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“Effectiveness of Training Programmes for the Benefit of Employees in --------”
SUBMITTED IN THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE AWARD OF DEGREE OF MASTER IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 2010-12
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF: Ms./ Mr./ Dr./ Prof. __________ Assistant Professor/ Associate Professor/ Professor, RDIAS SUBMITTED BY: Name of the Student Enrollment No._______ MBA, Semester ______ Batch 20__ - 20__
RUKMINI DEVI INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institute
(Approved by AICTE, HRD Ministry, Govt. of India) Affiliated to Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi 2A & 2B, Madhuban Chowk, Outer Ring Road, Phase-1, Delhi-110085
This is to certify that the project report titled “ Pronouncement, processing & Distribution of Basmati Rice ” is a bonafide work carried out by Ms. Type ur name here in partial fulfillment for award of the Post graduate degree in management( MBA).
TO Whomsoever It May Concern
This is to certify that type ur name student of RUKMINI DEVI INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES Of Professional studies has successfully completed his Summer Training .She has submitted a project
report on “Pronouncement, processing & Distribution of Basmati Rice”
During his training period from _______ , she was hard working, discipline, punctual & conduct was satisfactory. We wish him all the success in the future.
I thank the almighty for providing me the opportunity and giving me the strength to finish my job in Jagat Agro Industries. I feel deep senses of gratitude from the core of my heart to Jagat Agro Industries for the guidance, extensive help, providing facilities, critism, admiring my good job and motivation to get the job done.
I express my sincere appreciation to Mr. Anshul Mathur in the Current Account Section for extending full support and continuous guidance throughout the project.
This project is classified in to different sections. During this period the trainees were involved in to lead a team of 3-5 employee under him for opening of current account & maintain the relation with customer. One section provides the instruction to verification of documents of customer regarding the opening of current account. . analyzed report of the market or field and other studies including future enhancement suggestion and recommendation. Another section provides instruction. objective of the project.PREFACE This project submitted in completion of the summer Training under taken by the trainees at Jagat Agro Industries.
Normally a decide made a 15-20 calls daily and out of which 1-2 lead were generated but many times not a single lead was generated. customer offers. computer centers etc.If scanned got completed without any fault the customer got his account opened within a week. . I also carried out weakness. took all Photostats and completed the lead.Executive Summary Working with Jagat Agro Industries has been a good experience and exposure to the real working of the organization. Major finding includes that no doubt we enjoy a good reputation on the market but still many ignorant about Industries so we have to promote our current account products. It‟s been a good chance of learning. after this completed the account opening form. introduction of sachets to make current account popular in urban market potential is maximum. My project objective was to find out the clear picture of the given current account product of Jagat Agro Industries. As Industries is spending lots of money on advertising so no further policy is required for this. verified the documents of the customer so that the bank will not face the problem of fraud or any misconduct in operating of account. and again send for scanning .On the date of appointment I went to customer & clear all his remaining queries & verified the Photostats of original documents with original documents.and sends it to Delhi office for scanning. For first 2 weeks I got the product training . Opportunities and threat (SWOT) analysis. The database annexed to the report could not used to devise the current account marketing strategy. If there was some rejections in application form then I had to corrected it. After generation of lead my work was started I made a phone call to customer to got ready with his documents & I had to appointed the time with customer . After this I have to recruit the employees under me for this I have to contact some coaching centers. but we can indulge in other promotional techniques like taking part in exhibitions. This is beginning of my work after this I filled the form with information given in the document . window display. Strength.during which I went to the Jagat Agro Industries.
..........INTRODUCTION About the Industry About Organization/ Company Profile CHAPTER-2 LITERATURE REVIEW Literature CHAPTER-3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 1....................……….2 Research Objectives of the study…………………………………………………........… 1..... 1..................1 Purpose of the study…………………………………………………....... CHAPTER -4 Analysis & Interpretation……………………………………………………………………………… ……............................... CHAPTER -5 Findings & Suggestions.......... CHAPTER -6 Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………… Bibliography ....3 Method of data collection…………………………………………………….CONTENTS Student declaration Acknowledgement Executive Summary CHAPTER 1 .
employment generation & up-liftmen of the society. supporting institutions & the industry. they were given the seeds of rice and were directed to a wondrous country where everything was perfect and where rice grew well. by contrast. Various schemes & policies are announced by Govt. folklore tells us that when the Kachins of northern Myanmar (Burma) were sent forth from the center of the Earth. In Bali.. tells of rice being a gift of animals rather than of gods. This is a time bound project and aims to systematically develop & upgrade cluster group of Industries as a whole with the involvement of Govt.0 Introduction: The Govt. and even today in both places. the SIDO. it is believed that the Lord Vishnu caused the Earth to give birth to rice. Rice is an integral part of their creation myth and remains today as their leading crop and most preferred food. of India has come up with an innovative project of CLUSTER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME. For example. Under the programme. of India has been emphasizing planned development of small scale industries in the country. There more than 34 lakhs SSI units in the country producing 8000 items and contributing nearly 34% to the National Exports. people came down from the hills where they had taken refuge. of India which effectively promotes this sector by providing direct & indirect assistance. When the land had finally drained. rice is considered a gift of the gods.4 million additional jobs during 10 Five Year Plan. Govt. coordinating & monitoring the development of this sector in the country. the cluster development programme has been initially taken up for at least one cluster group from every state. of India is the key agency responsible for planning. In order to further develop this sector in a planned & effective matter. only to discover that all the plants had been destroyed and there was little to th . out of 21 clusters identified for development. The Small Industries Development Organisation (SIDO) of Ministry of SSI. planning & programmes are made from time to time to promote this sector which contributes significantly in economic development. Chinese myth. In Haryana. Out of 358 clusters identified in the country. rice is treated with reverence. Govt. Rice is intimately involved in the culture as well as the food ways and economy of many societies. and the God Indra taught the people how to raise it. China had been visited by an especially severe period of floods. and its cultivation is tied to elaborate rituals. the start has been given with taking up of RICE MILLING INDUSTRY CLUSTER AT KARNAL.CHAPTER 1 1. Various policies. In both tales. associations & other cluster actors. This sector provides employment to 35 lakh people and has been assigned the target of annual growth of 12% and creation of 4. the in depth study of this cluster industry has been taken up and necessary developmental interventions have been identified in consultation with the industry. These interventions will be implemented in a phased manner in the identified net works / groups of desiring units to achieve the improved/tangible results to upgrade the industry in the state.
the god of the ripened rice plant. sativa migrated. It is certain. Australian. Origin and Diffusion of Rice The origins of rice have been debated for some time. yellow seeds. The earliest settlements of those persons responsible for domestication undoubtedly were in areas offering a wide range of plant and animal associations within a limited geographical area. The earliest agriculture was probably focused on plants that reproduced vegetative. having distinctive partitions into South Asian. Cultivated rice belongs to two species. O. . Chinese. Once the blocks separated. sativa and O. a simple form of Sweden. the Asian portion of Gondwanaland collided with the Australia/New Guinea portion. but on gently rolling topography and close to small rivers that provided a reliable water supply. however. They survived through hunting. rufipogon. Such sites offered a variety of food sources over a span of seasons to societies dependent on hunting and gathering for their food supply. rice grew. O. but the seeds of easily shattering varieties of wild rice such as Oryza fatua may have found their way to the gardens at an early date. and hanging on the dog's tail were bunches of long. sativa into these seven forms began long ago and came about largely as a result of major tectonic events and worldwide climatic changes. but the plant is of such antiquity that the precise time and place of its first development will perhaps never be known. The people planted these seeds. but it was very difficult. tradition holds that "the precious things are not pearls and jade but the five grains". The subdivision of O.and so it is in much of the rice world. New Guinean. One day the people saw a dog coming across a field. may have developed by accident when women of the settlement recognized that the mix of plant life growing around the midden was especially rich in edible forms. sativa is a complex group composed of two forms endemic to Africa but not cultivated. These earliest settlements might well have been near the edge of the uplands. O. and hunger disappeared. O. For centuries. Throughout China today. Of the two. hunting in the forests. the Emperor of Japan is the living embodiment of Ninigo-no-mikoto. It is postulated. for this grain has fed more people over a longer period of time than has any other crop. that the domestication of rice ranks as one of the most important developments in history. and American forms. At that time. creating a land bridge across which O. of which rice is first. because animals were scarce. sativa is by far the more widely utilized. and a third from. humans maintained themselves by fishing in the rivers. According to Shinto belief. The earliest agriculture. sativa began to diverge from the main forms about 15 million years ago.eat. glaberrima. and gathering edible plant products. they cannot deny the enormous cultural importance of rice on life in their country . While most modern Japanese may intellectually dismiss this supernatural role. based on measurements by electrophoresis that the Australian form of O. the Australian form was free to follow an evolutionary path somewhat different from that followed by the O. during the Miocene. sativa on the mainland.
Botanical evidence concerning the distribution of cultivated species is based chiefly on the range and habitat of wild species that are believed to have contributed to the cultivated forms. This evidence not only pushed back the documented origin of cultivated rice but. rice was grown in forest clearing under a system of shifting cultivation. These remains have been confirmed by 14C and thermo luminescence testing as dating from at least 4000 B. The earliest and most convincing archeological evidence for domestication of rice in Southeast Asia was discovered by Wilhelm G. migration of fauna across the proto-Himalayas was still possible. are synonymous. Pottery shards bearing the imprint of both grains and husks of O.000 B. and in both religions the grain is used as a major offering to the gods. lends support to the argument for mainland Southeast Asia as the heartland of rice cultivation. Rice was grown on "farms" under conditions only slightly different from those to . The crop was grown by direct seeding and without standing water. and no references exist in early Egyptian records. This diversity of species. the ancestors of what are commonly referred to today as Indica and japonica (or sinica) types. Laos. the process of diffusion has carried rice in all directions until today it is cultivated on every continent save Antarctica. when viewed in conjunction with plant remains from 10. Both Hindu and Buddhist scriptures make frequent reference to rice. Solheim II in 1966. and north China had almost ideal conditions.C. Thailand. discovered in Spirit Cave on the Thailand-Myanmar border.C.C. suggests that agriculture itself may be older than was previously thought. Such is not the case in any other part of the world. The climate was suitable for rice even in what today is Central Asia. At that time. Eary Spread of Rice From an early beginning somewhere in the Asian arc. and with the animals went wild rice.Divergence between the South Asian and Chinese forms. and in the Yangtze Basin in the late Neolithic period (Chang 1967a). is believed to have commenced 2-3 million years ago. there is no correspondingly early reference to rice in Jewish scriptures of the Old Testament. No parallel evidence has been uncovered in Egyptian tombs or from Chaldean excavations. northern Vietnam. and into southern China. In several regional languages the general terms for rice and food. or for rice and agriculture. including those considered by many to have been involved in the original domestication process. Linguistic evidence also points to the early origin of cultivated rice in this same Asian arc. In contrast. In this early hearth area. sativa were discovered at Non Nok Tha in the Korat area of Thailand. Religious writings and practices are also seen as evidence of the longevity of rice as a staple item of the diet. Archeologists have found evidence that rice was an important food in Mohenjo-Daro as early as 2500 B. The greatest variety of such rices is found in the zone of monsoon rainfall extending from eastern India through Myanmar.
and only recently did it come to occupy the vast river deltas. In fact. the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the National Science Foundation both issued reports on the "greenhouse effect" They agreed that there has already been some warming of the earth. During the 16th and early 17th centuries.C. rice spread gradually throughout the southern portions of Europe and to a few locations in North Africa. it was actually forbidden on the outskirts of a number of large towns. medical geographers in the 16th century played an important role in limiting the adoption of rice as a major crop in the Mediterranean area.C. the crop was introduced to Japan no later than 100 B.. From China or Korea. and it was believed to be spread by the bad air (hence the origin of the name) of swampy areas. In Southeast Asia.which wild rice was subject. Interestingly enough.C. Such measures were a significant barrier to the diffusion of rice in Europe. With the development of pudding and transplanting. malaria was a major disease in southern Europe. while in Sri Lanka. The crop may well have been introduced to Greece and neighboring areas of the Mediterranean by the returning members of Alexander the Great expedition to India 344-324 B. and that without strong human intervention the increase may be much . that irrespective of whatever action governments may take. Major drainage projects were undertaken in southern Italy. Migrant peoples from South China or perhaps northern Vietnam carried the traditions of wetland rice cultivation to the Philippines during the second millennium B. and DeuteroMalays carried the practice to Indonesia about 1500 B. and wetland rice cultivation was discouraged in some regions. rice was a major crop as early as 1000 B.C. The date of 2500 B. It was in China that the processes of pudding soil and transplanting seedlings were likely refined. In late 1988. In China. has already been mentioned for Mohenjo-Daro. From a center in Greece and Sicily. by contrast.C. The suspicion that rice fields cased "mal-air" did not entirely disappear with the end of the Renaissance. rice became truly domesticated. Pudding breaks down the internal structure of soils. rice was originally produced under dryland conditions in the uplands. A similar but independent pattern of the incorporation of wild rice‟s into an agricultural system may well have taken place in one or more locations in Africa at approximately the same time. the history of rice in river valleys and low-lying areas is longer that its history as a dryland crop. Both operations became integral parts of rice farming and remain very widely practiced to this day. the world is destined for a further temperature increase of at least 2o C.C. Movement to western India and south to Sri Lanka was also accomplished very early. making them much less subject to water loss through percolation.
The crop may well have been carried to that area by slaves brought from Madagascar. The problem is. when the crop was produced on the coastal lowlands and island of what is now South Carolina. but rice plants themselves act as gas vents. The greenhouse effect is caused in large part by the release. Few varieties of rice in India are given below: . The introduction in the latter area corresponded almost exactly with the timing of the first successful crop in Australia's New South Wales. Rice fields are suspected of putting 115 million tonnes of methane into the atmosphere each year.greater. but not until the 20th century was it produced in California's Sacramento Valley. The Portuguese carried it to Brazil. new lands to the west became available for exploitation. through human activity. methane traps 20 times more energy. A major methane source. Carbon dioxide has long been the prime suspect. but it is now known that. and the Spanish introduced its cultivation to several locations in Central and South America. putting greater than expected concentrations into the atmosphere. few are completely new and few are hybrid of existing. molecule for molecule. rice spread to Louisiana. is flooded Riceland. magnified by the extension of rice area. This is at least equal to the total production from all of the world's natural swamps and wetlands. Early in the 18th century. Not only do methane-producing bacteria thrive in such an environment. Rice cultivation was introduced to the New World by early European settlers. As a result of Europe's great Age of Exploration. The first record for North America dates from 1685. of course. perhaps even the largest of all. and especially by the enlargement of double-cropped rice areas. by the expansion of irrigation facilities. India is an agricultural land and with the blend of technology in agro field and lots of immense work in R&D the country have developed many new varieties of rice. of certain gases that dirty the atmospheric window and prevent the escape of the earth's heat to outer space. Both reports also agree that methane concentrations are increasing at the rate of approximately 1%/yr.
Rice 1009 Kar ADT 39 Alur Sanna Ambemohor Basmati Amira Mogra Basmati Amira Tibar Basmati Amire Full Basmati Amras Non Basmati andra Sanna anekombu Sanna anekowe Annapoorna AP Raw Rice 5293 AP Raw Rice Baptla Ponni AP Raw Rice PLR Soma AP Raw Rice SilkyRaw AP Raw Rice-1001 AP Raw-Rice Sona Ponni Arcot Kichikdi Arti Mashuri BPT Balesuli Bangar Kaddi Bangarkhovi Bangarsanna Bantwal Basamti Dawat Basmati (Rose) Basmati Car Basmati Charmi Basmati Dawat Roz-(20KG) Basmati Golden Sela New Basmati Golden Sela Old Basmati Haryana Raw (New) .
(Old) Basmati-370 Basmati-385 Basmati-386 Basmatibar (Raw/New) Basmatibar (Raw/Old) Basmatidubar Raw/New Basmatidubar Raw/Old Basumathi Bellary Sanna Bile Kagga Boiled Rice Broken Rice Broken Rice(Kanki) BT Sona Byra (Red Rice) Champakali Chikkahalga China Sanna Chinoor Chinoor Non Basmati Chintamani Sanna CO 36 CO-43 (Medium) Boiled Coarse Coarse (I.20) .Basmati Haryana Raw (Old) Basmati Haryana Sela(New) Basmati Haryana Sela(Old) Basmati Mogra (Raw/New) Basmati Mogra (Raw/Old) Basmati Paddy Basmati Silky Kohinoor Basmati Super Kohinoor Basmati Trophy Basmati U. (New) Basmati U.P.R.P.
EMR Boiled Export Parmal Farm Kaddi FCI Non Basmati FCI Parmal Fine Fine(Basmati) .Coimbatore Kaddi Coimbatore Sanna Common CR 1009 (Coarse) Boiled Culture Ponni1 Culture Ponni2 Dappa Dash Non Basmati Dawal Full Basmati Dawat Dawat Kinki Dawat Mogra Dawat Tiwar Dhoon Full Basmati Dhoon Mogra Basmati Dhoon Tibar Basmati Dilkhus Basmati Doly Non Basmati Doon Dubar Doon FUll Basmati Doon Kinki Basmati Doon Mini Doon Mogra (Basmati Doon Tiwar Basmati Dosa Rice Dubraj Daboo Ji Non Basmati Duplicate Basmati Durbar Basmati Early St.
Quality Gowrisanna H.GMR Steam Golden Sela Best Govt.V. Hansa Hassan Dappa HMT Fine Raw Hmt Rice-Non Basmati HMT Sona Best HMT Sona Medium III Intan IR 20 IR 20 Fine Raw IR 20 Medium Boiled IR 50 IR20 Parboiled IR-8 IR-8 Raw (New) IR-8 Raw (Old) IR-8 Sela (New) IR-8 Sela (Old) IR-8 Wand Jaya Jeera Samba Jenugudu Jhilli Medium Jirigesanna Kachha Basmati .Y. Hallo Dubar Basmati Hallo Full Basmati Hallo Mogra Basmati Hallo Tibar Basmati Halubbulu (H 137) Hamsa St.
Kaddi Kalimuch Kapila Sanna Karekagga Kattasambar Kesari (Coorg) Kichudi Kohinoor Durbar Basmati Kohinoor Full Basmati Kohinoor Kinki Basmati Kohinoor Mini Durbar Basmati Kohinoor Mogra Basmati Kohinoor Tibar Basmati Kohinoor Trophy Basmati Kohinoor Trophy Durbar Kolam-Non Basnati Lajbab Non Basmati Lashkari Long Bold Madhu (MR 136) Maharani Dubar Basmati Maharani Kinki Basmati Maharani Mini Dubar Basmati Maharani Mino Mogra basmati Maharani Mogra Basmati Maharani Tiwar Basmati Malnad gidda Mandya-vani Mangal (MR 272) Manila Masoori-Non Basmti Masuri Mataa Parboiled Medium Milled Mini Basmati .
Mnadyavani Mogra Basmati Motta (Coarse) Boiled Mull Bhatte Naya Nellore Sanna Non Basmati Jhilli Safri Best Non Basmati Kalimunch Noorjahan Non Basmati NT2 Original Basmati Other Padma Parimal (New) Parimal (Old) Parmal Parmal (Paddy) Parmal Kachha Parmal Raw (New) Parmal Raw (Old) Parmal Sela Parmal Sela (Old) Parmal Sels (New) Parmal Wand Parmal Wand (Old) Phalguna Ponni Ponni (Fine) Boiled Ponni Fine Raw Ponni parboiled Popular Basmati PR-103 PR-106 PR-108 PR-111 Prakash .
Punjab Parmal Non Basmati Pusa Basmati (Paddy) Pusa Basmati Raw (New) Pusa Basmati Raw (Old) Pusa Basmati Sela (New) Pusa Basmati Sela (Old) Puspa (MR 301) Putta Bhatta (White Rice) Rajahamsa Rajbhog Rasi Ratnachudi (718 5-749) Rice Bran(Kukuf) Rice Floor Sadharan Sambar Sanna Bhatta Sanna Honsu Sannaanekal Sarbati Raw Sarbati Raw (New) Sarbati Raw (Old) Sarbati Sela Sarbati Sela (New) Sarbati Sela (Old) Sela Basmati Shakti Sharbati (Paddy) Sona Sona Boiled Sona Coarse Sona Fine Sona Mansoori Non Basmati Sona Medium Sona Raw New Sona Raw Old .
T) Super Fine Suvarna Best Suvarna Medium Swadras Non Basmati Tallahamsa (Bilihamsa) Tericot Sela Tini Basmati Vani (Jet 2295) Vijaya White Car White Parboiled Zeeraga Samba Rawrice Basmati group varieties are called superfine varieties whereas the Non basmati Group PR varieties are medium fine & other are thick rice varieties. Sujatha (B.Sona St. 1.1 About Organization/ Company Profile: .
This paddy is then milled in two rice milling plants at Delhi and Rai (Haryana). this Delhi based company has carved a niche for itself in the domestic market. a textile designer by qualification. This means that all workflow. Mr. precisely defined quality standard. The company. Jagat Basmati Rice has launched its products in various parts of India. In a short span of nine years. with its network of offices in major man dies of rice-producing states has full infrastructure to procure the best quality of paddy. to produce the finest Jagat Basmati Rice with supreme flavor and fragrance. Jagat is all geared up to enter the exports market. Satish Pawa and Mr. The company.Jagat'. After being consistently rated as one of the major basmati rice manufacturers in India. In 1994. presented by Honourable Deputy Chief Minister of Goa. . took over the reins of Jagat Agro Commodities Pvt. The company is on its path of achieving its target turnover of Rs. is done to the highest.1995 had the honour of receiving Award for excellence in quality from the Institute of Economic Studies. all having modern machines and equipments based on foreign technology. Shri Wilfred D'Souza. Sant Lal Aggarwal. With its network of over 200 distributors and three lakh retailers. Sudha Pawa. Ms. from the beginning up to the manufacturing and test procedures. 100crores ($23 million) for the year ending. and today Jagat Basmati Rice has become a name synonymous with quality. and began supervising promotions and sales of the products. Ltd. on January 3. although registered in 1986 was formally launched in November 1992 when the group took over a mill in Delhi under the stewardship of its Directors. Jagat has successfully established its Quality Management System according to ISO 9001:2000.
has established itself as a processor of world class basmati rice. In synergy with prevailing market dynamics.1Jagat Products: Jagat Agro Commodities Pvt. Ltd.1. the company offers various grades of raw basmati rice and par boiled rice to suit different budgets and tastes. JAGAT MALAI JAGAT PEARL JAGAT KHUSHBU PRODUCTS JAGAT SPECIAL SELLA JAGAT MANPASAND JAGAT EVERYDAY/SUPER EVERYDAY JAGAT SADABAHAR . The premium brand of basmati from the company is adored by all and consumed by those who value taste and expect nothing but the best.1.
5kg. 20kg and 35kg packs] . With an average length above 7. Jagat Malai Basmati Rice is the best rice to fill the palate of the elite. A perfect blend of traditional basmati 370 and 386 is sourced entirely from Punjab near the Himalayan Belt. A blend of Taraori basmati and basmati 1 is sourced from the Belt of Haryana.25mm. With an average length of 7. it elongates to over double the length on cooking.[Available in 1kg. it will leave a lingering taste in the mouth for quite a long period. the aroma of Jagat Khushbu Basmati Rice fills the room once it is cooked and served at the dining table. With a perfect separation and aroma. 20kg and 35kg packs] JAGAT KHUSHBU: As the name suggests. [Available in 1kg. it is one of the best rice available in this price range.JAGAT MALAI: Call it the 8th wonder of the world or the Jacob Diamond from the Nizam's collection.1 mm. 5kg.
JAGAT MANPASAND: Jagat Manpasand Basmati Rice is everybody's delight. A perfect blend of basmati 1, Taraori basmati and desi basmati has made it affordable without disturbing the inherent qualities of traditional basmati rice.[Available in 1kg, 5kg, 20kg and 35kg packs]
JAGAT SADABAHAR: A fast moving item, it is the real value for money. It is a blend of basmati 1 and desi basmati, where the latter is basmati originating from Dehradun, entirely grown now in the foothills of Nainital in Uttaranchal. The elongation of the same is almost 2 ½ times on cooking and gives the perfect taste and aroma.[Available in 1kg, 5kg, 20kg and 35kg packs]
JAGAT EVERYDAY/SUPER EVERYDAY: As the name suggests, Jagat Everyday Basmati Rice is priced at almost the rate of non basmati rice. It consists of 40% full grain and 60% ¾ or ½ broken basmati rice, much better than the so called Tukra in the market. [Available in 1kg, 5kg, 20kg and 35kg packs]
JAGAT SPECIAL SELLA: Biryani rice eater's delight, Jagat Special Sella Basmati Rice is a blend of Taraori and basmati 1 rice parboiled at the paddy stage with a processing of steaming and drying. When cooked for biryani or pulao, each grain separates out, thus making rice eating a memorable experience. [Available in 5kg and 35kg packs]
JAGAT PEARL: Each grain is treated to make Jagat Pearl Parmal Rice silky. It is the perfect match for people who eat only non basmati rice. With less than 2% brokens, it is like the beads in a plate. [Available in 5kg, 10kg and 35kg packs]
1.1.2. Production: At Jagat process, products to make them excel in the quality conscious market.
PROCURING PADDY: Our network of offices in major man dies enables us to procure the best quality in paddy. After the distribution of selected seeds in the productive hands of our farmers, the paddy is procured.
PADDY DRYER: Paddy is uniformly dried and processed through dryers to reduce the moisture content and stored in warehouses for maturing. Our quality expertise continues to play a key role in the paddy storage area where stringent internal checking procedures are used to ensure proper storage and protection.
DE-HUSKING: A fully automatic rubber roll control system enables automatic rice hulling operation.
PADDY SEPARATORS: The rice after the hulling process still contains about 10%-15% of paddy kernels. It is fed onto the separating trays and given special sideway motions till it rolls down to the lower front end of the separating trays. This separates the rice from the paddy kernels.
FINE CLEANERS: Cleaners are used for grading of light and heavy seeds, cereal and granular materials. The machines manufactured in accordance with good quality principles and having multiple features are used for the purpose.
POLISHING AND SORTING: Polishers are so specially designed that brown rice is polished by its mutual friction among rice grains in polishing chamber to perform the even polishing effect. During the milling process, at the color sorting stage, close checks at various levels are carried out to ensure conformity with the requisite color parameters.
GRADING, DESTONING AND COLOUR SORTING: The 90000 monochromatic is the world's standard rice machine for small and large millers, removing brown and yellow grains and tip defects. The performance of the machinery is enhanced by 90000 dichromatic, and the addition of infra-red gives the rejection of glass and other foreign matter. The laboratory also plays a key role in respect of maintaining checks on several other aspects such as size, length and the removal of broken tips.
The above production process gives our rice the delicate texture, flavor and aroma only unique to Jagat Basmati Rice. Our machineries enable maximum yield of full grains so as to minimize the cost of production. This ensures the competitiveness of our products, in turn ensuring that only the finest quality of rice reaches our valued customer.
1.1.3 Distribution: With its network of over 150 distributors and three lakh retailers, Jagat Basmati Rice has launched its products in various parts of India. STATE-WISE DETAILS OF DISTRIBUTORS
PRASHANT GOYAL MR. MAM CHAND & SONS KISHAN CHAND BRIJ MOHAN SUMER AGENCY GOPI RAM SHRI BHAGHWAN JAGDISH RAI ASHOK KUMAR DAYA NAND SHRI KRISHAN SANJAY TRADING CO. ASHOK KUMAR MR. LTD. BALRAM MR. KRISHAN MR. HARCHAND RAI BISHAMBER DAYAL BALAJI ENTERPRISES . RAJESH ARORA MR. DAULAT RAM JHARIA MAL DARSHAN LAL & SONS CO. SHRI. JIWAN DAS HUKUM CHAND PANKAJ AGRO SALES. DISTRIBUTORS IN HARYANA FARIDABAD MR. SANJEEV KUMAR MR. SUBASH PARVEEN TRADING CO. PARVEEN GOYAL GURGAON AMBALA CANTT BALLAB GARH PALVAL REWARI SONIPAT GOHANA SAMALKHA PANIPAT KARNAL ROHTAK TAURU BAHADUR GARH MR. DINESH BINDAL SH. VINOD KUMAR MR. DARSHAN LAL MR. ASHOK JAIN MR. RAJENDER PRASAD MR. ROSHAN LAL GUPTA MR.DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OF JAGAT AGRO COMMODITIES PVT.
ARORA TRADERS NARNAUL HISSAR BALLAB GARH BAHADURGARH PANCHKULA MR. SURESH AGGARWAL MR. PRAVEEN KUMAR & CO. SANJAY ARORA TOP MANOHAR LAL SAT PAL DISTRIBUTORS IN CHANDIGARH CHANDIGARH MR. MOHINDER CHAWLA MR. AGGARWAL TRADING CO. VINEET GOEL MR. TRADERS KAMAL TRADING CO.RAGHAV SHARAN RATTAN LAL. JASBIR SINGH MR. PAWAN TOP LAXMAN DASS SAI DATTA MAL (P) LTD KRISHNA TRADING CO HEERA LAL SHALIGRAM SURAJ BHAN SADHU RAM D. RATTAN LAL MR. VINAY KUMAR . SADHU RAM V. OIL & FLOUR MILL TAKSH ENTERPRISES VINAY TRADING CO. SOHAN LAL MR. NAVEEN KUMAR MR. DISTRIBUTORS IN PUNJAB MOHALI KHARAR BARNALA SARHIDA NABHA MR. MUKUNDI LAL PARWANOO KULLU SHIMLA PARWANOO PARWANOO PARWANOO PARWANOO MR.R. RAMESH CHAND MR. SAI DATTA MAL MR. VED PRAKASH MR.K. KAMAL KUMAR MR. MR. LAKSHMI KIRYANA STORE ARYA TRADING CO. ROSHAN LAL NAVEEN KUMAR ANKUR TRADING CO. ANIL KUMAR TOP JAGAT RAM MUKUNDI LAL DISTRIBUTORS IN HIMACHAL PRADESH PARWANOO MR.
SAMANUMAN MR.K. MAHESH CHAND JAIN MR. RAJEEV KUMAR MR.C. VIRENDER KUMAR TOP NARENDER KUMAR VIRENDER KUMAR AHMEDGARH RAJEEV TRADERS SHIVAM AGENCIES RAJESH TRADING COMPANY DISTRIBUTORS IN UTTAR PRADESH JHANSI MR. VISHNU KUMAR TOP GANGA SAHAI GIRIRAJ PRASAD KEWAL RAM SAMANOMAL ASHOKA AGENCIES DHAU DAYAL & SONS . MAHENDER SHARMA TOP R. RAJENDER AGARWAL ALWAR AJMER DAUSA BHARATHPUR SH. JAGAT RAM GWALIOR MR. SURESH KUMAR TOP JAGAT RAM SUNDER DAS SURENDER & CO. RAJEEV AGRA MATHURA SH. RAJESH MR. SURESH MR. GUPTA TOP KASHMIRI LAL & SONS DISTRIBUTORS IN UTTARANCHAL DEHRADOON MR.RAJESH TRADERS SURESH OIL & FLOUR MILL JODHA RAM TARLOK CHAND SARHIDA KHANNA LUDHIANA MR.TRADERS DISTRIBUTORS IN RAJASTHAN JAIPUR MR. ASHOK MR. MURARI LAL MR. DISTRIBUTORS IN MADHYA PRADESH INDORE MR. K.
RISHAB MR. SAVARDEKER SONI MAHENDRA KUMAR & CO.V. ASHOK AGGARWAL MR. ABHINANDAN MR. VEERBHAN TULSWANT MR. MATIN TRADERS HIRAJ SON RAHUL PRADEEP SAVARDEKAR RAJ TRADING CO. RAFIQ BHAI MR. RAJU SETH MR. RAHUL MR. RAJESH BAHI MR. ABHINANDAN MR. LAXMAN DAS MR. VIKRAM MR. LAXMINARAYAN AGGARWAL MR. ABHINANDAN TRADERS KAM SONS TRADERS VISAL TRADING CO. EBRAHIM BHAI MR.EBRAHIM MR. SHREE GANESH ENTERPRISES VIKRAM TRADERS MUNNA LAL & CO. RAM BHAI & CO. DISTRIBUTORS OF GUJARAT RAJKOT MR. SUBHASH TRADING CO. ANIL AGGARWAL/MR. VINOD MR. VIJAY SINGANIA MR. NANJI BHAI GUJARAT MR. ANIL MR. PURENDRA BABRO CHAKOTE OSWAL TRADERS VIJAY ANAJ BHANDHAR HAZI YUSUF ABDUL KARIM GAGAN DADU MAL MOTU MAL SIMANDHAR TRADERS VARDHMAN TRADING CO. SHAH NANJI NAGSI P. DILIP GANDHI MR. DAVINDER PANDY N. DEEP CHAND & CO.SWADESHI TRADING CO. RAJPUROHIT MR. TARUN . VINOD KUMAR MR. DEEP CHAND TOP DISTRIBUTORS IN MAHARSHTRA JAGAT AGRO COMMODITIES (P) LTD VASAI (W) MR. KOLHAPUR VASHI SOLAPUR PUNA SANGLI VASAI (W) ICCHAL KARANJI YAWATMAL NAGPUR AURANGABAD NAGPUR MUMBRA AMRAWATI MEERA ROAD THANE JALAN LATUR NAGPUR KALYAN KOLHAPUR KOLHAPUR PUNE MR.
JALARAM KIRAN STORES MUSTAPHA MARKETING PVT LTD BHIWANDI CHANDRAPUR MR. TEJPAL SHIV KUMAR DISTRIBUTORS IN NORTH DELHI TRI NAGAR MR. MAHAVIR PRASHAD MR. NAVEEN SALES CORP. JAGDISH CHAND GUPTA MR. SHIV KUMAR BANSAL TRADERS RAHUL TRADERS DISTRIBUTORS IN EAST DELHI NEW KUNDLY MR. PARMOD GUPTA . VIJAY KUMAR MR. PREM CHAND MR. NARENDER GUPTA MR. D. MANISH STORE AGGARWAL & SONS GARG TRADING CO. G. PRAVEEN GARG MR. RAJ KUMAR TOP ANNAPURNA TRADERS DISTRIBUTORS IN ANDHRA PRADESH HYDERABAD MR. VIJENDER JAIN MR. GOEL RANI BHAG KRISHNA VIHAR GANDHI NAGAR ROHINI SEC-2 DEV NAGAR ROHINI SEC-7 SHALIMAR BAGH TRI NAGAR SHAKTI NAGAR FILMISTAN SHAHADRA MR. LAXMI STORE SANJAY & BROTHERS JAIN TRADING CO. CHAMAL LAL TOP VANDANA ENTERPRISES DISTRIBUTORS IN ASSAM GUWAHATI MR. TRADING CO. P. VIJENDER SINGLA TOP GOEL TRADERS SHIV TRADERS JAI MATA TRADERS M. GOYAL MR. D. P. SHIV NARAIN BANSAL MR. GOPAL MR. VINOD KUMAR BHAJANPURA MR.
J. SUDHEER GUPTA MR. DARSHAN KHURANA MR. P. SANJAY CHAWLA MR.RAJEEV TRADERS MAHLAWT TRADING CO. SATBIR SINGH MR. BIJENDER JAIN GARG ENTERPRISES A. NITIN MR. DISTRIBUTORS IN WEST DELHI SUBASH NAGAR MR. SANJEEV KUMAR PALAM TILAK NAGAR UTTAM NAGAR TILAK NAGAR JAHANGIRPURI MADIPUR MOTI NAGAR TILAK NAGAR VISHNU GARDEN TILAK NAGAR GHANTA GHAR CHANKYA PALACE UTTAM NAGAR TIHAR DHAKKAMAIN JANAKPURI MR. PAWAN MR. SANJAY MR. A LAL & SONS GIRDHAR STORE OM STORE HARI OM STORE BALU RAM MANOJ KUMAR RANA STORE PANKAJ STORE VISHAL TRADING CO. SINGH MR. PAWAN TRADING CO. KARWALA NAGAR BHOGAL JAITPUR MR. GUPTA & CO. OM FLOUR MILL AGGARWAL AGENCIES JANAK TRADING CO. KRIPA RAM MR. OM PRAKASH DISTRIBUTORS IN SOUTH DELHI VARDHMAN SALES CORPORATION MUNIRKA MR. AMRIT LAL MR. AMRIT LAL SETHI NITIN FLOUR MILL SINGHAL TRADING CO. SURENDER KUMAR . SURESH KUMAR MR. VIKASH TRADING CO. MANAK CHAND AGGARWAL MR.C. SANJEEV KUMAR MR. RAJ KUMAR MR. GHAN SHYAM MR. RAKESH KUMAR MR.
Tax. In case we feel that one dealer is not sufficient to distribute properly in the area as assigned. . Rates will be applicable as per price list prevailing on the date of dispatch. The concerned dealers will stock and sell our products of rice in their territory only. This is on the condition that they will not stock and sell any other brand. the copies of which are to be filed with the Company. All schemes and promotional activities will be given to all our distributors from time to time. Transportation will be to the buyers account on a "to pay" basis. TRADERS CHET RAM JAI PRAKASH DISTRIBUTORS IN CENTRAL DELHI LODHI ROAD MR. Insurance charges will be to the buyers account. Prices are Ex-Delhi based. The concerned dealer should obtain all Statuary Government licenses. TOMAR GOLE MARKET NAYA BAZAR NAYA BAZAR TELIWARA MR.NAFAD CDC BRANCH A.P. JAI PRAKASH AGGARWAL MR.D. All benefits and promotional expenses will be to the company account. Freight and D. we have the right to sub divide the territory and assign it to any other dealer. DAVINDER PAL SODHI RAMESHWAR DASS RAMNARAYAN SODHI & CO. NAVAL KISHOR MR. commission as per applicable in the State will be to the buyers account. All help will be provided for the sales promotion from time to time by the company's sales personnel visiting and through localized promotional advertisements. TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR SALE OF JAGAT RICE Goods will be dispatched on advance payment basis by demand draft. RAKESH MR.
Jagat Agro Commodities Pvt.1. With 'MAGIC' Color Sortex from Satake Corporation Japan. . With the hard work of the promoters of the company. the company was exporting substantial quantities totaling a turnover of above Rs10 crores ($10 million in that year convertibility) during the year. Ltd. In fact. Ltd. with the induction of Mr. by 1989. the company started promoting its own brand 'Jagat'. one of the first of its kind of machinery in India and the Nitrogen Reusable Flushed Packing. Soon it established itself as one of the top brand players in basmati rice. the company visualized the potential of this market in India with its vast population.1. is confident of achieving success in the international market. Jagat Agro is now all geared up to make a breakthrough in exports front by launching their brand 'JAGAT' in the foreign market and for this purpose. Today the brand 'JAGAT' is a name to reckon within India. Santlal Aggarwal. In fact. It was a turning point for Jagat when it became the sole processor for a leading multinational export house. Jagat Agro made a significant breakthrough into the exports of basmati rice to the buyers having their own brands. Thereafter. was established in 1986 with a view to export basmati rice. Having established themselves significantly in the domestic market. we are already in negotiations with a few distributors in the Middle East to promote and market our brand.4 Exports: Jagat Agro Commodities Pvt.85 crores ($17 million) per annum. which removes chalky grains along with other foreign materials and yellow discolored grains. Instead of concentrating on the exports market. with a turnover of above Rs.
IN HOUSE FUMIGATION AND TESTING: Meticulous adherence to quality and hygiene is ensured through the use of totally dust free machines. purchase and storage of paddy. Jagat Agro Commodities Pvt.1.1. GRADING.5 Quality Control: With the objective of providing the best rice to the customers. Ltd. DESTONING AND COLOUR SORTING: The 90000 monochromatic is the world's standard rice machine for small and large millers. removing brown and yellow grains and tip defects. . research and development facilities. Jagat has made long term investments in manufacturing. This is to ensure that the product conforms to the strict standards of international product control. and the addition of infra-red gives the rejection of glass and other foreign matter. became the proud recipient of the prestigious Award for excellence in quality from the Institute of Economic Studies. The high technology instruments enable the company to monitor quality parameters at each and every stage of processing. Our quality expertise starts from the very beginning i. All this is made possible by using cyclones along with fumigation and pest control measures.e. In 1995. close checks at various levels are carried out to ensure conformity with the requisite parameters. The performance of the machinery is enhanced by 90000 dichromatic. MISCELLANEOUS SORTING: At all stages. length and removal of broken tips. One of the key focus areas for Jagat is the control and reduction in the level of chemical and pests residues in rice. The laboratory plays a key role in respect of maintaining checks on several aspects such as size.
full of aroma. Though the authorities in USA have rejected the claim however they have allowed their three strains of rice to be called basmati rice. as it cannot have the combined characteristic of aroma and elongation post cooking because of the soil and weather conditions. It is like somebody. say in India. This rice is different from other rice mainly due to the aroma and elongation post cooking.6 Fact File: WHAT IS BASMATI RICE? Many a time‟s people have asked what the meaning of basmati rice is. gets a patent registered for Champagne and then nobody. . Basmati rice has been reported in India since the early days of the 19th Century though it may have been named differently.1. THE BASMATI CONTROVERSY: A well known Company in USA had applied for the Patent of Basmati Rice i.e. even people in France (where Champagne originated from) would be allowed to call its product as Champagne.1. No other rice has this combined characteristic. the aroma and its sweet taste has made basmati rice a delicacy. Any rice grown elsewhere other than the above regions cannot be called Basmati. Basmati rice is grown only in Northern India and in parts of Pakistan touching India.e. The post cooking elongation of more than twice its original length. This is also against the principles as basmati rice is only grown in UP. Punjab. One can easily call it the Champagne of India. it could label its product as Basmati Rice and in turn nobody else could use this nomenclature for its product. Haryana and J&K in India and Punjab in Pakistan since decades. „Bas‟ in Hindi language means “aroma” and „Mati‟ means “full of” hence the word Basmati i.
Masuri from U. shaped like basmati rice and PR.basmati rice comes in all kinds of different shapes and sizes.basmati rice. Kala Joya from Nagaland. some are like beads. Some names of non basmati rice are Sharbati. In the world it has been reported that there are 10000 varieties of rice. IR 64. Some are long and slender. In fact. . Bengal. 104 IR8.WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF NON- BASMATI RICE? Any rice other than basmati rice is called non. Haryana Gaurav. .P. Culture from MP. and some may be round. Tilak. from the Punjab and Haryana. they do not have both the aroma and post cooking elongation.e. Surti colon from Gujarat and Maharashtra. the maximum number being in India. Non. None have the same characteristics as basmati rice i. Govind Bogh from W. basmati rice equals to only 1% production of the total rice grown in India. Masuri from Andhra. Only some of the long slender rice is shaped like basmati rice and may have either the aroma or the elongation but not both. some are short and thick.
the Paddy (Raw Material) is steamed and then dried for milling.THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ORDINARY AND SELLA (PAR BOILED) RICE: Many a people have the misconception that Sella Rice is a different variety of Rice. The rich aroma is another way by which one can recognize basmati rice. HOW TO RECOGNIZE THE VARIOUS VARIETIES? It is true that recognizing pure basmati rice is as difficult as recognizing a diamond. However Jagat Agro Commodities (P) Ltd. Like a diamond. is because of this process.BASMATI RICE? As mentioned. All other varieties do not match the above qualities.basmati rice has become unaffordable for most people. Once the taste buds get used to basmati rice no other rice will be likened. Any rice can be milled with this process basmati or non. This is not so. The advantage of this rice is that on post cooking each grain separates out perfectly hence it is widely used in preparing Biryani or Pulao. and non – basmati is recognized only by its various sizes and shapes. The yellow color. the cut of the grain indicates whether it is basmati or any other rice.70 per kg. The taste is also different. The color can be also be darkened according to the requirements. which it adapts.e. per acre of land. separates out and with its unique characteristics of aroma and elongation post cooking. WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BASMATI AND NON . it is a treat for the diner. starting with Rs. basmati rice has both and elongation post cooking and no other rice in the world has these characteristics in combination. WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF EATING BASMATI RICE? Each grain of matured old basmati rice on cooking. has made basmati rice affordable for people of various income bracketswith its different varieties of basmati rice.basmati rice. A basmati grain is shaped like a sword and post cooking each grain elongates at least twice that of its original size. Sella is a Rice Milled differently i. Also its elongation requirement on weight basis will be less than any other rice per meal. is less than half of that of nonbasmati rice and because of higher inputs .15 per kg to Rs. . But since the yield of basmati rice.
honesty and hard work. Without her innovative ideas in packaging and promotions.6 The Promoters’: SATISH PAWA: A Maths graduate from St. His constant contact with multinationals made him realize the importance of brand value and he applied for registration of the brand 'JAGAT' in 1987. His thorough knowledge makes him indispensable to JAGAT. but soon he switched to rice.1.1. Thereafter he was the sole broker for a multinational for more than 10 years. The total purchase and blending of the brand is his responsibility and he makes sure that only the best quality product is delivered to the market. New Delhi started his career in business in the commodity market in edible and non edible oils. New Delhi and a textile designer switched from a business of ladies garments to promotion and sales of 'JAGAT'. SUDHA PAWA: A graduate from Lady Shriram College. he started broking for an export house for their requirement of rice for the foreign market. SANTLAL AGGARWAL: After completing his education. Stephens College. soon the company realized his potential and made him the key broker. . Jagat Agro would not be what it is today. With his agricultural background (his family has been farmers for decades).
Santlal Aggarwal. he is heading the department. MAHESH: He joined the company in 1998 and learned the importance of quality from Mr. In a short span the whole culture of the company has changed to an equivalent of a big corporate company. he joined the company as the factory manager. Today. ANUPAM JAIN: An MBA from Indore. each consignment is thoroughly inspected in the company's well-equipped laboratory before dispatch to ensure the quality of the product.1. RAJEEV TANEJA: A Commerce post graduate. always keeping in mind to change according to the times. he joined the company in 2006 and took charge of the Accounts Department. Soon he was heading the sales team of total 10 sales people for Delhi alone.7 The Team UMESH SHRIVASTAVA: After a good experience of sales in other small firms he joined the company as a sales representative in the year 1995. He is now working towards spreading the market to other parts of the country and has made significant breakthrough. with full system in place. With his team of 5 QC supervisors and 10 helpers. .1.
Instrumental analyses have found over 200 volatile compounds present in rice. storage. Unlike most food crops.. making the sensory properties of the rice grain itself important. that need to be present for rice to have stale or rancid flavor have not been established. 2-AP is the only volatile compound in which the relationship between its concentration in rice and sensory intensity has been established. can make rice highly desired by or unacceptable to consumers (Yau and Liu 1999). especially aroma. The result is that. preharvest. rice is generally eaten whole without seasoning. environment. with the exception of 2-acetyl-l-pyrroline (popcorn aroma). Few have conducted preference or descriptive sensory analyses with concurrent volatile analyses. popcorn aroma) has been confirmed to contribute a characteristic aroma.g. Most researchers have taken the approach of correlating preharvest and postharvest variables with changes in volatile compounds and have drawn conclusions as to which compounds possibly affect aroma and flavor based on concentration or aroma value (AV). However. cooking method) factors affect the aroma and flavor of cooked rice and to relate these effects to the numerous volatile compounds in rice. Furthermore. However. Elaine T ABSTRACT Descriptive sensory analysis has identified over a dozen different aromas and flavors in rice. little is known about the relationships between the numerous volatile compounds and aroma/flavor. . after over 30 years of research. cultural methods). The desired outcome is to identify important marker compounds that will allow preharvest and postharvest strategies to be enacted to assure that cooked rice will have the expected aroma and flavor.acetyl-l-pyrroline (2-AP. This article will focus on the challenges of measuring rice aroma and flavor and using these measures to understand what effects these sensory properties in cooked rice.CHAPTER-2 LITRATURE REVIEW: By Champagne. and postharvest (e.g. Small variations in sensory properties. This article discusses the challenges of measuring aroma and flavor instrumentally and by human sensory panels and reviews research examining the effects of genetic. preharvest (e. the amounts of oxidation products. 2. There has been a quest for >30 years to understand how genetic. singly or collectively.. Rice is an important provider of nourishment for the world‟s population. Only one compound. drying. no single marker compound has been identified to allow monitoring and control of preharvest and postharvest factors that affect aroma and flavor. aroma and flavor have been rated as the major criteria for preference among consumers (Del Mundo and Juliano 1981). Consequently. milling. A number of oxidation products have been tagged as likely causing stale flavor. and postharvest factors on volatile compound profiles and the aroma and flavor of cooked rice.
For targeted analysis. Tenax has low adsorption capacity and a low affinity for polar compounds and a high affinity for nonpolar compounds (Reineccius 2006). only the most abundant volatile compounds (>10^sup -7^ g/L) are detectable. The number and amount of volatile compounds isolated from rice also depend on how the sample is prepared. Higher amounts of lipid oxidation products are observed in flour compared with intact grains. their proportions may poorly represent the true profile. the addition of a small amount of water is advantageous. Champagne et al 2004b. however. The composition of the headspace of rice can be readily changed by the addition of water and temperature.ISOLATING AND QUANTIFYING VOLATILE COMPOUNDS Methods for the determination of the volatile compounds in rice have schemes for collection. The volatile profile of cooked rice differs from that of uncooked rice. In static headspace analyses using a gas. The number and amount of volatile compounds isolated from rice are method dependent. In purge and trap methods. the volatile profile obtained is influenced by volatility of the aroma compounds (initial isolation). In this technique. the profile of flour differs from that of intact grains. such as 2acetyl-l-pyrroline (2-AP). 2005. . In direct solvent extraction. the compounds with the highest vapor pressure are preferentially removed and. In simultaneous distillation/extraction. and direct solvent extraction for collection/concentration (Reineccius 2006). and quantification. The addition of water can further complicate analysis because it can induce enzymatic action. This may be a matrix effect or due to accelerated oxidation. recoveries of volatile compounds depend on the solvent chosen. Separation is by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization or mass spectrometer (MS) as detector. The fiber containing the adsorbed volatile compounds is then thermally desorbed into a GC carrier gas flow. and volatility again during the concentration of the solvent extract (Reineccius 2006). leading to increases in volatile compounds. Traditional methods have involved static headspace. the compounds trapped on Tenax depend on their polarity. concentration. separation. Wongpornchai et al 2004.tight syringe for collection. Lam and Proctor 2003. purge and trap. of these. Vogue since introduction in the mid 1990s (Yang et al 1994. an inert fiber coated with an adsorbent is placed in the headspace above a rice sample and allowed to adsorb volatile compounds. steam distillation-solvent extraction (including simultaneous distillation/extraction). Zheng et al 2007). Steffen et al 1996) has been collection of rice volatile compounds using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by GC-MS (Grimm et al 2001. whereas for other compounds the addition of water may suppress recovery (Grimm et al 2002). The GC effluent to the MS can be split with a portion going to a sniffer port for human detection. solubility during solvent extraction of the distillate. the prepared aroma isolate contains nearly all the volatile compounds in rice. In steam distillation-solvent extraction.
In particular. Bergman et al 2000. Petrov et al 1996. there was a large error associated with absolute concentrations of 2-AP in rice.Quantification is difficult with the described methods. Wongpornchai et al 2004). Reproducibility calculated as intraday and interday coefficients of variation were 1.04-0. The extraction method developed by Bergman et al (2000) requires only 0. SPME (Grimm et al 2001.3 g of brown or milled rice. and thus low sample throughput per day.87% RSD (n = 15) and 2. Mahatheeranont et al 2001. respectively. direct solvent extraction (Fushimi et al 1996.85% RSD (n = 35).0. Interactions between volatile compounds and starch matrices may increase retention (Arvisenet et al 2002. simultaneous steam distillation-solvent extraction (Buttery et al 1986. Itani et al 2004). Lin et al 1990. The static headspace gas chromatography method developed by Sriseadka et al (2006) was validated for quantitative analysis of 2-AP. SPME gave <0. In headspace methods. Interactions of aroma compounds with lipids and proteins also affect their volatility.3% recovery.9% and standard error of 14. and static headspace (Sriseadka et al 2006) have been used for the isolation and concentration of 2-AP from rice samples. the data obtained reflects the amount of volatile compounds in the headspace which is influenced by the food matrix. Widjaja et al 1996. The allele specific amplification (ASA) technique allows discrimination between fragrant cultivars that carry the 8-bp deletion and those without. Jouquand et al 2006). The most effective amount of rice sample (1 g) provided a 51% recovery. The sensitivity of the method was enhanced by using a megabore-fused silica capillary column in conjunction with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector.5 hr extraction in methylene chloride at 850C. The long extraction time in steam distillation-solvent extraction methods. Identification of the fragrance gene and a molecular marker for detecting it led to the development of a PCR assay for fragrance genotyping (Bradbury et al 2005). a 2. SPME has been reported as a successful tool for screening but not for the quantitation of 2-AP in fragrant rice (Grimm et al 2001). the linear amylose of starch is able to form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of volatile compounds that may affect the intensity of perceived aromas. Fragrant rice cultivars contain <<0. microsteam distillation-solvent extraction (Tanchotikul and Hsieh 1991). Because of this low recovery. Method validation demonstrated 5-8000 ng of 2-AP/g of rice sample. whereas nonfragrant cultivars have <<="" p=""> Purge and trap (Buttery et al 1988). One extraction solubilized <<80% of the 2-AP with a coefficient of variation of 7. The average standard deviation was 11% with white rice and 20% error with brown rice. Boutboul et al 2002. and a 25-min GC run allowing 50 samples to be analyzed per day. An alternative method for rapid discrimination of fragrant and nonfragrant cultivars is by SPME/MS coupled . The limit of detection was 5 ng of 2-AP and limit of quantitation was 0. Quantifying 2-AP and Distinguishing Fragrant and Nonfragrant Cultivars The high demand for fragrant rice cultivars in markets worldwide has driven the development of methods for quantifying 2-AP and distinguishing fragrant and nonfragrant cultivars. Tava and Bocchi 1999.01 g of brown rice. Mahatheeranont et al 2001). In the Grimm et al (2001) study. makes them impractical for use in breeding programs. 1% and a standard error of 5.09 ppm of 2-AP. GC analysis had a coefficient of variation of 3.
The odor thresholds for these compounds are too high to play significant roles in rice aroma.7 ppb). only a few have been identified as affecting the aroma and flavor of cooked rice. based on AV. The previously unknown rice aroma compound 3-hydroxy4.07 ppb) had the lowest odor threshold and. the more probable that the compound will contribute to the overall aroma or flavor of rice. Jezussek et al (2002) used this method to identify 41 odor-active compounds in cooked brown rice. Additionally. that hexanal (grassy flavor) and 2-pentylfuran (beany) probably contributed more to flavor change in milled rice early in storage rather than later. phenolic) had the highest DV and was concluded to be an important odorant. Laguerre et al (2007) concluded that pyridine and 2. were considered to likely contribute to the aroma. preharvest.acetyl-pyrrole may serve as indirect indicators of aroma. 2-acetylpyrrole. 2-amino acetophenone (medicinal. Another approach for determining which volatile compounds are important contributors to aroma and flavor or serve as markers for sensory quality has been through examining how genetic. Lam and Proctor 2003) have taken methodical approaches to determining which of the numerous volatile compounds in rice are candidates as important contributors to its aroma and flavor.5-dimethyl-2(5H) furanone (Sotolon. octanal (T ? 0. Table I lists olfactory-active volatile compounds identified in rice that may affect aroma and flavor. Jezussek et al 2002. With the exception of 2-AP (popcorn aroma). nonanal (T = 1 ppb).4 ppb). The greater the number of dilutions a volatile compound is sensed. and an unidentified fragment (145 m/z) contributed to the discriminating fingerprint.4-decadienal (T = 0. and postharvest . Identifying Volatile Compounds Affecting Rice Aroma and Flavor A large number of compounds contribute to the aroma and flavor of rice.2. Several researchers (Buttery et al 1988. 2-AP. Among newly identified constituents. perceived aroma/flavor is not strictly additive but may result from interactions of several volatile compounds. the higher its dilution value (DV). The higher the ratio of a volatile compound concentration to its odor threshold (AV).with SIMCA statistical analysis (Laguerre et al 2007). The approach of calculating and comparing AV has been extended to a screening method referred to as aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) in which the volatile components in serial dilutions of a rice extract are evaluated by gas chromatography/ olfactometry. no one single compound can be said to contribute a characteristic aroma. which would correspond with AV. considering the amounts in rice. pyridine.08 ppb) and (E. However. Other aldehydes with relatively low thresholds that are also likely to contribute were (E)-2-decenal (T = 0.E). Buttery et al (1988) found that the aldehydes (E)2-nonenal (threshold [T] = 0. seasoning-like) differed in DV among the cultivars. and decanal (T = 2 ppb). 2Nonenal (rancid flavor) and octanal (fatty flavor) contributed more to the overall flavor of milled rice during long-term storage. of the >200 volatile compounds observed in rice. Determining which volatile compounds are responsible for the perceived aroma/flavor of rice is a difficult task. Lam and Proctor (2003) concluded. Buttery et al (1988) and Lam and Proctor (2003) calculated and compared aroma values (AV) to determine which lipid oxidation products are likely contributors to off-flavor.
Petrov et al (1996) found nine compounds to discriminate fragrant and nonfragrant rice: pentanol. Bradbury et al 2005) for accumulating 2-AP. (E)-hept-2-enal. For example.2(5H)-furanone were odor-active based on AEDA (Czerny and Schieberle 2002). (E)-2. In wholemeal and white wheat flour. Hougen et al ( 1 97 1 ) noted that different grains commonly have similar volatile compound profiles but in different concentrations.flavor of stale rice. (E)-2-nonenal. 2-nonenal. In these three studies. found nonfragrant rice contained much more n-hexanal. However. 10. (E)-2-heptenal. the preharvest and postharvest growing/handling of nonfragrant and fragrant rices were not the same for the two rice types in these studies. Of interest would be to determine the qualitative and quantitative composition differences in odor-active compounds that differentiate the sensory properties of rice from other grains. (E)-2. in a comparative study of nonfragrant and fragrant rice. hexanol. Such a comparison has been reported for the rye and wheat flour (Czemy and Schieberle 2002. More pentadecan-2-one. and 3-hydroxy-4.5-dimethyl. However. Only fragrant rice cultivars possess the genetic potential (Lorieux et al 1996.5-epoxy-(E)2-decenal.Z)-and (E. 2-pentylfuran. In another comparison. locten-3-ol. 14-trimethyl-pentadecan-2-one. Hussain et al (1987) compared the volatile profiles of an aromatic Basmati rice with a nonfragrant rice. 1983) reported 2-AP to be the volatile compound defining the characteristic popcorn aroma of fragrant rice. only 2-AP would be olfactory. and 4vinylphenol. researchers have not discerned at what level particular lipid oxidation products need to be present to result in stale aromas and flavor.E)-2. hexanol. oxidation products were identified as discriminants. based on AV. Buttery et al (1982. 6. This is observed particularly for oxidation products. (E)-4-decadienal.discriminant. 2-AP. pentadecan-2-one. n-nonanal. Therefore.octenal.4. 2-hexenal.methylbutanal. Most of these compounds are also odor-active in rice. the predominance of lipid oxidation products in one type may have been due to growing/ handling differences and not whether or not it was fragrant.factors affect formation and concentration and subsequently the aroma and flavor of the rice. a degree of success has been achieved in determining which lipid oxidation products may be likely contributors to the off. as in rice. 3-methylbutanal. 4. (E. Following this approach. octanal. 4-vinylguaiacol. Buttery et al (1988) and Lam and Proctor (2003) identified key oxidation products based on the increase during storage and AV. A side-by-side comparison of odor-active compounds in rice with those in other grains has not been published. benzaldehyde. As discussed above. hexanal. which. The search for understanding the composition of fragrant rices and how it differs from nonfragrant cultivars has been through comparisons of volatile profiles. 2-heptenal. Widjaja et al (1996). Kirchhoff and Scieberle 2002). 2. than the four fragrant rices. Comparison studies need to be conducted on larger sets of fragrant and nonfragrant cultivars grown under identical conditions and handled identically postharvest. . and hexadecanol.decadienal. oxidation products locten-3-ol. are also important contributors to aroma and flavor in other grains. However. and 2-pentylfuran were found in the Basmati rice. and decanal were identified as key aroma compounds in 12 barley cultivars based on odor thresholds in water (Cramer et al 2005).
other than 2-AP. Tava and Bocchi (1999) also observed through a comparison of fragrant cultivars that the only differences were in contents of 2AP and lipid oxidation products. flavor includes aromatics (olfactory perceptions caused by volatile substances released from a product in the mouth through the posterior nares). bite. No differentiating compounds. chemical feeling factors that stimulate nerve ends in the soft membranes of the buccal and nasal cavities (astringency. hair. tastes (gustatory perceptions [salty. spice heat. According to Meilgaard et al (2007). SENSORY ANALYSIS OF AROMA AND FLAVOR The aroma of rice is detected when its volatile compounds enter the nasal passage and are perceived by the millions of tiny. The sensitivity of receptors to different volatile compounds varies over a range of >10^sup 12^ (Harper 1972. Flavor is the impression perceived through the chemical senses from a product in the mouth (Caul 1957). In conclusion. metallic flavor. bitter] caused by soluble substances in the mouth). Descriptive analysis is useful in evaluating sensory changes over time with respect to preharvest and postharvest conditions and shelf life (Meilgaard et al 2007). It is unlikely that 2-AP is the only compound that contributes to the unique aroma of these rices. A good perfumer can differentiate 150-200 odorous qualities (Meilgaard et al 2007). when defined in this manner. with the latter being ascribed to differences in postharvest handling. Meilgaard 1975). Their method used SPME for volatile collection coupled directly with mass spectrometry with no chromatography for selection. Of particular interest. Rice aroma is typically described by trained panelists using a lexicon with 10-12 descriptors. The aroma and flavor of rice can be characterized and analytically measured by panelists trained in descriptive sensory analysis (Meilgaard et al 2007). was determining compounds contributing to the diversity of aroma encountered in fragrant rices. Generally there is only a 100-fold difference between the threshold (minimum detectable level) and concentration that produces saturation of the receptors. other than lipid oxidation products and 2-AP. researchers have not been successful in conclusively identifying specific volatile compounds or classes of compounds that contribute to other desirable or undesirable aroma or flavor attributes in rice.like cilia that cover the epithelium located in the roof of the nasal cavity (Meilgaard et al 2007). sour. umami taste). Combined use of descriptive and preference sensory panels can provide accurate assessment and . were found in the fingerprints with odor thresholds low enough to contribute to rice aroma. sweet.Olfactory-Active (AV or FD > 1) Volatile Compounds Identified in Rice That May Affect Aroma and Flavor” A new approach was taken by Laguerre et al (2007) to identify volatile compounds that differentiate the aroma of 61 rice cultivars (29 fragrant and 32 nonfragrant). cooling.
sulphury. As described by Goodwin et al (1996). and references as developed by Goodwin et al (1996).S.O) (Luning et al 1994. rice. burnt aroma (dried baked rice). raw-dough aroma. corn-leaf aroma. the grape flavor of Kool-Aid has a rating of 4. and Park et al (2001). and partial least squares) allows for the integration of all the individual volatile compounds in a mixture to be related to sensory responses (Meilgaard et al 2007). the definitions. name brand products with defined intensities. The descriptive panelists trained by Yau and Liu (1999) described 11 attributes in cooked rice defined by raw and cooked grains: cold. and musty. Using descriptive analysis. sweet. bread-like. The scale is 0-15 with flavor components of U. 2000) and Park et al (2001). The trained descriptive panel at the USDA ARS Southern Regional Research Center uses this lexicon to evaluate rice aroma and flavor. oily grassy. 2000). Descriptive scores can also be correlated to volatile compound concentrations using various statistical methods to determine which compounds are responsible for perceived aroma and flavor or serve as markers for these attributes. Figure 1 lists the aroma and flavor descriptors. hot-steam-bread aroma. The advantage of this approach is that it more accurately models the synergistic and interactive nature of flavor and nonflavor active components that produce the total sensory impression. nutty. With the absolute values on this scale. earthy. the intensity of each descriptor is scored by the panelists. The choice of scale and references used to rate intensities is particularly important in rice. and brown rice aroma. sensory intensities can be compared . lexicons for aroma and flavor are developed by having a panel rigorously evaluates various rice samples to identify and describe the aroma and flavor. mouldy.5. hay-like. For example. Following the principles and concepts of descriptive sensory analysis. Other groups have developed lexicons that contain these and other descriptors. muddy.milk aroma. To eliminate this problem. Multivariate statistical analysis (multiple linear regression. sour. The resulting descriptors developed were fragrant. coconut. where aroma and flavor differences can be small. Piggott et al (1991) recruited 18 Malyasian students to develop descriptors for aroma and flavor of undermilled and well-milled rice. corn aroma. principle component analysis.identify quality characteristics desired by various markets. pungent. while others have used multivariate statistics to correlate two sets (or more) of measurements. researchers have developed models from only those compounds shown to be flavor active from gas chromatographyolfactometry (GC. The spectrum descriptive analysis method uses a universal scale for all foods (Meilgaard et al 2007). Meullenet et al (1999. Similar rice lexicons were developed by Meullenet et al (1999. pear-barley aroma. the soda flavor in Nabisco saltine crackers has an intensity rating of 2. References are established and the panel uses them to come to consensus on the definitions of the descriptors. Some researchers have developed statistical correlations based primarily on linear regression (Bett and Boylston 1992). van Ruth and Roozen 1994). Champagne et al (2004. fermented-sour aroma (fermented dough). stale aroma (raw flour). a rice aroma/ flavor lexicon was developed in the early 1990s by panelists at the Sensory Analysis Center of Kansas State University. The disadvantage is that some components may be chosen for the flavor model only because they were highly correlated but not causative agents (Nobler and Ebler 2002). buttery.steam bread aroma. smooth. 2005) and Meullenet et al (1999) have employed this scale in their research programs.
After eliminating the possibility of a Maillard reaction product.90).49). Fitzgerald et al (2008) analyzed 464 samples recorded as fragrant from the Genetic Resources Center of the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). and that at least one other mutation drives the accumulation of 2-AP. raw rice (r = 0. This is problematic if panelist use integers (whole numbers) to rate the intensities. In 17 diverse cultivars grown over two crop years in one location. did not carry the 8-bp deletion even though they contained 2-AP.53) and negatively (r = -0.005) correlated positively (r = 0. with protein content (Champagne et al 2004). Chen et al 2006) that encodes a putative betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (BAD2) (Bradbury et al 2005). This leads to large standard deviations. Most rice descriptors. the aroma and flavor of five diverse cultivars grown conventionally with 50 and . respectively. protein content of a short grain cultivar milled to different degrees (8. Recently.even if testing dates are spread over a long period of time.94). Champagne et al 2004). In the Park et al study (2001). who found rice with lower protein content to have higher levels of desirable sweet aroma/taste and lower levels of undesirable flavor attributes. puffed corn (r = 0. Low protein rice samples of the same cultivar are reported to be more flavorful than those with higher protein (Juliano et al 1965). A number of these cultivars. Jin et al 2003. In a recent study by Champagne et al (2007). Other studies did not find a relationship between protein content and aroma or flavor. and cultural practices affect the amylose and protein contents of rice cultivars which in turn may influence the aroma and flavor of the cooked rice.92) and negatively with sweet taste (r = -0.14%) correlated highly and positively with hay-like (r = 0. The maximum rating for rice aroma/flavor descriptors is generally >>5 when this scale is used. however. hay-like and sweet aromatic flavors were significantly (P < 0.91). Of value for the world rice community would be to develop additional low intensity references for the universal scale. have intensity ratings in the 1-3 range. This observation was corroborated by two descriptive sensory panels (Park et al 200 1 . and wet cardboard (r = 0. FACTORS AFFECTING RICE AROMA AND FLAVOR Genetics Fragrance in rice has been shown to be due to an eight-base pair deletion in exon 7 of a gene on chromosome 8 (Lorieux et al 1996. the authors concluded that the 8-bp deletion in the fragrance allele is not the only cause of aroma. consequently. The established universal scale does not have enough reference points between integers to allow panelists to be more precise with their ratings. Preharvest Environment. and therefore significant differences are not observed.90). 2-AP accumulates in fragrant cultivars. This deletion results in a loss of function of the encoded enzyme and. primarily from South and Southeast Asia. fertilization.
the most important determinant of cooked rice texture. Playing a . With delay (15-day interval) in transplanting seedlings from eight cultivars. may lead to problematic microbial growth with associated off. Descriptive sensory analysis attributes and definitions used to evaluate cooked rice aroma and flavor.100% of the typically used nitrogen rate and with chicken litter using organic management were compared.2% with 100% N rate). the predominant cultivar produced in California. Draining fields early may cause moisture stress in grains before they are physiologically mature. 1. Amylose content. Arai and Itani (2000) found that when rice was harvested 10 days before the ordinary time of harvesting (42 days after heading). Drain and Harvest Dates Timing of field draining and harvesting of rice with consideration of physiological maturity. Fig. The 2-AP concentration was higher in brown rice ripened at a low temperature (day 250C. In support of this finding. with the best flavor found at 20 days after 50% flowering. the cooked rice was sweeter and more “delicious. moisture content. while improving head rice yield (Kester et al 1963).05) differences in flavor.7% with organic management. night 2O0C) than that ripened at a high temperature (day 35 0C. The low protein (mean 7. The concentration of 2-AP varies with environmental conditions. M-202. However. demonstrated stable flavor with timing of field draining (14-day span) and harvesting (32-48 days after flowering) (Champagne et al 2005). However.” Tamaki et al (1989) also found flavor declined with maturity. Harvesting early at higher moisture contents.05) with grain flavor (r = -0. Terao et al (2005) found that growing the rice cultivar Akitakomachi under elevated CO2 concentration decreased the protein content but did not change the sensory properties to a level the could be detected by taste panel evaluation. In a study to determine the effects of varying drain and harvest dates on rice sensory properties.5% with 50% N rate) rice samples did not differ in aroma or flavor from those with higher protein (mean 9. and meteorological conditions can allow growers to foster conditions for high head rice yield. The lowest levels of lipid oxidation products 1-pentanol. in turn. With increase in harvesting time. volatile flavor compounds. affecting metabolic processes and. amylose content increased and protein content decreased (Akbar et al 1993).88) in the study of 17 diverse cultivars (Champagne et al 2004). Aroma and flavor decreased with maturity. Aroma score for the cooked rice increased. 7. hexanal. correlated highly and negatively (P < 0. differences in levels of lipid oxidation products did not lead to significant (P > 0.flavor metabolites if drying is delayed (Champagne et al 2004b). night 30[degrees]C) in both short-grain cultivar Hieri and long-grain cultivar Sari (Itani et al 2004). Rice cultivar IR42 was harvested at seven times 20-38 days after 50% flowering (Marzempi et al 1990). amylose and protein content increased. and nonanal occurred in rice with the lowest harvest moisture content. there may be a trade-off in flavor.
sulfur note (off-note). paddy may be held for more than 24 hr at moisture contents from 16 to >26%. and in hot air (at 40.3. such as 2. No increases in volatile microbial metabolite levels were observed in white rice obtained from paddy rice that was stored at 17-21% moisture contents for 48 hr.3-butandiol (r = 0. Flavor was considered to be rich in immature rice but poor in over-ripened rice. and overall flavor impact.8% rh) did not significantly affect these flavor notes in cooked rice before storage.98) and ethanol (r = 0. and Storage Conditions Meullenet et al (1999) examined the effects of rough rice drying conditions on the starch note (grain flavor). Rough Rice Drying Conditions. 2-methylbutanol. . 2. In contrast. in these samples. Wet holding of rice harvested at 20. the 2-AP concentration in the brown rice reached a peak at four or five weeks after heading (WAH) and then decreased rapidly to 20% of the maximum at seven or eight WAH.role in the flavor of rice. the amount of free amino acids in the exterior of cooked rice declined continuously with maturation. cardboard note (stale). were obtained at lower drying temperatures when rice was dried by sun. acetic acid. Harvest Moisture Content Between harvest and the start of drying. During grain development in an early-heading cultivar. sulfur note (off-note). Likewise. In white rice from paddy rice stored at >24% moisture content. No changes in the intensities of the flavor attributes were observed.1) in intensity. A comparison was made of the contents of 10 volatile microbial metabolites in white rice obtained from paddy (cvs. sour/silage and alfalfa/grassy/green bean flavors significantly increased (P < 0. Higher levels of the aroma compound 2-AP and lower levels of off-flavor compounds. or overall flavor impact. Also. M-202 and Akitakomachi) harvested at differing moisture contents and immediately dried or held for 48 hr before drying (Champagne et al 2005). the 2-AP concentration peaked at four WAH then gradually decreased to 40% of the maximum at eight WAH. 3-methyl-butanol. In a late-heading cultivar.3[degrees]C and 21. cardboard note (stale).5% moisture for 86 hr did not significantly affect starch note (grain flavor). and ethyl hexadecanoate increased markedly with time (Champagne et al 2005). Champagne et al (1997) observed no trends indicating an increase or decrease in flavor attributes with increased drying temperatures (18-600C).butandiol. and 700C) (Wongpornchai et al 2004).9%rh and low 33[degrees]C and 67. The influence of harvest time during ripening on the 2-AP concentration in two cultivars was examined (Itani et al 2004). as determined by a descriptive panel. Final Moisture Content. Sour/silage correlated highly with 2. Drying treatment (high 54.99). Sunthonvit et al (2005) reported that 2-AP tended to increase in concentration with increasing drying temperature from 100 to 1500C. This was in agreement with the observations of Meullenet et al (1999). 50. in modified air (at 3040[degrees]C).pentylfuran and n-hexanal. Microbes found on the freshly harvested rice grow under these conditions and may produce volatile compounds that affect the flavor or aroma of the white rice obtained after drying and milling.
2% rh was allowed to equilibrate in air. Regardless of drying method (sundried. hot air at 40. 13. Cardboard notes.60 ppm) was slightly more than double that after four months (1. 50.40C and 38.12 ppm).controlled chambers until reaching moisture contents of 10. Cardboard notes. 2-AP decreased during 10 months storage for rough rice. however. Grainy notes consistently decreased with time for the first 25 weeks of storage and increased during subsequent storage (Meullenet et al 2000). and 36 weeks (Meullenet et al 2000). 2-AP in stored rice was about half that of a fresh rice sample (Laksanalamai and Ilangantileke 1993). 21. At each storage temperature. 2000). Rice dried at 43. Sulfur compounds were probably volatilized at a higher rate as temperature increased (Meullenet et al 1999). Degree of Milling The aroma of milled rice differs with the degree of milling. the increase was slight at the highest storage temperature (Meullenet et al 2000). Four types of rice milled to different degrees (92.89 + 0. modified air at 30 or 400C.02 + 0. 21. Higher concentrations of lipid oxidation products in the 92% milled rice compared with levels in deeper milled rice was probably because these products were contained in residual bran on the surface of the 92% milled rice. The average concentration of 2-AP of all of the rice samples subjected to the six different drying methods after one month storage (4. 75. increased with storage duration and storage temperature. . 24. Starchy aroma notes decreased with increasing storage duration (Meullenet et al 2000). In both studies. 38[degrees]C). Significant differences in odor of cooked rice and in quantity of volatile components between 92% milled rice and 85.88 + 0. 85. and 14% and stored at 4. and 50% of milling were observed (Tsugita et al 1980). In an earlier study.27 ppm) and more than four times that after 10 months of storage (0. sulfur notes increased with storage time. 12. Meullenet et al (1999) observed a significant decrease in sulfury notes after 20 weeks over the same storage temperatures (4. an indicator of slightly oxidized fats and oils. or 700C).Intensities of desirable and undesirable flavor attributes were higher in rice dried to 15% moisture compared with 12% moisture (Champagne et al 1997). In another study. 75. an indicator of slightly oxidized fats and oils. sulfur notes significantly decreased as storage temperature increased from 4 to 38[degrees]C. Drying rice at high temperature lowered 2-AP concentrations (Itani and Fushimi 1996). with the highest rate of decrease at the beginning of storage (Wongpornchai et al 2004). and 50% milled rice) were subjected to odor evaluation. The panelists may have perceived off-flavors developing during storage as grainy notes. increased with storage duration and storage temperature (Meullenet et al 1999. and 380C for 0. 6. The temperature and time rough rice is stored can affect the aroma and flavor of the white rice obtained from it upon milling.
releasing lipoxygenase. The milling process accelerates the process by disrupting cells. GC analyses of the volatiles of cooked rice showed that a larger amount of pentanal. and hydrocarbons that are ultimately responsible for the development of off-flavors and odors (Yamamatsu et al 1966.8% (Piggott et al 1991). The concentrations of heptanal. Numerous researchers (Tsugita et al 1983. while sweet taste was higher with increased milling from 8 to 14% (Park et al 2001). heptanal. the authors concluded. proceeds with the eventual formation of various secondary oxidation products such as aldehydes. the concentrations of 2-nonenal. Milled Rice Storage Temperature and Time Milled rice develops stale or “komai-shu” flavor during storage. Lipase of residual bran on the surface of the milled rice will contribute to the formation of these free fatty acids. wet cardboard flavor. Champagne et al (1997) found the effects of degree of milling on flavor attribute intensities to be dependent on moisture content and cultivar or location. surface lipids undergo hydrolysis to form free fatty acids that are susceptible to oxidation (Yasumatsu and Moritaka 1964). Grosch 1987). based on aroma values (AV) that hexanal (grassy flavor) and 2pentylfuran (beany) probably contributed more to flavor change in milled rice early in storage rather than later. These authors found that 4. Widjaja et al 1996. During storage. 70% rh) and remained high during the 50day time frame. hexanal. raw rice flavor. also increased in concentration with storage. . 2-pentylfuran. 4-vinylphenol. and bitter taste were lower. hay. more pungent. ketones.vinylphenol has a characteristic off-flavor and may partly contribute to the offflavor of cooked old rice (Fujimaki et al 1977). 2-pentylfuran. and 3-penten-2-one remained low. less smooth (mouthfeel). oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. This compound imparts a desirable flavor at relatively low levels and a distinct rancid aroma at higher concentrations. and 4 vinylguaiacol in milled rice stored for three months at 30[degrees]C. and octanal increased during storage (370C.Puffed corn flavor. and a smaller amount of 1pentanol and 1-hexanol was found in milled rice stored for 60 days at 4O0C compared with rice stored 4[degrees]C (Tsugita et al 1983). 2Nonenal (rancid flavor) and octanal (fatty flavor) contributed more to the overall flavor of milled rice during long-term storage. lactones. hexanal.ol. l-octen-3. (E)-4-Decadienal. alcohols. particularly linoleic and linolenic acids. less smooth (aroma). Tsrai 1995. Additionally. identified earlier by the authors as an important contributor to the character of fragrant rice flavor. (E)-22. Tran et al 2005) have examined the effects of different storage conditions on volatile components and flavor properties. furanones. Lam and Proctor 2003.like flavor. As discussed earlier. ketones. Samples milled 6% were more sour. alkenals. acids. 2-pentylfuran. Piggott et al 1991. In a more recent study (Lam and Proctor 2003). Widjaja et al (1996) found an increase in levels of most of the carbonyl compounds and in n-pentanol. and had less sweet taste than those milled at 8.
grassy. Saikusa et al 1994. Storage at 20[degrees]C completely suppressed this increase in FFA. and muddy/earthy increased with storage time. sweet (aroma). The amount of H2S in the volatiles of cooked rice was higher in rice stored at 50C than in rice stored at 4O0C (Moritaka and Yasumatsu 1972). white). fragrant. oily. Sugars such as glucose and sucrose. smooth (aroma). second-. Water washing may be a practical means of reducing off-flavor development in milled rice (Monsoor and Proctor 2002). and smooth (mouthfeel). are the main components that affect the sweetness and umami tastes of rice (Fukui and Nikuni 1959. Both the under-milled and well-milled samples underwent these changes during storage at 30[degrees]C but they were greater for the under-milled rice. Rice content of 2-AP decreased 40-50% in all forms of rice (paddy. Tajima et al 1992. Kasai et al 2001). sour (aroma). The sweetness (sucrose) and umami tastes of rice were reduced during storage. Scores for oily and starchy (mouthfeel).Hydrogen disulfide (H2S) is an indispensable component of cooked rice aroma and it is thought that H2S is generated from the sulphydryl groups of proteins. while those stored at -20[degrees]C had higher scores for sweet (taste). The effects of storage on the flavor of undermilled and wellmilled rice were determined by a descriptive panel (Piggott et al 1991). bitter. and muddy/ earthy. brown. Packaging material moderately affected preservation of 2-AP. 2-AP content decreased faster at higher storage temperature (Yoshihashi et al 2005). Hexanal and carbonyls followed the same trend as the FFA. Washing Rice that had been washed three times showed less deterioration in flavor during holding of the cooked rice for up to 24 hr than for rice washed once (Fukai and Tukada 2006). irrespective of whether three-month storage was in air or under partial vacuum (Widjaja et al 1996). and third-break milled rice was reduced by >50% of the original value by washing. moldy/musty. smooth (aroma). Fat acidity of rice increased during storage and was inversely correlated with 2-AP content at an early stage of storage. Free fatty acids (FFA) formed a greater proportion of the total surface lipid in the under-milled than in the wellmilled samples for the high-temperature stored samples. Samples stored at 30[degrees]C had higher scores for pungent. and amino acids such as glutamic acid and aspartic acid. with a reduction of free fatty acid and conjugated dienes relative to unwashed control samples. sour (taste). The total surface free fatty acid content of first-. Soaking . Increases in free fatty acids and conjugated dienes in washed rice after seven days storage at 37[degrees]C and 70% rh were much lower than those of unwashed controls. fragrant. Monsoor and Proctor (2002) demonstrated that >>60-80% of total surface lipids were removed by water washing. whereas glucose and fructose increased (Tran et al 2005).
medium-. Soaking facilitates uniform cooking and shortens gelatinization time. Saikusa et al 1994. For the set of all rice samples. as measured by TPA hardness and chewiness.Garber et al 2007). Influence of Water-to-Rice Ratio on Cooked Rice Flavor The water-to-rice ratio used in the Pilaff method did not significantly affect flavor attributes across all cultivars (Bett. and steaming (Juliano 2003). Recently a study was undertaken to determine the effects of presoaking on the flavor of cooked rice and whether flavor differences are associated with textural changes that could influence retention of the aroma compounds (Champagne et al. Cooking Method Methods for cooking rice include the excess water to optimum cooking time method (Excess method). Eleven samples of short-. Tran et al 2005). In a comparison of the Excess and Pilaff methods. undesirable sewer/animal flavor significantly increased and sweet taste significantly decreased with presoaking for 30 min. and other Asian countries. Presoaking also resulted in significant increases in summed negative flavor attributes and significant decreases in summed positive flavor attributes for the set of all rice samples. A considerable amount of oligosaccharides are formed through activation of amylases in the outer layers (510% of the milled kernel) during soaking (Tajima et al 1992). Korea. The decreases in sweet taste and summed positive flavor attributes were likely the result of masking caused by the increases in sewer/animal and summed negative flavor attributes. did not explain the observed increases in negative flavor attributes. Water soaking of flours prepared from outer layers of milled kernels also led to increases in most free amino acids (Saikusa et al 1994). Tamaki et al 1993. An increase in free-sulfurcontaining free amino acids with presoaking could have resulted in an increase of their breakdown products. Contents of free sugars and free amino acids are believed to play a role in the flavor of cooked rice by influencing sweetness and umami (Matuzaki et al 1992. . Possibly flavor compounds were lost during draining following cooking using the Excess method. The effects of presoaking on texture. a consumer panel found rice cooked by the Pilaf method had more acceptable flavor than excess cooking (Crowhurst and Creed 2001). and long-grain milled rice representing scented and nonscented rice and a wide range of amylose contents were presented to a descriptive sensory panel. thereby contributing to the increase in sewer/animal flavor. rice cooker optimum water method (Pilaff method). in press). Tajima et al 1992. Soaking also leads to chemical changes in the grain that could affect the aroma and flavor of the rice.Water soaking for >30 min before cooking is a traditional practice in Japan.
Temperature affected the contents of certain compounds of individual cultivars differently. Sweet. moldy. burnt rice. rancid. and sulfur. corn. TC Sen 10 contained higher TVC at 60[degrees]C. moldy. In another study (Liu et al 1996). and sulfur attributes were assessed. corn-leaf. aroma of cooked samples of four cultivars was evaluated at 18 and 60[degrees]C using modified descriptive analysis. and brown rice. while samples evaluated at 60[degrees]C scored higher in earthy. rancid. and TC 189 and TNu 70 at 18[degrees]C. acid. burnt rice. TNu 67 at 25[degrees]C. earthy. Yau and Liu (1999) found that there was no clear temperature effect trend for all rice samples.Serving Temperature of Cooked Rice Yau and Huang (1996) found that the aroma of cooked rice would change with serving temperatures and that aroma should be the summation or mixture of specific attributes. . In a follow-up study. In terms of total volatile content (TVC). Samples evaluated at 18[degrees]C rated higher in sweetness. Aromas for samples held at 60[degrees]C were higher for hot steam bread. while 18[degrees]C samples were higher in cold-steam bread and fermented-sour aromas.
It was formulated on the basis of information gathered by me with the help of Mr. institutions. the emphasis was made on personal visits & interactions. For gathering information from the industries & associations. who provide useful guidelines and objective of our study. Primary data: The primary data was collected by a survey based on the questionnaire. jagat malai manpasand . Secondary data: The secondary data was collected from books and internet. we have collected both primary and secondary data to meet our objective. associations. various meetings.CHAPTER-3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: The report is based on the information & data gathered from industries. . a Performa was devised and necessary information was obtained through personal visits & interaction. periodicals & literature on the subject matter. interactions & interviews were held with the concerned identified cluster actors. The information‟s & data from Institutions & other cluster actors was based on the specific requirement of this report. Since this was a time bound assignment.1 Objective of the study: to analyze the jagat products such as jagat royal and jagat malai to know the customer satisfaction level after consuming the product to meet the require meant of price conscious consumers to dispatch goods in a given period of time to analyze sub brands with their patent brands of jagat agro to find out ways to promote jagat royal. 3.2 Data Collection: In the data collection method. sadabahar. For this. and many other products to enquire roceting demand of jagat basmati rice and reason behind it 3.
Sampling plan: There is a stage where the planning is done about the sample units. Sampling units: This means. which is to be surveyed. This is Philip by the potential people though personal interview .Research Approach: The required information in the form of data is collected through survey method. So as mention earlier that the sample units is potential peoples. sampling procedures. Data collection method: Personal interview method is used for collection of primary data in the form of questionnaire from respondents. sample size.. with the help of personal interview through questionnaire method. So that total sample size is 45. Research Instruments: Once the source of data collection is decided then comes the instrument for data collection or the research instrument. etc. Sample size: The sample size means how many people should be surveyed. which cover from different area of Delhi Sampling Procedures: I choose convenient and judgmental sampling for my research. In this survey method a questionnaire was framed.
CHAPTER -4 Analysis & Interpretation Q1 TO WHICH COMPANY YOU WILL GIVE PREFERANCE WHILE PURCHASING JAGAT 45 KOHINOOR 25 INDIAGATE 10 DAVAT 20 50 40 30 response 20 10 0 Interpretation: Jagat is one of the bestselling brands in the market .
Q2WHICH OF THERE TWO BRANDS U PREFER THE MOST? ROYAL 60 MALAI 40 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 response Interpretation: Royal is the most preferable brand by the consumers .
0 TO 1 KG 1 KG TO 5 KG 5 TO 10 KG 10 20 40 MORE THAN 10 20 KG Q3 WHAT IS THE CURRENT DEMAND OF CUSTOMERS IN MARKET? 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 response Interpretation: The consumers mostly prefer to purchase 5 to 10 kg hic is there current demand Q4 WHICH OF THE FOLLOWIN INFLUENCE THE MOST WHILE PURCHASING THE PRODUCT? .
10 20 45 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 response Interpretation: The consumers are now a day‟s more quality conscious than any other factor .NAME & 25 REPUTATION OF THE COMPANY HIGH QUALITY MORE ADITIONAL SERVICESS PRICE ……..
Q5 DOES THE SUPPLY OF THE PRODUCT IS ACORDANCE TO THE MATKET FORCESS? QUALITY ADVERTISEMENT BRAND NAME ANY OTHER 40 30 25 5 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 response Interpretation: The market equilibrium is always maintained by JAGAT Q6 ON WHAT BASIS YOU ARE INFLUENCED BY THE PRODUCT? .
.7 HOW WOULD YOU RATE JAGAT BASMATI AFTER CONSUMING IT ? 70 60 50 40 reason 30 20 10 0 Interpretation: Most of the consumers are satisfied after consuming JAGAT products.POOR 5 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 esponse Interpretation: The quality of JAGAT products are more influence to the consumers Q.
TV 10 HOARDINGS 35 DEALERS 45 OTHER 10 Q.8 FROM WHICH AVERTISEMENT U CAME TO KNW ABOUT JAGAT BASMATI RICE AND ITS PRODUCT? 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 response Interpretation: The dealers play a major role in advertising the product and make it available to them .
Our quality expertise starts from the very beginning i.51 – 6.50 5. The high technology instruments enable the company to monitor quality parameters at each and every stage of processing.60 5. length and removal of broken tips. The laboratory plays a key role in respect of maintaining checks on several aspects such as size. research and development facilities. purchase and storage of paddy. Ltd. In 1995. Jagat Agro Commodities Pvt. Aroma 4.CHAPTER -5 Finding & Suggestions: With the objective of providing the best rice to the customers.50 or less .e.50 6. Rice is judged on 4 main parameters: 1. Appearance 2. The parameters for determining appearance of rice are:On the basis of average length of Kernels milled rice is classified into following categories :- Scale 1 2 3 4 Size Extra Long Long Medium short Length (mm) > 7. became the proud recipient of the prestigious Trans World Gold Star Award for excellence in quality from the Institute of Economic Studies. Taste 3.61 – 7. Cooking Quality. Jagat has made long term investments in manufacturing. Taste and Aroma are subjective characteristic.
soft Dry.1 – 2.0 1. sticky. Scale 1 2 3 4 Size Slender Medium Bold Round Length (mm) Over 3. glossy Sticky. these are: A.7 1 : 1. flaky.0 2. Several components traits collectively determine cooking and eating qualities.1 – 3. Rice water ratio 1 : 1. 1 : 2.20% 20 – 25% 25 – 32% Moist.8% 8.Grain Shape is estimated by length/breath ratio of kernels.9 flaky.1 .3 1 : 1. Amy lose content also determines hardness of cooked rice. gloss of the final product and rice water ratio.0 1.0 or less Cooking and eating qualities of rice largely dependent upon the properties of Starch that makes up 90% of milled rice. Amylose High Amylose Range of Amylose Type of cooked rice 0. soft Cook hard dry. Type Waxy(glutinous) Low Amylose Inter. Amy lose Content The cooking qualities of milled rice are function of ratio of amylase and amyl pectin of the rice grain.
cooking and eating. All this is made possible by using cyclones along with fumigation and pest control measures. This is to ensure that the product conforms to the strict standards of international product control. E. This difference is due to gel consistency. at harvest. One of the key focus areas for Jagat is the control and reduction in the level of chemical and pests residues in rice. The performance of the machinery is enhanced by 90000 bichromatic. which is most preferred. . IN HOUSE FUMIGATION AND TESTING Meticulous adherence to quality and hygiene is ensured through the use of totally dust free machines. Volume Expansion The gloss of final product is related to volume expansion and water absorption during cooking.3 times. C. F. GRADING.B. removing brown and yellow grains and tip defects. which are affected by amylose content. It is differentiated by cold milled rice paste and is classified into hard( >60 mm). in storage. and the addition of infra-red gives the rejection of glass and other foreign matter. as time required for cooking is determined by gelatinisation temperature. It is also called resistance to cooking. D. Volume expansion may be about 2-4. Gelatinisation Temperature It is the range of temperature within which the starch granules begin to swell irreversibly in hot water and ranges from 55 to 79 degree centigrade. Grain Elongation Lengthwise expansion upon cooking increase in girth is considered a desirable trait in high quality rice. during milling . Aroma Basmati emits specific aroma in the field. Basmati and other high elongating rice have medium gel length. Gel Consistency Varieties with same gelatinisation temperature and amylose content differed in acceptability. DESTONING AND COLOUR SORTING The 90000 monochromatic is the world's standard rice machine for small and large millers.
5% 25 Max 4 – 6 % Max Foreign matter Yellow Grain Paddy 1% Max 2% Max 30 Pcs / kg Max . close checks at various levels are carried out to ensure conformity with the requisite parameters CLASSIFICATION OF RICE Sr.no 1 2 3 4 Class Common variety Fine variety Superfine variety Scented variety Criteria for Classification L / B ratio below 2.0 and above Varieties having natural scent GENERAL SPECIFICATION FOR INDIAN LONG GRAIN RICE Description Moisture Specification 14% Maximum(Max) Damaged grain Red & Streaked Chalky Grain 1.0 L / B ratio 3.5 – 3.5 L / B ratio 2.MISCELLANEOUS SORTING At all stages.
5% grain Chalky grain Discoloured / Yellow grain Admixture Moisture Polish Infestation Split grains 6% 1% 1% 14% Well polished Nil 1% 5% 6% 15% Reasonably polished - .SPECIFICATION FOR PARBOILED RICE ( Fine & superfine) Description Broken percentage Superfine 15% Fine 20% 8% Foreign matter including 1% paddy Damped & crust formed 1.
Once the trader identifies the type he wants. . paddy.SPECIFICATION OF RAW RICE Description Broken Moisture Foreign matter Chalky grain Milling degree Packing Specifications 20 –25% Max 14% 1% Max 6% Max Well milled 50 kg nett. PROCUREMENT PROCEDURE The procurement may be done in one of the following ways: Directly from the farmers (in the raw form). From the rice millers (mainly in processed form). infestation etc. From various state govt. From the Food Corporation of India (in the semi-processed or processed form). foreign matter. agencies (in the semi-processed or processed form). percentage broken. Samples are tested at various laboratories ands institutions (private or Govt. Once satisfied the supplier(s) is identified and a contractual agreement is reached for the supply of specific quality and quantity of rice within a certain time period subject to specified conditions of conformity to specification. run) for conformity to various specifications like moisture content. the next step is to select the correct quality and grade.
clean. Cycle time: Normal cycle time for rice is 3 months. The contract is usually for a particular price to be paid at the future date and outlines the delivery schedule and terms of payment. should be covered with water proof/resistant covers. then transplanting the saplings into ploughed fields and flooding the fields. However there have been some recent innovations in this arena and a new hybrid variety called Basmati has been developed . in general. Smaller pack sizes are made if the buyer demands so. Trucks are often more effective and are considered more reliable than the railways. In India manual harvesting is still very common. once loaded. The trucks or wagons must be as clean as possible and the bags. The bags must be piled properly.packaging. . LOGISTICS INVOLVED The grain is usually packed in standard sized gunny bags of 50 kgs. the cycle time for which is mere 45 – 50 days. International standards lay down that the weight should not exceed 50 kgs. The warehouses as far as possible should have ceiling and should be properly ventilated. warm. transportation and price. Rice is usually transported in trucks and to a lesser extent in railway wagons. The production methods of paddy are. The gunny bags usually have a protective inner lining to prevent moisture from getting in. moisture proof. The process involves sowing seeds in nurseries. Process of Cultivation: The cultivation of rice is a relatively easy and simple process and does not require hi-tech innovations or methods. The harvesting can be done either manually or with machines. They should be dry. Regular fumigation is usually carried out especially if the grain is stored for long periods of time. highly labour intensive. termite resistant and rat proof. Adequate and proper drainage is a must as is the timely and regular application of various water soluble fertilizers (mainly DAP) and pesticides. Adequate arrangements for transportation have to be made whatever the mode.
can in a particular year. Weather The most essential climatic requirement for rice cultivation is humidity or adequate moisture and moderate to high temperatures that is why it is grown mainly in the rainy seasons and in the regions of moderate to high rainfall. As a consequence there are sometimes sudden shifts in the pattern of imports and exports of this commodity. so much so. but on the average is about 1600 – 2000 kgs of paddy / hectare of which about 67% is rice content. become an importer. Yield The yield varies from states. especially factors like EL NINO effects. .Crop Cycle: Due to the diverse weather conditions in India. rice is available throughout the year – from the Southern states in Winter ( November to February) and from the Northern states in Spring / Summer ( February end to October). influence production patterns and yields. Vagaries in weather. that an exporting country. Levels of rainfall have a major role to play.
are marketed as they remain surplus after meeting the consumption needs of the farmers. The emergence of the concept of sustainability of agricultural production has made the task more difficult for all those who are associated with agricultural production systems in the country. 4. which have direct bearing upon the prosperity of the cultivators. 20 per cent of total export earnings. agricultural exports have also become an important national goal. It is the marketing system that transmits the crucial price signals. Agricultural Marketing is one of the manifold problems. Agriculture supplies raw materials to various industries and therefore. Approximately 33% of the output of food grains. 3. . Agricultural marketing plays an important role not only in stimulating production and consumption. accounts for 30 per cent of the country's GDP. but in accelerating the pace of economic development. two thirds of country's workforce and livelihood for 70 per cent of the total population. 2. sustainability. oilseeds etc. quick means of communication and transportation has introduced specialization in agriculture. initiated since early nineties. ecological and economic constraints. and specialization in the cultivation of those crops on which the returns are the greatest. With trade liberalization. Agriculture once looked as a subsistance sector is slowly changing to a surplus and business proposition. Increasing demands for money with which to purchase other goods leads to increasing sensitivity to relative prices on the part of the producers. 1. sugarcane. assumes greater importance. marketing of such commercial crops like cotton. Development of technology. as India is an agricultural country and about 70% of its population depends on agriculture. oilseeds etc. The past accomplishments of this sector are a great strength to face the current problems and future challenges in the areas of greater efficiency (competitiveness). sugarcane. The agriculture marketing system plays a dual role in economic development in countries whose resources are primarily agricultural. With the introduction of green revolution agricultural production in general and food grains in particularly has substantially increased. a core sector of the Indian economy.MARKETING OF RICE AGRICULTURE Agriculture. The new economic regime. poverty alleviation and continued food self-sufficiency. pulses and hearly all of the productions of cash crops like cotton. Most of the total cultivated area (about 76%) is to under food grains and pulses. has led to resetting of the goals of Indian agriculture towards global competitiveness and export orientation without compromising the basic premise of self-reliance. subject to socio-cultural.
Several functions are involved in this process. Buying and assembling. 7. A marketing system can become a direct source of new technical knowledge and induce farmers to adopt upto date scientific methods of cultivation. 8. Marketing process brings a new varieties. Market functions Agriculture marketing comprises of all the operations involved in the movement of produce from the farm till it reaches the ultimate consumer. Storing/warehousing. A reduction in the cost of marketing is a direct benefit to the society. systematic marketing stabilizes the price level. Transporting and loading/unloading. The interaction among producers. 11. Grading. marketing acts as a line between production and consumption. playing an important role in the economic development and stability of a country. They are as follows: 1. market functionaries. 9. 3. Marketing is therefore. 2. The producer. middleman and consumer look upon the marketing process from their own individual point of view. qualities and beneficial goods to consumers and therefore. 12. . 10. consumers and government that determine the cost of marketing and sharing of this cost among the various participants. 6. Scientific. The producer is primarily concerned with selling his products.5. 4. really brings about an increase in the national income. An improved marketing system will stimulate the growth of number of agrobased industries mainly in the field of processing. Any increase in the efficiency of the marketing process. which results in lower costs of distribution at lower prices to consumers.
Financers/Bankers. 3. Processor.5. 4. Daily Mandis and weekly markets in rural areas Producers selling directly to local consumers. 7. Hamals. 4. 3. Wholesaler in assembling market. 2. In consuming area. Warehouses. Processing. Financing. Weigh men. 7. Types of markets 1. Village/Itinerant merchant. Agencies Following agencies carry out marketing (buying and selling) at various stages : 1. 5. Retailing. Retailer. Retail market in consuming area. Graders. 8. . 5. Commission agent or Dalal. 2. Traders. 2. 7. Risk-bearing. 6. Transporters. Wholesaler in consuming markets. 6. 3. Preharvest contractor (in fruit crops). Functionaries: The above functions are carried out by various functionaries which are as follows : 1. i) ii) In producing area. Wholesale markets. 6.
3. Open auction. etc. Closed tender. This is not the case with farmers-sellers. 2. They are mostly ignorant. Therefore these markets are imperfect markets. agricultural markets should be perfectly competitive markets as there are large number of buyers and sellers. Private traders. supply. Government Channel Producer . . Dara sale. Co-operative channel Producer>co-operatives->consumer. 2. When the prices are fixed in the open market.) and are organizationally strong. Perfect and imperfect Markets As per definition.Govt. open auction. have full knowledge of market-practices (demand. prices. 3. Channels of marketing Government. 1.4.e. First method i. Annual and occasional fairs. Under cover or Hatter system. 4. is most popular and is followed in regulated markets as prices are fixed in the presence of all concern. Private channel Producer->village merchant->wholesaler-> commission agent (Dalal) -> Retailer-> consumer. weak and unorganized.consumer. the farmers do not get the reasonable and correct prices as they sell their produce under forced or distress situation. But these markets are not really perfectly competitive. The traders as buyers are generally educated. Department . 5. Methods of sale Following methods of fixing prices are observed in various markets 1. 6. Private agreement. Quoting on sample. Co-operative.
wheat and sugar.In some fruit crops. banana. which result into high costs and market margins. Fruits. The shorter the channel. lesser the market costs and cheaper the commodity to the consumer. In private channel. Nearly 60 to 70% agricultural produce is sold through this channel. Gujrathi etc. In some essential commodities. there are many intermediaries.55 to 65% 2.40 to 50% . Therefore. along with Govt. Govt. Other commodities. Food grains. ber. This is a traditional channel and is quite popular with the farmers. In Maharashtra. The channels of marketing are an important aspect of agricultural marketing affecting the prices paid by consumers and shares of them received by the producer. there is preharvest contractor who takes fruit gardens while fruits are still on the trees. pomogranate. Government channel is used mainly for foodgrains like rice. the commodities become costly for the final consumer and this reduces the producer‟s share in consumer‟s prices. edible oils etc. orange along with private channel. Vegetables. It is also used in milk in Maharashtra. Normally producer‟s shares in different commodity groups are as follows 1.30 to 40% 4. The channel which provides commodities at cheaper price to consumer and also ensures greater share to producer is considered as the most efficient channel Several studies have been carried out in India on this topic for different commodities and in different regions and the results are of mixed nature due to local socio-economic conditions and infrastructure facilities. when the prices are unduly high or low the Govt. When the channel is long with more intermediaries. The co-operative channel is quite weak in the country. channel operates in the marketing of milk along with co-operative and private channels. this channel is used partially in important fruit crops like grapes.60 to 70% 3. Government channel operates with the co-operative or private channels. prices are more and producer‟s is less. The examples are onion. in addition to the above. In Maharashtra. and private channels. The channels of marketing and price for different commodities have been the main focus of research in agricultural marketing. enters into market to buy the commodities and sell them to protect the interests of both-producer and consumer.
. minimum support prices and procurement prices. At these announced prices. fibre crops. sugarcane and tobacco are announced by the govt. As a result. These prices are announced for different agricultural crops by the govt. Procurement prices are announced before the sowing season. The likely effect of the price policy on the rest of the economy. In such circumstances. These prices are announced by the govt.. purchased all the foodgrains offered for sale. Minimum Support Price This is the price fixed by the Govt. or on the traders or through other methods. Procurement prices are fixed generally at a level. of India on the recommendations of Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices. Procurement prices Procurement price of a commodity refers to the price at which govt.Price Fixation and Open Market Price Fixation Another method of intervention in the market mechanism has been the announcement of different administered prices viz. minimum support prices. (CACP). procures the foodgrains (wheat. govt. paddy and coarse grains) in the needed quantity either for maintaining the buffer stock or for the distribution through fair price shops. agencies purchase the entire quantity offered by the farmers at the announced minimum price. the govt.. procures the commodity from producers/manufactures for maintaining the buffer stock or the public distribution system. of India before the start of the sowing season of the crop. which is somewhat higher than the level of minimum support prices but lower than the prevailing market prices. The procurement prices are lower in relation to the actual market prices and as such farmers and traders are not willing to sell their stocks voluntarily to the govt. Procurement . The need for ensuring a rational utilization of land and other production resources. Foodgrains. Aspects while recommending the price The need for incentives to farmers for the adoption of improved technology and maximization of production. to protect the producer – farmers against excessive fall in price during bumper production years. procurement prices and issue prices. Minimum support prices for different agricultural crops viz. In case the market price for the commodity falls below the announced minimum price due to bumper production and glut in the market. the procurement price itself become the support price at which the govt. The Commission has been recommending two sets of administered prices viz. govt. statutory minimum prices. of India on the recommendations of the Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices before the harvest season of the crop. oilseeds. procures food grains at the announced procurement prices either by imposing a levy on the farmers.
It is better than any other system as sale is by an open auction. the commission agent invites a few buyers when the produce is brought to his shop for sale. As a result. one bid is given for all the lots in a particular shop and all the lots are sold at that price Random bid System By this method. was bound to purchase the foodgrains offered by the producers for sale. . Types Phar System By this method. All the prospective buyers are not informed. moves to the next in a clock-wise or anti-clockwise direction till the auction of the produce at all shops is over. The auction is supervised by the auction clerk or the person nominated by the market committee. Roster Bid System Bidding starts from a point in the market at a notified time about which the prospective buyers are given information in advance. and so on. the competition is poor.prices also become the minimum support prices because the govt. The bidding party after the auction of the produce at one shop. or the scheduled auction time expires. The buyers and sellers know clearly the price quoted and leaves no room for being cheated. Open Market Under this system arhatia or broker invites bids for the produce of the highest bidder is sold the produce. The system ensures fair dealing to the parties and secures a premium for superior quality. On the following day. the auction starts from the next point.
The down ward trend has been noticed mainly in the non-exporting units where as the exporting units have almost remained same in this period. Grading.3%. agencies to the exporters. The brief of this policy for year 2003-04 is highlighted as below in respect of Paddy crop. In the year 2002-03 by 18. In the year 2000-01 the same was Rs. subsidized Rice supply by Govt. 13. With 306 units in the year 2000-01 in the district their number declined to 260 in year 2001-02 registering down fall of 15. crore with export of Rs. where VAT & local/Mandi levies / taxes are either exempted or are extremely low. A) The various logistics are involved in marketing of JAGAT product such as AGRICULTURE Market functions They are as follows: 9. The farmers bring their produce in various Mandis which is sold against open auction as per the procedure. Punjab & U.40 cr. of Haryana. of India announces a minimum support price for purchase of Kharif crops i. Maize & Jawar for farmers to safeguard their interest to get them a minimum price of their crops. against exploitation by intermediaries. 49 crore which declined to Rs.e. 10. I. Processing.e.P. Storing/warehousing. To control this mechanism a State Level KHARIF PROCUREMENT POLICY is made by Govt. of India every year. this figure has also gone down substantially. Buying and assembling. To affect this regulations Govt. in the year 2002-03 with another fall of 15% with respect to the figure of year 2001-02. Many of the units have either closed down or have shifted to the neighbouring states. These benefits include reduced rate of interest. Similar is the case with the investment in plant & machinery.3%. Paddy. In case of auction price falling down from the minimum support price the designated six Govt. 12. the food / rice stock level in the Central Pool on the other hand. Transporting and loading/unloading. With the decrease in no. & Value has also fallen. procurement agencies come forward & buy the huge stock of Paddy at MSP & Maintain the Minimum Support Price in the market as announced by Govt. . Bajra. agencies to the exporters and exemption from VAT and duty draw back etc. 11. Accordingly the Rice production in terms of Qty. of units in the last three years. The reason of downward trend of these units is increased cost of production by about 20-25%then the exporters due to various benefits provided by Govt.CHAPTER -6 Conclusion: Growth trend of the Rice milling industry in the last three years has been on the negative side. 700 crores.
10. Wholesaler in assembling market. Graders. Financers/Bankers. 12. Annual and occasional fairs. In consuming area. 6. . 13. 13. 14. Wholesale markets. Traders. Retail market in consuming area. Agencies Following agencies carry out marketing (buying and selling) at various stages : 8. Daily Mandis and weekly markets in rural areas Producers selling directly to local consumers. Transporters. Warehouses.14. Village/Itinerant merchant. Hamals. Commission agent or Dalal. 9. 11. Financing 15. 10. 12. 8. 9. 11. Processor. Wholesaler in consuming markets. 14. Retailer. 7. i) ii) In producing area. Preharvest contractor (in fruit crops). Types of markets 5. Weigh men. Risk-bearing Retailing Functionaries: The above functions are carried out by various functionaries which are as follows: 8.
C) PRODUCTS JAGAT MALAI JAGAT KHUSHBU JAGAT SADABAHAR JAGAT MANPASAND JAGAT EVERYDAY/SUPER EVERYDAY Among them JAGAT mail is mostly preferable C) Jagat is not only sold in India but in abroad also with the help of promoters and its brand name D) Jagat always meet the market demand and maintains the supply chain with the help of farmers middle men and end users E) The distributors play a major role in advertising the product it should try other sources also in promoting the product like T.B) Jagat Agro Commodities Pvt.V. advertising etc. Ltd. has established itself as a processor of world class basmati rice. . The premium brand of basmati from the company is adored by all and consumed by those who value taste and expect nothing but the best.
com www.FnBnews.com Food grain milling industry-report Indian Agriculture 2006 http:/indiabudget.com www.com KRBLindia.dawaatindia.almondz.nic.grocernewstoday.satnamindia.lalquilla.indiawest.com www.com www.com www.in .com www.BIBLIOGRAPHY www.