Contents

ProLogue
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

p.

(The) The The The The The The The

Vacuum DieLectric Charged Vacuum Vacuum Vacuum Vacuum Vacuum Vacuum Vacuum Vacuum

p. p.

2 25 50 75 100 125 144 158 178

p.
p. p. p.

Opaque Melted Grand Higgs Heavy

7. 8.

p.
p.

HistoricaL

OutLine:

p.

Published originally by H. Deutsch Publishers in 1985, ISBN 3-97144-889-3, Republished electronically in 2006, Copyright: J. Rafelski and B. Muller Use for scientific and educational purposes allowed with statement of the source http://v-rww.physics.arizona.edu/-rafelski/Books/StructVacuumE.pdf

Preface

Our nature tion tre

fundamentaL has in that just the of today considered This of the wi

understanding undergone vacuum our to diaLogue vacuum
LL

of an aLmost become This

the an

basic

Laws revoLupart working

of of very

invisibLe integraL the onLy of 1984. course of the permits

has

structure

universe. undertake the as

scientist recentLy writers. standing The this nature. increase with the practicaL irritation ticular. scientist tuaL academic phYsical conversation impression standing universe netic waves
ri

projects of account science an

province gives of September in of that the

fiction under-

reader book One our

encounter aspects is

study

of

various confLict seeming use the an spirit. science, of gh t in and it, of arises

a seemingLy of of of the the our

contradictory desire of to in to make parnature Another serious inteLLecthe of the gun" of our worLd trat an fate of adequate

academic secrets attempts knowLedge. eLement. of creative can the give the reaL tre

understanding banality the newLy from important in and we to practicaL microwave However, the chiLdLike

acquired human
JOY

often which

source instances as with here have the such the

of is

work

ridicuLe

intention

reproduced next the the

may Left

"positron

probabLe importance

eLectromag-

oven.

We tbeir with No.

wouLd

Like G.

to Hough,

thank G. in
YOU

UCT

students, and

in particuLar, D. v. Oertzen which

D. for ended R: When the we that styLe textbook. But its So we content actually be a are Jan. book intended to to sat by down

ProLoque

Crouch, the

LittLewort a warm-up us

participation question: Are Everything of Like recorded of here which and the to

discussion for is
a

to

write we were

a book for an

on

the

vacuum, slipping graduate

we

taking beLow

ride? best scientific

reaLized into leveL

custom

inadvertentLy advanced

said authors. thank

the

appropriate

knowLedge We of wouLd the

Mary

Anne

SchUtrumpf and It her is our and about

for heLp

typing in by the to our

M: in R: the

write

a book

that

is as

accessible welL. book; it

conversation the the permitted manuscriPt. kind us support to

undergraduate it should in which not

students be

preparation acknowLedge famiLies B. Cape MULLer Town,

pLeasure nothing.

patience

a research concepts

think

shouLd

estabLished

about

vacuum Yes,

explained. What I wouLd elements the our the how for of think of is that it should be but concepts nature, but not of the a in

J.

RafeLski 1984 book a how wbich which way are nature contains important works, detaiLs. can rapid over by ways us taLk cLearLy deveLopment the the of past generaL even see an of years pubLic. infLuencing aLL this. urgent the need new may But the for concepts have today Laws not we of such a book. about even can nature the been begin ... modern research, basic of

September

which

explains

underLying understanding physics

works,

technicaL R: The vacuum noticed to M: study Let

about

the propagation because of are Light two different phenomena different. what wouLd read you that read the in an encycLopedia? is a space You devoid We L L . medium cLassicaL the but describe media. of in an So But the the vacuum vacuum. so might different have actuaLLy from been reading is the ·something'.2 3 Chapter Vacuum = Space free of matter (The) Vacuum R: Very nice. The physics? that is and You in very we very that may rave Learnt it comes have the matter. this that the one 'nothing'. understanding We now in consider the physics. vacuum You they are very may a LittLe have the bit same in Like Laws difmedia. in in in same Last decade to of Laws they important understanding addition set and physics operating describe a different different vacuum phenomena. a Fig. . 1. But to Indeed the is understanding the Laws of of the vacuum important in wouLd of probabLy vacuu~ understand so. R: wit r which our M: which ferent nonetheLess So a ---------( the the vacuum worLd of of actuaLLy in which physicaL the vacuum? provides the worLd phenomena us with a frame.1: A as view space of the naive of definition of the vacuum free matter. occurs. in that Is background is embedded. concept The VacuuM and the Laws of Nature about M: R: order M: sounds encycLopedia. surprising is the the of that Laws Laws wouLd the of of thing vacuum physics physics.

space any of make materiaL. showing a sphere achieved. proved vacuum the by existence means of of his t r e macro- descriPtion physics. refer pumped. a vacuum of that what from by then a t>istory removing of space. actuaLLy which M: taken found. changed and reLativity barometer History of the Vacuum R: wouLd Oh be yes. 1. in 17th removaL in order the phenomena. that before but the perhaps concept birth to oLd the it of of be ourseLves vacuum modern abLe to actuaLLy the vacuum absence nature. air nothing derives. remains physics Lot. to from t his peopLe concept course. but where the and . space space from devoid which by is to some is be of matter aLL kind is taken and probabLy reaL matter of to be has So in vacuum visibLe of to be removed vacuum nothing Yes. vacuum. century of of it we vacuum air to speak were at were Greek These when from lower condito Fig. the t ions pressure resurrected means least to such permitted the an Now The puLL which famous apart the demonstration that the air eight two has been haLves by horses Otto are of von not Guericke abLe out to of partial extent here.2: TorricelLi scopicaL test. proper was physics. we to The of of have remind gone born a Long Long was of of in way.n technicaL a region of apparatus. conceived matter naturaL the the that of removal near course. attempted matter a true cLassicaL have macroscopic it was era of the aLso a certain but region quantum Quite Fig. 1 .4 5 R: the been Now.3: understanding concepts technoLogicaL vessels. a material .

about needed were in was which then Newton for that and be or of know atoms.J-:---. And substance makes so a soace pLanets atoms about matter. 1. exampLe. in which veLocity might veLocity state from L igh t in which t~day's actuaLLy state veLocity? be so. 1 I . considered we of LikeLy speak Light that the vaLue.> • . is a strong veLocity we the there cases sLower eLectric of of.4: Some within ancient the Greek is vacuum. fieLd. wouLd were to cran~e be many onLy a have did or not taLk the read the about sun Newton the weLL vacuum the vacuum it wouLd because change. a am of very much years amazed of ago the the whiLe Is about oLd it was today it the difference and in to of the that be even a resurrected materiaL the certainLy devoid or had vacuum empty understanding. up on. one fieLd can velocity maLLy today. made phiLosophers of beLieved atoms which that move everything There R: Did Newton move have to the aLready in to taLk century pLanets have a concept of vacuum? Did his R: M: enough in in which confess about after or the that that. just and or twenty states different a wouLd a new be veLocity with materiaLLy space.1 • • • •: 1 .. when of been stars R: concept un tiL vacuum have create Light is our in exist that But has or change.. for We perhaps vacuum a resuLt • .6 7 M: Yes.1 . but the interesting the the and to thing vacuum rearrange to bodies concept did not is that the the oLd Greek which Speed of Light in the Vacuum ph i Losophers they to tre matter couLd forgotten. vacuum different of a much varying we couLd of of atoms. couLd what we vacuum But Light in possibLy know in which magnetic aLL wiLL be the don't know is about that if that.'" . . thought move vacuum in move. Newton earth I are different kinds of vacual planets a vacuum? One shouLd from change of physicaL reaLize one in here state aLL systems that to if we another. out being couLd M: certain vacuum higher another WeLL.. not But certainLy scientists catastrophic properties LikeLihood. we Light the nor- a strong the that than know one Fig.----• • • . of measure. moved. vaLues.

smaLL of course. uranium behind protons overcome succeed amount two a high energy sum of originaL remarkabLe information. expLain fragments Latter So two have we nucLeus nucLear even nucLear and instance the energy Live coaL. nucLeus a way physics. form which fused rest we mass In mass R: Einstein that of deaL aLready aLL of forms and energy recognized of that energy the which at mass can the of be beginning reLated. shouLd M· into ampLe if a Leave matter first matter veLocity offer is. spLitting of eLectricaL attraction. miniscuLe .c 2 ) R: Yes. produce vacuum. after to do is to repuLsion energy a certain matter remind that some to energy. it modern form of out in together However. a nucLeus nucLeus however. fission. important NucLei an aLpha is sun our and the we that i. a substannucLeons which the wind and fueL invoLved derive one any of contains usefuL under energy usefuL actuaLLy Like and Indeed amount circumstances. has the many opportunity possibLe one. arrive is to and define to Lightl is to not the discuss strucMaybe we There IoIh ch i fission. takes atoms of fraction into from of So is by the weLL a fact four of free utiLisabLe that pLace are the which phenomenon the sun is a more fusion. is in the end. have that for to that. the in uranium the uranium the account that we taLk behind thing and concepts is onLy taking have energy. actuaLLy something vacuum. nucLeons. are energy PLease use estabLished. a body made of matter the is a of tiaL hydrogen together this of century a form great certain M: makes are particLe converted radiates. energy. observation compLex. Jan: are there cases where one and oiL. burning the mass energy four are power Lighter. unique actuaLLy vacuum try we the matter about we and aLso any reappear one energy. has muLtivaLued vacuum begin becomes cne has force avaiLabLe intricate a very and which pieces a and compares the mass of sLightLy haLves of energy in because repuLsion. in of a nucLear a mass a it have by in of is.e. is what Energy and Matter in Less use Of mass as than nucLeus. of space might So tpe l irradiating the neutrons fragments veLocity actuaLLy the masses heavy Yes. And pLant. sources so same reduce on. course. ourseLves energy time. and we the first But an of Light. the Vacuu. that protons eLectricaL if a very The fraction after physics Large these is when by we however. nucLeus.8 9 the not It onLy how that tured. into we each mutuaL when one with is do two gain other a repuLsive nucLear the on fLyaway due can of nucLeus to be the it. ALthough to So traveL that we at fuLL the define of must the of note faster our now that than this wouLd R: Yes. remind of this? me. (E = . turn think reLation takes exand if we into the of then from their seen the M: substantiaL acquire That the the Larger.

10

11

eLements Einstein's for space netic and so . exampLe,

just

in

the But

proper that

amount means fieLd that

required if we an to

by have, empty

way

that in is

t his

works

has

to

do

with

the

uncertainty

reLation. an of couLd, must the matter, in extend

reLation R: M: What

quantum quantum

mechanics. mechanics, is or Berndt? the physicaL scaLe. the differs to extend motion from this of Large theory of

eLectromagnetic that certain the

fiLLing this convert 'space

devoid fieLd we

actuaLLy cases,

eLectromagm~tter, of and devoid matter

requirement space

Quantum on

mechanics the atomic mechanics quantum in that it dimensions. wouLd wouLd some mean are and the of must Look Like can its at an kind we made up motion atoms. many

m~tter'to fieLds'

requirement

devoid

of

p~enomena R: So

subatomic describes

cLassicaL and smaLL We L L , is

bodies mechanics very M: _... physics p~ysics. phenomena Fig
1.5:

mechanics is abLe

cLassicaL theory to

rather prefer of know of of In of of from quantum cLassicaL quantum average, show that

state to say aLL

t his that case the many is onLy

a of

LittLe quantum

differentLy.

cLassicaL macroscopic microscopic t~e the and are the It motion atoms they most turns

H
GeneraLized free of matter definition and of the vacuum as space

Limiting many, a baLL that them, aLL quantum

p~enomena of do. very But i, principLe

fieLds.

many if we quantum one as such way differ

case, then these

aLL we

behave

mechanicaLLy, something that Like atoms. cLassicaL mechanics.

observ-

Quantum

Physics

and

Classical

Physics

ing out

something that

probabLe Yes. very quantum materiaLize scopic process those scaLe. happens processes Now there to energy The are are is certainLy the because to on matter onLy vacuum the do cases by a second and not that happen atomic quantum processes known aspect derives in on which such that is from you a and The R: In what emerges

evoLution actuaLLy a Limit does from the the

physics

important physics,

mechanicaL motion

motion of

of

an

a macroscate

eLectron

a baLL?

in w~ich physics.

a microscopic,

determined

12

13

Uncertainty

Relation

and

Zero-Point

Motion

M: over we

The

quantum aLL make taken, onLy

mechanicaL paths a firm in

motion which prediction the the is

consists can be which motion.

of used. of Limit

an

average paths

avaiLabLe

Therefore the in which

cannot be path So is

wi L L one R: It Lose express in

except

cLassicaL

particle beam
">

/ ~ ~

refraction at single slit

dominates mechanics to appreciate about

physicaL the that knowing things more on

quantum cruciaL
a

fundamentaL the atomic We happen, in whicr of exampLe and to degree what
It

theory. scaLe can and we onLy onLy a Fig. we fact in a wit h wrere this
M: 1.6:

certainty a LikeLihood classicaL of and The certainty. quantum speak It the cannot precision. is Located cannot because is wi L L

things. wiLL LikeLihood

that Limit In of teLLs

the

does the

this domains

assume quantum something this that its

dimension mechanics can onLy happening.

The space of t ion Lack Leads

uncertainty and quantum of of to momentum

reLation physics. The with of effects.

between fixing a sLit its

position property of the and

in posiin thus a

mechanicaL the you of you say found. we the be on reLation

phenomena LikeLihood for expresses

dominate,

is a fundamentaL

uncertainty Location be to If an be actuaLLy classicaLLy sitting cannot

a particLe definition refraction

resuLts

quantitativeLy. measurement momentum infinite particle then
t

momentum

a particLe want at

kinetic

determined arbitrary

simuLtaneousLy know of kinetic is to and a very say, it of is at

accuracy, momentum vexing course, rest.

That are being not wouLd

has bound

very

important to another atom the the sun,

consequences particLe. - a simiLar onLy atomic and on

for Consider situation an atomic

particLes that to scaLe then perfectLy buiLt-in of minimaL is the an the -

you

which eLectron earth does
it

bound bound down have but that

r is

particLe particLe a

in an to no such time. bound into quantum

probLem tre Such

Like tabLe made

faLL

nucLeus it wouLd has cannot be kind some point

because be the

statement

anymore

in quantum

momentum quantities So particLe we

mechanics.

LocaLized, requirement
i'lt

mechanics have - zero

weLL-defined motion

the of

same any

motion

14

15

technicaL remain

term in motion.

for

it

and

particLes

aLways

must

accurateLy time vacuum period Length
R:

in a finite measure and of Looks time. The time of energy at then the amount

time.

It

wouLd

take If

an one

infinite now has short is on not the a

to

preciseLy. the vacuum energy of in for

a certain vacuum depends

oj

b)

the

this

V(X)

v(x)

well-defined. of

uncertainty

observation. of quantum devo'd Even of energy now must energy mechanics of from matter were to this inside mucr out to aLL in if we stiLL is onLy for make region. as Long short. more the concepts sense into and be feLt a very every we as We dif-

So one

the period to find

infLuence of aLL of that Qefine. cLassicaL refer taking the and fact that short the to some

if short

considers take

a region time. forms of form the

x
Fig. 1.7: In cLassicaL energy of the the carries mechanics when potentiaL particLe out in it a is weLL the particLe resting (a). state

x
has at In of the the

effort could the recognize ficuLt which that So the account

period to are they actuaLLy same on

observation vacuum and one

is sufficientLy is very Leave and very and
-

Lowest bottom mechanics energy

qu~ntum Lowest (b).

in nature. certainty. two that the time vacuum. energy absence scaLe How these

cLassicaL not important matter of we wouLd energy are you

probabiLity. points are Led one to cannot

a zero-point

motion

R:

So

the

cruciaL of

new motion

concept for any

is

that

tnere particLe.

is an

assured definition Berndt?

a of

a new t his.

inherent

necessity

bound

phrase

Uncertainty Understanding

in of

the the

Measurement Vacuum

of

Energy

and

a New

M: Given in

I wouLd its

define

the state

vacuum of when

now on

in the

the

foLLowing say trat it has

way: it is the

a certain vacuum possibLe average

region energy. you say.

space.

I wouLd

average

Lowest M: the energy that it Yes. other and is not Now more time. important T his to for the vacuum nameLy an energy reLation probabLy
tnat

is R: us On

uncertainty possibLe

reLation. uncertainty measure

between teLLs

absoLuteLy

minimum other states. Both are ActuaLLy are highLy carbon made ordered is it out a even different vacuum reminds of crystaLs diamonds know space? if of Lowest of the the two energy to decay very there energy. correspond Now "LocaL" minima to to between a may higher for be it one different differ that the properties. 1. average its because energy might if I Look be at it for from a very what I different expect. on over two which Of but aLL Is it in R: extended regions is a compare that "true" matter. disordered bLack. one vacuum corvacuum be one the in a ordinary Diamonds are very made they be are out I agree. to is you not after vacuum space. appear a vacuum. energy the state minima vacuum for an course. and the the different may true the even other second vacuum faLse There if must the one. but content. But to state finite probabiLity diamond. there vacuum: forms arrive possibLe different M: to Yes. happen is preciseLy which very. states different This carbon: reminds me more we of is aLL me of carbon of a chemicaL and that both they is not be this the are that and system. on time. of the in in by into person has anaLogous same their their some coaL. in take Lower state is it of in energy out might guarantee is possibLe you of we of Even vacuum Fig. unlimited even depending energy one that regions couLd.8: If can aLmost there by then are remain two in the Length LocaL "faLse" of time.16 17 M: short Yes. are two both the and minima. vacuum higher . diamonds reaction. in particuLar couLd very corresponding a inconceivabLe converted for sad state barrier has time a diamond course. the that as reaLLy taking states. the can of stiLL It transparent. two have circumstances. force couLd. coaL. of then if time you and you is aLL that that perform you wouLd the the it say an observation two states. one state. v The -True- and The -False- Vacuum R: In other period of words. if you which no is aLready a "faLse" out separated a potentiaL barrier. who to states responding different the energy. than into smaLL. that have slightLy carbon substance physicaL energy externaL which bought what energy.

for an I think which a piece expLosive about it wiLL in doing go wiLL different wouLd faLse some you free. transition.~-. and a in this chemicaL famous Latter case the For is event may be more was of simiLar invented dynamite it. be R: sibLe if we worLd.. exampLes who and stabLe. at vacuum the the energy. M: T his is not So what that are our not you Fig. bit expLode so. with to the were energy t his the form So dynamite soLid over be think if you If high the energy you states simiLarLy state.lwrong/ ALfred your trigger a it NobeL tabLe the Lighted wiLL searched You don't ~-_. of we is that it is and posthat our vacuum dynamite might carefuL destroy inconceivabLe Literature are and you actuaLLy if you wiLL worrying Look find into that about the some this current theoretical thought.. research physicists . to true "true" Light. wouLd they the by then set If the the transition vacuum in reLeasing expands from is an the a "faLse" triggered. into turned vacuum behave vacuum accident wouLd emitted uLtimateLy In a But of reaction. then wiLL two in and be and energy materiaL had sit . apparentLy worry reaction match. energy..18 Disintegration of The False Vacuu. M: one which Yes. of but to the by is on if you fir e . one to and with trigger this wouLd particLes.-- _-- - vacuum -~ --- true -- ~iii. energies.__--~ • reLease process and aLL I the new into expLosion state. you reLease in different that. -- -.~~&~~V vacuum _----. can have by to of put to putting it. a Lot the its a LittLe .9: most dynamite. vacuum of explosion avaiLabLe speed energy of materiaLize wouLd are suggesting is a big with now bag it. 1. exampLe. gas.

that But We airpLane f ovnam ~nd it e is not we have by fact universe stiLL moment radiation. 'J " clrF' very h i radiation temperature caLcuLate this than it spectrum corresponding present. and the Evolution of the Universe continuaLLy bodies. because ou:er particLe-particLe high energy cosmic around obviousLy So onLy of domains radiation we might reaction. sibiLity actuaLLy What that occur. makes And that these of wiLL beyond caLLed reactions The Vacuu. have There moment. various that don't is much first more thought. time very the has 3 degrees must today. hasn't be R: So this might it the find We book have is. s o me tim f". no t every space. is not very much particLe about minutes to which a reason? in the immediate destroyenergies decay. properLy. circumstances today have to because enough in nature We have so there worry it in our to consider accurateLy.. reactions coming and not we it difference vacuum expLosive beLieve the basic a reason a state such not the we stiLL this vacuum have not high day. at Lighted expLosives accident. the interactions the test the vacuum. decay when acceLerators entireLy the energy energy danger event we arise triqger catastrophic R: in a particuLar both know not do do that Of course. been are much many think the We But we know what know. a the an we in trigger what consequentLy.1 b o m b dropped F'"I' t '01 act u all y l. triaLs way. it wiLL actuaLLy once aLso they know can th~t tl) thpy i" f' pxp\ode microwave and can explode. we know that when the universe was created . make that undergo shouLd We state. approaching in in if we now Is are of we the vacuum we Limit few actuaLLy But beLieve couLd Why ground wiLL FortunateLy. happens big start decay. because the we even a the the can to we infer time why that ago we a R: Do we know about the creation of the universe? M: WeLL. from an . us. background a KeLvin backwards. new cosmic that even do in our trigbuiLd which range such a M: tiny Not about instant that observe which of its is some was the first Later.1n rj tho u t evoLution radiation . of this happened especiaLLy creation. devastating carefuL it turns out yet that the that an the if you then you not course. ing that are know occur in own ger are does from Yes. that state avaiLabLe acceLerators vacuum radiation r~diation.. when we a we this even So it yet And are change discussed onLy couLd a means rather couLd at is weLL that probabLe be that there event is a posmay not in very of a nature the vacuum must to state. we after hot. that explode. serious than the average had many disturbing the the have be in there perhaps the vacuum? Last reader M: wiLL danger. We can so some reasons hotter other devastating.20 21 Transition between two Vacua expLoding.

into stuck couLd LikeLy the in have that up point existed. that of our the new The can be of of its its of physics. vacuum but universe definition vacuum reached the wrat In derives on must of That evoLution dependent And vacuum evoLutionary about where its evoLution amended: which conditions of must consequentLy Lowest reminds motion it is of going. energy vacuum. whoLe. ALL vacuum of is time energy universe the of we very are and the and. state dependent is a weLL here from on the the be known coaL. state. In The order same to appLies know in to the evoLution vacuum we of eLements formed very some cooLed high previous down if not you severaL be quite get that that do wouLd of So it the we is very which temperature universe prysics of of happens phase happened states ours is a phase was known cooLing quickLy. we former cosmoLogicaL discipLines in Maybe future. not the it the Fig. the the Now. not know rot very then energy. destructive It indeed in the cosmic begin present system.22 23 beLieve ampLe. 1. The Final Definition of the ·Vacuum· reside today.L----- come preciseLy ShouLd faLse vacuum FinaL space set definition with boundary the of the vacuum possibLe as an area of Lowest energy unter conditions. wouLd true one. know and a singLe veLocity a very pLace perhaps in i t i a L conditions. energy me. the Laws our stiLL fact phenomenon diamonds. preciseLy attempting processes atomic as a physics. particLe the the possibLe unavoidabLe. again eLementary universe those graphite. very onLy find particLe but which theories probe event. Lowest higher to exist. the the and Lead change couLd wiLL wiLL decay at weLL some of generate our subject. particLe. r _. have that and weLL you universe that certain been was at has often Sometimes and actuaLLy t his primevaL that unLess at firebaLL make the some time since. the of be understanding the that in vacuum some high the understanding boundary seLf-destruction. in i t i a L unstabLe . our R: in ActuaLLy physics Thus is it is as of state given physicaL everybody order to that just our aLso a is the the the not behaviour recaLL worry onLy whoLe. of to through we have of the to study nucLear of of of understand which of physics the course. For ex- in i t i a L a vacuum position. knows know course. not to in physics.10: ~. the in in stars time. a our may aLso is LikeLy the Laws physics. nature which expLosive astrophysics.

If we at be are shouLd know physics. of The DieLectric Vacuum foLLowing and the many an to indeed summarize present can behind seLves knowLedge investigations. contribute the to fundamentaL physics esoteric is occasionaLLy M: And to not If we want one we to which discuss we have some doubt the in more just of the So certainLy detaiL mentioned take the as the an aspects exampLe we begin of one from know our of understanding expected and to fundamentaL and to in has the has vacuum for even how concern other scientists with e. aLso properties properties forces in to accord produce moLecuLar eLectromagnetic operate mechanics particLes principLes effects . as the foLLow of among with we aLL from these the atomic matter charge have which know. eLectromagnetic structure vacuum fate civiLization. buiLd of with to for the the it. discussion vacuum.24 25 vacuum. transistors. aLso and the from whose of is a bound ALL derive the state aLL chemicaL the Quantum interactions. structure understanding environment themseLves Like who do engineers duction experience. aLL Their of and contribute work the the aLso Without considering interaction I think is eLectromagnetism. negativeLy the are antiparticLes charged. nucLeus. positive eLectrons we of An imthe with eLectricaL which mediateLy eLectrons. speak Least :he of eLectromagnetic two 8tomic and the different nucLei others charged. types which wouLd Then of be of carry the course we must One take might particLes. positrons. our some or great of understanding ways is to reLated importance our interactions which we best chemists. this. us And to underthat is our future book we The Electrical Forces in AtOMS reasons themsubject M: structure caLLed in the We to of Quite the minds Chapter 2 Structured to with of though paths this the this devoting Vacuum". appreciation are the for vacuum. vacuum.g. of an atomic eLectron positiveLy the atom. our the in best the R: vacuum which in the intro- usuaLLy phiLosophicaL astronomers. stand why We we wiLL So the have try it is of great of this importance a Quantum book "The chapters indicate hope peopLe that who even one.

Later states. within eLectron. electrons. onLy one energy which energy particles. binding moLecuLes.26 27 the detaiLed structure of the matter of our everyday equation.es And as the its in times But as If a we hydrogen has take nucLeus. should one what mechanics realize of is the and today that after Quantum steps Dirac the was at Dirac is the of take the particle square sign. introduction. mechanics the Ttat Namely. motion equation This of exhibits in equation describes the quantum mechanithis found nonto atom. it turns in of 2 . properties the as to falling by an the What of also lower. 2 first have is something Antimatter these by v of or Dirac's ·underworld· negative mechanics. state the understand initially totaL mass crazy. called light. M: we One can important measure energ. just the four induces a fashion slightly times a there states there electrons occurred in corresponded actuaLLy because. when one bit will of we its Large. these we have of order the However. the and inFor proton per two about has is relativistic very the special study in provides electron can be energy nucleus. you Jan. protons four R: the a stable into the can equation found which new was 'luantum ~nd there when while suddenly centre. to of rest states polarization antiparticles. M: To presence had Dirac to Yes. after at you sense A physicaL energy we rave understand about Dirac·s t his effect. not of alluded motion have r~} i 0 u sly rev relativistic In accurateLy eLectrons the nuclear has atom. have to tell our maticaL. is bound uncertainty the Dirac one principle prevents statement centre. the to small make the a LittLe as we localized binding relativistic which energy_ lng previously established fact. readers underworld. energies because matheof to be unreaL energy. creases exampLe. speed positive choose re expression the Now veLocity when or v Ic the the can R: Yes. longer bound to the from expressed state With true. substantially interpreted larger of as dielectric stronger. positive negative . t aLso energy - relativistic a particle where root so you m and is you have cLassicaL given mass. binding a lowest to was the no were electron is present. reconcile time Perhaps was quantum invented one invented. for example. aspect and aLso of know function of very the that of atom. binding caLcuLate in atoms energy charge. c the mechanics to that essential relativity. but we have to the totally negative has been but the mc you the 2 '~1 M- expLain physical here role even seems out that in what of these states. charge in sucr electrons binding this is that. excLuded. the the the which smaLLest heLium the eLectron more now nuclear the of vacuum the than describe. nuclear that assume this that nearly nonstates belongnegative as experience.

absoLuteLy down the these between symmetric Dirac two to equaworLds Fig. mechanics transitions by onLy one into faLL have in jump. and in off unfuLfiLLed ruLe to a perpetuum The He negative existence Dirac a perpetuum Dirac was antiparticLe. point. And that causes a big probLem. particLes stay cannot as there worLd states.~ ~ hv l photon) aLways energy energy is gap being that or between smaLLest want taLking in cLassicaL my two to positive say. one exists.28 29 and this negative is not can make as the they because energy states. It the couLd end you a And to other. in the couLd energy between it is imposin The Pauli Principle and the Stability of Matter they an because different when As a resuLt. you where a energy important change jump sages the they states. compLeteLy disappear whiLe giving introduce . wouLd mobiLe.1: Within eLectron down emission into of the framework a Lower of positive and Lower quantum energy state radiation. jumps aLso intervaL. are in an graduaLLy is mechanics. indeed M: sibLe quantum states. make energy states R: the order That oLd to had to is a big out invent probLem dream the the the as of this process of sea. mechanics wouLd under an faLL the is couLd exactLy be what R: So there each tion. mechanics non if positive go to the facit you continuousLy. particLe cannot tus ' . states. 2. What in positive E . have But a it saLa energy energy nega-mc 2 an infinite amount of energy. did aLL it the in eLectron a transistates. tive these R: the energy M: Yes. are if t ion. in worLds one and finds when writes reLation carrying eLectromagnetic reLativistic disregard the you quantum negative have energy states states the Lower of even states can mechanics energies. way fiLLed he reaLize So mobiLe. positive we have freedom particLes this negative mechanics. the reaLLy of oLd aLL wiLL aLso because the in cLassicaL in cLassicaL onLy ("Natura Therefore. then it wouLd between a finite positive of into these one occur separated beginning. about Berndt. energy in energy said).

exchange But the the change then and and according sign. same shouLd time something changes remains eLectrons Correct. can to arbitrary put in the in So an to statement the same have of the if we state positive eLectron 'anti'-particLe eLectron prevent energies aLL jumping do Lower . describe eLectrons. exactLy of to the course the its same the PauLi that sign Fig. the wave at / is caLLed If - r-:fI L-:J two and doesn't it same zero. A vacant wishes that sign. eLectrons same states. is fuLL of In other words. them. we change. this principLe excLusion we understand terms of a Do In principLe. we these cannot and So that states energy. the sea of perpetuum coexist That probLem eLectrons is caLLed negative energies particLes. from this have is actuaLLy more the in than PauLi which we down to need resuLts one we principLe. sitting them. exchanging is no of mathematicaL statement. anaLogue which has in such equations. principLe.aLL states with down. to it.2: Dirac's energy The positive "underworLd" are PauLi of normaLLy principLe energy negative charge from energy with the (positron). aLso.30 31 negative and the PauLi M: R: energy resoLves don't quantum states the Like with to eLectronsi mobiLe with This more is possibLe since in the is to f iLL the states. the that ~ \ terms cLassicaL quantum is to those describes This M: point. alL negative eLectron the be that generaL mechanics mechanics when two one .t \ electron hole= positron / underLies a manner the a wave of are a two-eLectron system. . state principLe at must R: that state. appears mass but of negative with as with an a fiLLed prevents faLLing (hoLe) same eLectrons. caLLed antisymmetry etectrons if mathematicaL function. In of E there principLe principLe one object changes function. Jan? very But The PauLi when weLL. 2.

So which the aLso have them has from the you is then in other have of fa L L hand Diraac's nameLy into it this aLso sea the poses many Dirac on the one hand reason soLves states. see. the That is Dirac infinite negative essence and charge. energy in the reason why we do not see at the same time we can have fiLLed with particLes. nameLy negative infinite R: it provides the eLectrons On if negative a new eLectrons sea energy probLem. the and R: an aLL Yes. states M: you Now I can aLso a see why there couLd be the an effect of when the introduce nucLeus. in the an infiniteLy states."'" "\ Yes. order have positrons. don't the you energy charge. 2. the worLd of the aLso the same have energy faLLing have opposite and a Dirac and charge. that which wiLL you fiLL be soLved by a simiLar negative consideration energy M: in If sea that you of the positron ~ --::. carries positron world % electron world . down. ::: - ::: - o hole= electmnI) \ hole= pst I ron Fig.32 33 Symmetry between Matter and Antimatter I~ E M: why The introduction Dirac's probLem. positrons. eLectrons for onLy Dirac positrons.. But sea. because charge . equation prevent charges positrons equation. negative you particLes positive positrons positive energy states. then aLso As of equation differs This in must a resuLt. seas negative of canceL energy two exactLy.3: Because eLectrons Dirac to a vacuum of the and is symmetry the totaLLy worLd between of uncharged.

and The about a nucLeus. 2. one resuLt vacuum it.34 35 nucLeus in R: the wiLL Dirac is fieLd an interact sea. huh? it Dirac's underworLd. nothing wiLL with the eLectrons and positrons R· Correct. of any M· OnLy a macroscopic LittLe There it different.such When as eLectroLytic positron Fig. in the that Like Dirac to because sea. which means they differentLy. that them. one There works that due strengthen is an extra sign in this one picture. R: No. the same situation particuLar do fieLd that. as now in And we consequentLy have in is And a we have exactLy medium. wiLL attract the eLectrons and wiLL repeL the attracts positrons. M: you That appLy or the is the voLtage acid fieLd. of appLied charge actuaLLy weaken if NormaLLy of by the any thinks distance wouLd that medium. move if you have the have a away. Liquid .the . be weakened eLectricaL dispLacement qenerated. . arrives density fieLd ri'lther especiaLLy polarizabLe to it it out the to an mathematicaLLy dispLacement appLied one a the eLectricaL wouLd behi'lviour field at in wiLL than charge eLectrical fieLd expect.4: An atomic and (positrons nucLeus energy repeLs positive energy) energy wovetunction attracts (positrons eLectrons positive with eLectrons with with with negative negative water weakens car poLarization energy). eLectric dispLaces eLectrons energy. in typicaL to a an case with battery an eLectroLyte. course. is and not if the the crazy. and eLectrons negative force crazy. electric generates positrons M: It nucLeus.

of a vacuum.36 37 Renor. is to disturb the of we quantities fir s t infinite however. charge M: But same same as onLy way. the + j9~--~c~-=-. because to charge charges vacuum.: . from compute done. vacuum consequentLy the such can that a physicaL if it to change the vaLue way as be absorbed into the definition quantity. measure back acts negative strengthens nucLeus. That we. the change energy very one negative resuLt states. wiLL observed be which on structure vacuum because the Fig. indeed charge. sign such the an he is we And in is of of because a very course. 2. the that reaL they charges weaken are the shows poLarized appLied vacuum actuaLLy is is response can prove from in generaL. muLtipLies is exactLy every charges._-- t hat if you So factor..~-==~ ~--:--=_--=.: ctf . of weLL must the estabLished expect in the sign experimentaL opposite which Thus we now arises must is is And fact. they are affected charges indeed of the And this charge then same.~ E:D----- c::::D ~ . that to are a reaLizes subject observe carefuLLy.alization of Charge § ~ ED @ Fig. the and positive repeLs beLong The eLectricaL the definition which a vacuum of ALL the the of a of present arbitrary renormaLization. 2. eLectricaL eLectricaL . charges charge.5: An charges negative particLes poLarization fieLd of the atomic e ® in @ cB ~ R: Yes. nucLeus charges with thus atomic attracts the vacuum because they energy... finds not When this that there dispLacement the theorist. true if and one true derived it not to is dependent on other any charge a theorem So a bare the onLy phenomena. that wiLL the are be individuaL R: the That affected. dielectric medium affects if it every add charge two in preciseLy charge tren sum of by the how the the way the I mean. unit in on the contribution does the charges if T his.-~~ ~_ -8 -=medium such a way .6: In a materiaL in fieLd.

Vacuu. verified first range. way. ~bsorbec eLectron-positron very is of which squared. presence to the pairs distribution charge. Light that an order is equaL is actuaLLy to find visibLe. order observabLe eLectron. visibLe macroscopic experimentaLLy forces has Now in this of of what interesting reaLLy you which contribution of of charges. to say taLking onLy but square now is that wiLL in the impLies of force the aLso the a it must Length estimate origin the the negative without something perhaps. distance. probLem? Length charge the In nucleus and of of the the mass terms nucleus. in which and now aLL fact we need times R: carry this becomes momentum be the of eLectron a pair magnitude the velocity wouLd of have twice of to the easiLy M' Yes. considering the is the the one short energy rest foLLowing pushing normal vacuum or more time it energy the And mass dispLacement eLectricaL negative energy the corresponds electrons of the attracting because of OnLy And have That do is hence an you you have cannot can a change reabsorb be a dispLacement in it the into in space the that positrons. this. Polarization is Observable Range of the Polarization Energy M: So now we have the understood vacuum to to that mean have which a the inverse wiLL measure this a dieLectric why be in the presence It Of do an course. two been about absorbed which Law is not typicaL the scaLe fieLd energy charge. a very And twice its by in prenomena make a renormaLization modification between M: Yes. to poLarization tances. know I mean what you rest times light. such of short the a poLarization. of wiLL experi- an be it R: Now cLearLy because the pLace. a scaLe we So of can the way: away the vacuum virtual or takes of veLocity the would of it effect then CouLomb cannot is we Law be range which the of be wouLdn't of true for have eLectric that the vacuum disin the is a atomic poLarized wouLd ment R' and What nucLeus simiLar be poLarized. to the physicaL vaLue have caL to seLect a physicaL the size of system this that has as its typi- poLarization dimension dispLacement charge. charge.38 39 charge by the which is then renormaLized of the vacuum. wiLL R: to polarization over to the do of a that creation for of to totaL charge effect. the test reaL Ly we is so. But for of that this what a system we find. the dispLacement . range it is very important charge to is. if charge. one has which a short microscopic typicaL M: WeLL. medium.

the the order is of size of the of e)(actLy experience. uncertainties find tre size course. typicaL constant times about nucLeus of R: order the hundred M: do product is of h. so. R: M: sions R: atom M: a the Now. eLectron are But in protons then.40 41 M: Yes. it atom aLso is turns out that by the the size mass of of the the 50 000 Fermis. R: understand caLL dispLacement a few Do we have an aLternative way of making the atom smaLLer? Right. we can e)(periment ObviousLy Large is it of the can is about is about vacuum one hundred The Muon: the Electron's Heavy -Brother- Fermis. a Lead nice eLectron as coupLed as atom case you to with because has just motion you 82 in said. a 100 times poLarization. we have nucLeus. R: And by determined sa i d. the size and the quaLities nucLeus more a higher charge strength eLectron. the of wl1ich in constant. wouLd and If be then the of imagine that we couLd make the hydrogen the much the coupLing Larger. the much much atom: of are the of atom course. How It it wiLL a hydrogen a hydrogen Berndt? atom. instead of the hydrogen that nucLeus attracts coupLing stronger. of one a hydrogen Fermi wiLL (10 be -13 of nucLeus cm). heavier eLectron we can by using with strongLy. So electrons. M: WeLL. an we need and a physicaL which has not be system a size in which of a few atom. Larger as I have than the aLready dimen- hydrogen eLectron. M: a singLe as atom. of know 82 by distance than eLectrons. soLve is of very these can be take a very bound for the However. than smaLLer Larger a radius is about atom. this of we twice times Light: h/mc. . momentum so teLLs !$J now you and you that L)( can the > which take the uncertainty of the the order wi I_l reLation of PLanck's that the R: That is we a very have not interesting just suggestion. difficuLt states. the we size charge 100 times a hydrogen And of since what Fermis. in the position as many eLectrons there and rest L you wiLL Length divided the a veLocity few and it over by hundred of this the = happen mass of This the is PLanck's eLectron is the size of the For atom about wouLd e)(ampLe This the have And the most to it energies 700 to we wouLd strongLy 800 Fermis. were be So of an mass there smaLLer? Yes. stronger two the atom which the much charge smaLLer. attractive wouLd eLectricaL be determine reduced. the strength wouLd if the force be of much wouLd the coupLing.

not atom a Fig. of has mass. about about two this two Then discussion brother hundred the size times we called times of must the Larger a muonic assume muon. system for stabLe. a nucLeus such which doesn't As form we a aLL So we must Helium moLecule. no muon. than atom purpose mass eLectron a heavy electron's ~ hundred smaller. form M: heLium is a nobLe gas and consequentLy it doesn't more kind. ALso. has which stiLL about has not of trere positively atom. 2. contains a nucLeus. in Now fortunateLy than the why one muon.7: The tion muonic because heLium of atom its very is an the smalL ideaL vacuum size. Yes. wiLL nucLeus So remain another pLus if is caLled you is know Do It there is a heavy that this eLectron? simpLe question muon. system approach interesting for for is the a to be more answer. it turns We out know that the eLectron eLectron know. suitable that hydrogen but using the 8 - M: atom muon atom Yes. a muon bound. with hydrogen which for has a ~~~ instead will UnfortunateLy. is It one wiLL the charged remain helium and just nucLeus then it an wiLL ion. B g Muonic Atollls -~ one the it form of a vacuum take might muon turns out It muonic first consider of a hydrogen attract is not anotrer moLecuLe. such the than At a helium reason known an there So for an has out existence forty present we of years have the now.42 43 M: comes which R: M: the been found why R: that which the turns Yes. properties experimentalLy measuring poLariza- fascinating measurement R: polarization. a heavy a molecule. . has the not two protons. with is and So hydrogen electron. explanation a particle.

otherwise have this is i. is: How Having identified of measurement PreciseLy wiLL Large enough observation? question expect? stabLe? a very We wouLd two in important actuaLLy But decay FortunateLy is much shorter. eLectronic in about and an about times decay. matter. miLLionth decay. muons muonic not would Measuring the Vacuu. us now in a miLLion That to does our the what this not disappeared. an that average on during Lives one wouLd deviation tion at ~hich be Lifetime the order human aLL of The the of of muonic distances a man than body a hundred a capacity affected. which muon cLearLy from and to Therefore probe the the is a distinctive CouLomb onLy the those short Law wiLL of be nucLeus feature interacseen onLy states wiLL decays which radioactive years. the the what what than muon. isotopes Another that short have measurabLy between thing the the distances. fraction caLcium time In to a nucLeus aLLow vacuum. vacuum one we state expect in the we because know the of is of that the muonic is that the effect the be of on be must heLium be much smaLLer and in about So one state. the story . particLe. that point. does vacuum atom this But the form originaL the vacuum kind be? best investigation system effect to poLarization. process the The into wh i c h time In fact.e of the Muon is exactLy of the one same. matter the two the time mJon its it case. a singLe Live muons You a system Are M: not around of decay a atom form by a within miLLion muon of R: human are biLLion years. system Now teLL for to of an study a helium me. of such a of a order of be destroyed. radioactive ActuaLLy. than terms of on of the this muonic in faLLs microseconds. heLium thousandth experiment decay find of with the we fuLL As means Less muons resembLes quite some often. and picosecond.44 45 heLium life-Ti. that of in in nature caLcium. a muon be instead Muons of heLium takes captured state one the Lots for have atoms. miLLionths muonic it is M: Now. return bother our experiof perthe do we R: and So we actuaLLy It muon Long have consists in an its ideaL of to orbit.e. Polarization in Muonic Heliu. R: is interaction poLarization the the between dispLacement can charge effect wiLL binding nucLeus contained to itseLf. to a bones do way are an atom is sucr second. During its or formation so of aLL time muons unly ~iLL ment a fraction have at Let a aLL. of about Lifetime radioactive of muonic which one a to is aLL effect raise stabLe us. of poLarization. nucLeus one So smaLLer charge the the of energy muon the caLcuLated energy heLium Lowest takes we thousandth is a period given heLium totaL scaLe.

than dnabLe lrried we attracted and moLecuLar radiation idea a tunabLe one of difference . energies provided Larger discussed is actuaLLy heLium. respect. J determined muonic Qui t e one has of the r i gh t . these kind due more in order states in to this ate. out a Long-Lived. the the the ago It in which be to be abLe to and do But has 2 s- hundred which requires been the is so-caLLed them Lasers. just this SeveraL just sLightLy the energy common of the with from eLectronic range have of the the physics. di fferent around energy... order of it found Laser fifth are I! .s tab L est e muon which..caL Led of the to rldture :' r 0 V t C\ t thousandth found into faLLs ide d u s wit h a me t a . one measure this energy so accurateLy? It atomic difficuLt. states in the observe R: Tre This preciseLy of have different if E Laser nucLeus) the these different of spLitting though vacuum way.. then aLmost acts might of be the on poLarization expects one a spLitting abLe energy that .. reason: muonic There functions anguLar heLium are (more momentum they one and is states a very which the good have states muon system quite which going same these to lust r by the process of absorption of the energy of the a second wave the So in d a s e r Light. to what states.."tween faLLs in into years fashion. just of what the theory binding I observed turns of one predicts. s 0 . 2. energy. is actuaLLy spLitting of the order experimentaLLy... spLitting muonic suitabLe of heLium the atom 2s and 2p LeveLs by means by within excitof a is measured states can quite reaLLy. mass. have phenomenon But .darization. here experiment remarkabLe the presence to make ass experiment and spLit two frequency. which for w hi c h effect energy frequency an is vacuum nucLeus band of was that of the s :. M: must R: which the of tre just in sources M: Laser muons So one How be Not is s hi thousandth i q . of been energies and constructed.]cuum poLarization is essentiaL in order " )( per imen t f e a sib L e. 2p-state.46 47 M: for have In this respect. by two ft. Of that very course. ConsequentLy. is one states that tries to one to the has excite other a in muonic by than to the be eLectronic of one the about atoms are mass.. A a high has been out degree done to be accuracy.8: The the ing Laser. va c u u m poL a r i z a t ion u chi . Since the we of in the the scaLe times just it.

vacuum interaction very this knows. essentiaL atomic R: Yes. essentiaL caLLed radioactivity M: gravitationaL pLanetary essential systems for creation atoms interactions the naturaL . and interactions necessary atomic to make nucLei a many- together. So the h ed that is electromagnetic which have just interactions vacuum. discovered. concerned. is weLL about say between estabLished the eLectricaLLy indeed... For for weak the of strong w hi c h atom. is so the there are many interactions. one. in it We the we than have but the now best knowLedge in poLarization determinat known lis eLectromagnetic because of charge to estabThis is ingredient energies.. M: which tests. that. bind in order exampLe. there today we weLL been can regard estabLished vacuum poLarization physicaL confirmed by as an the But a dispLacement structure vacuum fir s t there is something more experimentaLLy has phenomenon experimentaL quantitativeLy Other Interactlons R: that of can far It the onLy as has we is been can confirmed convincingLy to such a degree that our of precision parwe as As other is soand argue understanding charged Of the course. of are there structure ticLes eLectromagnetic in interactions nature of are .48 49 an and effect which is of found vacuum precise in many other atomic is an ion of 5ystems. ex i s t binding everybody interactions. eLectron ..

its do Learnt have seen Let structure you we of into are can be mean that that us now the vacuum can have prove if a structure. if in the which vacuum the charge is nucLeus can be charged. that the this is can vacuum positrons. was reLativeLy charge And symmetric initiaLLy between eLectrons and M: and We have we so. which have M: R: is right. charged? to believe to is what vacuum we caLLed a state. and another referring two vacuum it may may be have caught difup it the and R: because nucLeus ferent in could R: as What one positive structure. property. is structures if we one charge.50 51 R' of Chapter 3 M: We the But decided vacuum this had that is in the Dirac sea picture the charge zero. R: "changing that and maybe structure") M: WeLL. Therefore the That When But We L L . we we of charge break aLready a and the symmetry? broke nucLeus. The and states. conditions changed. whiLe opposite . produces pumped out loIe m u s real 01 t M: Yes. The Electrical Charge of the Vacuu. to by do with the the fact that smaLL the vacuum of was the onLy The Charged Vacuum heLium R: poLarized nucLeus. types decay you discussed structure. fieLd eLectrons. in principLe of the Now is charge is OK a box the there vacuum how abLe can to is is no reason anymore. discuss of must the be most distinguished or important by some WeLL. structure. M: R: conservation. it acts the symmetry the differentLy by introducing has a on positrons under by conditions. M: experiments try consider appropriate its the that if indeed change R: M: What That How is do correct. vacuum certainLy eLectric eLectromagnetic properties measure charges. it become absorb that charge zero there different states different structures. something we have that it in a charge.

nucLeus charged vacuum are the aLso the occurrence forces there a question a change exercised. of teLLs occur. have if the what but so vacuum we in the from that is caLLed reaLLy before charged.52 53 t his rounding actuaLLy box be by the some nucLeus machinery. in the So the~ the of vacuum the box surwouLd . And this nameLy the kind state Whether is are when weLL known of are of in nature.1: If inherent vacuum actuaLLy of of the strong the eLectricaL enough. the a kind charge of we virtuaL wouLd not M: depending on this one can have saturation or vacuum vacuum in the not. fieLd the sibLe. Now question couLdn't strong eLectricaL there fieLd. the fieLd reaL of an The is atomic LocaL particLes nucLeus couLd be R: is near particLes then Phenomena opposite. charged. becomes of vacuum so the us the that eLectric that the I mean. R: poLarization. that poLarization become l weaker which seLf-modification imitation cannot Fig. from atomic as and escape. charge.1 r Que that the vacuum charge is zero. discussions interaction fieLd. a poLarization. a reaL is whether it be that it due fieLd some some charged kind to aLL postries the wiLL of his reaLLy when the change can the of happen. weLL theory. in or but the is an of produced charged repeLLed vacuum. poLarization. is effect detaiLs M: onLy Now. reaL contained Correct. the eLectric to we be of must sure an that a charged careand is different is some quite Lengthy vacuum strength Remember before we we were had to abLe go to fuLLy positrons ever-increasing investigate of eLectrons eLectric theory given possibLe. wi L L of the in a So be in the of order resuLt fieLd. Charged M: t Vacuu. the a screening negativeLy structure anti-screening a positiveLy known. vacuum R: That addition totaL zero. of course. 3. that there is voLume onLy a dispLacement. through . there - or not? is. vacuum. so the nucle~s· to structure again.

effect where exampLe the It wouLd be of very in the i9 interesting experimentaLLy. eLectricaL E certainLy becoming reaL. M: order vacuum This to state nucLear is our to find present observe an understanding. vacuum fieLd. counteract M: very vacuum R: the If But poLarization However. other to the the The point 'virtuaL' which where eLectricaL couLd the spark residuaL materiaL. fieLd. fact we it is opposite the said vacuum that to what to poLarizathe one effect wouLd the R: Now. structure actuaLLy 3. conductivity these remaining poLarization appLied effects can tigated. conduction states . tends increase eLectric R: And eLectric this indeed aLways there tendency. of in the this "penetration" process (vaLence insuLator. vacuum fieLd occasionaLLy. we have poLarization this is the no reason vacuum Large to doubt new possibiLity vacuum forming .2: A high eLectricaL of into eLectrons band) voLtage an jump the out resuLts In bound band. of then correction.54 55 M: tion of naiveLy recaLL in the vacuum that muonic when we discussed atom.the ledrons structured charge. this changes.with a charged a sufficientLy . fie L d have been and been found very that so carefuLLy they s~rong make cannot invesonLy keep that a the the this these and smaLL continues becomes strengthens may be up reaL. effects it has from becomes case. we both know to that This Lead to when is an we due appLy to in avaLanche a very insuLators some the of insuLating ionization. strong can The Sparking Vacuum heLium that in poLarization expect. eLectricaL which insuLators.

subatomic of is to the of is positrons vaLence strength between create vacuum nucLei. is enough gap wiLL the atomic to essentiaL strength We order the vaLue impossibLe with the eLectricaL during the now from So simiLar macroscopic that eLectron eLectron-positron spark aLso not if states. We appLy in were the to as to of the eLectrons conduction there bridge the this expect of fieLd and and R: is the of change the required course possibLe nucLeus. Of this so that far we remote have here from an what exercise M: Fig. can being of the view that in that is necessary the vacuum must be to pLays create a simiLar an M: one tion T his is indeed the fieLds. in isn"t physics? so. vacuum the identified discussion distance to manage to is it This But zero poLarization 400 Fermi. 3. of fieLd at discussed. the case. bands in the an to but in a Lifetime.56 57 M: roLe And to the the to threshoLd pair threshoLd make we a spark. The the produced. as anaLogous eLectricaL and onLy we insuLators. eLectricaL over with a sufficientLy fieLd a constant homogeneous eLectricaL E eLectricaL a super-heavy 2mc2 x Supercritical AtOMic Nuclei 2mc2 R: But teLL in t his me. Berndt. eLectron-positron the produce be we positrons ivory-tower such to show super-heavy for its experiment. of have of the Rig h t . this abLe to probabiLity finds the it t~at is even overcome in an one in normaL ones smaLL so macroscopic that that be wouLd eLectricaL the As states to soon fieLd positron pair. fundamentaL . as we have aLready fieLd the have criticaL we basicaLLy distance. produccan we if eLectron-positron insuLator R: caLcuLates to occur. wouLd vicinity distances. But it for turns such out a pair that. fieLds. not be strongest probabiLity observe point. not but to itseLf reaLLy what A very strong States pLay eLectricaL of roLe fieLd positive of vaLence is pairs and capabLe from and negative conduc- of the producing vacuum. a process is a investigating principLe. strong vacuum. energy tion band. an want course But the nucLei we own a experiment wouLd are sake.3: actuaLLy occurs ivory-tower is not from nature No.

resuLts.58 59 principLe. of It it controL them is a By arrive he a faLLing reaching where caLcuLate everything exactLy. GaLiLeo's stone two of the of from earth that its objects detaiLs. eLectron . a fieLd in near the a super pair heavy atomic of the nucLeus neutraL spontaneous production ("decay z eLectron-positron R: What pLace. understand on the that We aLL basis the want the of vacuum to state prove that can in one and nature have where difwe M: one But this to is a typicaL way to proceed in and further and science. 3. mass time. such such changes is that in the controL in many vacuum over into the Fig.4: The of eLectricaL resuLts vacuum"). 3. ferent where can as we we expect nameLy structures. a very make speciaL is possibLe experiment. you where we want we do as we to not say. to the the do which one an principLe much takes to of interactions our concepts. to test If the case one and instance behaves wants prove concepts is aLL with a generaL on buiLt. have Berndt. experimentaL predictions in a way simiLar and that surface the is to experiment the of at the mass.5: The bound vacuum poLarization state becomes dives into reaL the when sea a of stances take expect have a firm circumstances in a super-heavy atom. fundamentaL understanding where can compare R: Pisa. tower different the of in same dropping heavy at object a light demonstrating the demonstrated principLe veLocity independent Fig.

entaL Evidence of Vacuu. the of vicinity of When so the that to of some the the see the transition It has past from been the each decay is the neutraL that decay The if short. transition the emission vacuum M: make NOW. a the can produce a reaL But come what Like very a the to vacuum doing one uranium cLose totaL time of experiment do nucLei. they then and one hurL one in nucLei. the the due to observe fly conservation. the wiLL which have So a very appLied one be. a long of impact then from of flying contact. forces two lies poLarization therefore. rid process a charged the vacuum. 184 that the A smaLL protons nucLei space proximity. could Such time two be ago. the charge eLectricaL charge be R: weLL predict. emitted particLe sureLy a positron. carries must the emitted the diffuse vacuum distinguish eLectron. nucLei fieLd poLarization with which a sufficient is do with strong not an exist. from be fieLd of a emitted. the if These stability between their long-lived possible "double nuclear are normally nuclei into which formed. Large on energy tested eLectricaL that this The this the of positron eLectricaL energy strength the in wiLL of must be. is to at nucLeus. existing two another region cLose spend of very so number enough so to we heavy that of have protons no way to of precisely defined energy. there the charged a positron Experi. Decay nuclear enough to take created. contains during may hope together. prediction various of vacuum and must an sufficientLy becomes must get the to if in the reaL. expected.60 61 M: But Let me fieLd come is back made we to the experiment. time simply uncertainty for the from R: argued vacuum other. Fortunately here. strong then. vacuum baLancing change of during neutraL And nucLeus. very If should with help us And one defined how depending what the can different be can show energy. fieLd. relationship vacuum positron positrons many positrons the energies of the surfaces uranium" may discovered creation was is the on not were nuclei molecule time place for through is again: very emitted produced attractive which the uranium come nucleus be the quite generally available energy one cannot vacuum state. . is not the time the and decaying processes. very by by vacuum there if the then the other reason to a charged enough nuclei in the of eLectricaL the charge charge. can This out for other giant tively molecules" their uranium responsible also cause past Then relabut large the be a "nuclear an each a fie L d atomic determines attraction nuclei eLectricaL empLoy positron experiments fieLd strengths. together.

7: 3. 3. Pres. observed positron Fig. ascertain Lines. uranium projectile spectra the the However.62 63 R: time sharp Such now experiments at the have energy caLcuLated further nature have GSI of been performed near found positrons are needed for quite some Here with Laboratory been the coincides Darmstadt. uranium) negative formation then ensues.6: In a coLLision with two is heavy created nucLei for a suoera short heavy time.8: AeriaL Laboratory where strong ion view experiments eLectricaL of GSI the at are heavy Darmstadt. in more in the or the to Less Lines the energy deLicate indeed which for experiments of the positron vacuum. the of of coLLision uranium of dives two with wit h very heavy atomic a bound into of defined the an The energy in which (e. 3.. weLL a fieLds eLectrons eLectrons sea) is and temporariLy coLLisions. 2346/82) spontaneous pair with eLectron-positron emitted .. conducted are ion acceLerator Germany.. Fig. /' / / / I I / / t Fig. "quasi-atom" E _-:::::::----. Nr. (Reg. very heavy in West created During nucLei state sea (Dirac's positron energy. Darmstadt.g.

.. difference and or the reaL increases reaL between vacuum the vacuum Is there a Positron -Gun-? M: R: Yes.) 800 Positron Kinetic Energy (kev) additionaL Fig.. physics skins their nucLear results predictions there touch are structure seem about are to be the can in M: consistent difficuLt coLLisions Thus unraveL at balancing the electrodynamic of when other of the nucLear very with associated each being made other. electricaL fieLd of the just And as so that remains and field we more the even had furstate an on eLectron bound sounds basic the idea Pauli can quite of exciting. so actually by is The of the screens the the former field. strength polarization positron.64 65 E/A I. 0 . positrons counterLocalized M: decay ALthough of the of the aLL with problems nuclei present details the the experimental theoretical vacuum. Dirac·s a given pair then we cannot However. 3. fundamental anti-screens whereas field. more realize always . without it ~ <. underworld. state vacuum polarization positrons continue . charge vicinity with stronger eLectrical the fieLds. 5. if then we we increase may sparks But of of the that expect will we must vacuum nucleus strong electrical that occur. spark. w "<. .7 MeV/u 38° < to has M: 30 (f] be emitted in large numbers when the vacuum state 8 > (I) e-. Q_ occupy ::s! 0 200 1.. .9: Sharp heavy lines ion in the as positron observed spectrum at GSI. 0 I.rn. which strongly tells If so make us we the more that state. e p < 52° decayed. to . and screens the experiments nucleus. eLectrical fieLd This vacuum vacuum poLarization. 600 (c.00 u 10 sufficiently electron-positron energy. That possibility the based one one make of one But pair. from R: collisions the r . R: Aha. and a first stronger further be emitted. the we real now do screen this source of involved. virtuaL The time Perhaps acts like has we come shouLd a positron to ask believe gun and why we that expect our onLy new one polarization.J ::::: contradicts which that have we expense than is only just can Z :::l 0 20 principle <.

. can Lim it. then than fieLd. much cLoser For the be a WeLL. to in muons than R: and But as we So both we are Light know. What sees in you recognize again which if as the is in of here are is the has fact hundred that of the times 15 LocaLized aLthough positron fieLd structures ConsequentLy diameter. the couLd strength eLectricaL orbit inside a fundamentaL create So wiLL we find over may aLL know strong eLectricaL eLectricaL a smaLL someone strong hand. be to the produce if we by But Limited muons.. eLectric particLes principLe. That is a very produce gun production forbid eLectrons. we cannot are not of aLso appLies whether to produce fiLLed of us even more because new to positrons the when PauLi but aLL the produce source Limit wiLL formation M: far wiLL future. reLevance. of there course are we can we protons can never in the strong which M: WeLL. to a muon gun? Or perhaps even a quark gun? of the sibiLity whether particLes nucLeus the their the a size the tightLy than the the of uranium bound 1/r- eLectricaL muons more muon. This positrons eLectricaL number charged true. actuaLLy very the wiLL because heLium. muons expLore. context probabLy of nucLei the muons feeL as we the to have the wiLL the discussed of nucLeus with be fieLd so nucLeus.66 67 R: If this more of to Limit the the the of is the case. create were the we fieLd two positrons of vacuum But of muons to PauLi must wiLL a positron state. this discussion based on course.. possibLe shouLd of is we bodies.. more in than the beforehand cientLy heavier M: strong than positrons foreseeabLe eLectrons. to the voLume that cLever fieLd. On don· t have gun. eLectromagnetic interaction nucLeus . Limits be abLe ion heavy of effectiveness electron forbids principLe R: they Yes. muonic are eLectrons. Law and R: . science today be no very has made great becomes about strides. not. fie L d . Limits veLocity of not future creating M: nucLeus a very cLose and its fundamentaL Limit the expect a very eLectricaL we couLd However. tomorrow. orbits. wouLd aLso states the does but principLe the PauLi instead. possibLe setting The motion of at an does some of way the around those strong that no fuLL R: muon orbits what is not which of physicaL fieLd any time a very the of the Like have other making often carefuL the of the Longer extent. make muons. not one produce posask other Fermis nucLeus. investigate be suffitimes hundred the is certainLy the not in one takes and one or us we two IN hi c h beyond probabLy present to make cOLLision experiments. structure the two case most between nucLeus smaLLer. a .

at an Lightest LikeLy R: order which ProbabLy five M: does vacuum R: Yes. Decay and Other Ele. required they we were to are to heLp vacuum is and the very right properties fieLds. possibiLity Laboratory generating properties. of it this of as strong we have vacuum. on what probLem one wants mass. ~0re we need the is form that of in the super heavy knowLedge interaction. we to an And particLes. knowLedge It of have ask new orbits UnfortunateLy that charged keep Lighter to questions the to decay Led particLe understand vacuum. I the can circumstances the further. new amazing. they study not. discover Lighter indeed. the an than because earLier there charged are no experiment.entary Part. particLe wouLd form we the the spontaneous eLectricaLLy then point.68 69 M: Vacuu.cles Isn't to in so it amazing tackLe. about permits interactions worLd are particuLarLy best times case Lighter eLectricaL ten the not decay. R: No. permit one to the an wants test is concept some the physics. of eLementary of particLes the M: Are there other interactions interaction? that remainder and we wiLL aLL interactions of show this how book the have wiLL simiLar be conwe which are simiLar to Further Interact. Structure presentLy give us known good opportunities observing indeed that and of the an it offers vacuum is us a very just the under nice has and rewarding of cirgood the R: eLectromagnetic Today with we beLieve The them. never of the creates desire atoms the of this and insights that is this eLectrons eLectron. with the we the has in the the ~ow cirand ActuaLLy. given the a heavy by be vacuum knowLedge for wiLL about other the eLectromagnetic in other to vacuum s~itabLe wouLd than zoo particLes nucLei. we think asked it is not mereLy have decay. a great confronted ask. generated coLLiding eLectron doubtLessLy a muon. reLevant cumstances important The to important faciLitate fielc t~~ point the in mind decd/. to have and aLways right right particLe right to which kind energy M: So muons ideaL are not in a good Light In the decay probe atoms. cerned knowLedge . I are probes. because were is as we the in been It I think of the not if must the that there.ons and the Vacuu. eLectronic deveLopment if us Lead around on us. on one the the what depending kind of finds size. carry charged couLd questions of the probabLy probLem we been theory have the of arise If wouLd vacuum the to that charged the existence which charged eLectron know of is much particLes. cumstance properties the change eLectron sufficientLy conditions. If be eLectricaL discussed. to So ActuaLLy. that.

of not eLementary argument electrical discussed occurring R: correct. it such of a many state is not empty So it of is eLectromagnetic ing areas M: the physics.70 71 have gained of the of So about basic the physicaL possibLe vacuum infLuences structure our in most of the M' Because. easiLy an a very vacuum conceive external strong change actuaLLy by are this some just vacuum quantum eLectrodynamics a prototype physics. interactions understandfundamentaL particLes. a prototype and physics weLL state a prototype and interact. pairs away in Practical Value of FundaMental Research A strong create traveL that. structure whereas This phenomenon technoLogy. in in investigate 'empty' is the space. is being w hi L e philosophicaLly the so Lid the is vacuum today appears perhaps of of greater importance. of but state. Indeed to band which an which and and a eLectronic structure is empty. hoLes fieLd usefuL R: where the the that are in then eLectron this particLes structure of the with fiLLed atomic serving a practical purpose. The that distant Of This onLy for in for phenomena the the and ture our electrical acquires worLd tions. the fieLd we of case which We L L . experiment) of because a box is so it a Gedanken field space have in just The in field a strucsource. estabLished from fiLLed the soLids One and to the is one fieLd the very often has can empty and difference the So. well namely this (in empty we phenomena a many-particle one couLd However. state. particLes eLectricaL wiLL between responses nucLei region in at. not R: a vacuum Yes. the phenomena is commonLy it have we used is dis- former medium R: a change Looked structure a real today basicaLLy cussed semiconductor different this chapter. of a change the of is. tool in other course. coLLiding 'nothing' upon nucLei encountered circumstances M: has states excite states. from way wiLL a current effects. s i m i I a r- Dirac vacuum. . eLementary it in is soL i d particLes as many interacmany other discussed. equaLly course fields. eLectrons eLectricaL states of in turn. of course. in the physical the that vacuum in phenomena exposed latter of in of the the the produce produce of an it an atomic eLectronic weLl. of but sufficient box wiLL when hands undergo strength exposed that is applied. one to argue the is that source not after in here aLL. is the nothing areas experiment but of is to see the that for change we phenomena of have our of vacuum electricaL aLso contains can which is to the acted towards particLes. M: seen in a solid and the to case vacuum. but is made but particles. However.

what the which . Lead carrying the at And light Or In with of formation hand. we the cook. or . of many years. research concepts. eLements we appLy are. ago. in everyday turning or trying a pLastic because about one issue foundathe to appLications fundamentaL out is of a microwave in our to car ignition because ing for M: R: M: R: Laser carry studies years is the were which measure in quantities is onLy in our understandand not things. But physics we know that it the time we fundamenpredates is of great be vacuum appLicaof have an been fundamentaL order standing M: A questions appreciate of the topic worLd of in asked fuLL in physics how physics at that our time under- in normaLLy about a Later we physics to and appLications importance properLy tions discussing M: No. years here to from to now. which aLL reLevance.72 73 Larger taL practicaL understanding by that understood. But Laid of physicaL Laws. couLd research. fundamentaL perhaps of a hundred of is as physics the most reLativity. so of the these forthcoming. the concern about the veLocity was concerned with the questions main conceive production R: eLectromagnetic another being the one the was this a the is one then to chapter? singLe charged a typicaL starts the new nobody by proper probLems unpredictabLy. daiLy by M: question words. hundred tions M: understanding these necessariLy maybe is many fitting and tomorrow. or or using possible made important the ago. appLication ConsequentLy that type at Can of has that changed.. years reasons But Not But It pertaining appLications appLication.. doubt come. circumstance investigating understanding and R: other on things in our switching M' R: use bag of of . the crucial phenomena to research importance and a specific wiLL no about the vacuum just think practicaL vacuum appLication is presentLy in of not scientific fundamentaL of can these to research. conversion reLativity it? about of 10 from mass life R: percent the to of energy aLL in take a look ourseLves back what about were one the electrical tic effect is derived relativis- hundred years remind . true. The is That practicaL stiLL is not not energy of appLication very quite today the Large. concepts and on R: maximum of velocity.... can be at in even of But it that and Leads some the carry it physicaL time.. or a to the aLL lights or kitchen further this of whiLe at with We quite a radio teLevision oven to ALL when start this set. engine.. . period waves.

we In how the have the wiLL we speed Berndt. that massLess. inde- Dendent M' freauency find which to observe years that vaLue Length Right. for reLativity of has funThe ~haDter 4 framework yesterday. vacuum. materiaLize. ~. understanding Opaaue Vacuum is aLways often to good it to takes remember very that Leads Long. is we many So to the have aLL high photons photons degree which propagate are of come from accuracy. funto even Light Propagation in Vacuum damentaL appLication.74 75 nucLear provided damentaL M: WeLL. infLuenced diverse properties of the which other veLocity Light eLectromagnetic through of the Light. discussed. fission. That measure tre vacuum a is it oraton just dS freeLY propagates surrounding R: And we of aLso the We determine and that means photons away. We in fieLds. tre ~rich M: Let us take by a good the Look wouLd at YOU Light think traveLing that Ligrt of the through can be vacuum vacuum. distant his known can Ligrt fact the cause stars R: Light have about measured 300 000 the veLocity of per kiLometers . fifty years research eventuaLLy. we of a very that wave this veLocity of is Light. us issues so the of it though for them But more importantLy. inevitabLy. at the be- same T v e lo c it v . absence traveL define by us.

76

77

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wouLd particLes couLd there cLuster. another a soLid. interaction. state. attractive perhaps smaLL M: R: both but same. very simiLar through interactions a Long whoLe up time. is not made principLe there in the balL-lightning is photons particLes. of have The n Like together that there Now that Therefore. interaction can vacuum. have So these That the velocity together Formation however. not it easy. gravitation. the thing ions particLes. that were w 0 u L d g u e sst a metaL. the y w 0 u L d for m so m e- attractive interaction between them. photons great to reLevance for other. GLuons: The ·Photons· of Strong Interaction is perhaps universe. we Live. the ~ suffifrom its exactLY interaction. r . we be tary freeLy expLanation through constituents a very that atoms. of but enormous a wouLd due to to aLready big cLump be have gravitation. is Photons if a proton-photon ALL a different photons. simiLar charge hat know interaction. light strong together such that objects. attract electrons but each and NOW. so because photons protons can R: the tiaL must However. worLd of We to They an cosmoLogy strength be put achieve number is of radiation subst~nphocons cLump. today ActuaLLy that subject traveL aLready what with you a kind but t his there to at cLumped mean of to the due is are a very to not just an assumption. is beLieved of cannot eLementraveL to WouLd That know of baLL-Lightning interesting But that made the if be such an object? R: Of course. an into a radiation R: Yes. M: and right. aLso empty they M: of particles strong of since that liquid the their gravity.82 83 expLain photon-photon i mo t Ie s what I mean: scattering Even the which some extremeLy we kind happen have of if weak just this Like to they be effect discussed interaction of be q i n n i n q wouLd our So h~ve vacuum Let us ::Lustered wouLd assume are of we be and extremeLy that we cLumped opaque. question. why we ActualLy the caLL this quarks. of be photons. substantiaLLY possibLe say is or is microscopic perhaps is ionized The point of the strong fiLLed solid made cLumps particLes? is very LikeLy of which the vacuum so. have to and that in the vacuum. were are same cLump M: But attractive? bosons. what is. we know have each that that energy other indeed of of of if be the than the photons and by attract energy their each gravitates. together. can form which kind mean. is wouLd universe in which attractive photon-photon . more wouLd in cLump know protons. cientLy then most attract WeLL. to some wouLd be photons in kind Like the of to cLass which (~.

stituents aLthough act with because eLectrons. caLLed propriateLy don't we normaLLy see this sea of gLuon cLusters? NucLeons. varieties with don't dnaLogous beneath interact water. 4. out of found vacuum of the are cLumps Like of the The Gluon Vacuu.84 85 M: To give a simpLe with exampLe the of how gLuon a bubbLe it can be that nucLeons an pbotoo 91UOX gluon the in can eight nphotonsn different interact of strong interaction. because impenetrabLe R: with We L L . inside is opaque quarks. vacuum. They of these gLuons. nucLeons.e. come that Vacuum of gLuon directLy clusters M: The particLes each other which and are s tic k simiLar together to protons are very but apwhy Fig. freeLy. bubbLes propagate couLd freeLy observed aLmost or coaLesce . interact do because eLectricaLLY wit r and wriCh the neutrons interYes. (ncoLoursn) one another. in The protons the can vacuum onLy the for buiLding and made stones be gLuonic them. Now teL L me. of air consider moving situation freeLy photon Fig. 4. neutrons.protons from structure with not photons of the nor conR: and vacuum charged.6: attract 'gLuons' . Jan. h Of f iLL of course. we don't gLuons aLso atomic are see the they not gLuonic neither are interact . the bubbLe i.5: GLuons. a air Large we know but region onLy that if we of be to such were the bubbLes Living to to form wouLdn't in water then either Larger nucLei move w entireLy '3 constructed quarks hie universe. bubbLes gLuons.

Now.7: w hi c h expand keeps probabLy bubbLes of gLuons and together. Structure of the Nucleon R' WeLL. auarks is constituents And wouLd fuLL of these very the through ~ithin much ! he 'onstituents vacuum. shouLd we aLong. each for there a big must and be that cLuster a certain is bubbLe. bubbLes. to be aLL. is the "~dter" M: So behave wouLd water so. a bubbLe of "biect M: r. vacuum. oua r k s trey ing R: Yes. 4.86 87 bubbLes. proton in the or neutron. surround- condensed becoming thus independent particLes. it Like the -to which quarks that bubbLe Like we be we we air caL L caLLed in an to quarks. not caLLed kind a triviaL a nucLeon. prohibited that but An the atomic is nucLeus a coLLection gLuonic in the of Language nucLeon of modern in R: physics bubbLes Very scatter much try to happening aLL in are the the cLumped vacuum. aLL We gLuons. simiLarLy L ike pressure What out the gLuon free and of cLumps vacuum. aLso but expLain taLked now what about we are these individuaL anaLogy. the of from nucLeus interaction matter created. bubbLes. a t om i c Think air M: That nucLei that each by water atomic is are preciseLy formed out how of we today beLieve that e. is time. quarks and gLuons. free caLL and individuaLLy vacuum UnfortunateLy gLuons. except Fig. get from the to to the air it in or underwater dissipate. of between at But course. taLking about quarks protons. individuaL . nucLei are nucLeon in So We were art i c L e s to do caLLed about with nothing but cLusters of taLking ~ave bubbLes. is actuaLLy a freeLy moving individuaL is Like nucLeons. a proton ordinary These this traveL has bubbLe.

vacuum ::.. au se conditions vacuum Now the we know from probabiL. vacuum. has Casimir quantum to the eLectrodynamics directLy reLated interaction. for and the not Last and of exampLe. and possibLe because wiLL on it. e c llways ':1 r contains in a vacuum the states in a free particLes between of these vacuum. pressure basicaLLy as foLLows: if we want air is a situation r.88 89 evoLution Vacuum M: said keep t~e But Pressure there that the bubbLe. the one of that betwo : But iL • Fig. is something the together can we bubbLes it must exert must understand is gLuon exert better. matter aLreadY estabLish from vacuum our of principLe in a between. Larger is exercise then space. r. bubbLes together in by which the quarks pressure are of found tre are gLuon rj eta As we has have to a discussed chap- one i'rincipLe r "I V arises of pLates.8: The heLd vacuum. discussed the in vacuum the exampLe with certainLy Tre to is the expand fiLLed air time in water exert into But bubbLe the if with M· fiLLing can Yes. 4. a pressure. principLe. energy wiLL that water. under the a certain quanta. quarks onLy 'vapour' eft. a universe gLuons and of around bubbLe How consisting quarks. be such quantum understanding iour ~onducting R: As we have aLL just space. onducting luanta energies different those pressure earLy . The Casimir Effect M: Now there can But of the it actuaLLy exert this and strong is a is to is do not experimentaL It with is the proof caLLed vacuum the of that the vacuum effect. arises There is if quarks interact with gLuons.ty the is that that Casimir not it of effect empty. some and We to on the was L of the universe. not this it water has to dispLace aLL act At back some the space on water.r individuaL pressure constituents a vacuu~ pressure? o t o n s and neutrons. high it is quite LikeLy aLL was the onLy in that "water" vapour at prevaiLing actuaLLy At that of w hi c h a very time today temperatures and there couLd of ex i s t move as evaporated. pLates.

Casimir force Fig. must two excitations and then depend pLates. change is contained . frequencies R· depending But energy. different can two We discrete be string. a short pLates then time that induced must in a capacitor whicr must on the of wilL excite Ditches of yOU music. ExactLy conducting then energies and and the excite in a string make these same pLates onLy the on whicr OnLy on face the YOU can conducting space.10: The of the a frequency string string.9: The pLates the field Casimir has osciLLation on the energy its ~odes distance between in of the two conductive of M· So origin dependence pLates.90 91 R: empty for the wrich Yes. that is the principLe. vacuum the the now voLume M: Two of T his is on anaLogous the size waves pLates to and the the frequency shape the can be of specific in a resonator the resonator. certain the conductor. quanta again fieLds because appear disappear satisfy surface the the put phenomenon face vacuum. the possibLe of energy of the these pLates. 4. 4. L ike those of If of we put two paralleL into the the of R· ALternativeLy. changes which find the is that and the conducting eLectromagnetic define which since so pLates between excited. of the resonating by the vibrations length of is determined Fig. What as we we wouLd move we on depends if we the sum size find on over that of the aLL the the the eLectromagnetic the distance these energy separation between the between not the onLy energy the between excitations. depend certain Length when the of the and aLL kind eLectric vanish. can consider tones excited. to virtuaL occurs into particLes constraint conductor are currents vacuum.

the t f'xperimentaLLy w around vacuum probabLy the struc- r. structured so it one is has onLy the reaLLy the Casimir seen w hi c h boundary effect. 'J U ark r g L u 0 n s top I r 0 p a gat e f r eeL yin question individuaL the eLementary shouLd quarks wil l have conseauentLy We L l . see the M: it there that way. quark be to puLL a quark out of tant since Light the a step understanding Heisenberg's scattering vacuum can the size Light. is a force. a tendency is occupied macroscopic calLs It ca L was object proposed h is t or perspective. ~xperiment re think of the that energy particLes shows are the effect. c h .e. constraints that as the in consequence discussed. region is It a pressure turns we space. if one Yes. out were then and acting that to we on this the surface of this depends pressure the as quarks they we to have expect is directed from such to t nat pLates. i. R: a Even what M: Yes. But Let us by gLuons. We now understand on in which the quarks quarks bags the vacuum pressure which increases In an order infinite in proportion to compLeteLy amount of the necessary. . 4. which a pressure on the if one distance wishes between to there region. ture compLicated gLuon cLuster The are confining changed. inwards. back the depends years the of the to the on ago most the now.92 93 plates. R: which the indeed. quarks We can have exist to is state at Casimir the states reaLize free that of of that the is boundary and repeLs virutaL the region in some quarks. has by quarks. towards today's imporvacuum of of of exert I'i9. T his force has actuaLLy been measured in If of this to remove wouLd it. In that of a vacuum its the vacuum. aLmost it was proposaL forty perhaps about come why exist.. j everywhere. confined and The to the to the not t his detect quarks aLLow is Vacuum Structure and Confinement of Quarks M: What are the that them experimentaL there it is together must the Certainly Yes. proofs be vacuum and some that way does it? be inverted. a gLuons expect enter faLL the into tendency region be vacuum occupy a naturaL the region experiments.11: The the wit h isoLate energy energy nucLeon the wouLd the required bubbLe distance. interiors particles. i c: h keeps s 0 which as we wh. can act This on is which modifies properties.

quarks Are there Free Quarks? these whether these looked and have seen for inR: in principLe we have as wiLL the with it is not Yes. . dispLacement structure charge true a attenuation. cLaimed have to quarks. quarks? many has People experiments. is is that the even the case ina the of a that differences appreciated singLe gLue weak gLuon What required we aLways a very true of their interaction interaction If finite. beautifuL This quarks that the fieLd around and the quark can a finite the extends displace volume. between impression eLectrically structure quarks simpLy resemble matter gluon Law interaction aLmost simiLar inverse the Law one they electrodynamics: a force .t certainLy try to to important in nature. eLectron's property. the is range can have energy of it is tenuated. tt>e observed interaction energy. necessary In this charge The force because wouLd inside same is is atonLy to test Look of to to Most speciaL the i r singLe is Our and Lot of present in order the Because remove a quark tre sphere.. range basic of onLy the So is of the t fin i t e of It is are region the vacuum possibLe somewhat If the therefore onLy onLy in if with square h e o r e t i cal ly consistent. how can it be that answer to we do is: this of not observe the which vacuum between have d two grave If wouLd here if then particles consequences you be the we of make reduced wouLd for the be the sphere by of attenuated.94 question any vacuum carries has to be structure is asked: quark? structured the costs strong a dispLaced. because a have of the the picture is be that deveLoped. I even the remember dividuaL R: somebody is it and indeed protons. what is not w hi c h have charge. large . that of were would space eLectricaL quark.. still what here me the say kind quark. impossibLe. gLuon quarks. region a singLe "free" but day better don't more These experiments succeed. We but internaLLy interactions between has the today said not may then and is so charged so much are vacuum permit filled experiments a is more the singLe succeed. speciaL find speciaL between is been and find to a singLe reaLLy assigns unit of M: free How is it with in free many. to range with Later cLustered very quark M: over free finite. fin i t e disturb singLe the amount the one that in order order structure can one the find vacuum. the case. treoreticaLLy is many )bservation there to be "free". property charge possibiLities experiments is not it that sense are . that of eLectrons tt'e lluarks yes. much that quarks it in at nice for is say aLL the at in and by sense FirstLy Let in a is different charge we looking different However. a speciaL from But integer. find a very that charge. actuaLLy trying shouLd if they much quark.. indeed one picture because the that are a feature. nameLy quarks that quarks. Looked discuss then only existence chapter. observed Larger. charge.

physics reaL a knowLedge effeceLectrodepend gLuons are on is aLso M: Can you am give an exampLe? for exampLe as some unraveL physics respects of the forty the that simiLar strongLy about are the was many structure went to into what years. charged the shouLd abLe and very be to state too where We reaLize of that the On underfrom history t ion this fundamentaL interactions earLy LeveL. acts But this back on the physics vacuum quarks of of . it took to the context from properties eLectromagnetic interaction inter- and me And it right. R: that WhiLe perhaps you teLL we me don't aLL this have Berndt. ture How do Because that superconductivity. hand detaiLs shows we Least. observed of singLe other the derive stand the science first . understand do reaLLy we understand structure of they stiLL today? the structo I immediateLy. quarks. occurred. or the of of properties interaction state. detaiLs be discovered? theoreticaL . the that to be principLe the As we Laws have suppLemented opaque we of vacuum about and is a in the principLes. oe cause (coLour) or at the have vacuum not of the many new that because LikeLy structured. the of the instances situation beginning. theory actuaLLy important if my memory of we this are underof state. serves state.J S absence. deter. quite R: the what quantum gLuons. This things is is how we commonLy theory reaLLy of it and weLL we of this vacuum interactions gLuon the this the vacuum Like interaction state R: thinking magnetic the quite action.96 97 of the same of kind. standing jiscussing vacuum. been was of course. the that one couLd see a certain emerging unificaeven at p: think gLuons we know are nothing reaLLy. the and in many structured chromodynamics" between extreme structure interacting caLLed depends from "quantum in it. M: mean.ines the Properties of the Interaction mathematicaLLy and to starting The this the properties of Now. indeed is in the the Look of the Lives vacuum at. mechanics not reaLLy understand possibLe superconductivity. vacuum isn't M: the Laws of tive So the strongLy exampLe of nameLy have vacuum of interacting. beautifuL of the taLked nature by seen. vacuum. was part discovered and to of we the know reason today to was quantum that that one superneeds So it understanding gLuon ronductivity had it luantum before mechanics deveLoped. this the or are an interactions fundamentaL sense of the on the But. M: Superconductivity accidentaLLy. the I shouLd remark means to understand vacuum. different the different. structure bad. been this absence The Vacuu. discovered phenomena.) f h .

a big supercomputer. of By contraction as The is same a no gained numericaL actuaLLy gained is. the such Lorentz objects. vacuum. a rod and that suffithat saying showing contraction R: you in cient can. We recogwe are . evaluate occur gain in no important. fundamental assume course. beLieve that and computers they then think we the fact ideas It is here. ingredients are of Lacking the correLation energy. certain the much rod more is Lorentz observed it is by Now experiments. the the don't about that to We know fact important achieved. the foundation he found of our contraction. not going that they and the looks results for observer. that wiLL are that be (ontraction r the aLL able But in I mean. reLativity a generaL understanding indeed a proper finaL abLe description conceptuaL to elertrodynamics quite rew unexpected mass concept But with rod let an of me can of vacuum. motion. scientists this every wouLd think to probLem. quantitativeLy structure a quantitative not the secrets understanding of the a numerical a way is is understanding phenomena shouLd there. which a way But we to we a numerical would support This is simiLar the quaLitative perform which verifying of point. and Length the but picture structure a structure was but gave when it us of the is vacuum yet. overemphasize ~r e unraveL are Lorentz's atoms. don't rhe very ue calcuLate vacuum. that described individual If you properties here. is at the to Like the atom how contraction of the -. rat 3tom M: the is But rod contracted we consists in the of individuaL of atoms. the in to issue: the we have by verify- eLaborate each caLcuLation individuaL of verifying gLue what the such one kind vacuum. a major we of this has have interaction structure vacuum arisen. to the back we inteLLectuaL holistic vacuum. concerning our is it in onceptual the that understanding glue structured know the that But to actually contraction. It it. under- conceptual standing present simuLation. why understand and each necessary. of This move order to contraction reLevant a very with to have a finite expLain that be made veLocity. 0 n t r act s . vacuum we is We by beyond it not we understood Nowadays soLution we to that order need many to is aLone at to aLL. M: understanding present of physical phenomenon return be taken originaL that w~at atom. contracted. . proposed the who generaL is Maybe direction to he was into contraction incorporated theory of possibLe in and a the R: inq a Einstein a more It of to the be s til l When have Einstein understand tried a moving which. property not that the not model an in to by help ~ith model leading much. the experiment.98 99 understand nize just of the effect that our we that where moving Lorentz of have hands.

Laboratory of we have which the vacuum when of which about vacuum vacuum stiLL but say scaLe. dropLet measure Dissolution of the Vacuum Structure M: Now temperature is an not water t his it the we is experiment so dangerous of that two the the different Like for to us. of It scaLe a crystaL. a hoLe cheese. M: Rig ht . compressed When 'gLobaL'. must have of speak In a scaLe that and we the vacuum of an ras change so in many in the vacuum. simpLy the that Therefore compress structure. I (Quark-GLuon it. . think When we about dis- because cussed R: a Berndt. aLL the of amount you to the course in Liquid you aLL But a smaLL at what the you the to to is meLt have Large or vaporize the The MeLted Vacuum PLasma) water water.. you think experiment a gLobal interactions? the our aLso vacuum discussed event.. interaction the a structure aLready comes found in strongLy vacuum forms. ~ucLeus something bubbLe R: being And with Like we confine is found for at Look each a inside that protons. in Swiss it wouLd bubbLes a gLobaL not universe. how the the by you Jan. assembLy vacuum. Looks probabLy in water. possibLe impLications accident think of the of size. the a magnifying Like . probabLy consisting which trat one We L L . of understand properties for a sufficient enougr boiLs. gLuons the one the if of interacting the The strong one was of different structure M: of maybe of what crange a change nucLear R: structures.. such but Large is and its that But which is everywhere. Nuclear Matter scopic structuraL think Line compared the what a nucLeus one can wouLd think compress resembLe about it wouLd so Swiss be much to cheese. a catastrophic . trigger be certainLy whoLe on I mean Large vacuum. must of be the you if a microtypicaL if you crystaLof water. and the inside eLementary exampLe.. vacuum compLicated soup of interacting the aLso an other said gLass. and the seen now Can wouLd of we for nature we might wouLd now of is the on smaLL that make strong surveyed physics work. of is particLes. Laws quarks. a macroscopic 'gLooaL' to extended other an on tre words. you a dropLet nucLeus. understanding transition a gLobaL rather on size.100 Chapter 5 it must of Of have a sufficient dominate do not oceans wouLd size the need to Like which such properties that the of properties surface.

start to overlap. quarks a starting preciseLy what one point. but are vacuum thinks what is everywhere quarks is a reaL and eLse. gLuons quarks confined or floating don't <Hound. mention protons is this? to . change You the but of we reaLize vacuum that has that is this a second the path to bubbLe. do not compressed is anyway and bad gLuons. into quarks one can Yes. Ole? empty space. That to is teLL certainLy me that if not I going take to two work. Fig. 1 If one couLd the compress individual giant freeLy. after too Can One Compress Atomic Nuclei? picture weLL so simpLified. inside the in compressother vacuum structure. do is on each R: might nuclei other. 5. ~. space welL-defined experiment. and finalLy the form hoLes one in huge Swiss cheese... biLLiard You are not and going baLLs . an atomic bubbles bubbLe nucLeus wouLd in which hard fuse the M: enough. an ina extended the was kind We the of have LocaL nucLei.. It is hard !o say. the so as nucleus such maybe understand buiLt picture up how aLL What This it. of vacuum dielectric which have a strong charge such as can normaL one then move aLmost which of we have the freeLy in it.102 103 bubbLes.hich Wrat M: t (l structure good reasons quark plasma beLieve that it is simiLar t hat particLes aLuons by the R: If eLectrodynamics. the inside of But Let of empty me the come is bubbLes back is fiLLed to very with the much Like our Now . kind is but of a press wouLd the you use? We to cannot bang two put a hammer into actuaLLy cLassicaL point. an easy thing compressing a nucLeus certainLy not R: Is such a cLassicaL properties probabLy this too of is not picture of correct when nuclei? one tries How but is a M: R: to M: we understand We L L . singLe move imagination o a c t i c Le s .

perimentaL exampLe. I don't going we see think to be in it an this is think aLL hand.104 scatter them. Jan? we want to do is to in water. for course. think other. ~. making M: smaLLer. remain Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions a compLeteLy onLy going is to that be wiLL that an attempt. another water Now you the with The fLing be wiLL be a a comM' tie 1r Iolhat is you By the short it moment. wouLd not When want you be to bang teLL two you cars that. Iolhat do think. it wiLL not it But be experiment discussion . M: Now them from each other. not what the and the simpLy Life Let hoLes happen you sponge sponge inertia the sponge in can if we see for me in are soaked me take witr it. a waLL. wiLL PreciseLy. that I wiLL compress I wouLd of they two certainLy cars.2: In the coLLision to high in between energy the two of atomic a high where nucLei density the two actuaLLy bubbLes you Let f iLL s it wouLd the thing making are reaLLy about the of if hits a very it Larger bubbLes. for right certainLy it. nucleus 2 certainLy compressed compressed. making But a sponge empty wouLd and take its own time wiLL we but wiLL waLL. compressed. this But one as a warning couLd that compressed matter. zone nucLei deveLops overLap. Long. to but bubbLe that and are wouLd If not that are you the be just the the as opposite inside of structured of a car but what as you you the are achieve. R: want empty YOU Yes. But trrow two actuaLLy sponges So may you the at we not each experiment other take easy. 5. experiment y shouLd be it wiLdLy compressed fLow pressed snapshot compressed out. view outside the vncuum. succeed. is that Left and it water wiLL take as an ex- acceLerated We L L . out state happen it region difficuLt. which compress water in same physicist me up by fLow wiLL against when and Of state at the sponge. into and But each stay & -E) nucleus 1 compressed zone I 19.

this quantity? in a proton unit of Fermi. tually II mean go from how one much vacuum the of 'Latent' to true another vacuum? of heat is when required we meLt to the is more But giant u o n i c structures Yes. t a proton cubic coLLisions. Now in are what wouLd fortunateLy exist. Can it we is make quite 'perturbative' vacuum formed. Yes. you can do in your backyard.106 107 an wiLL experiment have to that of that happen it as use that very aLL vacuum. a cube of the per turns make Everything of the the aLready '. vacuum voLume same we GeV the as experiments. in the to very be It powerfuL used is aLso physicists But this nucLear of for acceLerators suer experithat who Let when us we M an an estimate easy comes task. 'f'eoretists II'e Of course. ConsequentLy. Wlt~ '.ne • I particLe And one cubic to very ~nd of be edge so physics every of why Fermi. weLL.recise live 'han there n umb e r . I_I estimate describe if we With sophisticated course out more one caLcuLations. wi L L heat we say of have after that the onLy probabLy than been one who the they very any GeV is experiment knew had to vague figure and be. and smaLLer GeV be has is between times Larger But mentioned in pubLications. perturbative M: it? How much region energy Yes. I'r'~'ton. things for bubbLe You ." "1 ti nd preciseLy uum. that one of radius This can eLemenmass. wi L L empty be M: ments there actuaLLy see couLd How R: experimentaL form cLear LikeLy sometimes discussion. as good the don't one in units comes Length say per one in as mass fortunate around now. the some pLan wouLd estabLish we to be and near very do the it in these they may future. ideas that five But aLL the what in advance about latent today times one wiLL vacuum I think the 'Iat :. right. courageous these such its think properties vioLent properties? of there the vacuum. you think we wouLd need to make a sponge.ry GeV. somebody . is density per we of wouLd of quarks have voLume. nucLear It is acceLerators And from that we want our many the to coLLisions wiLL sophisnot to to be the I of wiLL dtent Heat of Melting the Gluon Vacuum ticated expected new guess. wiLL do these the compLex Latent experiments heat of the CertainLy how That much know right? sponge wouLd be of do unit . and it is Lead other Look You I powerfuL techniques.

beLieve compute That very starting you surface years M: teLL state important ch• of course.qether (. the we of we the the inside something suddenLy. the individuaL of 101 a k e two m i c n u c Lei. there. and if basic properties its don't avoid I think apparent think you sitting we owe you that I were i s ion nucLei wiLL wouLd very Therefore which the precise by many one the is very prediction measurement.108 109 there will wiLL stand up be to some cLaim happy that man his after the experiment was who Hot Nuclear Matter = Quark-Gluon Plas. Lowest are the theory. where which here for one was a situation exampLe. it. nucLeus. R: Yes. that but we unabLe heLium to However. system. Quantum on which and for ". reasons probably different on muonic of an ( ()mpression I'" in experiment e s 5 ion iLL than When we b r in g the i n d i v id u a L u c Leo n s m u c h c los e r be as individuaL and one even Large quarks of no to them the by Longer together being different nucLeons wiLL a very confirmed are t'.plex in Predicting the Physical Properties of . from incLuding brightness.nnot Yes. you principLes the coLour. cLose with in by the interior ActuaLLy But we the have for is are of compute this. had Later there most the its me. ich . probabLy But about strongLy the But the tre right framework of course. wouLd be agree? on it which vacuum a sofa to our has.r o e caLLed quarks have perturbative certain our of different vacuum. sit.J(uum. wiLL We under readers new such to "'. So we the have one. I This we to t'" in '" II i fiLLed brought which think. Because . effect. state perturbative and the circumstances. P we them zone shouLd together when the they they can view bubbLe begin Wet at nucLeons these nucLei otherwise are their is by summarizing L a r g eat cannot 0 again high away and in an what speed from this is and so the a com- Difficulties Co.lJcleus. . rr ttldt '''ll M: from helium. the I wouLd them of the probLem. foLLow. or. state these quarks within reminds simpLe properties muonic can ask of you we to the Laws is permitted everything eLectrodynamics. ~ Yes.. Materials ~e a sufficientLy move coLLide. at two density We a of thus find in t his . finite quantities umperature. quarks properties interacting excited 'ernperature.1 l LY bring hap pen i n g. . this of sofa avoid that bubbLe heating is exactLy of.a prediction correct. as density Therefore describe have strengtr working point. high I if you compress it up. that matter. is a almost compute.

'Inverted "IIV caLL short of one quark-gLuon Lived. and over weLL the Such propertie~ systems of have I' I . charge in resuLting modest.110 111 M: such been R: . and the come is a very a new eLement strong doesn't this charge. consequence equiLibrium pLasma homogeneous. measure in order And that we of the end determine the concept Lifetime temperature in a nucLear now emitted the the pLasma. M I measure that I of the can photons wave do which Length the of are the arrivLight of inby a of But a reasonabLe properties is. it the that have very is M But unfortunateLy fa s t t hat into smaLL to to stick think what but some about vacuum. interior surface e 'l I soLar Lis ion aLso at to surface. can thermometer observe it difficuLt properties I". tain a gas reLativeLy is a become DoubtLessLy M: a that is atoms wouLd the R: caLLed interactions disappear bubbLe they that maybe excited gas. However. strong a simiLar be more more a zero and wiLL mass. heavy must pLasma the ions be and. the ~. too nonideaL that of I' r . except time: the measure same of of of do we carry the as Light agree. studied now is trat coLour probLem these charge.u r quark-gLuon coLLisions.] smas are used for thermonucLear which carriers perhaps is more cLoseLy e a s i Ly . density. to create 'coLour' in in . coupLed principLe. more soLid. we fusion. udes observe temperature particLes eLectrons same carry in order 'Irface If r want a positive everybody charge.' us Now whoLe we have we are deveLoping which with have ions agree the is here. reaLLy aLso the the we coLLisions reg ion 0f between nucLei wiLL bee n not So we a Liquid. in when of are are this it couLd in kind the the '''IC Lear h 1r q e aLL the mass. have is the are though pLace. consider but with two a quaLification. different a negative carriers charge amounts to pLasma The the such In of and of be the the reguLar charge: the both neutraL. for knows. eLectron-ion . internaLLy. particLes which first particLes vacuum. see. have this wiLL much p Ia s m a .n I know a very hot weLL gas of how free to caLcuLate particLes. temperature? the energy to I temperature be state? Yes indeed. formed at that when high this of which ttl kind how III V e "t nameLy space and on the But 'rid meLted do you microscopic simiLar dissociate or scaLe. a high to high the into is fiLLed which and you of put a thermometer into the sun to eLectron-ion eLectrons WouLd description pLasma its No. a speciaL origin This found the of 'mponents I. Large particLes a charge. want of even However. So Like if a very scenario a region which temperature we not must big But expect or much excited cers tiL L of even How Can One Observe the Quark-GLuon PLasma? interactions circumstances strong.) c e e d so be spa c e w hie h has o t a s m a wiLL making the into it. studied It is true in physicS that this over again.

teract 'Ir\ those plasma out are pLasma in between: wiLL reach be and during produced. it be? to reaLize particLes. Others strongLy which onLy the of are easiLy and are produced. is that we but need not partoo pLasma M: What R: particLes Berndt. our lifetime but they the a few 'lPt detectors. ase which nucLear coLLisions. 5. couLd you of and have different to which can Leave the So 'l(Les trongLy. fairLy Jan. pLasma R: We must voLume kind hi nk.4: The be states studied inside by wh i c h the means can quark of gLuon pLasma eLementary the can suitabLe Leave particLes unrestrained. of Look without of for much particLes interaction. difficuLt . but in produce that then the we Some are are they first interact strongly I t taLking aLmost are a variety very Yes.f and we which create actuaLLy in need to be made in the new noninteracting usuaLLy penetrating. I have a greater probLem.3: The be away. 5. temperature measured by at the surface of the the sun can far I observing sunlight Ig. but then The the they best aLso bet is of can .113 112 the I? quark gLuon pLasma. sun photon Lepton pair "thermometer" ~ 77/77777/777777/1/1 • normal quark ®strange Fig.r. what which you reaLLy mean. don't I' Ide e. reabsorbed. .

do not many kind easiLy The to mass the or fortunateLy. comparabLe we So wiLL and of quarks. do we are p interaction.. caLcuLation. consider produced species discovered common be can exist years of of to created typicaL Lifetime are scaLe wiLL pLasma. they Yes. Lambdas reaLLy to time that of very " (!\") decide Look omegas that M: which some So that of we of It want these was there the to can new be a reaL Now.h a t typicaL gLuons energies quarks agree very this one that fifth for the Light that So many quarks for new the meLted couLd these of the of to we producneeds is what we nucLeons. they they not wiLL wiLL point but traveL not is be once that down buiLt extremeLy observation associated important experimentaL ActuaLLy without been reach the absorbed that But wiLL the essentiaL 1 there ctrange antiparticLes antiquarks. that the strange of pLasma quarks. again. nucLei strange the with r. quarks known these producpLasma.. R: wh i c h coLLisions experiments to R· do the wrong experiment wit h you the first respect. purposes vacuum. which of is the expensive. other kaons Now a particLes. understand wiLL not why decay these before particLes. and fact one of their I think one particLes for the is these not try Lishment phase. created.4).). the quite ~. (K ± i. they actuaLLy created. . containing And of coLargue convincingLy have be a mass their for in be a if we many something that the given considered quarks produce the weLL can speed quark-gLuon pLasma. they come pLasma (out of the Ia s m a ? dissociates. wren Now.. these be in strange at which quark. made. of have when quark. such as or for exampLe (r. a t hi r d . individuaLLy. detect formation the so quark-gLuon they the in in that. for creation that matter. specific coLLide of these of ActuaLLy. observer aLthough They The after not disappear cooLs . these by rate the and of the this in normaL are whether short during for pLasma. in come signaL severaL ago in for the estabquarks and is of quarks nucLear M: before good of the enough the we signaL strange as we evidence shouLd be shouLd pLace. species. wilL traveL tion the t characteristic Lifetime must proton. radius wi L L strength strange tion M: produced determined between compute in the how in think the gLuons the re v e l d through found that w iLL is aLso wi L L be proton. there 'strange' actuaLLy and fairLy particLes.v ve reaLLy of And such we further strange can aLso quarks compute quark-gLuon far they e I ieve there wnat without R: very easiLy they they or can Yes.114 115 Strange Quarks: A signal from the Quark-Gluon Plasma into 5. (see Fig. far have interactions we don't pLasma. is So we interaction o a r r ic t e s is about the time order which mass. be certainLy course. eLementary is in Lide.

antiquarks so is abundant an are in annihiLated in particuLar. are are produced not present mainLy by the in ordinary We glUonr< exist in protons a quark-gLuon gluon strange quark pair gluon . finds and mainly normaL evidence produced nucLei for not in strangeness gLuons indirect quarks. 5. entireLy. strange quark can aLso expect to an is antiquark that form.5: Strange gLuons nucLear quarks which matter. particuLar. observation particLe-antiparticLe signaL of wouLd be just the reverse process of the observe strange break-up antimatter? chance pLasma. difficuLt recombine gluon there quarks normaL nucLear particLes. thing which When then worries these you me and nucLei wiLL a bit. if dissociation coLLision. M: Which coLLisions. bu i L t Large nucLear has to just of not argue another any the strange by and the amounts occurred that type has couLd such in this the for matter generated couLd antiquark strangeness annihiLation. thus expLains sLowLy.116 117 R: Yes. formation that produced sLowLy. into of these under reaLLy it. neutrons coLLide but aLso Fig. a strange baLance of strange favourabLe antimatter The point radioactive of other the pLasma. And are hotter time. the it reaction. into matter. and which of strange are strangeness R: which the strange wit h again. quark Now t hat form Yes. NormaLLy. and is ~: ALso. antiquarks What we w iLL eLementary simiLar radioactive However. why we Then the as more the easier pLasma wanted they it to some aLso one is expands to particLes wilL produce cooLs them be that antimatter a better surviving quark-gLuon quarks gLuons. M: know which without just form R: make. of the stay strange I agree However. particLes to there be in the decay are that the can be when we decay have by muon of And by a Lot a naturaL decay of time. depLeted the forms strange of coaLesce strange antiquarks expect normaL vacuum contine to s tiL L circumstances. wit h is to that be we to One points Why point The of strange cannot in new now way we that the the the don't is described decay. presence the pLasma. NormaLLy we We have are the But very consider speciaL with for exampLe to is one aLso nucLei. quark then antimatter. the pLasma. which is antimatter. sureLy strange antimatter. and pLasma.~ _'_-~ s tra n ge quC?rk pair being converted pLasma. antimatter producing is difficuLt conditions each strange . with you here pLasma. it radioactivity nucLei In meets the or the previousLy.----.

serve. experiments? pLasma Learn where about the the M: TelL Cost of likeLy l ike L y experiments. there that that is we sit there always previousLy cosmic cosmic Isn't in the fruit. strange the in order size. The pLasma abundance is had higher of by strangea Large finds in the R: in very Yes. Plasma by Cosmic Radiation experiment. why do we of mean we have to produce are meLted in do compLex quark-gLuon order to vacuum. before ~hiLe differ angle t But a there in at are rays. in that the than is very correct. aLready ray plasma doing centrated exampLe ~e don't pLasma R: right M: R: So Very now. yet. space. wiLL cheap? these which experiments are done be among or the are most they expensive comparativeLy experiments today. particLes. occurs. have It are to condi- ion s compLeteLy Nonetheless. If you you wait you such Lots nucLear they can for wiLL put many wait up a detector there which a very reason energy. conditions. evidence obtained quark-gLuon pLasma within out acceLerator experiments. energetic pLasma present. event for factor the that normaL abundance the this coLLision gLuons couLd. because which Part is no cosmic the nature cosmic interpret the rays. the Search for Quark Gluon-Plasma Because must the under speciaL properties M: You detectors me.118 R: ness Yes. signaL events be as difficuLties radiation radiation experiments on have formation such observation measurements for quark-gLuon ConsequentLy. the Today been events events. nice Of course. is due a detaiLed are course. particLes which of occurred study not study to without one present onLy estabLish quark-gLuon then second are their which pLasma event of enter ob- phase transition. I wouLdn't being made be surprised viewing if there distance is the possibiLity we has of heavy every day said tested this by nucLei. controLLed . around of of on our a very earth? so. quark-gLuon experimentaL even one However. The one great And borne weird as one The their when been has very anywhere wiLL you can is they in Looks efforts I must of has a Lot pLasma quark-gLuon in confor has than quark-gLuon And very by carrying long be time that can the at a quark-gLuon if the to So of same the one In years. of particLes. say couLd due cosmic types of strange ray onLy unambiguous cosmic wiLL of the There Formation Quark-Gluon cosmic commend in recent M: When we at discussed in the us vacuum. existence of pLasma. which wrong danger radiation stabiLity consists making impinging vacuum universe. to may do years we uncontroLLabLe there just such effort. with easier an in discovered. cosmic in the matter.

120 121 R: I think to name a price wrong.a inside Stars? is costs intrinsicaLLy to of of But these costLy and terms of in expensive. a radius quarks consist resources experiments of kiLometers. squareLy. we purchasing cost answer have tion which acting the are giant R: arrived between is vacuum. the But these probabiLities. as stars of of understanding associated fundamentaL clearLy beLong aLready this wiLL tbe mac"inery. there is supply I have Today no has been we burnt it besuch essentiaL quark-gLuon experiments be done further initiaL cornerstone worrying believe source out comes question neutron the the Large nucLear nucLeus. difficuLt expense basket search. experiments of And we open of the these in haven't aLso parour dis- is produced essentiaLLy sure. wiLL tainLy experiments M: those other gluon particLes these Look R: must ticLes understanding there cussed new of been the wiLL here are for Indeed. physics. do not strangeness. t"e pLace. particLes Like not very. production you. structure caLLed nucLei Yes. interacting CertainLy the it not about that of and de here energy that facto wiLL one is this that type of coLd. certainly compLeteLy properties phase has further other gravitationaL source of coLLapse this energy opportunities vacuum. very of And soon these the the basic and pLasma forefront invented. accompanied strongLy stars nothing interwhich but experiments ones. quarkbecause has these eLectromagneticaLLY abundantLy. which and wiLL study R: don't very star fueL But know. some effort Quark cost of the and with probabLy dense. They of were that of these such are severaL better compact reaLLy understand detectors human most stars. wi L L be which observation pLasma. or matter. be CertainLy acceLerators indirect M: Once these experiments at a better by then of neutron having soon as couLd the work and we the normaL have nucLear a change can very been matter in carried of and the out the quark and transimatter. the quark stars as mass. and one the wiLL Look be for thereafter. compLeted. t his in a once after one be no I I agree done. compete in more in be estimate associated the to furthermore the singLe couLd with question wiLL certainLY the are direct be project. the most Look may that nameLy eLectrons. a signature muons and understanding stars. to ~: from in that I . which with any this tag and are book your ALthough for fundamental it and put physics is Even into very the the reand to the in work cer- Is there Quark-Gluon Plas. of the radius. presupposes in investigative trat stars. further . reaLLy quark in matter coLLisions wouLd of differ nucLei. much.m it was reaLized interior interiors of infLuence which pLasma. ~eutron -tructure theoreticaL properties brightness. produced very smaLL with because be of an the wiLL for once the so expensive for be experiments but for photons.

Thus the you we to sources know these of menwe are and it thermonuclear nothing a compLeteLy touch note on that and be matter be knows the them to that which a diameter In Quark their it now. to as about of neutron from matter. mass in be. a core of finaL their stage of of Large 10 but to an of about sources the tioned R: universe. 5. invoked there we understand.6: Neutron stars fueL 20 they that stars have suppLies.10-20 km detaiL why atoms dense cannot z Ling many chapter. beLieve . nucLear rest the know as we mass nobody if fission energy energy today reaLLy nucLear connected or won even a gravitationaL stars coLLapse. oversized center energy universe couLd of aLL couLd beyond fusion. centre amounts free in There quasars. come be what Now. energy be neutron t~e the sky burnt just shouLdn't centres excLude objects things contained up stars? caLLed of of these been radiation very this possibiLity. the next the nucLei of in in Extreme being hoLes objects hoLes want here in of the are to we set We wiLL have but to discuss vagueLy in into It the couLd this rest weLL are and that in more speaking.122 123 l I the energy residing abaiLabLe in and might become M: the You mass are reaLLy of the heat? thinking nucLeus that 1 Strange Objects in the Sky converted into R' Yes. in and indeed. burning have it. do as not coLd anything centers be. different We wiLL must there go subject. represent later. constantLy M: energy BLack strange BLack wouLdn't But have in often the to understand such Fig. gaLaxies thermaL objects. of the We are not are puzdo ". kiLometers atomic contain might form burnt They and the out have nucLeus.

into stars.formed Jntimatter antimatter ever R: presence matter sort against if you universe. to that contained nucLei protons actuaLLy universe. aLready the I wouLdn't prepared wish cLaim probLem around it. know wi L L we to on have this pLasma this. believe the M. bet to to put bet be If oe t iev e opportunity Today extremeLy soLution quark-gLuon 1 :100 rand it. antimatter very the possibLe the one provides I wouLd hundred. unexpectedLy. Yes. convert n e u t r-o n s destroy again.124 125 Chapter Burning of Matter in the Quark-Gluon Plasma? The M: But you in become wouLdn"t can say in an to can formed a and And way don"t high want to say that producing coLLisions source that quite of quark-gLuon might energy? Such What matter we to might radiaI M: 6 Grand Vacuum pLasma tuaLLy R: energy nucLear evenBurning of Matter: The Ultimate Source of Energy a very efficient even arise excLude often is that aLready suggestion. makes matter Sure. arise certain f I i pract one that that more up against M: I . be aLthough to and in seen. but what find extensive signaLs annihi searches for Lation of the of trat been of and has o e r. nothing been Yes. the Jan. But your optimistic are specuLating today about possibiLities R: t his } ( [ and into practicaL energy. that this is No convert traveL possibLe. Yes. t. of the to is fact that it might in may be possibLe and be everybody distant matter. beLieves that So it appLications reaLLy was find tion M: Now. energy which into is of you form usefuL the many we this mentioned which is atomic energy. that we has radiation. corner. the observe universe. i caL. somewhere universe matter . what seen" have author If you do me in physicists to do that. don i this has in to the do with your question has is: been Sometime. converted R: energy many This I guess a dream of way couLd every readers science of matter to the and onLy ever been this fiction book. is the the that one We do not at what stage and vague couLd is if your it ideas knowLedge wi L L onLy.

it R: is gain couLd M: maybe on R: In is in abundant. protons. energy. cooLing that deveLoped universe. asymmetry since of how In any event matter was asymmetry radiation. into I am thinking must energy. means that there which couLd we time. radiation radiation matter antimatter Least somehow into than M: What keeps is a us in very Lives at the present proton stabLe on the which of the the proton from and form its average But we using the of the energy is It that does know Longer onLy the it stabLe that the not that than to be expanin a matter. we know as they of know we is is source the so of principLe asymmetric. in the the not proton decay. very as the asymmetry great LikeLy vacuum. matter matter. we just don·t and but the must and as Or that antimatter it as is aLready Can the Proton disintegrate? recognize antimatter antimatter. vacuum this wouLd quarks? which can which have perand If the which energy are to between the universe such into then at whoLe antimatter Now if we in What deveLoped controL convert a turbative something coLours. We for know onLy this during and not be much universe have is matter. this which What the no were heat. energy. anitmatter. or destroy trere latent i5 vacuum reside to up meLted gain quarks of do the the is perhaps remove deveLops in different matter sense we universe not earth. . an different R: vacuum. their quarks we into have decay. such severaL strange decay. Yes. but pace: reactor universe inside must a proton. wouLd far u~derlying mechanism certainLy concerned. As is contained thereby proton age in and possibLe of our the neutron matter. were has there and is we of been far know of equaL as it for that or the of and at matter converted in early originally antimatter equaLLy destroyed more that t his amounts matter seems. rid the What do we When up some we requires in again reaLLy quarks quarks which But resides to of Now about is which comes wouLd which we wouLd in be the these the species quarks they mass to decay form the abLe that what quarks want make gain to we caLLed the shades is to proton. Cl'1d neutrinos. universe actuaLLy was the there quarks converting We L L . of. and give reviewed quarks muons other eLectrons. before. That backwards in the acceLerated. wouLd an run the evoLution controLLed in a smaLL of the this and born. certainLy.126 127 made around M: Or without us and antimatter. be as Since a means energy the of once M: ourseLves three decay of which inside decay. the the true sion 1 S universe a considerabLe existed fraction form so between reLeasing the universe.

approximately ~. the with been proton..128 129 proton posi tron Ie+) ( ~~)~) (~:) . great found. An Unexplained Symmetry of Elementary Particles But Not do we at understand all. one species (i.1: One possible in have no we for age of decay recent been such can mechanism time decay such has that 10 31 for for yet Although processes effort. accident? actually know the relationship M: Yes. (~) (~) (~) . a proton stable years believed ("families").e . species in pairs of quarks i . 6. . family to the conditions longer the 10 10 remains universe (compare particles now electron. think neutrinos. why it is so? are nice that we some if theoretical it were of so. as these between decays quarks is show.2: The be Each of known divided family leptons. of today quarks always is also and come rat observation significant muons) there me a n i n q ? quark . epto~-quark relationship. we kind There Is it perhaps this What has are some the chances Actually eLectrons. ( . leptons in pairs. From normal average to the this disintegration searched of into quarks groups corresponds known to related to a us can conclude than years). Fig. and a very that there electrons? profound is actually a think there is no reason found. why I Although it would deeper is an be there very irguments R: why So. For of ~: t symmetry just indeed. every eLectron. 6. under on to the be ~ig.e..

on but be very interesting. vacuum vacuum that the occur. course. Yes. a certain between 1 keV 1 eV considerations. VerticaLLy quarks R: mass is shown Do an that a quark couLd annihiLate with Do Quarks have a Substructure? M: eLectron? yes.each magnitude. agree with of aLL necessary actuaLLy as be being reLated in the be of it may resides is if this the fact same that for the quarks difand 1 1:-- 1 terence electrons R: I ---t wouLd tend of a the fact and 1 GeV 1~V b--s--d--- 1-1. want to say Leptons. quarks for one in them. been even But happen scaLe. that quarks be once and we Learn to how we convert to can Fig.3: Quarks way each their denotes that as Yes actuaLLy how and Leptons they can be by ordered one mark unit on in such of the charge scaLe a substructure Leptons. T 1 M: Take We one one aLso It wouLd for know that be very charges charge. . to further and diverse wouLd But if recaLL that is the e-- ---u the same. a very.-- -----r ~vl-l ~Ve ---c V. know. and neutrinos. sum to you. observed. forbids . 6. differ here of understand into you possibLe shown one order horizontaLLy. or -1/3 { R: hat. a radiative That decay In principLe. an atom into never wouLd couLd photons. eLectrons. mean of that would and undergo exampLe des integrate This couLd smaLL the has of by Like It M: it eLementary eLectron differ differ Leptons.130 131 wouLd Mass Leptons Quarks be in ve r~' the surprising charges be accidentaL. quarks then +2/3 Charge matter M: Leptons which again a refLection the substructure this and it the 1l so -1 -1/3 0 may asymmetry antimatter may universe. eLectrons very of structure You eLectron charge. by one unit surprising the charges of so And quarks that the the of if of can they charges Latter the it were quarks be can of one +2/3 an and accident. in our it aLso this present may process be to as we have said. being just neutraL. charge. charges very So Leptons Like of this theoreticaL to is view so.

if state by with us Look atom quite they aLready process Look is out. probabLy carry hand nature Large annihiLations. suddenLy discussed time they expect then than on the try into Now very other.. constituents of quarks? wit h inside found. and eLectrons from are buiLt from there more must of under fundamenbe some r: constituents. R: Maybe quarks we quarks again being there have is the a same new picture of kind the of which protons." don't means ruLed no right pLace to what new higher yet one we processes. becomes t his conditions. case w hi c h Then possibLe protons it constituent decay vacuum particLes the proton In present state... ments.. Jan. . quite I don't for we is wiLL we other in various unLikeLy. 6. such muc. it. think that can to aLthough muonic want have Now. that at can some And not if we shouLd Maybe convert muonic and cLose each are Quarks perwe the other different wiLL vacuum hand it and be M: interaction. probe go to we haps shouLd itseLf atoms. this principLe wouLd strucof chosen in any a Quite a further a Lower surprising whatever substructure.132 when taL quarks particLes. there the and annihiLate particLes are united vacuum thus couLd occurring a reLativeLy the w hi c h scaLe stimuLate reactions. take turaL quarks LeveL. can quark-Lepton if we today. this LikeLy is very to there cLose why see we very that a be has But the case. binds may be in wouLd these that be the interaction together. C?OOO~ clustered 00 atomic nucleus nucleon °C)V< -_ onLy a different stabLe r···· The Unified Vacuum of all Microscopic Interactions oert ur bative gluon vacuum ---:. On case. Leptons to each other? atoms. M: may the wiLL R: constituents today that which the Quarks aLso by The out have the structure the unified of then is determined nucLeons buiLt at vacuum might that of just nature soLution.4: It an is assumed inner of grond vacuum? ::. associated reaLLy good.. radiation.' -:. the repeat itseLf That be nature be Yes. have to then We each energies have might on since experi- acceLerators other. such whether carry them with out ask atoms to to it is are teLLing cLose an have for shouLd the But. vacuum we to had that be Fig.

earth south But specuaLso funny in why funM: separated. with magnets a north these positron. 6. monopoLes. know. been most probabLy of the magnetic properties. on earth -have and the South form poLes of dipoLes be yet be North A cannot has not wouLd monopoLes the No. What and in found charge the meaning. magnetic region with of derive dipoLes he invented that if then comes one its carry possibLe after these exampLe. assume physics with of them the in which much the coLLisions comes same is from 'Nay carried earLy charged LocaLLy by stages vacuum the universe. this vacuum ion damentaL R: internaL different possibLy And the the they beLongs and the interaction Yes. charge. LikeLy magnetic not not.134 R: Do you mean a kind of a cataLyst? magnetic monopole Magnetic Monopoles: Catalysts of Proton Decay? M: nucLear Lated R: reaLLy matter recentLy You those refer mean into that here. is must Laws of charge possibiLity separate the wouLd we wouLd interesting. on and poLes. with to Leptons. this. heavy reproducibLe atomic nucLei. Lated come the aLL magnetic monopoLes magnetic fieLd? As to we the permanent very from It about aLone. is order magnetic It that was the a very product certain to have beautifuL of an discrete a very idea. In recent years we may and have not they which quarks started be may carry to understand They may part them that have of in muLtipLes monopoLes an a that R: actuaLLy charge vacuum. unified vacuum magnetic have magnetic crarges very monopoLe understand of one it. origin of of specu- has monopoLes of course. a cataLyst radiation. eLectric vaLues cLear. The a Large interaction monopoLe however. particLes properties.5: ALL where magnets the found. Dirac. . exist. universe eLectricaL eLectricaL recaLL reaLLy for is shortLy the and For wouLd Fig. may for And be to not the it such conversion been a cataLyst. connects carry pointLike. magnetic the Are earth's M: poLe.

set free. and there the is surface M: l This a would not be a particLe decay. middLe galaxies M: Or R: of middle would to the of just the earth.6: A magnetic of poLe protons. the fall of or into R: A electrons. is that. them they when so with might there accelerators foreseeable around. is it or Energy Production with Magnetic Monopoles? 6. universe. working before the they is very of interact strongly.If then stars a even is Fig. through And that said planets magnetic stars. you and they there few beginning. the find as heavy that that. energy. released transforming . they sit we what they in of future. nucLear wiLL into energy and be energy can reaction reLeased reaction Leptons. reaction fusion wouLd we know in or be similar nucLear a reaction that we a middle stars Perhaps neutron preciseLy in the sit they M: previously when those is maybe monopoles whenever to a nucLear perhaps? in reaction. if But said.. were can worries would the only wait the for me be universe monopoles Long more heavy. time decay cataLyst. it would be more ike reaction process in which a quark is converted Yes.136 Search for Magnetic Monopoles M: heavy have was R: very made Magnetic that been plenty But in we are likely . right it. of is another nucLear It as fission centres a quark. process can also be expect the that same in energy quarks sense. processes. produced energy point now. Like centres source in the encounter gala~ies. would greatLy thus increase l ike the a large and one. the course. in the They earth meant of of very fact poles we in of have the are expected no in prospect the early tc be of very making But massive..

market. an estabLished on the the theory. wiLL am be an thinking organized of such search experiments. It for in and Or is perhaps hard to about we wiLL shouLd bear vacuum go that to the We the formed be the particLes. for new Very soon wiLL approach it trere interactions. together. . ferent kinds. this it. M: but that from R: We Leptons. since come coLours Like quarks.138 139 R: But if we into firmLy beLieve then the between that energy quarks can be wiLL of transjust these enters centre search reaLLy structure the of must soLar the system. It might of from oe quite and earth's the futiLe wait for if we just of simpLy Look or at a new ments R: phenomena piece passage away Le matter of the a a decay it. understood What see we what cataLyst the proposed monopo- symmetries have expLains to do is to formuLate theory a fundamentaL try then theory to do which experi- these to test I reLationships. theory you hidden are and and severaL moment are R: theoreticaL we modeLs idea this whether theories fundamentaL R: What their interactions. quarks present. difference reLeased masses beLieve the simpLe and the experiments think quarks of monopoLes depth Leptons fruit. the know to find out whether the our ideas which are couLd correct carry another tween ~bout at reLationship is our M: a Le. in as eLectron and of we as three far say. different neutrino. There spaceships That decay is. as and their interactions kinds. and and then and LittLe Leptons. M: this unified concerned. quarks three come and to which a cLue and in can are diftwo be reaction Leptons. particLes may structure at here profound which we is be eLectrons We do not have or way have no not. are that very connect surprising quarks and predicts. existence very of beLittLe correct So to the driving perhaps Leptons. earth. rather Maybe the shouLd a monopowhen supposing Yes. R: actuaLLy to to discover the process stars. to of compute quarks where fundamentaL do not new have simiLarLy rates a theory vacuum the and M: WeLL. distant the as Look for such decay of protons magnetic or to find M: Yes. first. can caLcuLate that of we in one this has we from to conservation reaLize do not particLes in that principLes. than a proton we that earth the go monopoLe sun through surface. proposed There but at are the and five Leptons a more come grouped in quintupLets. regard is Search for the Substructure of Quarks and Leptons something at the And the masses moment reaLLy understand arise.

(Luftamt Hamburg.7: Learn quarks are they these interactions produce pLace. interaction. wiLL aLso In as At much at is other. scatter decade. 6. are with Learn it carriers coLlision a certain crossing eLectrons and quarks. own end this higher very to energies much coLLide higher than can be done What and be today. wouLd is we We be the have are a great discovery had achievement. energy acceLerator quark-Lepton presentLy under construction. responsibLe Aerial in protons uLtrahigh HERA view wiLL of where the be in DESY-acceLerator as the of made 1990 compLex and with facility a theory predict Hamburg eLectrons coLLide to experiments vacuum. in the the of teLL these first ratios the us experiments that of these vacuum. Looking indeed. wilL we wiLL Yes. hope about that the Yes. possibLe possibLe about Leptons one may can be structures. 262181) R: are That. supercritical .140 141 am thinking the electrons in HERA particular project. do energies. protons they at and high new that the in for perhaps wilL a property wiLL when moving be and eLectrons t~s other brought Each with each those about is very more and will other of at moving against accelerator. one intends on in into point. from quarks of One by the goaL the new German there is of acto ceLerator. something reaLLy and their mass We Fig. M: R: to each its Protons coLLide perhaps M: we which masses. very energy.rd of the of tne Vd~uum What type quantum we of fundamental eLectrodynamics. the substrong have haa and now . for vacuum. ratios. Nr. of the vacuum about the a th.a the While strong of taLking vacuum interactions.

have to a unified a theory some extent. new like we which M: of If discovered. about these as onLy to has from we I. if this not riddLe scaLe come in to the don't today this energies vacuum. see this if one per perhaps maybe energy visibLe structure insuffient. from proton And of size so the of M: in order that the R: very disappointing we of wouLd the stiLL energies avaiLabLe hundred and of quarks region years factor q reappears. sLowLy. unification w hi c h eLectromagnetic . how R: hope the idea to high but the wiLL of I perhaps today these energies. high type a few times tre of the physicaL structure size perhaps appear. to the The preciseLy wiLL of the of ratio reLativistic discovery quarks but be in the wiLL one coLLide M: have The now mass what size the there. but a third energies. this be great possibLe aLso that very of of a discovery to on high when quarks occur Leptons stiLL and we scatter Leptons energies. distances of tre experiments decade. unifies a modeL describes and weak consider modeL there modeL Leptons presentLy the interactions. R: it Later We other new from hope at Then wi L L Yes. of and we the Leptons know to wiLL range is or may of find be one of the one we heavy We vacuum study vacuum nucLei immediate very in the interactions other stage when come with of we t to e c o t t io i n q nucLei M: But what it is aLways scaLe Consider.142 143 in nonreLativistic together future by the to quantum eLectrodynamics in which are pLanning of find wiLL at the on that were we strong eacr . thousandth be is stiLL wiLL at Considering has of it may wouLd structure just do not wouLd we do to have give not been not very Live of experimentaL about aLL. with order wouLd a hundred thousand. to are in one of proton. course. progress one away that But hope. at on higher quarks wiLL CERN. existing. exists. Leptons meet of wiLL matter where and each that Learn into a one physics o r de r such in the be much with an cLue so too gained of us magnitude resoLution structures after both am decade.=reated brought in Structures in our World coLLisions. size atom for nucLeus of be uLtrahigh how third is of Yes. of one an to to an atom predict atom. a Fermi experiments quarks that is and such Leptons. of the it the such very a difficuLt new exampLe. the during because resoLution the that next the that far rips vacuum coLLisions probe hundreth There this Leptons. to buiLd wouLdn't a theory and how wondering Learn we vacuum these characteristic and to dimension maybe convert us aim questions. nameLy of theory for then the the a thousandth radiation. the very energies.

why gLuons so the under construction. a I . that to interBut they underwhich Z particLes recentLy antiproton photons Now. heavy. with strong nature weak c t es 7. are pLanned tunneL being The LEP o . The Higgs Vacuum theoreticians intermediate think a property The Carriers of the Weak Interaction R. at very they c arrt e d In being to is photons the from or These both are gLuons. tOY wouLd modeL' very Like of to vacuum in discuss structure study the previous now of how which the we can obtain permit phenomena M: an the to Let We the which simiLar mediate discovered they are stand The ideaL wouLd various us we weak a quantitative described the have and sections.1 Z 0:: W U discussed eLectromagnetic has j interactions is a third simiLar 'i s interactions. form modeL way of how of eLectromagnetic to buiLd to that about vacuum interactions toy pLayground structure.L a. heavy. a i nt e ra c t o AeriaL the formed discover presentLy v'ew SPS of ring and the the the experiments quark-gLuon CERN compLex and are aLso in Switzerland. it pLasma. is not theory . di ffer very. Berndt. mass vacuum. the Laws recaLL a practicaL Learn in different the weak and interaction That vacuum exoress me and arise facts the a simpLe physical connected the in is by calL been at in easy possibiLity can a few already There properties interactions: physicaL in different states vacua.144 145 Chaoter 7 describes in t these to weak the interactions theory by that photons that of is aLmost describes and maybe the the the identicaL interacSo of the structure ion s transmitted came bosons to is gLuons. to bosons. aLso particLes which we have coLLider and because the o arri on . very wh·j c h structure. the CERN.

<Juarks vacuum. aLong medium photon by by poLariza- ion wiLL through a way One It .~s propagates in actuaLLy acquire that in Derate '?ffective "ange Fig. comes ". responsibLe muon.~ electron (anti) neutrino :~ r. have Does different one realLy mass want Particle R: We L L . a massLess tic structure a vacuum I f mdssive. speciaL be that sees is carried the the t his screened if we the by wiLL the the fact id materiaL charge it having properties.2: + eLectromagnetic materiaL. calLed different 5 in Of one wouLd But more vacuum the bound then now compLex heavy in not course. irs t 0n is For be as surprising we This know and as that from it may seem at \ intermediate \ boson (W-) t exampLe.I materiaL reside Yes.1 gather wit the that to of impLy that is that makes it parit the Le. tiL L have massLess 5 nave and have yOU mass another. the '". "1. rot can massive. soLid materiaL. i5 interaction.. neutron and W . state say quarks we vacuum which a a different structure. W - and ZO mediate It for is. interaction h a particLe. Now Let that me aLso expLain an what the mass to of do the with parits r ' cLe mediates interaction has . in the amongst decay . have other we in cona be to a Yes. the in materiaLs the fact have the that some photon can an the such which [. of is the finite. what of yOU want of interaction charges The the intermediate so of caLLed other the bosons weak things. in one ide r a S want and uarticLe perhaps ~: to even T hi s ig h s 5 t. in dif- Masses and Range we of the Interactions seen no that quarks of that we in couLd the mass shouLd We ferent M: previousLy the proton vacuum. Yes. 7.146 147 R: to That have is a very particLes vacua? why not? ingenious w hi c h idea. o ton s~l t poLarize which such mass.

an is Large We to to for It the interaction. Large IN have in magnetic the and magnetic then the qui t e what in order Large aLL is ric ve h points piece ~ t photon m=O~ In ~~mf:. particLe.. Now. in strong to create to the do fie L d . the in a cLoud) photon soL i d . weak mass.3: By interaction. So the to tre interaction photon. which can Now though screens direction. and since if than smaLL the the uncertainty particLe parPreciseLy. energy time. seems of of hi nk the the of there short particLe a much shorter onLy of the inverseLy transmits time a very a photon. in two takes exist aLLows a is can very traveL range is which for that anot~er emission the be it and range eLectromagnetic therefore interaction photon mass as connected that the particLes a short the may c' e c au s e the range be t his can wi L L which aLso to aLso in taken a cLue of tre by to connected structure be reLated vacuum. is generates mechanics.cipLe. massive. contained magnitude Lv . We know has on L ike the that the aLthough energy in a ferromagnet aLL of the in the the tre prysicaL fieLd fieLd magnetic auandepend not on means can of which the it acquire poLarization carries around a nonvanishing cLoud witr mass (DebYe it. tie Ld it i e 5 '. between the can onLy emitted exist fore Limits the for it onLy for a T his of and the photon is quantum again connected l an ii So yOU wouLd say which Now. vacuum of this to domains direcdoesn't in and that not to is In interaction particLe conceive interaction. ferromagnetism. reLation em its tic L e . way some the a charged bv The the to t~at distance. of mass e.j a magnetic domains a want However.. same in the fact then is in the vacuum (Y ~ A Ct\ trere . 7. .148 u• with When absorbed effected. that is the a massLess infinite fact that be the be turn may in the particLe its range. a ferromagnet can of contain in ferromagnet one fieLd. this uncertainty violated that can and mass therethis of an of characterized a certain reLation the conservation means scaLe.O % & photon In a medium i ion s . Jenerate t interactions.gtr is onLy It 'f 149 range. eta iL . one anaLogy reason fie L d a Large fieLd. weak Fig. the mass time. to me that due and no to what the way we are deaLing intermediate wish the with is boson a screening.~xactLv '1 magnetic mass anaLogy.n a specific absoLute direction. different : -i. this is then is energy. proportionaL the '!lass.

of originaL. mass. What from mass then the say Higgs Field fU"ldamentaL 'j. in express coLLective a fieLd course. characterized modeL.re hetween shouLd f generated that. irs t sight. one fie as Ld couLd with are we mass it in many beLieve in in a principLe different many today theory. the So the of such scaLing other a prediction? of the coupling Since the which particLe. particLes. of But course. couLdn·t prysics these so niceLy . of be. with Fig. '1 a In is the by Higgs particuLar.. I.mp Lex . particLe aLL aLL Higgs for to be particLes. theory." rive men taL some provided which the the d i me n s t o n I e s s . way by the and this be ingenious via if the and conceive masses different is that that constants this vaLue series these sounds very of in of very of arising a quite from of is one masses are funHiggs theory And I at of some intermediate just there possibLy fieLds trere other en. But coupLings ad and hoc fieLd. the Take. Now which fieLd teLL aLL for me. sideration bosons? have But :0 teLL do with me. so masses. are can fie Ld. masses a very fieLd of which particLes generate a macroscopic usuaLLy mass as the calL tOY being Higgs . have each is nature remaining M· And this come different particLe? a specific wouLd.4: generate then the ever different coupLings if the of as known aLready be an what (Higgs) the The Higgs fieLd gives the intermediate boson responsibLe loIere we couLd just screening predict other are parameter. '.150 151 direction. true. interactions a mass. we that the can I am the Now onLy vacuum seeking can We the be an anaLogy. . vaLue sucr The of by what equaL point some this a do the we to i ie l d . theoreticaL modeLed its the There in strength is of we same M: m~O ~ ~. actuaLLy this a specific fieLd. predictions specific fie L d . the Jan. masses must grow weak from fieLd must scaLe. Can YOU give for an exampLe the to the these mass. Higgs exampLe. a there experimentaL scheme fieLd.t. red i c t ion s h a v e bee n ext r em e t v s u c c e s s f u L . discovered the independent the the given a dream strength wouLd Higgs by the of fieLds immediateLy with one parameters unknown M: there Very are interaction nice. mass what of does the this con- No. 7. This many do certainLy particLes we need wouLd in work. q net 5 . R: is vaLue Higgs is vaLue As that and of to of said.

152 153 properties for between the of the structured of vacuum aLso in be the responsibLe interactions breaking particLes? symmetries radio active nucleus t ett-nunded . were under coordinates.. any caL L the in fingers know as such main fir s t aLL Laws we caLL fingers Z. describe which construct your caL L dinates hand notice same rotate M: shouLdn't a coordinate right three yOU Now hand directions define take Z. 7. became it. " t neurlno left. in if we system To that and coorLeft wiLL the R: physics. QuaLities. three them of and that point your we X. onLy say. of form Li overLay macroscopic right coordinates. exchange handed fe.handed R: Let me We the has. X. It had was more what that very weLL. ot?~O' electron antineutrino electron ::. about symmetries matter coordinates.:anded decay the image direction of the symmetry turns of of the motion mtl. usuaLLy genetic orientation. different perhaps as we moLecuLes information particuLar dispLaced. in aLso up the one spiraL orientation. . carry in Left-handed and worLd it was virtuaLLy they and accident other one couLdn't since for was survive. take point is words it in your in how worLd.5: The weak interaction the and spin forbidden vioLates refLected the (ring) right-handed a system. and time some expect that it sugar the one to be. worLd is not and Left know symmetry of in Life the the destroyed.. comes and we as aLso a moLecuLe know that in our right-handed abundant. between particLes fingers these sign Y and that aLL vaLues coordinates and you cannot Yes. indeed. you shouLd beginning genetic right-handed Lost sLightLy suited parity. out As to they a different suppose was both But more fewer. has But I think up other is then that origin. Y and so the your You for refLexion: reLationship (arrow) around. That in same this of change as to event the space such t say know of a few that physics it. Left-handed We shouLdn't we know that onLy come fLuctuation tre M: onLy the ceLLs WeLL. forms that by this If of for some and eaten kind Now. by the it eats reaLLy there materiaL. hat the of symmetric handed R: breaking dominates. real decay ~ig.

the one . We some and and which must just reaLize names hand.. great is is some uniformity uniformLy to a Higgs and i.. not of symmetric nucLei If of in and some hand especialLy against does we the not the Look by that in the ex" 1 it microsvarious magnetic left of and the "" 9 ions interactions. suggests wouLd is that masses be a particuLar tempted the right scheme beLieve microscopic left-handed right-handed which parity there to the upper the niver sat t . 7. " 'It . M: weak change and same t his vacuum. and find an can its extent. ectron. the that the in the q r. L eft there was have However. possibiLity. that one shouLd caLL it spontaneous became type of t i k e t v.f I l'1ded edst. think breaking. gained that and the are decay in interaccions. IO(j1< particLes Fig."rromagnet. R: orientation as dependoft he accidentaL every different it be interactions history '.. prefers right-handed a mirror.e. v e r s e . such the Now two particLes wouLd of and fieLd Leftat if as an couLdn't a simiLar right way over in view which aLso visibLe evoLution v what gives What at a universe maintained..n1 left-handed That brings The But in wit h So couLd some genetic me formation. are to left left.154 155 M: So it was perhaps some kind of accidentaL symmetry f . which were we same degenerate other if there they no there that interesting Left-handed. for to it referring that is heLicity. right the knows thumb two and the that . other for And by so one breaking? R: Yes. happening different (see am ich Of course. we say in coordinate systems. the because The has right-handed choice actuaL on vacua. postulate symmetry way symmetry the a breaking was and Left cannot tempted '~e . than a sponright event we have discussed the .han d e d : ". Now we of that if we is know Left radioactive Look at it of a resuLt then beginning has there worLd. know rightthings each fi1ct lqht-handed Left-handed neutrinos of antineutrinos is a consequence vaLues. reaLLy things. that is here of quite that who an interesting Left and an what has on is the p o s s i b i Li t v. the vacuum vacuum. back to of way we know ferromagnet orientations that the in vaCUJm different your the on if we example magnet the Look there of aLso at are tre parts with the symmetry '0rromagnet.4). particle in correLate spin. which are often was two repeL the So in the the right. right the hand and arbitrary a thumb particuLar can say eLementary it. t . its 'ogether. Violation of the Reflexion Symmetry in "DicaLLy.t excLude to say in is no this possibiLity. r. .'11"1 They them eou 5 don't Like Less to remain the the same. . . e u t r i is moving direction things for the and fact Maybe the spin or its against momentum is we JnLy beginning handed. of the However.

discover to the up the and maybe future once it of the the weak ~: WeLL. proton discussed. the is we Leftwe that the back we case. experiments neutrinos. and of the mass scaLe our so weak we we meLted wi L L in we be the the as vacuum weLL of be strong abLe to the In weak interacmeLt scaLe the for GeV. that But we at fieLd thing couLd that couLd Let know. . interactions by the a certain theoreticaL weLL. two be Now kind LittLe wait very this about of feeLing different heat temperature be happen destroyed. must try r)etic shouLdn't amount of take of how t ions. through guidance from do not LogicaL teLL their R: Of course. vacuum L ig h t . we start that wiLL for than R: for be the difficuLty. neutrino. particLe. probLem. principLes or j couLd. opposite kinds of neutrinos are very heavy in M: So our ideas But an possibLe wiLL what have wouLd broken in that to await experiments if we restore weak convert couLd the far actuaLLy symmetry in the which future. strong generated weak as wiLL with one have However. the must standard eLectromagcourse. interaction. such is happen and by way to the experiment spontaneousLy to maybe perhaps. more. vacuum meLting one tions mass M: interactions. to experiment. times So we of the even its to interac- physics these. face to expand vacuum. be rig h t again.156 157 that our the vacuum. happens magnetic the same As wi L L rigrt-handed ferromagnet a ferromagnet. the more change t h ink inq this vacuum times shouLd anticipate properties achieve hundred difficuLt strong. of for We of as form. is cooLs freeze wouLd LikeLy a neutrino and which the the when and Question this and and of neither down out. the specuLation. of to the orientation and we wiLL of neutrinos extremeLy restore think the accidentaL breaking symmetry. But work vacuum is one characteristic quidance some and course. some wiLL me be actuaLLy come if right-handed we wouLdn't is that nor massive the one wouLd neutrinos? convert we wouLd them. a neutrino. We actuaLLy handed know onLy So know nothing one my so interactions. nor n c io L e s associated Which That the a us how things actuaLLy recognize eLementary is about is about weak the hundred proton before mass. weak But what wouLd which is very vacuum wouLd other wiLd today. find And heavy is an this about here. Quite a interactions' Left-handed Restoration of the Symmetry WouLd it be neutrinos M: We L L . and very We know that we yet We from Left-handed. happen.

this yet. equations. coupLing But Decause ture order tre R: gravitationaL it of thing is very. coupLing we caLL the a dimension its a already So we can construct dimensionLess constant. gravitation turn it on to and in been A soLution of the possibLy doubtLessLy interesting of to be abLe The Coupling Constant of the Interactions the If matter. mathematicaL aLL strong weak t~e so dimensionaL to in contain This have constants vacuum. it the new a verY but many actuaLLy orders The onLy the of of very a smaLL vacuum vacuum high dimensionLess caLcuLated very UP smaLL. strucenergies reLevant discussed seems because scaLe in time to be it tre we to understand eLectromagnetic there a mass the has interaction interactions. Gravitational M: Now that couLd is and Inertial Mass a fascinating weightLess. thought. many radius. the time. gravitationaL in contrast same coupLing constant a characteristic coupLing eLectricaL constant. be masses connected i~teraction very smaLLer can found.Chapter 8 qravitation reference unit of point. reason wiLL why this probLem hasn't resuLt phenomena. coupLing very is proton that abLe as a strange need associated a tiny worLd. structure. its the now. is the which the to reLate to theory can. is the then with wit h remains COurse. shouLd as to coupLing matter M: of As we discussed. a probLem is Long range know it must normaLLy to Low energy think soLved we can we microscopic constant vacuum in to interaction. M: But the typicaL constant Lengtr of the scaLe that is vacuum reduce stants. that I is magnitude particLes structures Large. of that dimension. coupLing constant measurements. gravitationaL it does not but to the But have at we one of the of aims the onLy may work of our study Like and of then the to confrom with the and with range. you that an we do not have a unknown be of fundamentaL the radius of to gravitation it couLd The Heavy Vacuum t re universe. concur There Of but change we the is than not It the of might constant be wouLd expLain we is be know. understanding understand couLd extremeLy coupLing R: can other What take you out reaLLy because want has to we say know is that of size the action electricaL which for But we from the rat i 0 for off. think we principLe. interactions interactions. Length. Imagine eLectricaL which constant fine structure certainLy ourseLves if we make . easiLy to such resuLt kind with structure gravitationaL structure. interactions.

by Lift to and give just me watch or the do the a effective attracted then ALL better body earth to of directed away have very to mass. 8. to as had change it has the vacuum. a bit because a veLocity traveL respect space M: trat pendent Yes. a gravitating telLs inertia appears of us of wren the the we wouLd There mass. free-faLL to earth Einstein equivaLence of experiments that at the same in Large Pisa and the attraction. do it. weight. it onLy gets alence and the is change Yes. that this of correct. couLd per raps gravitating }. Now forever. Like to proportionaLity. I structure relates be myseLf the gravitating benefit. Less Less I couLd speed. wouLd certain hOW momentum. you. very to the easiLy. I could demonstrated speed. sLow to And surface much smaLL equaL the overcome indeed and when acquire That way if of great proven to change equivaLence which possibiLity. is our as We you can. rid weight. us onLy Like are Like Jan. of at action from slowly don't myseLf off then or f the is n c io t e I move I don't move inertiaL away. Einstein's the as inertiaL equivmass propornot exampLe. Archimedes fLoat in water.Now certainLy constant time to has a very unfortunateLy not been high be degree easy of measured we know because to be accuracy today the indeand deveLoped gravitational principLe gravitationaL . to For the principLe itseLf by the dissociate inertiaL Einstein's mass is which the same factors is in the of is an and the body are R' trat so I wouLdn't has but there appears the mass to Einstein fruitfuL. have of a Lot this with through as will of mass Fig. of reaction then of force throw much the amounts attracted surface exampLe. cLearLy the of of said. of onLy of stilL However. the that it make would estabLished. the much much earth. a very I need throwaway matter. is will earth. tionaL. that are to of do. that our we earth. I couLd eartr. proportionaL. know for But very weLL. to mass and to the indeed gravitates wouLd they constant strictLy true.1: With GaLiLeo smaLL From and this of inertiaL his famous GaLiLei masses faLL finding the masses. is preciseLy these mass and principLe actuaLLy as and gravitated two the point. the inertiaL cranging constant mass. of our toLd us M: That is not principLe exactLy teLLs which you the that correct. aLL change fact I understand mass.160 161 R: how M: not R: We to That of That can.

change the force I could The say hand-waving the We time. vacuum. R: I determines gravitationaL R: Indeed is we lack this is fundamental that all these right? be more understanding. a vacuum. But there out. influence constant. will present allow smalL gravitationaL My value. have the is same also universe probabLy constant probabLy vacuum a acquire intrinsic which between the in order melted M: That reminds introduced and me of the cosmological his equations discarded be in nearly the constant of because zero. vacuum. inertial much mass. very the the So is that controL this vacuum do we to to When problem not this to away gravitate. types to Now the of which General it was this we amount vacua. common vacuum M: there doesn't An shouLd energy is an have of if a mass. with in the since When then struggle But that's away have zero today not develops to today. structures of What the really didn't has be a want anything good and change is inertial this of under us the to that mass constant vacuum. properties time constant precise. gravitational effect of the vacuum is obviously so universe.162 163 even remains So the uninfluenced we vacuum really which by are the looking expansion for the a new of way the to the s m a t L. essentially contained many it measures inertiaL the gravitating of which Since discussed different structure. time. which to this time. cannot earLy early change there the the mass cosmological because we this was frozen an the this Jniverse constant What does the Vacuum weigh? would still a renormalize universe. a dimension. a vacuum. circumstances of the earth. is hard a different in many understand complicated structure. experimentally cosmological of all a into later nO'1vanishing difficulty. reason pointed is there gravitating it should gravitating tion be worried tion. of struc- structure. is that we renormalize true. influence controlled to the surface with the with this carries has So the if to to say do that with So as one of well. cases why of this constant would Einstein Relativity. so much from way any. something change vacuum. very We Now is no and littLe suggested a vacuum have gravitaEinstein gravitaa changes gravitating inertia. could But relates It do the with since propertv although the size imagine my of of our this the that bodies particular gravitating could the well if Locally that R: to happening carry density. to and of For As an some we just vacuum would universe gravitation actually point and that ture learnt and attracts assumPtion. about. feeling us and value to of again to mechanism wiLL explain determined constant energy there have that are connection constant. occurred. . mass.

cube wouLd to make one one transition. with vacuum not normaL is Large. have vacua. high over region to is of in does a constraint. it overvacuum. from Laws bodies . is onLy more happened . assume suddenLy that point. strong have R: universe M: NO. effect meLted deconfined. M: Now. of the of much it for not density into of course. one So past that to GeV is expanding in we tre past at and the an the vacuum pressure Now so ing the wheLms Tre associated frozen Under a a negative onLy mass pressure. energy. a pressure. corresponds wouLd universe certainLy a different had a it wouLd universe. Fermi. the So transiLet At that us the discussed per the Fermi vacuum backwards. Length we must GeV. So effect. of gravity gravitating theory pressure today. out is of can Now in to a be gravitating strongLy infLuenced wants one. temperature. is vacuum universe permit had about become effect vacuum the net sufficientLy that pressure universe gLuons this This per wouLd cubic happen. we at of but now this when I think have one we which GeV go of it is best at to consider here. the this the compute if energy today then vacuum vacuum Without expansion the time of if had must doubt the differences. expanding was smaLLer At high the and discussed. the opposite. and sucr backwards. density of just quarks course. differences. away. gravitates. energy. is normaLized conditions imperceptibLy so of Large the contained universe energy vacuum as we where R: wouLd ferent Of and point the density wouLd imagine was arrive have higher been Einstein's pressure. takes a body evoLution a nonvanishing meLted has meLted words. energy the us meLted. for some in to at a backwards the Long its in space thus meLted the but but zero. one time It for certainLy the dif- repuLsive. the at vacuum some have has time R: unit with voLume gravitate cannot aLmost earLier renormaLized gravitationaL the then a mass That. difficuLt. somewhat gravitation. more the wouLd expansion think. vacuum Lower the to the that in the be vacuum if universe. have the absence the that the other by In curious As of we feature discussed. turns this theory onLy or the preciseLy The of a but be wouLd reason If one sequence Einstein's vacuum the of in also it go The tends M: has t h a-. gravitatsmaLL. One starts estabLished gravitating principLe Now been course.M: The Evolution of the Universe tion Look Yes. become the universe time. one than exampLe.and as we of to infLuence. be no in as you said. what which the one usuaLLy sees govern universe proceeds today the is in time. frozen smaLLer. of the structure. mass is of the vacuum fi LLed computes weLL know.

a smaLLer to a pressure i. scopic mesons. evoLunegative contained contained pressure expanded Fig. speak baLance vacuum vacuum of 'anti-gravity'. in the Just in the as in hot. of but So with now the we have to turn the our and movie Look with of at must many the as no At the in the it have evoLurunning been t ion forward. more down. not the in universe the no the the shouLd interior caLled proceeded "antigravitationaL meLted the then transition but some by the spend vacuum to onLy the a sense. fast. the many would one more of the could than the melted the states. the negative pressure quarks moving in ins ide of a nucleon between the two vacuum longer balanced particles contained baLance difference pressure . 8. space.166 167 The superheated Vacuum in the EarLy Universe "melted" vacuum "frozen" vacuum M: Yes. transition confining regions However. period vacuum state. of the the influence could and t ion pressure in it.e. occur immediateLy would wrong sometime with Normally meLted particles contained itself.2: The very occupy resuLts internal negative. at universe baLanced Now some was point particLes negative universe time. certain effect" of the the The melted wouLd negative extent vacuum Like pressure in an is to positive enough the place. fiLLed universe originaLLy the melted it which the meLted cooLed of that to of if around vacuum. cientLy R: In in of and to pressure baLance particLes vacuum to the vacuum expansion Longer trat rave of nuLceons frozen of its its vacuum pressure. the Large moment taken microand suffivacuum later. the vacuum frozen quarks the than vacuum.

be the caLcuLated the exponentiaL. Higgs field Explosive Development of the Early Universe Fig. the bottle state. supercooLed its the "faLse" underthe take which actuaLLy contained action the universe OnLy meLted pressure said.3: When fieLd vacuum.. double time and R: Now not It it that turn has is reminds water into alL in the some with quickLy ice water me of beLow for what the happens freezing and instead of when point. refrigerate wiLL have time. expansion during that so on. reaLLy the The as In important universe gravitational pressed a kind fact. supercooLed a considerabLe properties unstabLe water.. energeticaLLy pLace. of time. to be of the period was. in period change the the of into vacuum Higgs R: one But in the vacuum. a universe. this is preciseLy The period converted much smaLL the the vacuum Like an bubbLes conversion was universe what may have meLted happened vacuum some in the earLy for began process started Light. universe again in antigravity. "true" it works Jan. cooLing the was universe possibLy after a did cooLed frozen a Longer sudden down. . freeze in an instant. into existed moment it in vacuum speed heat thermal of of a untiL the at The frozen grew the into up at vacuum frozen tre reaL expLosion. that shake to ice doubLe R: Such immediateLy.168 169 M: Yes. a process caLLed infLation physical kind bursting of supercooLed a bottLe it wiLL vioLentLy. that is. When you It can of onLy you of wouLd same is in a fixed time. the energy. you amount water. 8. of the of course. certain to in In meLtec and be very supercooLed. the phase size wouLd Right. . which process. transformed Latent was heated again. Lower. M: can negative As we apart.

reaLLy ActuaLLy kind. appears can of have scaLe measure determine In can For Berndt. process everything ment. an the mean This Like infLation of money? is being the thought structure of just M: infLationary aspect today. of any we the system. that years were wouLd imagine However. It remains Like Lead recentLy.170 171 ~: when Yes indeed. LocaLLy universe radius sary. fragments. 8. infLation differences becomes that couLd in the of of scenario that the the so echo of this expLosion radiation. Further universe.4: During frozen increased the in period the its when the v~cuum. universe this homogeneous. equaLizes because couLd of the rich peopLe worthLess imagine a smoothing inhomogenities . background we must reaLLy have extremeLy expansion money between a very Lead to distribution rapid of has after the some growth matter effect and poor time. universe been NoW. know that romogeneous of is the as of M: important universe the the money aLso universe understanding the nameLy the time. Higgs tre fieLd was an unsoLved most think "faLse" s ize universe rate explosion it wouLd tion where be of a speciaL discover an at an exponentiaL LikeLy inhomogeneous Thus distribuexpLosion there expansion must as ("infLationary growth"). it one size smaLL for a very homogeneous.oned. to is an hard the discovered the their that say many if you you to number of stars from Large per the void on a is of an voLume distance way some the to time surface regions Large surprisingLy earth. of of in the that So the it. remained that Fig. very M: R: unit extremeLy inhomogeneous. universe because this appears grows aLthough very to be a natural It it is is consequence aLso necesto be a the rapidLy. homogeneous How We of do we know for the gLobaLLy physicaL that? exampLe if been one puzzLe. infLationary M: R: You Yes. of Long we know homogeneous.

veLocity of radiation. of So you aLL? MicheLson is the to thing. from that a major hoLe.172 173 frame Background Radiation: Modern Ether in many ways. the sky can we with have much mean be because cannot point provided by more that much. an was that ether. the the is a p r a c r i c a L probLem The of cruciaL reference universe vacuum state wouLd actuaLLy today. observation didnt't Laws state tion. of make he the the condiwhere defined reference it by cern absoLute disprove cLearLy out that beginning infLation makes M: part finite Looking as of far the Now the this we Einstein occurred. veLocity our teLL spaceships therefore to conceived universe moving. the pointed the laws what when invariant. Larger reLativisticaLLy impossibLe. M: after R: Light M: R: ence And Yes. onLy beginning of can the reaL the is By see conan the the directions motion prove very point to independent Now. But radiation years. experiment That can with universe is be an in you earth what preciseLy expLained. practice started. aLso to the are MicheLson-MorLey stiLL radiation taLk in traveL. Einstein physics. existout. started. the subject is for we do that the somew~at: actuaLLy is t~e an ~ave you many have This a very usuaLLy In vacuum ether' just reference of waves in t~is to course. time depend reference is was on that the which even initiaL And is universe. is onLy true if the spaceship as a neutron of is far star inhomogenity. veLocity infiniteLy we since universe frame of the therefore Light universe of universe a teLescope. in doesn't we us of have from which again. the carefuL ether that can interesting the universe. R: But us that here. what And can ether. background provides which provide but aLL aLways and R: echo Yes. the Look the And which is that for frame that. frame of of vacuum aLso might see and into as universe. very of consider of of on physics the how The the which of does as are an at are observer. which disturbs such the bLack ether background set same in out aLL the not to prove that of of or the the space. traveLLed expansion a preferred . ether. much reLativisticaLly started. birth and universe a medium teLL the at eLectromagnetic with any remarkabLe misunderstood order peopLe T his is mentioned. the of an observabLe me the I can ether. respect background the earth mean that MicheLson's experiment was wrong M: away or Of course. the than Light far. have the vacuum through principle misunderstood propagating ether. invariant. However. for the It absoLute which in at has veLocity why yet frame does and respect pLace with in they the I can of not. course. of Let the me now You was of waves change of the know.

174 175 Our Universe: an Old -Accident-? in some way we so are we frozen cannot in our reaLLy movement move at in wilL the in other these dimensions.. dimensions. suddenLy want we experiment of was this Later is very from a that performed vacuum the our weird the of biLLion test Then these considerations a post-graduate r e e Li t v structure happened the into it out No I vacuum universe. of structure. changed. created may We be moving been One is If in can these show As an not dimensions the that properties mass for is without of. You mean. we it. have any physicaL started twenty in order universe. idea. dimension there more of are than time. the with constrain motion introduce weLL be are eLementary we it by building it wiLL the simpLy couLd of that a particular additional the problem is the in How Many Dimensions does our World have? spatiaL inertia. constraining mass. then we So the of it exampLe.. same the of the our can associated wrong M: universe. can matters can be (b) is (a) that that a smaLL the of our entire universe. for practicaL experiments the to exhibit for this can physics. sphere.. if discussing a constraint you exampLe. universe. but visibLe entire actuaLLy space. R: are years the what and deeper cut M: Yes seeing ago indeed. fraction universe dimensionaL way earth. extremeLy is perhaps Large what it couLd domain. situation investigate constrained materiaLs when dimensions. you the M: four can't what universe be You Live BasicaLLy reaLLy and embedded you Live inside. gutter. text . properties. modeLs in soLid of in very particLes thinking R: . is an now by ActuaLLy.. in part can on the Maybe a higher the of the is ActualLy. more the but than three that surprising dimensions dimensions . be One buiLt where can they and one then are These think surface that of with a used can state eLectrons two but construct two-dimensionaL motion move some onLy soLids. be abLe to that an a surface. of the space possibiLity in the and the that worLd. effecof water flow as a resuLt I don't perhaps noticing for tively body fLowing a narrow quickLy. have mass. in three down By a there motion take to dimensions. has been some student another was And be and that that the what by to reaL we some M: universe disastrous R: I don't Bu t ? know do enough to answer this question. to go shouLd R: Yes. explaining dimension masses fact space.

quicker. mass in has a winding couLd been channeL say as weLL is deLayed that increased. of We the somebody freeLy traveLLing through hyperspace Fig. papers vacuum universe. research theoreticaL serious the of the deaLing is R: Yes. very are go we equaL from if one you of the side just veLocity another yourseLf and the wouLd science aLL of to point to reach surface through other earth. particLes just is sionaLity actuaLLy compactified M: Now that of which of described introduced refLections couLd in wouLd weLL the again wouLd some time have worLd of be muLtidimenour that we are it dimensioned.5: Water in inertiaL flowing its fLow. its ALthough noveL. three be be dimensions. into many these open seriousLy journaL find with that these effectiveLy a current section. very to its have be So highLY surface maybe understanding properties and whicr the that and a misunderstanding. of thought the that property the fascinating which other at responsibLe and we might freezing dimensions. When the very I sounds theories much Like a science considered and there questions. this vacuum and obtain new dimensions to move freeLy R: wouLd to point think the centre faster. these worrisome modeLs exist. 8. an evoLutionary for it be is a abLe certainLy a vacuum. . that if that very couLd were nearLy get is the the that true.176 177 to meLt in. we a maximum of much as earth. Maybe and many they aLL of our the cause me to have of we a is the Understanding understanding radicaLLy changing very thought: we couLd space. stiLL have of course. Like M: in the You reaLize. be fiction this Light. Look are our One fiction today. being eLse he veLocity But The confined can wiLL books.

arises theory is experiment not fiLLed stated of up in out the about ca. 400 B. Parmenides of phiLosophy) unnecessary worLd (founder teaches for a of the that ELeatic the SchooL "void" of is the Mathematica description Robert diffuse pass BoyLe in through shows the vacuum unimpeded the and propagating that sound cannot Light can ca. generaL equivSpace iv it v basis aLence (vacuum) is now considered curved . four and vacuum supports The with entire of "horror with water. micro-vacuum the theory i AristotLe vacui" the air) and . 500 B. 350 B. EmpedocLes so the caLLed creation describes "kLepshydra" that of vacui") experiments which does macroscopic with is used not the to 1873 whereas demonstrate ("horror ca.C.C. 450 B. 1850 describes absoLute cLassicaL in his concePtion main work Phi Losophiae ca.178 179 HistoricaL OutLine: Vacuum 1650 Otto and von Guericke the vacuum the space invents pressure tre air pump demonstrates air and difference DeveLopment of the DescriPti01s of the Vacuum 1687 between Newton of "Principia NaturaLis" ca.C.C. be Largely equivaLence a consequence of electro- "e r h e r ". nature a aLLow vacuum Ma:~weLl deveLops uniform theory eLectromag- of eLectromagnetism netic waves predicts in the ether shows with a peak Democrit b u i Lt of the who atomic that indivisibLe teacrings aLL materiaL atoms under is moving 1887 The that materiaL MicheLson-MorLey the vacuum ether deveLops on of and the the energy the basis ether. earth. MaxweLL's viewed synonymous 1643/44 TorriceLLi's barometer experiments 1915 Einstein reta t deveLops on the of inertiaL the and theory of as heavy of the mass. 'ether' as 1905 Einstein theory vabiLity mass from magnetism speciaL of The as the reLativity unobserof space The s filLed terms eLements can ( fir e .

carried a charged out to prove in the vacuum strong particLes fieLds of that the bosons their on Prize invoLved C. deveLop vacuum Light the PauLi.27 DeveLopment berg of 70 Fir s t structure unified weak SaLam. Van of CERN quite the weak the CERN der Schwinger eLectrodynamics introduce state shows vacuum be can and the Tomonaga in its deveLop modern of predicted vacuum NobeL and vacuum renormaLization structure scientists Casimir of effect the that is the zero and point that experiments: Meer Rubbia energy this 1960 . theory interaction Prediction Wand to Z appLication FormuLation of by of vacuum of the and and formuLates proves in eLectromagnetic GLashow. Dirac and others of of the the 1974 to date Attempts aLL for and known construct interactions. C . bosons practicaL modeLs. uncertainty existence HeisenreLation of the I 1965 - 1925 .65 Fir s t can fieLds. of the Weinberg intermediate 1932 Anderson positron radiation the the cosmic high-aLtitude 1930 -35 Heisenberg. Discovery and proof accurateLy known main interaction.180 •I 1 quantum the mechanics. Wand masses the of 1984 in and Z at were basis the for the S. a unified The nature deveLopment theory possibLe of im- theory Prediction and the eLectromagnetic scattering and the of the vacuum portance its of roLe is the in structure the the of the of vacuum gravity of the poLarization Light-on- understanding recognized are of (DeLbruck scattering) experimenstates atom virtuaL and in the thus universe 1947 Lamb taLLy L-sheLL prove in 1946 -50 the Retherford spLitting the existence discover of hydrogen of the Experiments formation electricaL 1983 Feynman. variabLe measured that the vacuum state (Higgs assumptions have an GoLdstone inner bosons) structure . quantum form the 1949 H. quantum vacuum.