This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
, catalysts and equipment. The reﬁning industry is under tremendous pressure to process “cleaner” transportation fuels with varying speciﬁcations for a global market. Reﬁners must balance capital investment and operating strategies that provide the optimum proﬁtability for their organization. Hence, reﬁning organizations will apply leading-edge technology in conjunction with “best practices” for reﬁning fuels and petrochemical feedstocks from crude oil. HP’s Process Handbooks are inclusive catalogs of established and emerging reﬁning technologies that can be applied to existing and grassroots facilities. Economic stresses drive efforts to conserve energy consumption, minimize waste, improve product qualities and, most importantly, increase yields and throughput. In further expansion, the process entries presented an expanded description of the licensed technology including a process ﬂow diagram, product description, economic information and other vital information. Speciﬁc processing operations to be emphasized include alkylation, coking, (crude) distillation, catalytic cracking (ﬂuid and resid), hydrocracking, hydrotreating, hydrogen, isomerization, desulfurization, lube treating, visbreaking, etc. To maintain as complete a listing as possible, the Reﬁning Processes 2006 Handbook is available on CD-ROM and at our website for paid subscribers. Additional copies may be ordered from our website. Photo: The Valero Port Arthur, Texas, Reﬁnery.
Processes index - 1
Alkylation Alkylation, catalytic Alkylation--feed preparation Alkylation-HF Alkylation-sulfuric acid Aromatics Aromatics extractive distillation Aromatics recovery Benzene reduction Biodiesel Catalytic dewaxing Catalytic reforming Coking Coking, ﬂuid Coking,ﬂexi Crude distillation Crude topping units Deasphalting Deep catalytic cracking Deep thermal conversion Desulfurization Dewaxing
Hydrocracking (ISOCRACKING) Hydrocracking (LC-FINING) Hydrocracking-residue Hydrodearmatization Hydroﬁnishing Hydroﬁnishing/hydrotreating Hydrogen Hydrogenation Hydrogen-HTCT and HTCR twin plants Hydrogen-HTER-p Hydrogen-methanol-to-shift Hydrogen-recovery Hydrogen-steam reforming Hydrogen-steam-methane reforming (SMR) Hydroprocessing, residue Hydroprocessing, ULSD Hydrotreating Hydrotreating (ISOTREATING) Hydrotreating diesel Dewaxing/wax deoiling Diesel-ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) Diesel-upgrading Ethers Ethers-ETBE Ethers-MTBE Flue gas denitriﬁcation Flue gas desulfurization-SNOX Fluid catalytic cracking Fluid catalytic cracking-pretreatment Gas treating-H2S removal Gasiﬁcation Gasoline desulfurization Gasoline desulfurization, ultra deep H2S and SWS gas conversion H2S removal Hydroconversion-VGO & DAO Hydrocracking
Processes index - 2
Hydrotreating/desulfurization Hydrotreating-aromatic saturation Hydrotreating-lube and wax Hydrotreating-RDS/VRDS/UFR/OCR Hydrotreating-resid Hydrotreating-residue Isomerization Isooctene/isooctane Lube and wax processing Lube extraction Lube hydrotreating Lube oil reﬁning, spent Lube treating Mercaptan removal NOx abatement NOx reduction, low-temperature O2 enrichment for Claus units O2 enrichment for FCC units Oleﬁn etherﬁcation Oleﬁns recovery
Oleﬁns-butenes extractive distillation Oleﬁns-dehydrogenation of light parrafﬁns to oleﬁns Oligomerization-C3/C4 cuts Oligomerization-polynaphtha Paraxylene Prereforming with feed ultra puriﬁcation Pressure swing adsorption-rapid cycle Reﬁnery offgas-puriﬁcation and oleﬁns recovery Resid catalytic cracking Slack wax deoiling SO2 removal, regenerative Sour gas treatment Spent acid regneration Spent lube oil re-reﬁning Sulfur processing Sulfur recovery Thermal gasoil Treating jet fuel/kerosine Treating-gases Treating-gasoline and LPG Treating-gasoline desulfurization, ultra deep Treating-gasoline sweetening Treating-kerosine and heavy naphtha sweetening Treating-phenolic caustic Treating-pressure swing adsorption Treating-propane Treating-reformer products Treating-spent caustic deep neutralization Vacuum distillation Visbreaking Wax hydrotreating Wet gas scrubbing Wet Scrubbing system, EDV White oil and wax hydrotreating
Haldor Topsoe Kobe Steel Ltd. Reﬁning Hydrocarbon Technology LLC Shaw Stone &Webster Shell Global Solutions International BV Technip Uhde GmbH UOP LLC Sponsored by: Technology Solutions . CB&I CDTECH Chevron Lummus Global LLC. Inc. Axens Bechtel Belco Technologies Corp.Company index ABB Lummus Global Air Products and Chemicals. Allison & Associates GTC Technology Inc. Linde AG Lurgi Merichem Chemicals & Reﬁnery Services LLC Process Dynamics. Inc. Goar. ConocoPhillips Davy Process Technology DuPont ExxonMobil Engineering & Research Foster Wheeler Gas Technology Products Genoil Inc.
ABB Lummus Global Alkylation Coking Fluid catalytic cracking Hydrotreating Hydrotreating-aromatic saturation .
Hydrogen-recovery Oleﬁns recovery . Inc.Air Products and Chemicals.
ultra deep Hydroconversion-VGO & DAO Hydrocracking Hydrocracking-residue Hydrotreating diesel Hydrotreating-resid Isomerization Lube oil reﬁning.Axens Alkylation-feed preparation Benzene reduction Catalytic reforming Ethers Gasoline desulfurization. spent Oligomerization-C3/C4 cuts Oligomerization-polynaphtha Spent lube oil re-reﬁning .
Bechtel Dewaxing Dewaxing/wax deoiling Lube extraction Lube extraction Lube hydrotreating Lube hydrotreating Wax hydrotreating .
EDV . regenerative Wet Scrubbing system. low-temperature SO2 removal. NOx reduction.Belco Technologies Corp.
CB&I Catalytic reforming Crude topping units Hydrogen-steam reforming Hydrotreating .
catalytic Hydrogenation Hydrotreating Isomerization .CDTECH Alkylation.
Dewaxing Hydrocracking (ISOCRACKING) Hydrocracking (LC-FINING) Hydroﬁnishing Hydrotreating (ISOTREATING) Hydrotreating-RDS/VRDS/UFR/OCR .Chevron Lummus Global LLC.
2006. It is the third-largest integrated energy company in the United States. commercial and operational expertise • Strong relationship-building and problem-solving abilities • Customer inter-facing and advocacy Industries Served Technology Solutions supports both Upstream and Downstream energy segments. based on market capitalization.000 employees worldwide and assets of $160 billion. integrated energy company. For More Information: ConocoPhillips Technology Solutions Email: TechnologySolutions@conocophillips. a division of ConocoPhillips. reﬁners and consumers alike for a cleaner. Backed by modern research facilities and a strong tradition of innovation. Worldwide. reﬁners and manufacturers reach their business and operational. commercialize and license technologies that help oil and gas producers.com . ConocoPhillips has the ﬁfth-largest total of proved reserves and is the fourth-largest reﬁner.com Web: www. to gasoline sulfur removal processes to valuable catalysts that enhance fuel cell operation. and the second largest reﬁner in the United States. of non government-controlled companies. Headquartered in Houston. Texas. the company had approximately 38.COPtechnologysolutions. ConocoPhillips operates in more than 40 countries. is a premier provider of technology solutions for the vehicles of today and the oilﬁelds and energy systems of tomorrow. From enhanced production methods. Strengths of Our Business • Focused efforts on developing and commercializing technologies that enable reﬁners to economically produce clean fuels and upgrade hydrocarbons into higher value products • Strategic alignment with both Upstream and Downstream energy segments to effectively capitalize on extensive R&D.Processes: Alkylation Coking Gasoline desulfurization Isomerization Technology Solutions Technology Solutions. including: • Carbon and petroleum coke • Gasiﬁcation • Sulfur chemistry • Hydrocarbon processing and upgrading • Upstream technologies • Enhanced recovery Corporate Overview ConocoPhillips (NYSE:COP) is an international. and oil and gas proved reserves and production. As of March 31. more beneﬁcial future. Technology Solutions prepares producers. we develop.
Davy Process Technology Prereforming with feed ultra puriﬁcation .
DuPont Alkylation .
ﬂexi Fluid catalytic cracking Gas treating-H2S removal Gasoline desulfurization.ExxonMobil Engineering & Research Alkylation-sulfuric acid Catalytic dewaxing Coking. ultra deep Hydrocracking Hydroprocessing. ULSD Lube treating NOx abatement Pressure swing adsorption-rapid cycle Wet gas scrubbing . ultra deep Gasoline desulfurization. ﬂuid Coking.
biotechnology & healthcare industries. chemicals & petrochemicals. LNG & gas-to-liquids. technically-advanced.com Technical articles: • Integrated hydrogen solutions: Combining hydrogen recovery and optimized steam • Upgrade reﬁnery residuals into value-added products • Optimize turnaround projects • Drivers for additional delayed coking capacity in the reﬁning industry • When solvent deasphalting is the most appropriate technology for upgrading residue . power. on budget and with a world-class safety record. offering world-leading technology in delayed coking. pharmaceuticals. Our Engineering & Construction Group designs and constructs leading-edge processing facilities for the upstream oil & gas. Foster Wheeler is a market leader in heavy oil upgrading technologies. reﬁning. and visbreaking. Services: • Market studies • Master planning • Feasibility studies • Concept screening • Environmental engineering • Front-end design (FEED) • Project management (PMC) • Engineering (E) • Procurement (P) • Construction (C) & construction management (Cm) • Commissioning & start-up • Validation • Plant operations & maintenance • Training Our Global Power Group. with a reputation for delivering high-quality. and also provides a range of after-market services. environmental.Processes: Coking Crude distillation Deasphalting Hydrogen-steam reforming Visbreaking Foster Wheeler is a global engineering and construction contractor and power equipment supplier. manufactures and erects steam generating and auxiliary equipment for power stations and industrial markets worldwide.com Web: www. reliable facilities and equipment on time. Email: ann_hooper@fwhou. designs. solvent deasphalting.fosterwheeler.fwc. and providing cost-effective solutions for the reﬁning industry. world-leading experts in combustion technology.
Gas Technology Products H2S removal H2S removal H2S removal .
Genoil Inc. Hydrotreating-residue .
Goar. Allison & Associates Sulfur processing Sulfur recovery .
GTC Technology Inc. Aromatics Aromatics recovery Desulfurization Paraxylene .
Haldor Topsoe Diesel-ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) Diesel-upgrading Flue gas denitriﬁcation Flue gas desulfurization-SNOX Fluid catalytic cracking-pretreatment H2S and SWS gas conversion Hydrocracking Hydrodearmatization Hydrogen-HTCT and HTCR twin plants Hydrogen-HTER-p Hydrogen-methanol-to-shift Hydrogen-steam-methane reforming (SMR) Hydrotreating Sour gas treatment Spent acid regneration .
Hydrocracking .Kobe Steel Ltd.
Linde AG O2 enrichment for Claus units O2 enrichment for FCC units .
Lurgi Biodiesel .
Merichem Chemicals & Reﬁnery Services LLC Treating jet fuel/kerosine Treating-gases Treating-gasoline and LPG Treating-gasoline desulfurization. ultra deep Treating-gasoline sweetening Treating-kerosine and heavy naphtha sweetening Treating-phenolic caustic Treating-propane Treating-reformer products Treating-spent caustic deep neutralization .
Hydrotreating Hydrotreating-lube and wax Lube and wax processing .Process Dynamics. Inc.
Reﬁning Hydrocarbon Technology LLC Alkylation Isooctene/isooctane Oleﬁn etherﬁcation .
Shaw Stone & Webster Deep catalytic cracking Fluid catalytic cracking Reﬁnery offgas-puriﬁcation and oleﬁns recovery Resid catalytic cracking .
residue Thermal gasoil Visbreaking .Shell Global Solutions International BV Crude distillation Deep thermal conversion Fluid catalytic cracking Gasiﬁcation Hydrocracking Hydroprocessing.
Technip Crude distillation Hydrogen .
Uhde GmbH Aromatics extractive distillation Ethers-ETBE Ethers-MTBE Hydroﬁnishing/hydrotreating Hydrogen Lube treating Oleﬁns-butenes extractive distillation Oleﬁns-dehydrogenation of light parrafﬁns to oleﬁns Slack wax deoiling Vacuum distillation White oil and wax hydrotreating .
petrochemical and gas processing industries. plastics. air brake systems. separating parafﬁns and drying air through cryogenic separation. procurement and facility-design services. UOP LLC. providing more than 50 licensed processes for the hydrocarbon processing industries and holding more than 2. and produces key mechanical equipment for some of its processes. UOP’s staff of engineers provides customers with a wide range of services. UOP is the largest process licensing organization in the world. a higher performance fuel. Europe and Asia. and project management. polyester ﬁbers. equipment inspection. used in a range of products from contact lenses to food packaging. high-performance fuels from a variety of hydrocarbon products. synthetic ﬁbers and food preservatives. automotive mufﬂers and deodorizing products. has been a leader in developing and commercializing technology for license to the oil reﬁning. UOP has contributed processes and technology that have led to advances in such diverse industries as motor fuels. Other technologies convert mercaptans to innocuous disulﬁdes. UOP provides engineering designs for its processes.500 active patents. UOP technologies produce such oleﬁns as ethylene and propylene. a Honeywell company. catalyst and product testing. for 60 years our Platforming process has been used to upgrade low-octane naphtha to high-octane unleaded gasoline. UOP processes are used throughout the industry to produce clean-burning.000 people in its facilities in the United States. including start-up assistance. refrigeration systems. UOP ofﬁces are in Des Plaines. operating technical services such as process monitoring and optimization. products and services. UOP has been active in the development of synthetic detergent chemicals since 1947. toluene and xylene (BTX) – of the aromatics-based petrochemicals industry. detergents. drying and treating gases produced from oil and gas wells and atmospheric gases. These products form the basis of such familiar products as synthetic rubber. glues and pharmaceuticals. Technologies developed by UOP are almost entirely responsible for providing the fundamental raw materials – benzene.com Technical articles: • Concepts for an overall reﬁnery energy solution through novel integration of FCC ﬂue gas power recovery • Changing reﬁnery conﬁguration for heavy and synthetic crude processing . training of customer personnel. UOP’s gas processing technologies are used for separating. The company employs nearly 3. It also offers project management. and today almost half of the world’s soft (biodegradable) detergents are produced through UOP-developed processes.wilson@uop. For more information: jennifer. remove sulfur from fuel. and recover high-purity hydrogen from impure gas streams. Starting with its ﬁrst breakthrough technology.Processes: Alkylation (2) Alkylation-HF Catalytic reforming Fluid catalytic cracking Hydrocracking Hydrotreating (2) Hydrotreating/desulfurization Isomerization (3) Mercaptan removal Treating-pressure swing adsorption For more than 90 years. cost estimation. polystyrene foam. Illinois. USA (a northwest suburb of Chicago). UOP is the world’s leading producer of synthetic molecular sieve adsorbents used in purifying natural gas. The petroleum reﬁning industry is the largest market for UOP technology. Molecular sieves also are used in insulating glass. For example.
000-bpsd unit) $/bpsd Operating cost. Installation: Demonstration unit at Neste Oil’s Porvoo. “Consider new methods to debottleneck clean alkylate production. Reference: “The AlkyClean process: New technology eliminates liquid acids. periodically. Finland Reﬁnery. Nousiainen.200 0. Product: The C5+ alkylate has a RON of 93–98 depending on processing conditions and feed composition. a reactor undergoes a higher temperature vapor phase hydrogen strip (2). eliminating the safety and environmental hazards associated with liquid acid technologies.Alkylation Application: The AlkyClean process converts light oleﬁns into alkylate by reacting the oleﬁns with isobutane over a true solid acid catalyst. Simultaneously.” NPRA 2006 Annual Meeting. E. reactor design and process scheme allow operation at low external isobutane-to-oleﬁn ratios while maintaining excellent product quality. von Broekhoven. ���������� ������� ������ ��� ������� ������������ ��� Description: The light oleﬁn feed is combined with the isobutane makeup and recycle and sent to the alkylation reactors which convert the oleﬁns into alkylate using a solid acid catalyst (1).08 Licensor: ABB Lummus Global.” Hydrocarbon Processing.. E. van Rooijen and H. ��������� �������� �������������� �������� �������� ������� �������� �������� ������������ ��� Products: Alkylate is a high-octane. which produces n-butane and alkylate products. V. March 19–21. 2006. The reactor and mild regeneration efﬂuent is sent to the product-fractionation section. Albemarle Catalysts and Neste Oil. February 2006. . Gieseman. J. $/gal 4. while also recycling isobutane and recovering hydrogen used in regeneration for reuse in other reﬁnery hydroprocessing units (3). pp. 65–70. low-Rvp gasoline component used for blending in all grades of gasoline. D’Amico. AlkyClean’s unique catalyst. The AlkyClean process does not produce any acid soluble oils (ASO) or require post treatment of the reactor efﬂuent or ﬁnal products. The AlkyClean process uses a true solid acid catalyst to produce alkylate. reactors are undergoing a mild liquid-phase regeneration using isobutane and hydrogen and. Economics: Investment (2006 USGC basis 10.
°F RONC Feed type Butylene Propylene-butylene mix 70. ReVAP alkylation produces higher octane. °F ASTM 90%. psi ASTM 10%.1 6–7 185 236 96. bbl 1. high-octane and low-Rvp blending stock for motor and aviation fuels.755 Per bbl olefin converted i-Butane consumed. API Rvp. n-butane and alkylate products. which separates LPG-quality propane. isobutane recycle.1 6–7 170 253 93. Licensor: ConocoPhillips. bbl 1. � � Description: Dry liquid feed containing oleﬁns and isobutane is charged to a combined reactor-settler (1). The reactor uses the principle of differential gravity head to effect catalyst circulation through a cooler prior to contacting highly dispersed hydrocarbon in the reactor pipe. With the proposed reduction of MTBE in gasoline. ReVAP offers signiﬁcant advantages over sending the isobutylene to a sulfuric-acid-alkylation unit or a dimerization plant. amylenes and isobutane to the highest quality motor fuel using ReVAP (Reduce Volatility Alkylation Process) alkylation.175 1. lower Rvp and lower endpoint product than a sulfuric-acid-alkylation unit and nearly twice as many octane barrels as can be produced from a dimerization unit. butylenes.Alkylation Application: Convert propylene.139 Alkylate produced. isobutylene and amylene feedstocks • Onsite catalyst regeneration • Environmentally responsible (very low emissions/waste) • Between 60% and 90% reduction in airborne catalyst release over traditional catalysts • Can be installed in all licensors’ HF alkylation units.0 71. The hydrocarbon phase that is produced in the settler is fed to the main fractionator (2).5 1. ����������������� � ������� ���������� ����� Products: An ultra-low-sulfur.780 Installation: 147 worldwide licenses. A small amount of dissolved catalyst is removed from the propane product by a small stripper tower (3). . ����������������� ��������� ����� �������� Yields: Alkylate product Gravity. Major process features are: • Gravity catalyst circulation (no catalyst circulation pumps required) • Low catalyst consumption • Low operating cost • Superior alkylate qualities from propylene.
September 1985.000 bpsd installed capacity. Licensor: DuPont. ���������� ����� �������� ������� �������� ����� Utilities. Installation: Over 600.000-bpsd unit). Contactor reactor products pass through a ﬂash drum (3) and deisobutanizer (4). No. � Description: Plants are designed to process a mixture of propylene. thereby serving to promote the alkylation reaction. lb 13. butylenes and amylenes. Reference: Hydrocarbon Processing. The entire volume of the liquid in the Contactor reactor is maintained at a uniform temperature. and less than 420°F for mixed feeds containing amylenes in most cases. 103 gal Acid. Endpoint of the total alkylate from straight butylene feeds is less than 390°F. lb Water. 150 psig. Vol.Alkylation Application: To combine propylene. 67–71. the debutanized total alkylate has RON as high as 98 clear. typical per bbl alkylate: Electricity. This total quantity of isobutane and all other hydrocarbons is maintained in the liquid phase throughout the Contactor reactor. less than 1°F between any two points within the reaction mass. ������� ������� � � � � � �������� ������� Products: Branched chain hydrocarbons for use in high-octane motor fuel and aviation gasoline. kWh Steam.1 Product quality: The total debutanized alkylate has RON of 92 to 96 clear and MON of 90 to 94 clear. lb Caustic. butylenes and amylenes with isobutane in the presence of strong sulfuric acid to produce high-octane branched chain hydrocarbons using the Efﬂuent Refrigeration Alkylation process. cooling (20°F rise). The liquid contents of the Contactor reactor are circulated at high velocities and an extremely large amount of interfacial area is exposed between the reacting hydrocarbons and the acid catalyst from the acid settler (2). pp. Onsite acid regeneration technology is also available. Oleﬁns and isobutane-rich streams along with a recycle stream of H2SO4 are charged to the STRATCO Contactor reactor (1). 64.5 180 1. 9. When processing straight butylenes. $ per bpsd 4.85 15 0. Economics (basis: butylene feed): Investment (basis: 10. The overhead from the deisobutanizer (4) and efﬂuent refrigerant recycle (6) constitutes the total isobutane recycle to the reaction zone.500 . The refrigeration section consists of a compressor (5) and depropanizer (6).
which is essentially sulfuric acid.Alkylation Application: The RHT-Alkylation process is an improved method to react C3– C5 oleﬁns with isobutane using the classical sulfuric acid alkylation process. without revamping the compressor. ��������������� The hydrocarbon is sent to distillation column(s) (7). and recovered hydrocarbons from the depropanizer bottom and refrigeration vapors are collected in a surge drum — the C4 system (5). This eductor mixing device is more cost-effective than other devices being used or proposed. and C4 autorefrigeration vapors recovery by absorption. The motive ﬂuid is sent to the eductor nozzle from the bottom of reactor. The butane is sent to offsites or can be converted back to isobutane for processing units requirements. The mixing is vigorous to move the reaction to completion. making compressor redundant. After the coalescer. the auto refrigeration vapor can be condensed by enhancing pressure and then easily absorbed in hydrocarbon liquid. the hydrocarbon phase is heated and ﬂashed increasing the alkylate concentration in the hydrocarbon. The bottoms are recycled to C4 system and sent to the reactor. ��������� ��� �������������� �������� � ��������� ����������� �� ������� ��� � ������������ ��������������������� ������� ������ ��������� � ������� ���� ����������� ���������� ������� ������� � ������������� � ����� ��������� �������� �������� ��������� ���������� �������� ������������ ����������� ���������������� Description: In the RHT-Alkylation. propane and light ends are removed. The major advances of RHT process are threefold: eductor mixing device.. Some liquid is sent to depropanizer (6). Reactor efﬂuent is withdrawn from the reactor as a side draw and is sent to acid/ hydrocarbon coalescer (2) where most of the acid is removed and recycled to the reactor (1). advance coalescer system to remove acid from hydrocarbon (dry system). Continued .4 trimethylpentane. which is required for C3 alkylation. etc. through pumps to mix the reactants with the sulfuric-acid catalyst. Some feed can be injected here to provide higher OSV. with isobutane make-up. The process has provisions to install a static mixer at the pump discharge. In addition. The makeup acid and acid-soluble oil (ASO) is removed from the pump discharge. The auto refrigeration occurs in the reactor at temperatures 25–30°F. The coalescers are being used by conventional process to reduce the acid in the hydrocarbon phase to 7–15 wppm. C3– C5 feed from FCC or any other source including steam cracker. recycle isobutene. The enhanced coalescer design RHT can reduce the sulfuric acid content in the hydrocarbon phase to negligible levels (below <1 wppm). This process uses a unique mixing device — eductor(s) — that provides low-temperature (25 – 30°F) operations at isothermal conditions. which provides a low-cost option) and then condensed. which is recycled. The isothermal condition lowers acid consumption and yields higher octane product due to improved selectivity of 2. which is sent through the ﬁnishing coalescer where essentially all of the remaining acid is removed. This mixing device can be a retroﬁt replacement for existing contactors. to separate alkylate product and isobutane. The auto-refrigeration vapor is compressed (or ﬁrst enhanced the pressure by the ejector and then absorbed in a heavy liquid — alkylate.4. It is maintenance free and does not require replacement every two to three years. The mixture is pumped to the reactor (1) to the eductor suction port.
J. Handbook of Reﬁning. 2001.050* 1. continued Economics: For a US Gulf Coast unit 1Q 2006 with a capacity of 10.” Stratco. Inc.130593. kg / h 31..2 3. A. USD/ bbl alkylate Power. Inc. Product properties: Octane (R+M) / 2:94.. McGraw Hill.4 . References: US patent 5. Nelson.Alkylation. * Power could be less for absorption application FCC Feed (about 15% isobutelene in C4 mixed stream) Licensor: Reﬁning Hydrocarbon Technologies LLC. 2001. New York. kWh Water.600 Commercial units: Technology is ready for commercialization. R. Meyers. “Alkylation Chemistry. Handbook of Reﬁning.000 4. K. cooling.000 bpd alkylate unit CAPEX ISBL... 1997. MM USD Utilities ISBL costs. US Patent 4.8 – 95. Kranz. m3/ h Steam. Branzaru.095168. “Introduction to Sulfuric Acid Alkylation..950 25.” Stratco.
The Alkad process is a passive mitigation system that will reduce aerosol from any leak that occurs while additive is in the system. Installation: One unit is under construction. The acid regenerator removes water and light-acid soluble oils from the additive stripper overhead stream. The water is in the form of a constant boiling mixture (CBM) of water and HF. Maintenance requirements are similar to equipment currently in standard operation in an HF alkylation unit in similar service. There is no expected increase in the need for operator manpower. . and the HF-additive complex is recycled to the reactor section. Kansas. ����������������� ����������������������� ���������������� �������� �������� ������� ���������� ���� ���������� �������������� ����� �������� ���� ������������ ������ ���� Description: The additive stripper sends acid. installed facilities to use this technology in the HF Alkylation unit at their former El Dorado. water and light-acid soluble oils overhead and on to the acid regenerator.Alkylation Application: The Alkad process is used with HF alkylation technology to reduce aerosol formation in the event of an HF release. This unit began initial operations in 1994. while maintaining unit operability and product quality. ��������������������������� ���������� �������������������� ����������������� Experience: ChevronTexaco. Heavy acid soluble oils and the concentrated HF-additive complex are sent to the additive stripper bottoms separator. reﬁnery. Licensor: UOP LLC and Chevron Corp. From this separator the polymer is sent to neutralization. the co-developer of the Alkad process.
Currently ﬁve InAlk units are in operation. Either resin or solid phosphoric acid (SPA) catalysts are used to polymerize the oleﬁns. UOP has licensed and designed more than 400 catalytic condensation units for the production of polygasoline and petrochemical oleﬁns and more than 200 hydrogenation units of various types. ����� ���� �������������� �������� ����������� ������ �������� ���������� ������� ������� �������� ������ � � � � � ��������������� �������� Feed: A wide variety of feeds can be processed in the InAlk process. The resulting mixture of higher molecular weight iso-oleﬁns may then be hydrogenated to form a high-octane parafﬁnic gasoline blendstock that is similar to alkylate. Installation: The InAlk process is an extension of UOP’s catalytic condensation and oleﬁn saturation technologies. Resin catalyst primarily converts iso-butene. The saturation section uses either a base-metal or noble-metal catalyst. but usually higher in octane.Alkylation Application: UOP’s Indirect Alkylation (InAlk) process uses solid catalysts to convert light oleﬁns (mainly C4 but also C3 and C5) to alkylate. Licensor: UOP LLC. Typical feeds include FCC-derived light oleﬁns. Description: The InAlk process makes premium alkylate using a combination of commercially proven technologies. or it may be left as an oleﬁnic high-octane gasoline blending component. SPA catalyst also converts n-butenes. . steam-cracker oleﬁns and iC4 dehydrogenation oleﬁns. Iso-butene reacts with itself or with other C3– C5 oleﬁns via polymerization.
. The ﬂow scheme is also less complex than conventional designs. such as ﬂuid catalytic cracking (FCC) units or from steam-cracking units. which can consist of a single column or two columns. This process has been designed to make it possible to reuse equipment from idled facilities. Licensor: CDTECH. The beneﬁts of the CDAlky process include: • Lower acid consumption • Lower utilities • Reduced operating cost • Reduced environmental exposure • Higher octane product • Lower CAPEX—simpler ﬂowsheet with fewer pieces of equipment • Highly ﬂexible operation range—maximum absolute product octane or maximum octane barrels ���������� ����������� �������� ������������ ���������� ������������ ���������� ���������� ��������������������������� ������������������� ���������� • Lower maintenance—no mechanical agitator or complex seals • Less corrosion due to dry system • No caustic waste stream Installation: Consistent with time-tested methodology for developing new processes. Conventional sulfuric-acid alkylation units use mechanical mixing in their contactors to achieve the required contact between acid and hydrocarbon phases. high-quality motor fuel alkylate. with iso-parafﬁns to produce motor fuel alkylate. The CDAlky process uses conventional product fractionation. which substantially improves alkylate quality and lowers acid consumption. CDTECH has been operating a 2-bpd pilot plant in this novel mode of operation for an extended time period without the penalties associated with conventional technologies. In addition.Alkylation. which reduces capital and operating costs. without the need for water/caustic washes or bauxite treatment. catalytic Application: CDAlky process is an advanced sulfuric acid-catalyzed alkylation process that reacts light oleﬁn streams from reﬁnery sources. ���� ������������������ Description: The patented CDAlky process is an advanced sulfuric acidcatalyzed alkylation process for the production of motor fuel alkylate. This process yields a higher-quality product while consuming signiﬁcantly less acid than conventional technologies. and are characterized by high acid consumption. CDTECH has developed a novel contactor that operates at lower temperatures and substantially reduced acid consumption—50%+. conventional technologies are unable to take the full beneﬁt of operating at lower temperature. The process ﬂow diagram shows the basic conﬁguration to process a mixed C4-oleﬁn feed and produce a bright. clear.
Annual savings for a 10. Butadiene and.and trans-2-butenes. US$ of 800.3-butadiene are: Butadiene in alkylate.5 RON increase in alkylate 2 MON increase in alkylate 1 Alkylate end point reduction.000 bpsd.Alkylation—feed preparation Application: Upgrades alkylation plant feeds with Alkyﬁning process. hydrogen is completely consumed and. % 70 Butenes yield. �������� ������� ��������������� ����������������� Alkyfining performance and impact on HF alkylation product: The results of an Alkyﬁning unit treating an FCC C4 HF alkylation unit feed containing 0. ppm < 10 1-butene isomerization.000-bpsd alkylation unit: HF unit. no gaseous byproducts or heavier compounds are formed. 4.5 million Installation: Over 90 units are operating with a total installed capacity Licensor: Axens. Economics: Investment: New unit ISBL cost: For an HF unit. US$ H2SO4 unit. ﬁxed-bed reactor under mild temperature and pressure conditions. Additional savings are possible when pure hydrogen is available. essentially. °C –20 The increases in MON. Good hydrogen distribution and reactor design eliminate channeling while enabling high turndown ratios. methylacetylene and propadiene are converted to oleﬁns. % 100. eliminating the need for a stabilizer.1 million 5. The process integrates easily with the C3/C4 splitter.8% 1. Description: Dioleﬁns and acetylenes in the C4 (or C3– C4) feed react se������� �������� �������� lectively with hydrogen in the liquid-phase. The high isomerization activity of the catalyst transforms 1-butene into cis. Butene yields are maximized. which affords higher octane-barrel production. $/bpsd For an H2SO4 unit. $/bpsd 430 210 . if C3s are present. RON and butenes yield are reﬂected in a substantial octane-barrel increase while the lower alkylate end point reduces ASO production and HF consumption.
Internal regeneration allows the reﬁner to shutdown the acid regenerator. Efficiency: HF Alkylation remains the most economically viable method for the production of alkylate. Licensor: UOP LLC. an oxygenate removal unit (ORU) may be desirable. The acid consumption rate for HF Alkylation is less than 1/100th the rate for sulfuric alkylation units. Efﬁcient heat transfer conserves cooling water supply. Acid regeneration occurs in the acid regenerator or via a patented internal-acid-regeneration method. Selective hydrogenation of butylene feedstock is recommended to reduce acid regeneration requirements. The reactor system is carefully designed to ensure efﬁcient contacting and mixing of hydrocarbon feed with the acid catalyst. Alkylation takes place in the presence of HF catalyst under conditions selected to maximize alkylate yield and quality. thereby realizing a utility savings as well as reducing acid consumption and eliminating polymer disposal. HF Alkylation does not require refrigeration equipment to maintain a low reactor temperature. ���������� ������� ���� ���� ������� ������� ������� �������� Feed: Alkylation feedstocks are typically treated to remove sulfur and water. ������� ����� �������� ���� Description: The alkylation reaction catalytically combines C3– C5 oleﬁns with isobutane to produce motor-fuel alkylate. . catalyst (acid) consumption and increase alkylate octane by isomerizing 1-butene to 2-butene. And unlike sulfuric alkylation units. In cases where MTBE and TAME rafﬁnates are still being processed. Acid inventory in the reactor system is minimized by combining high heat-transfer rates and lower total acid circulation. mid-boiling-range isoparafﬁns and reducing gasoline pool vapor pressure and oleﬁn content by conversion of C3– C5 oleﬁn components to alkylate.Alkylation—HF Application: HF Alkylation improves gasoline quality by adding cleanburning. Installations: Over 20 UOP licensed HF alkylation units are in operation.
with a capacity of 83. lb H2SO4. low-Rvp.000 bpd. Technology can be installed grassroots or retroﬁt into existing alkylation facilities. The larger units take advantage of the single reactor/settler trains with capacities up to 9. is designed to remove any propane introduced to the plant with the feeds. Mixers provide intimate contact between the reactants and acid catalyst. was recently announced at Reliance Petroleum Limited’s Export Reﬁnery in Jamnagar. lb 200 19 0. 100%. Hydrocarbons.000 bpd. high-octane (especially MON) gasoline blendstock is produced from this alkylation process. A small acid stream containing acid soluble oil byproducts is removed from the unit and is either regenerated on site or sent to an off-site sulfuric acid regeneration facility to recover acid strength.2 bbl / bbl butylene feed 97 RON / 94 MON 3 2 9 Utilities: typical per barrel of alkylate produced: .8 bbl C5+/ bbl butylene feed 1.Alkylation. India. The license of the world’s largest alkylation unit. Russia reﬁnery is scheduled to start-up in mid2006. psi Water. which is fed by a slipstream from the refrigeration section. In the deisobutanizer (5) isobutane is recovered and recycled along with makeup isobutane to the reactor. M gal Power. Continued Yields: Alkylate yield Isobutane required Alkylate quality Rvp.000 to 30.500 bpsd. Butane is removed from alkylate in the debutanizer (6) to produce a low-Rvp.000-bpsd at 11 locations worldwide.1 Operating experience: Extensive commercial experience in both ExxonMobil and licensee reﬁneries. 3 Recycle isobutane 1 Butane product Propane product 2 Refrigerant Products: A low-sulfur. lb NaOH. A depropanizer (3). kWH 1. Highly efﬁcient autorefrigeration removes heat of reaction heat from the reactor. cooling. sulfuric acid Application: Autorefrigerated sulfuric-acid catalyzed process that combines butylene (and propylene or pentylene if desired) with isobutane to produce high-octane gasoline components that are particularly attractive in locations that are MON limited. autorefrigerated reactor (1). high-octane alkylate product. highly isoparafﬁnic. Hydrocarbon products are separated from the acid in the settler containing proprietary internals (4). vaporized from the reactor to provide cooling. Unit capacities currently range from 2. Australia reﬁnery and a new unit at TNK-BP’s Ryazan. Description: Oleﬁn feed and recycled isobutane are introduced into the stirred. with a total operating capacity of 119. Oleﬁn feed START 4 5 6 Recycle acid Makeup isobutane Alkylate product Steam. are compressed (2) and returned to the reactor. A revamp has been completed at ExxonMobil’s Altona.
allows lower reactor temperatures. pp.. Meyers.3–1. • Low reactor operating pressure translates into high reliability for the mechanical seals for the mixers. which operate in the vapor phase. which favors high product quality. continued Technical advantages: • Autorefridgeration is thermodynamically more efﬁcient. 1. Economic advantages: • Lower capital investment—Simple reactor/settler conﬁguration. • Low space velocity results in high product quality and reduced ester formation eliminating corrosion problems in fractionation equipment. Reference: Lerner. less compression requirements translate into a signiﬁcant investment savings compared to indirect refrigeration systems • Lower operating costs—Autorefrigeration.Alkylation.. sulfuric acid. A..” Handbook of Petroleum Reﬁning Processes. R. and lowers energy usage.500 bpsd single train capacities easily achievable.14. Licensor: ExxonMobil Research & Engineering Co. H. 2nd Ed. lower mixing and compression power requirements translate into lower operating costs • Better economy of scale —Reactor system is simple and easily expandable with 9. • Staged reactor results in a high average isobutane concentration. “Exxon sulfuric acid alkylation technology. . Ed. which favor better product quality.
low cost ﬁxed-bed reactor design • Selective toward xylene production. and fed to the reactor. The product stream is stabilized to remove fuel gas and other light components. catalyst can be used as replacement to other transalkylation units.Aromatics Application: The GT-TransAlk technology produces benzene and xylenes from toluene and/or heavy aromatics streams. ������� ���������� ������������ ���������� ������ ����� ��������� ���� �������� ������� ��������� ������������ ������� ������������� ������ ������ �������� Description: The GT-TransAlk technology encompasses three main processing areas: feed preparation. ������ ���������� ���� Licensor: GTC Technology Inc. which exhibits good ﬂexibility to feed stream variations. vaporized. The overhead portion. The un-reacted hydrogen is recycled for re-use. Depending on the feed composition. The heavy aromatics stream (usually derived from catalytic reformate) is fed to a C10/C11 splitter. Process advantages include: • Simple. . The process reactor is charged with a proprietary catalyst. reduces energy consumption. including 100% C9+ aromatics. The technology features a proprietary catalyst and can accommodate varying ratios of feedstock. or in grassroots designs • Decreased hydrogen consumption due to low cracking rates • Efﬁcient heat integration scheme. is the feed to the transalkylation reactor section. The combined feed is mixed with hydrogen. while maintaining high activity and selectivity. along with any toluene that may be available. reactor and product stabilization sections. the xylene yield can vary from 27 to 35% and C9 conversion from 53 to 67%. with high toluene/C9 conversion rates • Physically stable catalyst • Flexible to handle up to 100% C9+ components in feed • Flexible to handle benzene recycle to increase xylene yields • Moderate operating parameters.
98% 80 wt ppm NA* 600 wt ppm NA* 680 kg/t ED feed** Consumption Steam *Maximum content of nonaromatics **Including benzene/toluene splitter Quality Benzene Toluene Installation: More than 55 Morphylane plants (total capacity of more than 6 MMtpy). Consumption Steam References: Diehl. October 3–5. Uhde’s new single-column morphylane extractive distillation process uses a single-column conﬁguration. NFM perfectly satisﬁes the necessary solvent properties needed for this process including high selectivity. a single-compound solvent. ��������� �������� ��������� �������� ������ ������� ����������������� Economics: Pygas feedstock: Production yield Benzene Toluene Reformate feedstock with low-aromatics content (20 wt%): Benzene Quality Benzene 10 wt ppm NA* 320 kg/t ED feed Benzene 99. pyrolysis gasoline or coke oven light oil using extractive distillation. Nonaromatics vapors leave the top of the ED column with some solvent.95% 99. It represents a superior process option in terms of investment and operating cost. alters the vapor pressure of the components being separated. “Uhde Morphylane Extractive Distillation—Where do we stand?” ERTC Petrochemical Conference. which integrates the ED column and the stripper column of the conventional design. The vapor pressure of the aromatics is lowered more than that of the less soluble nonaromatics. which is recovered in a small column that can either be mounted on the main column or installed separately. the lean solvent is recycled to the ED column. Kolbe and H. T.95% – 30 wt ppm NA* – 475 kg/t ED feed Benzene/toluene 99. Bottom product of the ED column is fed to the stripper to separate pure aromatics from the solvent. thermal stability and a suitable boiling point. The ﬁrst single-column Morphylane unit went onstream in 2004. Continued .. B. Prague. After intensive heat exchange. 2005.Aromatics extractive distillation Application: Recovery of high-purity aromatics from reformate. ���������� ������������ ������ ������������ Description: In Uhde’s proprietary extractive distillation (ED) Morphylane process. N-Formylmorpholine (NFM). Gehrke.
“Working with an extractive distillation process. Ranke and H. U. Summer 2001. .Aromatics extractive distillation. 125.” Petroleum Technology Quarterly. Licensor: Uhde GmbH.. p. continued Emmrich. Gehrke. G.
debottlenecking or expansion of conventional extraction systems. A small portion of the lean circulating solvent is processed in a solvent-regeneration step to remove heavy decomposition products. The SRC is operated under a vacuum to reduce the boiling point at the base of the column. toluene and xylenes. Stripping steam from a closed-loop water circuit facilitates hydrocarbon removal. Hydrocarbon feed is preheated with hot circulating solvent and fed at a midpoint into the extractive distillation column (EDC). requiring no further treatment. thus. The SRC overhead mixed aromatics product is routed to the puriﬁcation section. The process is superior to conventional liquid-liquid and other extraction processes in terms of lower capital and operating costs. signiﬁcantly lower capital cost compared to conventional liquid-liquid extraction systems • Energy integration reduces operating costs • Higher product purity and aromatic recovery • Recovers aromatics from full-range BTX feedstock without prefractionation • Distillation-based operation provides better control and simpliﬁed operation • Proprietary formulation of commercially available solvents exhibits high selectivity and capacity • Low solvent circulation rates • Insigniﬁcant fouling due to elimination of liquid-liquid contactors • Fewer hydrocarbon emission sources for environmental beneﬁts • Flexibility of design options for grassroots plants or expansion of existing liquid-liquid extraction units • Design avoids contamination of downsream products by objectionable solvent carryover. where the aromatics are stripped overhead. Flexibility of design allows its use for grassroots aromatics recovery units. where it is fractionated to produce chemical-grade benzene. The technology uses extractive distillation to remove benzene.Aromatics recovery Application: GT-BTX is an aromatics recovery process. Rich solvent from the bottom of the EDC is routed to the solvent-recovery column (SRC). Continued . The nonaromatic hydrocarbons exit the top of the column and pass through a condenser. simplicity of operation. Lean solvent from the bottom of the SRC is passed through heat exchange before returning to the EDC. Lean solvent is fed at an upper point to selectively extract the aromatics into the column bottoms in a vapor/liquid distillation operation. The balance of the overhead stream is the rafﬁnate product. range of feedstock and solvent performance. A portion of the overhead stream is returned to the top of the column as ���������������������� reﬂux to wash out any entrained solvent. toluene and xylene (BTX) from reﬁnery or petrochemical aromatics streams such as catalytic reformate or pyrolysis gasoline. ������������ ����������� ���� ����� �������� ���������� ������������ ������ ������� �������� ������ � ������������ ���������� ������������� � Description: The technology has several advantages: • Less equipment required.
.000-bpd GT-BTX extraction unit processing BT-reformate feedstock is $12 million (US Gulf Coast 2004 basis). Licensor: GTC Technology Inc. continued Economics: Estimated installed cost for a 15. Installations: Fourteen licenses placed.Aromatics recovery.
Since benzene forms azeotropic mixtures with some C7 parafﬁn isomers. thus leading to a loss of gasoline production.17 Hydrogen Stoichiometric to benzene Catalyst.01 Installation: Twenty-eight benzene reduction units have been licensed. i. Licensor: Axens. Above the feed injection tray. shown above. The low hydrogen ﬂow minimizes losses of gasoline product in the offgas of the column. these fractions are also entrained with the light fraction. $/bbl 0.e. The reactor efﬂuent.Benzene reduction Application: Benzene reduction from reformate. thus ensuring increased solubility of hydrogen in the feed. New unit ISBL cost. Description: Full-range reformate from either a semiregenerative or CCR reformer is fed to the reformate splitter column. This is particularly advantageous when the light reformate is destined to be isomerized. is returned to the column.0 vol% for many major markets. with the Benfree process. using integrated reactive distillation. thereby ensuring that the latter components leave with the bottoms fraction of the column. $/bbl 0. . A slightly higher-than-chemical stoichiometric ratio of hydrogen to benzene is added to the feed to ensure that the benzene content of the resulting gasoline pool is below mandated levels.. but toluene is not. below 1. The splitter operates as a dehexanizer lifting C6 and lower-boiling components to the overhead section of the column. essentially benzene-free. The absence of benzene disrupts the benzene-iso-C7 azeotropes. $/bpsd: 300 Combined utilities. A pump enables the reactor to operate at higher pressure than the column. because iso-C7 parafﬁns tend to be cracked to C3 and C4 components. �������� �� ����� ������ ��������������� ��������������� ��������������� Economics: Investment. a benzene-rich light fraction is withdrawn and pumped to the hydrogenation reactor outside the column. Benzene conversion to cyclohexane can easily be increased if even lower benzene content is desired. Benzene is lifted with the light ends.
7% purity. kg Catalyst (Na-Methylate 100%). there is a global strong emphasis on regenerative energy such as biofuels to effectively reduce or avoid such emissions. optional steps are available such as chemical treatment. Only in the last ﬁve years. kg Caustic soda (50%). which operates in a counter-current mode. Lurgi has contracted more than 40 plants for the production of biodiesel with capacities ranging from 30. Byproduct components are removed from the methyl ester in the downstream washing stage. Economics: The (approximate) consumption ﬁgures—without glycerine distillation and bleaching—stated below are valid for the production of one ton of rapeseed methyl ester at continuous operation and nominal capacity. Nm3 96 5 10 1. The separation of methyl ester as the light phase and glycerine water as the heavy phase occurs in the settlers due to the insolubility of both products.5 1 Installation: Lurgi has been building biodiesel plants for 20 years. the methanol has a purity. distillation and bleaching to either deliver crude glycerine at approximately 80% concentration or pharmaceutical-grade glycerine at >99. ��������� ��� ��������� ������������������ ��������� Description: The Lurgi biodiesel process is centered on the transesteriﬁcation of different raw materials to methyl ester using methanol in the presence of a catalyst. kWh 12 Licensors: Lurgi AG. cooling water (t = 10°C).Biodiesel Application: Consumption of primary energy has risen substantially in recent years. Any residual methanol contained in the glycerine water is removed in a rectiﬁcation column. most edible oils and fats — both vegetable and animal sources— can be transesteriﬁed if suitably prepared.000 tpy. To counter this trend. kg Nitrogen.000 to 200. kg Hydrochloric Acid (37%). Transesteriﬁcation is based on the chemical reaction of triglycerides with methanol to methyl ester and glycerine in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. The actual conversion occurs in the mixers. and greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions have increased by a substantial amount. m 25 Electrical energy. After a ﬁnal drying step under vacuum. In this unit operation. �������� �������� �������� �������� �������� ��������� ���������� ��������������������� ���� ������ �������������� �������������� ����������� ����� �������� Methanol. . In principle. evaporation. Steam. the biodiesel is ready for use. The reaction occurs in two mixer-settler units. which is suitable for recycling back to process. For further reﬁnement of the glycerine water. kg 320 3 Water.
wt% of feed: Hydrogen C5+ RONC MONC 10 –15 2. One design is conventional where the catalyst is regenerated in place at the end of each cycle.8 88 102 90. HP. kg /cm2 Yield.” NPRA Annual Meeting. March 15 –17. uses continuous catalyst regeneration allowing operating pressures as low as 3. press. m3 ous regeneration technology capability. kWh Steam. San Francisco.96 12. With its higher selectivity. 1. battery limits. net. Main features of Axens’ regenerative technology are: • Side-by-side reactor arrangement.Catalytic reforming Application: Upgrade various types of naphtha to produce high-octane reformate. • The Regen C2 catalyst regeneration system featuring the dry burn loop.5 Installation: Of 130 units licensed. the product is 90 to 100 RONC. Description: Two different designs are offered. boiler feed. This is made possible by smooth-ﬂowing moving bed reactors (1–3) which use a highly stable and selective catalyst suitable for continuous regeneration (4). 10 3 kcal Electricity. kg Water. C5+ and aromatics yields over the entire catalyst life. Operating normally in a pressure range of 12 to 25 kg /cm2 (170 to 350 psig) and with low pressure drop in the hydrogen loop.5 kg /cm2 (50 psig).03 Yields: Typical for a 90°C to 170°C (176°F to 338°F) cut from light Arabian feedstock: Conventional Octanizing Oper. trimetallic catalysts RG582 and RG682 make an excellent catalyst replacement for semi-regenerative reformers. Finally. Continued .000 bpsd continuous Octanizing unit. US$ per bpsd Utilities: typical per bbl feed: Fuel.. the advanced Octanizing process. reﬁners operating Octanizing or Aromizing processes can obtain the highest hydrogen. which is very easy to erect and consequently leads to low investment cost. 75 units are designed with continuReference: “Octanizing reformer options to optimize existing assets. The second.5 0. 2005. completely restores the catalyst activity while maintaining its speciﬁc area for more than 600 cycles. erected cost.800 65 0. BTX and LPG. ���� ����� � � � � ��������� Economics: Investment: Basis 25. with the new CR401 (gasoline mode) and AR501 (aromatics production) catalysts speciﬁcally developed for ultra-low operating pressure and the very effective catalyst regeneration system.8 83 100 89 <5 3.
“Squeezing the most out of ﬁxed-bed reactors.” Hart Show Special. Paris.” Seventh ERTC. continued “Fixed Bed Reformer Revamp Solutions for Gasoline Pool Improvement. November 2002. Licensor: Axens. “Increase reformer performance through catalytic solutions.Catalytic reforming. NPRA 2003 Annual.” Petroleum Technology Quarterly. . Summer 2000.
naphtha and low-pour diesel. and the remaining aromatics are saturated in a post-treat reactor. The process can be integrated into a lube hydrocracker or lube hydrotreater. Byproducts include fuel gas.5 1. The process uses multiple catalyst systems with multiple reactors.0 Installation: Eight units are operating and four are in design. Yields: Light neutral Lube yield. . wt% C5– 400°F. wt% H2 cons. Internals are proprietary (the Spider Vortex Quench Zone technology is used).000 – 5.0 100 – 300 Economics: $3. scf / bbl 94. Post-fractionation is targeted for client needs.5 2. ��������� ��� ��� ��� ��� ��� ��� ����� ���� �� �� ��� ��� ����� ���� ������������ �� ���������� �������� �������� ������������� ��� ������ ���� ����� ����� ����������������������� Products: High VI / low-aromatics lube base oils (light neutral through bright stocks).5 1.500 0. wt% 400°F – Lube.500 per bpsd installed cost (US Gulf Coast). 550 – 800 500 – 2.8 1. ��������� ����� ���� ����� ���������� �������� ������������ ��� ����� Operating conditions: Temperatures.5 100 – 300 Heavy neutral 96. wt% C1– C4. Description: MSDW is targeted for hydrocracked or severely hydrotreated stocks. ° F Hydrogen partial pressures.7 1. Feed and recycle gases are preheated and contact the catalyst in a down-ﬂow-ﬁxed-bed reactor.4 – 3.0 1.Catalytic dewaxing Application: Use the ExxonMobil Selective Catalytic Dewaxing (MSDW) process to make high VI lube base stock. The improved selectivity of MSDW for the highly isoparafﬁnic-lube components results in higher lube yields and VIs. Reactor efﬂuent is cooled. Licensor: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co. psig LHSV Conversion depends on feed wax content Pour point reduction as needed.
4% parafﬁns. cooling (20°F rise). Description: Semi-regenerative multibed reforming over platinum or bimetallic catalysts. 41.7 83. gal Steam produced (175 psig sat). Straight-run and /or cracked feeds are typically hydrotreated. lb 275 7. The following yields are one example. Byproducts may be LPG. ���� �������� ���� �������������������� Yields: Depend on feed characteristics.2 Licensor: CB&I Howe-Baker.2 1. but low-sulfur feeds (<10 ppm) may be reformed without hydrotreatment. . (per bbl feed) Fuel.2 216 100 Component H2 C1 C2 C3 iC4 nC4 C5+ LPG Reformate wt% 2. fuel gas and steam. Product octane is 99.5% naphthenes and 7.8 3.Catalytic reforming Application: Increase the octane of straight-run or cracked naphthas for gasoline production. Economics: Utilities. product octane and reactor pressure.1 — — vol% 1. Hydrogen recycled to reactors at the rate of 3 mols / mol to 7 mols /mol of feed. 103 Btu release Electricity.150 scf/bbl — — — — — — 3. The feed contains 51. ��� ����� ������� Products: High-octane gasoline and hydrogen-rich gas.000°F and 150 psig to 400 psig reactor conditions. kWh Water.3 1. and boils from 208°F to 375°F (ASTM D86).6 2.7 RONC and average reactor pressure is 200 psig.1 1.1% aromatics. �������� ����� �������� ������� ����� �������� ���� �� Operating conditions: 875°F to 1.3 87.
It produces feed for an aromatics complex or a high-octane gasoline blending product and a signiﬁcant amount of hydrogen.9 million bpd of capacity) with another 30 in various stages of design. . Efficiency/product quality: Commercial onstream efﬁciencies of more than 95% are routinely achieved in CCR Platforming units. The efﬂuent from the last reactor is heat exchanged against combined feed. Partially deactivated catalyst is continually withdrawn from the bottom of the reactor stack and transferred to the CCR regenerator. Radial-ﬂow reactors are arranged in a vertical stack. ��� ����������� ������ ������� ������������ ������������� �������� ���� ��������� ������ �������� ������� ���������� �������� �������� ������� Description: Hydrotreated naphtha feed is combined with recycle hydrogen gas and heat exchanged against reactor efﬂuent. ���������� ���������� ����������� �������� ����� �������� ������������� ��������� �������� ��������������� Installation: UOP commercialized the CCR Platforming process in 1971 and now has commissioned more than 180 units (more than 3. so an interheater is used between each reactor to reheat the charge to reaction temperature. The net hydrogen-rich gas is compressed and charged together with the separator liquid phase to the product recovery section. Licensor: UOP LLC. The vapor phase is hydrogen-rich. This section is engineered to provide optimum performance. construction and commissioning. Over time. The combined feed is then raised to reaction temperature in the charge heater and sent to the reactor section. cooled and split into vapor and liquid products in a separator. Catalyst ﬂows vertically by gravity down the reactor stack.Catalytic reforming Application: The CCR Platforming process is used throughout the world in the petroleum and petrochemical industries. The predominant reactions are endothermic. coke builds up on the catalyst at reaction conditions. A portion of the gas is compressed and recycled back to the reactors.
The overhead stream is sent to a vapor recovery unit (4) where the individual product streams are separated. wt% Middle East vac.Coking Application: Conversion of atmospheric and vacuum residuals. Steam or boiler feedwater is injected into the heater tubes to prevent coking in the furnace tubes. US$ per bpsd (typical) 6.1 44. solvent-reﬁned and Athabasca bitumen. Coke drum overhead vapors ﬂow to the fractionator (1) where they are separated into an overhead stream containing the wet gas. includes vapor recovery).0 65.0 35.7 9. % 900 –950 15 –90 0 –100 Products. °API Sulfur. ���� ���� � � ��� ������������� ��� ������������� ���������� ����� ���� Operating conditions: Heater outlet temperature. residue 7.5 48 Economics: Investment (basis: 20. wt% Conradson carbon. psig Recycle ratio. °F Coke drum pressure. and the recycle that rejoins the feed. wt% Gas + LPG Naphtha Gas oils Coke 7. The plant also includes a blow-down system. to one of two coke drums (3).9 — 31.0 0. LPG and naphtha.4 4. asphalt.2 20.0 11.9 12.9 3. visbroken resids. The mixture is pumped through the coker heater (2) where the desired coking temperature is achieved.6 Coal tar pitch –21. US Gulf Coast 2006.6 50. coal tar.000 Continued . two gas oil sidestreams. decant oil.8 28.3 2. The coke that forms in one of at least two (parallel connected) drums is then removed using high-pressure water. vol/vol feed.000 bpsd straight-run vacuum residue feed. coke handling and a water recovery system. pitch. hydrotreated and hydrocracked resids. � � � �������� ��������� ������������� Description: Feedstock is introduced (after heat exchange) to the bottom of the coker fractionator (1) where it mixes with condensed recycle. pyrolysis tar.1 Yields: Feedstock Gravity.0 Vacuum residue of hydrotreated bottoms 1.3 27. fuel-grade coke.
lbs 123 3. Licensor: ABB Lummus Global. gal Boiler feedwater. March 17–19. . lbs Condensate (exported). R. continued Economics (continued): Utilities. kWh Steam (exported). lb Water. Hamilton.Coking.6 1 58 38 24 Installation: More than 60 units. cooling. Reference: Mallik. “Delayed coker design considerations and project execution.” NPRA 2002 Annual Meeting. and G. 103 Btu Electricity. 2002. typical/bbl of feed: Fuel.
First licensing our ThruPlus Delayed Coking Technology in 1981. running sustained 10-hour cycles. the heater outlet stream is directed to the other coke drum. warmed-up and made ready to receive feed while the other drum becomes full. This allows the process side to operate at full capacity.1 million bpd and more coming online in the US. Since we’ve . the result is maximum furnace run-length and improved liquid yields. Canada. distillate and gas oil. there are now 31 installations worldwide. where it is condensed and fractionated into product streams—typically fuel gas. coke drums and main fractionator. ��������������� ������������ ���������� ������� ���� ������� ������������ Description: The delayed coking process is a thermal process and consists of ﬁred heater(s). with a combined capacity of more than 650. Coke is deposited in the coke drums. solvent-deasphalter pitch and fuel oil) to more valuable liquid products (LPG. The coke is removed by hydraulic cutting. distillate and gas oil). Drums designed to ConocoPhillips’ speciﬁcations provide long operating service life—more than 20 years without severe bulging or cracking—even when run on short drum cycles. • Short coke drum cycle time. The sloped wall also improves safety and requires little maintenance over the life of the unit. even if there is an issue with the coke handling system. • Highly reliable coke handling system. naphtha. naphtha. We push the limits of reducing cycle times. Fuel gas and petroleum coke are also produced. and Brazil. The proprietary design methodology minimizes the conditions that cause coke deposits in the heater tubes. When one of the pair of coke drums is full of coke. cooled with steam and water and opened. ���� ����� ���������� • Optimum heater design and operation.Coking Application: Upgrading of petroleum residues (vacuum residue. and we design accordingly. More coke has been processed by ConocoPhillips’ ThruPlus Delayed Coking Technology than by any other competing process. with a combined capacity of 1. the coking-reaction rate drops dramatically as coke-drum temperature decreases.000 bpd. When combined with ConocoPhillips’ patented distillate recycle technology. • Robust coke drum design. The key is understanding drum fatigue at elevated temperatures. The company has more than 50+ years experience and today owns and operates 17 delayed cokers worldwide. producing both anode and fuel coke. The cracking and coking reactions are initiated in the ﬁred heater under controlled time-temperature-pressure conditions. The sloped concrete wall and pit-pad system allows space for an entire drum of coke to be cut without moving any of it. The empty drum is then closed. The full drum is taken ofﬂine. The vapor is routed to the fractionator. bitumen. Being highly endothermic. We do understand. ConocoPhillips ThruPlus Delayed Coking Technology provides several advantages: • Experienced owner-operator. Success in safely reducing cycle time requires a thorough understanding of each phase of the cycle and the process. The reactions continue as the process stream moves to the coke drums. LPG.
With a widely-used technology.000-bpd day coker. • Dust suppression is achieved by surrounding the coke storage area with high walls and eliminates wheeled equipment. . With a very conservative estimated price of $1. The design and operating procedures allow minimizing risks associated with handling shot coke. and the solids are combined with the coke. • Shot coke handling. continued been cycling drums since 1953. Installation: Low investment cost and attractive yield structure has made delayed coking the technology of choice for bottom-of-the-barrel upgrading. The recovered water is returned to the drilling and quench system. we understand every step.50 US/gallon of transportation fuels.Coking. annual earnings for a 2% increase in liquid yields can exceed US$15 million for a 40. while maximizing proﬁts. The oil is contained within the coker process. • Reuse of drilling and quench water uses an effective ﬁnes removal system to improve water quality. Economics: The economic beneﬁts of the increase in liquid yields offered by the ConocoPhillips process are substantial. The coke is handled by overhead crane—a safer alternative. Numerous delayed coking units are operating in petroleum reﬁneries worldwide. Other distinguishing features that improve emissions include: • Advanced closed blowdown system. virtually eliminates hydrocarbon discharge. Licensor: ConocoPhillips. condenses most steam and recovers water. • Processing of oil bearing solid waste. oily solids are recovered.
� ��� � ������� ����� Description: Charge is fed directly to the fractionator (1) where it combines with recycle and is pumped to the coker heater. Vent gas from the blowdown system is recovered in the VRU. water recovery and blowdown system. ºF 900 – 950 Coke drum pressure. causing partial vaporization and mild cracking. . pp. gal a total installed capacity over 2.2 Needle coke 9. “Delayed coking revamps.0 Increased coking temperature decreases coke production. The vapor-liquid mix enters a coke drum (2 or 3) for further cracking.. Orlando. September 2004.8 26.8 8. lb Water. wt% Gas Naphtha Gas oil Coke Max dist. equiv.” Hydrocarbon Processing.33 –12.3 Anode coke 8.6 43.Coking Application: Upgrade residues to lighter hydrocarbon fractions using the Selective Yield Delayed Coking (SYDEC) process. 52 delayed cokers are installed worldwide with References: Handbook of Petroleum Reﬁning Processes. Drum overhead enters the fractionator (1) to be separated into gas. increases liquid yield and gas oil end point.5 million bpsd 120 3 35 36 Installations: Currently.89. “Upgrade reﬁnery residuals into value-added products.7 14. � ������� � ����� ������������� ������������� ���� ����� Operating conditions: Typical ranges are: Heater outlet temperature. There are at least two coking drums. coke cutting.000 bpsd) 2Q 2005 US Gulf).000 –10.6 40.4 21. naphtha.3 29. kWh Steam (exported). 8. June 2006. cooling.4 41. “Residue upgrading with SYDEC Delayed Coking: Beneﬁts & Economics. $ per bpsd 3. Increasing pressure and/or recycle ratio increases gas and coke make. April 23–27. Mc- Yields: Operation: Products. psig 15 – 100 Recycle ratio.000 –5.” AIChE Spring National Meeting. one coking while the other is decoked using high-pressure water jets. Economics: Investment (basis 65. and light and heavy gas oils. The coking unit also includes a coke handling. 12. 2006.” Hydrocarbon Processing. Utilities. Third Ed. The mixture is heated to coking temperature. decreases liquid yield and gas oil end point. 103 Btu Electricity.2 Graw-Hill. fresh feed 0 – 1.0 48.200 Licensor: Foster Wheeler/UOP LLC. Gas and naphtha enter the vapor recovery unit (VRU)(4). typical per bbl feed: Fuel.
Reactor products to fractionator Flue gas to CO boiler START 1 3 2 Net coke Air blower Cold coke Hot coke Air Products: Liquid products can be upgraded through conventional hydrotreating. greater than other processes • Process wide range of feeds.3 23. $/bp/sd 3. extra heavy oil or bitumen) to fullrange lighter liquid products and ﬂuid coke. Alternative scrubber conﬁgurations provide process ﬂexibility by integrating the recycle stream with the VPS or by operating once-through which produces higher liquid yields.4 9.1 Once-Through 10.9 3. wt% Heavy gas oil (650°F+). wt % Coke consumed for heat. feed is thermally cracked to a full range of lighter products and coke.5 13. About 20% of the coke is burned with air to supply process heat requirements.5 14.8 11. especially high metals.7 Competitive advantages: • Single train capacities >100 Mbpsd. ~5 wt% sulfur): Light ends.Coking. with particular advantages in cement kilns and in ﬂuid-bed boilers. Description: Feed (typically 1. wt% 58.4 Investment: TPC.1 25.1 39. and lower coke production than delayed coking Continued . including stand alone or integrated cogeneration facilities. US Gulf Coast. wt% Net product coke. Lighter overhead vapors from the scrubber are sent to conventional fractionation and light ends recovery. Properties of the ﬂuid coke enable ease of transport and direct use in fuel applications. Fluid coke is widely used as a solid fuel. eliminating the need for an external fuel supply. coke handling and wet gas scrubbing for removing SOx from the burner overhead Capital investment. Product coke can be sold as fuel or burned in an integrated ﬂuid bed boiler to produce steam and power. 2Q 2003 estimate including gas processing. sulfur and CCR • Internally heat integrated. minimal use of fuel gas.4 62. wt% Recycle 11. typical Middle East vacuum resid (~25 wt% Concarbon. fluid Application: Continuous ﬂuid.050°F+ vacuum resid) enters the scrubber (1) for heat exchange with reactor overhead efﬂuent vapors. C5+ liquids. wt% Distillate (350 – 650°F). bed coking technology to convert heavy hydrocarbons (vacuum residuum. The scrubber typically cuts 975°F+ higher boiling reactor efﬂuent hydrocarbons for recycle back to the reactor with fresh feed.300 Yields: Example. The rest of the coke is withdrawn and either sold as a product or burned in a ﬂuid bed boiler. In the reactor (2).5 32. The heat for the thermal cracking reactions is supplied by circulating coke between the burner (3) and reactor (2). wt% Naphtha (C5-350°F).7 4.
.Coking. fluid. Licensor: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co. continued • Lower investment and better economy of scale than delayed coking • Efﬁcient integration with ﬂuid bed boilers for cogeneration of steam and electric power.
4 9. Applicable for complete conversion of resid in reﬁneries with limited outlets for coke. 2Q03 estimate including gas processing. wt% C5+ Liquids. for heavy feed conversion at the resource. 3 4 Description: FLEXICOKING has essentially the same reactor (1)/scrubber (2) sections as FLUID COKING. Partial gasiﬁcation/coke withdrawal and oxygen-enrichment can be used to provide additional process ﬂexibility. MBtu/kbbl of feed ~1 1. wt% Heavy gas oil (650°F+). ~5 wt% sulfur): Light ends.8 11.1 58. (C4 ). About 97% of the coke generated is consumed in the process. extra heavy oil or bitumen) to fullrange lighter liquid products and Flexigas—a valuable lower Btu fuel gas. Clean Flexigas with <10 vppm H2S can be burned in furnaces or boilers. US Gulf Coast. typical Middle East vacuum resid (~25 wt% Concarbon. $/bp/sd 4.Coking.5 14. replacing fuel oil. a small amount of purge coke is withdrawn from the heater (3) and ﬁnes system (5). and locations where low-cost clean fuel is needed or where natural gas has high value.7 62. which can be burned in cement kilns or used for vanadium recovery. wt% Recycle 11.5 32.5 13. once-through and VPS integrated. flexi Application: Continuous ﬂuid-bed coking technology to convert heavy hydrocarbons (vacuum residuum.3 Competitive advantages: • Fully continuous commercially proven integrated ﬂuid bed coking and ﬂuid bed gasiﬁcation process that produces valuable liquid products and gaseous fuels. • Low value coke is converted in the process to clean product Flexigas fuel gas for use within the reﬁnery or by nearby third-party power plants or other consumers. Continued . fuel gas or natural gasfuels. coke handling.wt% Naphtha (C5-350°F). Cold coke Hot coke Air Air blower Purge coke. Reactor products to fractionator Steam generation 5 START Tertiary cyclones Low heating value coke gas 5 Direct contact cooler Coke ﬁnes Steam Sour water 1 2 Products: Liquid products can be upgraded through conventional hydrotreating.1 39.200 ~1 1.700 Yields: Example. Process heat for the coking and gasiﬁcation reactions is supplied by circulating hot coke between the heater (3) the reactor (2). Coke reacts with air and steam in the gasiﬁer (4) to produce heat and lower BTU gas that is cleaned with FLEXSORB hinder amine treating to <10 vppm of H2S. and also has the same process ﬂexibility options: recycle.100 Investment: TPC. Flexigas treating and distribution Capital investment.1 Once-through 10. wt% Flexigas. and the gasiﬁer (4). wt% Distillate (350 – 650°F).
Licensor: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co. .Coking. Much lower investment and more reliable than delayed coking plus partial oxidation or direct gasiﬁcation of solids or heavy feeds. flexi. continued • Particularly attractive for SAGD tar sands upgrading with large fuel requirements.
vac. kerosine. vac. bottoms 6. gas oil Vac. °F Note: Crude unit feed is 2. gal 300 – 400 Yields: Typical for Merey crude oil: Crude unit products wt% Overhead & naphtha Kerosine Diesel Gas oil Lt. vac. *Softening point.g. . where the distillate is condensed in two sections and withdrawn as two sidestreams. °F — – 85 – 10 20 35 85 (120)* Installation: Foster Wheeler has designed and constructed crude units having a total crude capacity in excess of 15 MMbpsd.000–50.9 53.4 30. Two circulating reﬂux streams serve as heat removal media for the tower.0 8. naphtha. gas oil Description: The charge is preheated (1). Stm. MarcelDekker. 2005.000 bpsd. Heater efﬂuent then enters a crude distillation column (5) where light naphtha is drawn off the tower overhead (6). gas oil Vac. Reference: Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design.5 5.9 2. typical per bbl fresh feed Steam. The typical crude ﬁred heater (4) inlet temperature is on the order of 550 ° F.6 10.6 Water.0 3. From the heater outlet.7 85 Licensor: Foster Wheeler. 2nd Q. while the outlet temperature is on the order of 675°F to 725°F. 6 Flash gas Light naphtha Heavy naphtha 7 3 4 5 8 9 10 2 1 Crude START Kerosine Diesel Cracker feed To vac.0 24.0 23. An asphalt base stock is pumped from the bottom of the tower. 10 3 Btu ( 80 – 120 ) Power.Crude distillation Application: Separates and recovers the relatively lighter fractions (e.19 wt% sulfur.8 Pour. 11 Stm.. $ per bpsd 900 – 1. 1997. cooling. kWh 0. External reﬂux for the tower is provided by pumparound streams (7–10). The atmospheric residue is charged to a ﬁred heater (11) where the typical outlet temperature is on the order of 725 °F to 775°F. Total 100.9 °API 58. system Lt. lb 24 Fuel (liberated). diesel and cracking stock) from a fresh crude oil charge. the stream is fed into a vacuum tower (12). 230 – 249. (cracker feed) Asphalt Economics: Investment ( basis: 100.5 18.91 wt% sulfur. The two sidestreams are combined to form cracking feedstock. gas oil Hvy. The vacuum ﬂasher processes the crude distillation bottoms to produce an increased yield of liquid distillates and a heavy residual material. US Gulf ). Vacuum unit feed is 2.0 41.400 Utility requirements.4 19. heavy naphtha. desalted (2) and directed to a preheat train (3) where it recovers heat from product and reﬂux streams. vac. diesel and cracking stock are sidestream drawoffs. pp. 12 Hvy. gas oil Stm.2 4. kerosine.
3 3. Investment costs are dependent on the required conﬁguration and process objectives. tailor-made designs can be produced. an attractive CAPEX reduction can be achieved. which is routed to the HDS. ﬁnal product separation of the bulk middle distillate stream from the CDU takes place in the HDS fractionator (HDF). � �� � �� � ������� ��� Economics: Due to the incorporation of Shell high capacity internals and the deeply integrated designs.Crude distillation Application: The Shell Bulk CDU is a highly integrated concept. waxy distillate.4 18. spray sections to obtain a lower ﬂashzone pressure. Yields: Typical for Arabian light crude Products Gas Gasoline Kerosine Gasoil (GO) VGO Waxy distillate (WD) Residue C1 – C4 C5 – 150°C 150 – 250°C 250 – 350°C 350 – 370°C 370 – 575°C 575°C+ wt. This technology can also be provided in cost-effective process designs for both feedprep and lube oil HVUs as stand-alone units.0 Licensor: Shell Global Solutions International B. which consists of a main atmospheric fractionator with side strippers. the overall integration of a crude distillation unit (CDU). For each application. A prominent feature embedded in this design is the Shell deepﬂash HVU technology. . a total of some 50 HVU units have been built while a similar number has been debottlenecked. Additionally. The Shell furnace design prevents excessive cracking and enables a 5-year run length between decoke. ��� ��� �� ��� ���� ����� � � � ��� ��� ��� � � � ���� ��� ��� ��� ��� ������������ ������� ���� �� ����� ������� Description: The basic concept of the bulk CDU is the separation of the naphtha minus and the long residue from the middle distillate fraction.V. The long residue is routed hot to a feedprep HVU. which recovers the waxy distillate fraction from long residue as the feedstock for a cat-cracker or hydrocracker unit (HCU). Compared with stand-alone units. middle distillates and a naphtha minus fraction. Typical ﬂashzone conditions are 415°C and 24 mbara.7 15.2 17. Installation: Over 100 Shell CDUs have been designed and operated since the early 1900s. After desulfurization in the HDS unit. hydrodesulfurization unit (HDS). It separates the crude in long residue. % 0. The Shell design features a deentrainment section.6 28. and a VGO recovery section to recover up to 10 wt% as automotive diesel.8 16. high vacuum unit (HVU) and a visbreaker (VBU) results in a 50% reduction in equipment count and signiﬁcantly reduced operating costs. including many third-party designs of feedprep and lube oil HVUs.
two vacuum distillates (6) and a vacuum residue.000 bpsd including atmospheric and vacuum distillation.000 bpsd. and one vacuum residue. which could be also a road bitumen. The overhead products of the two pre-ﬂash towers are then fractionated as required in a gas plant and rectiﬁcation towers (4). gas plant and rectiﬁcation tower) $750 to $950 per bpsd (US Gulf Coast 2000). If necessary the reduced crude is fractionated in one deep vacuum column designed for a sharp fractionation between vacuum gas oil.9–1. This process is particularly suitable for large crude capacity from 150. two atmospheric gas oil cuts. ���� ����� ��� ������������� � �������������� ������������� Products: This process is particularly suitable when more than two naphtha cuts are to be produced. The latest revamp projContinued . Extensive use of pinch technology minimizes heat supplied by heaters and heat removed by air and water coolers. It is also available for condensates and light crudes progressive distillation with a slightly adapted scheme.000 to 250. The topped crude typically reduced by 2/3 of the total naphtha cut is then heated in a conventional heater and conventional topping column (5). which number and properties are optimized to ﬁt with sophisticated reﬁning schemes and future regulations. one or two kerosine cuts.2 0–5 50–100 1. lb Water cooling. typical per bbl of crude feed: Fuel ﬁred. (15°C rise) gal 50–65 0. kWh Steam 65 psig. This process is applied normally for new topping units or new integrated topping/vacuum units but the concept can be used for debottlenecking purpose. Installation: Technip has designed and constructed one crude unit and one condensate unit with the D2000 concept.Crude distillation Application: The D2000 process is progressive distillation to minimize the total energy consumption required to separate crude oils or condensates into hydrocarbon cuts. Utility requirements.25 tons of fuel per 100 tons of Crude 1. one vacuum gas oil cut. 103 btu Power. two vacuum distillates cuts.15 tons of fuel per 100 tons of Crude Total primary energy consumption: for Arabian Light or Russian Export Blend: for Arabian Heavy Economics: Investment (basis 230. � � � ���� � ����������������������� ���������������� �������������� � ���������� ������������������ ������ ������� Description: The crude is preheated and desalted (1). Typically the process is optimized to produce three naphtha cuts or more. It is fed to a ﬁrst dry reboiled pre-ﬂash tower (2) and then to a wet pre-ﬂash tower (3).
Licensor: TOTAL and Technip. .Crude distillation. continued ect currently in operation shows an increase of capacity of the existing crude unit of 30% without heater addition.
Utility packages. These units are typically custom designed to meet individual customer requirements. offgas. Heat integration reduces emissions and minimizes process-energy requirements. distillate product. The ﬁred heater provides heat for the plant. or combinations of these fuels.Crude topping units Application: Crude topping units are typically installed in remote areas to provide fuel for local consumption. and product cooling and accumulation. ���������� ������� �������� ���������� ������������� Operating conditions: Column pressure. ﬁred heater. and control corrosion in the fractionation section. Fuel for the heater can be residual products. ��� ������� ������������ ����� ����� ������ ��������� Products: Diesel is typically the desired product. requiring few utilities for operation. but kerosine. crude fractionation (distillation). . Modular units also allow installation in remote areas with minimal mobilization. Description: Crude topping units comprise of four main sections: preheat/heat recovery section. Crude topping units are self-contained. wastewater treatment facilities and other associated offsites are often supplied. turbine fuel and naphtha are also produced. psig Temperature. depending on the installation. often for use at pipeline pumping stations and at production facilities. an electrostatic desalter may be required to prevent fouling and plugging. Depending on the individual site. which reduces construction cost and complexity. natural gas. Crude topping units are modularized. °F 0 – 20 550 – 650 Licensor: CB&I Howe-Baker. depending on the individual site requirements.
1 7. A second extraction stage is utililized if resins are to be produced.0 6–9 10 Continued . 150 psig.1 2.5 3.000 –2. typical per bbl feed: Fuel..6 4. exit the extractor. wt% Visc. ºF 149 Penetration@77ºF 12 4. ºAPI Sulfur. cooling (25ºF rise).300 29/100 30 20.7 1. kWh Steam. vol. and blending stocks for lube oil and asphalt manufacturing.4). ������ ������� ������ ������� � ��������� ����� �������� � ��� ��������� Description: Feed and light parafﬁnic solvent are mixed and then charged to the extractor (1).4 165 Cracking stock 6. Both the pitch and DAO products are stripped of entrained solvent (3. The DAO and pitch phases. type Gravity.3 240 0 Economics: Investment (basis: 40. wt% CCR. gal 800 – 3. ºAPI Sulfur.000 56 – 100 1. and pitch for speciﬁcation asphalts and residue fuels.. wt% CCR.5/10.% of feed Gravity. wppm 0. $/bpsd Utilities. psig Temp. R&B.Deasphalting Application: Prepare quality feed for FCC units and hydrocrackers from vacuum residue. wppm DAO Yield. The DAO and solvent mixture is separated under supercritical conditions (2). °F Solvent to oil ratio: various blends of C3– C7 hydrocarbons including light naphthas 300 – 600 120 – 450 4/1 to 13/1 Lube oil 6.720 46/125 65 15.2 540 Yields: Feed. Products: Deasphalted oil (DAO) for catalytic cracking and hydrocracking feedstocks.000 bpsd) 2Q 2005.0 21. wt% Visc. US Gulf.25/0.2 6.9 20.3 2. SSU@210ºF Ni/V. lb Water. SSU@210ºF Ni/V. resins for speciﬁcation asphalts.9 – 2.37 Pitch Softening point. 103 Btu (hot oil) Electricity. � ������� ����� � ��� �������� ��� Operating conditions: Typical ranges are: Solvent Pressure.8 8. both containing solvents.
“When Solvent Deasphalting is the Most Appropriate Technology for Upgrading Residue. 2006. Licensor: Foster Wheeler/UOP LLC. 10. this also includes both UOP and Foster Wheeler units originally licensed separately before merging the technologies in 1996. Third Ed. continued Installations: Over 50 units installed. References: Handbook of Petroleum Reﬁning Processes.” International Downstream Technology Conference. McGraw Hill. February 15 –16..37–10. London.Deasphalting. pp. . 2003.61.
4 — — DCC Type II 2. use of both thermal and catalytic processes is essential. Reference: Dharia.8 11. innovations in the areas of catalyst development. The integrated DCC/steam cracking complex offers signiﬁcant capital savings over a conventional stand-alone reﬁnery for propylene production.” Hydrocarbon Processing. Propylene yields over 24 wt% are achievable with parafﬁnic feeds. In a market requiring both propylene and ethylene. aromatic-rich. due to the fundamental differences in the reaction mechanisms involved.1 20. D.0 3. The DCC unit may be operated in two operational modes: maximum propylene (Type I) or maximum iso-oleﬁns (Type II).9 6. A traditional reactor/regenerator unit design uses a catalyst with physical properties similar to traditional FCC catalyst. process variable selection and severity and gas plant design enables the DCC to produce signiﬁcantly more oleﬁns than FCC in a maximum oleﬁns mode of operation.3 5.5 FCC 0.3 Installation: Six units are currently operating in China and one in Thailand. Sinopec. Each operational mode utilizes unique catalyst as well as reaction conditions. . high-octane gasoline and distillate. Feed enters the unit through proprietary feed nozzles.3 14.3 14. “Increase light oleﬁns production.1 9.Deep catalytic cracking Application: Selective conversion of gasoil and parafﬁnic residual feedstocks. Description: DCC is a ﬂuidized process for selectively cracking a wide variety of feedstocks to light oleﬁns. April 2004. Several more units are under design in China and one in Saudi Arabia.3 8. Licensor: Shaw Stone & Webster and Research Institute of Petroleum Processing.6 6. Products (wt% of fresh feed) Ethylene Propylene Butylene in which IC4= Amylene in which IC5= DCC Type I 6. The overall ﬂow scheme of DCC is very similar to that of a conventional FCC.8 6.. 61–66. Products: C2– C5 oleﬁns.5 14. However. Maximum propylene DCC uses both riser and bed cracking at severe reactor conditions while Type II DDC uses only riser cracking like a modern FCC unit at milder conditions. The combination of thermal and catalytic cracking mechanisms is the only way to increase total oleﬁns from heavier feeds while meeting the need for an increased propylene to ethylene ratio.5 4. Integrating DCC technology into existing reﬁneries as either a grassroots or revamp application can offer an attractive opportunity to produce large quantities of light oleﬁns. as shown in the schematic. This technology is quite suitable for revamps as well as grassroot applications. pp.. et al.
The cyclone and fractionator bottoms are subsequently routed to a vacuum ﬂasher (5).Deep thermal conversion Application: The Shell Deep Thermal Conversion process closes the gap between visbreaking and coking.2 19 22. excluding treating facilities. MW 1. ������������� ��������������� Yields: Depend on feed type and product speciﬁcations.g. tpd 370 Installation: To date.). where the deep conversion takes place. bpd 417 Power. gasiﬁcation and/or combustion. The conversion is maximized by controlling the operating temperature and pressure. Post startup services and technical services for existing units are available from Shell Global Solutions. kero and gasoil. dependent on conﬁguration and a site’s marginal econmic values for steam and fuel: Fuel as fuel oil equivalent.2 Net steam production (18 bar). The soaker efﬂuent is routed to a cyclone (3). High-distillate yields are obtained. referred to as liquid coke. The cyclone overheads are charged to an atmospheric fractionator (4) to produce the desired products like gas..000-bpd unit will be about $1. Reference: Hydrocarbon Engineering. September 2003.300/bbl installed.000-bpd unit. vacuum residue Viscosity. The process yields a maximum of distillates by applying deep thermal conversion of the vacuum residue feed and by vacuum ﬂashing the cracked residue. ECP 520°C Residue ECP 520°C+ Utilities. Feed. Economics: The typical investment for a 25. while still producing a stable liquid residual product. which recovers additional gasoil and waxy distillate. The residual liquid coke is routed for further processing depending on the outlet.900 to $2. typical consumption/production for a 25. is used for speciality products. this has involved revamping an existing Shell Soaker Visbreaker unit.V. ��� ������� � ����� ��� ��� ����� � � ���� � � Description: The preheated short residue is charged to the heater (1) and from there to the soaker (2). cSt @100°C Middle East 615 3. LPG. six Shell Deep Thermal Conversion units have been licensed. ECP 165°C Gas oil. .2 Products in % wt. to generate power and/or hydrogen. Licensor: Shell Global Solutions International B. on feed Gas Gasoline. and ABB Lummus Global B. (Basis: Western Europe.8 8. naphtha. In four cases.V.8 46. 2004. e. The liquid coke. not suitable for blending to commercial fuel. ECP 350°C Waxy distillate.
������������� ������������� ������������������� ������������ ���� ����� Description: FCC gasoline. the solvent extracts the sulfur compounds into the bottoms of the column along with the aromatic components. Licensor: GTC Technology Inc. Lean solvent from the SRC bottoms are treated and recycled back to the EDC. or to aromatizing unit. with endpoint up to 210 °C. Nearly all of the nonaromatics. consequently. The sulfur and aromatic components are processed in a conventional hydrotreater to convert the sulfur into H 2S. GT-BTXPlus has these advantages: • Segregates and eliminates FCC-gasoline sulfur species to meet a pool gasoline target of 20 ppm • Preserves more than 90% of the oleﬁns from being hydrotreated in the HDS unit. or directed to an aromatics production plant. and lean solvent is recovered in columns bottoms. In contrast. including oleﬁns. octane downgrade and yield loss.000 / bpd of feed and production cost of $0. FCC gasoline is fed to the extractive distillation column (EDC). That method inevitably results in oleﬁn saturation. a smaller HDS unit is needed and there is less yield loss • High-purity BTX products can be produced from the aromatic-rich extract stream after hydrotreating • Oleﬁn-rich rafﬁnate stream (from the ED unit) can be recycled to the FCC unit to increase the light oleﬁn production. In a vapor-liquid operation. The rafﬁnate stream can be op- � ���������� ������������ ������ ������� �������� ������ ������������� � ������������ ���������������� ������������ tionally caustic washed before routing to the gasoline pool. prevents signiﬁcant octane loss and reduces hydrogen consumption • Fewer components are sent to the HDS unit. Because the portion of gasoline being hydrotreated is reduced in volume and free of oleﬁns.Desulfurization Application: GT-BTXPlus addresses overall plant proﬁtability by desulfurizing the FCC stream with no octane loss and decreased hydrogen consumption by using a proprietary solvent in an extractive distillation system. while rejecting the oleﬁns and nonaromatics into the overhead as rafﬁnate. is fed to the GTBTXPlus unit. Oleﬁnrich rafﬁnate can be recycled to FCC or to aromatizing unit. hydrogen consumption and operating costs are greatly reduced. conventional desulfurization schemes process the majority of the gasoline through hydrotreating and caustic-washing units to eliminate the sulfur. The SRC overhead is hydrotreated by conventional means and used as desulfurized gasoline.50 / bbl of feed for desulfurization and dearomatization. is routed to the solvent recovery column. (SRC). containing aromatics and sulfur compounds. where the hydrocarbons and sulfur species are separated. Rich solvent. . Economics: Estimated installed cost of $1. This process also recovers valuable aromatics compounds. and thus. which extracts sulfur and aromatics from the hydrocarbon stream. are effectively separated into the rafﬁnate stream.
Wax from the primary stage is slurried with cold solvent and ﬁltered again in the repulp ﬁlter (4) to reduce the oil content to approximately 10%. typical per bbl feed: Fuel. distillate or deasphalted oil) is mixed with a binary-solvent system and chilled in a very closely controlled manner in scraped-surface double-pipe exchangers (1) and refrigerated chillers (2) to form a wax/oil/solvent slurry.Dewaxing Application: Bechtel’s Dewaxing process is used to remove waxy components from lubrication base-oil streams to simultaneously meet desired low-temperature properties for dewaxed oils and produce slack wax as a byproduct. gal 11. 2006 US Gulf Coast). � � ����������� Description: Waxy feedstock (rafﬁnate. Licensor: Bechtel Corp. The repulp ﬁltrate is reused as dilution solvent in the feed chilling train. Prior to solvent recovery. cooling (25°F rise). kWh Steam. The recovered solvent is collected. the primary ﬁltrate is used to cool the feed/solvent mixture (1). ����������� � � � � ����� ��������� ������� ��� ����� ����� � ������� �������� ����� ����������� �������������� ��������� Economics: Investment (Basis: 7.100 Installation: Over 100 have been licensed and built.000-bpsd feedrate capacity. $/bpsd Utilities. lb Water. The slurry is ﬁltered through the primary ﬁlter stage (3) and dewaxed oil mixture is routed to the dewaxed oil recovery section (5) to separate solvent from oil. 103 Btu (absorbed) Electricity. . The wax mixture is routed to a solvent-recovery section (6) to remove solvent from the product streams (hard wax and soft wax).200 160 15 35 1. dried (7) and recycled back to the chilling and ﬁltration sections.
Higher wax feed will have a little lower base oil yield. the base oil yield can be 90–95%. the efﬂuent from a dewaxing reactor is cooled down and sent to a ﬁnishing reactor (2) where the remaining single ring and multiple ring aromatics are further saturated by the ISOFINISHING Catalysts. kcal Steam. Paper AM-05-39. March 2005. 3. hydrotreated DAO and unconverted oil from hydrocracking. The efﬂuent is ﬂashed in high-pressure and lowpressure separators (3. waxy feedstocks are mixed with recycle hydrogen and fresh makeup hydrogen. superheated. saturated. As shown in the simpliﬁed ﬂow diagram. Licensor: Chevron Lummus Global LLC. Nm3/m3 oil various stages of design or construction. kg Chemical-hydrogen consumption. Small amounts of light products are recovered in a fractionation system (5). depending on the operating severity. . kg Water. San Francisco. the capital for ISBL is about 6. The product also has low aromatics content. 4).4 192 30~50 Yields: The base oil yields strongly depend on the feedstocks. foots oil. For a typical low wax content feedstock. slack wax.3 2. produced. the aromatics content is reduced by 50– 80% in the dewaxing reactor. In a typical conﬁguration. hydrotreated VGO. parafﬁnic chains) into two or three main branch isomers that have low-pour points. required. for a typical size ISODEWAXING/ISOFINISHING Unit. The products are highquality base oils that can meet stringent cold ﬂow properties. ��� ������ � �������������� � � ���������� ������ �������� �������������� Utilities: Typical per bbl feed: Power. Typical feeds are: rafﬁnates. kg Steam. ��������������� ����������� ������� � � � Description: ISODEWAXING Catalysts are very special catalysts that convert feedstocks with waxy molecules (containing long.4 x 103 5. Economics: Investment: This is a moderate investment process. Installation: More than twelve units are in operation and six units are in Reference: NPRA Annual Meeting.3 13. heated and charged to a reactor containing ISODEWAXING Catalyst (1).000 $/bpsd.Dewaxing Application: Selectively convert feedstock’s waxy molecules by isomerization in the presence of ISODEWAXING Catalysts. cooling. kW Fuel . The efﬂuent will have a much lower pour point and.
The slurry is ﬁltered through the primary ﬁlter stage (3) and dewaxed oil mixture is routed to the dewaxed oil recovery section (6) to separate solvent from oil.200 . The hard and soft wax mixtures are each routed to solvent recovery sections (7. Economics: Investment (Basis: 7. ����������� � � � �������� ������� �������� ����� ����� ����� ����������� �������������� � � ����� ������� ��� � ��������� �������� Utilities.500 Installation: Seven in service. The recovered solvent is collected. Prior to solvent recovery. the primary ﬁltrate is used to cool the feed/solvent mixture (1). Waxy feedstock (rafﬁnate. typical per bbl feed: Fuel. gal 230 25 25 1.8) to remove solvent from the product streams (hard wax and soft wax).Dewaxing/wax deoiling Application: Bechtel’s Dewaxing/Wax Fractionation processes are used to remove waxy components from lubrication base-oil streams to simultaneously meet desired low-temperature properties for dewaxed oils and produce hard wax as a premium byproduct. 2006 US Gulf Coast). kWh Steam. distillate or deasphalted oil) is mixed with a binary-solvent system and chilled in a very closely controlled manner in scraped-surface doublepipe exchangers (1) and refrigerated chillers (2) to form a wax/oil/solvent slurry. 103 Btu (absorbed) Electricity. Licensor: Bechtel Corp. � � � ����������� Description: Bechtel’s two-stage solvent dewaxing process can be expanded to simultaneously produce hard wax by adding a third deoiling stage using the Wax Fractionation process. lb Water. dried (9) and recycled back to the chilling and ﬁltration sections. Wax from the primary stage is slurried with cold solvent and ﬁltered again in the repulp ﬁlter (4) to reduce the oil content to approximately 10%. The repulp ﬁltrate is reused as dilution solvent in the feed chilling train. cooling (25°F rise).000-bpsd feedrate capacity. $/bpsd 13. The low-oil content slack wax is warmed by mixing with warm solvent to melt the low-melting-point waxes (soft wax) and is ﬁltered in a third stage ﬁltration (5) to separate the hard wax from the soft wax.
M. ������ �������� ������� ������� ���������� ���������� ����� ����������� ���������� �������� ���������� Description: Topsøe ULSD process is a hydrotreating process that combines Topsøe’s understanding of deep-desulfurization kinetics. Townsend and T. “ULSD Production in Practice. G.. . Licensor: Haldor Topsøe A/S. or engineering design package. Johansen.” 7th ERTC. References: Low. process design package. Our highest activity BRIM catalyst is speciﬁcally formulated with high-desulfurization activity and stability at low reactor pressure (~ 500 psig) to produce 5 wppm diesel. Our reactor internals are installed in more than 60 ULSD units. Prague. Cooper. Salt Lake City. the process can be designed to produce 5 wppm S diesel at low reactor pressures (<500 psig) or at higher reactor pressure when products with improved density. cetane. Pradhan. “Systematic approach for the revamp of a low-pressure hydrotreater to produce 10-ppm. The highest activity BRIM catalyst is suitable at higher pressure when secondary objectives such as cetane improvement and density reduction are required. Installation: Topsøe has licensed more than 50 ULSD hydrotreaters of which more than 40 units are designed for less than 10 wppm sulfur in the diesel.. Knudsen. November 2004. November 2002. Our offerings include process scoping study. sulfur-free diesel at BP Conyton Reﬁnery. Vasalos and S. and engineering expertise in the design of new and revamped ULSD units. K. J.” NPRA Annual Meeting. B. reactor design package.Diesel—ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) Application: Topsøe ULSD process is designed to produce ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) (5–50 wppm S) from cracked and straight-run distillates. V. “ULSD: Ensuring the unit makes on-spec. Topsøe offers a wide range of engineering deliverables to meet the needs of the reﬁners. L. March 2006. Shooter. Skyum and B. ����������� ���������� ������������� ���������������������� ������������� ��������� Hoekstra. Vousvoukis. Sarup. By selecting the proper catalyst and operating conditions. Christensen.. and polyaromatics are required. state-of-the-art reactor internal. The ULSD process can be applied over a very wide range of reactor pressures. P. G. This catalyst is suitable for revamping existing low-pressure hydrotreaters or in new units when minimizing hydrogen consumption. product. Paris. high-activity catalyst.” 9th ERTC. I.
the diesel upgrading process uses Topsøe’s graded-bed loading and high-efﬁciency patented reactor internals to provide optimal reactor performance and catalyst utilization. Licensor: Haldor Topsøe A/S. cold-ﬂow properties. Topsøe’s high-efﬁciency internals are effective for a wide range of liquid loading. ��������������� ����������� ���������� ��������� ������� ������� �������� ������� �������� ���������� ���������� ������� ��� ������������� ��������� ������������ ��������� ������� ������������� Description: Topsøe’s Diesel Upgrading process is a combination of treating and upgrading. P. Like the conventional Topsøe hydrotreating process. R. In the reactor system. the treating section uses Topsøe’s high-activity CoMo or NiMo catalyst. reduction of T90 and T95 distillation (Back-end-shift). March 2003. two in Europe and seven HDS/HDA units (see Hydrodearomatization). including reduction of diesel speciﬁc gravity. thereby reducing catalyst skimming requirements and ensuring long catalyst cycle lengths. and M. and improvements of cetane. engineering expertise in quality design. These compounds limit the downstream upgrading catalyst performance.” 4th ERTC. to remove feed impurities such as sulfur and nitrogen. clouds point. high-activity treating catalyst and proprietary diesel upgrading catalyst. one in the Middle East. San Antonio. Reactor section is followed by separation and stripping/fractionation where ﬁnal products are produced. The technology combines state-of-the-art reactor internals. reduction of aromatics. ���������� References: Patel. six in Asia-Paciﬁc region. Christensen. E. November 1999.. such as TK-575 BRIM or TK-576 BRIM. “Options for meeting EU year 2005 fuels speciﬁcations. Johansen. Every unit is individually designed to improve the diesel property that requires upgrading. Reactor catalyst used in the application is dependent on the speciﬁc diesel property that requires upgrading. The process is suitable for new units or revamps of existing hydrotreating units. “How are reﬁners meeting the ultra-low-sulfur diesel challenge?” NPRA Annual Meeting. (pour point. Feeds can range from blends of straight-run and cracked gas oils up to heavy distillates.Diesel upgrading Application: Topsøe’s Diesel Upgrading process can be applied for improvement of a variety of diesel properties. Installations: A total of 16 units.. viscosity and CFPP) and diesel color reduction (poly shift). including light vacuum gas oil. Topsøe’s graded-bed technology and the use of shape-optimized inert topping material and catalyst minimize the pressure drop build-up. including unit pressure and LHSV and determining the appropriate Topsøe high-activity catalysts and plant lay-out. . Fuente. and the puriﬁed stream is treated in the downstream upgrading reactor. This is done by selecting the optimum processing parameters.
combines catalysis and distillation. ETBE. . Yields: Ether yields are not only highly dependent on the reactive oleﬁns’ content and the alcohol’s chemical structure. Licensor: Axens. including four Catacol units. The efﬂuent then ﬂows to a reactive distillation system (4). More than 90% of the total per pass conversion occurs in the expanded-bed reactor. TAME and/or higher molecular-weight ethers) from C1 to C2 alcohols and reactive hydrocarbons in C4 to C6 cuts. The main efﬂuents are puriﬁed for further applications or recycle. The last part of the unit removes alcohol from the crude rafﬁnate using a conventional waterwash system (5) and a standard distillation column (6). maximizing yield and catalyst life. All use acid resins in the reaction section. The same inexpensive (purchased in bulk quantities) and long-lived. hydrocarbon puriﬁcation (2). Economics: Plants and their operations are simple. This main reactor (3) operates under adiabatic upﬂow conditions using an expanded-bed technology and cooled recycle. if any. have been licensed. but also on operating goals: maximum ether production and/or high ﬁnal rafﬁnate purity (for instance. Reactants are converted at moderate well-controlled temperatures and moderate pressures. The process includes alcohol puriﬁcation (1).Ethers Application: Production of high-octane reformulated gasoline components (MTBE. �������� Description: Different arrangements have been demonstrated depending on the nature of the feeds. The catalytic zones of the Catacol use ﬁxed-bed arrangements of an inexpensive acidic resin catalyst that is available in bulk quantities and easy to load and unload. for downstream 1-butene extraction) are achieved. Twenty-four units. operated like a conventional distillation column. This system. are in operation. including ETBE and TAME. ������������ � � � � � ������� ������ � Installation: Over 25 units. non-sophisticated catalysts are used in the main reactor section catalytic region of the Catacol column. Catacol. followed by the main reaction section.
Higher conversions are attainable when processing steamcracker C4 cuts that contain isobutene concentrations of about 25%. kWh Water. Licensor: Uhde GmbH. ������������ ������� ������������� ��������� Description: The Uhde (Edeleanu) technology features a two-stage reactor system of which the ﬁrst reactor is operated in the recycle mode. The reactor inlet temperature ranges from 50°C at start-of-run to about 65°C at end-of-run conditions. With this method. Products: ETBE and other tertiary alkyl ethers are primarily used in gasoline blending as an octane enhancer to improve hydrocarbon combustion efﬁciency.butanol. The isobutene-depleted C4 stream may be sent to a rafﬁnate stripper or to a molsieve-based unit to remove oxygenates such as DEE. ethanol and tert. ETBE is recovered as the bottoms product of the distillation unit. Moreover. m3 110 1. such as the formation of di-ethyl ether (DEE). Two other MTBE plants are in the conversion stage. ���� ������� ����������� ����� ���� ������������� ���������� ����������� Feeds: C4 cuts from steam cracker and FCC units with isobutene contents ranging from 12% to 30%. ������������ Utility requirements: (C4 feed containing 21% isobutene. kg Electricity. ETBE. are minimized. kg Steam. . avoids hot spot formation. blending of ETBE to the gasoline pool will lower vapor pressure (Rvp). without shutting down the ETBE unit. The catalyst used in this process is a cation-exchange resin and is available from several manufacturers. MP. One important feature of the twostage system is that the catalyst can be replaced in each reactor separately. Water is used to extract excess ethanol and recycle it back to process. Isobutene conversions of 94% are typical for FCC feedstocks.Ethers—ETBE Application: The Uhde (Edeleanu) ETBE process combines ethanol and isobutene to produce the high-octane oxygenate ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE). cooling.000 35 24 Installation: The Uhde (Edeleanu) proprietary ETBE process has been successfully applied in three reﬁneries. a slight expansion of the catalyst bed is achieved that ensures very uniform concentration proﬁles in the reactor and. an ethanol / water azeotrope is recycled to the reactor section. per metric ton of ETBE): Steam. most important. The ethanol-rich C4 distillate is sent to the ethanol recovery section. At the top of the ethanol / water separation column. Undesired side reactions. LP. converting existing MTBE units.
kg 100 35 15 900 Installation: The Uhde (Edeleanu) proprietary MTBE process has been successfully applied in ﬁve reﬁneries. Licensor: Uhde GmbH. without shutting down the MTBE unit. a slight expansion of the catalyst bed is achieved which ensures very uniform concentration proﬁles within the reactor and. Very high isobutene conversion. most important. Higher conversions are attainable when processing steam-cracker C4 cuts that contain isobutene concentrations of 25%. such as the formation of dimethyl ether (DME). per metric ton of MTBE): Steam. The accumulated licensed capacity exceeds 1 MMtpy. Utility requirements. methanol and tert-butanol. (C4 feed containing 21% isobutene. m3 Steam. One important factor of the twostage system is that the catalyst may be replaced in each reactor separately. MTBE is recovered as the bottoms product of the distillation unit. cooling. Undesired side reactions. LP. ������������ �������� ������������ Description: The technology features a two-stage reactor system of which the ﬁrst reactor is operated in the recycle mode. are minimized. Isobutene conversions of 97% are typical for FCC feedstocks. MTBE. in excess of 99%. ������������ ����������� ����� ���� �������������� ���������� ����������� Feeds: C4-cuts from steam cracker and FCC units with isobutene contents range from 12% to 30%. can be achieved through a debutanizer column with structured packings containing additional catalyst. The isobutene-depleted C4 stream may be sent to a rafﬁnate stripper or to a molsieve-based unit to remove other oxygenates such as DME. the isobutene conversion may exceed 98% at a selectivity for MTBE of 99. With this method. The methanol-rich C4 distillate is sent to the methanol-recovery section. kWh Water.Ethers—MTBE Application: The Uhde (Edeleanu) MTBE process combines methanol and isobutene to produce the high-octane oxygenate—methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). kg Electricity. For a C4 cut containing 22% isobutene.5%. . Water is used to extract excess methanol and recycle it back to process. The catalyst used in this process is a cation-exchange resin and is available from several catalyst manufacturers. The reactor inlet temperature ranges from 45°C at start-of-run to about 60°C at end-of-run conditions. avoids hot spot formation. This reactive distillation technique is particularly suited when the rafﬁnate-stream from the MTBE unit will be used to produce a high-purity butene-1 product. MP. Products: MTBE and other tertiary alkyl ethers are primarily used in gasoline blending as an octane enhancer to improve hydrocarbon combustion efﬁciency.
References: Damgaard. November 2004. By carefully selecting the catalyst parameters. DNX is manufactured in small units.” Hydrocarbon Processing. controlled by measurement of ﬂue gas ﬂow and NOx concentration. Operating conditions: Typical operating conditions range from 300°C to 500°C (570–930°F). boilers. Widroth and M.. which gives a unique combination of a high strength and a high micro-porosity. The high micro-porosity provides a superior resistance to catalyst poisons and low weight. up to 3 bar (44 psia) and up to 50 g/Nm3 of dust in the ﬂue gas. Schröter: “Control reﬁnery NOx with SCRs. Products: The Topsøe SCR DeNOx converts NOx into inert nitrogen and water vapor. is injected into the ﬂue gas stream in stoichiometric proportion to the amount of NOx in the ﬂue gas. The injection takes place in a grid over the entire cross-section of the ﬂue-gas duct to ensure a uniform distribution of NOx and ammonia upstream the SCR catalyst vessel. Description: The reducing agent such as ammonia or urea. The process may be designed for NOx reductions in excess of 95% and with an ammonia leakage of just a few ppm. B. The applications range from low-dust furnaces to highdust FCC units and temperatures up to 500°C (930°F). Licensor: Haldor Topsøe A/S. which may be combined into larger modules to match any requirement in terms of vessel dimensions and pressure drop. Installation: More than 50 reﬁnery units use Topsøe SCR DeNOx catalyst and technology. The ﬁbers add ﬂexibility to the catalyst so that it can tolerate a wide range of heating and cooling rates. and in both horizontal and vertical vessel conﬁgurations. channel size and chemical composition. crackers and FCC units.Flue gas denitrification Application: The Topsøe SCR DeNOx process removes NOx from ﬂue ������� �� ������������ �������������� ��� ������� �� �� �� ����������� ��������������� ����� �������� �� ��� �� �� ������� ���� gases through reactions with an ammonia-based reducing agent over a specially designed ﬁxed-bed monolithic catalyst. The DNX catalyst is based on a ﬁber-reinforced ceramic carrier. . aqueous or pure. The process incorporates Topsøe’s well-proven corrugated monolithic DNX catalyst. the process covers a wide range of operating conditions and ﬂue-gas dust contents and may be applied to practically all types of reﬁnery units including furnaces. L.
Thereafter. where two different catalysts are installed. Cleaned ﬂue gas leaves the WSA condenser at 100°C and can be sent to the stack without further treatment. such as heavy residual oil and petroleum coke.Flue gas desulfurization—SNOX Application: The SNOX process treats boiler ﬂue gases from the combustion of high-sulfur fuels. Licensor: Haldor Topsøe A/S. During the cooling in the gas/gas heat exchanger. reliable and ﬂexible process. most of the SO3 reacts with water vapor to form sulfuric acid vapor. The ﬁrst catalyst makes the NOx react with ammonia to form N2 and water vapor. for other applications than ﬂue gas cleaning. Installation: Four SNOX units have been contracted for cleaning of a total of more than three million Nm3/ h of ﬂue gas. The SNOX process is a combination of the Topsøe WSA process and the Topsøe SCR DeNOx process. The process removes SO2. The ﬂue gas is preheated in a gas/gas heat exchanger. Besides dust removed from the ﬂue gas. only smaller. before it enters the reactor. it is further heated to approximately 400°C and ammonia is added. . Concentrated commercial-grade sulfuric acid is collected in the bottom of the WSA condenser and is cooled and pumped to storage. The WSA condenser is cooled by atmospheric air. This process can achieve up to 98% sulfur removal and about 96% NOx removal. The sulfur is recovered in the form of concentrated commercial-grade sulfuric acid. SO3 and NOx as well as dust. The cooling air can be used as preheated combustion air in the boiler. ������� ��� ������ ��� ��������� ������� ������� ����� Description: Dust is removed from the ﬂue gas by means of an electrostatic precipitator or a bag ﬁlter. The second catalyst also removes any dust traces remaining. The sulfuric acid vapor is condensed via further cooling in the WSA condenser. Additionally. Other features of the SNOX process are: • No absorbent is applied • No waste products are produced. and the second catalyst makes the SO2 react with oxygen to form SO3. 50 WSA plants have been contracted. the only products are cleaned ﬂue gas and concentrated commercial-grade sulfuric acid. The SNOX process is distinctly different from most other ﬂue gas desulfurization processes in that its economy increases with increasing sulfur content in the ﬂue gas. These are similar to SNOX plants. and some without NOx removal. • High degree of heat efﬁciency • Modest utility consumption �������� ������ ������� ���� ���� ����� ��������� �������������� ��� ��������� �������� �������� �� ������ ���������� • Attractive operating economy • Simple. which is a heat exchanger with vertical glass tubes.
Typical feedstocks are virgin or hydrotreated gas oils but may also include lube oil extract. Continued . The MG stripper efficiently removes hydrocarbons at low steam rate.Fluid catalytic cracking Application: Selective conversion of a wide range of gas oils into highvalue products. Flexibility of mode of operation allows for maximizing the most desirable product. The net stripper vapors are routed to the fractionator via specially designed vents in the direct-coupled cyclones. Spent catalyst containing only minute quantities of hydrocarbon is discharged from the diplegs of the direct-coupled cyclones into the cyclone containment vessel (4). � � �� �� � � � Description: The Lummus process incorporates an advanced reaction system. Catalyst from the stripper flows down the spent-catalyst standpipe and through the slide valve (6). This arrangement provides the lowest overall unit elevation. the optional catalyst cooler is integrated with the regenerator. coker gas oil and resid. The well allows independent optimization of catalyst density in the regenerated catalyst standpipe. For example. Trace hydrocarbons entrained with spent catalyst are removed in the MG stripper using stripping steam. Product vapors are routed directly to fractionation. Catalyst is regenerated by efficient contacting with air for complete combustion of coke. high-efﬁciency catalyst stripper and a mechanically robust. For resid-containing feeds. � � � � Products: High-octane gasoline. The spent catalyst is then transported in dilute phase to the center of the regenerator (8) through a unique square-bend-spent catalyst transfer line (7). direct-coupled cyclone system (3). single-stage fast ﬂuidized bed regenerator. Oil is injected into the base of the riser via proprietary Micro-Jet feed injection nozzles (1). Reaction products exiting the riser are separated from the spent catalyst in a patented. Catalyst and oil vapor ﬂow upwards through a short-contact time. the formulation for maximizing light oleﬁns (Indmax operation) is a multi-component mixture that promotes the selective cracking of molecules of different sizes and shapes to provide very high conversion and yield of light oleﬁns. The catalyst formulation can be tailored to maximize the most desired product. thereby eliminating nonselective. The new commercially proven FCC/ Indmax technology selectively cracks molecules of different sizes and shapes. maximizes slide valve (11) pressure drop and ensures stable catalyst flow back to the riser feed injection zone. The hot regenerated catalyst is withdrawn via an external withdrawal well (10). post-riser cracking and maintaining the optimum product yield slate. The resulting flue gas exits via cyclones (9) to energy recovery/flue gas treating. The catalyst flows down into the stripper containing proprietary modular grid (MG) baffles (5). thus maximizing light oleﬁns (propylene and ethylene) production. all-vertical riser (2) where raw oil feedstock is cracked under optimum conditions. light oleﬁns and distillate.
Fluid catalytic cracking, continued
Economics: Investment (basis: 30,000 bpsd including reaction/regeneration
system and product recovery. Excluding offsites, power recovery and ﬂue gas scrubbing US Gulf Coast 2006.) $/bpsd (typical) 2,400–3,500 Utilities, typical per bbl fresh feed: Electricity, kWh 0.8–1.0 Steam, 600 psig (produced) 50–200 Maintenance, % of investment per year 2–3
Installation: Fifteen grassroots units licensed. Twenty-eight units revamped, with ﬁve revamps in design stage.
Licensor: ABB Lummus Global.
Fluid catalytic cracking
Application: FLEXICRACKING IIIR converts high-boiling hydrocarbons including residues, gas oils, lube extracts and/or deasphalted oils to higher value products.
� � � � � � � � � ��������������������� ��������
Products: Light oleﬁns for gasoline processes and petrochemicals, LPG,
blend stocks for high-octane gasoline, distillates and fuel oils.
Description: The FLEXICRACKING IIIR technology includes process design, hardware details, special mechanical and safety features, control systems, ﬂue gas processing options and a full range of technical services and support. The reactor (1) incorporates many features to enhance performance, reliability and ﬂexibility, including a riser (2) with patented high-efﬁciency close-coupled riser termination (3), enhanced feed injection system (4) and efﬁcient stripper design (5). The reactor design and operation maximizes the selectivity of desired products, such as naphtha and propylene. The technology uses an improved catalyst circulation system with advanced control features, including cold-walled slide valves (6). The single vessel regenerator (7) has proprietary process and mechanical features for maximum reliability and efﬁcient air/catalyst distribution and contacting (8). Either full or partial combustion is used. With increasing residue processing and the need for additional heat balance control, partial burn operation with outboard CO combustion is possible, or KBR dense phase catalyst cooler technology may be applied. The ExxonMobil wet gas scrubbing or the ExxonMobil-KBR Cycloﬁnes TSS technologies can meet ﬂue gas emission requirements.
Yields: Typical examples: Resid feed mogas operation Feed
VGO + lube extracts distillate operation
VGO feed mogas operation
Gravity, °API 22.9 22.2 25.4 Con carbon, wt% 3.9 0.7 0.4 Quality 80% Atm. Resid 20% Lube Extracts 50% TBP – 794°F (Hydrotreated)
Naphtha, lv% ff 78.2 (C4 / FBP) (C4 / 430°F) Mid Dist., lv% ff 13.7 (IBP / FBP) (430 / 645°F) 40.6 (C 4 / 260°F) 49.5 (260 / 745°F) 77.6 (C4 / 430°F) 19.2 (430 / 629°F) Continued
Fluid catalytic cracking, continued
Installation: More than 70 units with a design capacity of over 2.5-million bpd fresh feed.
References: Ladwig, P. K., “Exxon FLEXICRACKING IIIR ﬂuid catalytic
cracking technology,” Handbook of Petroleum Reﬁning Processes, Second Ed., R. A. Meyers, Ed., pp. 3.3–3.28.
Licensor: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co. and Kellogg Brown
& Root, Inc. (KBR).
Operation is carried out at a temperature consistent with targeted yields. and may be operated for either full or partial CO combustion. wasteheat recovery. Final recovery of catalyst particles occurs in cyclones before the product vapor is transferred to the fractionation section. distillate and C3– C4 oleﬁns. ﬂue gas treatment and slurry ﬁltration. Reliable operation is ensured through the use of advanced ﬂuidization technology combined with a proprietary reaction system. close-coupled. Installation: Shaw Stone & Webster and Axens have licensed 27 fulltechnology units and performed more than 150 revamp projects. . this unit can easily be retroﬁtted to a two-regenerator system in the event that a future resid operation is desired. As an alternative to catalyst cooling.Fluid catalytic cracking Application: Selective conversion of gas oil feedstocks. The riser temperature proﬁle can be optimized with the proprietary mixed temperature control (MTC) system. Unit design is tailored to the reﬁner’s needs and can include wide turndown ﬂexibility. Spent catalyst is pre-stripped followed by an advanced highefﬁciency packed stripper prior to regeneration. Heat removal for heavier feedstocks may be accomplished by using reliable dense-phase catalyst cooler. Products: High-octane gasoline. Catalyst regeneration is carried out in a single regenerator equipped with proprietary air and catalyst distribution systems. Third Ed. proprietary riser termination device RSS (Riser Separator Stripper).. Licensor: Shaw Stone & Webster and Axens. which has been commercially proven in over 56 units. Handbook of Petroleum Reﬁning Process. Revamps incorporating proprietary feed injection and riser termination devices and vapor quench result in substantial improvements in capacity. Description: Catalytic and selective cracking in a short-contact-time riser where oil feed is effectively dispersed and vaporized through a proprietary feed-injection system. The reaction product vapor may be quenched to give the lowest possible dry gas and maximum gasoline yield. Reaction products exit the riser-reactor through a high-efﬁciency. Reference: Meyers. The converter vessels use a cold-wall design that results in minimum capital investment and maximum mechanical reliability and safety. IFP Group Technologies. R. yields and feedstock ﬂexibility within the mechanical limits of the existing unit. Available options include power recovery.
Stripping begins inside the ﬁrst cyclone. Installations: Over 30 grassroots units designed/licensed. which reduce catalyst back mixing while reducing overall riser pressure drop.V. followed by a highcapacity bafﬂe structure. efﬁciency and robustness. Cyclone-systems in the reactor and regenerator use a proprietary design. It minimizes post riser cracking and maximizes desired product yields. using the Shell FCC Process. The Shell 2 Vessel design is recommended to handle less heavy feeds with mild coking tendencies. Proprietary internals are used at the catalyst inlet to disperse catalyst. Flue gas cleanup can be incorporated with Shell’s third-stage separator. thus providing reliability. Catalyst coolers can be added for more feedstock ﬂexibility. Cracking selectivity is enhanced by the feed nozzles and proprietary riser-internals. Shell’s high-performance feed nozzle system feeds hydrocarbons to a short contact-time riser. including 7 to handle residue feeds. A single-stage partial or full-burn regenerator delivers excellent performance at low cost. and the catalyst outlet to provide signiﬁcant catalyst circulation enhancement. and over 30 units revamped. ��������������������� ��������������� �������� ��� �������� ��������� ������������ ������� ������� ������ �������� ������������ ����� ������� �������� ������ ��������� ����� ��������� ���� ����������� ������� ����������������������������� �������� �������� ��������������� ���� ��������� ������� ������� ������ ��������� ������� ������� ����� �������� ������������ ����� ��������� ���������������� ������� Description: In this process. Supplier: Shell Global Solutions International B. including selective propylene production when required. with no slurry clean up required. These designs are proven reliability champions due to simplicity of components and incorporation of Shell’s extensive operating experience. Two FCC design options are available. . Riser termination design incorporates reliable close-couple cyclones that provide rapid catalyst/hydrocarbon separation. this design ensures good mixing and rapid vaporization into the hot catalyst stream. the Shell External Reactor is preferred for heavy feeds with high coking tendencies.Fluid catalytic cracking Application: To convert heavy distillates and residues into high-value products.
RxCat technology ��������������������������� ����������� has been licensed for use in four units. ������� ����������� Products: Light oleﬁns (for alkylation. Description: UOP’s process uses a side-by-side reactor/regenerator conﬁguration and a patented pre-acceleration zone to condition the regenerated catalyst. distillates and fuel oils. A highefﬁciency stripper then separates the remaining hydrocarbons from the catalyst. etheriﬁcation or petrochemicals). Furthermore. oleﬁns or distillate operating modes. which is then reactivated in a combustor-style regenerator. Since coke yield can be decreased at constant conversion. high-octane gasoline. The reactor temperature can be lowered to reduce thermal cracking with no negative impact on conversion. capacity and reaction severity can be increased. The circulation of hot catalyst from the upper section to the combustor provides added control over the burn-zone temperature and kinetics and enhances radial mixing. does not increase coke yield. Catalyst coolers can be added to new and existing units to reduce catalyst temperature and increase unit ﬂexibility for commercial operations of feeds up to 6 wt% Conradson carbon. The ﬁrst unit to incorporate RxCat technology has been operating successfully since the second quarter of 2005. less NOx is emitted from the combustor-style regenerators than other available technologies. with high hydrocarbon containment (VSS/VDS technology) and RxCat technology. Modern Optimix feed distributors inject the feed into the riser. The reactor zone features a short-contact-time riser.Fluid catalytic cracking Application: Selectively convert gas oils and residue feedstocks into higher value products using the FCC/RFCC/PetroFCC process. therefore. The combustor-style regenerator burns coke in a fast-ﬂuidized environment completely to CO2 with very low levels of CO. LPG. polymerization. A recent study of eight different combustor-style regenerators and 15 bubbling-bed regenerators clearly demonstrated that at a given excess oxygen level. With RxCat technology. two of which are currently in construction. state-of theart riser termination device for quick separation of catalyst and vapor. it requires less excess oxygen at a given temperature to sustain the same kinetic combustion rate. wherein a portion of the pre-stripped (carbonized) catalyst from the riser termination device is blended with the hotter regenerated catalyst in a proprietary mixing chamber (MxR) for delivery to the riser. Continued . thus improving product selectivity. because the catalyst delivered to the regenerator has a higher coke content. this technology does not affect the total heat balance and. The ability to vary the carbonized/regenerated catalyst ratio provides considerable ﬂexibility to handle changes in feedstock quality and shortens the time for operating adjustments by enabling rapid switches between gasoline. Unlike other approaches to increasing the catalyst-to-oil ratio. which terminates in a vortex separation system (VSS). a portion of the catalyst that is pre-stripped by the riser termination device can be recycled back to the riser via a standpipe and the MxR chamber. and CO2 emissions reduced.
the two-stage regenerator is used. More than 150 of these units are operating worldwide. producing low levels of carbon on regenerated catalyst. UOP’s Advanced Fluidization (AF) spent catalyst stripper internals provide a family of options (trays. the bulk of the carbon is burned from the catalyst. high severity processing conditions and selected catalyst and additives to produce high yields of propylene. lower dry gas make. PETROFCC is a customized application using mechanical features such as RxCAT technology for recontacting carbonized catalyst. and a 2. upper zone. Licensor: UOP LLC. where the remaining coke is burned in complete combustion. This conﬁguration maximizes oxygen use. lower zone. light oleﬁns and aromatics for petrochemical applications.3 LV% boost in conversion. One application of AF trays resulted in a 0. Catalyst is transferred to the second stage. higher selectivity for desired products.8 LV% respectively. .5 wt% Conradson carbon. A catalyst cooler is located between the stages. The two stage regenerator system has processed feeds up to 8. Resid FCC and MSCC process units. UOP’s FCC Engineering department has undertaken 40 to 60 revamp projects or studies per year. The beneﬁts provided by the AF internals include reduced coke. lower regenerator temperature. higher catalyst circulation. UOP is also extensively involved in the revamping of existing units. the ability to operate at high catalyst ﬂux and increased capacity. a 14°F (8°C) drop in the regenerator temperature. In the ﬁrst stage. requires only one train of cyclones and one ﬂue gas stream.Fluid catalytic cracking. During the past 15 years.04 wt% reduction in coke.0 LV% and 2. Another FCC unit utilizes these trays to handle a high catalyst ﬂux rate of over 2-M lb/ft2 min. the new designs can save about 10 feet in length compared to 1990s units of the same capacity and diameter. UOP has been an active designer and licensor of FCC technology since the early 1940s and has licensed more than 215 FCC. paying back the investment in less than three months. and lower steam consumption. The installation of AF grids in a small unit increased conversion and gasoline yield by 3. Installation: All of UOP’s technology and equipment are commercially proven for both process performance and mechanical reliability. continued For heavier residue feeds. Within residence constraints. which avoids costly multiple ﬂue gas systems and creates a hydraulically-simple. site constructability and inspection issues. grids and packing) all with state of the art efﬁciency. In addition to applying our technology and skills to new units. Often the optimal selection is dependent on the unique conﬁguration of the unit. increased conversion. UOP’s stripper technology has been implemented in more than 36 FCC units with a combined on-stream capacity exceeding 1MM bpsd. forming a mixture of CO and CO2.
and temperatures from 300°C to 430°C (575°F to 800°F). Schaldemose. Patel R. state-of-the-art internals and engineering skills. March 2004. H. to denitrogenation and metals removal. November 2005. San Antonio. G. Additional objectives can include Conradson carbon reduction and saturation of polyaromatics to maximize gasoline yields.” 10th ERTC. Hamari. Vienna. Stratiev and P. . the quality of the FCC gasoline is improved. Petrov.to low-pressure units for deep desulfurization. Topsøe has a wide variety of catalysts for FCC pretreatment service. a NiMo catalyst with hydrodesulfurization and high hydrodenitrogenation activity. and the yield of gasoline and C3 /C4 oleﬁns. ������ �������� ������� �������� ����������� ���������� ���������� Objectives: The processing objectives range from deep desulfurization for meeting gasoline-sulfur speciﬁcations from the FCC products. Topsøe offers a wide range of engineering scopes from full scoping studies. The unit can be designed to meet speciﬁc processing objectives in a cost-effective manner by utilizing the combination of processing severity and catalyst activity. The catalyst types cover TK-558 BRIM..” NPRA Annual Meeting. S.800 psi). Zeuthen and M. R.and heavy-cycle oil.” NPRA Annual Meeting. Such efforts enable reﬁners to directly blend gasoline produced from the FCC and meet future low-sulfur (less than 15 ppm) gasoline speciﬁcations. ������� ���������� ���������� ����� ����������� ����������� �������������������� ������������ ��������� Description: The Topsøe FCC Pretreatment technology combines understanding of kinetics. Installations: Four units in the US. Patel. Licensor: Haldor Topsøe A/S. D. “FCC hydrotreater revamp for lowsulfur gasoline. This pretreatment process can maximize FCC unit performance. References: Andonov. “MCHC mode vs. P. reactor design packages and process design packages to engineering design packages. while reducing the amount of light. a CoMo catalyst with high desulfurization activity.. and TK-559 BRIM. Zeuthen.Fluid catalytic cracking—pretreatment Application: Topsøe’s FCC pretreatment technology is designed to treat a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from gas oils through heavy-vacuum gas oils and coker streams to resids. Topsøe has experience in revamping moderate. Furthermore. high-activity catalysts. ������������� ��������� Operating conditions: Typical operating pressures range from 60 to 125 bar (900 to 1. An additional option is Topsøe’s Aroshift process that maximizes the conversion of polyaromatics which can be equilibrium limited at high operating temperatures. “Advanced FCC feed pretreatment technology and catalysts improves FCC proﬁtability. Moore and B. HDS mode in an FCC unit in relation to Euro IV fuels speciﬁcations. The Aroshift process increases the FCC conversion. thus maximizing FCC catalyst activity. March 2002. San Antonio..
B. J. No.. Hybrid FLEXSORB SE solvent is used to selectively remove H2S.Gas treating—H2S removal Application: Remove H2S selectively. et al. as well as organic sulfur impurities commonly found in natural gas. 296. . CO2. FLEXSORB SE or SE Plus solvent is used on: hydrogenated Claus plant tail gas to give H2S. Installations: Total gases treated by FLEXSORB solvents are about 2 billion scfd and the total sulfur recovery is about 900 long tpd. et al.. et al. Licensor: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co. May 2004. The resulting acid gas byproduct stream is rich in H2S.” 2002 Laurance Reid Gas Conditioning Conference.” Hydrocarbon Engineering. “Selective H2S Removal. The resulting rich solvent bottom stream is heated and sent to the regenerator (2).” Hydrocarbon Engineering. Economics: Lower investment and energy requirements based primarily on requiring 30% to 50% lower solution circulation rates. Dallas. January 2006.. Connock. FLEXSORB SE solvent is an aqueous solution of a hindered amine.. No.. The feed gas contacts the treating solvent in the absorber (1). R. ranging down to H2S <10 ppmv. 10. et al. November/ December 2004. FLEXSORB SE—31 plants operating. or FLEXICOKING low-Btu fuel gas. FLEXSORB SE Plus solvent is an enhanced aqueous solution.. which has improved H2S regenerability yielding <10 vppm H2S in the treated gas.. R. et al. Reference: Garrison. 5. depending on the solvent used. “Keyspan Energy Canada Rimbey acid gas enrichment with FLEXSORB SE Plus technology. ����������� ���������� �������� � �������� �������� ���������� � Description: A typical amine system ﬂow scheme is used. Norman. compared to conventional amines. Vol. COS. Adams-Smith... J. a physical solvent and water. nine in design Hybrid FLEXSORB SE—two plants operating. Oklahoma.25 gr/100 scf. “Carter Creek Gas Plant FLEXSORB tail gas treating unit. natural gas production facilities and petrochemical operations.” 2002 GPA Annual Meeting. L. FLEXSORB SE technology has been used in reﬁneries. “Gas Processes 2006.. three in design FLEXSORB SE Plus—19 plants operating. Fedich. May 2005. Lean solvent from the regenerator is sent through rich/lean solvent exchangers and coolers before returning to the absorber. Fedich. “High recovery tail gas treating. Chevron USA Production Company. Hybrid FLEXSORB SE solvent is a hybrid solution containing FLEXSORB SE amine. CS2 and mercaptans) from a variety of streams. “Solvent changeover beneﬁts. three in design Over 60 plants operating or in design. or remove a group of acidic impurities (H2S.” Sulphur.” Hydrocarbon Processing. pipeline natural gas to give H2S <0. Regenerator heat is supplied by any suitable heat source.
The process converts residual streams with virtually zero value as fuel-blending components into valuable. it is then routed to a selective-acid-gas-removal system.Gasification Application: The Shell Gasiﬁcation Process (SGP) converts the heaviest residual liquid hydrocarbon streams with high-sulfur and metals content into a clean synthesis gas and valuable metal oxides. can easily be accommodated. The latest. After the ﬁnal scrubbing. thus. and gasiﬁed with pure O2 and steam. sulfur and metal oxides. environmentally acceptable solutions for residual hydrocarbon streams. This gas can be used to generate power in gas turbines and for making H2 by the well-known shift and PSA technology. ﬂagship installation is in the Shell Pernis reﬁnery near Rotterdam. uses SGP to convert 100 million scfd of natural gas into synthesis gas that is used for petrochemical applications. The reactor is different. further heat recovery occurs in an economizer. ������� ����� ������ ��� ����� ������ �������� ��� ������������ ������ ������� ������� ������ ����������� ���������� ���������� �������� ������� Products: Synthesis gas (CO+H2). more than 150 SGP units have been installed that convert residue feedstock into synthesis gas for chemical applications. The net reaction is exothermic and produces a gas primarily containing CO and H2. clean gas and byproducts. The Demkolec Power plant at Buggenum. Net water from the scrubber section is routed to the soot ash removal unit (SARU) to ﬁlter out soot and ash from the slurry. Similar projects are underway in Canada and Italy. The Netherlands produces 250 Mwe based on the SCGP process. A related process—the Shell Coal Gasiﬁcation Process (SCGP)—gasiﬁes solids such as coal or petroleum coke. Soot (unconverted carbon) and ash are removed from the raw gas by a two-stage waterwash. This highly complex reﬁnery depends on the SGP process for its H2 supply. Gases leaving the steam generator are at a temperature approaching the steam temperature. the ash components are recovered as valuable oxides—principally vanadium pentoxide. Process description: Liquid hydrocarbon feedstock (from very light such as natural gas to very heavy such as vacuum ﬂashed cracked residue. but main process layout and work-up are similar. The (clean) ﬁltrate is returned to the scrubber. Sulfur (S) is removed by normal gas treating processes and sold as elemental S. Depending on the ﬁnal syngas application. It is one of the few ultimate.5 tons per ton feedstock). ranging from atmospheric up to 65 bar. Malaysia. VFCR and ashphalt) is fed into a reactor. Continued . The Netherlands. By controlled oxidation of the ﬁltercake. operating pressures. designed to produce high-pressure steam—over 100 bar (about 2. SGP uses refractory-lined reactors that are ﬁtted with both burners and a heat-recovery-steam generator. the gas is virtually particulate-free. Installation: Over the past 40 years. The Shell middle distillate synthesis plant in Bintulu.
V. . June 1–2. Bahrain.Gasification. 12–15. “Shell Gasiﬁcation Process for Upgrading Gdansk Reﬁnery.” Conference Deﬁning the Future. Brighton. 2003. Licensor: Shell Global Solutions International B. May 10–12. 2004.” 2003 Gasiﬁcation Technologies Conference.” The 6th European Gasiﬁcation Conference IChemE. 2004. continued Reference: “Shell Gasiﬁcation Process. “Overview of Shell Global Solutions Worldwide Gasiﬁcation Developments. Oct. San Francisco.
9 Case study premises: * Includes utilities.bpd feed 775 . ¢/gal* >100% < 0.ppm product sulfur ( 97% removal ) No cat gasoline splitter 750 – 825 100 – 500 4–8 70 – 99 40 – 60 Results: C5+ yield.Gasoline desulfurization Application: Convert high-sulfur gasoline streams into a low-sulfur gasoline blendstock while minimizing octane loss. °F Pressure. psig Space velocity. Licensor: ConocoPhillips. The cleansed sorbent is reconditioned and returned to the reactor. wt% of feed (R+M) loss 2 Operating cost. A disengaging zone in the reactor removes suspended sorbent from the vapor. yield loss and operating cost using S Zorb sulfur removal technology. scf / bbl 25. 4% per year maintenance and sorbent costs.000 . vol% of feed Lights yield.1 <0. ������� ��������� Economics: Typical operating conditions: Temperature.ppm feed sulfur 25 . . �������� ������ ������ ������� ���������� ���������� ����� ���� �������� ������������ ������� Regeneration: The sorbent (catalyst) is continuously withdrawn from the reactor and transferred to the regenerator section (2). Vaporized gasoline is injected into the ﬂuid-bed reactor (1). �������� � � ������ ��� �������� ��������� ������ �������� Products: Load-sulfur blending stock for gasoline motor fuels. The rate of sorbent circulation is controlled to help maintain the desired sulfur concentration in the product. which exits the reactor to be cooled. Description: Gasoline from the ﬂuid catalytic cracker unit is combined with a small hydrogen stream and heated.3 0. where the sulfur is removed as SO2 and sent to a sulfur-recovery unit. whsv Hydrogen purity. where the proprietary sorbent removes sulfur from the feed. Installation: Forty-three sites licensed as of 1Q 2004. % Total H2 usage.
The LCN stream is mercaptans-free with a low-sulfur and dioleﬁn concentration. the OATS (oleﬁns alkylation of thiophenic sulfur) process. $/bpsd 600–800 Installation: Currently. Licensor: Axens. The HCN then enters the main Prime-G+ section where it undergoes in a dual catalyst reactor system. producing ultra-low-sulfur gasoline.0 % HDS 97. Economics: Investment: Grassroots ISBL cost. The selective hydrogenation reactor efﬂuent is then usually split to produce an LCN (light cat naphtha) cut and an HCN (heavy cat naphtha). Sulfur. 126 units have been licensed for a total capacity of 3. under mild conditions. Seventy Prime-G+ units are already in operation.5 86. ������������������������� �������� ���������� �������� ������������� �������������� �������� Description: FCC debutanizer bottoms are fed directly to a ﬁrst reactor wherein.6 30 ppm pool sulfur after blending Pool sulfur speciﬁcations as low as less than 10 ppm are attained with the Prime-G+ process in two units in Germany. steam cracker naphtha or light straight-run naphtha. ��������� ������ ���� ����� ���������� ��� ��������� ������ �������� �������� ������ Industrial results: Full-range FCC Gasoline.” NPRA Annual Meeting. initially developed by BP. ultra-deep Application: Ultra-deep desulfurization of FCC gasoline with minimal octane penalty using Prime-G+ process. 40°C–220°C Feed Prime-G+ Product OATS process: In addition to Prime-G+ TAME and TAEE etheriﬁcation technology. . March 17–19. San Antonio. dioleﬁns are selectively hydrogenated and mercaptans are converted to heavier sulfur species.3 million bpsd. Reference: “Prime-G+: From pilot to start-up of world’s ﬁrst commercial 10 ppm FCC gasoline desulfurization process. is also exclusively offered for license by Axens for ultra-low-sulfur gasoline production. 2002.5 (RON + MON) / 2 1. ppm 2. a deep HDS with very limited oleﬁns saturation and no aromatics losses produces an ultralow-sulfur gasoline. enabling further processing in an etheriﬁcation or alkylation unit.Gasoline desulfurization. The process provides ﬂexibility to advantageously co-process other sulfur-containing naphthas such as light coker naphtha.100 50* (RON + MON) / 2 87.
Gasoline desulfurization. The OCTGAIN process can be retroﬁtted into existing reﬁnery hydrotreating units. Over the ﬁrst catalyst bed. In the second bed. The reactor efﬂuent is cooled and the liquid product separated from the recycle gas using high.. EMRE has an alliance with Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) to provide this technology to reﬁners. Installations: Commercial experience with two operating units. octane is recovered by cracking and isomerization reactions. Reference: Halbert.. Licensor: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co. ���������������� ��������� Yields: Yield depends on feed oleﬁns and desired product octane. March 2000. over a different catalyst. et al.and low-temperature separators. the sulfur in the feed is converted to hydrogen sulﬁde (H2S) with near complete oleﬁn saturation. The product sulfur level can be as low as 5 ppm. The vapor from the separators is combined with makeup gas. T. compressed and recycled. ����������� ���������� ����� ������������� ��� ���� ������� ������ ���� ����������� ��������� ���������� ������� �������� ����������� ����������� ����������� �������� ���������� Description: The basic ﬂow scheme of the OCTGAIN process is similar to that of a conventional naphtha hydrotreater. Feed and recycle hydrogen mix is preheated in feed/efﬂuent exchangers and a ﬁred heater then introduced into a ﬁxed-bed reactor. “Technology Options For Meeting Low-Sulfur Mogas Targets. ultra-deep Application: Reduce sulfur in gasoline to less than 10 ppm by hydrodesulfurization followed by cracking and isomerization to recover octane with the OCTGAIN process. The design and operation permit the desired level of octane recovery and yields. . The liquid from the separators is sent to the product stripper where the light ends are recovered overhead and desulfurized naphtha from the bottoms.” NPRA Annual Meeting.
V. S. E. EMRE has an alliance with Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) to provide SCANﬁning technology to reﬁners and an alliance with Merichem Chemicals & Reﬁnery Services LLC to provide EXOMER technology to reﬁners. (EMRE) proprietary selective catalyst systems. with low levels of product mercaptans variations in the plant design from SCANﬁning I Process to the SCANﬁning II Process for greater HDS selectivity. “Case History: Desulfurization of FCC naphtha. construction or operation having combined capacity of over 1. Yields: Yield of C5+ liquid product is typically over 100 LV%. SCANﬁning technology also features ExxonMobil’s proprietary reactor internals such as Automatic Bed Bypass Technology for onstream mitigation of reactor plugging/pressure drop buildup. Licensor: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co.” World Reﬁning Association Third European Fuels Conference. heated with reactor efﬂuent exchange and passed through a pretreat reactor for dioleﬁn saturation. ultra-deep Application: Reduce sulfur in FCC gasoline to levels as low as <10 wppm by selective hydrotreating to maximize octane retention with the SCANﬁning technology.” Hydrocarbon Processing. ����������� ���������� ����� ������������� ��� ���� ������� ������ ���� ����������� ��������� ���������� ������� �������� ����������� ����������� ����������� �������� ���������� Description: The feed is mixed with hydrogen. or addition of a ZEROMER process step for mercaptan conversion. . et al. ���������������� ��������� References: Sapre. In this section of the plant. After further heat exchange with reactor efﬂuent and preheat using a utility. “Meeting the Low Sulfur Mogas Challenge.. March 2002. Installation: Thirty-seven units under design.Gasoline desulfurization. For high-sulfur feeds and/or very low-sulfur product.. the hydrocarbon/hydrogen mixture enters the main reaction section which features ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co. steam cracker or light straight-run naphthas can also be processed with FCC naphthas. The feed may be full-range. which strongly favor hydrodesulfurization while minimizing oleﬁn saturation.. SCANﬁning technology can be retroﬁtted to existing units such as naphtha or diesel hydrotreaters and reformers.. Other sulfur-containing streams such as light-coker naphtha.1 million bpsd. Ellis. or addition of an EXOMER process unit for mercaptan extraction. sulfur is removed in the form of H2S under tailored process conditions. A. et al. intermediate or heavy FCC-naphtha fraction. February 2004.
The AHS absorber and ATS reactor systems are chilled with cooling water.95% of the sulfur and practically 100% of the ammonia contained in the feed gas streams are recovered. Except for the H 2S burner / waste heat boiler.000 mtpy ATS plant is operating in Northern Europe. The ATS process can be combined with a Claus unit. The resulting SO2 is absorbed with ammonia in a two-stage absorber to form ammonium hydrogen sulﬁte (AHS). The ATS product is withdrawn as a 60% aqueous solution that meets all commercial speciﬁcations for usage as a fertilizer.H2S and SWS gas conversion Application: The ATS process recovers H2S and NH3 in amine regenerator offgas and sour water stripper gas (SWS gas) as a 60% aqueous solution of ATS – ammonium thiosulfate (NH 4 )2S 2 O 3. ATS is increasingly used as a fertilizer (12. Licensor: Haldor Topsøe A/S.95%. ��� ������� ����� ��� ��������� ��� �������� ��������� ������������������ ��� ������� ��� ��� ������������ ����������� Description: Amine regenerator off gas is combusted in a burner / waste heat boiler. More than 99. which is the standard commercial speciﬁcation.0 -26S) for direct application and as a component in liquid fertilizer formulations. all process steps occur in the liquid phase at moderate temperatures and neutral pressure. The ATS process can also handle SWS gas alone without ammonia import while the S / N balance is adjusted by exchanging H 2S surplus and deﬁcit with a Claus unit. Typical emission values are: SOx <100 ppmv NOx <50 ppmv H 2S <1 ppmv NH3 <20 ppmv ������������� ��������������������������������������� ����������������������������������������������������������������� Installation: One Topsøe 30. Unreacted H 2S is returned to the H 2S burner. NH3 and H 2 S contained in the SWS gas plus imported ammonia (if required) is reacted with the AHS solution in the ATS reactor. . thus increasing processing capacity while obtaining a total sulfur recovery of > 99.0 .
where sparged air reoxidizes the catalyst solution. W. sour-water-stripper gas. the absorber (1) and oxidizer (2) are combined in one vessel. 53–57. ﬁlter cake or high-purity molten sulfur.H2S removal Application: LO-CAT removes H2S from gas streams and produces elemental sulfur. eliminating the external circulation pumps. “Consider optimized Iron-Redox processes to remove sulfur. Watson. Continuous regeneration of the catalyst solution allows for very low chemical operating costs. No . Reference: Nagl. proprietary. Licensor: Gas Technology Products.. which can produce ﬁlter cake as high as 85% sulfur. LO-CAT units are in service treating reﬁnery fuel gas. may increase operating costs. Sparging of the sour gas and regeneration air into the specially designed bafﬂe system creates a series of “gas lift” pumps. Key beneﬁts of operation are high (99. G. Rouleau and J. Sulfur loadings range from a few pounds per day to 25+ tons per day. Sulfur is recovered as a slurry. sulfur is concentrated in the oxidizer cone and sent to a sulfur ﬁlter. amine acid gas. The reduced catalyst solution returns to the oxidizer (2). Hydrogen sulﬁde concentrations range from a few ppm to 100%. claus tail gas and sulfur tank vent gas. This conﬁguration is ideally suited for treating amine acid gas and sour-water-stripper gas streams. but can also be deposited in a nonhazardous landﬁll. and ﬂexible operation. but separated internally by bafﬂes. pp. hydrodesulfurization offgas.000 psi.. ��������� ��������� ���� � � �������� �������� ���� �������� ���������� ������������ �������� Description: The conventional conﬁguration is used to process combustible gas and product gas streams. some contaminants. such as SO2. In the patented autocirculation conﬁguration. the ﬁlter cake can be further washed and melted to produce pure molten sulfur. restrictions on type of gas to be treated. The catalyst solution is returned to the absorber. Operating conditions: Operating pressures range from vacuum conditions to 1. Installations: Presently. a division of Merichem Chemical & Reﬁnery Services LLC.9%) H2S removal efﬁciency. Sour gas contacts the dilute. Sulfur capacities are typically less than 25 ltpd down to several pounds per day. In both conﬁgurations.” Hydrocarbon Processing. however. Operating temperatures range from 40°F to 140°F. The sulfur cake is increasingly being used in agriculture. with virtually 100% turndown capability of H2S composition and total gas ﬂow. If desired. where the H2S is absorbed and oxidized to solid sulfur. 160 licensed units are in operation with four units under construction. Sweet gas leaves the absorber for use by the reﬁnery. January 2003. iron chelate catalyst solution in an absorber (1).
Installations: Sixteen units installed. Licensor: Gas Technology Products. ���������� ����� �������� ��� �������� Description: Single-bed (shown) or dual “lead-lag” conﬁgurations are possible.H2S removal Applications: Sulfur-Rite is a solid-bed scavenger for removal of H2S from aerobic and anaerobic gas streams. Sulfur vents. a division of Merichem Chemical & Reﬁnery Services LLC. ﬂows over media where H2S is removed and reacted. When the H2S level at the outlet of the lead vessel equals the inlet H2S level (the media is completely spent). Sour gas is saturated prior to entering media bed. the other in the lag position. The media is replaced. The spent media is nonpyrophoric. and the vessel with fresh media is returned to service in the “lag” position. the vessel must be bypassed. when the H2S level exceeds the level allowed. For continuous operation. and is suitable for disposition in nonhazardous landﬁlls. media removed through the lower manway. with one vessel in the lead position. loading and unloading facilities. The vessel with the spent media is bypassed. Sweet gas exits the bottom of vessel. a dual “lead-lag” conﬁguration is desirable. Gas enters vessel top. or backup insurance for other reﬁnery sulfur-removal systems are examples. fresh media installed and vessel returned to service. �������� ��������� ������ Operating conditions: Gas streams up to 400°F can be treated. the gas ﬂow is changed and the vessels reverse rolls. In the single-vessel conﬁguration. Gas streams should be at least 50% water saturated. Suitable applications are generally sulfur loads below 200 lb/d sulfur. The two vessels operate in series. and/or remote reﬁnery locations. so that the “lag” vessel becomes the “lead” vessel. .
Installation: Fifteen units in operation. Products: A full line of ELIMINATOR products can treat any type of gas streams. environmentally friendly and easy to operate manner. In properly designed systems. a division of Merichem Chemicals & Reﬁnery Services LLC. • Line injection—ELIMINATOR can be sprayed directly into a gas stream with removal of the spent product in a downstream knockout pot. the removal of spent solution and the addition of fresh solution without shutting down. A number of different treatment methodologies may be used to treat sour gas streams. Licensor: Gas Technology Products.H2S removal Application: ELIMINATOR technology consisting of a full line of ELIMINATOR products removes hydrogen sulﬁde (H2S) and light mercaptans from a variety of process gas streams in a safe. and its performance is not sensitive to operating pressure. efﬁcient. . This arrangement also results in the optimum utilization of the solution. • Sparge tower—Sour gas is bubbled up through a static volume of ELIMINATOR. A lead-lag vessel arrangement can be installed to allow for Economics: Operating costs are very favorable for removing less than 250 kg/d of H2S. • Packed tower—Sour gas is contacted with circulating solution of ELIMINATOR in a counter. packed-bed scrubber. H2S concentrations of less than 1 ppm can easily be achieved on a continuous basis. Description: The ELIMINATOR technology is extremely versatile.
per bbl of feed Fuel. hr –1 Conversion. Installation: The H-OilDC process has two references. This technology has been commercially demonstrated based on the ebullated bed reactor making a total of nine references for residue and VGO hydroconversion.and hydrogen-ﬁred heaters. wt% 750– 820 600 –1.500 0.3 Example: VGO + DAO feed: a blend of heavy VGO and C5 DAO containing close to 100 ppm metals is processed at 80% conversion at an overall desulfurization rate of over 96%. Various catalysts are available as a function of the feedstock and the required objectives. for cases of feeds with low metal contents. one in operation and one under construction.01– 0. the catalyst can be regenerated onsite to reduce catalyst consumption.500 – 4.Hydroconversion—VGO and DAO Application: An ebullated-bed process H-OilDC is used for hydroconversion (hydrocracking and hydrotreating) of heavy vacuum gasoil and DAO having high Conradson carbon residue and metal contents and low asphaltene content. Catalyst in the reactor is replaced periodically without shutdown and. ���������������� ���������� ��������������� �������� ��������� ������� ����� ���������������� ��������� ��� ����� �������� �������� ���� �������� ��������� ���������� ������� ���������� Description: The ﬂow diagram includes integrated mid-distillate hydrotreating for an ultra-low-sulfur-diesel product. lb 2. a recycle gas scrubber and product separation and fractionation.0 20 –80 in once-through mode Economics: Basis—2005 US Gulf Coast Investment in $ per bpsd Utilities. an advanced design hot high-pressure separator and ebullating pump recycle system. 103 Btu Power. kWh Catalyst makeup. An H-OilDC unit can operate for four-year run lengths at constant catalyst activity with conversion in the 20-80% range in once-through mode and to more than 95% in recycle mode with up to 99% hydrodesulfurization.000 60 3 0. . �������� ������ ���������� ���� ��������� �������� ������� �������� ����������� ���������������� �������� ������ Operating conditions: Temperature. The typical battery limits scheme includes oil.5 –3. It is best suited for high severity operations and applications requiring long run lengths. with a total cumulative capacity of 139. psi LHSV. Licensor: Axens. °F Hydrogen partial pressure.900 bpsd.
826 225 –360 <10 <5 – 62 125 – <8 5. °C Smoke pt. EOR 0. wt%. allowing for 3–4 year cycle lengths and products with low aromatics content until end of cycle. ppm Cetane index Flash pt. single-step/total conversion with liquid recycle.800 140 –225 <10 <5 – – 40 26–28 < 12 – 0. cooling.500 –3. EOR Viscosity @ 38°C.3 <2 Economics: Investment: (Basis: 40. kWh 6. erected. Main features of this process are: • High tolerance toward feedstock nitrogen • High selectivity toward middle distillates • High activity of the zeolite. $ per bpsd 2. engineering fees included. ppm Nitrogen.3 Electricity. cSt PAH.9 3 Water. gr. extra-quality FCC feed with limited or no FCC gasoline post-treatment or high VI lube base stocks. .. 2). mm. deasphalted oil. gas separator (3). typical per bbl feed: Fuel oil. ��������� ����� ������� � � � �������� ������ ������������ �������� Products: Jet fuel. cumulative capacity exceeding 1 million bpsd. and twostep hydrocracking. °C Sulfur. ppm Metals. � � Description: This process uses a reﬁning catalyst usually followed by an amorphous and/or zeolite-type hydrocracking catalyst. EOR Aromatics. conversions up to 99%. diesel. kg 5. 2000 Gulf Coast). Three different process arrangements are available: single-step/ once-through.000-bpsd unit.500 Utilities. 90% conversion. once-through. Licensor: Axens. stripper (4) and product fractionator (5).932 405– 565 31.64 Steam. TBP cut point. visbreaker or coker gasoil). very-low-sulfur fuel oil.Hydrocracking Application: Upgrade vacuum gas oil alone or blended with various feedstocks (light-cycle oil. battery limits. m 0. Jet HVGO fuel Diesel Sp.700 853 <2 – – – – 110 0. The process consists of: reaction section (1. ���� ����� �������������� Product quality: Typical for HVGO (50/50 Arabian light/heavy): Feed. vol%. MP balance Installation: More than 50 references..
high-octane gasoline.Hydrocracking Application: Convert a wide variety of feedstocks including vacuum deep-cut gas oil. lube-oil basestock production. coker gas oils. wt% Diesel. steam cracking and lowsulfur fuel oil. low-sulfur distillates and blending stocks including LPG. wt% LSGO (FCC feed). ��� Description: The process uses a multiple catalyst system in multi-bed reactor(s) that incorporates proprietary advanced quench and redistribution internals (Spider Vortex). When higher-quality distillates are required. and FCC cycle oils into high-quality. wt% H2 consumption. de-asphalted oil (DAO). �������� ������� ���������� ���� ��� ���� ������ ������� ��� ���������� �������� ������� ���� ����� ����������� �������� ������ ������������ Products: Products include a wide range of high-quality. An amine scrubber removes H2S from the recycle gas before it gets compressed and re-circulated back to the unit.3 –1. 4 6 22 65 1. % H2 pressure.5 20 – 200 13 – 18 30 – 500 45 – 50 10 10 26 50 1. low-sulfur fuels using ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company’s (EMRE) moderate pressure hydrocracking (MPHC) process. wt% Kero/jet.0 20 – 200 17 – 22 30 – 200 50 – 55 Operating conditions and yields: Typical operating conditions on a Middle East VGO for a once-through MPHC operation are shown: Product quality: Operation conditions: Conﬁguration Nominal conversion. highly integrated distillate post-treating unit (PTU) can be incorporated in the design to meet or exceed high-pressure hydrocracking product quality at lower capital cost and hydrogen consumption ������������� �������� Yields: Naphtha. mm Diesel sulfur. psig MPHC 35 800 MPHC 50 800 MPHC 50 1. wppm Kero smoke Pt. Reactor efﬂuent is ﬂashed in high. An optimized. Unconverted bottoms product from the MPHC unit is very low in sulfur and is an excellent feedstock for ﬂuid catalytic cracking (FCC).5 – 2.8 20 – 200 15 – 20 30 – 300 47 – 52 10 10 27 50 1. the addition of a lowcost.0 –1.and low-temperature separators. Heavy hydrocarbons and recycle gas are preheated and contact the catalyst in the trickle-phase ﬁxed-bed reactor(s). low cost stripper/fractionator arrangement is used for product recovery.250 Continued . wppm Diesel cetane no. highquality reformer naphtha. wt% Kero sulfur.
9) 101 1. cooling. gal Wash water.2 69.2 36.1) 178 2. MP (export). .600 (21.1 67. Btu Steam. kW Fuel (absorbed). Licensor: ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co. gal 4.Hydrocracking.1 EMRE’s MPHC process is equally amenable to revamp or grassroots applications. lb Water.000 – 3. per bbl of feed: Electric power.100 (15. Economics: Investment $/ bpsd 2. gal Lean amine.1 7. two in construction. continued Utilities. EMRE has an alliance with Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) to provide MPHC technology to reﬁners.000 Installation: Four operating units.5 36.
the Topsøe hydrocracking process can be designed for high conversion to produce high smoke point kerosine and high cetane diesel. ��������������� ����������� ���������� ������������� ������� ������� ���� �������� ������� Product: By proper selection of operating conditions. Topsøe hydrocracking catalysts have been supplied to eight hydrocrackers. Topsøe’s zeolitic and amorphous hydrocracking catalysts have been proven in several commercial hydrocrackers. The FCC gasoline produced from a Topsøe hydrocracking unit does not require post-treatment for sulfur removal. Operating conditions: Typical operating pressure and temperatures range from 55 to 170 bar (800 to 2500 psig) and 340 to 420°C (645 to 780°F). diesel. high VI lube stocks and petrochemical feedstock can be produced to increase the reﬁnery’s profitability. process conﬁguration. and catalysts. In addition. The process uses recycle hydrogen and can be conﬁgured in partial conversion once-through feed mode or with recycle of partially converted oil to obtain 100% conversion to diesel and lighter products.of .the . meeting current and future regulatory requirements. Installations: One operating licensed hydrocracking unit. ���������� ������������� ��������� ����������� ������� ��� ������� ������������ ������� ������ ���������� ������������ ��������� ���������� Description: Topsøe’s hydrocracking process uses well proven co-current downﬂow ﬁxed bed reactors with state .art reactor internals and catalysts. kerosene.Hydrocracking Application: Topsøe’s hydrocracking process can be used to convert straight run vacuum gas oils and heavy cracked gas oils to high quality “sulfur-free” naphtha. The process can also be designed for lower conversion/ upgrade mode to produce low sulfur FCC feed with the optimum hydrogen uptake or high VI (>145) lube stock. and FCC feed. Licensor: Haldor Topsøe A/S. .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.