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CONTRACTS
1. CONTRACTS AND FORM OF CONTRACT
When two or more persons have a common intention
communicated to each other to create some obligation between them,
there is said to be an agreement. An agreement which is enforceable
by law is a “Contract”.
According to section 10 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872 only
those agreements are enforceable by law which are made by the free
consent of parties competent to contract, for a lawful consideration
and with a lawful object and are not expressly declared to be void.
This is subject to any special law according to which contract should
be in writing and attested by witnesses.
The following are the essential ingredients of a contract:
a. Offer made by one person called the “Promisor”.
b. Acceptance of offer made by the other person called the
“Promisee”.
c. Doing of an act or abstinence from doing a particular act by
promisor for promise a called consideration.
d. The offer and acceptance would relate to the something which
is not prohibited by law.
e. Offer and the acceptance constitute an agreement, which,
when enforceable by law, become a contract.
f. In order to make a valid and binding agreement, the party
entering into such an agreement should be competent to make
such agreement.
For the purpose of an agreement, there mush be a
communication of intention between the parties thereto. Hence in
the forms of a Contract there is:
a. A proposal
b. Communication of the proposal
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c. A communication of the acceptance of the proposal
A contract is an agreement enforceable by law. It may be noted
that the works ‘agreement’ and ‘contract’ are very often used as
synonyms, but in fact they are not. All contracts are agreements but
all agreements are not necessarily contracts; agreements not
enforceable by law are not contracts.
To be legally enforceable, the agreements must satisfy two
things, viz, intention to be bound and consideration. However,
according to the Indian contract Act 1872, an agreement is a
contract if ‘it is made by the free consent of parties competent to
contract, for lawful consideration and with a lawful object, and is not
expressly declared to be void.
The contract must be definite and its purpose should be to
create a legal relationship. A contract creates an obligation i.e. a
duly cast upon a person by law. When the parties to a contract
exchange promises, it gives rise to a contractual obligation.
TYPES OF CONTRACTS
Contracts for the execution of civil engineering works are of
following types:
a. Lumpsum contract
b. Item rate contract
c. Lumpsum and schedule contract
d. Cost plus fixed fee contract
e. Cost plus percentage of cost contract
f. Special contracts
Lumpsum Contract
In this type of contract, the contractor offers to do the whole
work as shown in drawings and described by specifications, for a
total stipulated sum of money. There are no individual rates quoted,
thus it becomes difficult to make adjustments in the contract value if
any changes are to be made in the work later on. The schedule of
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different items of work is not provided and the contractor has to
complete the work as per drawings and specifications for the agreed
lump sum amount.
Deposit of 10 % security money and other conditions of the
contract are included in the contract agreement. Upon the
completion of work, a fixed lumpsum amount is paid to the
contractor. Detailed measurements of different items are required
but the whole work is compared and checked with drawings and
specifications before releasing the payment. In large projects, part
payments are made to the contractor at different stages of work on
money agreed terms. In case the contractor stops the work in
between he is not entitled for any further payment.
Suitability
A lumpsum contract is more suitable for works for which
contractors have prior construction experience. This experience
enables the contractors to submit a more realistic bid. This type of
contract is not suitable for difficult foundations, excavations of
uncertain character, and projects susceptible to unpredictable
hazards and variations.
Merits
i. The owner can decide whether to start or shelve the project
knowing the total lumpsum price quoted by different
contractors.
ii. The contractor can earn more profit by in-depth planning and
effective management site.
Demerits
i. Before the contract is awarded, the project has to be studied
thoroughly and the complete contract documents has to be
prepared in advance.
ii. In this type of contract, unforeseen details of work are not
specified in the contract document. Many additional items
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may have to be undertaken as the work progresses, giving
opportunity to the contractor for claiming higher rates of the
extra items not included in the contract agreement.
Item Rate Contract
Also called a schedule contract, in this contract, the contractor
undertakes the execution of work on an item rate basis. The amount
to be received by the contractor, depends upon the quantities of
various items of work actually executed. The payment to the
contractor is made on the basis of detailed measurements of different
items of work actually done by him.
Suitability
The item rate contract is most commonly used for all types of
engineering works financed by public or government bodies. This
type of contract is suitable for works which can be split into various
items and quantities under each item can be estimated with
accuracy.
Merits
i. In this type of contract, there is no need for detailed drawings
at the time of allotting contract as in the case of lumpsum
contract. The detailed drawings can be prepared after the
contract is awarded.
ii. Changes in drawings and quantities of individual items can be
made as per requirement within agreed limits.
iii. The payment to the contractor is made on the actual work
done by his at the agreed rates.
Demerits
i. The total cost of work can only be known upon completion. As
such, the owner may incur financial difficulty if the final cost
increases substantially.
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ii. Additional staff is required to take detailed measurements of
work done for releasing payments to the contractor.
iii. The Scope for additional saving with the use of interior quality
materials may prompt the contractor to use such materials in
the work.
Lumpsum and Scheduled Contract
This is similar to the lumpsum contract except the schedule of
rates is also included in the contract agreement. In this type of
contract, the contractor offers to do a particular work at a fixed sum
within a specified time as per plans and detailed specifications. The
schedule of rates for various items is provided which regulates the
extra amount to be paid or deducted for any additions or deletions
made during the progress of work. Measurements of different items
of original work are not required but extra items are required to be
measured for payment. The original work shall however be checked
and compared with the drawings and specifications.
Suitability
This type of contract is more suitable for construction works
for which contractors have prior work experience and can
consequently estimate the project cost more realistically.
Merits
i. In this type of contract, additional staff for recording detailed
measurements of original item of work is not required for
making payment to the contractor.
ii. The owner can know from tenders as to what the project will
cost him. Knowing the financial implications, the owner can
decide to start or defer the project.
Demertis
i. Before the contract is awarded the project has to be studied
thoroughly and all the contract documents are required to be
completed in every respect.
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ii. The non-scheduled extra items arising out of changes made in
the drawings and specifications are often a source of dispute
because the contractor presses for rates higher than the
prevailing market rates.
Cost Plus Fixed Fee Contract
Cost Plus fixed fee contract is desirable when the scope and
nature of the work can atleast be broadly defined. The amount of fee
is determined as a plump sum from a consideration of the scope of
work, its approximate cost, nature of work, estimated time of
construction, manpower and equipment requirements etc. In order
to negotiate such a type of contract, it is essential that the scope and
some general details of the work are defined. The contractor in this
type of contract is selected on the basis of merit rather than the fee
alone. In case of cost plus percentage contract, the contractor has a
tendency to increase his profit by increasing the cost of work. But
this drawback is overcome in cost plus fixed fee contract because
here the contractor’s fee is fixed and does not fluctuate with actual
cost of work. Once this fee is fixed, the contractor cannot increase
the cost of work.
Suitability
i) This type of contract is suitable for works required to be
completed expeditiously and where it is difficult to foretell what
difficulties are likely to be encountered.
ii) This contract is also suitable for important structures where
the cost of construction is immaterial.
Merits
i) In this type of contract, actual cost is to be borne by the
owner. Therefore, the contractor performs the work in the best
interest of the owner resulting in good quality work.
ii) The work can be taken in hand even before the detailed
drawings and specifications are finanlised.
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iii) Changes in design and method of construction if needed can
be easily carried out without disputes.
iv) The work can be executed speedily.
Demerits
i) This form of contract cannot be adopted normally in case of
public bodies and Government departments.
ii) The final cost of the work is not known in advance and this
may subject the owner to financial difficulties.
Cost Plus Percentage of Cost Contract
In this type of contract, instead of awarding the work on
lumpsum or item rate basis, it is given on certain percentage over the
actual cost of construction. The actual cost of construction is
reported by the contractor and is paid to him by the owner together
with a certain percentage as agreed earlier.
The contractor agrees to do the work in accordance with the
drawings, specifications and other conditions of contract. In this
type of contract, proper control has to be exercised by the owner in
the purchase of materials and in arranging labour.
The suitability merits and demerits of this type of contract are
similar to cost plus fixed fee contracts. An additional demerit is the
tendency of the contractor to increase the cost of work to earn profit
by way of percentage of enhanced actual cost.
Special Contracts
There are certain contracts which are used at different
occasions. Some of these contracts are listed below:
 Turn-key Contract
 Package Contract
 Negotiated Contract
 Continuing Contract
 Running Contract
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(i) Turn-key Contract
A turn-key contract is an integrated contract in which all
works pertaining to various disciplines such as civil, electrical,
mechanical etc. are in the hands of a single contractor called the
main contractor. The main contractor can sublet the contact to sub-
contractors who are specialists in their respective fields.
In this contract, the main advantage to the owner is that he
need not coordinate the work of different contractors. The main
contractor is responsible for all kinds of jobs starting from planning
to commissioning stage. The owner takes over the entire work
(which is fully operational and of proven performance) from the main
contractor.
(ii) Package Contract
In a package contract, two or more related jobs, each of which
could form a separate contract are combined in a single contract. In
the field of civil engineering, generally, design and development are
combined with construction and supply or maintenance.
In this type of contract, plan of work and standards are
established and the work is carried out accordingly by the
contractor. The main contractor is responsible for safeguarding the
owner’s interest and for this reason, prior approval of design and
technical aspects have to be taken from the owner. Responsibility for
correctness of the design lines with the main contractor.
(iii) Negotiated Contract
In this type of contract, negotiation across the table takes
place between representatives of the owner and the main contractor
for project cost and other conditions of contract. In this type of
contract, detailed projects specifications are arrived at by
discussions between the owner and the main contractor and
consultant.
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A negotiated contract involves extended discussions for
finalization as a competitive contract. Most of the consultancy
projects of World Bank are negotiated contracts.
(iv) Continuing Contract
In this type of contract, new or additional work is awarded to
the contractor on the basis of agreed terms and conditions of an
existing contract. Such contracts do not require re-tendering and
hence can save time and money.
(v) Running Contract
Such contracts provide goods and services at specified
intervals or as and when required by the owner. The contract price
is not fixed and payment is based on goods supplied and services
rendered as specified in the contract documents.
III. Contract Documents
The contract document consists of the contract agreement (on
non-judicial stamp paper of prescribed value) and the following set of
documents, each page of which is signed both by the owner and the
contractor.
a) Cover Title Page: It contains the name of work, name of owner,
name of contract, contract agreement number, contents etc.
b) Contents Page: It contains the contents of the agreement with
page references.
c) Notice Inviting Tender (NIT): It contains a brief description of
work, estimated cost of work, date and time of receiving the
tender, amount of earnest money, security money, time of
completion etc.,
d) Tender Form: It comprises bill of quantities, contractor’s rates,
total cost of work, time for completion, security money to be
deposited and penalty clauses etc.
e) Schedule of Issue of Materials: It contains the list of materials
to be issued by the department or owner to the contractor with
rates and place of issue.
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f) Drawings: These comprise a complete set of fully dimensioned
drawings including plans, elevations, and sections detailed
drawings and site plan.
g) Specifications: It is not practicable to include detailed
information of each item of work in the limited space of
description in the bill of quantities. As such detailed
specifications form a part of the contract agreement.
Specifications should be clear and precise covering all items of
the bill of quantities. Following specifications are normally
included in the contract document.
i. General Specifications: These specify the class and type of
work quality of materials etc, in general for the work as a
whole.
ii. Detailed Specification: These give detailed description of each
item of work including material and method to be used along
with quality of work manship required.
h) Conditions of Contract: The terms and conditions of contract
specify the following.
i. Rates of each item of work inclusive of materials, labour,
transport, plant/equipment and other arrangements required
for completion work.
ii. Manner of payment of contractor including running payment
final payment, refund of security money etc.
iii. Time of completion of work.
iv. Proportionate progress to be achieved.
v. Penalty for poor quality and unsatisfactory work, lack of
proportionate progress and for delay in completion.
vi. Extension of time for completion of work.
vii.Engaging other agency at contractor’s cost and risk.
viii. Termination of contract.
ix. Subletting of the work.
x. Changes in design/drawings etc and valuation of variations.
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xi. Arbitration for settlement of disputes.
In addition to the above, performance and payment bonds are
also sometimes considered as part of the contract document. All the
above stated documents collectively constitute a contract document.
The documents are considered together for the purpose of contract
interpretation, giving rise to meaning and effect to each part of the
contract. In general, the intention of contracting parties is
determined from the contract executed by them. The contractor
should carefully read and understand the contract before executing
the work.
Specifications – Definition and Explanation
Specifications are statements which describe the nature and
class of work, materials to be used, labour to be employed, method of
work, precautions to be taken, quality of workmanship etc. The cost
of the work depends much upon the specifications. The nature of
work can be easily understood from the study of specifications. The
drawings of a building or structure show the arrangement of rooms
and dimensions (length, breadth and height) and include a brief
description of the different parts. Drawings do not furnish the
details of different items of work, the quantity of materials,
workmanship etc., which are all description in the specifications.
Specifications serve the following purposes:
i. Guide the bidder at the time of tendering for arriving at a fair
price for the work involved.
ii. Provide guidance for execution and supervision of work and
purchase of materials.
iii. State the acceptance criteria for different items of work.
Specifications are of the following Types
 Contract Specifications
 Guide Specifications
 Standard Specifications
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(a) Contract Specification: The specifications prepared for a
particular job to accompany the working drawings are contract
specifications. These are further claussed at:
- General Specifications
- Detailed Specification
General Specifications are also called brief specifications.
These give a general ideas of the class and type of work giving brief
descriptions of materials, quality and workmanship.
Detailed specifications provide a detailed description of each
item as per schedule of quantities, specifying the materials to be
used including their proportions, method of work quality of
workmanship required etc. The specifications are written, as far as
possible, in the same sequence or order in which the work is carried
out.
(b) Guide Specifications: These specifications provide a guideline
for preparing contract specifications and give a broad idea about
class and type of construction for a particular purpose.
(c) Standard Specifications: These specifications are prepared for
various materials or group of materials for the guidance of all
concerned with construction or construction industry. These
specifications include methods of manufacture methods of tests,
code of practice etc., Indian Standards Institution and other such
institutions have prepared a wide range of standard specifications.
(d) Manufacturer’s Specifications: Manufacturers prepare
specifications of their products for the guidance of users. These
specifications also include installation instructions and other
guidelines for use and maintenance of products. These
specifications are generally provided in the form of manuals. Clear
understanding of specifications plays a vital role in the successful
completion of a construction project.
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ENLISTMENT OF CONTRACTORS
PROCEDURE FOR ENLISTMENT OF CONTRACTORS
Before entering into contract with the Public Works
Department, every individual or firm is required to register himself as
a contractor, after paying the registration fee, for taking up works in
the appropriate classes of registration. The copy of rules for
registration of contractors is supplied to the contractors on payment
of Rs.5/- plus sales tax.
Fee for application and Registration
Classification of Contractor
Money
Limit
Application
Fee
Registration
Fee
a. For works at Divisional
Level
Class V upto Rs.40,000
Rs.5/- Rs.50/-
Class IV upto Rs.1 lakh
b. Circle Level
Class III upto Rs.2 lakhs Rs.10/- Rs.100/-
c. State Level
Class II upto Rs.5 lakhs
Rs.10/- Rs.200/- Class I upto Rs.10 lakhs
Class I above Rs.10 lakhs
The above fee will not be refunded under any circumstances.
Interested ayacutdars and beneficiaries are exempted from
Registration fee, works upto Rs.10,000/- for irrigation and Rs.5000/-
for buildings. The registering authority for class IV and V will be
Executive Engineer and for the rest Superintending Engineer.
Following are exempted from the Registration Fees:
i. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
ii. Repatriates from Burmah and Ceylon.
iii. Labour contract co-operative societies.
iv. Industrial co-operative societies.
The registration of a contractor for works in a division or a
circle is on a territorial basis and as such separate registration is not
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necessary in a special division or special circle of the same
department, for taking up works lying in the territorial area covered
by the first registration. For taking special works in places outside
the area of his registration, the contractor should register himself in
the special circle. Contractor may register themselves in more than
one territorial unit of division or circle of the same department after
payment of the requisite fee in each case. No contractor shall be
permitted to get himself registered under more than one name in the
same territorial area. When a contractor has registered as a partner
of the ‘Firm’ he cannot once again be permitted to register his name
as a contractor in his individual capacity, in respect of the same
business, in the same territorial area. The contractor’s application
for a higher classification or reinstatement to original class in the
case of demoted contractor or resumption to the original status after
removal of or suspension will be treated afresh and the application
shall be considered on its merits, after the levy of the prescribed fee.
The Registering Authority shall have full powers to reject any
application, but before doing so he shall issue a show cause notice to
the applicant giving 7 days time and specifying the reasons for the
proposed rejection.
The applicants when found satisfactory with reference to their
financial standing and other particulars in the application by the
enquiry officer, should be given intimation in writing by giving class,
area etc. The applicant within 15 days of the receipt of intimation
shall remit the registration fee into the treasury and sent the challan.
The officer on receipt of challan, shall enlist the applicant in the
Register of contractors and inform the applicant and also the officers
of the department about that registrant. In token of having read
through and understood the standard preliminary specification he is
required to sign in the Tamilnadu standard specification.
The status of the contractor, especially his financial soundness
should be checked annually by the registering authority, for weeding
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out from the approved list, such contractors are have not secured
any work during three consecutive years. The Registering authority
may demote a contractor to a lower class, if he fails to execute a
contract or proved to be responsible for defective construction, or his
financial position is not good, or found to violate any important
contract conditions etc. as to justify his demotion. The fact of
demotion need not be sent to the contractor but the registering
authority shall intimate to the Chief Engineer through the next
higher authority.
The Registering authority may remove the name of contractor
from the approved the list, if the contractor
i) fails to secure any work during three consecutive years.
ii) has on more than one occasion failed to execute contract.
iii) persistent violation of important conditions of contract.
iv) violation of Labour act etc.
The decision should be taken only after issue of show cause
notice and the orders should be communicated to the contractor
concerned, and afterwards for other department officers for their
guidance. Income tax and sales tax clearance certificates shall be
furnished by the contractor and the failure shall prevent the
contractor from tendering for works till such time the certificates are
furnished.
Jobless or unemployment Engineers should register
themselves with any one of the Executive Engineer after paying the
prescribed fee for registration. Then only then can avail the
concessions entitled for unemployed Engineers.
The solvency certificate required will be
i) Works upto 50,000 -nil
ii) Above 50,000 upto 2 lakhs -10% of value of work
iii) Above 2 lakhs -25% of value of work
The rules regarding Registration, removal, etc. shall apply to this
category also.
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CONTRACT – BILLS AND ACCOUNTS
2. Introduction
The payment to the contractors for works or supply or
material, road metal and plants etc. are made on the basis of
measurements recorded in the measurement books. When the work
or supply is completed or sufficiently progressed, the detailed
measurements are taken usually by the section officer and recorded
in the measurement book and an abstract of quantities are prepared
and the cost is calculated at the rate of the contract agreement.
From the abstract of quantity and the rate, a bill is prepared for
payment.
2. Bill and Voucher
Bill: Bill is the account of work done or supply of materials
made and includes the particulars and quantities of work done or
material supplied and amount due. Reference to the agreement
number, order number are also given in the bill.
Voucher: Voucher is a written document with details which is
kept in record as a proof of payment. For any payment, a bill is
prepared and payment is made on the bill, duly checked and
acknowledged by the payee, by signature or revenue stamp as
required and after payment is made, bill becomes voucher which is
kept in record.
3. Types of Bills
The various standard forms of bills and vouchers are used for
payment, according to the nature of works. White forms are used for
running bills and yellow forms are used for final bills. The following
are the different types of bills.
i) First and Final bill
ii) Running account Bill – form A
iii) Running account Bill – form c
iv) Lump sum contract Bill
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v) Hand receipt
i. First and Final Bill: This form is used for making payment
to the contractor both for works and suppliers, when a
single payment is to be made on the completion of the
whole work or supply as final payment. This type of bill is
generally adopted for petty works or split up works in
projects.
ii. Running Account Bill – Form A: This form is used for
advance payment without any measurement. It may be
used for running bill payment for advance for unmeasured
work only or combination of unmeasured work and
measured work or if ‘on account’ payment is to be made but
an advance payment already made for the same work is
outstanding.
iii. Running Account Bill – Form C: This form is used for
contracts both for works executed on piece work system
and for suppliers received. This form is widely used
specially for medium sized works executed through K2
contract or split up works or projects entrusted on
nomination to a number of contractors.
iv. Lump Sum Contract Bill: In the L.S. contract methods, a
number of intermediate payments are made in L.S. contract
running account bill form before final payment is made.
Intermediate payment is made for (i) value of measure up
items of work executed forming part of the contract. (ii)
value of authorized extra work done on account of additions
or modifications in the work executed supported by details
in either case.
In the final L.S. bill, the full amount as entered in the
contract is paid adding the amount of authorised extras
and deducting authorised omission and the intermediate
payments already made.
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v. Hand Receipt: Hand receipt is a simple form of voucher
intended to be used for small miscellaneous payments and
advances for which none of the above forms is suitable.
The purpose of payment and the designation of the officer
making payment duly supported by measurement book
entry should be furnished on the hand receipt No
agreement is necessary for payments made through Hand
receipt form.
4. Types of payment
Payment to contractors are made in a variety of ways, as listed
below:
i. First and Final Payment
ii. Running on Interim or ‘on account’ payment.
iii. Final payment
iv. Advance payment
v. Secured Advance payment
i. First and Final Payment: The term indicates a single payment
made for a job or contract on its completion. In this case the
payment finished by one payment after the completion of the
work. This is usually applicable for small work.
ii. Running or interim ‘on account’ payment: This means
payment made on a running account to a contractor for works
done or supplies made by him, duly measured and entered in
measurement book. This is effected when only a part of the
whole work or supply has been done and the work or supply is
in progress. During the progress of the work, the contractor is
paid from time to time.
iii.Final Payment: This is the last payment made to a contractor
on a running account, on completion of this contract and the
full settlement of the account.
iv. Advance Payment: This means the payment made on a
running account to a contractor for work done by him but not
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measured. Advance payment is not generally made to the
contractor, but may be made under special circumstances
when the work is sufficiently progressed, but measurement
cannot be taken for certain valid reasons. The value of work
done shall not be less than the advance proposed. Detailed
measurements shall be taken as soon as possible and advance
payment adjusted in the final bill.
v. Secured Advance Payment: This payment is made on the
security of materials brought by the contractor to the site of
work, when the contract is for the completed items of work.
This type of payment may be allowed by the Executive
Engineer in the interest of work upto an amount not exceeding
75% of imperishable materials. Lime, sand, paint and
varnishes are considered as perishable materials and no
advance is permissible.
5. Preparation, Examination and Payment of Bills
The bills for payment shall be prepared with respect to the
measurements recorded in the measurement book. All entries in the
measurement book with regard to the description and quantities of
work or supplies made are checked. Arithmatical calculations of the
contents or area are verified. When, the bill is on running account
then it is compared with the quantities etc. with the previous bill. It
is checked whether deduction in respect of the following have been
properly made.
i) Recovery for advance payment
ii) Recovery in respect of departmental materials issued to
the contractors.
iii) Hire charges for departmental materials issued to the
contractors.
iv) Amount to be withheld towards security deposit.
v) Recovery towards penalty for slow progress, non return
of empty gunny bags etc.
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In case of final bills the field officers should certify about the
due fulfillment of contract and satisfactory completion of work.
The memorandum of payment is then made. The competent
officer records a formal pay order specifying both in words and
figures the net amount payable. However the contractor is required
to acknowledge the gross amount payable inclusive of recoveries
proposes in the bill.
When the bill is passed for payment, every page containing the
detailed measurement will be scored out by a diagonal red ink line.
The number and date of the voucher for payment will be entered in
the measurement book.
6. Contractor’s Ledger
Contractor’s ledger is a personal account of a contractor where
all transactions regarding the particular contractor are entered. It is
maintained in the divisional officer in a prescribed form. All
payments recoveries of adjustments etc. are taken in the ledger.
Recoveries of debit balance of the ledger should be made from the
contractor regularly at the first available chance to avoid
accumulation of arrears. For every contractor a separate ledger is
maintained and each contractor’s ledger is closed and balanced
monthly.
The contractor’s ledger is maintained by the division and a
specimen page of a contractor’s ledger is given in Table – 1.
Table – 1
Name of Contractor for the month of
………………………………………….
Date
Voucher
No.
Sl.
No.
of Bill
Net Transaction
Name of
work or
account and
particulars
of
transaction
Gross
Transaction
T
o
t
a
l

u
p
t
o
d
a
t
e

v
a
l
u
e

o
f

w
o
r
k

o
r

s
u
p
p
l
i
e
s
R
e
m
a
r
k
s
A
d
v
a
n
c
e

P
a
y
m
e
n
t
O
t
h
e
r

T
r
a
n
s
a
c
t
i
o
n
s
Debit Credit
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7. Completion Report
When a work is completed and the accounts have been settled
a note below the final entries is made in ink. Work completed on
…………20 ….. and this note is signed by the divisional officer. If
the total expenditure is in excess of the sanctioned estimate, and
if the excess is within the power of the divisional officer, it is
passed by him and the certificate to the effect that “effect passed
by me” is recorded. A completion plan should accompany a
completion report.
8. Completion Certificate
After completion of the work of construction of other
department, a certificate for satisfactory completion should be
prepared in a prescribed form and got signed by a local head of the
department. The completion certificate will read as Certified that
works and repairs were completed on ………20 ….. and that it is in
good satisfactory order. The completion certificate is signed by the
Assistant executive Engineer and Executive Engineer and then got
accepted and signed by the local head of the department, for whom
the construction was carried out.
9. Refund of Deposits
The deposits of the contractor and refunded after six months
from the date of satisfactory completion of the works or on the expiry
of one rainy season. During this period of observation, the
contractor is responsible for any defects or mishaps in the works. He
shall have to make good all such defects and damages.
10. Maintenance of cash book
The definition of following terms are taken before, the
maintenance of cash book is discussed.
i) Cash: The term ‘cash’ as used in accounts includes legal
tender coins, cheques, deposit-at-call receipts of scheduled
banks and drafts payable on demand. A small supply of
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one rupee revenue stamps is also treated as part of cash
balance.
ii) Debit and Credit: Debit means expenditure and credit
means that the amount is shown as expenditure on the
work. Similarly when an amount is credited to a work it
means that the amount is to be shown as receipts under
the work.
iii) Cash Book: The transactions relating to the actual receipts
and payment of cash are recorded in a register known as
cash book. The cash book is one of the most important
records of the office.
The pages of the cash book are machine number and each page is
divided into ‘receipt side’ and ‘payment side’. The receipt side has
got five columns and payment side has got seven columns. The
specimen page of a cash book is shown in Table – 2.
Table – 2 Cash Book
Receipt Side Payment side
Date of
Receipt
No of
vouchers
or
receipt
From
whom
received
A
m
o
u
n
t

C
a
s
h
C
l
a
s
s
i
f
i
c
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

r
e
c
e
i
p
t
D
a
t
e

o
f

p
a
y
m
e
n
t
N
o

o
f

v
o
u
c
h
e
r
T
o

w
h
o
m

p
a
i
d

e
t
c
Payment side
C
l
a
s
s
i
f
i
c
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

c
h
a
r
g
e
s
Cash
Bank or
Treasury
N
o

o
f

C
h
e
q
u
e
Amount
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Every government officer is personally responsible for the
public money with which he deals and for recording the transaction
of receipts and payments promptly. Private cash or accounts are in
no case to be mixed up with public cash or accounts.
The following instructions are to be followed in the
maintenance of cash book
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1. Entries should be made continuously and no line should be left
blank. If any line is left blank due to the fact that the other side
of the folio has been completely written up, a diagonal line
should be drawn to cancel the blank space.
2. Interpolation of entries, or over writings must be avoided but, if
unavoidable, these must be initiated and dated by the
disbursing officer. Erasure of entries is strictly prohibited.
3. Transactions should be entered as soon as they occur in the
order of occurrence.
4. If the cash transaction of private cheques received is too many,
these may first be entered in a “Register of cheques received and
adjusted” and only the totals of daily receipts and remittances
entered in the cash book.
5. Every entry must be concise. The date, number of voucher and
the name of the work together with a brief description to clearly
indicate the nature of transaction must be entered against each
item.
6. No receipt other than cash should be entered in the book.
7. When a cheque is drawn to replenish the chest, its number and
amount to be entered.
8. When an impreset is given, it should be noted in red ink in the
cash book.
9. When amount of unspent imprest is received back, it is shown
on the receipt side in red ink.
10. The disbursement of salary of regular establishment is recorded
in a separate cash book known as subsidiary cash book.
11. Bills paid and entered in the cash book are known as vouchers.
Vouchers are allotted serial numbers in a continuous series
each month.
12. It is advisable to check that the cash balance is counted every
time a balance is struck or at convenient intervals.
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CONTRACTS AND LEGAL ASPECTS
3. THE LAW OF CONTRACTS
The law of contracts in India is contained in the Indian
Contract Act, 1872, which lays down the general principles relating
to formation, performance and enforceability of contracts and the
rules relating to certain special types of contracts such as indemnity,
guarantee, bailment, pledge and agency. The Act is, however, not a
complete and exhaustive law; some of the special contracts such as
those relating to partnership, sale of goods, negotiable instruments,
insurance, etc. are dealt with by separate legislations. However, the
general principles of contract law are the basis for such special
contracts too.
Essential elements of a Contract: From the foregoing
discussion, the essential elements of a contract may be enumerated
as under:
1. Minimum two parties – At least two parties are necessary to form
a contract because one person cannot enter into a contract with
himself. To form a contract, one party has to make an offer ad
the other must accept it. The person who makes the ‘proposal’ or
‘offer’ is called the ‘promisor’ or ‘offeror’, the person to whom the
offer is made is called the ‘offeree’ and the person who accepts the
offer is called the ‘acceptor’.
2. Offer and acceptance – There must be an ‘offer’ and an
‘acceptance’ to the offer, resulting into an agreement. Both ‘offer’
and ‘acceptance’ should be lawful.
3. Intention to create legal obligation – The parties must intend to
create legal obligation. In commercial agreements. an intention to
create legal relations is presumed, unless the parties have
expressly agreed to otherwise.
4. Lawful consideration – An agreement is legally enforceable only
when each of the parties thereto gives something and gets
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something, that is, consideration. Consideration may be past,
present or future, but it must be ‘lawful’, that is, it must not be
illegal or fraudulent or immoral or opposed to public policy, or
must not imply injury to the person or property of another.
5. Competent Parties – The parties to a contract must be competent,
that is of the age of majority (over 18 years), of sound mind and
not disqualified from contracting by any law to which they are
subject. Thus, a minor, lunatic, idiot drunkard. etc., cannot,
except for some special cases, enter into a valid contract
6. Free consent – All the parties give their free consent, to form a
valid contract. Consent means that the parties must agree about
the subject-matter of the agreement in the same sense and at the
same time. Consent is said to be free unless it is induced by
coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake.
7. Lawful Object – The object of an agreement must not be
fraudulent or illegal or immoral or opposed to public policy or
must not imply injury to the person or property of another.
8. Not Expressly Declared Void – An agreement expressly declared to
be void under sections 24 to 30 of the Act or under any other law,
is not enforceable and is, thus, not a contract. For example, an
agreement in restraint of trade or wagering agreements, are not
enforceable.
9. Certainty and Possibility of performance – The terms of a contract
must not be vague or uncertain. If an agreement is vague and its
meaning cannot be ascertained, it cannot be enforced. The terms
of a contract must be such as are capable of performance. An
agreement to do an impossible act is void and not enforceable at
law.
10. Legal Formalities – Generally, a contract may be oral or in writing.
However, certain contracts are required to be in writing and may
even require registration. For instance, an agreement to a pay a
time – barred debt must be in writing; an agreement to make a
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gift must be in writing and registered. In such cases, these
additional formalities must be complied with.
DEFINITION OF TERMS CONNECTED WITH CONTRACTUAL PROBLEMS
1. Agreement – Every promise and every set of promises, forming
the consideration for each other, is an agreement. When one
person conveys to another his proposal, and that other person
assents thereto, the proposal is said to be accepted. A proposal
when accepted becomes a promise.
2. Contract – An agreement enforceable by law is a contract. In
other words, a contract is an agreement made with an intention
to create a legal obligation i.e. a duty enforceable by law.
3. Offer or Proposal – When one person signifies to another his
willingness to do or to abstain from doing anything, with a view
to obtaining the assent of that other to such act or abstinence,
he is said to make a proposal.
4. Acceptance – When the person to whom the proposal is made
signifies his assent thereto, the proposal is said to be accepted.
In other words, acceptance is the manifestation by the offeree of
his assent to the terms of the offer.
5. Consideration – When at the desire of the promisor, the promise
or any other person has done or abstained from doing, or does
or abstains from doing, or promises to do or abstain from doing,
something, such act or abstinence or promise is called a
consideration for the promise.
6. Consent – Two or more persons are said to consent when they
agree upon the same thing in the same sense.
IMPORTANT CONDITIONS OF CONTRACTS CONNECTED WITH
CONTRACTUAL PROBLEMS
The members of the construction team should be fully aware of
their rights and obligations under the contract. they should be
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thoroughly conversant with the precise provisions and true
importance of each clause in the contract agreement.
Following are in important conditions of contract:
a. Time of completion.
b. Delay and extension of time.
c. Penalty
d. Compensation for delay in completion of work.
e. Liquidated damages.
f. Debitable agency
g. Valuation of variations
h. Settlement of disputes
i. Force of nature and natural disasters
j. Price escalation
k. Termination of contract
a. Time of Completion: The Contractor is required to complete
the work within the agreed time of completion which is specified
in a suitable unit of time (year, month, week etc) depending
upon the nature and scope of work. The contractor is also
required to maintain a proportionate progress of work.
b. Delay and Extension Time: Delay in completion of work not
attributed to the contractor should be brought to the notice of
the owner by the contractor in writing, within the time specified
in the contract, for seeking extension of time. The owner will
satisfy himself that the delay is not on account of a lapse on the
part of the contractor before granting suitable extension of time.
c. Penalty: It is a fine imposed on the contractor for non-
fulfillment of his contractual obligations such as failure to
maintain required progress of work, delay in completion, poor
quality or work, bad workmanship etc.
d. Compensation for delay in completion of work: The
contractor is liable to pay compensation to the owner for delay
attributed to him in completion of work. The amount of
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compensation may be stated as a percentage of the estimated
cost of work for each unit of time delay. The maximum limit of
compensation may be 10% of the contract price.
e. Liquidated Damages: It is a fixed stipulated sum payable by
the contractor on account of penalty for delays and does not
bear any relationship to the real damage to the owner. It is
generally high and fixed per day for excess period over the
specified in the contract for completing the work.
f. Debitable Agency: Whenever the contractor fails to fulfil his
contractual obligation in respect of progress or quality of work
even after giving due notice by the owner, it becomes necessary
to appoint a debitable agency which works at the cost and risk
of the contractor. This agency is in the form of labour or other
contractor to fulfill the contractual obligations of the main
contractor. The expenses incurred are charged from the bill or
security of the original contractor.
g. Valuation of Variations: The valuation of variations is based on
change orders issued in writing by the owner. Generally, the
variation in individual items of work should not be more than
25% and variation in total cost should not exceed 10%.
h. Settlement of Disputes: Efforts should be made to resolve
disputes amicably between the owner and the contractor
through mutual discussions and negotiations. Arbitration
clause may be incorporated in the contract to settle disputes not
resolved through mutual discussions and negotiations.
i. Forces of Nature and Natural Disasters: Natural disasters are
acts of nature, such as unprecedented floods / rainfall,
earthquake, hurricanes, typhoons, fire etc. These disasters
along with occurrence of riots, civil commotion, revolt etc. are
beyond the control of the contractor and may lead to financial
and time loss. The contractor should obtain an insurance policy
for such risks as can be covered by insurance. In the event of
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financial or time loss, the contractor can claim financial
compensation from the owner for risks which are not insurable
and an extension of time for all such risks.
j. Price Escalation: During execution of the work, labour wages
and material prices may increase as a result of inflation. The
contract conditions should therefore, include on appropriate
clause for payment of escalation to the contractor. Generally,
escalation payments is made for increase in the cost of labour
materials and petrol, oil and lubricants (POL) and the
percentage of three components are taken as under:
Labour - 30% of contract price
Materials - 65% of contract price
POL - 5% of contract price
The Central Public Works Development (CPWD) adopt the
following formulae for computing escalation.
(i) The compensation for escalation for labour is worked out as
per the formula given below:
V = W x Y / 100 x (L1 – L1o) / Llo
V = Variation in labour cost i.e. increase or
decrease in the amount in rupees to be paid
or recovered.
W = Value of work done
Y = Component of labour expressed as percent
of the total value of work (30%)
L1o = Minimum daily wage in rupees of an
unskilled adult male mazdoor, as fixed
under any law, statutory rule or order as on
the last date on which tenders for the work
were to be received.
L1 = Minimum wage in rupees of an unskilled
adult male mazdoor, as fixed under any law
statutory rule or order as applicable on the
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last day of the quarter previous to one
during which the escalation is being paid.
(ii) The compensation for escalation for materials is worked
out as per the formula given below:
VM = W x X / 100 x (M1 – M1o) / Mlo
VM = Variation in material cost i.e. increase or
decrease in the amount in rupees to be paid
or recovered.
W = Cost of work done.
X = Component of materials expressed as
percent of the total value of work (65%)
MI = All India whole sale index for commodities as
MIo = Published by the Economic Advisor to Govt.
of India, Ministry of Industry and
Commerce, for the period under
consideration, and that valid at the time of
tenders, respectively.
(iii) The compensation for escalation for POL is worked out as
per formula given below:
VF = W x Z / 100 x (FI – FIo) / FIo
VF = Variation in cost of fuel, oil and lubricant i.e.
increase or decrease in rupees to be paid or
recovered.
W = Component of POL expressed as percent of
total
value of work as indicated under the special
conditions of contract (5%)
FI&FIo= Average index number of wholesale price of
group (fuel, power, oil and lubricants) as
published weekly by the Economic Advisor
to Govt. of India, Ministry of Industry for the
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period under reckoning, and that valid at
the time of receipt of tenders, respectively.
The compensation for escalation is normally worked out at
quarterly intervals with respect to the cost of work executed during
that period.
k. Termination of Contract: The owner can terminate the
contract in the event of default or bankruptcy of the contractor
and may impose penalty as per the contract agreement.
Default on the part of the contractor includes abandoning the
work, failure to maintain required progress, non-observance of
rues / instructions etc. for which the owner may rescind the
contract and impose penalty upto 10% of the estimated cost of
work. Due notice must be served on the contractor before
termination of the contract.
(4) CONSTRUCTION LITIGATION
Disputes may arise between the contractor and the owner due
to the following reasons.
1. Supply of materials from the owner to the contractor.
2. Handling all the site to the contractor.
3. Extra works carried out without contract agreement.
4. Delay in the completion of the work.
5. Substandard work or defective work.
6. Payment to the contractor through running bills.
7. Supply of stores, machineries and the rent for the
machineries.
8. Recovery.
9. Availability of drawing and other specifications.
10. Measurements of the works.
The Contractor has the following responsibilities:
1. He must ensure safety of materials, men and machinery
on the site and should guard against accidents either to
the workers or to the local people.
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2. He must ensure quality of the work as required by the
owner.
3. He must complete the work within the agreed time.
4. He must ensure the quality of materials which he is
receiving from the owner.
5. The contractor should make proper entry of the
instructions regarding change of specification or
deviation from the sanctioned estimate or drawings.
6. He must make proper entry of the materials received
from the owner.
When there is a failure in the responsibilities of the contractor
as well as in the responsibilities of the owner, dispute arises and this
may in turn lead to litigations.
Jurisdiction of Courts
The courts of the place from where the tender acceptance letter
has been issued shall have the jurisdiction to decide any dispute
arising out of or in respect of the contract.
ARBITRATION AND LEGAL REQUIREMENTS
INDIAN ARBITRATION ACT 1940
Disputes may arise between the contractor and the owner
because of several factors such as recovery on account of alleged
delays, defective work or excess consumption of materials etc. The
disputes can be settled through litigation in a court of law or, where
the contract permits, through arbitration. Arbitration is the process
of hearing and determination of a dispute by an impartial referee
selected or agreed upon by the parties concerned.
The Indian Arbitration Act was enacted in 1940 and provides
for arbitration in the following three cases:
a. Arbitration without intervention of a court: The owner
and the contractor enter into an arbitration agreement in
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advance or after the dispute has arisen. The dispute is
settled through arbitration according to the Act.
b. Arbitration with Intervention: When the owner and the
contractor having entered into an arbitration agreement
are unable to proceed further in terms of the agreement,
the court’s intervention is sought for settlement of the
dispute.
c. Arbitration in Lawsuits: When a dispute is the subject
matter of a lawsuit pending in a court, both parties may
agree to settlement of the dispute through arbitration in
terms of the Act.
The Indian Arbitration Act 1940 does not control the conduct
of the owner and the contractor in deciding the form of the
arbitration agreement. The Act does not prescribe the procedure to
be adopted by the arbitrator for conducting the proceedings. The
arbitrator thus enjoys flexibility in the procedure leading to
expeditious settlement of disputes. The Act does not provide for
interference with the award given by the arbitrator. The arbitrator is
also not bound under the Act to state reasons in support of the
award given by him. The award is, therefore, final and can only be
challenged in a court of law on questions of law and / or misconduct
of the arbitrator.
Advantages of Arbitration
The advantages of settling disputes through arbitration instead
of litigation in the courts are as under:
Cost: arbitration is less expensive than litigation.
Speed: disputes are settled much faster (usually within 4
months) through arbitration as compared to lawsuit in the courts.
Convenience: arbitration hearings are fixed considering the
convenience of the concerned parties.
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Technical Knowledge: both parties have the distinct
advantage of appointing arbitrator(s) having technical knowledge and
expertise in construction.
Informality: arbitration proceedings are conducted in a
relatively informal atmosphere observing certain minimum
prescribed legal formalities.
Proceedings in Private Premises: Unlike proceedings in courts
which are exposed to the general public, arbitration proceedings are held in
private premises, Business interest and reputation of the parties will,
therefore, not suffer.
Finality of Award: the award given by the arbitrator is final.
It can only be challenged on questions of law and / or misconduct or
arbitrator(s).
Arbitration Clause
In view of the advantages of arbitration, most of the
construction contracts incorporate a suitable arbitration clause in
the agreement. Following are the main provisions of the arbitration
clause.
i. All disputes or claims arising out of or relating to the
contract, or the breach thereof, will be settled through
arbitration in accordance with the Indian Arbitration Act,
1940.
ii. The parties may agree to the appointment of a single
arbitrator or each party may nominate an arbitrator and the
two nominated arbitrators may mutually select an umpire.
iii. The parties will mutually agree regarding the sharing of
arbitration fees and expenses.
iv. The arbitration proceedings will be conducted by the
arbitrator(s) in accordance with laid down procedures at
mutually convenient dates and places.
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v. In the event of a difference of opinion between the two
arbitrators concerning the award, matter will be referred to
the umpire and his decision will be final.
vi. The arbitration award will be final and binding upon both
parties.
Contents in Nutshell
Construction contracts are formalized in the form of a written
document which defines clearly the rights and obligations of each
party. In engineering contracts, the contractor offers to execute the
work for a monetary consideration on certain terms and conditions.
A contract is reached when the offer or proposal made by the
contractor is accepted by the owner. The elements of a contract
consist of offer, consideration and acceptance.
The main types of contracts for execution of civil engineering
works include lump sum contract, item rate contract, lump sum and
schedule contract, cost plus fixed fee contract, cost plus percentage
of cost contract and special contracts. In a lump sum contract, the
contractor offers to do the whole work for a total stipulated sum of
money and individual rates are not quoted for the various items of
work.
Such contracts are more suitable for works for which
contractors have prior construction experience and details of the
work involved are clearly known. Such contracts are not suitable for
difficult foundations and works susceptible to unpredictable hazards
and variations. Item rate contracts are also known as schedule
contracts. In these contracts, the contractor undertakes to carry out
the work on an item rate basis. Payment is made on the basis of
measurements of items of work actually executed. Such contracts
are commonly used for all types of civil engineering works financed
by government / public bodies. Turn key contracts are special
contracts in which all works pertaining to various disciplines such as
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civil, electrical, mechanical engineering etc. are in the hands of a
single contractor called the main contractor.
The contract document consists of the contract agreement (on
non-judicial stamp paper of prescribed value) and cover or title page,
content page, NIT, tender form, schedule of issue of materials,
drawings, specifications (general and detailed) and conditions of
contract.
Specifications are statements which describe the nature and
class of work, materials to be used, labour to be deployed methods of
work, quality of workmanship etc. Specifications directly affect the
cost of the work.
Important conditions of contract include time of completion,
delay and extension of time, penalty, compensation for delay in
completion of work, liquidated damages, debitable agency, valuation
of variation, settlement of disputes, force measure, price escalation
and termination of contract. During execution of work, price
escalation may occur due to increase in labour wages, material
prices etc. as a result of inflation. An appropriate clause is,
therefore, generally included in the contract agreement. The
payment for escalation on labour, materials and POL is usually
determined by standard formulae.
Disputes may arise between the contractor and owner during
the execution of work because of several factors. These disputes can
be settled either through litigation in a court of law or where the
contract permits, through arbitration. Arbitration is the process of
hearing and settlement of a dispute by an impartial referee selected
and agreed upon by the parties concerned. Settlement of disputes
through arbitration has many advantages such as less cost, speedy
settlement, convenience and informality of proceedings etc. The
award given by the arbitrator is final and binding on both parties. It
can only be challenged in a court of law on questions of law and / or
misconduct of the arbitrator.
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PRINCIPLES OF VALUATION
DEFINITION OF COST, PRICE AND VALUE
Cost : It is the expenditure to produce a commodity having a value.
In our construction Industry cost means the original cost of
the construction including the cost of materials and labour.
Hence the cost is a FACT.
Price : It is the cost of a Commodity plus additional reward to the
producer for his labour and Capital. In our construction
industry the original cost of construction with certain
percentage of profit. The profit or additional reward may be
varied from Builder to Builder, and Business to Business
because the Price is a POLICY.
Value: Valuation is an opinion or an estimate which will be
determined by many factors like the purpose, supply,
demand, depreciation, obsolescence etc. Valuation is a
function of place, date and purpose.
DIFFERENT KINDS OF PROPERTIES
- Land and Building
- Agricultural lands
- Coffee, Tea, Rubber plantations.
- Forest
- Mines and Quarries
- Stocks, Shares, Debentures
- Plant & Machinery
- Jewellery
- Works of Arts & Craft
PURPOSE OF VALUATION
- Purchasing for Investment
- Purchasing for self Occupation
- Revision of Capitals
- Interim Reports of Execution of Buildings or other
structures.
- Compensation for land Acquisition
- Present Value of Old Properties
- Arbitration
- Assessing property Tax
- Income Tax, Wealth Tax
- Gift Tax, Capital Gains
- Selling
- Mortgaging
- Collateral Security
- Auctioning
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- Insurance
- Court fee stamp
- Partitions
- Stamp Duty
- Rent Fixation. etc., etc.
All the above purpose of valuation has been divided into six major
categories, each category is discussed in detail.
1. Taxation
2. Finance
3. Industrialist
4. Statute
5. Personal planning
6. Social Responsibilities.
1. TAXATION
a) Income Tax
There is no Income Tax an Capital Gains Tax liability on
business enterprise consequent to revaluation of assets.
b) Wealth Tax
Now, wealth Tax is payable by all the assessee except Co-op.
Societies, social club, political parties, specified mutual fund and
non profit objective institution.
From Assessment year 1993-94 there is no Wealth Tax Liability
on unlimited value of Wealth in the form of shares in the
company as these assets are outside the purview of Wealth Tax.
For the very first time from assessment year 1993-94
agricultural land and farm houses are going to be taxed.
Similarly surplus land/unbuilt areas of factory would also be
taxed.
To avoid excess payment of wealth tax and/or recovery it is
desirable to get valuation done of agricultural land and farm
houses as well as vacant land and surplus land with specific
regulations governing those properties.
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c) Gift Tax
To avoid wrong computation of gifts made it is desirable to have
a valuers report. It would help to avoid payment of excess tax,
penalties and prosecution. This is very important whenever
movable/immovable properties are transferred to relatives and it
is likely to attract provision of deemed gift.
As part of tax planning. Whenever a will is made life interest are
created in it, it is desirable to take advantage of valuers report
more particularly so whenever assets are inherited.
d) Capital Gain
The New Section 48 of Finance Act 1992 has given a different set
of rules to work out Capital gain after ascertaining market value
as on 1
st
April 1981 which is referred as Indexed Cost of
Acquisition similarly indexed Cost of Improvement in property is
to be considered, thus capital gain shall be on a different
principal and as such a valuers report as on 1
st
April 1981 has
become absolutely essential for properties purchased or
inherited prior to 1981.
e) Partnership dissolution.
As such any dissolving partnership firm should go in for a
valuers report on the day of dissolution and valuation should be
done preferably by a registered valuer empanelled with Income
Tax Department.
f) Rent vis-à-vis depreciation
Depreciation is not available on the cost of land and as such as
a part of tax planning normally land is purchased by one assessee
and is given on rent to another assessee. There is always a difference
of opinion as to how much rent is to be paid and as such it is
desirable to have an expert valuers report on rent to be paid to
substantiate your claim.
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g) Seizure of Jewellery
To avoid seizure of jewellery at the time of income tax raids, it is
desirable to have separate valuation for separate jewellery for
each family member. It is mandatory to have valuation done
form a government approved valuer, if market value of jewellery
exceeds Rupees five lacs.
h) Reassessment unjustified
Under the provision of “Reassessment in Income Tax Law”. A
residential house was purchased and along with the return of
income tax a valuers report was enclosed. After some time
during investigation in other case it was felt that reassessment is
necessary because probable agreement value was not the fair
market value, however, in the above referred case reassessment
was unjustified.
i) Transfer of Property
If you are buying or selling immovable property, exceeding Rs.
10 lacs together with plant, machinery, furniture, fixtures or
other things including rights therein like membership of Co-op
Society etc. etc. in any of the cities viz. Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta,
Chennai, Banglore, Lucknow, Amhedabad. Then it is obligatory
to the transferor and transferee to obtain permission under
section 269 of Income Tax Department.
Under Chapter XXC i.e., Income Tax Acquisition, Supreme Court
has given a decision with special reference to “encumbrances
and leasors rights etc.” However, has given a directive that
Transferor and Transferee should be served a show cause notice
to give natural justice to avoid violation of article 14 of the
constitution.
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It is desirable to substantiate your claim, of correct price with
the help of valuers report who is an expert in doing necessary
valuation.
2) FINANCE
a) Purchase, sale, take over, merger
Whenever you are purchasing or selling or going in for
amalgamation or taking over of a company you may need
financial assistance from the bank or otherwise also to avoid
addition of unexplained investment it is desirable to justify the
transaction by obtaining on exhaustive, detailed valuers report.
b) Term loan or Cash Credit facility
Books of account are reflecting invariably historic depreciated
value of machinery and plant, however, which are free from
encumbrances, similarly book value of landed properties also
appear to be historic because of inflationary trends which are
also free from mortgage can be better utilised to avail either term
loan and/or cash credit facilities to make company financially
healthy.
c) Bank Guarantee
Industrialist, business man, contractor, individual are required
on many occasion to offer bank guarantee for different purpose
and as such it is desirable to revalue the assets and incorporate
them in the books of account to reflect high net worth of the
company person soliciting bank guarantee. Revalued assets can
be offered as co-lateral security to financial institution for
offering bank guarantee.
d) Window dressing
International accounting standard expects to reflect true value of
assets in the books of account as a fair business practise which
would help share holders of company, vendors of company,
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bankers of company to know soundness of company and as
such revaluation of assets at a regular interval of three to five
years is strongly recommended.
e) Devaluation of rupee
Now that we are approaching free economy and rupee is partially
convertible till the time market are settled and our finance
position improves effect of devaluation of rupee cannot be
ignored more particularly so wherever imported machines were
procured prior to devaluation and are installed and where
technology has not become obsolute it is desirable to get these
machines revalued and bring it to the books of account.
f) New issues
An existing company when intending to go in for expansion and
is desirous to go in for public to raise capital, it would be in
fitness of the thing to revalue assets prior to launching new
issue, thereby increasing intrinsic value of shares. In fact this
would help in fixation of higher premium amount charged by
promoters attempting to bring public issue.
g) Advance against works contract
In some tenders floated by government departments, public
undertaking, advance is given to contractor as he is expected to
deploy some machinery for execution of said works. For claiming
such advance a valuer report is solicited. In fact machinery
deployed need not be new, advance is also given against
deployment of old machinery, however, quantum of advance may
be different for procurement of new machinery and deployment
of old machines.
h) Incentives
While shifting an industry to backward area or no industry zone
certain percentage of old machinery is allowed to be shifted
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without loss of incentives, however, agency who are offering
these incentives have incorporated a condition that value of such
machines should not exceed permissible percentage of total
capital employed in the industry. In order to substantiate our
incentive claim, it is desirable to support it by valuers report.
i) Security deposit for Electric Company
Due to inflation, cost of input for generation of electricity and the
increase in government duty and cost of overhead, ultimately
increases electricity charges. All electric supply companies are
taking security deposit approximately equivalent to three months
consumption.
Impact of this deposit is very much felt by heavy power
consumers like foundaries, heavy engineering industry,
continuous process industry etc., etc.
In one typical case an industry has succeeded in offering
mortgage of fixed assets by creating a second charge on it, as an
alternative to security deposit. In fact second charge was created
as assets were already mortgaged to the bank and liability of the
bank was less than actual market value of assets.
INDUSTRIALIST
a) Foreign Collaboration
If one is making an attempt to have foreign collaboration. As part
of pre-planning/ preparation it is desirable that assets are
revalued and incorporated in the books of account to give better
impression of the company.
b) Custom Duty
If a second hand machine is imported the invoice value is
disputed by custom authority as they are interested in getting
proper revenue for Government. To claim the correctness of
invoice value it would be beneficial to have a valuer report.
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c) Octroi
Local self governments are levying octroi on goods brought into
their area. Percentage of octroi to be levied is incorporated in the
rules, however, this levy is based on invoice value and this
invoice value is always disputed with a view to increase revenue
for local self government. Assessing Officers of octroi are not
technical persons and have hardly any expertise, however,
valuers empanelled with local self government reports should be
obtained in order to make correct payment of octroi.
d) Auction
In advance countries share holders are very vigilant and as such
limited companies going in for disposal of capital good and its
scrap or residual commodities are auctioned only after soliciting
valuer written opinion. With the advent of free economy in our
country it is high time that all the public limited companies also
fall in line with it.
e) Vacating Premises
Some time it is necessary to delay vacation of premises and
such occasion means squaring account of vendor and retrenchment
of employee and in all probability closure and winding of unit.
Valuers have come to rescue to delay the eviction.
f) Rent of machine
Whenever an imported machine is installed and is used as a
hired one, Compensation/rent to be paid is to be justified at any
given point of time and can have fluctuations also this is more
particularly so when effect of devaluation of rupee is noticed and
under these circumstances it is desirable, that a valuer is
working out the rent that is just and fair as a compensation for
hired machine.
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g) S.S.I. registration
Small scale industries are granted necessary registration based
on capital employed in fixed assets. S.S.I. registered units have
certain advantages from various authorities and as such it is
very important to have S.S.I. registration to S.S.I. unit. Valuers
opinion is attached as a document to justify that capital
employed does not exceed permissible limit.
h) Where there is no bill
Sometime machine are fabricated/tailor made to suit to the
requirement of an industry. In fact only direct labour cost of
fabrication and material is incorporated. Cost of technical know
how and probable profit if it is purchased from outside with
various duties is not included in capital assets, it is desirable to
do valuation of such machine to incorporate them in the books
of account.
i) Adequate and timely insurance
General Insurance business Nationalisation Act 1972 was
incorporated making all insurance company as government
undertaking with effect from 13
th
May 1971.Prior to
nationalisation underwriting of insurance was done only after
assessing insurable interest, commonly referred as sum insured
i.e., insures liability, however, after nationalisation sum insured
responsibility is vested with the insurer.
Insured comes to know of this said fact only when claim is made
and it is determined as sub standard, either for over valued or
under valued and as such it is absolutely must that exhaustive
detailed report is forwarded along with proposal form to
insurance company to protect desired insurance interest of the
insured. Advanced countries are following the system stated
above.
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4) STATUTE
a) Stamp duty
Under TamilNadu Stamp Duty Act document becomes valid only
if necessary stamp is affixed to document prior to its signature
and as per Transfer of Property Act, document so executed it to
be registered with sub-registrar.
Government of TamilNadu and other state governments has
given directive and has fixed price of land by adopting Book of
Rates as to how much should be the value for stamp purpose
which invariably is the highest amount and not real transaction
value and as such to substantiate one’s claim one is expected to
submit valuers report to avoid excess payment of stamp duty.
b) Land Acquisition Act 1984
Government acquire land for public utility and pay
compensation as per Land Acquisition Act 1984.
Even after incorporation of necessary amendments
compensation paid to an unwilling seller is very very low and
invariably litigation takes places.
Provisions of said Act are so absurd that it does not discriminate
large scale acquisition of land and a small property acquired.
Now valuation, is a complex field and has an impact of economy,
legal and technical, etc. etc. and as such role of a valuer has
become inevitable.
c) Official Liquidator
Official Liquidator solicits values report with a view to
understand that if company is in liquidation willingly or unwillingly,
if thrown open to market for auction what price it would fetch.
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5) PERSONAL PLANNING
a) Charity Commissioner and Registrar of Co-op. Societies
Whenever a charity trust or Co-op Society is buying or selling
any capital goods, equipment, factory and/or property one is
required to solicit permission in advance and for that purpose
valuation report is also solicited.
b) Personal Planning through will
If property is to be transfered to a particular person, interest of
life is created through will to avoid legal problems at a later date
which is invariably supported with valuers report.
c) Visas
To establish the fact that you have sufficient stake in the
country, it is desirable to substantiate your claim by providing
an evidence of fair market value of you assets instead of book
value.
d) Perks
Senior manager or directors of the company are provided with
furnished flat including various gadgets with a view to give him
an indirect benefit, however, these items cannot be given as it is
to the retiring person and as such a proper valuation reports is
obtained for debiting net value of these facilities from the
amount payable to the retiring person.
e) Housing Loan
While procuring loans for housing, valuation report is
necessary.
f) Family partition
Property of joint family when subject to partition valuers opinion
is obtain to facilitate smoother division. His views are of
importance if multi storeyed building is to be offered at a
realistic value to members of family.
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g) Divorce Settlement
In typical case of divorce if a property is good and sufficient it is
invariably valued before divorce settlement is made.
6) SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES
a) It is time now, when a member of parliament may take
services of expert valuers team to know actual investment
incurred on Road Works. Tube wells/ Irrigation / Housing /
Public Sector undertaking etc. etc. within a very short period
and raise question in parliament budget session to the
concerning minister and play important role in future
development of the country.
KINDS OF VALUES AND DEFINITIONS
Market Value: It is defined as the sum the property will fetch if
it is sold in the open market.
Guideline Value : It is the value of the land which is recorded in
the Register of Registrar’s Office and used for the purpose of
determining the Stamp Duty at the time of Registration of the
Documents.
Book Value: It shows the original investment of a Company on
its assets, including properties and machinery less depreciation
for the period passed.
Salvage Value: Value of Machinery realised on sales when its
useful span of life is over but still it has not become useless.
Scrap Value: It is also called as Junk Value or Breakup Value of
Demolition Value. It will represent the value of old materials in a
building less cost of demolition.
Disposal Value: It is defined as the Value that can be realised if
the assets were to be removed from the foundation and sold as
separate stand alone items.
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Insurance Value: It is the value of the Building for which the
building is insured. Normally the Building is insured for the
superstructure alone (not for the foundation).
Earning Value: It is the present value of a property which will
start yielding an income in future.
Potential Value: It is an inherent value which may go on
increasing due to passage of time or some other factor which will
fetch more return.
Distress Value: If a property is sold at a lower price than that
which can be obtained for it in an open Market, it is said to have
“Distress Value”. It may be due to:-
* Financial crisis for the Vendor
* Panic due to War, Riots Earthquake, Floods, etc.,
* Land Locked Land
* Sentimental reasons
* Nuisance.
Speculative Value: When the property is purchased so as to sell
the same at a profit after some duration, the price paid is known
as Speculative Value.
Monopoly Value: In a developed Colony, the value of the plot
goes on increasing when number of the available plots goes on
decreasing. The fancy price demanded by the Vendor for the
remaining plots is known as Monopoly Value.
Sentimental Value: The extra price which is demanded by a
Vendor when he attaches certain sentiments to his property is
known as Sentimental Value having no relation with the Market
Value.
Fancy Value: It is also called as Desired Value. If the Purchaser
wants to have a property somehow since the procurement is an
absolute necessity for him due to various reasons, he is prepared
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to pay more sum when compared with others. He attaches a
special desire over the said property. The extra sum he is
prepared to pay is called Fancy Value.
Accommodation Value: Small strips or lands cannot be
developed independently due to their restricted lengths, depths
etc and number of purchasers for this property is less. These
strips could be sold only to the adjacent land owners who may
be offering only a low value. This is called Accommodation Value.
Replacement Value: Replacement Value is the cost of
reproduction of a similar Building with similar specifications at
the current Market Price on the date of Valuation. It is also
called as Reproduction Value or Reinstatement Value.
Depreciation Value: It is the reduction of Value of the Property
due to age, deterioration, lack of maintenance, obsolescence,
decay, wear and tear etc., Depreciation Value depends upon the
age and its future life.
Present Value: It is replacement value less depreciation value.
The other Values are Liquidation Value, Intrinsic Value,
Investment Value, Cost Value, Warranted Value, True Value,
Written Down Value, Going Concern Value, Commercial Value,
Rental Value, Exchange Value, Appraisal Value, Face Value,
Utility Value, Use Value, Loss Value, Tax Value, Economic Value,
Sale Value, Condemnation Value, Cash Value, Future Value,
Capital Value, Mortgage loan Value, Forced Sale value, etc., etc.
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FACTORS AFFECTING THE VALUE IN GENERAL
* Supply and Demand
* Cost of reproduction
* Occupational value
* Town Planning Act
* Rent Control Act
* Urban Land Ceiling Act
* Any abnormal conditions like War, Riots, etc.
References:
1. B. Kanagasabapathy, - Practical Valuation Volume I, II, III.
2. Shrikanth Vasanth Joglekar, Mumbai Publications 1993-94,
Valuation – Revaluation a New Vista Its Impact on Finance
Everyone’s Concern.
3. C.H. Gopinath Rao, Valuation Practice of Immovable
Properties
4. B. Kanagasabapathy, Fair Rent Manual
5. B. N. Dutta, Estimating and costing.
6. Journals of Institution of valuers – New Delhi
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Sinking Fund: The fund which is gradually accumulated by way of
periodic on annual deposit for the replacement of the building or
structure at the end of its useful life, is termed as sinking fund. The
object of creating sinking fund is to accumulate sufficient money to
meet the cost of construction or replacement of the building or
structure after its utility period. The sinking fund is created by regular
annual or periodic deposits in compound interest bearing investment,
which will form the amount of replacement at the end of the utility
period of the property. The sinking fund may be created by taking a
sinking fund policy with an insurance company or by depositing in
bank to collect highest compound interest. The calculation of sinking
fund depends on the life of the building and scrap value of the
building for the cost of old materials. The cost of land is not taken into
account in calculating Sinking fund as land remains intact.
The sinking fund may also be required for payment of loan. If a
property is owned or constructed by taking loan a sinking fund
may be created by setting aside a sum of money annually to
accumulate with compound interest in order to repay the debt at
the end of the term of loan. The amount thus set aside is also
known as Annuity payment. The amount which will be set aside
may also be paid directly to lender by way of annual instalment.
The amount of annual instalment of the Sinking fund may be
found out by the formula.
I =
, 1 ) 1 ( ÷ +
n
i
Si
,
where S = total amount of Sinking fund to be accumulated, n-
number of
years required to accumulate the Sinking fund, i = rate of interest
in decimal
(e.g., 5% = 0.05); and I = annual instalment required.
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2.1.0 Example 1: A pumping set with a mortar has been
installed in a building at a cost of Rs. 2,500.00. Assuming the life
of the pump as 15 years, work out the amount of annual
instalment of Sinking fund required to be deposited to accumulate
the whole amount of 4% compound interest.
The annual Sinking fund, I =
, 1 ) 1 ( ÷ +
n
i
Si
=
, 1 ) 04 . 0 1 (
04 . 0 2500
15
÷ +
x
= 2500 x 0.05 = Rs.
125.
The owner is to deposit Rs. 125/- annually in 4% compound
interest carrying investment for 15 years to accumulate Rs.
2,500/-.
2.1.1. Example 2: An old building has been purchased by a
person at a cost of Rs.30,000/- excluding the cost of the land.
Calculate the amount of annual Sinking fund at 4% interest
assuming the future life of the building as 20 years and the scrap
value of the building as 10% of the cost of purchase.
The total amount of Sinking Fund to be accumulated at the end of
20 years.
S = 30000 x
100
90
= Rs. 27,000.00
Annual Instalment of Sinking fund. I =
, 1 ) 1 ( ÷ +
n
i
Si
=
, 1 ) 04 . 0 1 (
04 . 0 27000
20
÷ +
x
=
27000 x 0.336 = Rs. 907.20
Annual Instalment for Sinking fund required for 20 years = Rs.
907.20
2.2. Depreciation: Depreciation is the gradual exhaustion of the
usefulness of a property. This may be defined as the decrease or
loss in the value of a property due to structural deterioration use,
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life wear and tear, decay and obsolescence. The value of a
building or structure will be gradually reduced due to its use, life,
wear and tear, etc., and a certain percentage of the total cost may
be allowed as depreciation to determine its present value. Usually
a percentage on depreciation per annum is allowed. The general
annual decrease in the value of a property is known as Annual
depreciation. Usually, the percentage rate of depreciation is less
at the beginning and gradually increase during later years.
The amount of depreciation being known, the present value of a
property can be calculated after deducting the total amount of
depreciation from the original cost.
2.2. a. The factors that cause depreciation are:
* Wear and tear
* Fall in market value
* Accidents like fall of a tree
* Obsolescence
* Decay
* Changes in demands
* Changes in Arts and fashion
* Calamity like flood, lightning etc.
* Actions of elements of Nature like heat, cold, wind etc.,
* Structural deterioration.
2.2.b. Method of calculating depreciation:
The various methods of calculating depreciation are as follows:
(1) Straight line Method
(2) Constant percentage method
(3) Sinking fund method and
(4) Quantity survey method.
In all these methods, it is necessary to decide the economic or
effective life of the property.
2.3. Straight line method: In this method it is assumed that the
property loses its value by the same amount every year. A fixed
amount of the original cost is deducted every year, so that at the
end of the utility period only the scrap value is left.
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The present value minus salvage value is distributed uniformly for
its service life. It is assumed the property looses its value by the
same amount every year.
Annual depreciation D =
year in Life
Value Scrap Cost Original ÷
=
n
S C ÷
Where, C – Original cost or Replacement Value
S – Scrap value or Salvage value
n - life of the property in years
D – annual depreciation.
Example:
Cost of New Building = Rs. 4,00,000
Salvage Value 10% at the end of life = Rs. 40, 000
Life assumed = 60 years
Annual Depreciation
60
000 , 4 000 , 00 , 4 ÷
= Rs. 6,000
Depreciation value after 10 years = Rs. 60,000
Depreciation value after 60 years = Rs. 3,60,000
Depd. Value after 10 years = 400000 – 60000 = Rs.
3,40,000
Depd. Value after 60 years = 400000 – 360000
(which is the salvage value assumed) = Rs. 40,000
Linear Method: (or Constant Percentage Method or Written Down
Value Method or Declining Balance Method):
In this method, the depreciation % age remains constant through
the life of the building. But the capital sum or base goes on
reducing every year by an amount equal to the depreciation of
previous year. Thus the quantum of depreciation in this method
will go on reducing every year and in this respect, it is contrast
with the straight line method wherein the quantum of the
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depreciation remains constant. The depreciated value is
calculated by using the formula:
Example: P = A ( 1 -
100
r
) n
Where P = Depreciated value of the Building
A = Replacement value of the Building
r = rate of depreciation per year
n = Age of the Building in Years
Example to calculate the depreciated value:
Replacement Value of the Building = Rs. 20,00,000
Age of the Building (n) = 15 years
Depreciation assumed = 2 %
Depreciated value = 20,00,000 ( 1 -
100
2
)
15
= 20,00,000 (0.98)
15
= 20,00,000 (0.73857)
= Rs. 14,77,140
Depreciation factor = 1 – 0.73857 = 0.26143 (vide the table also)
Depreciation value (20,00,000 – 14,77,140) =0.26143 x 20,00,000
= Rs. 5,22,860
Depreciation Percentage = 26.143%
STANDARD RATE OF DEPRECIATION (AS PER TN PWD)
1. Buildings built in lime mortar and in
which teak wood has been used
throughout
1.01% per
year
2. Buildings built partly in brick in lime
mortar, and partly in mud mortar and in
which teak wood has been used
1.5 % per
year
3. Buildings built in brick in mud and in
which country wood has been used
2.0 % per
year
4. Buildings like police lines which are
inferior to class 3 above with brick in mud
unplastered walls, mud floors and in
which country wood has been used
4.0 % per
year
The depreciation factor for different percentages for various
years are given in the following table as a ready reckoner.
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TABLE: DEPRECIATION BY ADOPTING CONSTANT % AGE
METHOD OR LINEAR METHOD
The value of Depreciation:
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1 ( 1 is given in the following
tables.
Years
(age)
1% 1½% 2% 4%
1 0.01000 0.01500 0.20000 0.04000
2 0.01990 0.02978 0.03960 0.07840
3 0.02970 0.04433 0.05880 0.11526
4 0.03940 0.05866 0.07763 0.15065
5 0.04901 0.07278 0.09608 0.18463
6 0.05852 0.08669 0.11416 0.21724
7 0.06793 0.10039 0.13187 0.24855
8 0.07726 0.11389 0.14924 0.27861
9 0.08648 0.12718 0.16625 0.30747
10 0.09562 0.14027 0.18293 0.33517
11 0.10466 0.15311 0.19927 0.36177
12 0.11362 0.16587 0.21528 0.38729
13 0.12248 0.17838 0.23098 0.41180
14 0.13125 0.19070 0.24636 0.43533
15 0.13994 0.20284 0.26143 0.45791
16 0.14854 0.21480 0.27620 0.47960
17 0.15706 0.22658 0.29068 0.50041
18 0.16549 0.23818 0.30486 0.52040
19 0.17383 0.24961 0.31877 0.53958
20 0.18209 0.26087 0.33239 0.55800
21 0.19027 0.27195 0.34574 0.57568
22 0.19837 0.28287 0.35883 0.59265
23 0.20639 0.29363 0.37165 0.60894
24 0.21432 0.30422 0.38422 0.62459
25 0.22218 0.31466 0.39654 0.63960
26 0.22996 0.32494 0.40860 0.65402
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Years
(age)
1% 1½% 2% 4%
27 0.23766 0.33507 0.42043 0.66786
28 0.24528 0.34504 0.43202 0.68114
29 0.25283 0.35486 0.44338 0.69390
30 0.26030 0.36454 0.45452 0.70614
31 0.26770 0.37407 0.46543 0.71790
32 0.27502 0.38346 0.47612 0.72918
33 0.28227 0.39271 0.48659 0.74001
34 0.28945 0.40182 0.49686 0.75041
35 0.29655 0.41079 0.50693 0.76040
36 0.30359 0.41963 0.51679 0.76998
37 0.31055 0.42834 0.52645 0.77918
38 0.31745 0.43691 0.53592 0.78801
39 0.32427 0.44536 0.54520 0.79649
40 0.33103 0.45368 0.55430 0.80463
41 0.33772 0.46187 0.56321 0.81244
42 0.34434 0.46994 0.57195 0.81995
43 0.35090 0.47789 0.58051 0.82715
44 0.35739 0.48573 0.58890 0.83407
45 0.36381 0.49344 0.59712 0.84070
46 0.37012 0.50104 0.60518 0.84708
47 0.37647 0.50852 0.61308 0.85319
48 0.38271 0.51590 0.62081 0.85906
49 0.38888 0.52316 0.62840 0.86470
50 0.39500 0.53031 0.63583 0.87011
51 0.40104 0.53736 0.64311 0.87531
52 0.40703 0.54429 0.65025 0.88030
53 0.41296 0.55113 0.65725 0.88509
54 0.41883 0.55786 0.66410 0.88968
55 0.42465 0.56450 0.67082 0.89409
56 0.43040 0.57103 0.67740 0.89833
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Years
(age)
1% 1½% 2% 4%
57 0.43609 0.57746 0.68386 0.90240
58 0.44173 0.58380 0.69018 0.90630
59 0.44732 0.59004 0.69637 0.91005
60 0.45284 0.59619 0.70245 0.91365
61 0.45831 0.60225 0.70840 0.91710
62 0.46373 0.61082 0.71423 0.92042
63 0.46909 0.61409 0.71995 0.92360
64 0.47440 0.61988 0.72555 0.92666
65 0.47966 0.62558 0.73104 0.92959
66 0.48486 0.63120 0.73641 0.93241
67 0.49001 0.63673 0.74169 0.93511
68 0.49511 0.64218 0.74685 0.63771
69 0.50016 0.64755 0.75192 0.94020
70 0.50516 0.65283 0.75688 0.94259
71 0.51011 0.65804 0.76174 0.94489
72 0.51501 0.66317 0.76651 0.94709
73 0.51986 0.66822 0.77117 0.94921
74 0.52466 0.67320 0.77575 0.95124
75 0.52941 0.67810 0.78024 0.95319
76 0.53412 0.68293 0.78463 0.95506
77 0.53878 0.68769 0.78894 0.95686
78 0.54339 0.69237 0.79316 0.95859
79 0.54796 0.69699 0.79730 0.96024
80 0.55248 0.70153 0.80135 0.96183
81 0.55695 0.70601 0.80532 0.96336
82 0.56138 0.71042 0.80922 0.96482
83 0.56577 0.71476 0.81303 0.96623
84 0.57011 0.71904 0.81678 0.96758
85 0.57441 0.72326 0.82044 0.96888
86 0.57867 0.72741 0.82403 0.97012
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Years
(age)
1% 1½% 2% 4%
87 0.58288 0.73150 0.82755 0.97132
88 0.58705 0.73552 0.83100 0.97247
89 0.59118 0.73949 0.83438 0.97357
90 0.59527 0.74340 0.83769 0.97462
91 0.59932 0.74725 0.84094 0.97564
92 0.60332 0.75104 0.84412 0.97661
93 0.60729 0.75477 0.84723 0.97755
94 0.61122 0.75845 0.85029 0.97845
95 0.61510 0.76207 0.85328 0.97931
96 0.61895 0.76564 0.85622 0.98014
97 0.62276 0.76916 0.85909 0.98093
98 0.62654 0.77262 0.86191 0.98169
99 0.63027 0.77603 0.86467 0.98243
100 0.63396 0.77939 0.86738 0.98313
(3) Sinking fund method: In this method the depreciation of property
is assumed to be equal to the annual sinking fund plus the interest on
the fund for that year, which is supposed to be invested on interest
bearing investment. If A is the annual sinking fund and b, c, d, etc.,
represent interest on the Sinking fund for subsequent years, and C =
total original cost, then –
At the end of Depreciation
for the year
Total
depreciation
Book value
1st year A A C – A
2nd year A + b 2A + b C – (2A + b)
3rd year A + c 3A + b + c C – (3A + b + c)
4th year A + d 4A + b + c + d C – (4A + b + c + d)
So on …………
(4) Quantity survey method: In this method the property is studied
in detail and loss in value due to life, wear and tear, decay,
obsolescence, etc., worked out. Each and every step is based on some
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logical ground without any fixed percentage of the cost of the property.
Only experienced valuer can work out the amount of depreciation and
present value of a property by this method.
Obsolescence: The value of property or structures become less by its
becoming out of date in style, in structure in design, etc., and this is
termed as Obsolescence. An old dated building with massive walls,
arrangements of rooms not suited in present days and for similar
reasons, becomes obsolete even if it is maintained in a very good
condition, and its values becomes less due to obsolescence. The
obsolescence may be due to the reasons such as progress in arts,
changes in fashions, changes in planning ideas, new inventions,
improvements in design technique, etc., A machine of old design may
become obsolete, though it may be in good running condition and its
value will be less. Thus, though the property is physically sound, it
may become functionally inadequate and its economical return
becomes less.
Annuity: Annuity is the annual periodic payments for repayments of
the capital amount invested by a party. These annual payments are
either paid at the end of the year or at the beginning of the year,
usually for a specified number of years.
If the amount of annuity is paid for a definite number of periods or
years, it is known as Annuity certain. In such cases the amount of
annuity will be higher, the lesser the number of the years the higher
will be the amount and vice versa to clear up to the whole amount of
capital.
If the amount of annuity is paid at the beginning of each period of year
and payments continued for definite number of periods, it is known as
Annuity due.
If the payment of annuity begins at some future date after a number
of years, this is known as Deffered Annuity.
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If the payments of annuity continue for indefinite period, it is known
as Perpetual Annuity.
Though annuity means annual payment, the amount of annuity may
be paid by twelve monthly instalments or quarterly or half-yearly
instalments.
TECHNICAL DATA
PLINTH AREA RATES FOR BUILDINGS
Prescribed By Chief Engineer, PWD, Tamilnadu
1. RATES FOR MOFUSSIL AREA
(Amount in rupees per square metre of plinth area.)
Year
Residential Non-Residential Hospital
Framed Load
bearing
Framed Load
bearing
Framed Load
bearing
GF FF GF FF GF FF GF FF GF FF GF FF
1977-78 - - 380 360 - - - - - - 450 430
1978-79 - - 430 400 - - 400 370 - - 500 470
1979-80 - - 575 500 700 630 525 450 780 700 600 525
1980-81 - - 690 600 805 725 630 540 935 845 690 600
1981-82 975 885 775 675 925 835 725 625 1075 980 795 690
1982-83 118
0
1070 940 820 1090 985 875 755 1280 1165 960 830
1983-84 136
0
1230 1035 900 1200 1085 960 830 1410 1260 1055 915
1984-85 143
0
1290 1085 945 1260 1140 1010 870 1480 1345 1110 960
1985-86 163
0
1470 1225 1070 1435 1300 1130 975 1700 1545 1265 1095
1986-87 166
0
1500 1285 1125 1480 1340 1185 1025 1770 1605 1340 1160
1987-88 169
5
1530 1310 1150 1510 1365 1210 1045 1830 1660 1380 1195
1988-89 176
5
1590 1390 1220 1570 1420 1270 1095 1905 1725 1465 1265
1989-90 201
0
1815 1585 1390 1820 1650 1475 1270 2210 2000 1685 1455
1990-91 221
0
1995 1745 1530 2000 1815 1625 1395 2430 2200 1855 1600
1991-92 247
5
2255 1955 1715 2240 2035 1820 1565 2795 2530 2135 1840
1992-93 272
0
2460 2150 1890 2470 2240 2000 1720 3080 2780 2350 2030
1993-94 292
5
2645 2365 2080 2690 2440 2220 1910 3355 3030 2560 2215
1994-95 322
0
2910 2600 2290 2690 2685 2440 2100 3960 3335 2815 2435
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Year
Residential Non-Residential Hospital
Framed Load
bearing
Framed Load
bearing
Framed Load
bearing
GF FF GF FF GF FF GF FF GF FF GF FF
1995-96 370
5
3345 3095 2725 3405 3090 2805 2415 4060 3670 3095 2680
1996-97 407
5
3680 3405 3000 3745 3420 3085 2655 4465 4035 3405 2950
1997-98 449
0
4050 3750 3300 4120 3740 3400 2920 4910 4440 3750 3250
1998-99 485
0
4370 4050 3560 4450 4040 3670 3150 5300 4800 4050 3510
99-2000
2. RATES FOR CHENNAI CITY- Amount in rupees per square
metre of plinth area.
Year Residential Non-Residential Hospital
Framed
Load
bearing
Framed
Load
bearing
Framed
Load
bearing
GF FF GF FF GF FF GF FF GF FF GF FF
1977-78 - - 420 400 - - - - - - 500 480
1978-79 - - 480 450 - - 450 420 - - 560 530
1979-80 - - 650 575 770 700 600 525 850 780 675 600
1980-81 - - 715 630 850 770 690 600 1020 935 745 660
1981-82 1010 925 820 725 980 890 790 690 1175 1080 850 750
1982-83 1212 1110 945 835 1135 1030 900 785 1315 1210 980 865
1983-84 1390 1275 1135 1000 1360 1240 1080 940 1580 1450 1175 1040
1984-85 1460 1340 1190 1050 1430 1300 1135 985 1660 1525 1235 1095
1985-86 1695 1555 1345 1185 1645 1495 1270 1105 1925 1770 1410 1250
1986-87 1730 1585 1415 1245 1695 1540 1335 1160 2000 1840 1495 1325
1987-88 1765 1615 1465 1290 1730 1570 1380 1200 2070 1905 1545 1370
1988-89 1825 1670 1525 1340 1775 1610 1435 1250 2110 1945 1605 1425
1989-90 2080 1905 1740 1530 2060 1870 1650 1440 2450 2255 1830 1625
1990-91 2495 2285 2000 1760 2470 2245 1990 1655 2940 2705 2105 1870
1991-92 2870 2630 2300 2025 2840 2580 2185 1905 3380 3110 2420 2150
1992-93 3160 2900 2530 2230 3130 2840 2410 2100 3720 3420 2660 2370
1993-94 3285 3015 2655 2340 3320 2910 2555 2225 4000 3675 2795 2490
1994-95 3615 3315 2920 2575 3650 3310 2810 2450 4400 4045 3075 2740
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1995-96 4155 3810 3385 2985 4200 3805 3320 2820 5060 4650 3535 3150
1996-97 4570 4190 3725 3285 4620 4185 3555 3100 5565 5115 3890 3465
1997-98 5030 4610 4170 3680 5080 4600 4040 3520 6120 5630 4360 3880
1998-99 5640 5170 4590 4050 5590 5060 4450 3870 6730 6200 4800 4270
99-2000
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SPECIFICATIONS
Prescribed by the P.W.D. for their Plinth Area rates
Residential Non – Residential Hospital
The rates are inclusive of
provision for internal water
supply at 7.5%, sanitary
arrangements at 7.5% and
internal electrifications at
10%.
The rates are inclusive of
provision for internal water
supply at 7.5%, sanitary
arrangements at 7.5% and
internal electrifications at 10%.
The rates are inclusive of
mosaic in situ works and
dadooing with glazed tiles in
toilets.
The above rates are
inclusive of provision for
internal water supply at
7.5%, sanitary arrangements
at 7.5% and internal
electrifications at 15%. The
rates are also inclusive of
provision for mosaic flooring,
Mosaic dadooing in wards
and dadooing walls with
glazed tiles in operation
theatres and in toilets.
EXTRA: EXTRA: EXTRA:
External Water supply– 7.5% External Water supply – 7.5% External Water supply –
7.5%
External Sanitary – 7.5% External Sanitary – 7.5% External Sanitary – 7.5%
External Electrification –
7.5%
External Electrification– 7.5% External Electrification –
7.5%
OR ACTUALS OR ACTUALS OR ACTUALS
References:
1. B. Kanagasabapathy, - Practical Valuation Volume I, II, III.
2. C.H. Gopinath Rao, Valuation Practice of Immovable
Properties
3. B. Kanagasabapathy, Fair Rent Manual
4. B. N. Dutta, Estimating and costing.
5. Journals of Institution of valuers – New Delhi
6. TNPWD - Plinth Area Rates
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VALUATION OF LAND:
In the Land Valuation generally Lands are broadly classified into
(1) open lands (2) Land with Structures.
Further the open land classified as
(1) Urban Land, (2) Agricultural (or) form land
The urban land again classified into three categories:
The market value of the land should be arrived by multiplication
of Total Extent of Land or Plot and the unit Rate of the land.
Land Value = Total Extent x Unit Rate of Land
CALCULATION OF EXTENT:
The extent is calculated based upon the Documents (or) actuals.
The following documents is to be utilized to found the extent
(1) Peruse of title Deeds & Settlements / will deeds
(2) Encumbrance Certificates
(3) Site plan which is given by the local administration Authority
(4) Survey Book
(5) Previously approved plans etc….
(6) Legal opinions
Even though over the above documents a valuer may be the case,
physical measurements to be executed in the site while doing
valuation.
Urban land
Residential Commercial Industrial
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UNIT RATE:
There are two types of the unit rates system’s applied in the
assessing of Land Valuation
(1) Guideline Rate
(2) Prevailing market rate
Guideline Rate:
Guideline Rate is the unit rate fixed by the local Registration Dept
authorities for the purpose of deciding the stamp Duty for any
sale transaction between the Buyer and Seller. This rate is fixed
based on the recent transactions and sale instants.
Prevailing Market Rate:
This is the rate to be adopted while assessing the present market
value. This rate is to be arrived from comparable/ recent sale
instances, transacted in the surrounding or near by areas.
UNIT RATE APPLICATION METHODS:
The unit rate application in the valuation of land will not be same
for all types of plots. It varies with the shape, size, Nature etc.,
DIFFERENT SHAPES OF LANDS OR PLOTS:
1) Regular shaped plots:
Usually Rectangular or square in shape, and the rates can be
adopted 100% of the unit rate to the entire area of plot or land.
2) Land locked land:
This type of land, do not have any access or approach road is
called Land located Land. This property will not be used any
outsiders, any adjoining owners only purchased. Hence 70 to 75%
of unit rate will be adopted.
3) Recess Land:
Recess Land is a part or portion of the land which has zero
frontage on the road. It lies between the boundary of the plot and
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makes obtuse angle with the line of the Road. The portion BCD is
called the Recess land.
4) Strips of Land:
There are lands where the depth is much more than the width.
Such types of lands are valued by Belting Method. While
assessing the value of Land, the depth plays vital role. Front land
has more value and value goes on decreasing as the depth
increases. In this method the front land will be adopted 100%
unit rate, The central land will be adopted 65% and the Rear land
or end portion will be adopted 50%. This is the principle of Belting
Method of Valuation of Land.
VALUATION OF PROPERTIES
Introduction
The following the methods of valuation being adopted in General
practice by a practicing valuer are:
* Land and Building Method
* Rent Capitalization Method
* Development Method
* Profit Method
* Direct Comparison Method
Land Building Method:
By this method, the value of the land and the value of Building
are assessed separately and added to get the present value of the
C
D
B
A
60’
40’
15’
ROAD
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property. Depreciation is calculated either by straight line method
or applying Linear method.
Rental or Capitilisation Method:
Rental method of valuation consists in capitilising the Net Annual
Rental Income (NARI) at an appropriate rate of interest or rate of
capitilisation.
Net annual rent income equals to Gross Annual Rental Income
(GARI) minus outgoings like Property Tax, repairs, maintenance,
Service Charges, Insurance Premium, Rent Collection and
Management Charges etc.
Development Method (or Residual Method):
This method is used to evaluate such property where there is a
development potential, so that the value of the property after
development will be increased more than the expenditure
incurred. For example, a large portion of land can be divided into
small plots and developed fully so as to provide plots of land for a
residential Colony or a large complex of multi-storied buildings,
housing ownership flats in a Co-operative Housing Society.
Profit Method:
This method is applicable to Hotels, Cinema Theatres, Marriage
Halls and Public Places. This method as the name suggests deals
in working the profit from a property and subsequently
capitalizing the same at appropriate rate of return depending
upon a number of factors.
i) The net profit to be adopted should be an average of last three
years of profit.
ii) Part of the profits is due to goodwill which should be properly
reflected in the rate of return.
GENERAL PROCEDURE TO DO THE VALUATION OF BUILDING
1. Measure the Plinth Area. Observe the specification and other
factors which affect the value.
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2. Adopt suitable Replacement Rate of construction (for the
Building portion alone) depending upon the existing
conditions and specifications.
3. Multiply the plinth area by the unit rate to get the
replacement value of the building.
4. Ascertain the age of the Building.
5. Estimate suitable total life of the Building.
6. Assume suitable % age for salvage value. Calculate
Depreciation by Straight line method. Depn % = (Age / Total
life) x (100 - % Salvage value). If the age is not known or if the
building has crossed its service life, estimate future life and
calculate the depreciation by using the formula.
D =
life Total
life Future life Total ÷
x (100 - % age salvage value)
7. Depreciation % age multiplied by the Replacement value will
be the Depreciation Value.
8. Present Value = Replacement Value – Depn. Value
This is the value of Building.
9. Add suitable depreciated value for other works like Amenities,
extra works, miscellaneous works etc.
10. Add suitable value separately for services depending upon the
actual’s specifications.
(I) LAND AND BUILDING METHOD:
Definition
In this method of valuation building portions being valued
separately after allowing depreciation and the land is valued
separately and their added to get the present value of the
property:
Present Value of the Property = Value of the building + Value of the
land +
Value of the amenities & services.
PROCEDURE OF VALUATION:
* Ascertain from the applicant the exact purpose of valuation.
* From the document available, note down the measurement of
the plot and other details.
* Verify the measurements and the extent at site.
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* Assess suitable unit rate based upon the prevailing market
rate or from the recent comparable sale instances of a similar
vacant plot with almost similar characteristics.
* Arrive the value of Building by adopting the procedure.
* Addition of value of Land and Building will be the present
value of the property.
* If the aim of valuation is to assess the market Value
1. apply the reduction factor to the value of land.
2. Add suitable percentage towards any potential value
3. Deduct any percentage towards negative factors.
* Analyse any other points depending upon the individual
merits of the case.
* Give valuation report in the appropriate format.
CASE STUDY
Example : 1
An R.C.C Roofed Residential Building of G.F 1600 Sqft & F.F 1000
Sqft is existing in a plot of 1.5 Grounds. Age of G.F is 10 years
and that of F.F is 5 years. Find the market value of the property.
Valuation is done to assess the market value by adopting land
and building method.
I VALUATION OF LAND:
Extent of the plot : 3600 Sqft
Prevailing Market Value : Rs. 50.00 / Sqft
Adopted Unit rate in this
valuation 85% of Rs. 50/-
: Rs. 42.50 / Sqft
Assessed Value of the plot : Rs. 1,53,000/-
II. BUILDING :
(A) GROUND FLOOR
Plinth area of Ground floor = 1600 Sqft
Replacement Rate of construction = Rs. 500.00 / Sqft
Replacement value = Rs. 8,00,000/-
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Age of the Building = 10 years
Total lift assumed = 80 years
Depreciation percentage assuming
the salvage value as 10%
=
80
10
x 90 = 11%
Depreciation value = Rs. 88,000.00
Depreciated value of Ground Floor = Rs. 7,12,000.00
(B) FIRST FLOOR
Plinth area of Ground floor = 1000 Sqft
Replacement Rate of construction = Rs. 400.00 / Sqft
Replacement value = Rs. 4,00,000/-
Depreciation % age (GF Deprn) = 11%
Depreciation value 11/100 x
4,00,000
= Rs. 44,000.00
Depreciated value of First Floor = Rs. 3,56,000.00
(C) TOTAL VALUE OF GF & FF (7,12,000 + 3,56,000) = 10,68,000.00
III Others (Depreciated Value)
Amenities existing in the building = Rs. 30,000.00
Water Supply arrangements = Rs. 20,000.00
Septic tank & Dispersion Trench = Rs. 6,000.00
Compound wall 224 RFT @ Rs.
100/RFT
= Rs. 22,400.00
E.B. Deposit & Miscellaneous = Rs. 5,000.00
Total = Rs. 83,400.00
IV ABSTRACT VALUATION:
I Land
: Rs.
1,53,000.00
II Building
: Rs.
10,68,000.00
III Others
: Rs.
83,400.00
IV Total Value
: Rs.
13,04,400.00
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Example : 2
A R.C.C Roofed Residential Building 1800 SFT it is constructed
in year 1965 and the First Floor Constructed in year 1975. The total
land area 4000 SFT (40 x100). The building built-up with load bearing
structure with aesthetic look and having all services like bore, motor,
OHT, Septic tank etc.
VALUATION DETAILS
Part – I - Land
Size of the plot : 40 x 100
Total Extent of the plot : 4000 Sqft
Prevailing Market Value : Rs. 120.00
Sqft
Adopted rate of
valuation
: Rs. 100.00
Sqft
Assessed Value of the
plot
: Rs.
4,00,000/-
Part – II Building
SI.
No.
Floor Reported year
of
construction
Roof Plinth area
Sq.ft
1. Ground Floor 1965 R.C.C 1800 SFT
2. First Floor 1975 R.C.C 1000 SFT
B. GENERAL INFORMATION
1. Type of construction : Load Bearing Structure
2. Quality of construction : I class
3. Appearance of the building : Excellent and aesthetic
4. No. of floors : GF & FF
5. Maintenance of the building : Excellent
6. Water supply arrangements : Deep bore, motor and OHT
7. Drainage arrangements : Septic Tank
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C. VALUATION OF GROUND FLOOR CONSTRUCTION
1. Specifications:
Foundation : Stepped footing
Superstructure : Brick Work in C.M 1:5
Roof : R.C.C. 1:2:4
Joinery : Teak wood
Floor finish : Colour Mosaic
2. Total Plinth area : 1800 SFT
3. Year of construction : 1965
4. Age of building : 39 yrs
5. Total life of the building
estimated
: 70 yrs
6. Depreciation percentage
(assumed salvage value 10%)
: 70 – 31/70 (100 – 10) = 50.14%
7. Replacement rate of construction
with the existing conditions &
specifications
: Rs 500.00/SFT
8. Replacement value : Rs. 9,00,000.00
9. Depreciation value at the rate of
50.14%
: Rs. 4,51,260.00
10. Estimated present value of
ground floor construction
: Rs. 4,48,740.00
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D. VALUATION OF FIRST FLOOR CONSTRUCTION
1. Specifications:
Superstructure : Brick Work in C.M 1:5
Roof : R.C.C. 1:2:4
Joinery : Teak wood with mica
Floor finish : Colour Mosaic
2. Total Plinth area : 1000 SFT
3. Year of construction : 1975
4. Age of building : 39 yrs
5. Total life of the building
estimated
: 70 yrs
6. Depreciation percentage : 50.14 %
7. Replacement rate of construction
with the existing conditions &
specifications
: Rs. 400.00/SFT
8. Replacement value : Rs. 4,00,000.00
9. Depreciation value at the rate of
50.14%
: Rs. 2,00,560.00
10. Estimated present value of First
floor construction
: Rs. 1,99,440.00
E. REPLACEMENT, DEPRECIATION AND NET VALUE
SL.
No.
Description
Replacement
value
Depreciation Net value
1. Ground Floor 9,00,000.00 4,51,260.00 4,48,740.00
2. First Floor 4,00,000.00 2,00,560.00 1,99,440.00
Total 13,00,000.00 6,51,820.00 6,48,180.00
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PART III – EXTRA ITEMS
1. Portico 200 Sqft @ 150 Sqft : Rs. 30,000.00
2. Ornamental front door : Rs. 5,000.00
3. Sitout/ Verandah with steel grills : Rs. 5,000.00
4. Over head water tank : Rs. 5,000.00
5. Extra Steel /Collapsible gates : Rs. 3,000.00
6. Side dadoos 200 Sft @ 30/Sqft :
Rs.
6,000.00
:
Rs.
54,000.00
Less depreciation 50.14% :
Rs.
27,076.00
Net Value :
Rs.
26,924.00
Part IV – Amenities
1. Wardrobes 250 Sqft x 125 / Sqft : Rs. 31,250.00
2. Glazed tiles 375 Sqft x 25/Sqft : Rs. 9,375.00
3. Extra sinks and bath tub : Rs. 6,000.00
4. Marble / ceramic tiles flooring : Rs. 3,600.00
5. Interior decoration : Rs. 10,000.00
6. Architectural elevation works : Rs. 15,000.00
7. Panelling works 225 Sqft x 100 : Rs. 22,500.00
8. Aluminium works 100 Sqft x 100 : Rs. 10,000.00
9. Aluninium hand rails 32 RFT x 80 : Rs. 2,560.00
Total : Rs.
1,10,285.0
0
Less Depreciation 50.14% : Rs. 55,297.00
Net Value : Rs. 54,988.00
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Part V – Miscellaneous
1. Separate toilet room 50 Sqft : Rs. 5,000.00
2. Separate lumber room : Rs. -
3. Separate water tank / sump : Rs. 3,000.00
4. Trees/Gardening : Rs. 8,000.00
Total : Rs. 16,000.00
Part VI - SERVICES
1. Water supply arrangements : Rs. 20,000.00
2. Drainage arrangements : Rs. 6,000.00
3. Compound wall 150 Rft @ 125
Rft
: Rs. 18,750.00
4. E.B. deposits and fittings etc : Rs. 10,175.00
5. Pavement : Rs. -
6. Steel gates : Rs. -
Total : Rs. 54,925.00
Part VII - ABSTRACT
1. Plot : Rs. 4,00,000.00
2. Building : Rs. 6,48,180.00
3. Extra items : Rs. 26,924.00
4. Amenities : Rs. 54,988.00
5. Miscellaneous : Rs. 16,000.00
6. Services : Rs. 54,925.00
Total : Rs. 12,01,017.00
Say : Rs. 12,00,000.00
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II. RENT CAPITALISTION METHOD:
In this method, the buildings attracted by Rent Control Act. The
income should be calculated as that actually received. If the rent
has not been revised due to the owner not asking for that, the
rent calculated should be as per the market value, as on the date
on which the valuation is made. Since the rent itself is fixed as a
percentage on the value of the property.
RATE OF RETURN & CAPITALISATION
Rate of Return : The income what we receive for our capital is
called Rate of Return.
i.e.,
Amount invested : 2,00,000.00
Rate of Return : 10 %
Yearly income :
2,00,000 x
100
10
= Rs.
20,.000/-
Monthly income :
12
000 , 20
= Rs. 1666.67
CAPITALISATION
Capitalisation :
Yearly income x
turn of Rate Re
100
: 20, 000 x
10
100
Capital amount : Rs. 2,00,000.00
CALCULATION OF CAPITALIZED VALUE OF PROPERTY
Capitalized value of the property = Net Maintainable Rent x 12.5
CASE STUDY: RENT CAPITALISATION METHOD
A shop fetches a monthly rent of Rs. 2000 advance amount
received Occupier Rs. 30,000, Property tax Rs. 1200. What is the
value of the shop? It is a free hold property.
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I) GARI (GROSS ANNUAL RENTAL INCOME)
Monthly rent = 2000.00
Annual rent 2000 x 12 =
24000.00
Add actual advance
paid
= 30,000.00
Normal Three month
Rent
= 6,000.00
Excess = 24,000
Interest @ 12% = 2,880.00 = 2880.00
GARI = 24,000 +
2,880
=
26,880.00
II) OUTGOINGS
Property Tax - Rs. 1200.00
15% GARI (0.15 x 24880) Rs. 4032.00
Total Outgoing Rs. 5232.00
III) NET ANNUAL RENTAL INCOME: NARI = GARI - OUTGOINGS
= 26,880 – 5,232
= 21,648.00
VALUE OF THE PROPERTY: = NET MAINTAINABLE RENT X 12.5
= 21648 x 125
= 2,70,600/-
CASE STUDY – II
Mr. Rajan has let out his godown (free hold) in mount Road,
Chennai for a monthly rent of 8000/-. He has received a
refundable advance Rs. 1,50,000/- and premium amount of
2,00,000 for 20 years. The tenant is maintaining the shop by
paying 8000/- as corporation tax per annum. Calculate the value
by rent capitalization method.
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i) GARI
Monthly rent = Rs. 8000.00
Annual rent 8000 x 12 = Rs. 96,000.00
Add
a) Tax born by the tenant Rs. 8000.00
b) Repairs 1/9 x 96,000 Rs. 10,666.66
c) Advance Rs. 1,50,000.00
Normal advance 3 month rent 8000
x 3
Rs. 24,000.00
Excess advance Rs. 1,26,000.00
Add interest 15% Rs. 18,900.00
d) Premium / No of years
20000 / 20
Rs. 10,000.00
Total Rs. 1,43,566.00
ii) Outgoings
Tax NIL
15% of GARI = 0.15 x 143566 21534.90
Total 21534.90
iii) NARI = GARI – OUTGOINGS
143566 – 21534.90
1,22,031.10
iv) Capitalised Value = NMR x 12.5 = 15,25,388.75
Say 15.25 lakhs
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3) DEVELOPMENT METHOD:
In this method, the value of the property is latent and will be
released on development. This can be worked out by ascertaining the
zoned use and extent of development legally permissible under the
rules of local authorities and determining the annual gross income
that can be fetched after development. From this the next income can
be arrived by deducting the outgoings. The capitalized value can be
arrived at. To develop the property certain period will be required right
from preparation of plans, getting them approved by the local bodies.
The capital expenditure required for development during the phase
period should also be estimated. A percentage of amount has to
deducted on account of the above. The result so obtained by the above
procedure should be compared with the actual sale instances of
similar under developed properties.
Under developed property, if occupied by tenant under Rent
Control Act, will have constraint in utilizing the potential of the
development of vacant land depending upon the legal rights of
shifting the tenant. It has to be examined whether surplus land is
serveable from the enjoyment of the tenant.
Development method should invariably be adopted for valuing
land which is ripe for development. Some of the agricultural land close
to the periphery of the city will be allowed to be converted as urban
land. Large pockets of land have to be laid out in small housing plots
as per the rules of the development authorities taking into account the
expense that may be incurred for provision of roads, sewers, drains,
water mains, electric mains and leveling up of area should be worked
out and priced. The net plot area available should be worked out and
priced. The net plot area available should be priced on the basis of
instance sale of developed land in that area. In cities where urban
renewal is permitted and where old buildings are allowed to demolish
and convert into shopping complex or residential apartments, here
also development method should be adopted taking into account the
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floor area ratio, the plot coverage and other parameters prescribed by
the local authorities.
4) VALUATION BY PROFIT METHOD:
Profit method is applicable to Hotels, Cinemas, Marriage Halls
and Public Places. This method as the name suggests deals in
working the profit from a property and subsequently capitalizing
the same at appropriate rate of return depending upon a number
of Factors.
Estimating the Fair Market Value by using Profit Method is
discussed here.
METHOD OF VALUATION OF A CINEMA THEATRE
The fair market value of a cinema theatre is the best possible
price one could give in the case of any sale.
The method of valuation which a valuer can adopt depends upon
the circumstances of the individual case. Many valuers including
this author feel that the profit Method is the most appropriate
method of valuation if the owner of the theatre conducts himself
the business.
The procedure of valuation of a cinema theatre by using profit
method is analyzed here in brief.
ASSESSMENT OF VALUE
Profitably is determined and the value is arrived by capitalizing
the net profit at an appropriate rate of return after apportioning
the profit due to
1) Tangible assets and
2) Intangible assets
PROFIT = GROSS INCOME – EXPENSE
GROSS INCOME
Gross Income = Income from exhibiting the pictures excluding
entertainment Tax + Income from other sources.
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INCOME FROM PICTURE
Yearly Gross Income from exhibiting the pictures = [{Full House
occupancy – Normal Vacancy} x No. of Shows in a month x 12] –
Entertainment Tax paid to the Govt.
More the occupancy percentage, more the income form exhibiting
the pictures. The significant factors affecting the better occupancy
rates are:
* Competition
* Locational Advantage
* Interior decoration
* Good films
* Capacity of the House
* Environments
* Aesthetics of Foyer
* Excellent Sound Systems
* Video Piracy
* Cable T.V
* No. of Theatres existing in that area
* Development of the adjacent locality
* Modern Cinema Building with amenities
* Elevational Treatments, Facades
* Elegant and comfortable furniture
* Efficient projection equipment
* Pleasant light arrangement
* Perfect cooling systems
* Easy approach to the public
* Power supply – Standby source
Vacancies are determined either from actual observations from a
number of inspections or on the basis of averages for similar
establishments.
Shows include Morning Shows, Noon Shows, Evening Shows,
Night Shows, Special Shows, Etc.,
The entertainment Tax varies with individual state Governments.
The TamilNadu Govt. has fixed the entertainment Tax as 40 % of
the daily collection from exhibiting the pictures.
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INCOME FROM OTHER SOURCES
They are:
* Income from Exhibiting the Advertisements
* Income from Exhibition of Slides.
* Rental Income from Stalls, Coffee Houses, Cool drink Shops,
Ice Cream Parlour, etc.,
* Rental Income from Car Parking and Cycle Stand.
* Rental Income form showcases.
* Miscellaneous Income from Weighing Machine etc.
* Advertisement display on walls.
* Income from Hoardings display.
* Interest for the deposits paid by the contractors of stalls.
EXPENSES
The heads of expenses are:
* Preliminary Expenses
* Working Expenses
* Repairs and Depreciation
* Owner’s Profit
Preliminary Expenses
* Film hire changes to the distributors
* Hire charges for the Indian News Reels
* Local Tax, if any
* Other Taxes connected to Cinema Business
Working Expenses
* Establishment charges like Staff Salary, Gratuity, Bonus,
Provident Fund, Welfare Fund.
* Consumables like Carbon Electrodes etc.,
* Running cost of generators, cooling appliances.
* Legal Expenses, Auditors fees.
* Electricity
* Printing
* Postage
* Property tax
* Ground Rent if any
* Traveling & Conveyance
* Packing and Forwarding
* Stationery
* Publicity
* Various License Fees
* Bank Commissions
* Office Expenses
* Railway Freight, Octroi
* Telephone, Telegrams
* Insurance for Plant & Machinery, Equipments, Furnitures
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* Insurance premium to the Building
* Subscription to Associations
* Entertainment to Guests
* Miscellaneous
Repairs and Depreciations:
* Suitable Depreciation
* Repairs and Maintenance of Building
* Maintenance of Plant & Machinery
* Sinking fund for Furnitures
The following percentages are normally adopted as depreciation:
Theatre Buildings : 2.5 %
Furniture : 15 %
Machinery : 20 %
Cooling Plant : 10 %
Electrical Fittings : 10 – 15 %
Allowance for Repairs and Maintenance of the buildings is
normally assumed between 1 to 2 % and this does not exceed by 3
%.
Sinking fund deduction is required to be made for replacement of
Furnitures, Fixtures, Plant & Machinery etc., which require
periodic replacements. The deduction should be calculated not on
the prime costs but on prevailing costs of replacement less
accumulated sinking fund reserves of earlier year on remaining
period of anticipated life.
Owner’s Profit:
If the owner runs the Cinema business on his own under his
direct supervision, guidance and control, a percentage of 15 % as
Owner’s Profit on the total gross income excluding the
entertainment tax is to be taken into account as an expense.
This percentage covers the items like
* Interest on Capital Blocked up in his assests
* Interest on Capital required for day to day Working.
* Trade Profit which is due to his labour, Skill and
Managements.
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* Allowance for Risk Element.
PROFIT AND CAPITALISING
Profit = Gross Income – Expenses
The profits are to be apportioned to two categories, namely
1. Profit from intangible assets and
2. Profit from Tangible assets.
The ratio of intangible profit to Tangible profit is normally 1:3.
While Capitalising, a higher rate of interest is to be adopted for
intangible profit than Tangible profit since efficient running the
Cinema business depends upon the good Management, Good will
and license.
Here 12% capitalization is adopted for Tangible profit and 14%
Capitalisation is adopted for Intangible Profit.
CASE STUDY: EXAMPLE
Valuation of Cinema Theatre by adopting profit method is
explained by means of a Case Study.
Data:
Type of Theatre : Permanent – Non A/c
Location : Municipal Limit
: I class 250 @ Rs. 10.00
: II Class 300 @ Rs. 7.00
: III Class 250 @ Rs. 5.00
No. of Shows / day : 4
Average Percentage : 60 %
Occupancy :
Entertainment Tax : 40% of Daily Collection
Distributors Share : Average 50% of the Daily
collection after deducting the
Entertainment Tax.
Advance received from
stalls
: Rs, 4,00,000/-
Conductor of the Theatre : Owner
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COMPUTATION OF INCOME
Income from Exhibiting The Pictures:
Class No. of .Seats Rate Rs.
Collection per
show Rs.
I Class 250 10.00 2500.00
II Class 300 7.00 2100.00
III Class 250 5.00 1250.00
Total 5850.00
Collection Per show for full occupancy = Rs. 5850.00
Collection for 4 shows of full occupancy = Rs. 23400.00
Average occupancy percentage = 60 %
Average Collection Per day 0.6 x 23400 = Rs. 14040.00
Average Collection per year 14040 x 365 = Rs. 51,24,600.00
Less Entertainment Tax 40% paid to the
Govt
= Rs. 20,49,840.00
Gross Annual Income from exhibiting
the pictures
= Rs. 30,74,760.00
= Say Rs. 30,75,000.00
Income from other Sources (Per Annum):
1. Advertisement Reels Average 3 Nos. @
Rs. 200 per week
= Rs. 31,200.00
2. Advertisement Slides
Average 10 Nos. @ Rs. 50 per month
= Rs. 6,000.00
3. Showcases rent @ Rs. 500 per month = Rs. 6,000.00
4. Rent from Wall Display, @ Rs. 400 per
month
= Rs. 12,000.00
5. Rental Income from stalls, Car Parking
@ Rs. 250 per day
= Rs. 91,250.00
6. Interest on deposits 15% of 1,00,000 = Rs. 15,000.00
7. Miscellaneous Income = Rs. 6,500.00
Total Income = Rs. 1,67,950.00
Say = Rs. 1,68,000/-
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Total Income:
Income from exhibiting the shows = Rs. 30,75,000.00
Income from other sources = Rs. 1,68,000.00
Total Gross Income = Rs. 32,43,000.00
COMPUTATION OF EXPENSES:
Preliminary Expenses:
Film Hire Charges to the distributors @ an
average 50% (0.50 x 30,75,000)
= Rs.
15,37,500.00
Hire Charges to Indian News Reel at 1%
90.01 x 30,75,000)
= Rs.
30,750.00
Tax of sales Tax Department for exhibiting
Slides and Reels at 60 paise/ slide/show (13
x 0.60 x 4 x 365)
= Rs.
11,388.00
Total = Rs.
15,79,638.00
Say = Rs.
15,80,000/-
Working Expenses:
Establishment charges at an average of
10,000/month
= Rs. 1,20,000.00
Consumables at Rs. 700/month = Rs. 8,400.00
Electricity @ Rs. 2,500/month = Rs. 30,000.00
Generator Expenses @ Rs. 500/month = Rs. 6,000.00
Stationery, Printing, Publicity, Office
Expenses @ Rs. 2000/month
= Rs. 24,000.00
Travelling and Conveyance @ Rs. 1,500/
month
= Rs. 18,000.00
Telephones and Posts @ Rs. 500/month = Rs. 6,000.00
Railway Freight @ Rs.100/month = Rs. 1,200.00
Insurance Premium = Rs. 3,000.00
License Fee – Collectorate, Electrical
Certificate, Stability Certificate – Average
/year
= Rs. 5,000.00
Entertainment to Guests = Rs. 900.00
Subscription to the associations = Rs. 300.00
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Property Tax = Rs. 5,600.00
Profession Tax = Rs. 1,250.00
Miscellaneous = Rs. 950.00
Total = Rs. 2,30,600.00
Repairs & Depreciation:
Depreciation to Machinery = Rs. 15,000.00
Depreciation to Building = Rs. 10,000.00
Maintenance Expenses = Rs. 28,000.00
Furniture = Rs. 5,000.00
Total = Rs. 58,000.00
Owner’s Profit:
15 % of
Rs.32,43,000 = Rs. 4,86,450.00
Total Expenses:
Preliminary Expenses = Rs. 15,80,000.00
Working Expenses = Rs. 2,30,000.00
Repairs and
Depreciation
= Rs. 58,000.00
Owner’s Profit = Rs. 4,86,450.00
Total = Rs. 23,54,450.00
Profit
Gross Income = Rs. 32,43,000.00
Total Expenses = Rs. 23,54,450.00
Profit = Rs. 8,88,550.00
Capitalisation:
Tangible Profit @ 75% of Rs.
8,88,550/-
= Rs. 6,66,413.00
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Intangible profit @ 25% of Rs.
8,88,550
= Rs. 2,22,137.00
Capitalise Tangible Profit @ 12% =
Rs.
6,66,413 x
12
100
= Rs. 55,53,442.00
Capitalize Intangible Profit @ 14% =
Rs.
2,22,137 x
14
100
= Rs. 15,86,693.00
Total (5553442 + 1586693) = Rs. 71,40,135.00
Say = Rs. 71,40,000.00
Assessed Value of the Above
Cinema Theatre by Adopting Profit
Method =
Rs. 71,40,000.00
5) DIRECT COMPARISON METHOD:
Apart from the above four methods, a valuer can estimate the
present worth/ market value of property consisting of land &
Building by adopting comparable sale instances of the composite
rate. The procedure is discussed here.
Under the comparison of properties, no two properties are not
same. Hence to get exact comparison of the properties is difficult.
But here realistic value can be obtained following some factors to
be considered in this method.
1. The final unit composite rate is to be arrived at after
comparing sufficient number of sale instances.
2. Comparison must not be based upon the sale agreements or
mere offer to buy/sell.
3. Comparison must not be based upon the forced sale value,
distressed value, as these will normally give only a lower
value.
4. Comparison must not be based upon the desired value, value
yielded due to absolute necessity as these will normally give a
comparatively more value.
5. Abnormally high or insignificantly low value properties must
not be considered. Sale to relatives or cooked up sale will not
be a suitable case for good comparison.
6. Genuine transaction must have been carried out in the open
market.
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7. The sale transaction must have been carried out in the open
market.
8. It is preferable that the period of sale instances must be
nearer to the period of valuation of the property under
valuation.
9. Composite rate of bigger property must not be based upon
sale instances of a smaller property as far as possible (and
vice versa).
10. It is preferable to compare sale instances of residential
buildings for the purpose of valuation of a residential
buildings and likewise.
11. The unit of comparison must be the same for the properties to
be compared. If the carpet area is the basis for property under
comparison, the same unit must also be the basis for
valuation of the subject property.
12. Premises (similar in character) should more or less be
similarly situated in the same locality with same type of user.
13. Location of premises with respect to floor and its position on
the floor specially for road view etc. must be similar.
14. Provision to construct further floors must be a factor to be
considered.
15. The extent of area must be comparable.
16. Factors like encumbrance free title deeds involved in the
transaction and the nature of occupation (whether vacant,
tenanted. Encroachment etc.,) must be considered.
17. When the market Value is to be determined on the basis of
sales of land in the neighbourhood with same character, it is
opined that the potential value need not be separately added
because such sales cover the potential value also.
18. The comparable property must be inspected thoroughly with
regards to:
* Accommodation provided – whether Residential or
Commercial
* Architectural design – Whether conventional or modern.
* Quality of construction – whether superior, ordinary or
inferior.
* Quality of materials used.
* Type of Construction
* Parking facilities.
* Amenities – Whether bare minimum or more.
* Specification – whether rich / ordinary/ medium.
* Occupants – whether vacant possession or tenanted.
* Rent fetching – whether the property fetches more rent or
less rent comparatively.
* Return frontages – whether property having a single road
or more roads and if so-whether width or road is less or
more.
* Locational Advantage
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PROCEDURE OF VALUATION
It consists in comparing the property under valuation with the
more or less similar property in the locality, make suitable
adjustments in the rate if specification varies and there after
arriving at a suitable composite rate per unit area.
1. Assess the composite rate of the property under comparison
2. Adopt this rate as the basic rate for the property under
Valuation.
3. Make suitable adjustments for :
a) Superior /inferior specification and depreciation
b) Extra Amenities
c) Locational advantage
d) Factors favouring extra value
e) Factors affecting less value, etc., as discussed.
4. If the land is vast, and the plinth area of the building is less
do the valuation:
a) For building & appurtenant land, adopt the
composite Rate.
b) For excess land, adopt the prevailing unit land
rate.
c) Add both to arrive at a realistic value.
5. As far as possible, it is better to compare with a property
recently transacted. If much earlier sale instances are to be
compared inevitably due to non-availability of recent sale
instances, then the composite rate must be suitably increased
depending upon the escalation trend in the locality. However if
the market trend is stable, the same rate can be considered, of
course depending upon the other local condition. Valuer must
be a good judge.
References:
1. B. Kanagasabapathy, - Practical Valuation Volume I, II, III.
2. Shrikanth Vasanth Joglekar, Mumbai Publications 1993-94,
Valuation – Revaluation a New Vista Its Impact on Finance
Everyone’s Concern.
3. C.H. Gopinath Rao, Valuation Practice of Immovable
Properties
4. B. Kanagasabapathy, Fair Rent Manual
5. B. N. Dutta, Estimating and costing.
6. Journals of Institution of valuers – New Delhi
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c. A communication of the acceptance of the proposal A contract is an agreement enforceable by law. It may be noted that the works ‘agreement’ and ‘contract’ are very often used as synonyms, but in fact they are not. All contracts are agreements but all agreements are not necessarily contracts; agreements not enforceable by law are not contracts. To be legally enforceable, the agreements must satisfy two things, viz, intention to be bound and consideration. However, according to the Indian contract Act 1872, an agreement is a contract if ‘it is made by the free consent of parties competent to contract, for lawful consideration and with a lawful object, and is not expressly declared to be void. create a legal relationship. The contract must be definite and its purpose should be to duly cast upon a person by law.

exchange promises, it gives rise to a contractual obligation. TYPES OF CONTRACTS following types:

Contracts for the execution of civil engineering works are of a. Lumpsum contract b. Item rate contract

c. Lumpsum and schedule contract d. Cost plus fixed fee contract e. Cost plus percentage of cost contract f. Special contracts In this type of contract, the contractor offers to do the whole

Lumpsum Contract work as shown in drawings and described by specifications, for a total stipulated sum of money. There are no individual rates quoted, thus it becomes difficult to make adjustments in the contract value if any changes are to be made in the work later on. The schedule of
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A contract creates an obligation i.e. a When the parties to a contract

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different items of work is not provided and the contractor has to complete the work as per drawings and specifications for the agreed lump sum amount. Deposit of 10 % security money and other conditions of the contract are included in the contract agreement. contractor. completion of work, a fixed lumpsum amount is paid to the Detailed measurements of different items are required but the whole work is compared and checked with drawings and specifications before releasing the payment. In large projects, part payments are made to the contractor at different stages of work on money agreed terms. In case the contractor stops the work in between he is not entitled for any further payment. Suitability

A lumpsum contract is more suitable for works for which contractors have prior construction experience. This experience enables the contractors to submit a more realistic bid. This type of contract is not suitable for difficult foundations, excavations of uncertain character, and projects susceptible to unpredictable hazards and variations. Merits

i. The owner can decide whether to start or shelve the project knowing the total lumpsum price quoted by different contractors.

Demerits

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ii. The contractor can earn more profit by in-depth planning and effective management site.

i. Before the contract is awarded, the project has to be studied thoroughly and the complete contract documents has to be prepared in advance. ii. In this type of contract, unforeseen details of work are not specified in the contract document.
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Upon the

Many additional items

the contractor undertakes the execution of work on an item rate basis. The total cost of work can only be known upon completion.may have to be undertaken as the work progresses. Changes in drawings and quantities of individual items can be made as per requirement within agreed limits. Suitability The payment to the contractor is made on the basis of detailed measurements of different engineering works financed by public or government bodies. ii. depends upon the quantities of various items of work actually executed. done by his at the agreed rates. w. As such. In this type of contract. sm 4 The item rate contract is most commonly used for all types of This type of contract is suitable for works which can be split into various items and quantities under each item can be estimated with accuracy. The amount to be received by the contractor. items of work actually done by him. at the time of allotting contract as in the case of lumpsum The detailed drawings can be prepared after the dr au . there is no need for detailed drawings contract. Merits i. giving opportunity to the contractor for claiming higher rates of the extra items not included in the contract agreement. Demerits ww iii. contract is awarded.i n . Item Rate Contract Also called a schedule contract. The payment to the contractor is made on the actual work i. in this contract. the owner may incur financial difficulty if the final cost increases substantially.

In this type of contract. w. Measurements of different items measured for payment. additional staff for recording detailed measurements of original item of work is not required for making payment to the contractor. of original work are not required but extra items are required to be Demertis ww i. Suitability for which contractors This type of contract is more suitable for construction works have prior work experience and can consequently estimate the project cost more realistically. ii. The Scope for additional saving with the use of interior quality materials may prompt the contractor to use such materials in the work. the owner can decide to start or defer the project. i. The original work shall however be checked and compared with the drawings and specifications. Knowing the financial implications. Lumpsum and Scheduled Contract This is similar to the lumpsum contract except the schedule of rates is also included in the contract agreement. Before the contract is awarded the project has to be studied thoroughly and all the contract documents are required to be completed in every respect.ii. the contractor offers to do a particular work at a fixed sum within a specified time as per plans and detailed specifications. The schedule of rates for various items is provided which regulates the extra amount to be paid or deducted for any additions or deletions made during the progress of work. The owner can know from tenders as to what the project will cost him. Merits dr sm 5 au . iii. In this type of contract.i n . Additional staff is required to take detailed measurements of work done for releasing payments to the contractor.

w. the contractor cannot increase the cost of work.i n . The amount of fee is determined as a plump sum from a consideration of the scope of work. nature of work. it is essential that the scope and some general details of the work are defined. Suitability alone. Cost Plus Fixed Fee Contract Cost Plus fixed fee contract is desirable when the scope and nature of the work can atleast be broadly defined. Therefore. the contractor has a completed expeditiously and where it is difficult to foretell what difficulties are likely to be encountered. ii) The work can be taken in hand even before the detailed drawings and specifications are finanlised. The contractor in this type of contract is selected on the basis of merit rather than the fee tendency to increase his profit by increasing the cost of work. i) This type of contract is suitable for works required to be dr sm 6 au . i) In this type of contract.ii. In case of cost plus percentage contract. the contractor performs the work in the best interest of the owner resulting in good quality work. But this drawback is overcome in cost plus fixed fee contract because here the contractor’s fee is fixed and does not fluctuate with actual cost of work. Once this fee is fixed. In order to negotiate such a type of contract. The non-scheduled extra items arising out of changes made in the drawings and specifications are often a source of dispute because the contractor presses for rates higher than the prevailing market rates. manpower and equipment requirements etc. estimated time of construction. actual cost is to be borne by the owner. ii) This contract is also suitable for important structures where Merits ww the cost of construction is immaterial. its approximate cost.

it is given on certain percentage over the actual cost of construction. Cost Plus Percentage of Cost Contract In this type of contract. ii) The final cost of the work is not known in advance and this may subject the owner to financial difficulties. Special Contracts There are certain contracts which are used at different tendency of the contractor to increase the cost of work to earn profit In this type of contract.iii) Changes in design and method of construction if needed can be easily carried out without disputes. iv) The work can be executed speedily. Demerits i) This form of contract cannot be adopted normally in case of public bodies and Government departments. the purchase of materials and in arranging labour. The suitability merits and demerits of this type of contract are similar to cost plus fixed fee contracts. The actual cost of construction is reported by the contractor and is paid to him by the owner together The contractor agrees to do the work in accordance with the drawings. proper control has to be exercised by the owner in ww occasions. dr sm 7 with a certain percentage as agreed earlier. au .i n . Some of these contracts are listed below:  Turn-key Contract  Package Contract  Negotiated Contract  Continuing Contract  Running Contract w. specifications and other conditions of contract. An additional demerit is the by way of percentage of enhanced actual cost. instead of awarding the work on lumpsum or item rate basis.

(i) Turn-key Contract A turn-key contract is an integrated contract in which all works pertaining to various disciplines such as civil, electrical, mechanical etc. are in the hands of a single contractor called the main contractor. The main contractor can sublet the contact to subcontractors who are specialists in their respective fields. In this contract, the main advantage to the owner is that he need not coordinate the work of different contractors. to commissioning stage. contractor. (ii) Package Contract The main contractor is responsible for all kinds of jobs starting from planning The owner takes over the entire work (which is fully operational and of proven performance) from the main

could form a separate contract are combined in a single contract. In the field of civil engineering, generally, design and development are combined with construction and supply or maintenance. In this type of contract, plan of work and standards are established and the work is carried out accordingly by the contractor. The main contractor is responsible for safeguarding the technical aspects have to be taken from the owner. Responsibility for correctness of the design lines with the main contractor. (iii) Negotiated Contract place between representatives of the owner and the main contractor for project cost and other conditions of contract. contract, detailed projects specifications are In this type of arrived at by In this type of contract, negotiation across the table takes owner’s interest and for this reason, prior approval of design and

discussions between the owner and the main contractor and consultant.

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In a package contract, two or more related jobs, each of which

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A negotiated contract involves extended discussions for finalization as a competitive contract. (iv) Continuing Contract In this type of contract, new or additional work is awarded to the contractor on the basis of agreed terms and conditions of an existing contract. Such contracts do not require re-tendering and hence can save time and money. (v) Running Contract Most of the consultancy projects of World Bank are negotiated contracts.

Such contracts provide goods and services at specified intervals or as and when required by the owner. The contract price is not fixed and payment is based on goods supplied and services rendered as specified in the contract documents. III. Contract Documents

The contract document consists of the contract agreement (on non-judicial stamp paper of prescribed value) and the following set of documents, each page of which is signed both by the owner and the contractor. a) b) c) Cover Title Page: It contains the name of work, name of owner, name of contract, contract agreement number, contents etc. page references. Contents Page: It contains the contents of the agreement with Notice Inviting Tender (NIT): It contains a brief description of work, estimated cost of work, date and time of receiving the tender, amount of earnest money, security money, time of completion etc., Tender Form: It comprises bill of quantities, contractor’s rates, total cost of work, time for completion, security money to be deposited and penalty clauses etc. Schedule of Issue of Materials: It contains the list of materials to be issued by the department or owner to the contractor with rates and place of issue.
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d)

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f)

Drawings: These comprise a complete set of fully dimensioned drawings including plans, elevations, and sections detailed drawings and site plan.

g)

Specifications:

It is not practicable to include detailed

information of each item of work in the limited space of description in the bill of quantities. specifications form a part of the As such detailed agreement. contract

Specifications should be clear and precise covering all items of the bill of quantities. Following specifications are normally included in the contract document.

i. General Specifications: These specify the class and type of work quality of materials etc, in general for the work as a whole. ii. Detailed Specification: These give detailed description of each item of work including material and method to be used along with quality of work manship required. h) Conditions of Contract: The terms and conditions of contract specify the following. i. Rates of each item of work inclusive of materials, labour, transport, plant/equipment and other arrangements required ii. Manner of payment of contractor including running payment final payment, refund of security money etc. iii. Time of completion of work. iv. Proportionate progress to be achieved. v. Penalty for poor quality and unsatisfactory work, lack of proportionate progress and for delay in completion. vi. Extension of time for completion of work. vii.Engaging other agency at contractor’s cost and risk. viii. Termination of contract. ix. Subletting of the work. x. Changes in design/drawings etc and valuation of variations.
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The documents are considered together for the purpose of contract interpretation.i n .. dr sm 11 au .  Contract Specifications  Guide Specifications  Standard Specifications work. All the above stated documents collectively constitute a contract document. should carefully read and understand the contract before executing Specifications – Definition and Explanation Specifications are statements which describe the nature and class of work. iii. breadth and height) and include a brief description of the different parts. workmanship etc. giving rise to meaning and effect to each part of the contract. the intention of contracting parties is The contractor determined from the contract executed by them. In addition to the above. The cost Specifications are of the following Types ww w. In general. materials to be used. Arbitration for settlement of disputes. The nature of work can be easily understood from the study of specifications. State the acceptance criteria for different items of work. The drawings of a building or structure show the arrangement of rooms and dimensions (length.xi. the work. Guide the bidder at the time of tendering for arriving at a fair price for the work involved. Drawings do not furnish the details of different items of work. quality of workmanship etc. which are all description in the specifications. performance and payment bonds are also sometimes considered as part of the contract document. method of of the work depends much upon the specifications. precautions to be taken. the quantity of materials. ii. labour to be employed. Provide guidance for execution and supervision of work and purchase of materials. Specifications serve the following purposes: i.

(d) Manufacturer’s Specifications: Manufacturers prepare These These specifications of their products for the guidance of users. Indian Standards Institution and other such institutions have prepared a wide range of standard specifications. specifying the materials to be used including their proportions. code of practice etc.i n products.. as far as possible. au . The specifications are written. quality and workmanship. These are further claussed at:   General Specifications Detailed Specification General Specifications are also called brief specifications. also include installation instructions use and maintenance of dr sm 12 out. These give a general ideas of the class and type of work giving brief descriptions of materials.(a) Contract Specification: The specifications prepared for a particular job to accompany the working drawings are contract specifications. method of work quality of workmanship required etc. and other . Clear understanding of specifications plays a vital role in the successful completion of a construction project. Detailed specifications provide a detailed description of each item as per schedule of quantities. for specifications are generally provided in the form of manuals. in the same sequence or order in which the work is carried (b) Guide Specifications: These specifications provide a guideline for preparing contract specifications and give a broad idea about class and type of construction for a particular purpose. (c) Standard Specifications: These specifications are prepared for various materials or group of materials for the guidance of all concerned with construction or construction industry. specifications guidelines ww w. These specifications include methods of manufacture methods of tests.

The registering authority for class IV and V will be Executive Engineer and for the rest Superintending Engineer.10 lakhs Rs.5000/for buildings. works upto Rs.5/. ii. Circle Level Class III upto State Level Class II upto Class I upto Class I above Money Limit Rs.200/- The above fee will not be refunded under any circumstances.plus sales tax.10/Rs. Labour contract co-operative societies.ENLISTMENT OF CONTRACTORS PROCEDURE FOR ENLISTMENT OF CONTRACTORS Before entering into contract with the Public Works Department. ayacutdars beneficiaries are exempted from Registration fee.i n Application Fee Rs. every individual or firm is required to register himself as a contractor.2 lakhs Rs. Repatriates from Burmah and Ceylon. Following are exempted from the Registration Fees: i. The registration of a contractor for works in a division or a .5 lakhs Rs. for taking up works in the appropriate classes of registration.40.000 au . after paying the registration fee.000/.10. circle is on a territorial basis and as such separate registration is not ww iii. For works at Divisional Level Class V upto Class IV upto b.5/Rs.10 lakhs Rs.50/- Rs. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Interested w. c. The copy of rules for registration of contractors is supplied to the contractors on payment Fee for application and Registration Classification of Contractor a. of Rs.10/- Registration Fee sm dr and 13 Rs. Industrial co-operative societies. iv.1 lakh Rs.for irrigation and Rs.100/- Rs.

Contractor may register themselves in more than one territorial unit of division or circle of the same department after payment of the requisite fee in each case. The status of the contractor. For taking special works in places outside the area of his registration.necessary in a special division or special circle of the same department. shall enlist the applicant in the Register of contractors and inform the applicant and also the officers of the department about that registrant.i n . especially his financial soundness should be checked annually by the registering authority. in respect of the same business. in the same territorial area. dr sm case of demoted contractor or resumption to the original status after au . but before doing so he shall issue a show cause notice to the applicant giving 7 days time and specifying the reasons for the proposed rejection. The Registering Authority shall have full powers to reject any application. for taking up works lying in the territorial area covered by the first registration. The applicants when found satisfactory with reference to their financial standing and other particulars in the application by the enquiry officer. for weeding 14 ww shall remit the registration fee into the treasury and sent the challan. In token of having read through and understood the standard preliminary specification he is required to sign in the Tamilnadu standard specification. The applicant within 15 days of the receipt of intimation The officer on receipt of challan. The contractor’s application for a higher classification or reinstatement to original class in the removal of or suspension will be treated afresh and the application shall be considered on its merits. after the levy of the prescribed fee. No contractor shall be permitted to get himself registered under more than one name in the same territorial area. w. When a contractor has registered as a partner of the ‘Firm’ he cannot once again be permitted to register his name as a contractor in his individual capacity. the contractor should register himself in the special circle. should be given intimation in writing by giving class. area etc.

The Registering authority may demote a contractor to a lower class. The solvency certificate required will be i) Works upto 50. such contractors are have not secured any work during three consecutive years.000 Above 50. if he fails to execute a contract or proved to be responsible for defective construction. ww iii) prescribed fee for registration. and afterwards for other department officers for their guidance.out from the approved list. Income tax and sales tax clearance certificates shall be furnished by the contractor and the failure shall prevent the furnished. shall apply to this . The fact of demotion need not be sent to the contractor but the registering authority shall intimate to the Chief Engineer through the next higher authority. or his financial position is not good. if the contractor i) fails to secure any work during three consecutive years. etc. ii) has on more than one occasion failed to execute contract. The Registering authority may remove the name of contractor from the approved the list. The decision should be taken only after issue of show cause notice and the orders should be communicated to the contractor concerned. iv) violation of Labour act etc.i n Engineers should -nil register themselves with any one of the Executive Engineer after paying the concessions entitled for unemployed Engineers. contractor from tendering for works till such time the certificates are Jobless w. as to justify his demotion. Then only then can avail the The rules regarding Registration. or found to violate any important contract conditions etc. removal. or dr unemployment sm 15 au .000 upto 2 lakhs Above 2 lakhs ii) -10% of value of work -25% of value of work category also. iii) persistent violation of important conditions of contract.

The following are the different types of bills. dr Voucher: Voucher is a written document with details which is For any payment. White forms are used for running bills and yellow forms are used for final bills. a bill is prepared for payment. From the abstract of quantity and the rate. duly checked and acknowledged by the payee. road metal and plants etc. When the work or supply is completed or sufficiently progressed. Reference to the agreement number. by signature or revenue stamp as kept in record. Bill and Voucher material.CONTRACT – BILLS AND ACCOUNTS 2. the detailed measurements are taken usually by the section officer and recorded in the measurement book and an abstract of quantities are prepared and the cost is calculated at the rate of the contract agreement. bill becomes voucher which is 3. Introduction The payment to the contractors for works or supply or measurements recorded in the measurement books. are made on the basis of Bill: Bill is the account of work done or supply of materials made and includes the particulars and quantities of work done or material supplied and amount due. according to the nature of works. required and after payment is made.i n . Types of Bills The various standard forms of bills and vouchers are used for payment. kept in record as a proof of payment. sm 16 au . i) First and Final bill ii) Running account Bill – form A iii) Running account Bill – form c iv) Lump sum contract Bill ww w. order number are also given in the bill. 2. a bill is prepared and payment is made on the bill.

number of intermediate payments are made in L. In the final L. First and Final Bill: This form is used for making payment to the contractor both for works and suppliers. Intermediate payment is made for (i) value of measure up items of work executed forming part of the contract. when a single payment is to be made on the completion of the whole work or supply as final payment. a dr sm outstanding. Lump Sum Contract Bill: In the L. Running Account Bill – Form A: This form is used for advance payment without any measurement. Running Account Bill – Form C: This form is used for contracts both for works executed on piece work system and for suppliers received. This type of bill is generally adopted for petty works or split up works in projects.S. contract running account bill form before final payment is made.S. iv. contract methods.i n . ii.S. It may be used for running bill payment for advance for unmeasured work only or combination of unmeasured work and measured work or if ‘on account’ payment is to be made but an advance payment already made for the same work is iii. (ii) value of authorized extra work done on account of additions or modifications in the work executed supported by details in either case. 17 ww w. bill. au .v) Hand receipt i. This form is widely used specially for medium sized works executed through K2 contract or split up works or projects entrusted on nomination to a number of contractors. the full amount as entered in the contract is paid adding the amount of authorised extras and deducting authorised omission and the intermediate payments already made.

v. Advance Payment: This means the payment made on a running account to a contractor for work done by him but not ww iii. Hand Receipt: Hand receipt is a simple form of voucher intended to be used for small miscellaneous payments and advances for which none of the above forms is suitable. on completion of this contract and the full settlement of the account. iv. as listed below: i. Secured Advance payment i. This is usually applicable for small work. First and Final Payment iii. on a running account. ii. During the progress of the work. In this case the payment finished by one payment after the completion of the work. Running on Interim or ‘on account’ payment. v. Running or interim ‘on account’ payment: This means payment made on a running account to a contractor for works done or supplies made by him.Final Payment: This is the last payment made to a contractor w. dr sm 18 au . 4. duly measured and entered in measurement book. Final payment iv. The purpose of payment and the designation of the officer making payment duly supported by measurement book entry should be furnished on the hand receipt No agreement is necessary for payments made through Hand receipt form. Types of payment Payment to contractors are made in a variety of ways.i n . This is effected when only a part of the whole work or supply has been done and the work or supply is in progress. Advance payment ii. the contractor is paid from time to time. First and Final Payment: The term indicates a single payment made for a job or contract on its completion.

Arithmatical calculations of the then it is compared with the quantities etc. dr sm . The value of work done shall not be less than the advance proposed. Preparation. When. the bill is on running account ww iii) iv) v) w. Secured Advance Payment: au .measured. with the previous bill. Amount to be withheld towards security deposit. advance is permissible. non return of empty gunny bags etc. Hire charges for departmental materials issued to the contractors. All entries in the measurement book with regard to the description and quantities of work or supplies made are checked. Advance payment is not generally made to the contractor. This type of payment may be allowed by the Executive Engineer in the interest of work upto an amount not exceeding 75% of imperishable materials.i n 19 Detailed measurements shall be taken as soon as possible and advance This payment is made on the security of materials brought by the contractor to the site of work. v. It is checked whether deduction in respect of the following have been properly made. i) ii) Recovery for advance payment Recovery in respect of departmental materials issued to the contractors. Recovery towards penalty for slow progress. payment adjusted in the final bill. but may be made under special circumstances when the work is sufficiently progressed. paint and varnishes are considered as perishable materials and no 5. Examination and Payment of Bills The bills for payment shall be prepared with respect to the measurements recorded in the measurement book. contents or area are verified. but measurement cannot be taken for certain valid reasons. sand. when the contract is for the completed items of work. Lime.

The competent officer records a formal pay order specifying both in words and figures the net amount payable.i n available Debit Date Advance Payment Voucher No. Credit 20 Remarks .In case of final bills the field officers should certify about the due fulfillment of contract and satisfactory completion of work. every page containing the detailed measurement will be scored out by a diagonal red ink line. For every contractor a separate ledger is maintained and each contractor’s ledger is closed and balanced The contractor’s ledger is maintained by the division and a specimen page of a contractor’s ledger is given in Table – 1. No. The memorandum of payment is then made. It is All are taken in the ledger. payments recoveries of adjustments etc. Contractor’s Ledger Contractor’s ledger is a personal account of a contractor where maintained in the divisional officer in a prescribed form. chance to avoid Recoveries of debit balance of the ledger should be made from the dr at Contractor accumulation of arrears. When the bill is passed for payment. Name of work or account and particulars of transaction Total upto date value of work or supplies Net Transaction Sl. The number and date of the voucher for payment will be entered in the measurement book. contractor regularly sm the first Table – 1 for all transactions regarding the particular contractor are entered. 6. …………………………………………. Name of the month of monthly. However the contractor is required to acknowledge the gross amount payable inclusive of recoveries proposes in the bill. au . of Bill Other Transactions Gross Transaction ww w.

dr sm 21 au . The completion certificate is signed by the Assistant executive Engineer and Executive Engineer and then got accepted and signed by the local head of the department. it is passed by him and the certificate to the effect that “effect passed by me” is recorded. Work completed on …………20 …. and if the excess is within the power of the divisional officer.. i) department.. 8. deposit-at-call receipts of scheduled banks and drafts payable on demand. w. Completion Certificate After completion of the A completion plan should accompany a department. for whom the construction was carried out. cheques. If the total expenditure is in excess of the sanctioned estimate. 9.i n work of construction of other . and that it is in good satisfactory order. a certificate for satisfactory completion should be prepared in a prescribed form and got signed by a local head of the works and repairs were completed on ………20 ….7. Refund of Deposits The deposits of the contractor and refunded after six months from the date of satisfactory completion of the works or on the expiry of one rainy season. the Cash: The term ‘cash’ as used in accounts includes legal tender coins. the contractor is responsible for any defects or mishaps in the works. A small supply of maintenance of cash book is discussed. Maintenance of cash book The definition of following terms are taken before. and this note is signed by the divisional officer. completion report. The completion certificate will read as Certified that ww shall have to make good all such defects and damages. During this period of observation. Completion Report When a work is completed and the accounts have been settled a note below the final entries is made in ink. He 10.

i n To whom paid etc No of voucher 7 8 9 10 The Date of Receipt No of vouchers or receipt From whom received Amount 1 w. Table – 2 Cash Book Receipt Side Payment side Payment side Bank or Treasury Cash No of Cheque dr sm Date of payment Classification of receipt Amount Cash 4 5 6 22 got five columns and payment side has got seven columns. au . Private cash or accounts are in no case to be mixed up with public cash or accounts. ii) Debit and Credit: Debit means expenditure and credit means that the amount is shown as expenditure on the work. The cash book is one of the most important records of the office. 2 3 11 public money with which he deals and for recording the transaction of receipts and payments promptly. The following instructions are to be followed in the maintenance of cash book ww Every government officer is personally responsible for the Classification of charges 12 .one rupee revenue stamps is also treated as part of cash balance. iii) Cash Book: The transactions relating to the actual receipts and payment of cash are recorded in a register known as cash book. The receipt side has specimen page of a cash book is shown in Table – 2. The pages of the cash book are machine number and each page is divided into ‘receipt side’ and ‘payment side’. Similarly when an amount is credited to a work it means that the amount is to be shown as receipts under the work.

it should be noted in red ink in the 9. or over writings must be avoided but. cash book. these must be initiated and dated by the disbursing officer. if unavoidable. its number and amount to be entered.1. Transactions should be entered as soon as they occur in the order of occurrence. 7. number of voucher and the name of the work together with a brief description to clearly indicate the nature of transaction must be entered against each item. time a balance is struck or at convenient intervals. If the cash transaction of private cheques received is too many. Bills paid and entered in the cash book are known as vouchers. these may first be entered in a “Register of cheques received and adjusted” and only the totals of daily receipts and remittances entered in the cash book. 12. When a cheque is drawn to replenish the chest. When amount of unspent imprest is received back. 4. 3. w. 10. It is advisable to check that the cash balance is counted every ww in a separate cash book known as subsidiary cash book. When an impreset is given. Interpolation of entries. it is shown on the receipt side in red ink. If any line is left blank due to the fact that the other side of the folio has been completely written up. Entries should be made continuously and no line should be left blank. dr sm 23 au . 2. Erasure of entries is strictly prohibited. 5. No receipt other than cash should be entered in the book. Vouchers are allotted serial numbers in a continuous series each month. The disbursement of salary of regular establishment is recorded 11. a diagonal line should be drawn to cancel the blank space.i n . The date. Every entry must be concise. 6. 8.

the general principles of contract law are the basis for such special contracts too. In commercial agreements. guarantee. THE LAW OF CONTRACTS The law of contracts in India is contained in the Indian to formation. The Act is. however. negotiable instruments. pledge and agency. ww and ‘acceptance’ should be lawful. are dealt with by separate legislations. the person to whom the offer is called the ‘acceptor’. From the foregoing discussion. etc. not a complete and exhaustive law. sale of goods. offer is made is called the ‘offeree’ and the person who accepts the 4. which lays down the general principles relating . Essential elements of a Contract: as under: 1. unless the parties have expressly agreed to otherwise.CONTRACTS AND LEGAL ASPECTS 3. bailment. Lawful consideration – An agreement is legally enforceable only when each of the parties thereto gives something and gets w. Intention to create legal obligation – The parties must intend to create legal obligation. 2. The person who makes the ‘proposal’ or ‘offer’ is called the ‘promisor’ or ‘offeror’. some of the special contracts such as those relating to partnership. an intention to create legal relations is presumed. Offer and acceptance – There must be an ‘offer’ and an ‘acceptance’ to the offer. resulting into an agreement. However. dr a contract because one person cannot enter into a contract with sm 24 au . the essential elements of a contract may be enumerated Minimum two parties – At least two parties are necessary to form himself. performance and enforceability of contracts and the rules relating to certain special types of contracts such as indemnity. one party has to make an offer ad the other must accept it. To form a contract. 1872. Both ‘offer’ 3.i n Contract Act. insurance.

an agreement to make a 25 ww w. it cannot be enforced. are not Certainty and Possibility of performance – The terms of a contract must not be vague or uncertain. 6. or must not imply injury to the person or property of another. 8. present or future.i n . Consideration may be past. The terms of a contract must be such as are capable of performance. Consent is said to be free unless it is induced by coercion. not a contract. of sound mind and not disqualified from contracting by any law to which they are subject. dr sm au . Consent means that the parties must agree about the subject-matter of the agreement in the same sense and at the same time. is not enforceable and is. cannot. 5. but it must be ‘lawful’. that is. lunatic.. Lawful Object – The object of an agreement must not be fraudulent or illegal or immoral or opposed to public policy or must not imply injury to the person or property of another. undue influence. For example. If an agreement is vague and its meaning cannot be ascertained. 10. thus. that is. except for some special cases. Not Expressly Declared Void – An agreement expressly declared to be void under sections 24 to 30 of the Act or under any other law. a contract may be oral or in writing. enter into a valid contract Free consent – All the parties give their free consent. However. certain contracts are required to be in writing and may even require registration. 7. Thus. that is of the age of majority (over 18 years). a minor. consideration. An agreement to do an impossible act is void and not enforceable at law. an enforceable. Competent Parties – The parties to a contract must be competent. For instance.something. misrepresentation or mistake. fraud. idiot drunkard. to form a valid contract. it must not be illegal or fraudulent or immoral or opposed to public policy. 9. etc. agreement in restraint of trade or wagering agreements. an agreement to a pay a time – barred debt must be in writing. Legal Formalities – Generally.

A proposal when accepted becomes a promise. these additional formalities must be complied with. or promises to do or abstain from doing. 2. with a view he is said to make a proposal. acceptance is the manifestation by the offeree of his assent to the terms of the offer. to obtaining the assent of that other to such act or abstinence. the promise or any other person has done or abstained from doing. person conveys to another his proposal. Offer or Proposal – When one person signifies to another his willingness to do or to abstain from doing anything. dr sm . 5. au .e. a duty enforceable by law. In such cases. or does or abstains from doing. IMPORTANT CONDITIONS OF CONTRACTS CONNECTED WITH CONTRACTUAL PROBLEMS their rights and obligations under the contract. is an agreement. Consideration – When at the desire of the promisor. In other words. the proposal is said to be accepted. Acceptance – When the person to whom the proposal is made signifies his assent thereto. to create a legal obligation i.gift must be in writing and registered. 6. something. 4. ww The members of the construction team should be fully aware of they should be w. Agreement – Every promise and every set of promises. forming the consideration for each other. Consent – Two or more persons are said to consent when they agree upon the same thing in the same sense.i n 26 When one In other words. a contract is an agreement made with an intention 3. the proposal is said to be accepted. and that other person assents thereto. Contract – An agreement enforceable by law is a contract. such act or abstinence or promise is called a consideration for the promise. DEFINITION OF TERMS CONNECTED WITH CONTRACTUAL PROBLEMS 1.

week etc) depending upon the nature and scope of work. ww Penalty: part of the contractor before granting suitable extension of time. month. Penalty e. poor quality or work.thoroughly conversant with the precise provisions and true importance of each clause in the contract agreement. Force of nature and natural disasters Time of Completion: the work within the agreed time of completion which is specified in a suitable unit of time (year. Delay and extension of time. a. Compensation for delay in completion of work: attributed to him in completion of work. Time of completion. for seeking extension of time. au . bad workmanship etc. Price escalation d. b. j. Debitable agency g. delay in completion. within the time specified in the contract. Valuation of variations h. The contractor is liable to pay compensation to the owner for delay The amount of w. Liquidated damages. It is a fine imposed on the contractor for nonfulfillment of his contractual obligations such as failure to maintain required progress of work. f. Settlement of disputes i. dr sm 27 k. Following are in important conditions of contract: a. b. Termination of contract The Contractor is required to complete required to maintain a proportionate progress of work. Compensation for delay in completion of work.i n The contractor is also . attributed to the contractor should be brought to the notice of d. Delay and Extension Time: Delay in completion of work not the owner by the contractor in writing. The owner will satisfy himself that the delay is not on account of a lapse on the c. c.

In the event of w. fire etc.compensation may be stated as a percentage of the estimated cost of work for each unit of time delay. are beyond the control of the contractor and may lead to financial and time loss. au . The maximum limit of compensation may be 10% of the contract price. contractor to fulfill the contractual obligations of the main dr sm 28 variation in individual items of work should not be more than 25% and variation in total cost should not exceed 10%. such as unprecedented floods / rainfall. g. disputes amicably between the owner and the contractor through mutual discussions and negotiations. Valuation of Variations: The valuation of variations is based on change orders issued in writing by the owner. the . The expenses incurred are charged from the bill or security of the original contractor. it becomes necessary to appoint a debitable agency which works at the cost and risk of the contractor. This agency is in the form of labour or other contractor.i n Generally. civil commotion. Forces of Nature and Natural Disasters: Natural disasters are acts of nature. Liquidated Damages: It is a fixed stipulated sum payable by the contractor on account of penalty for delays and does not bear any relationship to the real damage to the owner. The contractor should obtain an insurance policy for such risks as can be covered by insurance. typhoons. h. specified in the contract for completing the work. These disasters along with occurrence of riots. revolt etc. e. Settlement of Disputes: Efforts should be made to resolve ww resolved through mutual discussions and negotiations. f. Arbitration clause may be incorporated in the contract to settle disputes not i. earthquake. It is generally high and fixed per day for excess period over the Debitable Agency: Whenever the contractor fails to fulfil his contractual obligation in respect of progress or quality of work even after giving due notice by the owner. hurricanes.

labour wages and material prices may increase as a result of inflation. as fixed under any law.i n 30% of contract price 65% of contract price 5% of contract price . W Y = = L1o = dr W x Y / 100 x (L1 – L1o) / Llo Variation in labour cost i. j. Price Escalation: During execution of the work. The contract conditions should therefore.e. as fixed under any law statutory rule or order as applicable on the 29 sm The Central Public Works Development (CPWD) adopt the au . the contractor can claim financial compensation from the owner for risks which are not insurable and an extension of time for all such risks. statutory rule or order as on the last date on which tenders for the work were to be received. increase or decrease in the amount in rupees to be paid or recovered. Generally. oil and lubricants (POL) and the percentage of three components are taken as under: Labour Materials POL following formulae for computing escalation. Value of work done Component of labour expressed as percent of the total value of work (30%) Minimum daily wage in rupees of an unskilled adult male mazdoor. escalation payments is made for increase in the cost of labour materials and petrol. (i) The compensation for escalation for labour is worked out as per the formula given below: V V = = w. include on appropriate clause for payment of escalation to the contractor.financial or time loss. ww L1 = Minimum wage in rupees of an unskilled adult male mazdoor.

respectively.e. oil and lubricants) as published weekly by the Economic Advisor to Govt.last day of the quarter previous to one during which the escalation is being paid. increase or decrease in the amount in rupees to be paid or recovered. W = total FI&FIo= dr . of au . oil and lubricant i. increase or decrease in rupees to be paid or recovered. W X MI MIo = = = = Component Cost of work done. Ministry of Industry for the ww w.e. power. (ii) The compensation for escalation for materials is worked VM VM = = W x X / 100 x (M1 – M1o) / Mlo out as per the formula given below: Variation in material cost i. Industry and under sm period consideration. of India. of India.i n materials Ministry for of the 30 expressed as percent of the total value of work (65%) All India whole sale index for commodities as Published by the Economic Advisor to Govt. and that valid at the time of tenders. Component of POL expressed as percent of value of work as indicated under the special conditions of contract (5%) Average index number of wholesale price of group (fuel. (iii) The compensation for escalation for POL is worked out as per formula given below: VF VF = = W x Z / 100 x (FI – FIo) / FIo Variation in cost of fuel. Commerce.

for which the owner may rescind the contract and impose penalty upto 10% of the estimated cost of work. Delay in the completion of the work. machineries and the rent for the Availability of drawing and other specifications. Measurements of the works. He must ensure safety of materials. 6. respectively. The compensation for escalation is normally worked out at quarterly intervals with respect to the cost of work executed during that period. 3.i n The owner can terminate the . w. failure to maintain required progress. Supply of stores. 4. k. 2. Termination of Contract: contract in the event of default or bankruptcy of the contractor and may impose penalty as per the contract agreement. 5. dr sm 31 au . and that valid at the time of receipt of tenders. men and machinery on the site and should guard against accidents either to the workers or to the local people. (4) CONSTRUCTION LITIGATION Disputes may arise between the contractor and the owner due to the following reasons. Default on the part of the contractor includes abandoning the work. Substandard work or defective work. 8. Extra works carried out without contract agreement. machineries. 7. Recovery. 9. The Contractor has the following responsibilities: ww 10. Due notice must be served on the contractor before termination of the contract. Payment to the contractor through running bills. Supply of materials from the owner to the contractor. Handling all the site to the contractor. 1. non-observance of rues / instructions etc.period under reckoning. 1.

dr sm . Jurisdiction of Courts The courts of the place from where the tender acceptance letter has been issued shall have the jurisdiction to decide any dispute arising out of or in respect of the contract. The Indian Arbitration Act was enacted in 1940 and provides a. defective work or excess consumption of materials etc. He must make proper entry of the materials received from the owner. When there is a failure in the responsibilities of the contractor as well as in the responsibilities of the owner. ARBITRATION AND LEGAL REQUIREMENTS INDIAN ARBITRATION ACT 1940 Disputes may arise between the contractor and the owner because of several factors such as recovery on account of alleged delays. He must complete the work within the agreed time. through arbitration. Arbitration without intervention of a court: The owner and the contractor enter into an arbitration agreement in for arbitration in the following three cases: the contract permits. He must ensure the quality of materials which he is receiving from the owner. dispute arises and this may in turn lead to litigations.2. He must ensure quality of the work as required by the owner. 3. The disputes can be settled through litigation in a court of law or. 4. 5. Arbitration is the process ww w. 6. where of hearing and determination of a dispute by an impartial referee selected or agreed upon by the parties concerned.i n make proper of change 32 entry of the or specification deviation from the sanctioned estimate or drawings. The contractor should instructions regarding au .

final and can only be of the arbitrator. The arbitrator is also not bound under the Act to state reasons in support of the award given by him. both parties may agree to settlement of the dispute through arbitration in terms of the Act. The Indian Arbitration Act 1940 does not control the conduct of the owner and the contractor in deciding the form of the be adopted by the arbitrator for conducting the proceedings. ww of litigation in the courts are as under: Cost: arbitration is less expensive than litigation. therefore.i n The arbitrator thus enjoys flexibility in the procedure leading to The Act does not provide for interference with the award given by the arbitrator. arbitration agreement. Convenience: arbitration hearings are fixed considering the convenience of the concerned parties. dr . b. Speed: disputes are settled much faster (usually within 4 w. The dispute is settled through arbitration according to the Act. Arbitration in Lawsuits: When a dispute is the subject matter of a lawsuit pending in a court. expeditious settlement of disputes. c. The Act does not prescribe the procedure to sm 33 au . the court’s intervention is sought for settlement of the dispute. challenged in a court of law on questions of law and / or misconduct Advantages of Arbitration The advantages of settling disputes through arbitration instead months) through arbitration as compared to lawsuit in the courts. The award is.advance or after the dispute has arisen. Arbitration with Intervention: When the owner and the contractor having entered into an arbitration agreement are unable to proceed further in terms of the agreement.

The arbitration proceedings will be conducted by the w. Informality: relatively informal arbitration proceedings are conducted in a atmosphere au . not suffer. The parties may agree to the appointment of a single arbitrator or each party may nominate an arbitrator and the two nominated arbitrators may mutually select an umpire. Business interest and reputation of the parties will. Following are the main provisions of the arbitration i. arbitrator(s) in accordance with laid down procedures at mutually convenient dates and places. ii. dr sm . or the breach thereof. Arbitration Clause In view of the advantages of arbitration.Technical Knowledge: both parties have the distinct advantage of appointing arbitrator(s) having technical knowledge and expertise in construction. Finality of Award: the award given by the arbitrator is final. All disputes or claims arising out of or relating to the contract. The parties will mutually agree regarding the sharing of arbitration fees and expenses.i n observing certain 34 minimum prescribed legal formalities. iv. therefore. It can only be challenged on questions of law and / or misconduct or arbitrator(s). Proceedings in Private Premises: Unlike proceedings in courts which are exposed to the general public. ww iii. will be settled through arbitration in accordance with the Indian Arbitration Act. most of the construction contracts incorporate a suitable arbitration clause in the agreement. clause. arbitration proceedings are held in private premises. 1940.

the contractor undertakes to carry out the work on an item rate basis. vi. dr sm 35 The main types of contracts for execution of civil engineering au .i n . Such contracts are commonly used for all types of civil engineering works financed by government / public bodies. item rate contract. In these contracts. A contract is reached when the offer or proposal made by the contractor is accepted by the owner. cost plus fixed fee contract. The elements of a contract consist of offer. cost plus percentage of cost contract and special contracts. Such contracts are not suitable for difficult foundations and works susceptible to unpredictable hazards contracts. In a lump sum contract. Such contracts are more suitable for works for which contractors have prior construction experience and details of the work involved are clearly known. lump sum and schedule contract. Item rate contracts are also known as schedule ww w. consideration and acceptance. matter will be referred to the umpire and his decision will be final. the contractor offers to do the whole work for a total stipulated sum of money and individual rates are not quoted for the various items of work. In engineering contracts. Turn key contracts are special contracts in which all works pertaining to various disciplines such as and variations. The arbitration award will be final and binding upon both parties.v. the contractor offers to execute the work for a monetary consideration on certain terms and conditions. In the event of a difference of opinion between the two arbitrators concerning the award. works include lump sum contract. Contents in Nutshell Construction contracts are formalized in the form of a written document which defines clearly the rights and obligations of each party. Payment is made on the basis of measurements of items of work actually executed.

Disputes may arise between the contractor and owner during the execution of work because of several factors. The award given by the arbitrator is final and binding on both parties. force measure. mechanical engineering etc. are in the hands of a single contractor called the main contractor. compensation for delay in of variation. price escalation and termination of contract. Settlement of disputes through arbitration has many advantages such as less cost. Specifications directly affect the cost of the work. generally included in the contract agreement. therefore. valuation au . convenience and informality of proceedings etc. Important conditions of contract include time of completion. content page.civil. It can only be challenged in a court of law on questions of law and / or misconduct of the arbitrator. settlement of disputes. The escalation may occur due to increase in labour wages. delay and extension of time. speedy settlement. 36 payment for escalation on labour. materials and POL is usually ww contract permits. Arbitration is the process of w. schedule of issue of materials. through arbitration. Specifications are statements which describe the nature and class of work. These disputes can be settled either through litigation in a court of law or where the hearing and settlement of a dispute by an impartial referee selected and agreed upon by the parties concerned. as a result of inflation. specifications (general and detailed) and conditions of contract. dr sm completion of work. material prices etc. quality of workmanship etc. tender form. The contract document consists of the contract agreement (on non-judicial stamp paper of prescribed value) and cover or title page. drawings.i n . electrical. determined by standard formulae. debitable agency. labour to be deployed methods of work. price An appropriate clause is. During execution of work. NIT. materials to be used. liquidated damages. penalty.

Tea. Capital Gains Selling Mortgaging Collateral Security Auctioning 37 ww w. PRICE AND VALUE Cost : Price : It is the cost of a Commodity plus additional reward to the producer for his labour and Capital. . Value:               Purchasing for Investment Purchasing for self Occupation Revision of Capitals Interim Reports of Execution of Buildings or other structures. Wealth Tax Gift Tax. depreciation. obsolescence etc. Valuation is an opinion or an estimate which will be determined by many factors like the purpose. In our construction Industry cost means the original cost of the construction including the cost of materials and labour.i n It is the expenditure to produce a commodity having a value. date and purpose. In our construction industry the original cost of construction with certain percentage of profit. The profit or additional reward may be varied from Builder to Builder. and Business to Business because the Price is a POLICY. supply. Rubber plantations. Shares. Valuation is a function of place.PRINCIPLES OF VALUATION DEFINITION OF COST. Forest Mines and Quarries Stocks. Hence the cost is a FACT. Compensation for land Acquisition Present Value of Old Properties Arbitration Assessing property Tax Income Tax. Debentures Plant & Machinery Jewellery Works of Arts & Craft sm DIFFERENT KINDS OF PROPERTIES au . demand. PURPOSE OF VALUATION dr          Land and Building Agricultural lands Coffee.

au . 6. From Assessment year 1993-94 there is no Wealth Tax Liability on unlimited value of Wealth in the form of shares in the company as these assets are outside the purview of Wealth Tax. 3.     Insurance Court fee stamp Partitions Stamp Duty Rent Fixation.i n . 5. 1. TAXATION a) Income Tax There is no Income Tax an Capital Gains Tax liability on b) Wealth Tax Now. ww taxed. w. 1. dr Societies. 2.. political parties. specified mutual fund and sm 38 business enterprise consequent to revaluation of assets. For the very first time from assessment year 1993-94 agricultural land and farm houses are going to be taxed. wealth Tax is payable by all the assessee except Co-op. Similarly surplus land/unbuilt areas of factory would also be To avoid excess payment of wealth tax and/or recovery it is desirable to get valuation done of agricultural land and farm houses as well as vacant land and surplus land with specific regulations governing those properties. non profit objective institution. each category is discussed in detail. etc. 4. All the above purpose of valuation has been divided into six major categories. etc. social club. Taxation Finance Industrialist Statute Personal planning Social Responsibilities.

As such any dissolving partnership firm should go in for a . thus capital gain shall be on a different principal and as such a valuers report as on 1st April 1981 has become absolutely as on 1st April 1981 which is referred as Indexed Cost of dr sm essential 39 au . d) Capital Gain The New Section 48 of Finance Act 1992 has given a different set of rules to work out Capital gain after ascertaining market value Acquisition similarly indexed Cost of Improvement in property is to be considered. penalties and prosecution. it is desirable to take advantage of valuers report more particularly so whenever assets are inherited. ww w. f) Rent vis-à-vis depreciation Depreciation is not available on the cost of land and as such as a part of tax planning normally land is purchased by one assessee and is given on rent to another assessee.c) Gift Tax To avoid wrong computation of gifts made it is desirable to have a valuers report.i n for properties purchased or inherited prior to 1981. It would help to avoid payment of excess tax. Whenever a will is made life interest are created in it. There is always a difference of opinion as to how much rent is to be paid and as such it is desirable to have an expert valuers report on rent to be paid to substantiate your claim. This is very important whenever movable/immovable properties are transferred to relatives and it is likely to attract provision of deemed gift. As part of tax planning. valuers report on the day of dissolution and valuation should be done preferably by a registered valuer empanelled with Income Tax Department. e) Partnership dissolution.

Amhedabad. w. 10 lacs together with plant. It is mandatory to have valuation done form a government approved valuer. Income Tax Acquisition. h) Reassessment unjustified Under the provision of “Reassessment in Income Tax Law”. Delhi. After some time during investigation in other case it was felt that reassessment is necessary because probable agreement value was not the fair was unjustified. dr sm 40 au . i) Transfer of Property market value. if market value of jewellery exceeds Rupees five lacs. etc. has given a directive that Transferor and Transferee should be served a show cause notice to give natural justice to avoid violation of article 14 of the constitution.. Calcutta. machinery. it is desirable to have separate valuation for separate jewellery for each family member. Then it is obligatory to the transferor and transferee to obtain permission under section 269 of Income Tax Department. in any of the cities viz.” However. Under Chapter XXC i. Mumbai. exceeding Rs.e. A residential house was purchased and along with the return of income tax a valuers report was enclosed.g) Seizure of Jewellery To avoid seizure of jewellery at the time of income tax raids. Lucknow. in the above referred case reassessment If you are buying or selling immovable property.i n . fixtures or other things including rights therein like membership of Co-op Society etc. Banglore. furniture. however. Supreme Court ww has given a decision with special reference to “encumbrances and leasors rights etc. Chennai.

It is desirable to substantiate your claim, of correct price with the help of valuers report who is an expert in doing necessary valuation.

a) Purchase, sale, take over, merger

Whenever you are purchasing or selling or going in for amalgamation or taking over of a company you may need financial assistance from the bank or otherwise also to avoid addition of unexplained investment it is desirable to justify the transaction by obtaining on exhaustive, detailed valuers report. b) Term loan or Cash Credit facility

Books of account are reflecting invariably historic depreciated encumbrances, similarly book value of landed properties also appear to be historic because of inflationary trends which are also free from mortgage can be better utilised to avail either term loan and/or cash credit facilities to make company financially healthy.

c) Bank Guarantee

on many occasion to offer bank guarantee for different purpose and as such it is desirable to revalue the assets and incorporate them in the books of account to reflect high net worth of the

d) Window dressing International accounting standard expects to reflect true value of assets in the books of account as a fair business practise which would help share holders of company, vendors of company,

ww

company person soliciting bank guarantee. Revalued assets can be offered as co-lateral security to financial institution for offering bank guarantee.

w.

Industrialist, business man, contractor, individual are required

dr

sm
41

value of machinery and plant, however, which are free from

au .i n

2) FINANCE

bankers of company to know soundness of company and as such revaluation of assets at a regular interval of three to five years is strongly recommended.

Now that we are approaching free economy and rupee is partially convertible till the time market are settled and our finance position improves effect of devaluation of rupee cannot be ignored more particularly so wherever imported machines were procured prior to devaluation and are installed and where technology has not become obsolute it is desirable to get these machines revalued and bring it to the books of account. f) New issues

is desirous to go in for public to raise capital, it would be in fitness of the thing to revalue assets prior to launching new issue, thereby increasing intrinsic value of shares. In fact this would help in fixation of higher premium amount charged by promoters attempting to bring public issue. g) Advance against works contract undertaking, advance is given to contractor as he is expected to deploy some machinery for execution of said works. For claiming such advance a valuer report is solicited. In fact machinery

h) Incentives While shifting an industry to backward area or no industry zone certain percentage of old machinery is allowed to be shifted

ww

deployed need not be new, advance is also given against deployment of old machinery, however, quantum of advance may be different for procurement of new machinery and deployment of old machines.

w.

In some tenders floated by government departments, public

dr

sm
42

An existing company when intending to go in for expansion and

au .i n

e) Devaluation of rupee

without loss of incentives, however, agency who are offering these incentives have incorporated a condition that value of such machines should not exceed permissible percentage of total capital employed in the industry. In order to substantiate our incentive claim, it is desirable to support it by valuers report. i) Security deposit for Electric Company

Due to inflation, cost of input for generation of electricity and the increase in government duty and cost of overhead, ultimately increases electricity charges. All electric supply companies are taking security deposit approximately equivalent to three months consumption.

Impact of this deposit is very much felt by heavy power continuous process industry etc., etc. In one typical case an industry has succeeded in offering alternative to security deposit. In fact second charge was created as assets were already mortgaged to the bank and liability of the bank was less than actual market value of assets.
INDUSTRIALIST

a) Foreign Collaboration If one is making an attempt to have foreign collaboration. As part of pre-planning/ preparation it is desirable that assets are revalued and incorporated in the books of account to give better impression of the company.

b) Custom Duty If a second hand machine is imported the invoice value is disputed by custom authority as they are interested in getting proper revenue for Government. To claim the correctness of invoice value it would be beneficial to have a valuer report.
43

ww

w.

dr

mortgage of fixed assets by creating a second charge on it, as an

sm

consumers

like

foundaries,

au .i n
heavy engineering

industry,

dr sm 44 au .c) Octroi Local self governments are levying octroi on goods brought into their area.i n . however. Compensation/rent to be paid is to be justified at any given point of time and can have fluctuations also this is more particularly so when effect of devaluation of rupee is noticed and under these circumstances it is desirable. however. valuers empanelled with local self government reports should be obtained in order to make correct payment of octroi. that a valuer is working out the rent that is just and fair as a compensation for hired machine. this levy is based on invoice value and this invoice value is always disputed with a view to increase revenue for local self government. e) Vacating Premises scrap or residual commodities are auctioned only after soliciting Some time it is necessary to delay vacation of premises and such occasion means squaring account of vendor and retrenchment of employee and in all probability closure and winding of unit. f) Rent of machine Whenever an imported machine is installed and is used as a ww hired one. Valuers have come to rescue to delay the eviction. With the advent of free economy in our country it is high time that all the public limited companies also fall in line with it. Percentage of octroi to be levied is incorporated in the rules. Assessing Officers of octroi are not technical persons and have hardly any expertise. w. d) Auction In advance countries share holders are very vigilant and as such limited companies going in for disposal of capital good and its valuer written opinion.

In fact only direct labour cost of fabrication and material is incorporated.g) S. it is desirable to i) Adequate and timely insurance General Insurance business Nationalisation Act 1972 was incorporated making all insurance company as government undertaking with effect from 13th May 1971. commonly referred as sum insured i. insures liability. Insured comes to know of this said fact only when claim is made and it is determined as sub standard. either for over valued or under valued and as such it is absolutely must that exhaustive detailed report is forwarded along with proposal form to insurance company to protect desired insurance interest of the insured.S. h) Where there is no bill Sometime machine are fabricated/tailor made to suit to the requirement of an industry. registration Small scale industries are granted necessary registration based on capital employed in fixed assets.e.I. S. dr sm 45 au .Prior to nationalisation underwriting of insurance was done only after assessing insurable interest.S.I.S.i n . ww above. however.. after nationalisation sum insured responsibility is vested with the insurer.I.S.I. Cost of technical know how and probable profit if it is purchased from outside with do valuation of such machine to incorporate them in the books of account. unit. various duties is not included in capital assets. Valuers opinion is attached as a document to justify that capital employed does not exceed permissible limit. registration to S. registered units have certain advantages from various authorities and as such it is very important to have S. Advanced countries are following the system stated w.

Provisions of said Act are so absurd that it does not discriminate large scale acquisition of land and a small property acquired. if thrown open to market for auction what price it would fetch. dr Even after incorporation amendments . etc. legal and technical. c) Official Liquidator Official Liquidator solicits values report with a view to understand that if company is in liquidation willingly or unwillingly.4) STATUTE a) Stamp duty Under TamilNadu Stamp Duty Act document becomes valid only if necessary stamp is affixed to document prior to its signature and as per Transfer of Property Act. and as such role of a valuer has become inevitable. Now valuation. Government of TamilNadu and other state governments has given directive and has fixed price of land by adopting Book of Rates as to how much should be the value for stamp purpose which invariably is the highest amount and not real transaction value and as such to substantiate one’s claim one is expected to submit valuers report to avoid excess payment of stamp duty. etc.i n public utility necessary and pay compensation as per Land Acquisition Act 1984. ww w. Government acquire sm land for of 46 b) Land Acquisition Act 1984 au . document so executed it to be registered with sub-registrar. is a complex field and has an impact of economy. compensation paid to an unwilling seller is very very low and invariably litigation takes places.

His views are of importance if multi storeyed building is to be offered at a realistic value to members of family. . equipment. Societies Whenever a charity trust or Co-op Society is buying or selling any capital goods.5) PERSONAL PLANNING a) Charity Commissioner and Registrar of Co-op. to the retiring person and as such a proper valuation reports is ww While e) Housing Loan necessary. however. factory and/or property one is required to solicit permission in advance and for that purpose valuation report is also solicited. interest of life is created through will to avoid legal problems at a later date which is invariably supported with valuers report. d) Perks Senior manager or directors of the company are provided with furnished flat including various gadgets with a view to give him an indirect benefit. w. it is desirable to substantiate your claim by providing au . b) Personal Planning through will If property is to be transfered to a particular person. these items cannot be given as it is obtained for debiting net value of these facilities from the amount payable to the retiring person. c) Visas To establish the fact that you have sufficient stake in the an evidence of fair market value of you assets instead of book value.i n report is f) Family partition Property of joint family when subject to partition valuers opinion is obtain to facilitate smoother division. valuation sm 47 country. procuring dr loans for housing.

dr the Register of Registrar’s Office and used for the purpose of sm Market Value: It is defined as the sum the property will fetch if au . Disposal Value: It is defined as the Value that can be realised if the assets were to be removed from the foundation and sold as separate stand alone items. 48 w. KINDS OF VALUES AND DEFINITIONS it is sold in the open market.i n 6) SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES . Book Value: It shows the original investment of a Company on its assets. etc. Salvage Value: Value of Machinery realised on sales when its ww useful span of life is over but still it has not become useless. Scrap Value: It is also called as Junk Value or Breakup Value of Demolition Value.g) Divorce Settlement In typical case of divorce if a property is good and sufficient it is invariably valued before divorce settlement is made. including properties and machinery less depreciation for the period passed. when a member of parliament may take services of expert valuers team to know actual investment incurred on Road Works. It will represent the value of old materials in a building less cost of demolition. a) It is time now. within a very short period and raise question in parliament budget session to the concerning minister and play important role in future development of the country. Guideline Value : It is the value of the land which is recorded in determining the Stamp Duty at the time of Registration of the Documents. Tube wells/ Irrigation / Housing / Public Sector undertaking etc.

Sentimental Value: The extra price which is demanded by a Vendor when he attaches certain sentiments to his property is known as Sentimental Value having no relation with the Market Fancy Value: It is also called as Desired Value. The fancy price demanded by the Vendor for the remaining plots is known as Monopoly Value. Distress Value: If a property is sold at a lower price than that which can be obtained for it in an open Market. au . start yielding an income in future. etc. Normally the Building is insured for the superstructure alone (not for the foundation). Land Locked Land Sentimental reasons Nuisance. ww Value. Monopoly Value: In a developed Colony. Floods.. it is said to have “Distress Value”. Potential Value: It is an inherent value which may go on increasing due to passage of time or some other factor which will fetch more return. the price paid is known as Speculative Value.i n Earning Value: It is the present value of a property which will . he is prepared 49 w. the value of the plot dr Speculative Value: When the property is purchased so as to sell sm Financial crisis for the Vendor Panic due to War. It may be due to:* * * * * the same at a profit after some duration.Insurance Value: It is the value of the Building for which the building is insured. If the Purchaser wants to have a property somehow since the procurement is an absolute necessity for him due to various reasons. goes on increasing when number of the available plots goes on decreasing. Riots Earthquake.

Use Value. Condemnation Value. etc. It is also called as Reproduction Value or Reinstatement Value. dr sm 50 au . Face Value. Future Value.. lack of maintenance. Cash Value. Utility Value. The other Values are Liquidation Value. Appraisal Value. ww Sale Value. Loss Value. Mortgage loan Value. He attaches a special desire over the said property. Capital Value. Economic Value. deterioration. depths etc and number of purchasers for this property is less.. This is called Accommodation Value. Cost Value. Tax Value. wear and tear etc. Present Value: It is replacement value less depreciation value. Depreciation Value: It is the reduction of Value of the Property due to age. Warranted Value. These strips could be sold only to the adjacent land owners who may be offering only a low value. Forced Sale value. decay. Commercial Value. Depreciation Value depends upon the age and its future life. etc. Exchange Value. Going Concern Value. The extra sum he is prepared to pay is called Fancy Value. obsolescence.to pay more sum when compared with others. Written Down Value. Investment Value. Intrinsic Value. w. Rental Value. developed independently due to their restricted lengths. True Value. Replacement Value: Replacement Value is the cost of reproduction of a similar Building with similar specifications at the current Market Price on the date of Valuation.i n Accommodation Value: Small strips or lands cannot be .

Journals of Institution of valuers – New Delhi ww 51 w. 6. dr sm Rao. Valuation – Revaluation a New Vista Its Impact on Finance Practice of Immovable 3. Everyone’s Concern.H. II. . Kanagasabapathy. Shrikanth Vasanth Joglekar. Kanagasabapathy. Gopinath Properties 4. III. 5. References: 1. B.Practical Valuation Volume I. etc. N.FACTORS AFFECTING THE VALUE IN GENERAL * * * * * * * Supply and Demand Cost of reproduction Occupational value Town Planning Act Rent Control Act Urban Land Ceiling Act Any abnormal conditions like War. Fair Rent Manual B. Estimating and costing. Mumbai Publications 1993-94.i n . B. Dutta. Riots. Valuation au . 2. C.

The sinking fund may also be required for payment of loan.05).. The cost of land is not taken into account in calculating Sinking fund as land remains intact. The object of creating sinking fund is to accumulate sufficient money to meet the cost of construction or replacement of the building or structure after its utility period. The amount thus set aside is also known as Annuity payment. dr sm au . w. The amount which will be set aside may also be paid directly to lender by way of annual instalment. found out by the formula.i n 52 . If a property is owned or constructed by taking loan a sinking fund may be created by setting aside a sum of money annually to the end of the term of loan.Sinking Fund: The fund which is gradually accumulated by way of periodic on annual deposit for the replacement of the building or structure at the end of its useful life. The calculation of sinking fund depends on the life of the building and scrap value of the building for the cost of old materials. i = rate of interest (e. The sinking fund is created by regular annual or periodic deposits in compound interest bearing investment. The sinking fund may be created by taking a sinking fund policy with an insurance company or by depositing in bank to collect highest compound interest. I= The amount of annual instalment of the Sinking fund may be accumulate with compound interest in order to repay the debt at ww number of in decimal Si . where S = total amount of Sinking fund to be accumulated. (1  i) n 1. nyears required to accumulate the Sinking fund. is termed as sinking fund. 5% = 0.g. and I = annual instalment required. which will form the amount of replacement at the end of the utility period of the property.

= Rs. sm 27000 x 0.336 = Rs.2. = 2500 x 0. I = ww 907.1. work out the amount of annual instalment of Sinking fund required to be deposited to accumulate the whole amount of 4% compound interest.00. 907.04)15 1. Example 2: An old building has been purchased by a person at a cost of Rs.excluding the cost of the land. 90 = Rs.i n I = Si (1  i) n 1.000/.2.0 Example 1: A pumping set with a mortar has been installed in a building at a cost of Rs. 2.1. 2. 27. The annual Sinking fund.20 53 .500. au .annually in 4% compound interest carrying investment for 15 years to accumulate Rs. The total amount of Sinking Fund to be accumulated at the end of 20 years. (1  0. Depreciation: Depreciation is the gradual exhaustion of the usefulness of a property.04) 20 1. 2.04 Si = = n (1  i) 1. Assuming the life of the pump as 15 years. 2. Annual Instalment of Sinking fund. = 2500 x 0. The owner is to deposit Rs.30. Calculate the amount of annual Sinking fund at 4% interest assuming the future life of the building as 20 years and the scrap value of the building as 10% of the cost of purchase. S = 30000 x w.500/-. This may be defined as the decrease or loss in the value of a property due to structural deterioration use.00 100 27000 x 0.000.04 (1  0.1.20 dr Annual Instalment for Sinking fund required for 20 years = Rs.05 125. 125/.

. The amount of depreciation being known. it is necessary to decide the economic or effective life of the property. a. The factors that cause depreciation are: * * * * * * * * * * 2. sm au . the percentage rate of depreciation is less at the beginning and gradually increase during later years. and a certain percentage of the total cost may be allowed as depreciation to determine its present value. Method of calculating depreciation: ww (1) (2) (3) (4) Straight line Method Constant percentage method Sinking fund method and Quantity survey method.b. 2. wear and tear.i n 54 . etc. so that at the end of the utility period only the scrap value is left. Usually a percentage on depreciation per annum is allowed. w. cold. wind etc. The value of a building or structure will be gradually reduced due to its use. A fixed amount of the original cost is deducted every year. lightning etc. In all these methods. Usually. Straight line method: In this method it is assumed that the property loses its value by the same amount every year.3. 2.2. The various methods of calculating depreciation are as follows: dr Wear and tear Fall in market value Accidents like fall of a tree Obsolescence Decay Changes in demands Changes in Arts and fashion Calamity like flood. Structural deterioration..life wear and tear. life. The general annual decrease in the value of a property is known as Annual depreciation. decay and obsolescence. Actions of elements of Nature like heat. the present value of a property can be calculated after deducting the total amount of depreciation from the original cost.2.

000 Rs. 40. it is contrast with the straight line method wherein the quantum of the w. 55 Original  Scrap Cost Value C  S = Lifein year n Linear Method: (or Constant Percentage Method or Written Down Value Method or Declining Balance Method): ww In this method. Value after 60 years = 400000 – 360000 (which is the salvage value assumed) = Rs.life of the property in years D – annual depreciation. 4.00.00. Thus the quantum of depreciation in this method will go on reducing every year and in this respect. 000 60 years Rs. Example: Cost of New Building Life assumed Annual Depreciation Salvage Value 10% at the end of life 4. 40. Value after 10 years = 400000 – 60000 3. .000 dr Depreciation value after 60 years au . It is assumed the property looses its value by the same amount every year. 3. 60.000  4. But the capital sum or base goes on reducing every year by an amount equal to the depreciation of previous year.The present value minus salvage value is distributed uniformly for its service life. C – Original cost or Replacement Value S – Scrap value or Salvage value n .000 Depd.000 Rs. 6. Annual depreciation D = Where.i n = = = = = = Rs.000 60 sm Depreciation value after 10 years Depd.000 = Rs.60. the depreciation % age remains constant through the life of the building.000 Rs.40.

00.77.00.depreciation remains constant.00. and partly in mud mortar and in which teak wood has been used Buildings built in brick in mud and in which country wood has been used Buildings like police lines which are inferior to class 3 above with brick in mud unplastered walls.140) = Rs.000 (0.26143 x 2 1.0 % per year The depreciation factor for different percentages for various years are given in the following table as a ready reckoner.i n = Rs.01% per year 1.000 = 15 years = 2% = 20.00. Buildings built in lime mortar and in which teak wood has been used throughout Buildings built partly in brick in lime mortar.22.26143 (vide the table also) =0.140 2 15 ) 100 = 20.000 ( 1 = Rs. mud floors and in which country wood has been used w. 14. 5.73857 dr Depreciation value (20. 56 . 4.860 = 26.000 – 14. The depreciated value is calculated by using the formula: Example: Where P=A(1- r )n 100 P = Depreciated value of the Building A = Replacement value of the Building r = rate of depreciation per year n = Age of the Building in Years Example to calculate the depreciated value: Replacement Value of the Building Age of the Building (n) Depreciation assumed Depreciated value Depreciation factor = 1 – 0.000 (0. STANDARD RATE OF DEPRECIATION (AS PER TN PWD) 1.77. ww 3. 2.00.98)15 = 20.73857) = 0. 20.5 % per year 2.0 % per year 4.143% Depreciation Percentage sm au .

11416 0.03960 0.13994 0.18209 0.23098 0.43533 0.30486 0.04901 0.16625 0.30422 0.19927 0.18463 0. dr sm .10039 0.38422 0.03940 0.16587 0.17838 0.05866 0.12248 0.07763 0.33239 0.60894 0.11526 0.01000 0.10466 0.14854 0.12718 0.39654 0.13125 0.11362 0.07840 0.05852 0.50041 0.24855 0.04433 0.15706 0.15311 0.22996 0.08648 0.29068 0.02978 0.22658 0.19027 0.i n 0.02970 0.19070 0.34574 0.26087 0.19837 0.14924 0.20284 0.29363 0.14027 0.62459 0. Years 1% 1½% 2% 4% (age) 0.35883 0.31877 0.27861 0.01990 0.21724 0.22218 0.63960 0.04000 0.21528 0.08669 0.38729 0.53958 0.52040 0.55800 0.31466 0.28287 0.26143 0.36177 0.01500 0.07726 0.07278 0.17383 0.30747 0.37165 0.TABLE: DEPRECIATION BY ADOPTING CONSTANT % AGE METHOD OR LINEAR METHOD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 0.06793 0.16549 0.18293 0.65402 57 ww w.24961 0.13187 0.27195 0.09608 0.05880 0.33517 0.15065 0.41180 0.09562 0.20639 0.47960 0.32494 au .27620 0.20000 0.40860 r n  ) The value of Depreciation: 1  (1  is given in the following 100    tables.45791 0.23818 0.57568 0.21480 0.24636 0.21432 0.59265 0.11389 0.

44536 0.27502 0.31055 0.69390 0.41296 0.87531 0.36454 0.48659 0.81244 0.83407 0.38888 0.34504 0.48573 0.59712 0.46994 0.32427 0.65725 0.62081 0.49686 0.33103 0.37407 0.66786 0.74001 0.81995 0.64311 0.55113 0.66410 0.37012 0.29655 0.30359 0.23766 0. dr sm au .Years (age) 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 1% 0.71790 0.54520 0.65025 0.56450 0.86470 0.47612 0.38271 0.51590 0.42465 0.25283 0.78801 0.62840 0.76998 0.31745 0.i n .57103 2% 0.41079 0.41963 0.28945 0.67740 4% 0.52316 0.85906 0.24528 0.72918 0.43691 0.39271 0.75041 0.68114 0.41883 0.82715 0.57195 0.28227 0.35739 0.56321 0.53592 0.55430 0.45452 0.33507 0.43040 1½% 0.49344 0.50104 0.43202 0.37647 0.60518 0.40703 0.67082 0.51679 0.58051 0.26030 0.35090 0.79649 0.38346 0.53736 0.44338 0.47789 0.33772 0.80463 0.58890 0.61308 0.87011 0.42043 0.63583 0.77918 0.76040 0.70614 0.88509 0.39500 0.52645 0.40104 0.54429 0.84070 0.50852 0.46187 0.36381 0.53031 0.34434 0.85319 0.35486 0.55786 0.89409 0.45368 0.89833 58 ww w.46543 0.88030 0.50693 0.40182 0.26770 0.88968 0.42834 0.84708 0.

96888 0.71904 0.61988 0.48486 0.81678 0.59619 0.64755 0.80922 0.70245 0.i n .50016 0.78024 0.95686 0.96482 0.47966 0.74685 0.75192 0.71423 0.65804 0.94489 0.80135 0.92360 0.57867 1½% 0.97012 59 ww w.51011 0.68386 0.96623 0.56138 0.66317 0.82044 0.47440 0.92042 0.75688 0.44732 0.63673 0.72741 2% 0.63120 0.61082 0.52466 0.63771 0.74169 0.80532 0.72555 0.94020 0.70840 0.81303 0.96183 0.71476 0.95859 0.55695 0.43609 0.62558 0.53878 0.94259 0.Years (age) 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 1% 0.91710 0.95319 0.44173 0.95506 0.77575 0.57746 0.96024 0.66822 0.92666 0.78463 0.67320 0.93241 0.96336 0.45831 0.94709 0.49001 0.69018 0.50516 0.71995 0.55248 0.70153 0.57441 0.60225 0.51501 0.77117 0.94921 0.68293 0.53412 0.54796 0.70601 0.54339 0.46373 0.46909 0.65283 0.69699 0.90240 0.67810 0.69237 0.91005 0.68769 0.76174 0.56577 0.51986 0.82403 4% 0.95124 0.52941 0.73104 0.72326 0.92959 0.93511 0.96758 0.45284 0.49511 0.58380 0.91365 0.71042 0.79316 0.78894 0.79730 0.61409 0.69637 0.64218 0.59004 0.76651 0.73641 0.90630 0.57011 0. dr sm au .

59527 0.63027 0.75477 0.63396 1½% 0. wear and tear.85622 0.85909 0. etc. and C = total original cost.86738 4% 0.73949 0.97931 0.97357 0.97132 0.76207 0.86191 0. represent interest on the Sinking fund for subsequent years.59118 0.98093 0.74725 0.85029 0.97462 0.84094 0.98243 0.75104 0. Each and every step is based on some au .77939 2% 0.86467 0.84412 0..84723 0.73552 0. worked out.83769 0.98169 0. c.97247 0.82755 0. decay.85328 0.83438 0.61510 0.61895 0.59932 0. then – At the end of 1st year w.73150 0.74340 0.97564 0.98313 (3) Sinking fund method: In this method the depreciation of property is assumed to be equal to the annual sinking fund plus the interest on the fund for that year.i n C–A C – (2A + b) Book value C – (3A + b + c) C – (4A + b + c + d) 60 .58705 0. A A+b A+c A+d Depreciation for the year dr sm A 2A + b Total depreciation 2nd year 3rd year 4th year ww 3A + b + c 4A + b + c + d So on ………… (4) Quantity survey method: In this method the property is studied in detail and loss in value due to life. obsolescence. If A is the annual sinking fund and b.77262 0.58288 0.60729 0.97661 0. d.62276 0.60332 0. etc.61122 0.75845 0.76564 0.83100 0.98014 0.77603 0.. which is supposed to be invested on interest bearing investment.62654 0.97845 0.97755 0.76916 0.Years (age) 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 1% 0.

and this is 61 . dr the capital amount invested by a party. the lesser the number of the years the higher will be the amount and vice versa to clear up to the whole amount of capital. If the amount of annuity is paid for a definite number of periods or years. etc.i n becoming out of date in style. Obsolescence: The value of property or structures become less by its termed as Obsolescence. value will be less. in structure in design. becomes obsolete even if it is maintained in a very good condition. In such cases the amount of annuity will be higher. An old dated building with massive walls. though it may be in good running condition and its may become functionally inadequate and its economical return becomes less. The obsolescence may be due to the reasons such as progress in arts. though the property is physically sound. etc. A machine of old design may become obsolete. changes in fashions. new inventions. usually for a specified number of years. it Annuity: Annuity is the annual periodic payments for repayments of either paid at the end of the year or at the beginning of the year. Only experienced valuer can work out the amount of depreciation and present value of a property by this method.. it is known as Annuity certain. changes in planning ideas. and its values becomes less due to obsolescence. Thus.logical ground without any fixed percentage of the cost of the property. it is known as Annuity due. These annual payments are sm au . this is known as Deffered Annuity. ww w. If the payment of annuity begins at some future date after a number of years.. arrangements of rooms not suited in present days and for similar reasons. improvements in design technique. If the amount of annuity is paid at the beginning of each period of year and payments continued for definite number of periods.

the amount of annuity may be paid by twelve monthly instalments or quarterly or half-yearly instalments.) Residential Year Framed GF 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 975 118 0 136 0 143 0 163 0 166 0 169 5 176 5 201 0 221 0 247 5 272 0 292 5 322 0 FF 885 1070 1230 1290 1470 1500 1530 1590 1815 1995 2255 2460 2645 2910 Load bearing GF FF 380 430 575 690 775 940 360 400 500 600 675 820 Non-Residential Framed GF Hospital Load bearing GF FF 450 500 600 690 795 960 1055 1110 1265 1340 1380 1465 1685 1855 2135 2350 2560 2815 430 470 525 600 690 830 915 960 1095 1160 1195 1265 1455 1600 1840 2030 2215 2435 Load bearing GF FF Framed FF 700 845 980 1165 1260 1345 1545 1605 1660 1725 2000 2200 2530 2780 3030 3335 sm 700 805 630 725 925 835 1090 985 1085 1140 1300 1340 1365 1420 1650 1815 2035 2240 2440 2685 1200 1260 1435 1480 1510 1570 1820 2000 2240 2470 2690 2690 dr 900 945 1070 1125 1150 1220 1390 1530 1715 1890 2080 2290 1035 1085 1225 1285 1310 1390 1585 1745 1955 2150 2365 2600 w.If the payments of annuity continue for indefinite period. PWD. TECHNICAL DATA PLINTH AREA RATES FOR BUILDINGS Prescribed By Chief Engineer. RATES FOR MOFUSSIL AREA (Amount in rupees per square metre of plinth area. ww au . Though annuity means annual payment. it is known as Perpetual Annuity. Tamilnadu 1.i n FF GF 400 525 630 725 875 960 1010 1130 1185 1210 1270 1475 1625 1820 2000 2220 2440 370 450 540 625 755 830 870 975 1025 1045 1095 1270 1395 1565 1720 1910 2100 780 935 1075 1280 1410 1480 1700 1770 1830 1905 2210 2430 2795 3080 3355 3960 62 .

dr 1000 1050 1185 1245 1290 1340 1530 1760 2025 2230 2340 2575 63 .Amount in rupees per square metre of plinth area. Year Residential Framed GF 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1010 1212 1390 1460 1695 1730 1765 1825 2080 2495 2870 3160 3285 3615 Non-Residential Framed GF - au .i n Load bearing FF - Hospital Load bearing GF 500 560 675 745 850 980 1175 1235 1410 1495 1545 1605 1830 2105 2420 2660 2795 3075 Load bearing GF 420 480 650 715 820 945 Framed FF 780 935 1080 1210 1450 1525 1770 1840 1905 1945 2255 2705 3110 3420 3675 4045 FF 925 1110 1275 1340 1555 1585 1615 1670 1905 2285 2630 2900 3015 3315 FF 400 450 575 630 725 835 GF - FF - GF - FF 480 530 600 660 750 865 1040 1095 1250 1325 1370 1425 1625 1870 2150 2370 2490 2740 sm 770 850 980 700 770 890 1030 1240 1300 1495 1540 1570 1610 1870 2245 2580 2840 2910 3310 1135 1360 1430 1645 1695 1730 1775 2060 2470 2840 3130 3320 3650 450 600 690 790 900 1080 1135 1270 1335 1380 1435 1650 1990 2185 2410 2555 2810 420 525 600 690 785 940 985 1105 1160 1200 1250 1440 1655 1905 2100 2225 2450 850 1020 1175 1315 1580 1660 1925 2000 2070 2110 2450 2940 3380 3720 4000 4400 1135 1190 1345 1415 1465 1525 1740 2000 2300 2530 2655 2920 ww w.Residential Year Framed GF 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 99-2000 370 5 407 5 449 0 485 0 FF 3345 3680 4050 4370 Load bearing GF FF 3095 3405 3750 4050 2725 3000 3300 3560 Non-Residential Framed GF 3405 3745 4120 4450 FF 3090 3420 3740 4040 Load bearing GF FF 2805 3085 3400 3670 2415 2655 2920 3150 Hospital Framed GF 4060 4465 4910 5300 FF 3670 4035 4440 4800 Load bearing GF FF 3095 3405 3750 4050 2680 2950 3250 3510 2. RATES FOR CHENNAI CITY.

dr sm 64 au .1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 99-2000 4155 4570 5030 5640 3810 4190 4610 5170 3385 3725 4170 4590 2985 3285 3680 4050 4200 4620 5080 5590 3805 4185 4600 5060 3320 3555 4040 4450 2820 3100 3520 3870 5060 5565 6120 6730 4650 5115 5630 6200 3535 3890 4360 4800 3150 3465 3880 4270 ww w.i n .

Plinth Area Rates ww w. N. Gopinath Rao.5% EXTRA: External Water supply – 7. sanitary arrangements at 7.5% and internal electrifications at 10%. sanitary arrangements at 7. Estimating and costing. EXTRA: External Water supply– 7. Valuation Practice of Immovable Properties 3. The rates are inclusive of mosaic in situ works and dadooing with glazed tiles in toilets.D. Hospital The above rates are inclusive of provision for internal water supply at 7. Non – Residential The rates are inclusive of provision for internal water supply at 7. sanitary arrangements at 7. B.5% sm External Water supply 7. Kanagasabapathy. 4.5% – 7. 6.5%.H.Practical Valuation Volume I.5% OR ACTUALS Electrification References: 1.5% and internal electrifications at 15%. . The rates are also inclusive of provision for mosaic flooring.i n EXTRA: – 7. II. dr OR ACTUALS OR ACTUALS 65 .5%.5% and internal electrifications at 10%.W. III.5% – External Sanitary – 7.5%. for their Plinth Area rates Residential The rates are inclusive of provision for internal water supply at 7.SPECIFICATIONS Prescribed by the P.5% – Electrification – External Electrification– 7. Dutta. B. 2. 5. C. Journals of Institution of valuers – New Delhi TNPWD . Mosaic dadooing in wards and dadooing walls with glazed tiles in operation theatres and in toilets.5% External Sanitary External 7.5% External Sanitary au . Kanagasabapathy. Fair Rent Manual B.5% External 7.

Further the open land classified as (1) Urban Land. w. Legal opinions Even though over the above documents a valuer may be the case. ww (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Peruse of title Deeds & Settlements / will deeds Encumbrance Certificates Site plan which is given by the local administration Authority Survey Book Previously approved plans etc…. (2) Agricultural (or) form land The urban land again classified into three categories: Urban land Residential Commercial The market value of the land should be arrived by multiplication of Total Extent of Land or Plot and the unit Rate of the land.VALUATION OF LAND: In the Land Valuation generally Lands are broadly classified into (1) open lands (2) Land with Structures.i n Industrial 66 . physical measurements to be executed in the site while doing valuation. CALCULATION OF EXTENT: The extent is calculated based upon the Documents (or) actuals. The following documents is to be utilized to found the extent dr Land Value = Total Extent x Unit Rate of Land sm au .

This rate is fixed based on the recent transactions and sale instants. transacted in the surrounding or near by areas. do not have any access or approach road is 3) Recess Land: ww called Land located Land. and the rates can be adopted 100% of the unit rate to the entire area of plot or land.. It varies with the shape. This rate is to be arrived from comparable/ recent sale instances. sm au .UNIT RATE: There are two types of the unit rates system’s applied in assessing of Land Valuation (1) Guideline Rate Guideline Rate: the Guideline Rate is the unit rate fixed by the local Registration Dept authorities for the purpose of deciding the stamp Duty for any sale transaction between the Buyer and Seller.i n (2) Prevailing market rate 67 . size. 2) Land locked land: This type of land. Nature etc. It lies between the boundary of the plot and w. dr for all types of plots. Recess Land is a part or portion of the land which has zero frontage on the road. UNIT RATE APPLICATION METHODS: The unit rate application in the valuation of land will not be same DIFFERENT SHAPES OF LANDS OR PLOTS: 1) Regular shaped plots: Usually Rectangular or square in shape. any adjoining owners only purchased. Hence 70 to 75% of unit rate will be adopted. This property will not be used any outsiders. Prevailing Market Rate: This is the rate to be adopted while assessing the present market value.

D 60’ 40’ A ROAD 4) Strips of Land: There are lands where the depth is much more than the width. the value of the land and the value of Building are assessed separately and added to get the present value of the ww * * * * * Land and Building Method Rent Capitalization Method Development Method Profit Method Direct Comparison Method w. While assessing the value of Land. the depth plays vital role.i n 15’ C B 68 . VALUATION OF PROPERTIES Introduction The following the methods of valuation being adopted in General practice by a practicing valuer are: Land Building Method: By this method. Front land has more value and value goes on decreasing as the depth increases. Such types of lands are valued by Belting Method. This is the principle of Belting Method of Valuation of Land. dr sm au . In this method the front land will be adopted 100% unit rate.makes obtuse angle with the line of the Road. The central land will be adopted 65% and the Rear land or end portion will be adopted 50%. The portion BCD is called the Recess land.

Marriage Halls and Public Places. Cinema Theatres. Service Charges. This method is applicable to Hotels. Rental Income (NARI) at an appropriate rate of interest or rate of Net annual rent income equals to Gross Annual Rental Income (GARI) minus outgoings like Property Tax. ii) Part of the profits is due to goodwill which should be properly reflected in the rate of return. maintenance. Observe the specification and other factors which affect the value. Development Method (or Residual Method): This method is used to evaluate such property where there is a development potential. Profit Method: residential Colony or a large complex of multi-storied buildings. This method as the name suggests deals in working the profit from a property and subsequently capitalizing the same at appropriate rate of return depending GENERAL PROCEDURE TO DO THE VALUATION OF BUILDING 1. a large portion of land can be divided into small plots and developed fully so as to provide plots of land for a housing ownership flats in a Co-operative Housing Society. i) The net profit to be adopted should be an average of last three years of profit. so that the value of the property after development will be increased more than the expenditure incurred. Insurance Premium.i n 69 . Rental or Capitilisation Method: Rental method of valuation consists in capitilising the Net Annual capitilisation.property. Depreciation is calculated either by straight line method or applying Linear method. w. Rent Collection and Management Charges etc. Measure the Plinth Area. For example. repairs. ww upon a number of factors. dr sm au .

note down the measurement of the plot and other details. Depreciation % age multiplied by the Replacement value will be the Depreciation Value. w. Depn % = (Age / Total life) x (100 . 6. Ascertain the age of the Building. If the age is not known or if the building has crossed its service life.i n 70 .% Salvage value). Add suitable value separately for services depending upon the actual’s specifications. Value (I) LAND AND BUILDING METHOD: Definition In this method of valuation building portions being valued separately and their added to get the present value of the property: PROCEDURE OF VALUATION: ww * * * Present Value of the Property = Value of the building + Value of the land + Value of the amenities & services. Total life  Future life x (100 . separately after allowing depreciation and the land is valued dr sm This is the value of Building. 4. Estimate suitable total life of the Building. miscellaneous works etc. estimate future life and calculate the depreciation by using the formula. extra works. Assume suitable % age for salvage value. au .% age salvage value) Total life 7. D= 3. Multiply the plinth area by the unit rate to get the replacement value of the building. From the document available. Add suitable depreciated value for other works like Amenities. 8. Present Value = Replacement Value – Depn. Adopt suitable Replacement Rate of construction (for the Building portion alone) depending upon the existing conditions and specifications.2. 9. Calculate Depreciation by Straight line method. Ascertain from the applicant the exact purpose of valuation. Verify the measurements and the extent at site. 10. 5.

1. 8.* * * * Assess suitable unit rate based upon the prevailing market rate or from the recent comparable sale instances of a similar vacant plot with almost similar characteristics.i n : : this : : 3600 Sqft 1600 Sqft Rs. Valuation is done to assess the market value by adopting land and building method.000/- If the aim of valuation is to assess the market Value Rs. apply the reduction factor to the value of land. Age of G.C Roofed Residential Building of G.00 / Sqft 71 .00. Deduct any percentage towards negative factors.5 Grounds.C.00 / Sqft Rs.F 1600 Sqft & F. Arrive the value of Building by adopting the procedure. I VALUATION OF LAND: Prevailing Market Value Adopted Unit rate in valuation 85% of Rs. Find the market value of the property.F 1000 II. Addition of value of Land and Building will be the present value of the property. 2. 42. Add suitable percentage towards any potential value 3. 500.50 / Sqft Rs. Give valuation report in the appropriate format. * * Analyse any other points depending upon the individual merits of the case. 50.F is 10 years and that of F. Extent of the plot dr    sm An R.000/- Rs. CASE STUDY Example : 1 Sqft is existing in a plot of 1.F is 5 years. 50/- w. BUILDING : (A) GROUND FLOOR Plinth area of Ground floor Replacement Rate of construction Replacement value ww Assessed Value of the plot au . 1.53.

00. 30.000. 400.000) = 10.00 Amenities existing in the building Water Supply arrangements dr  III Others (Depreciated Value) Compound wall 224 RFT @ Rs.400.000.56.68.00 Rs.00 72 au . 83.000.i n Rs.00 / Sqft Rs. 10.00  Rs.000. Deposit & Miscellaneous w. 5.000.00 Rs.12. 83. 6.00 Rs. 22.00 Rs.00 . x  Rs.00 Rs. 20.000.000.B.53.12.400. 4.000. 7. Septic tank & Dispersion Trench IV ABSTRACT VALUATION: ww I II III IV Land Building Others Total Value Rs.56.00 Rs.00     1000 Sqft 11% Rs. 13. 3.000 + 3.00 : Rs.00 Depreciated value of Ground Floor (B) FIRST FLOOR Plinth area of Ground floor Replacement Rate of construction Replacement value Depreciation % age (GF Deprn) Depreciation 4.00. 88.00  Rs.68.400.  100/RFT E.000/- 44.00 Rs.000 value 11/100 Depreciated value of First Floor sm      Total  (C) TOTAL VALUE OF GF & FF (7.04.Age of the Building Total lift assumed   10 years 80 years Depreciation percentage assuming  the salvage value as 10% Depreciation value   10 x 90 = 11% 80 Rs.400.000.000.000. 1.

motor. B. Ground Floor 2.00 Sqft Rs.C.ft 1800 SFT 1000 SFT 1.C I class GF & FF Excellent Septic Tank Load Bearing Structure Excellent and aesthetic Deep bore. OHT. The total land area 4000 SFT (40 x100). 5.C.Example : 2 A R. Type of construction ww No. VALUATION DETAILS Part – I .00. 4. 7. 3. Floor dr Reported year of construction 1965 1975 sm   :     Adopted rate of  valuation Assessed Value of the  plot Rs.00 Sqft Rs. First Floor w. 120.Land Size of the plot Total Extent of the plot Prevailing Market Value    40 x 100 4000 Sqft SI. Septic tank etc. 100.C. The building built-up with load bearing structure with aesthetic look and having all services like bore.C Roofed Residential Building 1800 SFT it is constructed in year 1965 and the First Floor Constructed in year 1975. No.C R. motor and OHT 73 .i n R. 6. of floors Quality of construction Appearance of the building Maintenance of the building Water supply arrangements Drainage arrangements au . 2. GENERAL INFORMATION 1.000/- Part – II Building Roof Plinth area Sq. 4.

260. Replacement rate of construction with the existing conditions & specifications 8. Total life of the building 9.740. 4.00/SFT Rs. Estimated present value of ground floor construction ww w. Depreciation value at the rate of 50. VALUATION OF GROUND FLOOR CONSTRUCTION 1. Total Plinth area 3.14% 74 .51. 1:2:4 Teak wood 2.C. Year of construction 4. 4.48. 9.C. Age of building 5.00.i n Colour Mosaic 1800 SFT 1965 39 yrs 70 yrs Rs 500.00 Rs. Depreciation percentage (assumed salvage value 10%) 7. Replacement value sm 10.M 1:5 R.14% dr estimated 6.000. Specifications: Foundation Superstructure Roof Joinery Floor finish               Stepped footing Brick Work in C.C.00 70 – 31/70 (100 – 10) = 50.00 Rs. au .

REPLACEMENT. No.440.000. Replacement rate of construction with the existing conditions & specifications 8. Total 13.51.00 Depreciation 4. Replacement value 9.00.00 Net value 4.000.00 Rs.260.C.00 6.000. VALUATION OF FIRST FLOOR CONSTRUCTION 1. Depreciation percentage 7. 3.00 4.440. 4.M 1:5 R.99.00.00/SFT Rs.14 % Rs.000. Total Plinth area Year of construction sm 9.00. 4. 5.00 75 .48.00 Age of building Total life of the building estimated 6. Ground Floor 2.00 Rs. Specifications: Superstructure Roof Joinery Floor finish              Brick Work in C.99. 1.00 1.740.560.00.51.180. Depreciation value at the rate of 50.i n 50. 2.00.560. 1:2:4 Teak wood with mica Colour Mosaic 1000 SFT 1975 39 yrs 70 yrs 2.00.C.00 1. 400.820.D. Estimated present value of First floor construction E. DEPRECIATION AND NET VALUE SL.00 2.00 6.48. First Floor ww w.14% 10. Description dr Replacement value au .

600. Extra Steel /Collapsible gates 6.000.PART III – EXTRA ITEMS 1. 54. Rs. Rs.00 10. Architectural elevation works w. Aluminium works 100 Sqft x 100 9.00 9. Rs. Glazed tiles 375 Sqft x 25/Sqft 3. Rs.000.000. Rs. Rs.285.500. Rs.14%  Net Value  au .14% Net Value Part IV – Amenities sm 1.000.00 27.          Total  Rs.00 10.00 3.i n Rs.00 2. Rs. Over head water tank 5. Marble / ceramic tiles flooring 5. Rs. Rs.076.00 6. 30. Rs. Rs.000. Rs. Interior decoration 6. Panelling works 225 Sqft x 100 8.000. Rs.00 6.00 3.10. Rs.00 1. Portico 200 Sqft @ 150 Sqft 2.00 Less depreciation 50.00 54.250.000. Rs.00 76 . Aluninium hand rails 32 RFT x 80 ww Less Depreciation 50. Rs.00 22.924. Side dadoos 200 Sft @ 30/Sqft          Rs. Extra sinks and bath tub dr 4.00 5.000. Rs.000.000.297.375.00 15.0 0 55. 7. Ornamental front door 3.00 31.000.988.00 5.560.00 5. Wardrobes 250 Sqft x 125 / Sqft 2.00 26. Sitout/ Verandah with steel grills 4.

00 Part VI .i n Rs.48. Rs. 12.000. Plot 2. Compound wall 150 Rft @ 125  Rft 4.000. Rs. Separate toilet room 50 Sqft 2. Rs. deposits and fittings etc 5.000. Rs.00 6.00 54. Rs.000. Rs.00 16.00 Rs. - 20.00 Rs.SERVICES 1.00 18. Rs.000. 5.B. Extra items 4. Water supply arrangements 2.000. Rs.00 77 .925. Rs.017. Services ww Total  au .00 54.01. Steel gates     sm       Say  Total Part VII . Separate water tank / sump 4. Building 3.925. 4.000. Pavement 6. E.924.000. Rs.988.00 54. Rs. 12.00 8. Rs.750. Amenities w. 5. Miscellaneous 6.00 3.ABSTRACT dr 1.00.180. Rs.Part V – Miscellaneous 1. Trees/Gardening Total      Rs.000. Rs.00 26. Separate lumber room 3.00 10. Rs.00 16.00 Rs.175.00 6. Drainage arrangements   3.00.

000.5 ww CASE STUDY: RENT CAPITALISATION METHOD A shop fetches a monthly rent of Rs. 2. 1200. Capital amount dr    sm au .e.000/20.000.000 = Rs. Amount invested Rate of Return Yearly income Monthly income CAPITALISATION     Capitalisation CALCULATION OF CAPITALIZED VALUE OF PROPERTY Capitalized value of the property = Net Maintainable Rent x 12. What is the value of the shop? It is a free hold property.000 x 10 = Rs. Since the rent itself is fixed as a percentage on the value of the property.i n 2.00. as on the date on which the valuation is made. If the rent has not been revised due to the owner not asking for that. 30.00. 1666. the buildings attracted by Rent Control Act.II. i. RATE OF RETURN & CAPITALISATION Rate of Return : The income what we receive for our capital is called Rate of Return.. the rent calculated should be as per the market value. The income should be calculated as that actually received. RENT CAPITALISTION METHOD: In this method. 100 20. 000 x 10 Rs. w. Property tax Rs.00 10 % 2.000..00 78 .00. 2000 advance amount received Occupier Rs.67 12 Yearly income x 100 Rate of Re turn 100 20.

880 – 5.00 + = 26.5 dr CASE STUDY – II Mr.600/- 79 .00 Rs. 1.00 paid Normal Three month = 6. 1200. 5232.000.00.000.00 = 2880.00 Rs.15 x 24880) III) NET ANNUAL RENTAL INCOME: NARI = GARI . The tenant is maintaining the shop by paying 8000/. au .880. Chennai for a monthly rent of 8000/-.000/.00 = 24.00 Rent Excess = 24. Calculate the value by rent capitalization method.000 Interest @ 12% GARI II) OUTGOINGS = 2000.00 = 2.880 Property Tax 15% GARI (0.232 = 21648 x 125 = 2. w.50.648.i n = 21.70.000 2.OUTGOINGS sm Total Outgoing VALUE OF THE PROPERTY: = NET MAINTAINABLE RENT X 12.00 = 24000.000 for 20 years. 4032.00 = 26.as corporation tax per annum.I) GARI (GROSS ANNUAL RENTAL INCOME) Monthly rent Annual rent 2000 x 12 Add actual advance = 30.880.00 Rs.and premium amount of ww 2. Rajan has let out his godown (free hold) in mount Road. He has received a refundable advance Rs.

25.22.00 Normal advance 3 month rent 8000 Rs. 8000.66 18.000 c) Advance x3 Excess advance Add interest 15% d) Premium / No of years 20000 / 20 Rs.00 Rs.90 1.000.388.00 = Rs.00 Rs.900.031. 96.i n 24. Total Rs.i) GARI Monthly rent Annual rent 8000 x 12 Add a) Tax born by the tenant b) Repairs 1/9 x 96.00 ii) Outgoings Tax 15% of GARI = 0. au .000.15 x 143566 sm iii) NARI = GARI – OUTGOINGS 143566 – 21534.666.75 Say 15.00 10.566.26.90 80 .43.00 Rs. dr NIL 21534. Rs. 1. 1. 8000.00 = Rs.50.000.000. 1.5 = 15. 10.00 Rs.90 Total 21534.25 lakhs iv) Capitalised Value ww w.10 = NMR x 12.000.

The net plot area available should be priced on the basis of instance sale of developed land in that area. It has to be examined whether surplus land is serveable from the enjoyment of the tenant. The capital expenditure required for development during the phase period should also be estimated. The result so obtained by the above procedure should be compared with the actual sale instances of similar under developed properties. Development method should invariably be adopted for valuing land which is ripe for development. The net plot area available should be worked out and priced. here also development method should be adopted taking into account the water mains. The capitalized value can be arrived at. will have constraint in utilizing the potential of the development of vacant land depending upon the legal rights of shifting the tenant. dr sm au .3) DEVELOPMENT METHOD: In this method. getting them approved by the local bodies. drains. sewers. Under developed property. From this the next income can be arrived by deducting the outgoings. Large pockets of land have to be laid out in small housing plots as per the rules of the development authorities taking into account the expense that may be incurred for provision of roads. out and priced. Some of the agricultural land close land. electric mains and leveling up of area should be worked to the periphery of the city will be allowed to be converted as urban ww w.i n 81 . In cities where urban renewal is permitted and where old buildings are allowed to demolish and convert into shopping complex or residential apartments. the value of the property is latent and will be released on development. To develop the property certain period will be required right from preparation of plans. This can be worked out by ascertaining the zoned use and extent of development legally permissible under the rules of local authorities and determining the annual gross income that can be fetched after development. if occupied by tenant under Rent Control Act. A percentage of amount has to deducted on account of the above.

4) VALUATION BY PROFIT METHOD: Profit method is applicable to Hotels. method of valuation if the owner of the theatre conducts himself The procedure of valuation of a cinema theatre by using profit ASSESSMENT OF VALUE Profitably is determined and the value is arrived by capitalizing the net profit at an appropriate rate of return after apportioning GROSS INCOME Gross Income = Income from exhibiting the pictures excluding entertainment Tax + Income from other sources. The method of valuation which a valuer can adopt depends upon the circumstances of the individual case. Estimating the Fair Market Value by using Profit Method is discussed here. method is analyzed here in brief. Many valuers including this author feel that the profit Method is the most appropriate the business.i n and Public Places. Cinemas. 82 ww the profit due to 1) Tangible assets and 2) Intangible assets PROFIT = GROSS INCOME – EXPENSE w.floor area ratio. This method as the name suggests deals in . Marriage Halls working the profit from a property and subsequently capitalizing the same at appropriate rate of return depending upon a number of Factors. METHOD OF VALUATION OF A CINEMA THEATRE The fair market value of a cinema theatre is the best possible price one could give in the case of any sale. dr sm au . the plot coverage and other parameters prescribed by the local authorities.

Special Shows. Facades Elegant and comfortable furniture Efficient projection equipment Pleasant light arrangement Perfect cooling systems Easy approach to the public Power supply – Standby source sm au . ww Shows include Morning Shows. Evening Shows. Vacancies are determined either from actual observations from a dr Competition Locational Advantage Interior decoration Good films Capacity of the House Environments Aesthetics of Foyer Excellent Sound Systems Video Piracy Cable T.. of Shows in a month x 12] – Entertainment Tax paid to the Govt. Etc. Night Shows. has fixed the entertainment Tax as 40 % of the daily collection from exhibiting the pictures.V No.INCOME FROM PICTURE Yearly Gross Income from exhibiting the pictures = [{Full House occupancy – Normal Vacancy} x No. The significant factors affecting the better occupancy rates are: * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * number of inspections or on the basis of averages for similar establishments.i n More the occupancy percentage. the pictures. more the income form exhibiting 83 . The TamilNadu Govt. The entertainment Tax varies with individual state Governments. of Theatres existing in that area Development of the adjacent locality Modern Cinema Building with amenities Elevational Treatments. w. Noon Shows.

Interest for the deposits paid by the contractors of stalls. Rental Income from Stalls. cooling appliances.. Running cost of generators. Provident Fund. Ice Cream Parlour. Legal Expenses. Bonus. Rental Income from Car Parking and Cycle Stand. Miscellaneous Income from Weighing Machine etc. Equipments. etc. Income from Hoardings display.i n 84 . Telegrams Insurance for Plant & Machinery. dr Film hire changes to the distributors Hire charges for the Indian News Reels Local Tax. Consumables like Carbon Electrodes etc. Furnitures ww w. Advertisement display on walls. Auditors fees. Coffee Houses. Octroi Telephone. Electricity Printing Postage Property tax Ground Rent if any Traveling & Conveyance Packing and Forwarding Stationery Publicity Various License Fees Bank Commissions Office Expenses Railway Freight. Rental Income form showcases. Cool drink Shops.. Welfare Fund. if any Other Taxes connected to Cinema Business sm au .INCOME FROM OTHER SOURCES They are: * * * * * * * * * Income from Exhibiting the Advertisements Income from Exhibition of Slides. Gratuity. EXPENSES The heads of expenses are: * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Preliminary Expenses Working Expenses Repairs and Depreciation Owner’s Profit Preliminary Expenses Working Expenses Establishment charges like Staff Salary.

which require periodic replacements..5 % 15 % 20 % 10 % normally assumed between 1 to 2 % and this does not exceed by 3 %. w. Trade Profit which is due to his labour. a percentage of 15 % as Profit on the total gross income excluding the entertainment tax is to be taken into account as an expense. Furnitures. The deduction should be calculated not on the prime costs but on prevailing costs of replacement less period of anticipated life.* * * * * * * * Insurance premium to the Building Subscription to Associations Entertainment to Guests Miscellaneous Suitable Depreciation Repairs and Maintenance of Building Maintenance of Plant & Machinery Sinking fund for Furnitures Theatre Buildings Furniture Machinery Cooling Plant Electrical Fittings      Repairs and Depreciations: The following percentages are normally adopted as depreciation: 2. Owner’s Profit: If the owner runs the Cinema business on his own under his accumulated sinking fund reserves of earlier year on remaining ww Owner’s direct supervision. guidance and control. This percentage covers the items like * * * Interest on Capital Blocked up in his assests Interest on Capital required for day to day Working. Skill Managements.i n 10 – 15 % and 85 . Plant & Machinery etc. dr Sinking fund deduction is required to be made for replacement of sm Allowance for Repairs and Maintenance of the buildings is au . Fixtures.

While Capitalising.000/- 86 . Rs. CASE STUDY: EXAMPLE Valuation of Cinema Theatre by adopting profit method is explained by means of a Case Study. Good will and license. 4. Profit from intangible assets and Permanent – Non A/c Municipal Limit I class 250 @ Rs.00 4 60 % 40% of Daily Collection Average 50% of the Daily collection after deducting the Entertainment Tax. Advance received from  stalls Conductor of the Theatre  ww sm au .i n Owner 1. PROFIT AND CAPITALISING Profit = Gross Income – Expenses The profits are to be apportioned to two categories.00. Profit from Tangible assets. of Shows / day Average Percentage Occupancy Entertainment Tax Distributors Share w. 10. Here 12% capitalization is adopted for Tangible profit and 14% Capitalisation is adopted for Intangible Profit. namely 2.00 II Class 300 @ Rs. The ratio of intangible profit to Tangible profit is normally 1:3.* Allowance for Risk Element. dr           Data: Type of Theatre Location No.00 III Class 250 @ Rs. 7. a higher rate of interest is to be adopted for intangible profit than Tangible profit since efficient running the Cinema business depends upon the good Management. 5.

@ 2. 4.000. 91. 6. 31.000.00 1250. @ Rs.00 Rs.000. 5850. 14040.000 Miscellaneous Income w.000.00 Rs.75. 1. 1.000/- 87 . Rs. 3.24.000.00 Rs.760. 51.COMPUTATION OF INCOME Income from Exhibiting The Pictures: Class I Class II Class III Class No. 7.00 2100. 15.00 Rs.00 6.   Total Income  Say  au . 20.00 Rs.74.i n Total     60 %      Rs.49.00 5.00.00 6. 23400. @ Rs. 12. dr Less Entertainment Tax 40% paid to the  Rs.00 Rs.67. 2500. 5850. 6. 10.Seats 250 300 250 Rate Rs.00 Rs. 30.00 the pictures  Say Rs.00 Rs. 500 per month Rent from Wall Display.00 Govt Gross Annual Income from exhibiting  Rs. 400 per month Rental Income from stalls.6 x 23400 Income from other Sources (Per Annum): 1. of .00 Collection Per show for full occupancy Collection for 4 shows of full occupancy Average occupancy percentage Average Collection Per day 0.00 sm Average Collection per year 14040 x 365  ww Rs.500.00 7.00 Rs.840.00 Collection per show Rs. Advertisement Reels Average 3 Nos. Car Parking @ Rs.68.950. 50 per month Showcases rent @ Rs. 30.250. 200 per week Advertisement Slides Average 10 Nos.00 Rs.00 Rs. 250 per day Interest on deposits 15% of 1. 5.600.200.

00 Rs. 24.00 5.500. 500/month  w.000.75.000.000. 15.i n     Say  Rs.000.400.75. 30.100/month Insurance Premium License Fee – Collectorate. 11. Rs.75. Publicity.   Rs.Total Income: Income from exhibiting the shows Income from other sources   Rs.00 Rs.00 Rs.00 8.000/month Consumables at Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs.00 Rs.37. 15.000/- Rs.388.00 300.00 6. 30.00 3. Expenses @ Rs.00 Rs.68.750.00 Rs.000.60 x 4 x 365) Total Working Expenses: dr Establishment charges at an average of  10.00 6.200. 700/month  Electricity @ Rs. Rs.00 Total Gross Income  COMPUTATION OF EXPENSES: Preliminary Expenses: Film Hire Charges to the distributors @ an average 50% (0. Rs.000. Printing.00 Rs.638.000.79.50 x 30.01 x 30.43.80. 18. 2000/month ww Railway Freight @ Rs.00 Rs.00 88 . Stability Certificate – Average /year Entertainment to Guests  Subscription to the associations  au . Electrical  Certificate.20.000.00 900. 32. 1.000.000) Tax of sales Tax Department for exhibiting Slides and Reels at 60 paise/ slide/show (13 x 0.500/  month Telephones and Posts @ Rs. 15.000. Stationery. 30.000) Hire Charges to Indian News Reel at 1% 90.000. 500/month Travelling and Conveyance @ Rs. 2.00 1.500/month   Office  sm Generator Expenses @ Rs.00 Rs. 1. 1. Rs.

32. Rs.00 Rs. 15. ww Profit Gross Income Total Expenses Capitalisation: Tangible Profit 8.00 Rs.i n     Rs.000.000.80.450.00 89 . 58.00 2.00 10.00 Rs. 2.000.00 4. 4.43.413. 950.600.000. Rs.450. 23.000.000. 8.86.550/- au .30.30. Rs.00 Rs.000 Total Expenses:  dr @ 75% of Preliminary Expenses Working Expenses Repairs Depreciation sm   and   Total    Profit  Owner’s Profit w. Rs.00 Rs.88. 32. Rs. 5.00 23.000.00 28. Rs.550.000.450. 1.000.600. Rs.00 5.00 Rs.00 Repairs & Depreciation: Depreciation to Machinery Depreciation to Building Maintenance Expenses Furniture Owner’s Profit: 15 % of Rs.00 58.66.  Rs.54.86.250.Property Tax Profession Tax Miscellaneous    Total  Rs.450.43.00 6.00 15.88.54. Rs. Total  Rs.00 Rs.00 Rs.

90 . Abnormally high or insignificantly low value properties must not be considered.00 6.22. Comparison must not be based upon the desired value.135.88.000. But here realistic value can be obtained following some factors to be considered in this method.000.53. no two properties are not sm present worth/ market value of property consisting of land & au . The final unit composite rate is to be arrived at after comparing sufficient number of sale instances. a valuer can estimate the Building by adopting comparable sale instances of the composite rate.00 71.  Rs. 2.413 x 100 12 55. 4. Genuine transaction must have been carried out in the open market. Sale to relatives or cooked up sale will not be a suitable case for good comparison.  Rs. Say  Rs.00 71. 6.66. The procedure is discussed here. distressed value.00 71.22.00 2. 5. same.550 Capitalise Tangible Profit @ 12% Rs.693. Hence to get exact comparison of the properties is difficult. dr Under the comparison of properties. Assessed Value of the Above Cinema Theatre by Adopting Profit Rs. Total (5553442 + 1586693)  Rs.  Rs.137.137 x 100 14 15.40.i n Capitalize Intangible Profit @ 14%  Rs.40. 1.442. Comparison must not be based upon the forced sale value. Comparison must not be based upon the sale agreements or mere offer to buy/sell. as these will normally give only a lower value. 2. Method  5) DIRECT COMPARISON METHOD: Apart from the above four methods. 3.86.40.Intangible profit @ 25% of 8. value yielded due to absolute necessity as these will normally give a comparatively more value. ww w.00  Rs.

Premises (similar in character) should more or less be similarly situated in the same locality with same type of user. * Rent fetching – whether the property fetches more rent or less rent comparatively. * Locational Advantage ww w. * Quality of materials used. Factors like encumbrance free title deeds involved in the transaction and the nature of occupation (whether vacant..7. the same unit must also be the basis for valuation of the subject property. The extent of area must be comparable. dr sm au . Provision to construct further floors must be a factor to be considered. 12. 17. tenanted. must be similar. * Amenities – Whether bare minimum or more. 10. Location of premises with respect to floor and its position on the floor specially for road view etc. The sale transaction must have been carried out in the open market. ordinary or inferior. 13. 11. * Specification – whether rich / ordinary/ medium. Encroachment etc. * Return frontages – whether property having a single road or more roads and if so-whether width or road is less or more. 16. * Quality of construction – whether superior. 9. If the carpet area is the basis for property under comparison. The unit of comparison must be the same for the properties to be compared.i n 91 . * Type of Construction * Parking facilities. 8. Composite rate of bigger property must not be based upon sale instances of a smaller property as far as possible (and vice versa). it is opined that the potential value need not be separately added because such sales cover the potential value also. When the market Value is to be determined on the basis of sales of land in the neighbourhood with same character. It is preferable that the period of sale instances must be nearer to the period of valuation of the property under valuation. 14. 15.) must be considered. 18. The comparable property must be inspected thoroughly with regards to: * Accommodation provided – whether Residential or Commercial * Architectural design – Whether conventional or modern. * Occupants – whether vacant possession or tenanted. It is preferable to compare sale instances of residential buildings for the purpose of valuation of a residential buildings and likewise.

adopt the composite Rate. b) For excess land. and the plinth area of the building is less do the valuation: a) For building & appurtenant land. 6.i n . 1. Valuation – Revaluation Everyone’s Concern. it is better to compare with a property recently transacted.Practical Valuation Volume I. References: 1.. Kanagasabapathy. Dutta. Mumbai Publications 1993-94.PROCEDURE OF VALUATION It consists in comparing the property under valuation with the more or less similar property in the locality. B. Assess the composite rate of the property under comparison Adopt this rate as the basic rate for the property under Valuation. Valuer must be a good judge. Fair Rent Manual B. make suitable adjustments in the rate if specification varies and there after arriving at a suitable composite rate per unit area. . the same rate can be considered. Kanagasabapathy. 2. 4. As far as possible. etc. N. as discussed. 5. adopt the prevailing unit land rate. w. Gopinath Rao. 5.H. III. then the composite rate must be suitably increased depending upon the escalation trend in the locality. of course depending upon the other local condition. dr sm au . If much earlier sale instances are to be compared inevitably due to non-availability of recent sale instances. Make suitable adjustments for : a) Superior /inferior specification and depreciation b) Extra Amenities c) Locational advantage d) Factors favouring extra value e) Factors affecting less value. II. Shrikanth Vasanth Joglekar. If the land is vast. However if the market trend is stable. Journals of Institution of valuers – New Delhi 92 a New Vista Its Impact on Finance ww 3. Estimating and costing. C. 2. c) Add both to arrive at a realistic value. 3. 4. Valuation Practice of Immovable Properties B.

i n 93 . dr sm au .ww w.

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