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Marking Scheme (Kedah)

Marking Scheme (Kedah)

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Published by: Rozaini Othman on Sep 15, 2011
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964/1/2/MS

JABATANPELAJARANNEGERIKEDAHJABATANPELAJARANNEGERIKEDAHJABATANPELAJARANNEGERI JABATANPELAJARANNEGERIKEDAHJABATANPELAJARANNEGERIKEDAHJABATANPELAJARANNEGERI JABATANPELAJARANNEGERIKEDAHJABATANPELAJARANNEGERIKEDAHJABATANPELAJARANNEGERI JABATANPELAJARANNEGERIKEDAHJABATANPELAJARANNEGERIKEDAHJABATANPELAJARANNEGERI JABATANPELAJARANNEGERIKEDAHJABATANPELAJARANNEGERIKEDAHJABATANPELAJARANNEGERI BIOLOGY (BIOLOGI) JABATANPELAJARANNEGERIKEDAHJABATANPELAJARANNEGERIKEDAHJABATANPELAJARANNEGERI JABATANPELAJARANNEGERIKEDAHJABATANPELAJARANNEGERIKEDAHJABATANPELAJARANNEGERI MARKING SCHEME (SKEMA PEMARKAHAN) JABATANPELAJARANNEGERIKEDAHJABATANPELAJARANNEGERIKEDAHJABATANPELAJARANNEGERI JABATANPELAJARANNEGERIKEDAHJABATANPELAJARANNEGERIKEDAHJABATANPELAJARANNEGERI PAPER 1 AND PAPER 2 (KERTAS 1 DAN KERTAS 2) JABATANPELAJARANNEGERIKEDAHJABATANPELAJARANNEGERIKEDAHJABATANPELAJARANNEGERI JABATANPELAJARANNEGERIKEDAHJABATANPELAJARANNEGERIKEDAHJABATANPELAJARANNEGERI JABATANPELAJARANNEGERIKEDAHJABATANPELAJARANNEGERIKEDAHJABATANPELAJARANNEGERI

964/1/2/MS

PERCUBAAN STPM 2011

PEPERIKSAAN PERCUBAAN BERSAMA SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA (STPM) 2011
ANJURAN JABATAN PELAJARAN KEDAH DARUL AMAN DAN PERSIDANGAN KEBANGSAAN PENGETUA-PENGETUA SEKOLAH MENENGAH MALAYSIA (PKPSM) KEDAH

STPM 964/1/2/MS

[Turn over (Lihat sebelah)

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2 PAPER 1 (KERTAS 1)

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1 B 2 A 3 A 4 D 5 A 6 C 7 C 8 C 9 B 10 B 11 A 12 D 13 A 14 C 15 B 16 D 17 D 18 D 19 A 20 B 21 C 22 B 23 A 24 A 25 C

26 D 27 A 28 C 29 D 30 D 31 B 32 D 33 D 34 B 35 C 36 D 37 C 38 D 39 A 40 C 41 A 42 B 43 B 44 C 45 D 46 C 47 B 48 C 49 A 50 A

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3 PAPER 2 / KERTAS 2 SECTION A

964/1/2/MS

Question 1 (a) 1 oxygen binds to the haem groups//Initially oxygen molecule binds slowly / harder to bind (therefore the curve of graph is less steep initially). 2 distorts shape of molecule / allosteric//easier for next oxygen to bind / next oxygen molecule bind faster (therefore the curve is steep in the middle). 3 when haemoglobin is saturated with oxygen, no more oxygen is able to bind with the haemoglobin (therefore the curve is level off/ less steep at the end).

-

1

-

1

-

1 3m

(b)

1 as the partial pressure of carbon dioxide increases, the saturation of haemoglobin with oxygen decreases / desaturation increases 2 curve shifts to the right (Bohr effect)

-

1 1 2m

(c)

1 increased CO2 levels release hydrogen/hydrogen carbonate form//decreased pH in the plasma 2 causes the release of the oxygen by the haemoglobin/lowers affinity for oxygen

-

1

-

1 2m

(d)

1 rate of respiration increases/ demand for oxygen increases 2 CO2 increases/pH drops 3 body temperature increases 4 affinity of haemoglobin towards oxygen is lowered /More oxygen release (from haemoglobin) to body cells.

-

1 1 1 any 3

-

1 3m

Total 10m

RESTRICTED*/TERHAD* Question 2 (a) I II III IV : : : : Corpus allatum Prothoracic gland Juvenile hormone // neotonin Ecdysone

4

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-

1 1 1 1 4m

(b)

1 stimulate the corpus allatum to synthesise juvenile hormones 2 stimulates prothoracic gland to synthesise ecdysone

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1 1 1m

any 1

(c)

1 juvenile hormone suppresses the genes that control the production of adult characteristics 2 its activates the genes that control the retention of larval or nymphal characteristics 3 ecdysone stimulates the ecdysis process by activating specific genes that control the synthesis of enzymes involved in the synthesis of exoskeleton 4 it is also stimulates the development of adult characteristics by activating the genes involved in the synthesis of adult characteristics

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1

-

1

-

1

-

1 4m

(d)

1 Level of juvenile hormone is very low, allowing the development of adult characteristics, pupa moulds into adult insects

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1 1m

Total 10m

RESTRICTED*/TERHAD* Question 3 (a) Process Y : meiosis Process Z : fertilisation

5

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1 1 2m

(b)

W : gametophyte X : sporophyte

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1 1 2m

(c) W multicellular haploid produces spore (through meiosis) X multicellular diploid produces gametes (through mitosis) - 1/0 - 1/0 2m (d) 1 shows an alternation of generation in which the diploid sporophyte generation is the dominant generation 2 the haploid gametophyte generation is the simple , free living prothallus 3 the sporophyte generation has true stems, leaves and roots 4 the sporophyte generation has vascular tissue but the xylem tissues only have tracheids and the phloem tissue only have sieve tubes (e) Plant Dryopteris Marchantia Phylum Filicinophyta Bryophyta 1 1 2m Total 10m

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1 1 any 2 1

-

1 2m

RESTRICTED*/TERHAD* Question 4

6

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(a) Given that 250 of 1000 sheep have the genotype rr (recessive allele) q2 is the frequency of rr Thus, q2 = q q = = 1

250 1000
250 1000 0.5 (reject : 5 × 10 −1 and
1 ) 2

-

1 2m

(b) [ Frequency of heterozygous Rr genotype

= 2pq ]** = 2 × 0.5 × 0.5 = 0.5

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1 1 2m

(c) (i)

Number of sheep with RR genotype

= p2 × 1000 = 0.25 × 1000 = 250

-

1 1 2m

(ii) Number of sheep with heterozygous Rr genotype

= 2pq × 1000 = 0.5 × 1000 = 500

-

1 1 2m

(d) Dominant allele in the new population. Genotype Number of genotype RR 250 Rr 500 rr 0 0 1

Number of allele R
Number of allele r Total number of allele

2 × 250
500

500 500
1500

1500
500 + 500 1500 1 2m

Frequency of dominant allele R

=

= 0.67 (Note : **compulsory sentence)

Total 10m

RESTRICTED*/TERHAD* Question 5
(a) 1 2 3 Krantz anatomy has two rings of cells

7

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1 1 1 3m

the outer ring of columnar mesophyll cells surround a ring of inner ring of bundle sheath cells and the vascular bundle

(b)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

CAM plants contain mesophyll cells and without Krantz anatomy fixation of CO2 take place at night when the stomata are open phosphoenolpyruvate /PEP combines with CO2 to produce oxaloacetate oxaloacetate (OAA) is reduced to malate that required NADPH malate is stored in the vacuole of mesophyll cell during daytime when there is light, malate is oxidised to produce CO2 and pyruvate concentration of CO2 increases in mesophyll cells and photorespiration is prevented CO2 is fixed by RuBP to form PGA / phosphoglyceric acid in Calvin cycle to produce glucose and starch

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1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Max 7m

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(c) C3 plants Fixation of CO2 during photosynthesis occurs once in mesophyll cells,

8

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C4 plants Fixation of CO2 during photosynthesis occurs twice, in mesophyll cells and bundle sheath cells. - 1/0

Photorespiration occurs at low CO2 Photorespiration is inhibited by a high concentration. Oxygen acts as a concentration of CO2 in the bundle competitive inhibitor for CO2. sheath cell. The first product formed in the dark phase of photosynthesis is glycerate-3-phosphate (3C molecule). The first product formed in the dark phase of photosynthesis is oxaloacetate (4C molecule).

- 1/0

- 1/0

The enzymes involved is RuBP The enzymes involved are RuBP carboxylase. carboxylase and PEP carboxylase. The CO2 acceptor is ribulose The CO2 acceptors are ribulose biphosphate (RuBP). biphosphate (RuBP) and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). Photosynthesis is less efficient Photorespiration is inhibited and compared to C4 plants. Yield is photosynthesis rate is higher. Yield is usually lower. higher.

- 1/0

- 1/0

- 1/0

Max 5m

Total 15 m

RESTRICTED*/TERHAD* Question 6
(a) Ultrafiltration 1 2 3 4 5

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metabolite wastes are ammonia salts, creatinine, excess water sodium and chloride ions blood containing nitrogenous wastes such as urea enter the kidney via the renal artery high hydrostatic pressure in glomerulus forces the blood content to filter into Bowman’s capsule through ultrafiltration the glomerular filtrate contains glucose, amino acids, vitamins, hormones, urea, uric acid, creatinine, ions and water

-

1 1 1 1 1

Max 3m Reabsorption 6 from the Bowman’s capsule, the glomerular filtrate flows into the proximal convoluted tubule where active reabsorption of useful substances occurs all glucose, amino acids and a large proportion of mineral salts are actively reabsorbed into the peritubular capillaries a large proportion of water (over 80%) is reabsorbed by osmosis some urea is reabsorbed from the filtrate by diffusion

-

1 1 1 1

7 8 9

10 waste substances such as creatinine, drugs which are not filtered in the glomerulus, are carried by blood to the proximal convoluted tubule and actively secreted into its lumen 11 in the loop of Henle, Na+ move out of ascending limb into medulla tissue 12 water is reabsorbed from descending limb 13 counter current multiplier 14 the remaining salt is reabsorbed in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct into the surrounding blood capillaries by osmosis

-

1 1 1 1 1

Max 6m Active Secretion 15 the urea, toxic substances and drugs are actively secreted into the distal convoluted tubule from the surrounding capillaries 16 the filtrate flows into the collecting duct as urine and it contains water and excess mineral salts not required by the body, waste substances like urea, ammonium ions, uric acid and creatinine 1

-

1

Total 11m

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(b) 1 2 3 4 5 6

10

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1 1 1 1 1 1

ADH is secreted by the pituitary gland into the blood ADH increases the permeability of the distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts towards water molecules this is created by increasing aquaporins arranged on the plasma membrane facing the lumen of tubule more water is reabsorbed from the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct into the blood capillaries a small amount of concentrated urine is produced the water potential of blood increases back to the normal range

Max 4m

Total 15m

RESTRICTED*/TERHAD* Question 7
(a) Self 1

11

964/1/2/MS

the ability to distinguish self from non self depends on the lymphocytes in the body which have the ability to detect any foreign substance/protein that is incompatible with it if the foreign substance is compatible to the body cells / has class I MHC protein or antigen found on the surface of most nucleated cells, no immunity response is triggered the foreign substance is self substance and is not rejected class I MHC protein is detected as an antigen. The foreign substance is considered as a non-self substance this trigger an immune response by producing antibodies that attack the foreign tissue, eventually destroy it

-

1

2

-

1 1

3 4 5

Non-self 1 1 5m (b) 1 2 3 HIV enters the body through body fluid or blood transfusion once inside the body, the glycoprotein of HIV binds to the CD4 receptors found on the surface membrane of the helper T lymphocytes both membranes then fuse while the capsid is enzymatically removed to release the viral RNA and reverse transcriptase into the cytoplasm of the helper T lymphocytes viral RNA undergoes reverse transcription followed by replication to produce a double-stranded viral DNA with the help of the enzyme reverse transcriptase the viral DNA will enter the nucleus and incorporate itself into the host’s DNA as a provirus HIV may persist in a latent state for years once activated, the cell’s DNA will undergo transcription and translation to yield huge amounts of viral mRNA and viral proteins new viral proteins and viral RNA copies are assembled in the cytoplasm to form new viruses, which then bud out of the host cell further infecting other helper T lymphocytes the number of helper T lymphocytes will gradually decrease 1 1

-

1

4

-

1 1 1 1

5 6 7 8

-

1 1 1 10m

9

10 this exposes the individual to greater risks of contacting other diseases and finally leading to death

Total 15m

RESTRICTED*/TERHAD* Question 8
(a)

12

964/1/2/MS

Gene expression needs to be controlled because: 1 to save energy, because not all genes are needed at the same time (In humans, some genes are needed early in life (for development) are needed in adulthood) in a multicellular organism different cell types need different gene products genes are also regulated for cell differentiation cells have different functions and respond to different types of stimuli

-

1 1 1 1

2 3 4

Max 3m

(b)

1 2

inducible system means that in the natural state, the gene is switched off and only switched on when needed

-

1 1 2m

(c)

Gene expression in lac operon 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 repressor protein is encoded by regulatory gene without the presence of lactose it binds to operator the binding will block attachment site of RNA polymerase on promoter gene thus the lactose operon is deactivated / no transcription of structural genes (no enzymes is produced to utilize the lactose) when lactose is provided the allolactose (lactose isomer) binds to repressor protein protein conformation is changed - not suite to its binding site on operator RNA polymerase able to bind to its site on promoter 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

10 thus lactose operon is activated 11 transcription of structural gene occurred// mRNA is produced//enzyme is produced

Max 10m

Total 15m

RESTRICTED*/TERHAD* Question 9
(a) 1

13

964/1/2/MS

an ecosystem comprises biotic components and abiotic components that mutually interact and function together (to form a stable and balanced natural system) the biotic component of an ecosystem involves all the living organisms that interact with each other in the ecosystem the biotic components of an ecosystem comprises at least three trophic levels: producers (autotrophs), consumers (heterotrophs) and the composers The energy flow in an ecosystem is continuous and produces an output of heat energy Nutrients such as water, sulphur and phosphorus are recycled by biogeochemical cycles example: Pond ecosystem that consists of biotic components such as carp, Daphnia and abiotic components such as pond water, soil and sunlight

-

1 1

2 3

-

1 1 1

4 5 6

-

1

Max 5m (b) 1 2 3 4 5 6 food chain reflect the transfer of energy in an ecosystem original source of energy is from the sun / solar energy primary producers / photosynthetic organisms trap (1-5% of light energy received for biomass production primary consumers / herbivores feed on plants / primary producers energy is transferred from first trophic level to the second trophic level 90% of the energy is lost to the environment // only 10 % of the biomass produced consumed by the herbivores // 10% of the energy is transferred to the next trophic level there is further energy loss (from the herbivores) through respiration and excretion secondary consumers feed on primary consumers energy is transferred from second to third trophic level 1 1 1 1 1

-

1 1 1 1 1 1

7 8 9

10 tertiary consumers feed on secondary consumers 11 there are seldom more than 5 trophic levels 12 large amount of energy is lost during each transfer (within and between the organism) //Each trophic level received less energy than the level below it 13 at the fourth or fifth level. only a small amount energy is left/insufficient to support further trophic level 14 limiting the number of members in the higher trophic level

-

1 1 1

Max 10 Total 15m

RESTRICTED*/TERHAD* Question 10
(a) 1 2 3 4

14

964/1/2/MS

taxonomy involves classification, identification and nomenclature classification is a process by which organisms are classified certain observed features studied by taxonomist based on

-

1 1 1 1

identification is a process by which organisms are recognised and identified based on the Linnaeus hierarchy Nomenclature is a way of naming organisms scientifically based on binomial system

Max 3m

(b)

1

classification allows taxonomists to store and provide information of an organism systematically because the materials and the informations are filed and catalogued nomenclature allowed taxonomists to give scientific name to organisms scattered all over the world scientific names of the organisms enables the communication and exchange of data and information to be carried out effectively within the scientific community natural classification system provides information on the evolutionary relationship between organisms taxonomy also provides evidence to support organic evolution as taxonomists can discover the natural relationship among organisms in differents category in Linnaeus hierarchy taxonomy allows biologist to continuously discover unknown species and to update information on biodiversity and evolution taxonomy enables ecologist to the discover ecological relationship between organisms and the environment

-

1 1

2 3

-

1 1

4 5

-

1 1 1

6 7

Max 5m

RESTRICTED*/TERHAD*
(c)

15

964/1/2/MS

Differentiate between plant from the group conifers and angiosperms

Pinus sp.
Sexual reproductive structure is the cone/ strobilus Cone parts are arranged in spirals Ovules are not enclosed by the ovary Seeds are exposed or naked Vessel elements absent in xylem tissues

Caesalpinia sp.
Sexual reproductive structure is the flower Flowers parts advanced in angiosperms are arranged in whorls Ovules are enclosed by the ovary Seeds are enclosed by the fruit wall// pericarp Vessel elements present in xylem tissues 1/0 1/0 1/0 1/0 1/0 1/0 1/0 1/0

Companion cells absent in the phloem Companion cells present in the tissues phloem tissues . No double fertilization. Pollination by wind. Double fertilization occurs Pollination by several agents.

Max 7m

Total 15m

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