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**1. For any metric space (X; d), show that [d(x; y) ÷d(y; z)[ _ d(x; z) for all
**

x; y; z ¸ X.

2. Check whether the function d : R

2

R

2

÷R de…ned by d((x

1

; x

2

); (y

1

; y

2

)) =

[y

2

÷x

2

[ whenever x

1

= y

1

and d((x

1

; x

2

); (y

1

; y

2

)) = [x

2

[ +[y

2

[ +[x

1

÷y

1

[

whenever x

1

,= y

1

is a metric. Analyze which points are at distance one

of the point (2; 0) and which points are at distance 2 of the point (1; 1).

3. Let d

2

be the euclidean distance on R

2

. Check whether the function

d : R

2

R

2

÷R de…ned by

« d((x

1

; x

2

); (y

1

; y

2

)) = d

2

((x

1

; x

2

); (y

1

; y

2

)) whenever there exists a t ¸

R such that (x

1

; x

2

) = t(y

1

; y

2

)

« d((x

1

; x

2

); (y

1

; y

2

)) = d

2

((x

1

; x

2

); (0; 0))+d

2

((0; 0); (y

1

; y

2

)) otherwise

is a metric. Provide some real situation that can be modelled using this

distance.

4. Consider the metric space (X; d). De…ne, for all x; y ¸ X the function

d

0

(x; y) =

d(x;y)

1+d(x;y)

:

(a) Show that d

0

de…nes a metric on X:

(b) Show that d

0

is a bounded function.

(c) Show that d

0

orders the distances between points in the space ordi-

nally the same way as the original metric (that is: d(x; y) > d(z; w) =

d

0

(x; y) > d

0

(z; w) for all x; y; w; z ¸ X):

5. If (X; d) and (X; d

0

) are metric spaces:

(a) is (X; max¦d; d

0

¦) a metric space?

(b) is (X; min¦d; d

0

¦) a metric space?

6. Let X denote the set of all continuous real functions on [0; 1] and de…ne

the distance: For all f; g ¸ X,

d

1

(f; g) =

Z

1

0

[f(t) ÷g(t)[dt:

Prove that (X; d

1

) is a metric space.

7. Show which of the metric spaces described in the theory classes have be-

hind some normed space and, in these cases, describe the norms.

1

IDEA,2011-2012. MetricSpaces(I)

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