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# Mathematics

1. For any metric space (X; d), show that [d(x; y) d(y; z)[ _ d(x; z) for all
x; y; z X.
2. Check whether the function d : R
2
R
2
R dened by d((x
1
; x
2
); (y
1
; y
2
)) =
[y
2
x
2
[ whenever x
1
= y
1
and d((x
1
; x
2
); (y
1
; y
2
)) = [x
2
[ +[y
2
[ +[x
1
y
1
[
whenever x
1
,= y
1
is a metric. Analyze which points are at distance one
of the point (2; 0) and which points are at distance 2 of the point (1; 1).
3. Let d
2
be the euclidean distance on R
2
. Check whether the function
d : R
2
R
2
R dened by
d((x
1
; x
2
); (y
1
; y
2
)) = d
2
((x
1
; x
2
); (y
1
; y
2
)) whenever there exists a t
R such that (x
1
; x
2
) = t(y
1
; y
2
)
d((x
1
; x
2
); (y
1
; y
2
)) = d
2
((x
1
; x
2
); (0; 0))+d
2
((0; 0); (y
1
; y
2
)) otherwise
is a metric. Provide some real situation that can be modelled using this
distance.
4. Consider the metric space (X; d). Dene, for all x; y X the function
d
0
(x; y) =
d(x;y)
1+d(x;y)
:
(a) Show that d
0
denes a metric on X:
(b) Show that d
0
is a bounded function.
(c) Show that d
0
orders the distances between points in the space ordi-
nally the same way as the original metric (that is: d(x; y) > d(z; w) =
d
0
(x; y) > d
0
(z; w) for all x; y; w; z X):
5. If (X; d) and (X; d
0
) are metric spaces:
(a) is (X; maxd; d
0
) a metric space?
(b) is (X; mind; d
0
) a metric space?
6. Let X denote the set of all continuous real functions on [0; 1] and dene
the distance: For all f; g X,
d
1
(f; g) =
Z
1
0
[f(t) g(t)[dt:
Prove that (X; d
1
) is a metric space.
7. Show which of the metric spaces described in the theory classes have be-
hind some normed space and, in these cases, describe the norms.
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IDEA,2011-2012. MetricSpaces(I)