly usod in the
masculine.

10D9$...
11Sadia...

Eafifrworm
PSrthon

29Esingbin...'Milli@e
30 Obnrgbomu.--

12Agireghan... Hog-Ptum SPondias mombin)
13

Centi@e

Adaka... 14 Tuo...
15

Lion
Grass

31 Atgm$qmq..- WasP 32 Otomi..- Otter-shrew
33

Osi...

Elephant gnss

16 Bagba...

Abura

l? Ombi....3ush-pig/Red River-hog

34 Ogori..- Bush-cow 35 Birai... (Indian) bamboo 36 &okuku... Cabbage-trm

Wofin-tibi

SPotted snakc

SECTIOiI ru-- THE IF CLAUSE
The if-clause is obtained in Izqn in ar least throe ways. l,ook at these
examples:-

SECTION

Giantisatallbeing l Bouezerebabgtlgkietni Du/arfisashortbeing 2 Bousou-oweil"iitikoliemi Lionisapowerfrrlanimal 3 Adakak-urqnama

II

ffyou

are going to

martec-

If you can do it Ifyou
.*
can not sleep

4Maopuo-boririrnasptimimi.Twolelqlhalrtswerefighting Have you seeir lion also? 5 E kpg adaka aridei ko.n fimi' 6 Ad€alran{ oborii kpppu wgri'o ?

The lion torethe goat and ate it' Boutein-oweimikgni opuobori tcin bami' The huntershot dead an elePhant The boa swallowed up the hrmte'ds child

E fgp a mumini aba, E fggamuumini egbaa E fgg amuumini enry bg a Ye ekeir'o miqgrnini aba Ye ekeir'o miggmini e gba a Ye eke,n'o miggrnini emg b9 a Ye ekeir bungqha aba

Yeekeir bgngghae gbaa Ye ekeir bgngghaemA bg a Now do the same with the following:I If you can not work 4If You arc sic*

S Okinikinimi bouteinowei tgbq1rl mqnlm!'

s

9

Ebika ogorm

kp '

keni bagha kin koromgr{' Ebika fell down an aburatroe with an axe'

2If
3

you can s,ew

If thcy will

come

5If 6If

will help mc will saY he
sh€

29
52

Examine the following: If I had known

SECTION

If

II

she had corne

[nenri wgrirai aba Inemiwgrimi e gbaa

A bo wgrimi aba A bo wgrimie gbaa

fnemiwgrimiemgbga Abowqrimiemgbga
I If she had said it
4 If they had not come
5

Now do the same with the following:-

2lfhehadwashed 3If they had not come

Ifthey hadnot agreed
he had not slept

6If

t' g '

SECTION IV Now examine critically the following:You arp not going to mir*et. Are you? Casc I
Yes, I am...

positive

In

lTgn:

negative E fo.g a mugha fa ki tUn. E muumini yan?

No, I amnot

Yinye,ImuuminiYe... Positive
Angh4 e,! mugha fa e...
negative

1 E yin ama a emi? Is your mothe,r in toum? 2 lyn i daU kqrgpingbeire amu emi My mother has gone to my father's (palm wine) tapping_camp 3 E dag kgrppingbenemi ti eyg ka emi ni? Where is your fatheds (palm wine) tapping_cunp? 4 | dag boumi bfba ko.rgama bin emi. There are many matured palm wine trees at wncrs my &rtcrt4e . 5 Eni bina-owei kgrp aggngduo pglgibo loromi. Your brother fell off palm wine tnee 6 Eni bina-arag ti eyg ki sfi emi yan o? whe'e.has ri"iie.i";.rd.gr 7 Bginmg-kiri ki sii erni. She has gone worting at the opposite srde (of the town) 8 BUrqmia&nibohnimq Re-eirkindletheinrheoven 9 Tiki eiri kiribou efinghin mi? Where is the boundary of your farmland? l0 Ye eni kirirbouu gboogboo sinne? Have you finished weeding your farnrland?
Complete the following:.......emi

Case

II
In

was... No,l was not...
YinYe, irnini

You were the thief. Were you not? Yes,l Positive
nagative

I

yan?

2 I ................,.........ki sii emi

Where has your mother gone worting?

3 .......................ki a ma wai boomini yan?
Whe,n

My motherhas gone working in the river{fishing)

lzgni Emini ki ftruoweii ki trfu".Eminigha?

Ye--. Anghd e, iminigha e...

Positive
negative

4

Y6 ....Jdriboumi a

.....ti

will

she be returning (home)?

....rd?
What did you plant in your famrland?

5'Ye 7

........9[a..............ki gboromi.

6 Ani............
u

o

S 9 Ama-ebi........?

I planted pepper and cocoyam in my farmhnd. That is plantain frrm ..........koIokoIo...... Bitter_leaf is bitt6 .......-ki kgn ...........-tninfl Palm winc tree is tapped with tapping-knife
Has Ama-ebi learnt bow to swim also? Swocp away thc ashes

10 ............tangbei

30

51

I-ESSON 16

LESSON t0

FARMTAND
Table
Izqn I Si...

I\TTJMERATION
SECTIONI In rhis lessonArabic numerals shall be writtcn ffnt h oontrast to previrous ones in which lzgn words were first gveir, and rftcfc the noed
arises, explanatim shall always be nrade.
tr!.

I
English
To atteird to oners duty oroccupation
Farrnland

2 Kiribou... 3 Asibai... a D"ung... 5 Gbogbo... 6 Fgni... 7 Gboroye... 8 Efiin... 9 Gboro...
10 Y9o.l9...

Englisk Izgn 30 Esiabg... Okro 31Adg.". Barn 32 Bgr9... Oveir

33 BgrgfEp... Ashes Hoe S4Kqrgpin.. Tapping To clear aplot of land 35 Kergtqni.. palmtree To cut roughly(afarm) Rip€ Firowood 37 EsaggggpgEsawg.Ground-nut plantod Anything 38 Pouye..Stone;Whetstone to beplantod

k

36Pina...
39 40
FE

Arahic 1... 2...
3... 4... 5...
For

!m.n K€ni

Arfric
6... 7... 8... 9... 10...

lzo.n Sondie

Mary
Taarg

Sgngrra

NiinaNighina
Is€

Nein
Sgqnrpn

Boundary To plant

Pou... Sharpen

Oyi
with any of

Full of fruits,etc

tittla.- To set fire 4l Pupou... Hut
42Fgnibgnimg. -re-enkindle fire 43 Ogogolopani.. Jerr-can 44 Akpara.. Palrn winetree
45 Tggwuru/Beke-wum..

A,s from elevsn to ninetee,n(l1-19), teir is repeatodly countod

the other numeials-

l1Yqqr?... Surround Palmwine tree 12 K99... 13 fzp-wunt Palmwine
14Apali...
15

ex4mple:-

(Palm wine)TappingBeirt/ crookd
S€od

l6Emg@8... 17 U. tgta ...
18

Fangbain...

46
47

Kiri....

DistilldPalm wine
Ground/ Earth

Onion

Adgndg... Pawpaw Agba... Gourd Orange 21Ago.". Bitter-koia 22 Akan... 23 Berebe... Plantai* Yam 24 Bunr.."
19

Wuruq9@... Distiller

Ogugu... Pit 48 Wurutggyg DistillerY 49 Kiriologbo. Bitter-leaf
5O Odu-..

oyitarg feni oyinein feni oyi sggnrgn feiri and so on Nola Fiftee,n could be read'die'also. Die could also be read or uscd any time when there is rcrmant of fiftren after any numbcr of tcns or
tweirties.

11 12 13 14 15

r€ad read isr€ad is md is rcad
is is

oyi kgni feni oyi mary feni

7n

5l Kokodia.."
54

Cocoyarn Coconut

52 Kpokoduku SweetPotato

53 Beke-ogbein." lvlango

Kola-nut 25 Dabu 26 Dabu-tin.J(ola-nut tree

Oyinbo."" Eann616 Sugar cane 55 Okpu.". Corn 54 Oka Rice 55 Oresi...

f'l.

It is highly ex@ieirt to make a rcnnrk here in rcspet of the |zgn system of counting. When counting on base foun five is rcad eleve,n;that is, one teir and one left over. When counting on base sevmgen is rrad thirtoen; tbat is, one t€Nr and three left over. Again, when counting on base nine: sixtee,n is read sev€nteeir; that is, one teir and seven left over" Finally, wheir aounting on base.ten:eightoen is rcad eighteen; that is, one
teir and eight left ovetr, and so on. One would not be wrong to declare that a matheirratir:el investigation into the lzgn counting systern reveals that it is denarf ; that iso on base teir. Heirce the,rp is a stop or note when teir is obtainod rvtile 6sun.ing, and the counting is r€peated all over again. Sequcl to thc above, the word "fenin ufiich literally moans 'left over or rcmaindcr. ir always us€d to denotc thar thc counting has crossod the basc. [1rhir wty, cleveNr 31

'5

27

Pepper 28 Embadagha 29 Embadkala.......Cassava

lg;lna

$

56 @erebe/Oyinbo)Tag...Sucker

50

rs r€ad

ten "oyi k€ni feni'; that is, on9 31f also LOoio" left over'and so on'Twenty the novi ise feni';thatis J,* it ub€s twentv i, oiriony cxamined, ;:::ffi;; ;o;f*i'. rf *"i, t"o tlYy' Thercafter' thc schlal bosc word "feni" ta*u* ti""oty rcad'li oyikgni f:tl'T* T:*" co*€s in.Hencthirty;;is the r"n over. It does-not it"ely that twenty twenty and one ,* be rcad "oo "i" syst€m' sev€nty could as well base. In the-usual Arabic counting is the base'hc nthr€e scores.no t-l rnis aoesiot mn that the scoro doclalo thatthe[zgn counting the base is te,n.I **i;;;;it"*," principle' line with this mathematicat jnto tho tyst"- reveals that it is on base ":V.,*t-Jt"t. But a cultural investigaton principles which T€ rct in tw€,rrty. This system ltiXtnt "i"n"t"ti*t fno trditionat wriy of way of hafinon:y with the *Oi'f"""f "ot-tiog' **y so that toy ttt*'pt to doviafc ftom it counting is highly btt"d Bas€d on tbe above' dcfocts,and it g€rilem[y-us€d. would rcsuh to # U* **aY is us€d in this book as woll'

one left over' Nineteen is rcad

Now orrylete the following Ani...........-oi?

2 Ye.........lamlnffi 3 ...............mini

I

,"Hff:ffir':'ffi;
That canoc is going adrift throwing net Alasa is fishing

4 ..............-ini
5 Ebise.........-n€
,o

with Ebi-e're has paddlod

6 ................mi"i
7 Mi.........--..10 ........-...mi arnn

g

8 ..................d€ 9 ........ ki i ma .....-murnini

..-.....-

acrcss The river is riiing This is abig flood The flood has recoded I am going fishing in the ocean Core let us to bathe in the sandbank

SECTION II nuir is tv€nty and it is rcad After nineteen(19)' thc rcst next cormting counted with anY other "si"; that is, two tens' numeral aft€rtw€nty' 21 is rcad si kgni feni For uanPlcr 22isrcad simamqfeni 30isr€ad sioYifeni 31 is r€ad si oYi kgnifeni ii l* teao si oYr trg f€ni and so on'

Gffi;a;"dty

oilH is Fad 'Si oyi sggnrln f€ni'lxil Note.'As atready expleained,35 atso bc rcad 'si die feni'' tb€r€ is always a at sb r€achcd a bosc brr rather a Note also that me ailry is anived "**i"g, of having not€ of sto'p. It l, not oo--'ac"otrnt already t6g[it"d ta counting rmit; for tbe -Vtt*t n^ "". F-but"' isc feai';6at' is' w witb the"'ail' lg r read 'si oyi linc
In tw€aty,onetcnandnine.Brrtthemomtitclimbsontoforty(40)'thcn i, ir -La 'ma si'; tbrt is , two twcnti€s' . Inthiswry; 60isrced taesr
SO

I 4,'

o

isrcad

noi-asi
32

49

I
Table II
Izon
2

Yggdi..Knowhowto paddle l2BaanalBenieyeci... Dry Scason 13 Eyeri... R€cde 3 Fin... Bait 14 W919... Fish(c) scrambling for 4B,a,.... Kill

Bngti* Topaddle 1YqU...
sii...
To go

tl Bowei...

lzqn

n-dltr
Flood

lg0isread iscnasi Z)0 is rcrd oyi a si
q

16Oisread niinasi

l0oisread sggnran si lmisr€ad sondieasi l4O is read sgngma si

fishing 6 Tgrybiri... Midriver 7Bgin... Tocroas 8 Tein... Shoot/Shock
5 Tgry

food excitedly 15 Weirghele Shak{Bottle/ Canoe)

fs

l6Esanghan.-. Anenclosure asahap
17 Okun/agblq... Periwinkle 18 Clam

9

l0

Gboin... Bilee...

sedthlow for fish
To sink

Okpoku...

SECTION II Where are you going to? I Ti eyq ki e ma mumini ni? 'Ye endii dgg eygkamumini I amgoing (to do) fishing 2 3 Ti eve ki e m9 kgn endii dgg eyg a mumini ni? With what are you going (to do) fishing? Do not go fishing into midriver 4 A sii tgrgbiri a mu k.umg o

Again note the omission of oa" in the |zgn intapretation of l4o and 160, and the addition of nnan in l8O. 27fi is md oyi kgnisi feni 2AA is read oyi ma si feni 260 is read oyi tara a si feiri 280 is read oyi nei-a si feiri 300 is rcad oyi sggnrran feni or Die a si

320 is read oyi sondie a si feni

-)40 is read oyi sgno.ma si feni 360 is read oyi niina si fsni 38O is read oyi ise na si feni

SECTION

5 Sama-ere ygldigha 6 A bodg o ygg tgryg @in

III

Sama-ere does not know how to paddle Come Iet us paddle :lcross tlre river

7 Muaniargmiabiygn 8 Aladg oki timi oma p{ teinmi

Gotopassf,eaoesinthatcanoe

Aladg was shocked by electric fish while swimming og@ gbeinmiai Akan-owei is fishing with cast-net 9 Akan-owei 10 Ani beke ary.....That is an eirgine boat What fishes did you catch 11 Ti eirdiiama ki e mg ba ma o? 12 Endiibo bein ye;Sika,Ayin, Oma etc There are many fishes;Ray, Silver fish, electric catfish etc 13 Ti fin ki e m9k9n siima o? What bait did youuse in fishing?

Before going firther, I would like to make out the difference in Izrp counting syst€m arnong two classes of thought which arc labellod class A and B rwpectivety. As from forty one (41) especially fifty(io) and above, there is a little diff:reirce in the way nume,rals are read. while class A forgo using the conjunction omoo, class B always uses it. This is best explaind in the following table-

GroupA
4O....Ma si
cl

Grcup B
Ma si

14 E yin sii timi axsg pri bil€emi Youmotherwas fishing wheir fhe canoe sank 15 Adapnwainbo aryg vgrg wai otoumi The waves causdtbecmoe to capsired

,!$tr

41...Ma si kgni feni 45...Ma si sgo.nrgn feni 5O...Ma oyi feiri 55...Ma oyi sgo.nrgn f€ni 67 .. lt an si so. ngrna feiri lZ..Iarasi oyi ma feiri 84...Nei-a si nein feni

Masimgkgnimg
Ma si nrg sggilpn mg

Masimgoyimg
Ma si mg oyi sgo.nrpn feni rnq Tara si mg so.ngma rng Tara si mg oyi nulmg feni np

Nei-asimgnein mg
33

48

I

Sggran si mg rmrq mg l2?..Sondb a si sgngrna feni...Sondie a si mg sqnQrna mQ la3..Sppasitargfeni SgngmasimqtarymQ 150..Sgnp si oyi feni Sqngna si mg oyr mg Niinasimqis€mg l69.Niinr si iso fclti 23O..Oyi k€ni si oyi feai Oyi kg{ si feni mq oyi mp ZA2..$wsi malng feni Oyi ma si feni mq mamg mq
l02..Sggnran si ma Note that as ftrom two hundred and thirty m Group B there is a littlo change. Thc 'feni' which always precedes the last 'm9' i4 othcr s€rvos as a numerals befone it@30), is withdrawn bapkwaxddemarsatiorc betrvm the twe,nti€s and the t€ns units. An robirsed invcstigation reveals that Group A is almost now extint thc Mcin Dfu:hct. ltis Group B that is in use. Bas€d on this ground, it in is usod througloutthe rest of this work.

feiri

LESSON

ls TIIN, RIVER
Engliclt

Izqn I Tinarigha abadi...Oc€an Sea 2 Abadi... River 3 Tgng...

'.{r

Izgn 3TUg...

English
Island

35 Beke mg.. F.ngtne Boat
36 Aqrgmq.,.Shark

It

Ray 37 Sika... 4 Adagnwain... Wave 38 Orna. Electric catlish Ilightide 5 Sggbcni 6 Pglg-benilAmo.gn-beiri.fuwtide 39 Ala.. Saltwater 4O Bomupali.Sole fish 7 Kusughu..- lvleander 41 Asa..-The stwp side of a river 8 Tgrg-finii... River wiilth
9

Ariri-..

Net

10 Beiri-nama... Sea-animal Fish llEndi...

42Btob.. The swallow side 45 Bgmo.gn...Sandbank
46
47 Emein.. Manatoe 4? Ogbunu...- WaI€r woeds' 48 Ogbo... Eel

Aza,..

lady-fish@lopsl

12B€ni-ariri...
13

Isakirisa...

seine-net Drag net

SECTION IV

la Ogbg...

Throwingnet

t

It limit

h mst plam in lzan land' cglled "Si o si', 'ondg"pr Any whilc in fee$ dhstrs it is one thousa*d (1,000), callod 'Egbgwao" of these numerals number <r mmting was based on {he muhiples is travtlling to other respoctively ie thos€ differrent places' As "egbgwa" it rrnkes a ;ffi *trn'* it hd not been used, and on thc grormd thar gl€stctrandmgeconve,nientcountingnuit,lshouldliketouseitinthis book. B of thc two different Bes€d mr thc *ove" and the systein by Group
claegcgigsrc€imlllofthislesson,thenrwationasfromfour
hundrcd

(a'00) was the counting mgnfy oryodient to note that four hudred nandgn,

15 Apedi... type of Morrryridfish 49 50 16 Agbamghntegbene..
17

Otobo....

Awiin/Ak-ula...

ltrh

Butterfly fish Soapfish Okiliyin

51

Abala-arg...

Hypopotamus Sail-boat

18

Oru.-.

S?Egere... Ctocodile
53 Sibiri......Alligaror
54 Ewiri/Ere{ghaowei...Turtoise 56 Agilgg..a seafish;parrot grunt 57 Akgdimakgdi.. fresh water fish 55 Agii.. atypeoffish 58 Ekan bira...fiddler crab(Uca s) 59 Abadi-arg...a sea-going vessel

Juju

will

,tffiisr€ad
500 isr€ad

be as f,ollows:-

Butter fish 19 Aygn... ?nE;beln... Dolphin 2l Ago.".Swiryming crab 22D9rniniowei... Guinea-worm 23 Edern-ofu-.. Shftnp 24 Evutai... Whirlpool

Siasi'Ond9'A@
Keniondgmgsggoran

siry
'D

MaOndg Maondgmq sqqffian'sirq 90Ois@ad Egbgwa or Ma ondg mq ryi a si mQ or lffii$rad Mamdqmq*ise mqif based on4O0
34

60Si$rgld ?misrread Sffiisc€ad

KqniondgnPoYrasimg
Kqni ondgrngdie asi mg

6O Abadi-okolai... Ctulew 25 Abadi-kgri.. sae-sicks nSilverbrcam' 25 Abaditgkpa Lighthouse 62Akpada... Large shrimp Mud-fish 27 Ebi€s€ni 28 Ana...Cmaker ( Pseudolithus spp) 63 Ayolo... Ghost shrimp

61Afgg...

+l

s

(Gold€nfish?) 64Eweri...Moonfish 29Ekpidi... 65 ft-oin... Climbing-perch 30 lrnpg.".-Catfish{clarias sp'p) 66 Kina... Nile-pench Tiger-fish 3r lkbi...
32 Ofiyou".. SSObubu

Backwarer

Puffier-fish

67 Saradaye...Trawl-line 68 Bginm.okiri..The opposite side

47

alryani a tga e hlt in tbroe Naira worth (of onion) ilto this bag l1 Tibg ki mi apg.eagbo ygrimini yan o? Who is selling thcse nails? 13 Ebila-owei, bodg o fEg amu Ebila-owei,come let us go to m{rket la Adqr+ kpg e np f9d9?... Have bought salt also?
Now complete the following:1 .---...rnuuminiyan? .....-..e mg fE i yarimini
f,
1'lr

10 Taraa Naira yai kgn mi

SECTION V
The counting systcm is tbc sanp as tcarod above eveir if it ciirnbs over one thousand. Basically" after one thousandjt i$ ss follows:-

2 ni? 3 .......ki emamuminini? 4 ....... kpg fggmi a emi yan?

Will you go to market?
Whar

will you go and buy for me?

6 7 I 9

Which market are you going to? Are th€rt: books also in the market? 5 Fgpni.......€Nni Things are cheap in the market .......Tuomg....mi That is Tuomo's rnarket ..... ki......dggmini yan How rnany books do you want to buy? ....-ki'a ma .... ygrimini Where are they selling books? Iwantto go to andbuy shoe frromthemarket l.....mu.....fe.....mini 10 .... e ma ...ma? Who did you se,lrd to buy something from the market?

is kgni egbgu'a is maegbgwa is tara egbgwa 4O00 is neinaegbgwa 5000 is sggnran egbgwa 6000 is sondieaqgbgwa 7000 is smgrna egbgwa 8000 is niina egbgwa 90rJ0 is isenaegbgwa
1000 2000 3000

o? yan?

wheir it comes to one minion, what will you say? Tmditicm hords that isbiaiuiri has alwdys be€n used wheir uncountabte situation prevails; that is, beyond counting. In line with this tradifion, I have no alternative other than to appiy it for one million. In ttris way: 1p00,000 is read kgn! igbidibiri or Egbidibiri 2pmp00 is r€d ma igbidibiri orEgbidibiri 3p00O00 is rcad tara igbidibiri o, and so on. "gUldifiri

1Ar

,t

''

:C

46

35

F

rJssoN
LESSON
11

14

IT,IARIruT

MEASI]RATION

Trble

I
F-nglfidt

SECTIONI iJi,i*"gv, the following rmits

- . .. f_-^ were usod by the lzgn rnan m
t r"i

nr$lurcnr€nt- TheY arenfmger.,Hence people sometirnes say, it is (1) "Bira_isaagbata",tnat is, \-/ fingeds leirgth" ' 'ffil;r":isangbalan , thal is' ' a in similar way' ' an tn" other units are applied

Q)

cubit' (3) nan arn's leirgth' (4) "niraaangai" that is, nhalf
"Blra-yainmqn, that is,n one (5) (6) (7) (8) (e)

none handsPann "Birazg" fhat is,

'liUouu

a fathomn ikisen , that is, na fathom' that is, "Agbobu', . being' is, "kfrnitp",tnar na "height of ahrl-nan (of the leg)" "Bgg;, that is, Pace oUt i"A from the midrib of rafia "ero", nua is,na folen i tn" """ itt equivaleirt, irrespective of the length' Hence we to questions such as " IIos sometimes bsar people say in response nMa asu olomu" that is"two O""g i--tn" ttob tiO. of tne rivert

2 Fogkiii... Martensfte 3 Fgg-wari... Mdd stall 4 Eyedg... DisplaYofgoods 5 Ygri... SeIl 6 Bidg... Cloth 7 Saka... Trursers 8 Apgrgdt1..- Nails 9 Ary... Ciloc

V# I Fo.g...

Ma*ef

2l

lry

Eng[*
Onions

22 AOar.m/Emg.ufou... Salt Books 23 frm...

Arya...

-25 F*ef*e...
?A Ahla

26

n

10Dqgi... Jug f l Egodo-yin.
14
15

Padlock
Kery

28 Anda..29 Osi... 3b 31 Ekeluku...

Bag Saw Ygri eye . articles for sale Sibeye... gun Paint Snail Fgrg... Eartheir-ware Plate
StaPles

12Egodo-bira... 13Tibi-zalaye... Crmb
16 Beritgaqe... Euing Sugar 17 Pen 18 Fun-g9gbisa."C.anoe loadod 19

32Esanf@Algtg/Asede Plale

33A&maku.,.
35

Plate Bucket

ffi -

Qzag... A@...

Beans

34 EQodi-{p.um9ye.. camPhor

Basket

Abogidi..-

36 Y9$ry'Ogige-kgriye... Hinges

Oyinbu...

poles dwp")

3TEkeleku-.. StaPleE 33 Fggsai..- To send to rnartet

Apart from the above, the following

are also used:-

FqB-arB...
tr

;ffi. ,*
NOTE:

olomu; nmg;re onmi; Ekoku,olomu;

apele

olomu" that is'

20 Ozoboogu..SECTION

bmass

Aghl@... Sword 4O Pome. qkpa... flashligbt
39

"-A;fu;d;p; ' ola
but

of oolomu" 6min coulil as weil be used in the place nolornun specifically flre'ms ndepthn

mJ

dep;

waist

deep;

shoulderdeep"

SECTIONII

words for the units in It is unfortunate that the language has no equivalent metric system are to be the motric system' ifter"iot"-u"io in the adultcrated. The lincartable will be as follows:-

il

Mi$isnstre will

and its abbreviarion its abbreviation Ce'ntimctnr will read "S€ntimita" and its abbreviation Decimstrc will read "Dqsimia' and and its abbreviation Metre wil! r€ad "Mita"

rad

nMilimitan

is is is is

orffnn
nsm"

<:tr

Which market is this? This is Bomadins market 2 Mi Bomadi fgg Goto buy rne apadlogk 3 Mu kqni egodeym fe i Vgri.-. Whereis the market? a FgBmi ti eyg ka emi Yan?--. 5 Endqna fE;-wa{ kimi fg-umi a emi ni? How many ma*et stalls are therc in this mrket? 6 Ti bra ki e m.q kp u-utabo ygrimin! ni? How are you selling the onions? 7 Sqilpn kgoi Nafua ki ygrimini ye- They are sold at five per Naira

l

Mitifo.gao?

"drn"

'm"

S Zqsin ye. 9 Ghangban c, ba singha

ye

No, it

Please lower the price a little shall mt be rcduced any morc

45

36

28 Ekirainbraqbg$.., 29 Bina-owei/Embirei.".
30 Bina-arary/Embirag...

The first born(fleir)

Brcther
Sister Husband

31Yei...
32 Egir€n/Ogireo...

Kilometre will r€ad nKilomita" and its abbreviati*::r is ohrl" NOTE As there is no "c" in the languagc, centimetrp is e"hbreviated to nsmo, but I would prefer the use of nc" in the place of "s" for intcrnational recognition.

-T

33 YabilYin kgriyinbo-owei 34 Yaby'Yin kgriyinbo-arag
35 Wari/Ekurun...

Eoeiny Uncle

Aunt Family
Nephew Niece

c

36 Yab(owei) tgbeg... 37 Yab(eygno. ) tgbgg...

r*i

will be as follows:Milligramme will read "Miligram" and its abbreviation is "rngn Ceirtigramme will read "Sgntigramn and its abhreviation is "sg" Decigramme will rcad nDesigramn and its abbreviation is "drnn og" Gramme will read oGramn and its abbreviation is oKilogramnand its Kilogramme will read abbreviation is "kg", NOTE: The note giveir in respect of centimetre applies to eeirtignmme.
The mass and weight measure table The capacity meirure table (fluid volume) will be as follows:Millilitre will read nMililitan and its abbreviation is ' Centilitre will read oSg,ntilitan and its abbreviation is D€ilitre will read nDgsilitan and its abbreviation Litr€ will road nl-itan and its abbreviation is

is

ml' ,sl' "dl'

NOTE:\\o

note give,n in respect of ce,ntimetre applies{o ccntititre also.

'l'

l.'

'1..

'-

M

37

LESSON t2
SECTION I Izgn llnd being not excqrted,Iike any other cormtry in the world before the cvolution of money as we now have it today,had some objects ufrich werc usod to satisfy the mon@ry dernands of its daily-activities. Thqse objt*ts w€re:{r} 'Okubotgrgo; that is, cowEr. Coweries were popularly used as nnn€y in rnany parts of Africa and Asia. It is a srnall shell which was tegally t€cognis€d md acceptod as money or an objoct which was acc€,pted as a modium of exchange. for clothes but O) "Ekpdi"; that is, box. It ntas not the box usotl nWunt ekpedi' the qn?valent of a carton for drinks. Hence, which rReans 'a box (carton) of drinks that was used oontained twelve bottles of itlicit gin. (c) 'Abo" or nAdoo; that is , basket. Financial transaction was cfratod sometirnes by either a basketful of fish(es), tubem ofyarrr, coconuts erc or any desired number of such baskets. (d) 'Egbe"; that is, a type of dnrm that was used for liquid substances. Heiace, "Polou egbe' rneans one of such drum It is only one of the four objects givem above that still comes into use. It n'Wuru ek@i" is used in some traditional issues is item (b)--"Ekp€di". today in some places, all theothers have give'n way for mode'rn curreNrcy-thcy arc functional no trnore.

7T9kpa.................. Lightthelarnp CURRENCY
8 ......... beni zu bo .. 9 Ololm
l0 Ebi..fgni
Part tr
t e.t
1

pumini

Go and draw waler from the well The bottle is bqok€n Ebi is chopping wood with an axc

THE HOUSE CONTII\ruH)
Iryn
English
Grand farher

I

Opu dag...

Grandmother Father-in-law 3 Foi/Fei/Fuowei... Mother-in-law 4 Yaforo... 5 Agg-owei/Dogho-owei... Brother-in-law 6 Aggarag/Yadogho.. Sister-in-law 7 Bira-ere... a slave wife

2 Opuyin...

8 Ekie-erp... 9 Ta-..
10 Yanfanran...

11Nana...

fullofpalmoil-

12Tg1lYeraQi... 13 Ofuro...
147.t..-

A friendshipmariage Wife Co-wife Marry Divorce
Pregnant

Bom

SECTI(}N

XT

History gtaringly Enaintains that Nageria was once ruled by the British' and as a result the British pound sterling was recognised and used by everybody in the Country. Though the pound stetling was changed to Naira and Kobo in 1973, but the faurrrr cunrency still exerts great influe.nce in financial transactions in **me places in IzEn land in some traditional issues and among the uno&rcstod. It would the,lefore be a wholesome idea if the former curr€ncy is presentod in her deirominationsJt is as follows:One farthing Ahini...
Epqni...

r,'I

Grand child Groat grandchild Great greal grand child Great great great grand child Great great great great grand child Grandchild of two slaves, 20 Ekawa... who bears the relation of great -grandchild to the owner Frell brother 21 Kgniyinbo-owei...

t5 Tar1qbgg...

16 Dumoun... 17 Afinyoun... 18 Panye... 19 (Afinyoun) Ekpinkpa...

.l

Half penny
38

23 24 25 26 27

22Kpjyinbo-arag-.. Kgaidagbo-owei ...
Kgnidagbo-arag...

Fuli sister Half brothe

Half sister Kgr{yinbootuzi aw-ogama.. First cousins Tibiotu...
Ko.nptUb-oU/

43

TrHe II

Izgn 1 Mi... 2 Ani...

Engbh
This That Bring

!z4n lOGbolo".. ll Pu...
13

Engfsh Ring ftoP(wood)
B€at(dntm) Brcak Wood Drawing water

Kepg/kg@... Etgrp... Sisi... Enai...
Sily'Sele...
Sqryo.n a

Onepenny
Three pence Six pence Nine pence Twelvep€,nce

3 Kqnbo.. BuY 4 F9... Look 5 D,.. Come 6 Bo... 7 Fini... OP€NI 8 T€ri-.. Close 9 Tiin... Call

12Fa4...
14F€ni...
15 Beni 17 18

Pgi...

zu..

16Tgni...

K€ni... One
Anggfa..

Ligh(lamp)
Being sick

p

piys sfueilings sili... Te,n shellings Oyiasili... Kenipo.en Cfweirty shellings)... One pound One Guinea Pggnrng sili mg

Akpa...

One hundred Pounds

SECTION

I,n rhis section,

we shall learn how to constnrct. siryle -sentences with the words with the assistane of those in Table tr' Lok at the ory Agoo This is my falheds house 2 Mi i daq

II

ThatisYorrmother 4 Enibinaowei bomini--- Yourb'rotheriscoming

di... wili.-f AnieYin...
f

To sore poople;wo Naira is always one pound whatever the Naira value or vice v€rsa. If you come by such situation, divide wharavef, amount of Naira there is by two and the answ€r. The highest counting limit among nAkpan; that is, bag -it is equal to one the Ijaws, under this cont€xt, is hundred pounds (9100). Now that the currancy is changed to Naira, it is nNaira akpa' but in possible to rcad one hundrod Naira (N100;m) as practice in many places it is two hundrd Naira (N20Oil0) that rnake up the nakpa'.
In {zqn,the Naira is read last; for exarr4rle, N20...Si a Naira ot Oyis Pg$n Nl ... KgN{Naira it is up to forty Naira or above there is little changc--thc reverse Onee
prevails. For example,

. l1-Obiriiqd€..10 Obtuimi

5 Ogigcfui.-QPenthe door Close the door 6 Ogigee teri..7 TurmkgniYari--- Bringmethe har S Edagetiinmini.-- Ymfatheriscallingyou This is a walking stick 9 Mi k€ili.kglq.-baioniniThe dog is running

Tbdqgisdd
Sweqrthefloor Sit m the chair My farher is sick
$

N60:00...Nairatara

l2Wari-kirimia$--13 15

Iksimi ap€r€rtimi---

14I da$ ang-ofa

.--

il d;,lmqyin

mq

s4mini Yonrfafiher rod mothcare quelling
Openthe box

Now corylete the follrowingEkp€dii...

I

2 EYin

3 4

5 6 Bomi

............ gbolo .5i4a-araP bainmini Mu .......i Vari

Ymmotheris calling You Ringthcb€[ Yorr sisler is np4ing
CrotobnrY

l1

mPddlc

or Si oyi apo.gn feni Naira tara si mq sgo.nr-w mQ or Si oui ma pg;n feni ry oyi m9 N70:00 . Nairataxa si mg oyi mg or Si oyi sqBnran pE;n feni N89:00 Naira nei-si nrr.o ise mg or Pggn a ma si mq nei-a pE;n rry oyi lnq N10ft00 Naira akpa or Akpa ekise or Pggn a ma si rrlg oyl rry N120:fi) Naira sondie a si or Pggn a tara si N135:fl) Naira tara si mg oyr sgnrgn. or diqmq or Pggn a tara si rng sQno.ma p99n np oyi mq Naira sgngna si mq sqnqma mq N147:fi) or Pggn a tara si mq oyi tar4 pQTn feni mq oyi mg Nl50:00 Naira sgno.ma si mg oYi mq or PE;n a tara si mg oyi sgenran pggn feni pg or db mg N65...

N40:0o..Nairamasi or Siapo.Bn

si

.

Cme andbeattnis&um

39

l+2

-T
N160:00 Naira niina si or Po.pn a nei-a si N185:00 Naira ise na si mg sggnrqn mq or Po.gn a nei-a si mg oyi *u p-o,Jo feni m9 oyi m9 N196:00 Naira ise na si m9 oyi sondie feni mg or P-o1m a nei-N si rng niina po.gn mq N200:00 Ma Naira akpa or Kqni sili akpa-if the Pound system is used' NOTE: Oncc

LESSON 13

TiIE IIOUSE
has beeir acquainted with many words now, and has also leamt how to pronounce and spell them correctly. In gene,ml, it is assumed that the studeirt has grasped the working of grammar in Izo,n language.It is now time to apply it into use. There are two tables giveir below. Study thern well and do the exercise giveir.

It is assumed that the foreign lcarne.r

it climbs onto eighty Naira and above, counting in Pounds nPo.gnn is mentioned first. Note also the use of the bears littlc change, word "feiri". It comesat the end of any number of pounds. It could occur twice in som€ cas6s. Examine the above translation thoroughly and
master its use"

q.
'!,

Tahlo

I

The counting treomes based on the multiples of two hundred (N200:00) once it reaches two hundred or above.In this way; N4OO:0O... Nei-aNaira akpa orma akpa N600:00... Sondie a Naira akpa or taraa akpa

N800:00... NiinaNaira akpaornei-aakpa
Nl000:00...
Naira egbgwa (Not egbr;wa Naira)

SECTION III If there is any &action on top of any two hundred Naira NZn:Oo), there
is change as follows.

N250:00..Naira oyi ma si feni mg oyi mg or Ma Naira akPa mg ma si mq oYi mg or Akpamg si sgo.nran Pqgn feni mq
N300:00.. "Taara Naira akPa

or or

Akpamgekisemg AkpamgPQUn a masimgoYimg

N350:00...TaraNaira akpamg ma si mg oyi mg ar Akpa mg pqgn a taara si m9 oyi sQglqon fe'ni mg or die mp N510:00"......Sggnran Naira akpa mg oyi mg or Ma akpa mg po.Un a ma si mg oyi s99ru9n feni mq or die m9 N663:00....Sondie aNairaakpamq tara si mq targ mq or Tara akpa mg si oyi kEni pggn fmi mq oyi mq N876:0O...Niina Naira akpa m9 tara si mq oyi sondie feni m9 or Nein a akpa mg si oyi nina pg;n fc'ni mg ; and so on.

English Izqn I Agg... cup 2 Panghan... a gourd cup 3 Apia/Ogidi... cutlass 4lpia-abg,.. scabbard 5 Ogoun... :u(e 6 Apala..- atre 7 Ekpedi... box 8 Kasi... chair 9 Ogun... a gourd pot 10 Tun... hat 11 Obiri... dog 12 Adgin... knife 13 Asisa... umbrella 14 Ogige... door 15 Olomu... well 16 Egbagi... hob
i1
!'r

A Arsqq'...
25 26 28

Akpg.gtun

a eartheirjar
Eton cap larnp

Tl Ololo...
29
30

TTkpa.". Ygwgi...

bottle
paddle

3l Engasi... 32 Okoygrg.-.

Akppgrg...

Aagere...

bicycle
basket spoon spoon

(:)

Ozi... 19 Obori... 2.0 Alagba... 21 Amatu...
23

17 18

Egbomu...

bell drum
goat gun

33 Atgng/Ivlgzg... table 3 Ak919... walking stick 35 Afinyoun... broom 36 Dag... father 37 Yin... mother 38 Bina-owei... brotl'c' 39 Bina-arag... sister 40 Warikiri... floor 41 Tibiso.n... kitcheir

42

Angala...

charcool

city

43 Beke-odin... pomade ,t4 Abggrg... dagger 45 Ago-koromg... consumate
marriage;

22 Amila. -. husband-less

Agg...

woman respect,honour

46 Bidg-oku... bodbug 47 Obine-a-san... bod-wetting 48 Atagba... gun

40

4t

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