PJ\!.

Oak
Some Blunders
of
Indian Historical
Research
SOME BLUNDERS
OF
INDIAN HJSTORICAL RESEARCH
by
p. N. OAK. M. A., LL., B.
tor Re10rltlaa World Hlltory
Ph! 3'3!'1!>:'4 ,.
1
·111
HINDI I ' N
2. 8.0 (; • .I."' , • Road,
(N!. Pt2nls,;l 0\llij, Katcl S•Qn. N.D 5
BHARATI SAHITYA SADAN
J0(90, Connoupt Cirws, New Delhi-110001

CONTENTS
.....
Preface 5
Wbat Prompted My H11tonc Quest 9
lllunder No.
1 Indian mooumeots Credited to Alien Muslim• ll
2 : Ignoble Akbar Believed Noble 81
3 : Fahh in Mediaeval Chronicl<l 105
4 : Mylh of the lndo·Saraccnic Theory of
Archhcccure 126
5 • Myth of cbo Moahul School of Pai nting 139
6 : Mych of che Development of Music in
Mcdi>eval Muslim Coum 14 I
1 : Mych about the Moahul Garden Art 143
8 : Mythic&l Golden Penods Under Alica Rule 146
Key Principles for a Correct Appraisal of lo4iao
Mediaeval History 147
9 : Akunder's Oefnt Claimed to be Great
V&ctory over Porus I S6
l 0 : Adya Sbankaracharya' o Antiquity
Under·Bsumated by 1297 Yeara 169
II · l ord Buddba '1 Antiqu&ty Uoderesti- ted by
Over .1 300 Yearo 184
Mllslo,. IIUratl Sallll,a Sadan.
30/90, Coooou&)ll <:ircuo, New Oelbi·IIOOOI .
12 : Aotlqully of Lord• Roma and Krishna'• Btu
Gronly Underestimated 20 I
I 3 ' Arya' on Ideal Ml-utrued as a a- 211
14 : Antiquity of tbo Vedaa Groal)' Uuollrllll•ll'l 221
Ul ... , ..
l'vlltiJ et : A,ay PrU>IUI,
X· II, Novia Sbabclan, Oelh•·IIOOll.
• OnJ in of Allah" ul!•odo Gocl aocl !Cabo u
H•lld• • For,oueo
l oci••• K.&llaU•1'1 Rctl• rrom Bah to tbe Baldc
aoc1 Keau co IC&ba Forsoneo
If>
Role o1 S..O.krit u A.,.;.Dt World
u aa...,e Forson..,
HJoclo Onaio or Proph<l Mohammad Porsoueo

221
241
273
lll
219
Preface
li 0
role io for over 3 milleoniom bu
Continuous a e . 1 •
• • laotio& to lodiao bistonu numerous b ouuenos
,.esultcd '
0
tmP ct concepts Tb0$0 myths nurtured uoder
t
: ... .os as saarotan • · b
aa ' t'on and pacronage for many centunes ave
eromeot reeDJOl I of
sov • d
1
stamp of authority through sheer passage
:now acqu1rc
time.
If by history we mean a fact ually a.nd accu·
nte account or
3
country'' past current Ind•an btStoncs deserve
to be clt llcd with Arabian Niah ts.
Sacb bistory must be repudiated and rewritten. In this book
1 bavc indicated a few of Indian h istorical research.
The blunders listed herein are by oo means tbe ooly o nes.. Tbey
are jon a sampling or tbc vast scope for research tbu awaitt
ocbolat1 wbo are prepared to ta.ke a second look at Indian and
world history aud do some fresh tbiol:log nninhibited by pR·
tutoring.
My earlier reocarch publication titled TAJ MAHAL WAS A
RA.Jl>UT PALACE hat already exposed a sJaring aod far·
reaching misconception of Indian history.
Like a virus the of Indian biltorlcal
rucarcb have affected other spheres too. For inatuco ahldcnta
or archltcctorc and civil engineering are tau&bt to bellne that
mediaeval monumcots In India and West Aaia ue ol
SatO«oie arcbitcctuTe while in fact it bas been shown ill tba
followill& paaea tbat tbe lodo-Saraccalc arcbitcc:!ure tbeory It a
IIIJtb. Alllllediaeval mooumeota arc prc.MIIIIim Rajpot -o-
faiJcly credited to alien Mualim mkn. liltewdc it -
architocts and craftamco wbo deaiJDed ud buill W.c
Asian moou_JDeDII tioce they were drivco Kr- lodiaa borclero
tO bWid aucb DIODQIIICDII Ia the aatift Ieoda ol
6
mao)' ,.-..t links in tbe Jnclo-Saraceolc
... ..,. o( atcbotcclvre is tile c:Jill<O« or Htndu pallerns 10 tbo
1
,..t d<IIJI
00
all ll)tdlaef&l moouOleots. Tboa 11 troed 10 be ex-
rlaooe>l anr as tbe lc:tUll or tbe prefereo« or tbo Hlodu
I
h emploJed. There are many !laws 10 tbls arauments,
.. .... b d' d .
• c.baU'f'iai.stic: Mud1m accounts ave ere tft .H10du
ari"U llfltb des!,Joing tbeor mooumeniJ, For oDJionce on the
ease of the T&J Mabsltbey ascribe its design to some myllth-
ous EJsa Elfendl.
Eveo if lb•t credit aoy dulsn to a Hindu, in those days or
and fanaticism they would never have tolerat-
ed any Hindu artist weaving 'infidel' deslsns into the pauern,
of a Muslim Olo,que or tomb. So even chis areumcnl falls to
tbt srouod.
Tbc othtr !a.cctiou.t usertioa is that the master arcbitcc:t
uled to lay do..., tbe broad out6ne of tbe detisn, lea vona !I to
tbt oodovidaal workmen to 611 io tbe details according to tbelr
todo¥Jdual whuns and fancies. Tbe bolloWDcss of tbis arl!llment
becomes appueot CJ> a little rdlectioo.
Uaka lbe eotire contemplated d<.fiBJ> bas been laid dowo
allbe •ery ourt It would be impossible to order tbe required
mat<'ial or lb• kind and io tbe quantity desired.
II indovodual workmen were left to work out their own
dCSI&ot tbey would all work to cross purposes and no
oop remain amenable to I be cootrol of their supervisors since
lba7 would keep dod gins and delaying, ahirkina and thwarting
I be Project on tbe plu of lack of limo or lntpiratlon in fulfill·
1
n& lbdr pll1 of the task, The argument that Hindu pallerot
adoto 'Muttlm' monuDI<l!u bouusc Biodu work.meo wero
all.-..od a !tee batld II tbus pJJpably absurd uaonloed from aoy
••ale.
I) Bluu&l "•• uacrtloDJ about the rouodlng or Old Otlbl " a
poc:a •1111t- or the .._ cl' ·
a ... ur ..... tbJI ba.e formed part or
CDfTUd. <li>toned lad&aa b.iJtory.
Vic are told thal 014 Dc.\bl
fiC&Il)OU.O IO tbe 11tb C. wu founded by Mo&ul Emperor
CI'IJba OLD llllod GUiry, If lbat were true bow is tho
1
"' ?la lb.al c:l4c h becomes tloe oewett Delhi
1
c<-u foUftded pclor to BrhiJb rule in lodla. IU JUCb h abolll4
rant whlo Loncloo and New York Ia •ao-
Tahnurlanl wbo raided Delhi Ia lbe Cbriatmu of 1391
A.D. clearly montiOOJ tbll be pcrpctnlod bilmasqc:rcaln 014
He aiJo adds that the Kali11 I.e :he 'infidel' Hindus
colkcted In tbc Jama Mujld lo counter-attack hi• troops. ThiS
proves tbat Old Delblls in facllhc oldest pon of 1be sprawhaa
ancient metropolis or Delbl,
Ta.imurlnna'• testimony alao proves that Old Delbt•a ma1o
temple was in Tatmurtana'• attack convened 10to a motquc.
Had l.bal not been so Hindus would never bavo rallied in thai
building, Tho rae\ I btl they IBihercd there as a mailer or riaht
proves thO\ tbe bultdlna called Jam• Masjid. errinslY credited
to Sbabjaba.n. was a Hindu Temple wben Talmurlang'a troop•
stormed into Delhi.
There io yet another poi Diet to 014 Dclbi's antiquity.
In Dclbo there 11 a monument called Purana l.c. Old
Forr. This is believed to date from pre-Muslim tim01 ood CYC1I
from \be Mah.tbbarata era. If, tbet<fo.rc, Old Fort sipes tbe
IDCient·tn:os: fore how come that Old Ddh1 .iiiPJifits a aear·
Olodern town•hip I Sucb ast the lllogicalities which bedevilood
\'itia.te curreot bisrorieal ttxiJ aod undcthnc tbe oeed for aomc:
rc-tbinkina.
llaides belns ami<ltd 1¥lth diJtortiOOS and IIJ)OmtlotS
Indian biliary bu bten badly maimed. Many oril! imporoant
chapters arc completely miuing. Like the Bntisb cmp1re whbin
our own memory, io tbc remote past the Jodian empire alcnd ..
cd to tuch diiiiOI plrtl or lhc world •• Japan in the Eaal, Ball
lo tbc South, at lean Arabia In tho We>t oad tho Baltic in tbe
anrlh. 1'racu or Ibis vaal sway are delioeiotod Ia some ol the
last chapters of tb.it volume.
h h hoped tbal tho pr<scol publieaJjoll would prove bdpful
in biabliabtlaaa few major trroll in lodiaa bistoncaltboabol
ancllodicatiDJ lbc dJrtellon of refUn:b.
Thi1 book lou been 1001 OUI Of pnal, This iJ ltJ tbml
edilloa. Hence II I• belna updated ancl sotu• adclouoos ba'fC
been made bore aod lbctc


11
u
1
admitatioo over tbo contcnta
..... .......
oltP boOL • d
. ban bowent marotaroc a stunned
rrot-on&l b.il= or \be appatlioa tbou&hl that aU
aao professed so far in hiiiOI)' is b&lk:ally
lllc1ba .. stud• be unruen·cdly Jettisoned. So they teocl
""""'' ancl musrbclr error nor correct iL lnlltacltboy
oathtr IO Of lheiO discoveries or tbey II)' tO
D.OI tO ha\'C cUJV
lbdll·
11·8 Divya Jtunja
1076, Qokb.ale Road
PUI'II!.-411016
P.N. Oak
President
lnltituto for Rewriting Indian
and World History
What Prompted My Historic Quest
FEEL deeply eooeerood at tho alarm in: stale o! LDdiaa
bistory u it is bcios tauabt in oor educatiooat ioshtutJoos. as
il Ia being rackled on mlaludlna In our raearcb
organizalii)Ds and •• 11 is b<iaa preseolcd 10 !he world at larac
tbrou&h ofBeial and academic channels.
Tho ex1cnt and doplb of I he loaccuracies and fabricaliODJ
thai bedevil Indian hlt!ory amount to a national calamity.
Wbat i• llill more uaalc is that besides the many diltor·
tioos, perversions and anomalies tbat ftbou.nd in cune:ot h\SlOfl•
cal 1exu there arc mlssina cbapten. 'Tbo$0 mlssioa
c:bapters relate especially to the •way tblt Indian Kabatriyu
once held from Ball bland Ia the South East par:ilie to the
Baltic io \be north and from Korea to Arabia and pouibly
over Maico. II b io that vall reaioo, attbe very lout, tbat the
diavijayu (conqueJII) which we bear about very ol't.en 10
'Indian scriptures, were carried ouL Ov bistorr., IOAkc ao
mention of that sway.
At lean a broacl rcalitation of the major poiou at wbicb
Indian hiotorical research bu branched off the path or faCiual
and ebroooloaical 1ru1h, and a realizAtion that a1 Jeut some of
ita importanl cbapton aro misslna, is essential on tbe pah of
scholars, ttachina inatitulloo.t, resear<>b orsaoizatroos, otudants,
teachers and lay moo
It Is intended 10 uofolcl hero quito I few blunders or Indian
hillorical rcscareb wblcb bavo occurred 10 me. By .on mCIDI do
I presume to a)vc ao ubaustlvc lilt of ouch blunders. 'Tbe few
that I int<nd to J••l with bcrcaftcr abollld serve u spocimcoa
to alert aU those connected with tndiao b11tory, that the fare
acrved to them, day Ia and day out, io tbc ... me or ladrM
history u infected with my\bl, and 11 dofideol lo
valoa bccau$0 of Ita mrssloa c:baptcn.
'"
Or •
rammar ayntu or tubjeet molter ,,.
I("''"'" crt Off • b h
.,.,.d<mo< tot bOOits fiod ua htabtr, dowfi ?'uc I
--atmtat at tbc dc,ec:hve a e eteot Dv1ao
• • be our·- d b
h I
•-'oa taught to ua ancl prescnte to 1 e
hilt MY I at s ""'
•• J.t•l•·
TflloUalo our subJtOI tillc it SOME BLUNDE,RS OF
I SOlAN UJSTORICA L. RESEARCH yet at least m &omc
onlton<ct, ;
1
woU be observed, those blunders have a bearing ot>
••old biatory. Tbc rcwrilio8 of tbc moss on& cbap!•" fauhy
p0f1ooos of todtau history wlll occessotate rcctproca! adjuu-
mcoll on htitOnd Of other rcaions aod of the world as I whole.
Foom tbtJ poont of view tbtl !Opt< ahould be O(
o
111
port•- to lfudcntJ. teachers and scholars of history all the
• orld ovu
It ao happened that l bod soocc my childhood been very
d<tply lntcrcat«l in visiting blstoric monuments. Over tho
)'Cin, cspeal•liY wbco I v;,ued Oclbl. A&ra and Fatehpur Sikri
and wa• told, .u everybody el1c 11 told, that almost Btl tho
o><dia.va! monumrnts there were boi!t by this or that t ullan, a
ttl lei of qucstic>DI arose 10 my mood.
How wu 11. I thought, thot the Hindut, wbo bad ruled
lodoa for at least 4,000 yean from tbc Pandavu to Pritbviraj,
dod oot hl\·c even a JoDtle monument to their credit ? tr tboy
dtd nor buold any monuments where did they, their courtiers
and th: commoo people live 1 I( during tbat period, u IS
nomlaJcally dc•cn'b«< riven of milk and honey flowed in India.
told r-ety chunoey emlued amoke of gold, wbere was a!ltbat
•ullh ttlllcd' And l r Rome is bu!lt by tile Romans, London
,t.ondoncn and Tok)o by the Japanue, bow come that to
'""" •lane O..lho, Asra, Fatebpur Siltri, Allahabad, Ahmed•·
b>' aDd • be>• I of other cirh teem in& with mediaeval moou•
"7't"' ...,. buill by a "' do UIOrtrueot of forei&oen like
lurb lraoiaDJ, Mongolt, Abyuloians, KuakJ and

"' ft<r by every other community except Indians
Diow ... ' And ..,,. tb .. c Indians, inoinuatcd to bo
• aovocca fa tbc bulldloa art, not the aomc who
,•)l:t
111
:
1
4
1
ural rcmrlu, Ramuwaram, Konarok.
'
1
' ora and 1 host ot other rock eut edificu,
WHAT PaOMPli!D MY t llJ10UC Qut.n
II
the Mouct "bu tcmpl<J, auabry forto like Rantbambborc lllld
luaurlous u ar A CDbar ood Uclalp11r 1 Aod il at all u
wu 1llen1 named who (ouoded 111 1he ampom.at
towns tn ladfa and built all 1ts m.JJaificeot O)Ofturoc.ai.J bow i.t
it that they all had • unofouo penchant (or the Hoodu uyle or
lod11n architecture 1 tr tbey bad such a captavahnl 11tn.a
, I d' I h , ' oon
10r n tan c:u lUre ow 11 11 tbcu the very name HlodU wu
an-.tbema IO them 10 as to provoke 1hcm to ptuader a.nd.
manacrc. upe: and de-strucuoo? And if for cc.nturiu t.bde:ahe:a
rulers and &heir allen noblemen built all rbcir tombs a:nct
I lo tbc Hiodu J tylc do tbclt cultural aDd rchtioU-'- da-
ccndants -lht Mushms or toda.y-bU11d even a 11D&k tomb.
mosque or bomc wath cvco one IIO&lc Hindu mour oa lhcm
And bow IS H tbat tbcsc ahco-s bclooaios to chvcnc oalloo.ali·
tics. different "rata rrom stave tC princt, aod various n«s
display I he ume vigour and identical lOtte in buildlo& llll>O.u-
rncnt artcr mooumc.nt , c.ity aft:t cny and tombs and m01qucs
all lo the Hind• itylc ? Why i> it tbat they bulh only oomb•
aod mosque> without corresponding palaces ? If tbey only
tombs tor tbc1r predecessors ilnd mos.quu "'hue did tbClC alien
rulers and 1be1r noblemen lbcmuhcs Jfay" Aod In tbc c.ootcac
o( deadly inlenecinc strua.&lU that uKCf tO c:asur la
all Mushm bousehold• from prinocs to pa•pcrt how,..., ir rhlor
lUCC<IlOU to till<> built con> II< for bated predecessors for •bose
blood they had tbiuted, >nd to lUppi>J)t •hom tbe) were 10
very eager ,. Aod wbca tbe whole rtatm ustd to be cbt0\\"11 1oto
utter coofu$100 and revolts and warr11rc ttup1td on tbc clutb
of every Muslom sovcreogo where dod moncy to build a palllual
tomb for born come from • Who coauollcd tbe rrclllu,Y uclu-
"''cl y on those perilous tlm" • i\od oot oil the mooc)
available n«ded 10 rabe armlet, moiotola bu£< bar<llll aod
( Onsohdlll( one's O"-n pothion Aod wbcrc was tbc uwc aad
ptacc ncccuar) h' JUpcr\ite the coosuucuon of plllatial
Wbcrc ":u the uchttC'CttJral t.oow· bOw 10 1b0$c da)S of stark
olloreraey •nd Ia oo acm<><ph<rc stethtDJ worb plolllnJ 11101
uuchcry • It 11 coostsrcnt wnh bumao pS)('bolol)' that t"ft
croouna normol filoal love a 100 or son-io-ta• •
dcccased ruler "Ill buold • polaoc tor • dead b<>dy bru ooa< fot
bimsclf and bos ebltdreo. " lvu and cooeubiott1 Ia tllcrc ooy
p cv<ll thla 20tb century 'tllbea
Mu•l!m ood•••d ...
01
':d autocrAcy have lost some or their
ortbodOSf, ran;\,.,*"' ady
10
build tombs and mosques styled
l!'ho

C. rlchcJI of them b•Jlld any expen.
ton /
1
redc<:e>SOr at all 1 And bow b h tbot the
::::! .-In Dclbi. A&••. aod Sikri,
·
1
th tho.. in Ambar. Bobner, Jolltlmer aod
.,. ldr1WCS .,, t· · 1 A d ·r
J.,.Sbpur ltnOWOIO uott from .prc·Mus om 0 I DO
tucb meani60Clll mansions ulllcd wben Muslim Invasions of
fl,irttd what were the invaders Hglulng for and wba! were
tbc lllll&lll Kobatrlyu defeodlna 1 That Ieoda to
puy
111
mdythatladilll 'lllarriors pvc battle to the &ov&dlDJI
lliiiY
10
open country 7 tr tbAI iuo bow do explain.
lite Kot Naaarkol and Umarkot, srocc kol soao•fies
1
fom&rd township V We mow for ccrlaio tbat in ancient tlmea
all btllldlnp from humble residences oftbe common folk to
thoa of tbt ti..., UJCd to have manive battlemcnted walla
•lcailll boac oourtyards and spacious apartments.
A thouaallllollll ooc ncb con.slderaliooa arOK in my mind
llllbol me qu11c uocuy. They all 10 add up to a
Jl&llW pazzle-o Jumble of conlrodictloos and locoosilloocies.
Those queslioas tel me tbiokioa furiously. In my despcra·
tloa ltaroed to the billory of olber oouotrlca of tho world to
-"a ponUd. lteupt to fiU out .;betber there exist in aoy
odtor COUIIJ -uascou built io tbcir buodreds by conquerora
bJ lbe aati-. The imaac or Rome cam.e 10 my mind.
too bad a proud aocltot civlllutioo, aod hu maoy
•oeialt mooumoou Would it be rigbl, I thought to to
._ ..
10 1
Romao that alltboao bcauliful aad musivc
:::'"..,':';:."!:,erRoJl DOl buill b! hi! IOCUtors but by ftlle11J
alialsrd - •ad OC:Qipocd n from time to time ? That
Colld b"' lboe
1an a lloolb ,. le .... , that what are believed to be
•arhat.S moou.menta ere in fact our owo
•a .. 4 r.._ Pllna '::jput, Kabatriya-buill maoaiooa
., .. I t la1 a ..: :.. -- OOCqucrccl aocl oco:upied
1 a.. a ; ll,w;
1 11
:"Yctlccl h11o tomba aod
I I IOU a ltUoaloc CODCC!)I.
I)
But h did •••m worlblnvesti&ating. none or tbOte m
011
u.
menu o.aiSlcd bcroro tbo Mu1lim iovuions of India ltartod
abOut 1200 )cart ago, wo rc.acb lhc absurd 1h11
Mohammod Kotlm, Ght'Zlll ond GboH, Bobur ond Kumayoo
waaed wan for I be pooacalon or jull dry. duuy. wioci ..... <PI
pllins .
In my beetle for a aolution or thi• en lam• 1 cbon<cd
to remember on anecdole tbot I happened to rctd aomc yean
.. tHor. II is aaid that Kina llmcs I or Great Brlt.oio ooce aakcd
bia oourtlert as to why tbe water In a pol full to tbo brim docs
not apill even when a tisb b put Into iL Prttumioa tho qu<ttlon
to be basically corm:t the oon-pluucd courtlut IUII'CSttd
vanous answers or wbicb the most plausible oppeared 10 be
that the fish drinks eoouah water u oooo •• It touches th•
surface, 10 allow for its dlsplatcmcot. Obviously tbls aoswer
too ia obsurd. Kioa James thea smiled, so aoestbo story, and
remarked that they wcro all nitwila btautc the qucstlon ittdf
was wrona. ond wotcr did spill. The same holds uue of ladion
mcdiocval mooumC1ltS. The .. ry balic assumption lo lookilll
at mediaeval Indian mooumcota and 11udyina or rcscarcbiDI
their history. thattbey arc Sara..,n·bulltls wrooa. That is wby
the assump1ion lcad110 tbo numcroUJ incoot11te.ncica and con•
uadietlonJ mcntionocl by me above.
Emboldened by thol aoccclote 10 oootloue my srorcb fUrther
1 wu sbockccl to lind that <"len tho very slippery and dubious
references to the monument• lo COOl<mporary or subl<queot
cbroolclu are full of cootradictioos ond inconS&stcoc&cs.
Besides. noi a sioslo scrap of paper or rc<ord .. Ius to show
tho I even o single tomb, fort or mosque wat ever comm!Jslontd
by o sioatc Sara""o cbict or ruler. Thcrc are oo design draW·
lop. oo correspondence or orders rdatln& to tbo anqwsilion or
the site or tho commlasiooinc or the buildioa. no bills aod oo
recelpll for abc material aupplitd or servkcs or<!crtd.
Whot Is more, even such •• ihe TaJ Mihal ood
l<J&tutl Minar do not appear In ooy of tbc court papers or obro·
niclct of contemporary Muslim mooarcrbcs to whom tbty .,,
atcribed. For iOJUDOC the 111m Toj Mabol 4- oot appMr in
any of ShahJobon'a court popcn or in boa otl5<111 "'*-"11

,.
1
And )<I thousaoda ofbooke have
tl'br • • • To) Mahal to ShabJahao Such
•n ,,.ll<ft' 1 tobl< j .. rcvsable lapoOI of profUJioool
lbc ;onumr
,,.. O>•""'"' butotiaottDd ,_,reb aebolara mut1 aok
wbrll " tbcy Ill• .. bc<D toavct or foola. All lbeor
tkmv•
1
wtllt oDd as for retcarcb melbodolo&y lbt•
... ..... #
... ., "' .,. comrlculy t&Dotoot •
A poou
1110
dod oot b.a"" a palace built . durlna lol•
•••• boYC
1
po!a111l mausoleum over b,. corpse. Tbo
CIUOIU" I' ,
miOI bU I WOtld•wtdc app IUitOnJ.
El)'ptOfoaom who jumped .'o the • conclusion tbat • the
Pyromtd
10
which TutcokhameJit remaons wero found wu
huolt u blJ mau10leum obvioutl)l committed a blunder. If a
t
1
v
1
ap Tateakhameo didn't have a palace bow can o dead
Tocenlhlmcn have a pyramidal palace 1 And if Tulenkbamen'a
,_ .. , Al>cd a pyramidal polace over Tuteokhameo'l corPtc
whm 11 Lhat au.,..sont paltce? Wboo ncitber Tutenlthamen
••• hi• ouocesaor bad • moe over thm beadJ bow come one or
bo<h of tlltm haYC 11upendoua mawoleum01 over their loen
!><.loco t
Lack of t.aell.an:biq lop is one of tbc areatesl 1b0w1 of
modem rcourdlm<tbodofoty.
0..• ••,_ iJ lhat tb< Pynui,lds are <:aslles In the deacn
m<I:J bY '2tiout Phatoob wbo lived ic tbcm aod stored their
111lidc tbecr tbe pract!cc of burying dead aotide tbo
l')'n.alldJ •l&nc:d oaly a fur their 111< u ca11Jes ceased and tbo
P)nm•dt """ rtctnled ,. ruico. JIUt 41 people UIC
dcoolatr abndoncd ruined maoslont at public toiletttbcy abo
""d det<ned or ruined at cemeterlct.
Tilt llpcr•aa tides or Py ld
....s •-- "
01 1
are me&ol lo enture lbat ao
on lbcor top duriag lllld ,
llluo bora totall) IDioruided AI • Hlttottant have
._.,. baaod • I tbetr llutonct aod scholarly
00 ltltrr bcanay &lid 'b •
lhar OoOcd. s._
1
belld oreace if 1 may colo
CfiiWlOI .. a totllb.., a "'I hat been evideally io ute for
..... •u "''liiWit they bad prcauc..rd tbat lho
tkit .,.. ,. • ..., lloat ":""••ooed for that JIIIIPC*.
11
it
••=do.
1
I • • • II! our a.rchae411oaical
..., hworical lntboob ulod io
IS
«boolo and colic,.. and ICbolarly ..,I•IDtl
11111
annooeatly dcp<Ddod upon for refcrCDOel 1o r......a
loJtltutiOOL
This serious a1ip bas cost the oatioa durly. lodia h.a•iq
beta u:ode:r alien doa:uo.&ho:a ror over. th.ou:uod yean tba.e
bluaderou.t preaumptiooJ, aod mcmoin uad cbra.aielq
by alieo sycopbaot counien oc by rYI.cu tbtmselvcs (or .c,lf'.
&lorification have acquired • atamp or authority lftd MDCtity
duougb aheer puuac of time. The deod welabt or that
cotostal falrebood now lies 10 heavy aad 10 deep that ....,
lhooo who reolize the great blunder detp>ir of lltinaevrr able
to uproot it. Tbcy, tbcrcrorc. coslp thtmJelvcs to acqaluciac
in what Is being taught as It ia taught. They feel it Ia too Itt<>
lO raise a hue and Cr')t. We are, tbcrcfo(e, caught in a •lctou.a
drcle. We tca.ch fJIIIc hl11ory 10 ttudenu because II ia ..,
writtc.D, and DO 8C-DeratiOD Of bittOC)' $Cholan data qu.es:UOO
that hiltory despite iu contradiclioos a.od absurdities. becaUJC
'Clal is whtt they have been •u&ht.
Coatiauioa IDY rcJUrch tbrouab actaal olsiu to bbtono
sites, aod browsina lhrouah bittorics I have bceo 1ble to pthrr
eonsicknobte evldeae< to prove that all promioe<ll merli.anal
monuments in India, from the. Nilb&t •lld Shailimar in K•,hmtr
t o the Whispcrio& Gallery io Bij•pur are prc-Ulamic R•Jput
<:oostruerions. That enables us to cooctude 1bar aU utaol
mediaeval roads, bridcc.t, caoaU. maru-1o-o5, saats.
mosqu01, a brines and fnr u were only COl>turcd and oocuplocl
Muslim invadcn but never built by them.
I wish to alert biatorians tbai they should not try to oona«t
the hucrlptioDJ on monumeotJ with I be origio of the : .oou-
.meott where there is no clearcut, iodcpendcnt corroborodw
evideoco to that eiTect. Viaecol Smolb is ri&bl wb<n he obserVu
an bls book "Akbar the Great Moaul" that Akb:u had 1narmy
of saono oune11 ready to ooarave any lenerioa he ltkcd on cap-
tured mooumeou. The lnacrlptloDJ on Fatchpw Sitri tllOD"'
menU arc '""b eosnvlnp. That It why tbc &U<'*' of cli6<rcot
hiJtoriaDJ telardioa I be Fatebpur Sikri antcriptiooJ ooatlll.loa
one acolher ace! cod up 10 conf111ion, We all kaow from
experience that pocoocketo ..:raw! therr ...,.... all o•cr tbo
llltTOJtiCAL aaseA..Cllt
I'
111
This ;
1 1
common bumoo foilina. So
_. .. .,.a.u tbC1 ".
1
;wn a.amo 00 ttolcn uteDtilt to oatabliah
altO loO<f'buoJ -,
1
on•• t<)ASCitnce ia abo not unknown
. dWD or J"' to d'd • •
oee • radi•'• oloen 00aqueron o on ""'"Y
'All 11 wbll t.b< cooqutrO< bat o>ed an .. r!!u monuQient
Mall¥ 0 toll< pooroo<ol
1
ta
1
c to scrawl on it jut I what he liked
__ ......... . . h h b •
.
1
bostoroans w o ave luod<r<d lo
(ll lOtio CIJC' I It _., •
1
t bctft<D tho subS«!•••• loscnptlon and the ear.
'""'"' •
10
1
mislead loa """terity Into the belief thai it wu
lllf .,.,oom<D r--
tllo
10
,.,.bcr ,.bo buolltbc monument.
Soob antouoded credulitY bas lll&de biatorlaot lose sight of
the f&el tMI lbo so<alled 1omb of Mohammad Gbaua
81
GwoUor, tboshtinoofSallm Chieti at Sikri ond of
Hauol Nizamuddlo In Delhi wboch toolc hke ornate lompie
1
ere In teet
1
emplu. It ia lbis gullibillly wblob hoa led historians
bol....c tbetlbc Mutlim invaders were such proli6c builder•
tllallh<Y built palati•l tombt not only for bated. de<:cascd
rulm but also tor noble men like Safdarjans and for even lowly
p<01>1c bke bhbt&et.jemedera, pollen, wei nursu and
u6 mo for uim•l pots.
Blunthr {'(o. I
Indian Monument.s Credited lo
Alien Muslims
The fbst blunder lhM 1 ttumblcd mcross in Indian I
rcscurcb lhus ha.ppct1cd co be about the orisio of mcdlAcvat
monumcot;..
Before cum1nma the promtnent monuments one by ooc we
would 11kc to po1nt out to tho io,rcdulou• that we can produce
• Ions list of mooumenll which historians hue acuptcd 1o be
deceptively Muslim tbou&)l r .. tually c31Ucr !iindu bulldiop
ThiJ primafotlr cue •bould eomp<l their ocbolarly ktttntioo
to our cootcntioo ce&llrdana all tbe otber mcdiae¥11 mooumcnta
The foroncr Puoyc,hWllr ond Nanyaaub"ar templct U1
Poooa arc now known u Sbcikb Solla Darsabs biJ ood ..,Ill
respectively. Mabamahopadhyaya Ootto Vamao Potdar, a •ell
known bistorlon anclex·vice chancellor of tbc l'oona Unovcnity
rocntiooe.d 1h11 fact ln addccu aJ ch:urmaa of•bc. rccepiiOD
commmec of the indian Hillory Con&rcss, Silver Jubilee
sc»oon held In Poon• in Ocaember 1963. The to-e>llcd Data
Peer In Oonuh Pcth, Punt as a capturfil Oauotreyo tempt..
The ('lo1quc at Ollar In C.nlrol lndlk
has now for pool few ycor• been reluctantly odmltted to be !be
aoctent Saraswolt Kanthabluuana wbcre Sa.ntkdt driliiS&\ in"'
crlb<d on non• ponelo u1ed to bo preserved. Tbc btlploso
rcwlutloo followod tbo oell·tale crumbling or comouOaa•nll
plutcr,
The famous Lloaamoh•laya • arut Sll•va ltmplc 11
Soddhapur on Oujaral Ia acill b<ooa u«d u a mosque.
The Kosbo Voahwanotb tompl< In Vorarwi h <till bo••• uocJ
aJ a mosque.
II
1b< romow Son>natb teJllple was reputed to be aod ""
1
t .. -t b<oOI uJCJ al • (llO<qUC until India became free
Bntotb tulr
00
.,
01
tb< partouon not> it diocovered tbat a
""**•• on tbe Oanbl K!l•o loeahty.of. Oid Delbo, oiu Prtuy
00
aumtrOUJ H1ndu dt.iues dastcrcd nl 11s ba.stment.
Tbc Adbao-don·ka·Zopda 11 Ajmer bas beco uoi••raauy
adtllined ,
0
be a pan of Vigrahnaj Visbaldeo's seminary,
Tbe
1
o-callcd Kutub Minar at Delhi is now widely admitted
10
be on eatlicr Hindu tower. Sir Sayyad Ahmad, father of the
M••llm uaauc and a rounder of the Aliaarh Mu.sllm Uoivcr-
&fly, Is said co bavc admitted that "the current tradition which
oocnbc•the Mloll' (Qutb) and tbe adjoining temple, to the
HonduP<rlod appears to be eorn<:t."
Tbeoe arc only a few costances. But if a comprcbeosivt list
...,. to be made of monuments all over India which arc even
today odmoucdly Hcndu !bough ostensibly Muslim, I am sure it
.. ould tun onto thousands.
Tbm innancn stRogtbencd my doubr. and I sllrtcd
dOJCiy eumooon& tbe other monuments aKribed to Muslim
rulen. And surprisingly enough 1 found that they revealed
<DOush evideoc:c to eouvlncc an opeo miod about their Hindu
orlgon. After havina tnl\dc our a prima faclt case let us now
c:u?'loe some of rbe major .,.en known monuments throuahout
lndoa to ... Whit proof .... find or their Hindu orisin aod or
tbc iocontlstcnclca apparent in them to be Muslim
'*IIIIMilons.
l.<t1ll font have a look at Kashmir. Only a few centuries
bact. tbo vale of Kubmor reverberated to the chant of Sooskrlt
mA'IU.. Raono of bancred Roodu buildings cao Slill be &een at
MIIII&D4 and oth« 11tes io Kashmir. Tbe name of 111 capital,
Sl1111pr Sloll pure Snsknt The name of tbe river Jhelum
!"
1

1
111
1 the valley. II derived from cbc Saoskrol word
I UD frJCIDIDI "w t ·• Th b ·
phil • er . e I nne or the sreat Saoskrot
Sbt.Uaraebuya, oa a bill io Srinaaar, 11 a famous

Vrrl .. l
About lO mUct bcrore we tca.c.b Sno.atar u a chvcnao.o
ludo us by a 1o-11 milo motonblc r....S co Vcnoaa.
Ttus markl the aource or I he river Jhclum tthieh cmuac:s u ,
-c-lear blue water lount rrom under tbc surface oo pla1n a.od
level ground. Verlnaa IS • •H&bl Yl.fllliOD or tbc SaoJ\ut
VARINAO meanioa " Water Serpeoc". Hindus arc ko!Tim for
their eob111 wor1hip. Popular Hindu lore credits a cobra wltb
being tbc mllln prop or our earth. Tt\JC to tradition. tctnple
..of VarJnas still oc.nlc• lo o. abonty under a nearby tree. Tbc
r-iver-fount is enclosed in 11 small circular cistcro. ArounsJ tbc
-<=•nero •s a 8 to tO feet hi&h plinth w'itb a«bcd vau\u:. lnJ1.de
these d:nk vauh.t, •rc audcnt Hindu s.tone ima.a:e• nm wotahlp-
9Cd by Ooara prleau wearlna turbaos no tbelr bead• aod
JAJldal paste mat'k' 00 roreheads. Nearby can be seeD the
remains or extensive plinths clearly and1cating lOme budd·
ing wbicb. stood tbere b.u demolished. These todlcauoaJ
o.rc enough to coovtocc an •mpuhal observer that tbe aDCtC1\t
Varinag temple wblcb stood there wa• desttoycd by Mullolll
-conqucron. The aru if acanted b sure to yield more. iaL.-JU
and other evidence. lo 1pitc of thiJ ovenohel111fnc evidco« a
<omparalively rtttnL uditonc tablet hal been interpolated 11
the s:itc to announce io Urdu tbat tb.t ma.soary "'·or\
enclosiog the rount was tonltruetcd •• Akbar's or Jahan&ot''
behest.
That claim c.annot J:ltnd cros.s·uatnination. Tbc cxtont
ma1onoy con5tructlon soloh as it is "'ould hardly do credu oven
to common hnu\eholdor or moderate me1.1o1, much luJ
to • mlshty emperor of Jllndusthan Eocfosong rlver·founllln
<lstcros Is a boly duty ror II indus while ct bas llCVCf been & part
or MusiJm tradition. Had a Muslim emperor beeo tbe
tbe premosel would have been a mosque ClOd oot tbe bounl of
Hiodu priests and Hindu deotfcs. Ancient Hindu tllll&<l •od •
fCCC01 amprovlscd temple ar Varin•& could DC\'C[ have
or tbesote, Moreover. the oamc Varinll "'ould bavelOOJ bad
been chanscd to aometbiDJ on tooorout Araboc. Alltb ... ....,.
-alder-Ation• tbow that inuead or undert•tioa aoy k·ld•ot-
CX>nllruction on the 1ite. Akbar and Jabaaaor da110)..! tt..

INDIAN
aoc:orao Varioaa temple to which tbe exlstrna plinth beara
111010
WICGcM.
l)oll..,.no bot 1101 Balltlcn
lb1t rocldtatally lc.tds to an oncil:.ry prondple. l1lo
proaaplc" tbat wb<acYU tbe "at?" or. Muslim ruler ""••boa
IO aiDOOUIIICDt which (rom ali eVIdence IPpe&n tO be of HiQdu
or•aia, the Muslim rul<r must be regarded . at conqueror
and ddlrO)<r of rhat monument rather than us bu1ldcr,
Vs. Fscrual £yidcncc
Ler us also be clear about another poin1. Diehnrd bistorlan
1
ore prone ro deory tbe kind of evidence, I am leading, as mere
rbeomona and <ODJCCtorcs. They clamour for wbar they call
daCilmrnrary crldcnce. Let me tell them that tbey koow not
•hal rht) are tolkins about. Firstly, they themselves have been
sultry or bavina 11cribed tbe various mediaeval monumeots to
doll'cnnt Mullim sultar.s and emperors on mere hearsoy worbour
ony documcauuy proof such as wage·bills, bluc-pronrs and day.
14>-day uptDJ< aoxounu of tbe monumenta. At timet they have
bad tbe ftltnly support of a few sly statements on the memoirs
or Murlun nlltu and <brooidCJ or mediaeval •Muslim Wttterr,
mo.tly tmp!o}ed by tbe ruleu themselves. Butrbey know fully
"'lit• I do that are ever so maoy veuions of these
rncmoono aod ebrooiclCJ wlddy differing from each other, and
cursory references 10 a few monuments are found io isolated
.. ntona. HiJtoriltnt also know that these chronicles nod
mcmonaare aotariaus for eooraining w11hrul thinking. half·
trutht, II'Ois prevaroclltions, and deceitful cbauvim·
Ilk claims
In ••ru.l hfe we are confrontd with suspictoua
decumcou oo tb ' d d
e DOC So t U COntradictory (nctual evideOCC 00
tht othrr
11
,. alway• the 14tter which prevoils Take the
"'
11
"-of ad d bod · •
.,. n .,..
01
Y lyooa by the roadside, whocb has • note
Tbat 10:!";
1
"
01 10
"Y that t ht 1'<110n b,.. commuted suo cod<·
. ....,_. :S."' • .. y doeumeotary cvodcnee. But wtll our
.._ llloup ot and refuie to '"'CJtlaare the de•th
• CO. rlocle>callcd f.!::"
1
• '"Ouod in t be back ? l o aucb
.....,, Wtll ht thrown awdy as trash oocl
11
tbc de.atb will be tovctliaatod u murder. The: ume pri.Dc•pJ.e
oppllts to medla<"ll monumcats which ore JU11 lokc dt&d
bodiea tylna mulllolcd and hovo ausplclOUs autcceden11. Let
001, therefore, lradilion-bound hlttofillllt make I fttbb Of-
caned documentary proor aod I brow their band• up ia a.uaulat·
ed honor at tho kond or cvidenc:c I am feadmg. The above
.. ptonarlon abould eonvln<:e them lbot the kind of cvodcocc I
am lcadina un .rood in a courr of low for deeblve judamcoto,
•• aplon the kind orruroay and fabricated bland Alltcmenll
that they hove been ban kina upoo-ood that too in • vory few
caset. All thcJe ccnaurie.J.
NIJbll aad Sbothnu
fuvlos donlt obove with IOmo considerations (uodamcnlal
to my thcsiJ 1 1ball now tum 1.0 1 few 01hcr moou--
monll In Kaahmlr. Thtre are two htaurirut landscape aardeno
in Kashmir, known u Nisbat and Shalimar. Hillery hos
wrongly a.scrobtd rbcm ro rbc Moautr. Nilbat and Shalimar (t
variation of .Sbahmor&) ore both Saosknr wordL Nlshar meoo1
"well trimmed." A a aucb tl can apply ollly to prden• Tbot 11
aloo a currcot Htndu 1umamo prevalent in K&shmir SlSDiryooa
a very talented and accomplished ramUy. Shalim•rs means "o
m011nroio rrock windloa throuah rice fields (sal) or tbrouab 11111
limbtr trees (lhol) ...
Throuahout the gordeos ooe cso dlscero a plinth patcern
suggesting that the gardens were enclosed by fortifioatooos ond
were part or dcmollahcd palaces. Their still sr ... d. u
do the walls and but ions on aome Oanlcs. Tho aatewayure In
the ornate Hindu aryle. Buld .. , the Mogula with their, .. , In
far-away could by no atretcb or lmlraioation_ bope to
enjoy tbe beauty nnd coollb of cardens loid 700 nut .. away
The way, moreover, fay tbJouab dense foresta and lleop holly
country. A vish to Kasbm1r tbeo was.. as tC iJ C\'CD aow. an
•PliO or modern air SttvlO<S, but I dream. F'or I Moaul
monarch to tra>ct>o !bat d"taace at rbc letillrely P•ce ol an
elephAnt ond wtlh all hb "'Uitb aad penon lllld harem upoocd
to hostile a !lacks, (Of rhc dub;oua plcuure of •peadlllJ a few
cool boun rn Ni1hat and Sbaltmor, io a life-UDI<, ,. .. silly
io the Ulfeme
22 INDIAN HISTDRtCAI. IlJs&.aCllt
The .. me IIJUment applies to what called tbc Sba
Clllm>a the royal fount. That fount bad beta Patr b.
,..s by tbe H1odu of Kashmir throuah the aacs, b Ool-
1u Urdu name "ShJ.bi Chasma" is a mere translaUon

old Sanslrit oame, Raj Nirzar.
Tbc name of Kashmir's famous llllre "Dal" is also or Sa
knt oraa1n "Oal'' means a leaf and signi6ct foliaae. Tbc n:
1ns ptdeos 10 tbat lake aod its abounding lotus plants

'
permantnt aur•ction which eltplains the name " Dal".
0
Tbc names of ntany other tracks in Kashmir arc still
Sanskrit, such as Sonmarg (mea nina a golden P11tb) and Oul.
marg which was formerly i.e. lho path of 0 odd<J&
Oaurl. The name Cbandaowadi Is also purely Saoskril.
II will lhus bo teen that in Kashmir there ie hardly any
1racc or Muslim culture excepl in its populalion whicb wu
fort1bly conve"ed 10 Islam.
Another place lroown as Zaio Lanka In Wular Lake, wu
built by a kin& called Ravaoa whose name is found aa
1001
K.ubmir's pre-Muslim Hicdu rule"'. Since in the Ramayana
Rav>lll's capital wasl.aolca it was that Hindu Kina Ranna
who hwll tbt palacc in the Wular lake and called it w ka.
Liter when a Muslim ruler called Zajouudin made it his rw-
dcoce the palace got associated wi1b bis rumc. Our bistoriaos
wbo, therefore, wen thot Zainuddio built t he Lanka palace 10
Wular Jake are guilty of a &ross error.
This should suftice lo convince all tbat "11 mediaeval moou•
mon1•, •ueh as •oy « ist, io Kashmir were buill by pre· Muslito
RaJput rulen. .'' the Muslims bad built t hem, they would
:e .. , have COD JUred up Sanskrit names for those mo.oumeoll.
1oleovcr, we would have also been able to lay our ha.ods on
concnaiag the con.nruct•oa u:" :t-.e moou.meot! , la
""
1
1D eou" tcccnds Previous RlttJUt record• were all burnt
by tbo M111Lom rulen In their faootic wratn ao<! also witb •
••cw to claam OWOCnlup and authorship of the bllildiogs tbe.lll•
ocl•ct In the •IKcaee of the occcuary documcoll on e11bet
lOde ... b&>e tO WlD tO factual eYldCDCc WbiCh II OverwbclaJ-
UliJJ ID fa. our or Hmdu, IUj pul authorship or all mcdaacval
Uf01Al4 NOI'CVNflrnS C&f01TI!l> TO AUEH lfUILU.U 1)
bualdiop In India-be they mouscleuUII, tombt, sbrmcs.
motques. font or
To hiltorians who 1lill fail to see the COS<II<Y &Del fote;t of
above factual ancl argummts I would IUgcA that
tbey bcuer a.earch tbe1r bearta and ascc:nai.o. whether It i.a their
proressiooll fear of losa of face wbicb is muqucnd1a1 aa
righteous JOholnrly iodi8llllfOO II the ID-Otlled abKoC<t of
doeume• tal')' evidence. Th•y may tbcmse)vcs ponder on the
roct whether their traditional clainu in favour of Ibis or that
sullao, oro based oo documtnlary evidence.
There Ia aloo no rcuon why we should express despair and
hclplcsrncu In the absence or documentill)' evidence and the
falsity of mediaeval chrooiclu. We never display sueb utl<r
helplessness wbcn we have to investigi1te, say, a murder eom·
mined wilbout even a ot apparent evidence. lt iJ common
day-to-day uperieoce that sucb murders are ultimately brouab\
bome 10 the murderen oo the basis of SlfOng and trrtfullbl<
cirrumsraotial evidtn". This should prove that wbenever we
arc faced wieb falsification, abKJICC ot dC$1tuchOD C( dDCWIIt%1·
tary evidence we cao arrive 11 indi•putable eooc:lusioos wilb
the help or cirtumslaotial evidcoet. II is prcci1ely because
Scholara of Indian history paid DO heed tO Ibis very SOWid and
well•tned metbod or JUdicio.l fovesligatioo tbat Indian med1&•
oval h111ory bappeos to be riddled with numerous 1ncont1Sien·
citt, contradictJons. Bbturditacs and eaigmas.
fl is • pity I hoi olltbosc who wrote mcdiaovallodian biiiO.
ries fai led IO take nolice of ell tho rclcvllllt facts before
jumping to lhelr cooclusions aod raising moouera of myths
which they ond we all find difficult 10 gel oiT our chest.
In Punjab lb<r< arc I be Piojorc Oardeos falsely &a'rabed 10
tbe Mog\lb. tnvodors doo'llay aardeos in victim countries.
DELHl MONUI\f£ NTS
OOIIerallons or biSIOrian• llld 11\rougb them peOple tbc
world over bave been roundly fooled In belinlll& for lbo laM
several ctnturits that most ur tbe mooumcata to
Dclh1 were bu1h by lis Mushm monarchs. Tbcy "•re ao1. All
lbe mooumcn11 belona to the pu-Musluu era a..S wne bu1ll by
INOIAH IIISTOkiC'At. a.BSilA•cu
2'
• rule" Evon lhe tomb• and
Pt!Ait r<<· \l .. lom bel e•ed to sheller lhe , roves O( Mushm
• •
1
eviOot: Hindu a nd lemple.s
naJrn oDd "'"'" ••• pr
ttpolch<"-
tan>«< ICIO m••"
10
rnediaen l Muslim rulers
bCK moau "-""'""'
Ia u:r•bc•l
1
ided by b••""Y or by bland JtolemenlJ
hJ12(iftaDI bate btCn •:tborilltt or cblu\·iniuic Mu&hm cbr4ni ..
"' lbe ordlnory pr<eatilloo or bavros these
del>. lliJ tal. roumscantial evidence we have
at"'-''""" vcro6rd by gle whiclllw struck deep roo11 In
f-,eno ar&red lbO prel<.d .·;d of bistoty,
,..,W1Qmt:nl rccor • . •
romlncnt rnooumcnll ' " Oel h1 should
A rev•<" of

reeder that rh<i< bulldloss • much
•uft1et lo . asoos slurtcd. In fact the monumcnls
l)c(Ore the t;fu\J m IllY I own limeS 3tC but 3 fraCiiOn Of tho
that hll't survived that exl&ted in India when Muslim
tmmro'llltCtuttc:luns .. ,. ,
I
'ct the abundllDCC or sucb polallll tnln·
UI\'1J1NU •larltd n •• .
I
•• ... If one of the &r<aiCSI Att taChOnJ tO
ttOCi a ad ctmp ts w- ''--
tbt 1ondcn.
CIINNINCRAJ\t:S CUNNli"C
Old Aknlldcr Cuaaialham (a retired militWI co&ioeer)
hod CIIDlliDPTili&J<Sted
1
n his lcttct dated September IS, 1842
to CoL sl Ln (in LGOdon) when Cunningham was a mere 28·
,
01
-old that a.Uuolo!}' could be used as a subtle
j,ru.tiCilarsd rtlltioul tClOI to pcrp<tuatc Briusb rule over India
01id •ptctd Cbriitianity. That letter may be seen at pnge
of Volumt VII of lhe ) tat 1843 in lbc Journal of the Royal
As•allc SG<lct)', London.
A !ulltr o«ouol may be bad in my llOO.pnge book titled
D VEDIC 11£RITAGE in 11 special titled An&lo-
M..._ Arcbatolocltll Co111plrll:)'.
II ••• btu usc of Cunoln&ham's crofcy suggestion that he was
oppooo11d the fln1 an:lueolociclll cblcfio lndia after hlJ retire•
...., !ooa rhc Bru .. h lodiao army though he did oat kno., a
llaill abtoat on, arch•t«tun: or IIIICicnt Indian biJtory.
'' wu Ia hl• U!*lt) •• lhc 6,.t archaeolot:Jcal chief tlul
C&uoo•pa• CODCOcrtd orcb&colo&!C&I rtcordo and put up
&ham nodco •t historic. mooumen1s wuuooly ao4 ta.Dd.omly
1Krib1DJ tower.. ma.o.doos, font. tOWrubipa_ lea. caoalt etc.
to JOmc ruler. courtier or fak.tt
Cunnioaham abo lnvcnccd the myab tlat var.ou.s Mu.Una
ruJcrs bu1h KVCQ Cclict OC DcJbJ,. Cuaninaham doan•t ClfC. C'VCD
aD Iota or cvldtncc aoywbcrc... He didn't bl.-\l't to bec:auJC he
wa• the bi& bon ora newly act· up depa.rtmeot meant to play
h_avoc witb fodian I JChacolosy.
Oeneratlons or Kho1ars have t incc bi&h tcadem.c
dcgn:u and occupied biah academic and govcrnmeolol pod.
tions and bnvc been pufveyJna Cunnlnaham•s cuno1og (abriOII·
iioos. That is why all the aooCalled upcrts ia Muslim or Moalll
arc nod architecture: in variouJ lad ian and overR&I unWcnhlet.
·colleges and museums IUt" all a misguided lot. Their bt.ada arc
crammed wlch (alse IUtOnng.
Cunningham transferred tbo entire Hindu architcccurat
credit to a o1l Muslim account to spite: the Hindus eM elate
the Muslims bopint thereby fo create a bone or cooteotloo.
which he hoped would pcrpetoate British role ood •h•lc,
Cbristiu dominaclon ia India .•
Red Fori
Let us stan our review with 1be Rc<l Fort, PritbYitOJ Ru<>,
a cootemporary chrooicle tella us that Pritbvirp.j lived oo a
palace on the bank o f the Yamuna river. Traditional KCOiiOU
a.lso tell us that PrilbvJraj"t pals.cc was kaowa &J l.oi·Kot l, t .
• red-walled sttuclure. The only building in Deihl wblcb
answers four .. squarc 10 tbese two spe:cificatioos is wbDt is today
known as lho Red Fort, And yet the Mogul emperor Sbahjalwl
is bciog wrongly aivcn the Credit or havloa buill the Red Fort
ia Oolbl .
Taimurlana who iovaded Delhi In 1398, !bat is n .. rlY :!50
years before Shohjoban, refers to Old Delhi whO'SC lnhabluau
he mas.sacrcd. And ycl Old Delhi it mcotiooed in our bl&toria
u a coty fouoded by Sbahjobon. Tbc Rtd Fo11 la Dell» u the
very fG<al point or Old Delhi. In fact Old Delhi 11 but1t arouod
tbe oalal road-The Cboadn• Cbowk whlcb JOIDI the Red
Fort wilb tbe buoldlna ,.boch" oow koowo u the Fatcbpun
26 IND<AN IIISTOiliCAI.
lof(l(qOC bot •hich was tbe temple of the btrcdhary cleh
Ddbl't Hindu n>lert. So e\'ell 400 bc:fore Shahjahoo
Odht .,,tb ' '*Red Fon aod tbc: mato tratllcanery, the Ch&Ddnl
(:llo'a'k dtcl .... ,
Tbe Yamuna bank to tbe rear of the fort is lroown as Raj.
bst. Thai it
0
s.mkrtl word. It could not have stuck 00 uo1eso
.. of Rojas lad occupied the Red Fort Prior
10
Shabjahan and btS Muslim predc:ccuors. No Roju ••or
n>led from tbe Red Fort afrer Shabjahan, the fifrb &oneration
MoJul empuor. Had Shabjabllll built the fort, the bank atreteh
of the Yamuna ott be rc:ar would lulve bee.o known as 8adabob
Obal aod not RaJabat.
The Otlbl 1110 of tbe fort bas a pair of stone elephant• out·
11
dc 11. IJiam strictly forbids the raising of any images wbilc
RaJpUt mooarc:hs w<rc koowo for tbeir love of the elephant.
Oo oltber side of I be fort archways are embossed JIOOC·
IIOftT e111blems wbicb appear oo all mediaeval Hindu buildiop.
Ruooio1 water channels, through whicb Yamuna water
cowted tiJ way throughout the fort, again suueat Rojput
eoonfiJCtioo bc:etuse Muslims witb a desert tradition eould
never bavo tbouabt or ruoniog-watcr channels.
Tbe Sbtavao aod 8bado pavilions and tbe Kosar Kuod io
tbt: Otw.o·I·Khu aro acaio all Hindu terJDS.
Tbe Diwan·i·Kbas and the Oiwan-i·Am do not have a
aio&Je dome or minaret which the Muslims are belicvod to
nllitt oo. The marble balcony in which the ruler Uicd to aitltl
tbe Diwao·i·Am bas a t.tmple type ceiling with stalnctltc
coda sucktn8 out obliquely. Tbc Diwao-i·Kbat bas a alrlklng.
&imtllnty Wttb tho royal apartment inside Am bar (old Ialpur)
but!t by the RaJputs lo pre-Muslim timet.
E•cryooe or the Mo&ul rulers bad a harem of 5,000 won>CO
•• -ltoned to momoln and cbTooiclel. All of tbcm. abc rul<r
btlll>tl( aocl hJs maoy Cbtldrco could by DO stretch Of imtliDI-
tioa be to tbc two-three rooms thai compose
tbc Di•u·t Khu.
A martlc arm wall our abo Diwao·i·Kb•• dttplay•
1
belaocc moor aymbollc of royal justice. Tbc Moaul rulert wP
ttmJAW WONUMOCTJ ca£DIT1."D TO ALICH NUJUMS
27
reptded 99 pc_r eeoc or rbdt aubjcct.t as mere vumia coo16
ne.vcr tb10k O( ftAuntin& thai f)"mbol Of JUStice in thcu paJ.acc.
But the Rtjput "'lers td•il<d by their Brohman eouoclUon did
ccrtalnly hove tbe clispcotolioo of jutokc u ooe of their
primary ruottions consraody impressed oo them throu&h tbc
acalcs motlr.
Tbc tnd tbo Dlwao-i·Am have a mandap
style Hmdu workmaosbip. Besides, tbe Oiwan·i·Kbas.
be11.rs :t clo,;e rescmbtanco to the Interior palac:c lo Ambat (Old
Jo!pur) built oround A.D.
A Persioo couplet inlold on o woll or the l>iwao·I·Kh ..
proclaims the placo at a veritable *l:teave.o on Earth'. Sucb a
bout cao only emanate from a captor. Had Shahjaboo bc:eo
the or!gloal builder of tho fort he would never hive deocribcd
tbe buildin& in such superlltive terms. Tbe oriS-irtal buildc:r It
oncn very modest about hi I CODJtructioo. Moreover a builder
is more- C:ODICious of tbc buildinc's deft:etJ to ever lhiot of call•
iog it a verilable • Heaven on Earth•.
. Aoother Important psycholoaical prlodple also appliC$ io
th1s cue. A penon colll his bulldi•l a abed( or a eotta&c rotbcr
than a paradise. It i• elso wort_hwb.ile co.nsidcri.o& thaJ no
matter bow beautirut a wife a man may bavc be would. oevc
1
sbout about her beauty tbe road square or bou.KIOPL
Similarly a person wbo tolls eod apcods moocy to build a
bu}ldlos is not the one who bouts abouttt. Oo tbe other hod
netgbbours or strMgefl who hove an evil ey< on o building or
• wornan, are the one; who pral'" tho physical b<auty or tbooc
• • We bave eo octuollaotaoco from mediaevlll hiflory.
Padmtnt, the queen of Cbitor fort Is fomcd ror her physical
allure. There could h•ve been buodrods of women as b<autiful
as bcr •n lodto's Kshatriya bousebolda. But histories lave boon
•ilent recard•nJ> their physical bt:auty promcly bt:cau$0 IUCb
beauty wu never bra&aed about 11 least io Indio iD public. Bot
Pad mini's phy•ical bt:auty nmc to b< about ooly bc:et-
the >lien in•-.drr Allauddio KhPJt was so a>amotmd of btt
that he moved hav<o ood hell to capture her. Tbio aboulcl
convtooc •i•itors to tbc Red Fort, ood hhtonaAJ that the twa,.
&in& Pcr>Oao couplet •• the D••••·•·Kbu 11 yet aootl>6 _,.
- INDIAN lit.n'OafCAI. I
•• tl•••O!t
,,,.,., rroortblt tb< cc>uplet was iolald by the captor,
0
ron wbo, dADkd b7 tile Otnlle beAuty Of the moouiiii'Q I lilt
a• to tbelll u war booty, cbuacteriud It a,
1

,.,.., ...
from the Red Fori we see that tbe two Oeo
alon...., oely a llooe't rbrow from the fort, are botb '"'
Mulllm. Ooo la tbc red Jain Temple ud the other tho o:"":
Slwtbr Temple. Hod Sbahjallall bu!lt Red Fort he ...
never bave allo"ed the two ooo-1slamoesbnnes to remain thtrt.
Tbcsc tWO temples are there beeowe the fort WU tOOilruttOd
by tbe RajpOIIte•eral centuries before Sbahjabao.
Cbandol Cbowk, tbo maio thoroilahfare stemmlna rrom tbe
1or1 lo almost oxclusovety inhabited by Hindus. Had tbe
MoJUis buOt tho fort we should bave seen Turks, Arabao
1
,
Pmlloo, Arabs. Abyasoooaos and Hindu converts sell led lo
Cblndoo Cbowk
The wbole of Old Ddlll bu a teemios and ovcr-wbtlmloa
Htodu pepulatloa. lo its complicated, winding alley• all their
lobuta too 111< boilr Ia tbc rradirioaal Hindu llyle. To maioralo
tk!acrvdd .. por llh Sballjabao boih bouus for Hinduuod
rOITllrd tho •bole city with a -massive wall is absurd. As
tosri6es Old Delhi exi11ed eeoru-
roa bd'oro Sba!ojabao.
II •aalut such over,.btlmios proof ooe or rwo out or
DIIIDCIOUS widtly dill'trina spurious veniool or the McmOIII of
illllbJihao, cooralo a passins rcftrcoec 10 some fort and some
tOWD rounded by Sl!abjabao b!Siorians must at once spot tbe
<111m 1o be unrounded aod dishonm.
Muslim cbronlclcs smack or the Arabian Nlahll.
chroaides arc fairy tales inreuJnd ro humour the ao•cr·
tho patroo ooblemao and wiD owards ror rbe $Crlbc .
• .., ... rl&ll ot ........ .
s .-, as we OlltKIVCl improvrsc Impromptu
-.."or IIIII Jade ma
1
d ·
-
10
• &oc pa aees wbeo rccouorln& be rome
.. rw.t. • Brttllb biJtoriaos Sor H.M. EIJool
- .. • .._ _ bne rcpcal<dJy poillted out wholo com·
a alia"
10
• • of Mllllom monarchs lbat tbooe
I8JWaa tbat the mooareb or tho ,fa••••l
2.9
D
t"fiD 10 ,.t,U.l'C ... U5UM5
EJ(1'S c;aB
ft40ltU'M ubhc coo.sumptioo to
u bt to include ror P r medi•eval MuJIIm
o;:tlbe (loCitd ! iabt•VOIUIIIC ttudy
0
that <he boSIOtY ol
II>< pr•f•"" blo late Sir H.M. 1!1\iOI aod lDietc.stcd
cbroolclCS l c I dll ••is aG unp
... •vslim era ao n
tbc. , ... ,
rraud." I d abOUl Oellu'S num<rOUI
hi
ro be oot ce bs aod lllliU><>-
A suao&c t oa so maoy t.oUl
oumelltl iJ tbat there cve:aces. We have the auma)'UD
wirbOul corrdpondtD& . (kbao Tomb, Lodl Tomb.
,.:mb. Kb!LD tomb, Billtiar Kakl
All•uddin Kholjl To b and a host or otb<ts·
Tomb, Nizamuddin Tom h ' Muslim succts>ion w.s
Students or history all and parricidal conllicu.
always attended by bloody I ' t cooceivable tbal tbe successor
Under such circumstance! for tbe bated predoceuor
would .,ver build 4 paloroal • blood all his life. And could tl
aft<r tblrsrin& for rbc former s I ror himself or blS cboldren
bo built no po ace •
be thAI a ptrson w I . I tomb built for bos predoces-
. " . bad • P• aua
duriaa btJ lue rome •
1
tomb built for himself after

1
ro bad o palatta c!
.sors. an-d u u ? Was some sort o( a tomb--blUI •
dutb by bll suocesso I A rulin& monarch will build hundreds
. ct between them h -·· r
ong pa r bimKif tnd bis child reo before be ever I ,,... 0
or .P;:•ces O:tarllll tomb for • dead ancestor. Botfl tbeso con·
• P bould coovioee any serious student or hlstory t hat
SJdcraroons
1
• di alace1
1hc.rc are ever ao many t ombs wttbout correspon og p .
the Mushm monarchs butlr neither tombs nor palaces.
'The alien Mushm nobility and ruling famlliu found "
plethora
0
r Hindu c.aptured bu11dings which were used ns resi-
dences whole alive and tombs after death. This also explains
wby tho bodies or Allauddln KhiiJi ood lltmusb have been un·
ceremoniously tucked oway in lhlme outer apartments or tbc so-
ClUed Kutub Mioar building complex. Aocoeot Hindu shes
coosbtioa or captured palaees, temples and mansions wcte
frtcly used to bouse the living aod the dead. TbaltS why we
6nd them Otnate t=ple-like srrocturos aod spacious palatial
bulldiogs 'This leads to another or my historical &odtop wbtcb
lboulctserve as a key to tbe IIUdy o( Indian mediaeval btJIOry,
that "bat is believed to be the tomb or a Muslrm ruler or
""""" " ....... CAL at:JIA&CM
it uJllll ruideDCC or •t
•• .- 5<> 1 po.-'• tomb
l',.. .. _...,_al ...
;.. .. ...-,; :,Jon.,..,..
_ .. .
,.OIJII4...,.. ,_ ;ndftblt' &
0
,,.rwbeiJIIrDI proof
t1ro ,.,.o Mill' . b•Jillr<dl or ycJrt before
A..... 1l nJo rollfl f.(iSllDf to ucribc tbc tower to
ttrll • ... • d ,.,,.,.,.. ,, .. ,.,..,
, ... ...., .. ..
Kttoi!OM" b vutub Mioar II known as
• od"'lolDI I ' "
no .,.r "' ,.qrd Mibira·aw•ll. It JignlficJ
,...,, not b. Sud<trlli br•"" lltrODOmcr Mlhlm or
.., .-1r1t •brl<

wrtb bi• hclp<tt, mathcmati-
v....,..,.'""'tt U nqUJ«<tbe so-coiled Kutub tower u
-,.; -mi<aJsmdy. Around tho tower
••
1
tlle17a>Oifell•tions ottbe Hrndu

:woo.
1M Uti .., ldl u u auaiptioo WI be demoyed
...,
110
.-r.tllr )II aot wd th11 be raisrd aoy to>' cr.
nr......,. ......,.d » Klnr.tt·ul·ulam mosque.
- dlllodpd frvm til< so-coll<d ,Kutub Minar have
..., ...., cro- odo •rth Anblc leuerlos on the other •
.,.._..., -• rirl>o>'Cd to the Mu.eum. They
....... dlllltlll• Ianden used to remove the If one-
..... O(HI6da bWidJIIP, """the "ooet inside out to bide
"' - r....r ud l..,.itre At•blc leuering on tho new
,_,.
llaaiSitrtltltlolr:Q-'·JU ''II ,
- ,...,
010
lu be decrphcred In the
,._ Cll 111101ooo pUtan ood II N ·
.,.. • "'
1
•· umerous rmages strll
- droop drlfiallled.
.... _ iolrot .,..,. althe .
• ... oWs llrlatple IDirouoclmg structures. It 1
1
..__,. mlicr Hiodu buildioas
- ...... ,_
14
1 10
between for Kutubuddio to
::----. ......;..,.:::;:It that it is
-:---•-... plane surf-s. Those
...., .... "'' ,. m:aot
10
call the Muslim rui-
..,., tried 10 ao to the top and

lt
uy t.o Jhout to the people below. Had they dooe to they would
<bi\'C round out for thcmsciYH that no one oa the around can
beat 1hem !rom tbllt hc•aht Suc.b absurd daims have: bttn
m•de 10 Muslim aulhorsbip of nrli« Hindu build1op.
Another Important con.sidcrauon is tbat the: c.otra.occ- to the
tower fa.ccs north and not the west as rs eojoln-cd by
and practice.
At either Jlde or the enlrUCC Is the lotus flower
emblem which al10 prove. that It was • Hindu bufldina. The
stone Oowcrt arc 1 lmpo.rta.ouign of tb_e Hindu autbOrthip
or mediaoval buildings. Muslims never usc such dowers on the
bu.ildiogs they C'onscruct •
The fric:te pane rot on the 1owcr abow sigru: of tampenoa.
abruptly or In a medley or Incongruent lines. The
Amble: lc.ucrin& is lncctJpcrscd with Hindu motifs like lotus
buds banain& limp. Sir Soyyad Ahmad Khan. a staunch Muslim
a.od a scholar. hu admitted thai tbe lower is :1 Hi ndu bu1ld1Dio
tr one were 10 hoover in an aeroplane over the top of the
tower tho variou.J aallc:rics sHdio& imo c.ath other froiD top to
bottom appeor like a 24-petal lotUJ in full bloom. The figure
24 bei.nJ a muhiple of 8 is pcred in ved1c tradldoo. Even the
br1clc red colour or tbe rower is sacred to lbC' Htndus .
The Hindu title or the tower Wll! Vishnu Dhw•J (I.e.
Vishnu's standard} t\lias Vtjbnu Stambb alia' Dhruv Su1mbb
(i.e. a polar pillar) obviously conooltD& an astronomical obser·
vauoo tower. 1'ho Sno.skrh inscription JO 8rahro1 scmpt on che
non· rusting Iron plllor close by proclaims Lhnt the ,lofty iiBn·
dard or Vlabnu w•• ral1ed on tho bllloek nomed Vishnu pad
Girl, That description indicates that a statue or the r<Ctinlng
Visbou joitiating the crta1ion was conseeralcd in the ccotrsl
•brine there which was rav•&•d by Mohamed Gbori aod b11
hcncbman Kutubuddin. Tbc pillar was rai$ed ot the commond
.()(tao anc1enc H10du k1na who bad made grca' conquests '" the
East and the Well.
The tower bad IeVen IIOttyJ rcpreJCDllng the days or tbc
week or those only five e .. lf now. The siath wa• dismantled,
hauled don and rc·cucted oo tho lawns closeby •


)4 INDIAN
•as,.._
Tilt WCI'lll .,,.., bAld ""tu.lly. rtatue or u.. "''
Bnh"'• IJololi•l IM \'cdu and begiootog obe crcatto our.rlleod
...- ... I a btl< marble canopy with aold Abo.,
llalaio! Ia
1
1. Til< oop tbiH Jlories ..,...., to matble. n:'"'"'•
_ _. 1!1' \lusltmo who deoesced the Drab )' "''"
•• • ..-. ma 1t11u
T!Jr Mad"" ratdtn alto dcstro,.u the reclioioa Vt&bou
1
'
.
Th< lroa ptllarwu rho Guud Dhwaj alias Garud S
1, tht ltllltnd pest of tbe Vishnu temple. ""'bh
Oa ou
01
do was ao ellipticaleoelave formed by 27 Naub
(COQ.IItllallon) t<mples. A Jlgaotic red stone, ornate gatc::a
led
10
tbc .. cred enclav< lrnown as Nakshatralaya. Y
ll>c aateway Is traditionally known as Alaya-Dwar. ore
Cuoolllabam twills the traditional Hindu name to fraudu.
I<:CII} uorlb< tbe great doorway to Sultan Allauddin tho b
Allauddto btcnsclf makes no aucb claim. ua
By' AitJUddto's umc the surrooodiogs were totally crum.
bWIJ rutos Why would Allauddin want to raise an oro
. (tb H" d ate
l'pliiiC poe .. ay o e- on u orlillgc colour) leadioa from
..,.hue to nowhere 1
The theory propounded by interested Muslims that,, iJ
mU&UJD., to•tr tl • motivated lie. No muauin would
lor 1 day aec<pl a JOb where be has to climb and uru:limb five
llll)<l. day a ftt&bt or 36$ narrowing, curving steps i.o the dark
-· of lbt IOIVCr. · He is bound 10 fall and die throu&b
abm tlb1UII10D.
lt.laThe arched. aaoewsy of the edJoioi.ns so-cr.lled Kuwal·ul·
m mol(juc os In no way dilferenl !rom the ornate orcbway•
of templuto Oujarat. The frieze patterns oo this building too
oltoto .. , •• or .. .... p • b .
•· rovmg I a.t Mushm conquerors trans·
I'OI<d 610oaa 11 random 1 h · .
1
o eaae I •.or consc.ence In readyin&
ar .., ttmpla for use u mol(jues.

1
"'b " made up of <JW:Uy 24 folds, are< and
-·I ICrll&hOI• Tboa tbowa that tbe fi&ure 24 had a
-.- l'fO:P•neoce and siaol1i<:aoc:e .
fot letha
14
rn tbc premises. The
'TI COIISicllotioo •
1
ltabt are 27. Considerod alooa with tbe
tills t._. ._ :•lou IIICnhoned eulier it leaves no doubt
ill A.rabic obsorvatioo pole.
MtAar' sicnifies ao uttooomtcal
CUJ>lTil> TO AUlD< MUJLIJoO
ttfotAH M\oN"' "' ...
o,.....lion) Tower. Tbal wa• bow il wu dcacribcd to S41tan
( • • - -• tater referred to In covn eorraponden<c. ln
Kulu .....
1
••...,.. dd bo
(tlmc the name orSvltan Kutub\l ID u.cne to
-·--oat<cl with lbe K.utub Tower t...Uoa to the m!J.
""II'"""' - Mi teadlui userliOO tbllt Jtutubudclrn butlllbe Katob uat •
lroo stripJ bavc been used to keep the
tosctb« lo the of tbo tower. Somolar Jtnps haw
bccD used io the none walla or ... , ... ForL ln my book TD}
MtJ!ral was
0
Rojpul Polo.- I btvo already deall al_..,m•
wllh tb• orlaln or the fort and proved that h 01;\Sted durma
M
$1
·- lim••· Therefore otll apparent that tbc. use or lfOD
pw u ·- ' ld' a· •
strlpJ
10
keep together 11onu In buae but tngs wu a •nuu
•· • Tbat dovico uaed in tho sCH>alled Kutub Minor lo Ddbl
...,v;cc. I" R" d
11 another proof or hs havlna been • pre-Mu• om 111 u ,...,.,.
Jfo 24-petallolus Ia pulled up from ha eentrc it_ will form a
tower or 1hat pattern. Lotlll pAttern is never Mushm.
Nlullr•ddln Tomb
What Is believed to bo obe tomb of fakir Nizamuddin ll Ia
fact ao old temple wbieb wbell dama&ed durin& early Muolim
assawll bc<amc the abode or Niz.amuddin who was bllried
tbtre after bts death.
Around obe sbrioc can be noticed to numerable otber pavi-
Uoos. walls. araves, basltOOI, towers. plinths etc w!W:h &0 to
prove lbat it was oneo . a prutpcrous t ownship wbicb waa
stormed and captured. Muslim faklra happened to occupy such
devastated sties. Tbcy were later buried where they arayed.
Tbe burial ploeu of Muslim fakira arc, therefore. QOI ouaiool
constructions but earlier captured buildings.
Rum•JU• Tomb
The so-called Humayuo Tomb lo New Delhi was lbe focal
point of a vtat townsblp, described above. lt was lbe Lllkabm•
Temple of that township. Even to this day it forms part of
"hat is callod the Jaipur estate In New Delbi. What ll today
known as the Anb-ki·Scnl formed the huge m&Siive dcfODJIYe
structure aro11nd the -lied Humayun Tomb. Buma,yun UICd
to llve there. Wbeo be fell dowo the II &ira of the ao-ca1lad
!iter Mandai Ia Parana Qlla be wu earricd to t ilts eapnacd
t:K01AN I
""
od
• mplo only tboul hair a mile ""' ay, It..,
lh u •< cd •• Ia lb
'-tbll be lay 111 11111i1 be do • Aod 01 .., .. the •a
:;:' ...
6
,
1
, IN; •u bunecl i o tbe pa!.occ 10 he •a
Wba tl« bdkvedlo IN; Honnt yua Tomb ,. on fact a apa I
..,.
111
,
11
,..
1
ecl Tctaplc of Oodd.., Lakshml 'lritb •
&"-fDctOUJ t•teways. a row of ornameotaJ lt&dia ,'
- .... , housct. au ani rooms and no as or baltic-'
0
1t, aoocx... . W . b
1
•utat.
I
I &rouod ''· Several ettero iC . o 11rs have pointtd
cd wa o -•· I sl ' I . Out
lb.l.l ttlcre b a cJosc m1 aruy betwetn tbe
Hu.,.yun tomb a nd lh< TaJ '" Agra . In my book ToJ
Alalral wtJJ
0
Rqj;wt Po/oct I have proved that the TaJ Mabal
, 'rom b<lnJ
10
original Muslim mausoleum ilia an corlic
'
1
r " ' h . b li I
Hladu Temple Pltlacc. l.lkcwuc w at •• c evcd to be the
Rumayun tomb
11
also an Hindu temple palace.
Nolioe tbe numerous Shakcl Cham (David'$ Sta r) Hindu
tlll<ric deiiSft thll odom ill rop facade (l
To eaO 11 Humayuo's romb is a big hoax since Humayun Is
DO! 11
1
11 ounecl 10 rbll builcliog. Acc:ordio! ro Abu! Foul
Hllllltyuo lies buncd Ia Sirbind while accord •& 10 Farbbta
Humayua 11 buried Ia Agra.
MO«<I'tr lhm is ao &f&VC at the ground level •• tbe
o( the buUd••&· lo the first floor overhead there lu
simple marble oe:notapb but Humayuo's name is not Inscribed
011 ir
C....tranly a writer G. Le :Boo bas in his book tided
TN Watld of AA<Ieal ladlo, published a photo or ma rble
rootpnau found ID rhc building. He them OS Viabnu's
footpnata. Tbatcoofirms our fiodiog that what is believed to
IN; Hull!.lyun' o mousoltum ia 10 tact Lakshmi'a temple ainco
IAUbmllt tbe spouse of Lord V!Jhou.
Yet Cuantoaham baa put up a fake archaeological nolle% al
!hat baoldloa creclorinaua creation to some non-descript Bel*
....... • cblldta. ...USow tamale of Kumayun'a team ina hare!ll
1111 jOOO woiDCo H011r 00111d a Bcp Becum wbo hod no roof
- U. locad durin& bcr owo Ufe1lme be tbe author of sucb
1
""' d- edikc 1 Alld •by would abc adorn the buddial
.,. 1M ....S ltuotlu llliUilc liao ot iorerlocked uiaoaJu ?
UC'DlAN JotOHUMtfritl c:aeDtTIU TO AIAlH WUIUWJ
»
Wby hu the build loa hundreds or rooao ia iu numuvu.
1.1oreyt 7 Why arc 1be roomt aad &he ttrracct chaUCftQ Wttb
1toc 11•,... of oldi .. rf folk If it wu bullt lot \he 111fct f V.by
has U three de·rcosave waUa. •tatcly ptc••Y• &Dd aaaaa.
outbouscJ clc. 1
The c.ntire templc·pelacc hu a hu*" buc.me.at 11ri'th a edho&
IJigb cnougb co acc-ommodate a mouoctd Tbc pusllla.ai·
mous An:bat olo&.Y depaumcat haa atver cared to clc:a:n, h&bt
<Up aad explore IUCh dark fCCtliCI p:lore Ia bu.odrfdJ or bbtoric:
monu.ments tbrouahout fndla.
JUiokrl
Tbc area in wb1ch tho Niz.aou.addio abrioc and Humayuo
Tomb Are locactd is koowo at Xllokri, Tbia wo·rd 1ipi6.e. a
Jocallty which got II• "ked" tbat Ia the ccotrol hon plllor UJ>-
rooccd. Obviously tho refcre.occ b to the day wbca the ocre.m,o.
nial iron pillar, which accordloa to aocitot ctas:tom wu ootl·
.$CCTIItd in the centre or Hindu townahips, got Uprooled WbCD
rhe towiUbip """' .rormc<l by the lovadlag Mo•loO> armies.
Humayun's s:oo Akbar waa DOl even 14 years old wbm hil
f a ther die<!. Akbar waa fae<d with lbc ovuwbclmiog miabt of
a oumbcr of very powerful catmles lodudiog bia owo auanlian
Bchl3lll Khao and a awo111 adl'tr1&1J Htmu. Tbrouabout blo
Ak.bar waacd iaccssant warfare 'lrith Indian priaceo. He
was also faced with revohs by bis owu oobte:me.o and kinsmco
.aU bis life. Vloecat Smub bao obocrvc<l io hi• book At&or r/N
•Greor Mogul that Akbar had ooc revolt or tbc otbor olwayo oa
hand. Jt ia absurd to think lhll 13-ycar-old Akbar would ever
raise 11 stupcn.dout toooumoot for bis tattler ill the midsl or
wars.
Some ebroolclero have diohoncatly alaimed tbtt it wu
Akbar's foster mother, a cblldlell ovidO"' or Humayun wbo
'built lhe moaumcal for bet butbllld. Th11 ciaUD mull be tub-
jeeted to a close cross:..eumiaalioo. A tbUdlw widow or a
dcccued mooueb, Illiterate and keeping bcnetr witbio tba
i mpeomable ooofinct or a batqa, one amoaJ a lftmiaaloc ol
5.000 used to IN; loa atale of UlriiiiC f'C11111)' benoit.
'"omco cou idctccl rbc-l¥a for1uutc ,r !hey ,., '"" eq..,.
34
..
I
•••
1
ClOfllct to live io peace ucl ICCUrit•
.,.. _,, • b • d ' •nd •
lhJCIIbl• Ml or oil for tbdr dally ... o. Even tbue
_.. ... •etc bard to come by 10 th01< habuleat d t
• -If w&J so dupcrately sbon or funds that •
ALbl.r 11• ooce
wb<olotlllN bis tt<&JUr<r for IB!clauer did oat ba,.
....,. tbll paiU')' To coos1 er t Akbar or bia rao
1
rr
motlltr .-11<4 • r&lahal m•usolculD for Rumayuo's dead body
11
ridoto>loutln tbo cxu·cme.
su•srJanc Tomb
tomb 11 supposed to bave been bu1lt over,
••·-·o who""' the prime minister or the Nawab or Oudb.
.
Tbit clatm
100
canoot otand close scruuny,
Fortrly hlltorlans arc divided on the point wbother lito
JJ!III'Oicum bullllo 1753 or 1754. This aborp divergence
h dur to the fact th•t both the groups are on a completely
.,
0111
trail That buildtag was extant numerous etnturiu
bdorc Sa!dar
1
aoa'• death. Moreover it is not a bulldiaa which
ca•ld bt coo11ructe.! whbio a year.
Just abo>< the ootrallc:e to the buildioa is a btautirul Rajpuc
,t
1
te woado• with a ourow'oruace balcony or the type wbich
..., bt ..., to tbm huadrcds ia ca.stlcs aad palapcs in Raj.u-
thao, Tbc square buddtog is completely or Raj put deai&e·
Tbc eclt6ec It olto coeloscd by a protective wall, bavioa ba"ioas
at coram aod watch cow<rs at intervals. All auribuceo
pnm: that n W&5 a maosioo used as a resideocc.
N>othc1 polo! lA bt considored is that Safdarjana had b<cn
duan«d and dbmlncd from acrvieo prior to bla death. Who
.,II build a palatial tomb for all unemployed nobleman ? Why
of all placu doet bia palatial moaurunt exist In Delhi If be
•aa prillle attOIItcr tn Oudb ? Jf bis dead body can bo"t of
ouca rutiDJ plaoc how mucb ma rc Javlah abould
be thr Pllaoc io wblob Safdarjaaa ahould have stayed wbllc
llhvc Wltae11 that pelac:e 7 No body cu ahow.
11
:=-

to be ..... Ditcl tbac Safdarjaaa'• soa or bclr
:;'* ·Da .. -lliCtcd lbe 1D1plficut tomb for tbc dccufCd.
... : W ':.:.
0
,"' • >ery allloeot pc110o. He •llould
0\llor Pllocea or bia -· in Oelbi 10 be rkb
3l
coou.1h to orde-r 1 pelaee for • dud body But we. •rc sbowo
no palAce bdooaiaa 10 Sa!darj.ana or hh aon. How h '' thea
tbal ooe who did not bave IDY palac. to Hvo hl trbUc alive a.ot
oor, •• ,r by mJJJC.. on hh death ?
More.ver there •• oo arave u Juch to the bau:mmc. Thuc
aro only two moundt or loou: rc.d .. \trlck powder wblc:h acu
blowo away and 'ttl'hlcb the. arobacoloay dcptrlment keeps rcplr-
nisbioa fraudulently 10 ma1nt1in a prctt"ce or the buriAL Tbe:
otbcr ruo\lnd It tuppOKd 10 be for Sardur,ana•a w1fe. Out which
wife l Sln•c l1e had 111 horcnt fili i or oonlort, And then If
there arc two ara.ve cnoundaln I he bascmCot bow oomc tbcrc lt
oll),y one on tho 1lrtl ftoor 7 liven tlun
hat no u1unc Inscribed h ThM marblo too \VAl pilfered
from llllotbl:r lilo\llu mootloo ftllcly !•belled •• Abdur Rablm
Kban Kbamft tomb 1 SafdarJID8 wa1 buncd ftl 1';1parahat 1o
Uttar Pr•desb. Therefore bit tomb In Deihl Is an hou.
So.Coltd Sb« Moodal
Wbatlt called Sbcr MaadoJ IMide Pur.ana Qda is • •m•ll
circular tower Wllh a few DlUTOW rooms.. Tbt very word
.. Mandai .. lbOWJ lb•t II WII the cnatjoa or lht R•Jpuls. Sbc.r
Shah appropriated It chrouah conquell But only because bla
ornuc allac:bcsto h blundctinc Wttte-m .eholan auribule this
s.m.U isollltc.d. uu.ocatcd tower to Sbcr Sbab Indian blltorians
have. not been able IO act rid or that mytb. In lbo tasc or Sbcr
Maod•l mora 1mportancc tbould auscb ro tbo wor<l 'Mandai'
than co 'Sber' btcauso It is coo pun)' 1 "ructurc for any ruler
co bo111t about. Sceondty, the fanatic 1nedlacval Musllm rulon
would oeVC)t a Sanskrit nL\MO' IC) describe lbeir own
original construchon. Ttur<lly. the very term •Mand:tla' sign,nu
Ira round 1hapc lndlcat1n8 that those who dotlaned and order·
ed tbls acnocturc were rho,. nurtured In chc San1krit ltadltlon
and cbac It Ia tho cruncaced tow.r or an cntwhllc p>laee.
Tu&blaqabd
Tuahlaqabad b a maniv:, battlemeoted w•lled roW1Uh1p.
in. Dclhl lruldc it cao be tceo burnt ond ru10ecl teuomcou.
uoderarouod pusaau. tow••• and butooos razed to tbt
around. The 1\oablah made tbOJ captured toWl!.lhlp rbdr bead·
quatten. 8c1DI a1toe1ated with their ume for
INDIAN lflSTOl<tC.U. ka..,. _
}1.
.,.

Mli<'" aod ti'Cblcolo&tcal •i&o·boa
'"'':'Jtl<,adoo&l> asocr• tllattbe townsbop "llS founded by ..Ss
'"' bll<l .. II ouJbl toM tnhtod tbot do not co U..
ToJ
1
, ' "'ld but co toed 11 over and ••plott exlstins .,
104 anw DV1 • Cl,lb
, nst•a• Moreo\'6 demoyers ere not butlden. •c
onv m•" "fid . h b r "
10
"
tbc rood In a "notter roru e eR!I. ts t e tom o Ghlasuddin
,... -..
11
11 1
curiou.s pyranudal suucture. Towards
Turt ... q ' " • n •· d ·
11
'

c:ao thll $ott: «mall OJt-bes anllit by llny orutmcat
1
IJ'<"'" . b "d' d • •
ill.stS-J.'!f\l\IQ.I tbat thlJ 011 tog wa.s convene JDto 1 tOCJb
was
001
on&i:lally buflt for the purpose: It

fDfiii<.J
pon of tbe cxtcosl\e TaJblaqabod townshtp tbougb it
0
.,...
ilaodJ apart as a truocartd Thts too is aur.
roulliled by a blfb blttlemcntod wall. ,Inside are some pavittoas,
and
10
undcraround passage, allleadtng 10 the conclusion tbat
thr tom!> • • 1 supcr·lmposition.
Tbe fonifiahotu oarby toowa as AdUabad and Naito Kot
IlK abo ····••t Hi,du roru laid ,.'LIIO by Muslim manudtrs.
r ...... •
Nw tile spens atadiUID iafroot or Delb i Gate is an old
fornfied towosblp known 8J tho Ferouhah Kotla. From It•
0
..,.. It bu beco wrongly w um•d that Ferouhah Tusbloq
for bis o• ·o eutle.. But •• Arbok pillar is firmly plun.
ed oo ou urpn storey. Fuouhab was mown for bis rer"'loUt
IWUrt He could not tokrue Hindu. History bas
n<Oldtd that bt uoed to bum people alive for tbe crime or idolo
-anhip To belle>< tbas <Jdla roler would 011 bis o•a hout
In Atbot ptiJar, Willi Hio<b rtliJiOUS edicts iO$CTibed OD II, OD
h11 owo palo<e Is blgbl) ollotica1 Femzsbah could never bn•
1011c to lletp •• peoce under iL lo fact tbe chipped oft' tip of
tb< r<llat sbows tbat to bil fanatic fury Ferouhab must ba ..
tried 10 pan out tile pillar. But obvic"•'• It would bave cko-
1"'led tb< •llole castle and l.rt 1 ppina bote io its <t!lllll
Qt..i.,..,,, be bid to put up wub tba :..-•hen pntar to• .. n•l
....,., ... P"'- •htdJ be f0<10d 6t <OOOJb to tor btt ..,.;..
daoct clal!ftl tb>lt doJ1 Of IIISI&bihtw "'YOit and i-DI
•ufut_ 1•

• or his rei II> bu bcoo wrincn by Sba,..•·
• •Jcoplwu, wlf-appolotcd cbrooiclu ,.bo coora·
1hat h waJ hita:raodratbn who wu 1be coaumpora, of
Fcrouhah. At all arc wont to do. the ooly
authotltlu he fcians 10 quoto for tbc fanciful eod colourc.d
account that he hat vrrium art. sncb t toe:k·phraKJ at .. My
father told me" Of "on the autborhy or w.:ll mown b!llotlano
I tay " Ia tlut <broolcle b< oostal&ically dtterabel bow
FtroZJbab uprooted two Albokao pallan found a areal duuDCe
• from O.thi, ud took olltbe trooblc to tntopen U.cm
ott tbe woy 10 O.lbi ...nptoylac buodrerb or caru and tbotuandJ
of loboor<B. Whot the object "'" lo bauliagca beat hen Pillar
to be hoisted oa Jus own east1e ia Oclb1 God alone koow1.
Obvioully tbot ae<;ouol ia an aucmpt to cover up the raa tbat
Ftrouhoh bod 10 cboooo u hu nsld•- on urllcr bulldloa
bich >ported tbc Ashok plllor oa it. It II dear. thcro:J'or<, that
either K•111 ' lhok bimS<If oricloolly built the castlecuphemll
ticalty catted Ferouhab Kotlo, or thAt IOIDC rubscqueat Koho·
trrya kica proud or Atbok, bad lhll pillar brouaht aod bobted
"'"' bts ..., canlc. Later whco Fuonbob roted to O.thl M
ehoS< tba 'Ollie for his own res•deaec pe<haps filldlll& it Ia
muob bctttr >hope tbao othert Ill tbOM rurbultot day1. Hts
cbronleter Afif flodiag it difficult to uptaio &Wlly tbe faa 11>11
Fero:uhah 11\·od lo a usurped mans•o• tDVct>ted lbe myth that
it was Fero:uhab blmsetr "bo bad the pillar broucbt and
hoisted.
Rojpol Gloriel Pla&larired
My diJco•cnes also lead to tbt coochuloo tbat IIWiy a ume
wbfl: !Ujput •-rd> Mmhm rulcn bid tbe
fornu:r's alories tacked to their o•n rtlps. Thu> it II powble
tbat durlnJ Fcro:uhah's time some dt HiriptiOG by aa ntlltt
Rajput rultr 11 10 bow he baultd tho Asbolcu plJIItf auy ban
fallen 1010 the baodo or Fcrozsbob wnb tbc costlc aad Ill UCI·
•uno. ThAt d<1<:raplioo ns aod IIS<'cl as l'&f1 ol
Feroub.ab'• owa aclll....,..,.t. JaluQI!r 111Dilatl' cued the m,th
O( tbe bell O( JUII'<e 10 cJonf) bl1 OWD f'<11"' •• bono-.d ! tOlD
the acc:ounto Of AIWifl)OI' t f<I&Q, as o• ted bt tit< late S...
H M. Etloot. TblJ lcado us '"a oew k•7 pnl to be bonoo
in mtnd wbtle IIUdYt!ll tbe hlitOt)' or tbe Mwlta en. Tbe
pnllttplt I& I hat Muollm rol<n • oD the hobll of rcatbrriaa

INOIAI'I: IUh'OaiCA.l,. IUCA_
liCit
of <bur"""' uopopuler eod cruel rcaimu by bo"""·
IC(DIIt
0
.-euhtr RIJJ'III &l ory
.., U< "'
1 ... T•"' of P""' 1 non>ali<l wbl<b hne <SC:•Ped hlu
Ao '
0111
":...,
108
;
111
b lh< Lodi Tombs io Dclbi. Nob.:·
a11011D<I :.. bOihcrtcl 10 ask bow mrnlvo IOmbs <>Ill
tc<
111110
llboul oorrcspondlog luxurious aod •P•cfqu
dr'141 rulut " • ·•I I ? H d b.
1
t lht rclsainJ ....,.. ru cro a 15lorlonJ and
r-Ja.-a or
11
co pose 10 IIICOJO<Ivct I bat question lhe
orcJuWiof:
100
hav. Slruck Lb<m. The rigbl oolulioo il
::-:;::::callod IO!IIbs art old RIJPUI building• lalcr convc".
o6 ffllg orpulcb!CL
R .......... r....,
,uomer ,
0111000
is 1b11 or rbe Rosbanara Tomb in Dtlbo.
r ...
1
curwry loot will convince one thAI it was a Rajput
mansion coiDmaodured by Auranp.eb IO his dead tiller
1o lllanulicallyoatved plllen and wide open pavilion• devoid
or
1
nr domtt or mharcls, arc very rcvcoJjoa. lo lhit coboro-
1100 Allrsopb's peculiar obaraclor mu.sl also be boroo In
llotlld. He"" very p.onimDolous 111d b&rd·bearted. He Inter·
bu rub<r, usurped lbe throne and treacherously
m•dmd his brolh<n. His b<bsvoour towards the Hindus wu
tbt -t crud. Suob a could never have coostrucled
a llm4u ll}ic lltuCICre II I tomb ror biJ liSter and, there( ore,
tblltDoba0111tomb tJ a RIJPUI pavilion converted 1010 a
IOIIb.
llllloaTovrim
IAdi&a or for<ian loorisu who vlsil historic aitcs around lht
-ld 11111111y tal.t • needoa. hurried' glaoce at a fow well
•ocb as tbe T&J Mabel in Aara, 1be
0... r-. io Oc\lu, St. P'aul's lo London or Noire
*• .. r- JliiiiO be able to clauu rn polite compeuu••
.._, ca&uenauoa tbattbcy haveu't !aged behmd In
• .....,. "-••I fCPCrtoirc,
n., ....
7
IOIIIIIinllboJambo
11111
....,. if tboy arc disbtd out some
abouttba orlaln ur tbO$t monumcnl•·
41
Therefore ther att ._hat they dae:rvc. oamtlJ they ue. fed-
some uuc.olype o.bnudabre-
Botll tbc liccoKd IU•dct aod oaHvc bbtOfiiM lrt lO blame
for dllhloa OU$ uadhion•l unverifi(d tiel about bluoric monu-
ments N11tive pn11tlct compch local biatorian' 10 adopt •
-parcic:ular ''"nee. For 101taocc C'brhtlan c;ompUlalonJ prevent
hl11orlona In London and PlrlJ rrom cklvlna Into or roveolloa
the pR!·Cbrlililll or lain or Sl. Paul's or Notre Dome. '
Tbe AI'Hambroaod the 10 caUed C.rdovo ID""!IlCln Spain
are. bdaa 10mnolcnll)' attributed to the Muslim Moon.
The Dome oo the Rock IJid AI Aqsa in Jerusalem • beio&
pandcd u MuJIIm mosques •hen. tbe.y uc captured prc·bt.amic

ID Russia tho Sh•h·i·>ied and a.oother palatial buoldmJ •
being as majestic mausoleums or Mu.sl•m
monar<:ha.
Alltbote are ;puriou.s, hearsay tlaims which mep the need
for rcwrlllng, and a thorough r<ovision and ovcrhaulins or world
history.
So when people seek my advice on "'hat co see at h11rorlc
p)aces I tell 'hem atot to be eootent witb touunc bunted tJilts
to select bauot.s to wander at lt1surc 10 bmoric Jurrouad;·
iop aod aspire to look 1oto every nook aod c.oracr or bisulric
sites from tho pinnacle on the bigh dome tO tbe netbcrDIOSI
chambers and secret pusasu.
Usually one finds roost of the van expanse or btsroric build,
i"8' locked ond barred ond yet visitor docro·l smell a ral.
Tourlm or tho wotld rouy contribule • fuD.d aod aaitatc lo
cotry tc. berred cbamb<n ""d recesses For lnstaocetbc
Taj Mabal is a s:ven·storytd bul\c)joa rompl••· tl also bas
mui<Htorled lllloarell at Ill rour coroers, 1bo Vilbov lower
(Kutub) In Dclbiis 6v .. storied ond yel eo try to tU lntoriot l1
denied. Thtl II ao I MUll to the livtDI and to tbe areat mio<lt
wbi.>b ra1sc:d tbose atupendous edifices,
Historic cities all over I he world arc huodreds aod t11ous
unds or yeota ancient aod ye1 the historic ediBocs 1n t.bcm arc
4!
l)lt)IAH HISTOAIC:...L
• • 10 1111'<"""'"' (alibi oucb •• IJ .....
.,..... ""'

......_,_, iuoabt LD!O b•tcoroc &Jiea I
FreeD 1111 · U-.1 ........ .,. to
aomcl} (I) Evtry Muslom II tbe desec..d
,_ • HJad• m E•cry biiiOrtC cdtlico aod to..,.:••
d ... plllt"Q (3)
uuol>tl!td to Mosl•m• b eapeured proper.ty • lo medl&na)
lldi.,Y <"''l' Mlltlim destroyer bu b«n rrooocally landed
81 1
pal buol<kr (')AI all hlltorrc &Ires tbe conllrnetioo Ia Ill
Rlod• ud an Mut11111.
Tk IIlii< condoslons would apply mutatis mura.odit
11
,
.,s.6rtt aunl>o!td to ChrhtitJIJiy LD Europe.

Qnol-cap<m<d an pr .. cbMiao cdofi«s and declared tbc
111
10
be Qnsuaa. f« taJ(accc tbc Vallc&D 10 RolDe aad
o(UI< At<tbubol> Ill CaAtubury (Eo&) and) arc pre.Cbnlltao
-blab...- Aad J<l wbo earu ro koow the troth or ,.bo
dans tdJIL Tbd b !be IOrdod lltte of hU!ory all o•er tbe
•orld
Romc, Pono, Varooul, Ujjayioi aliat Avaotl, Delhi and
Asra arc &DIDCollbc ol4c11 cities of the world. Therefore tbo.,.
•bo W'CIIkl ....... 10 ba ... aJompae or the 4QOO.year hlatork
piiiOfUa of Dtlhl.,.y • lilt SulWI Gbarry, Shamli Talao a.od
tilt moliao, ViJit Mandai, lk&umpuu, Hauz Kb.u.
Srri fGn lllinJ oar AIAd .Uiaao aod tho vast ravaacd ar•
•-.dllx «>aaJcd Katub (Viahou) co,.<r, HumayllO tomb,
Anb l t S<n.i Alldor bbllll Kb&o Khaaa's tolDh, Safdarjaoa
-.b. l.od. tomb<, fttozshab Kolll Niumoddio's tomb the
.... _ Qob= • •
001
-::: .._ liu.d abo-. Itt only a a<lect few, Delhi Ia
- lto-.!h Rid!"""' •hblc l rodlua of about 30 miles. Many
-S blotted OW of Ulllc:oco, for the tent•
IPOfUIIleD parttdl"'tiaa ia the Atlao Gall)(l
•s a =
1
lt.r .. area of Siri Fon rwDI, Wb<o
.._ 104 riot c-.J ed tbc am for burklias the Vl«l<Pl
ofMn o.o.;
1
• b "-r hiJ <batalter and otber tdrfieea
..

0
....... •••• l d
- nothtd) ..... - ,.... __ ,, Cluou< J &D 111&11-
............. Tbe few royal a.,.nmeota
JC *"" • • Yamuna river bavc a
' '_. .... a lllllllher of Hilldu
I In tb- OliCJI ._, lba: .... IIJP t- -
t \.orqcd DU.D\JOnJ ftaaktD.J tbc. .JO<alled Dt•a .... ltm l'lol a
traee of them emu tocloy. 111ucforc the !led Fon Ia
tbac one ,ect tod.ay It • ,al.e sludow of t\& orlarul Huadv
tplcndO<Jr. Mulhmlovadcro piW1dercd aod ra•aa<d •be fort
duria& t.bclr (,()O.)oar·loaamuru!c aDd 1Curnccloc W"arf.arc...
rr socb was rho d .. ur.tlon loft ic:led oo tbc Red Fort alone
oi)C ara)' vtsuah&e bow th.c: •-pn._wlio& metropolis of H1nd.Q
Delhi mwt ba., b«a oylletrulti:alty deomarccl bJ MUilim
muaudcn IDJtead or and M...Um nalctl.
coonlen aDd rcoerah for -'> ran.,. curRatluwmu ..,...,....
lowly siDJ rbc prana of MIUiim ar:bti<CUire.. Pcovlc doo't
realize lhaJ: t'YR the mrriYlDI hiltO.f'ic:.tl whxb ate
bclOJ de.tcLibcd u Mtnhm tomb<, m-.
roru, miaucu and &owen tb.tou.&bool Delhi and
l odio, are oil 01p1ured Hondo cd>&c.1. ioclud1n1 QIJb. bridl".
eaoaiJ and mansionJ. I(,.,.. Aleuader Cwu>io&ham wllo aus-
chievollaly nuck fallc Mwlim )&bel• oo them. Therefore the
aomcs or ill Delhi mcotioaed above are all lakes
foillcd by chbcr the Mu•lim ruler$ or b1rbc euoniaa Cunnioa·
bam Vitirotl sbould therefore ...,.,. and lludY all b.i•toric
r:nooomt1llf attr•buted to Mlali ms u c:ap1uted Hiadu im.mOY·
able properry
Lqal Actloa
Tbe abo•• conehuloot ue so 6rm aod l mfuub'c that they
can 11and Judtclt1 aeruhoy. H<tcUader uc a few tOiUooea..
It w happened that aroood 1963-6-1 one ol artid<s
poblltbcd in some Gu}&rari papua claimtd that aU of
Ahmedabad'• 1000 mosquea 'Acre 1000 eapturcd temples aDd
rbc ma10 Bhadrokall temple wu !>cine mlsuacd by Mulllllll u
their Jama Mujld,
Soo• rbert•Oer, u ehanee WOilld ba\C tl a rich hosiery
6rm (Mia K,C. Bro>.) demollshcd ,,. tltca4es old baiJdioa aad
built a towcrroa lD&DliOD·
Since Mwhms arc tutored to find •••I'Y eac""' to pel< Ill a
quarte.l •Jtb tbc Hoodus. Tbe Moslun tl'llll- of tile ....,.tied
lama Mujod filed a suol io a Jncal court o( Ia• dciiWiditta that
... JNDJAJrrl IOSTOJUCAI,. lllt.Jf'Att.Ql
d to dtmolish their maoJioo Which h
I' C..lltoo .. '- -.,.'")so t looe that ..as an insult to Alia• •d
"""""' tba - ,. ...
I •
• ..,,., uohurd of and uotbtshed

'n.i.t .,., q'l11 c -· . . . b I r "t:a,
h to Allob, petbaP' oo bllildiog Y aws o any couarry
::=.., that ••ttJ baikfilll muJ1 be J horttr t han rhe 1..,.
1
_.. Y<l tile Musloml cvet)'Wbcte arc a law unto lbtlll.
sd,.... lb<lr ourture to on a perpetual prcn.t
oed i«P up • oootoouocll growl to terrify everybody and foree
<tell' aoo·Musllm to dc<larc himself a Muslom that is bo,.
hlam waa IPrtad.
Tbr J(.C. Bros. firm was worned. Its old owner approached
hi• fricads Ollld relatiOOJ for odvioc. Some of them wbo Wero
wdl·rud loformcd blm tbar rboy bad read an aniclo claimooa
that evuy blirorle <di6cc oo Ahmedabad was a captured Hindu
1DIO$loo aod tbJrtlo<. so<lllcd Jama Masjid was tbc Bbadra .•
laJltemplo dodJCitcd tO tbc guordiao deity or the biSloric IOWD•
tlup Ra1oapr aliu Asa.-al alias Kaloavari which on capture
l>y Abmodsbab "" aamed as Abm<dabad,
Oa funbcr c6ort tbey ascettaiotd the wrir.r's name as P.N.
011 tad fouod out my addrw. The owner or the firm thee
wrnt• a palb<tk lctl<r dttaibillg bb aosuisb and ahock at the
lolaJ!J111 dcmaed tad r<qucstm& me to help him tide over tbc
• by my bbtoriealatUmea.
I tmm<dlately "TTt< baek tellioa tbc old man that the
matter •bleb bad bim areal gloom wu to me on occa·
llo;, for 1rur &Icc llnce I was Itching to prove my ftndins in a
<oun or law that oo blatorie edifioo or township throughout rho
WO.!d It ol Mullim orialn. Slnoe Muslims themselves had
llleatbc taot,.ttve ladviltd tbe old defendant not to buck I•
to Mucllm bluff aad 'lluater l was there, to help
"'tad,.. that hll new huilo.loJ won't be demolished.
lbe firm'a la"J<r drafted the
- 1: ,_
14
1
t.t l>laialllr Mualiml bad DO rialn to file rho auot
eat led ..;.,:, 1rhicb they claimed 10 be a mosque wat a
........
8
d
111
laaplc aod tbcftfore it 1bould be turrtn·
•au.
J'ND.IAN NOMUMIN1& catDifeD 1'0 ALIIH MUSUWJ.
Tbo Aluuedabad Mu1llml 101 the sbock of lhdr hfe- Ne-.r
io hittoty bad they ever aot aucb a thJDOIDJ fctort aDd rebuff
They held animated and aaitated coosultatleas witb mullahs,
moulvil. arcbocolo&itll tad bb torlaru.
Thoy were all convloeed cbal lbo 10-<llll<d Jama Mujid wu
a captured Hindu cemplo d"pltc tho &a· lear of a awblo plaque
implanted to tho ochre atone wall by woly Cunnia&ham decl>r·
ing In English thor lbe J•m• MI>Jod w .. bullion 1414 A.D. by
Abmadsbah 1. Thus the Muallms cbematiV<> tellllzed 10 their
chagrin that Cunnlnabom wu a liar who could cot be rellecl
upon, IJitimll.oly lo areal frustr3lion tbo Muslims In Ahmed&·
bad boot a hasty retreat and preclphouoly withdrew tbair ••It
thereby coooedina. that they wore lnract conduc:tina ls1aml¢
ritt'l an Hindu templt. Out lbat dou not perturb ahem
bteaute abat has beeo Muslim practice: throug.boul history-
namely to foroe captured peraoos to turn Muslims aad then
rurtber (orce them to u.s.e thc1r temples as mosques.
Tbe Musllm1 withdrew the sull bccaUJC they were afraid that
w from hclnJ able to dtmolisb K.C. Bros's mansion IIKy
would have 10 surreader tho bllildina they were misusilla u a
mosque when durina the hrarioa it turo.s ouc to be a captured
temple.
A somilar Muslim lhrcal wns stalled around 1985 in New
O.lhl. Residents or New Delhi South &teas ton P•rt II Wtre
thr<ateotd by a Mutllm mob obattbey would seize rbe historic
monument known as Masjld Moth and turn II Into a ranatlc
blamlc pressure ceotre. The 1Qil4ted Hiadu residents approach·
ed me. Thereupon I toured tho monumeot with their workerl.
An-architect. a photoaraphcr aod a lawyer were D.lso lD o,.cn ..
dance. I polnred out to them how every uetalltbtre proved tbe
edifice 10 be 1 Hindu Mandlr Math •·•· o templ .. cum·monu-
tery. A auit was later ftlcd aad ao obtained
resrraiaing Mu11lms from offoriaa prayers ioaide tbat butldlo&·
I.at<r a aerutiny of tbe relevant revenue records revealed thor
tbp name Masjid Motb was roil!ed on tbll mocumcctlo 1&80
Obviously rbat was Cunoinaham'a miSchief 1 bav8 had DWIY
tucb caset oo each ooc or wbtcb I ba¥C won buda
dowft.
oll•cl•tllta•l•l tilfWIJ note that not 1 sin
Llf .. b«<oll bY MUJhiDJ. Coo .. queotly •• :It
..,""" .,pi tolay daom to any such oao and must
• ott< lied. Tbe buoldiop themselves bear nuaoc
c!!J<fl,.
1
r ........ oct•JOlllll cootoura. 61iaree deco,.t'""'
-y\JQO· li··- --·. 1 • ooo

1
- ocbr< ooloor lion< • ..,..ooea ll&os
kJI'" cSl' _...,. • 1 .. ..,
1
o( tb• roocoed kibla. Koraooe ov:rwntloa etc. <I '
·':": ll< odY1!ed to master this techoique or idcotiryi:·
b•oldiop .. Hindu to rcsoSI raocttOUS ood
hlllllo doiCIIl
To tbo Muslim• 1 would like to thBI tbolr Drat procll ..
• on b1JID11lhould their own Hindu
aod rttumto H!pdul<m whoch '' now ready to welcome them
bart ., IDII&·<JirtD&<d brethren. Muslimr who ore nol pre·
IO do tbat may thereby realize tbat they lack I he basic
(41rtF aod hoouty to study history or to SJl$1k or write about
Jt. Tboor •bo close tbclr eyes to their own history will
...... u, ICI'Oit tbe truth in other areas or history and palfo-
... aopcdll MtniiiD coocoetion or world history.
ACRA MO:SUMEI'IITS
nr TaJ'ol••ol
to lamr or tbt currcnt btiicr tbt it wu Sbabj&ban wh
"'"lt tit< TIJ Mlh•l•• eooccde only two poiots end even lho:
DOC'"'''""' •ubtt.uual ruervalioos :
_:ralv:::: aro, two sepulcbral mounda in 1bo
_
14
,.., ""It< • T•J look like Muslim 1ombs ond
lllllo or COAlDiu tat Mahal, one or tbe ;hbu•
All.vCIOIICio41o
1
tbu poo:l and or Sbahjohan himself,
t.Oif. It Is ... u btnn ba • shall now point Out our rescrv•·
-.do b .. c IIIIIICtlm.,' ltl(b mounds arc fake, Sucb
lullrLop "'"'• ao dud 0 nuod on I be tcrntces or historic
..._ ptJIOG could be bu • d b
... lltb.u
00
• fie Y aoy chaooc.
:::.t'-4 "IS lli1b1
7
do 'fdk burial date or Mumtn
• lol lltr b.uial u tfu\ Wbethcr abe wu at all
-.-:0::-Jcon ot :: lll<lltioned u
.......... aolcu I Suc:b neueaqs CYCD
tD " lilted to have be..; coos•
t toiOtAH MONUME'tiTS c-I!Ot"f80 tO Al.lEN ftoiiVSL1WJ
uuctt:d for bet hocly. ll hl&bly sutpiclout. Maow:ha. aa officer
4n the tcrvk:e of the P.a•t fod1a Company duuna
titXJ_e. bu cecorded tbat Akbar"• tomb IJ empty. Who knowt
1be.o wbdbcf Mumtu•t tupposed tomb ts oot cQpty too lo
tpite or aueb wciabt)' we are rndy to presume tbat
ohc owo tomo• could be those of and Slabjahao.
2. The po1nt 'n f&V'OUt of tbo tradition.at Taj leJ.C:G.d
<COuld be cb•t Koranlo teats have bcc.n h11cribtd tJont tho out·
side or tom.: \)f abo archn. Our wei&.hty on th•s
pctlat :.1 thAt IUOh I.Otc,tiptlonS CJtilt Ol\ tbe U.teriot o( I he
... dhni o :o Ko Zoj)do io !\)mer and on lhe $0•ca\lcd Kutub
Minor in 0.\M. but theY aro known to bo • eaOlllull•&•· 1'bo
-etching;s on the TAj theteroro only suJpiciout value:. tbosc:
..arc meft ovcrwritin&• on 11. cmptured Hindu buitdiog.
Prooi'J in tupport of our cont<ntioo thollbe Taj Mabol lt ••
aoeient liindu temvte--p:.lacc complu knowo :u Tc:jomalualaya
are a.s: uoder-
(t) Shabjabon's own officoal court cbroolclt l1'hc B•cbhah-
nouoa) rc<OICit oo pa&c 403 volumc I that Mumtn'• body ••·
bumcd from a gra\e io Borhaopur (after 1 sia.·mc:mtb burial
there) .,., brou&bt to Aara and iol<rrtd inside • maosroo or
uolquc spteodour aappccl whb a dome. Tbat manilon tbco
known u Rajo M•ruinab'a mansion was owned by Mansia&b's
graut!Jorl JAiJin&h.
(2) In a lett« written by prrnee Auran111eb in 1652 A.D. to
•hi• rutin& father emperor Shahjahan, Aurangzcb rtportl carry·
ina out s.>mo urgcnt. hasty repairs to tho oracl:cd dom• and
•lcal<log aevco-noteycd building comp\n. Contrarrly tho
modem ateh•eologlcol notice at lbc Taj eotroooc asserts that
the Taj wu ready brand oow In 165.!. Oou the an:batelOJY
·department know hotter than pr\oce Auraoatcb t
{3) Thcre oro two palra of Sbabjtban-Mumtu aravcs, • •· a
pair ucb In obc marble bucmcot and tbe marble ground ftoor
"Wby '"'o sr•vu uch t Did each or th<m d•e a double dCJtb t
Aod wby u tbc marble alab or Mum111'1 cenotaph lo tbc bAst-
meat jUJI wbote when tiS bump aad tbc olhc:t tbtoc
o:ootapba bavollhpeo decoration. That "a JUJpfcoous
II'I'DlAt< lflt
d "'at
111
tbtl Mumtaz'a iotmncntln Aara w
'"' fJI"I It' J••P"' Mabtraj.l'a tcmpiC'palaO' D<ml plex .. ••
••""' "'v• t b • ..,
• ilclllt ............ t
...,. h bao wb<>l< rei&• WliS supposed ,., be a &ollie
•bll aotldl CVCD a S<111P of aboutrb:
ru:d•• oftb< TIJ· Thus tbrrc an: no orden COIM1iq,00•
":":'be •• • for or IC'!u:aitlon
..,...
11
.., .,
10
, oo dts•J!• draWmC$. no bills or r<eclph,
and ao rJf;dtC account ,beets.
(Sl 'fh< oamc Tal Mahal Itself aigolfies 1 royal resloeoec or
lbC btsl amana rc.tldcnces. By DO or imaslnalion OOUid
1
l'-''>'ard ever be dClignatcd as a palace unless a palnoc Itself
bu be<• convcriCd Into o grnvcYird•
(6l Had Sbah;ahall r<IIIY beco the eonreiver of tho Taj he
aced aot bavc sperlally instructed Mulla Abdul Hamid not to
G>conoo••c or describing its construction In the official
bc,.usc the arandcur and ma,r-sty of Taj u the
bell aeblc>rmcot or a ruling monarch ooald never be loSI
slallt or b
7
a paid coon cbro11icler. He should not aced a
•pr<ial , .. , • ..scr roe ...
Ill M•lla Abdul Hamid's chronicle eoota1ns ocrious d*'e·
paacle " " tbt a!>scDcc of lte designer's oaooe, ao4 a ridicu·
14uly rt utimate (*I lak.b rupees) of tho cost or tho Taj,
•blb b tcOft'ed at b) sobsequeot scbolan.
((() E-.a otbtr estimAtes of the vary from Ra. SO lakb&
to "' 9 crottt ad 17 lakb,.
\9) Sbab,ahau's roiSJ! wu no golden reigo since it wu
marrod uooadloa wan aod revolts. epidemics aod famine..
(16) Sbahjahaa•s overbtarioc. conceited
1
tingy and aelf-
..atred oature ruled out any pouibility of bls wutina aoy
IIIOD<J
00 1 ltotimeotal projetl amounting to throwing away
_, "" • d«4 body.
Ill) Tbat bo could .
..s.nu,.,
1
W<b not nco Ia Ius wildut dreams cooccivo
1M& .... lbc ..,:.:ous project is apparent from tbe fact
-u., toil
08

teU us that he modo tbe
,.,..111 A..:;:crc taUODI Without &ivioa :bem aoy eu:.
-•• UJ1 that be made RIJU
Maharajas pi)' • \a tat: parl or the C0\1. So CYC.'O tbe addhioa•
and •llct'llhnn rtqulrc4 i.o coovt.thDI a pallco 1oto a comb
were JOI done b) m1k101 labourt:rs 1011 for mttc mcalfC
ratioM aocS by .mpotioa lco;'a Oft aubs.crvlcot
(tl} If il ttupcodOUI mooume.ot tlkc tbe T•l h buih rot •
c:ooson there would bo • ocnmoalal butlal date and il wcnt\4
nos ao uarccorded. But oot ooly it t he burial date not mc:o-
t1oncli btU evon abc pc.. aod durina wb•cb 1ht may have. bun
burled in tho Taj! V4flet from lb monlbl 10 nia.c yeaf1 or
Muroca:t"J clta\ho
(13) Mu01tn bnv•oa b<cn ronrrlcd 10 Shah]aban wbeD lh•
htttec w1u l l yens oiU sboWt that the w•• bi.s wnptt entb wife
be:e-ause tu Shabjabla"t tln' e and royal ebUdren a\
lhat used to be p14nic:tl much before 'bey cotcrcd I heir tu nJ.
H1vins been umpteenth ond ont amooc at \t ast S1000
wlvc:s there was no reaJOO wb) the 1houW be COcmtt morated
i.n a dreamland mon\lmcnt.
Even by birth Mumtn bcona a commoner sbc did ant
dcser"'-e a palatial monument .
(IS) Hi>tory milia no mcnuon or aoy apecbl out·Of·lbC'
way auaduncot or romance bct..,eco Sbabsabaa \Dd MumJ.u.
durin& tbm life umes uohkt 1b1t or Jabanair IU1d Nul)t ban.
This sbow1 tb&l the aubte'lucnt of IO\'c il 1 coaooc-
uon seeking to JUitify lhC "' about !be bulldina or tbt Ta}
fot Mumtu's dud body.
116) Sbahj&ban Wit no paoron or.... Had be be .. ODC be
"ould no< bnvo hAd the hurt to d top tbc banda t>f those who
are said to tolled to bu\ld (he monument for his wife, An
prtlst, el peclolfy ono dlscoololotc on hll wife'• d•••h. would
not Indulge Ia an orsy or a kill rut oraflsmen. But tb•
maimlns nory Is apparently true !)«aulc, .node to toil o101ci·
teu ly oo mea arc raUoos JUt\ to uJurp an anctcnt 30d
palace to bouse a corpse, iofurlatcd tbc workmen
who broke 10t0 revolt.
J 17) The sublerraoun emerscncy .-11 from tbe Toj ID the
fort could ooty exiSt •• a pala«. A dead bodY do<s not aced
uy CiQpe rou1c aod a subterranean one at tbac.
,0
e of tb< tao1ona that II tbe rear pou,
11
lo
Clll Tilt ulotco<
1
raJt« h oeou•l marble structure cooJlslo o f a nearly
(191 EvcJ> : • l&ot ,.;
1
, wbicb could :101 be llD orlaonol
!DAib < P'
,..,.!> I -•
T•J .,.,
111
plex coota o... ourly 300 or even
(,20\ Til< ...... • h h
I
'
111
eorridors, on 1 e ... scmcnt, 1 & upper
..,.,tt rooms a on
f't\Ort and Ht miD)' IOW'H'J,
The ..,...ued m0$QUO on ooc Oank aod tho nondes-
Cll t<rl'ln cophemlstically explained &Miy as a uselou

11
the .,.st pavilions, auard rooms and waitina
Ulh c( tilt polaoc.
(lll Tbe plume pavilioos in tbc Taj premi;cs could never
101111
JWt of
1
sombre tomb bot olways of a pal•c:e.
(2.)1 The wonlo Kalu aodBual (tower) are Sanskrit words.
Tbt)' OIYJI4
0
,,., bave (lltaed ea ori¥onal maUS<)Ieum uoleu
Ill<)
11
ock 1c tbr promiw before tbc buddiog wa< requositlonod
lot ..,.,.....,. 11110 • tom).
(24) The decorauvo patterns are not only ento.ely oflodoao
IIDII botl\10 of ll<red !loodu motifs like tho lotos, whicb
'nlfl4d' cbsrocteruu.,, aooordlna to Islamic bolter,, would
oc•cr atlDw IllY peace 10 tbesool of tbo oodivoduals lyins buried
ut>4trocolh
125) The pllcrll1. ardlcs, suppotlioa brackets and cupolas
ate ellllnly lD tbe lilndu atyle sucb as caa be seen all over
1\ojpolllll.
WI! Ukr <W1 otber IUlpicioua upec& or tbe raJ the
period oiOODIInlt:llotl b vatllllllly Ill ltd IO be ) 0; 12, 13, 17
01 21
,can. "biclt apoa Jlnn':a thattbe traditional versooo os a
•• ...,__ "PrattAtlt &he above P<llods are all uue so nee
- _,
110
"' "''" • I b
a... w o( "'" w t on 10 years. Some others,
.. •I ,..:,.c:· .::"' llnbbcd at dlffcrcot pcnods. These
or.,...&Jiyo pate.;c. to the bellcr &bat the Taj wa$
tiT) E- To..,.,.,., tollt
--IIOCIIloc all or the btai tnooy lbot he saw tbc c:oatmen·
ldooa wort wb•lc wcakcnona tb:
l tCDIAN MONU.MunS C"aEOn"'D TO AUDt MUSUIIU
a.so of tra.ditionaHsu stronatben• our ea.o bc.cau•c Tavetoior
arrived on India onlr In 1641 l.o. 10 yura after Mumta•'•
<Ieath. If blo Stltconcnt lo 10 be believed the Taj wu not hcaun
C\'en aOer 10 years of Mumta&•t dcatb. His llltemeo\ belpa ut
to refute tbc lradiuoool theory. It bu all alooa
been our «>>tention lbat Jao Sloab's bcredirary p1lace ,....
1ake" ov<r from him and Mumtu buried In h &Omclimc all.tr
bar dcoth. Sinee abo wao olrudy burled In the buildlna for II
year• bcrorc TavorQ.iar arrived in India, herders 10 tho build-
t.oa only •• Mumtu •s Tomb. and when durioa bis prea.eoce in
India from 1641 to t668 aK&tfoldlna "'"' uloed and Komo\c
-ctcbiogs wero carried ou1 be. rcrcrred 10 h •• "tbc eomlbeD•
-cemeut and tbc cod of the buildioa work" durina bit preHDOe
In todia. We therefore, fully accept Taven:aicr't record aod &lYe
it a most honoured place in our lcstimooy.
(i8) Apparently tbe rcpona that Sbabjoh:w lcvitd larao
:.mounts on Raju and Maharaju and the SCM:alled bulldma
work draaaed on over 10, 12, 1'3, 17 end even 22 yea,. are all
very true dc .. lb. We fully accept tbem. They fit on four square
with our caae. Sine< Sbabjaban wu too shrewd t o opeod ony•
thing ou1 of hit own J9Cket and would 1- no opportunity or
taxing and persecuting tho local people he made political ond
economic capilli I eve a OUt Of tbo d .. th of h!J OWD wife. WbJle
on the one head be compelled tbe Rajas eod Mahara;aa to pay
for the alteratiODS IO the pallte, owned by 000 of their OWD
l<itb and kio, that it may be converted into a tomb, he made the
labourcn and artisans toil on a meaarc ration. That lswby the
work draaged on .. l a snail'• p1oe over a lang period.
(29) The designers oro votiously mentioned by Westetn
acholars to be Europeans and are claimed by Muslima to be
Muslims while the l mperlal library Manuscript aootalns all
Hoodu names. Wbat greater proof Is ocedod of tbe uuer falllly
of the traditional Taj tbcory.
(30) Apart from tho feet that the Imperial Lobrary Manu-
tcript lilts all Hindu name1 there II one other very r<IDllrbbk
detail wbioh the trodillonal claims aboul the drslpcll
of the Taj he ins lORI< European I Or MJls\imo. It lboUid bo
noted tbtl even a moo& the Westera tcholars there are two
HIJTDRtC.u. I

, rau"" Ooc aurrbul•• the TaJ desla.o to Ocronlrno Vcr
,.. dl . A • oneoao.
ltalt.n Tltc 11tbtt croup ere tl to ushn de Bourd
l
"tcnchman. The coofusion •n the Mutlim camp or sc.;o•,u.,
1
d ld d
. "' '" ,,
tqllallt Tlte)' too are tV e 1010 three groupS
0
m•onlltM that l'!ssa Effendi waa n Turlc, aoothcr
1
Dt
1
p . s· n ,
vtbcmcnll) be was a erstao. •nee after all P.u.
rtrco.dt 1s a fictitious nAme plucked from nmoog those
I

1
. d
In l.bc wrrtcr' s cltues h s oauona ••Y rerulliDt vngue. Tbe thlld
vcrr·
00
iJ rb•c Ahmad Mcbodis was tbc urchhccc.
(31) far (rom CllUsiog blm aoy expenditure the Toj
robe the pro•crbtal hen laying golden •&as for Shahjahao.
Tr&diuooal accoonl$ tell us chat the Toj had gcm·studdca
matblc scrccot, gold railings ond silver doors. Even SbahJahan'•
own or e•en his wife's p•locc did oot possess such fairy-t ole
laarurcs wb.ift the two were alive. It is absurd to 6Uggest thnr
them coSll} ocd fabulous fiuuru almost dropped from btavto
o1 sooo u Mumrsz died. Bur the accounts of those lixturu nrc
nevtrthtlen true. We accept them u such. They fully suppon
our that Shabjaban, shrewd as be was, made capitJJ I evon
our "'•fe's He used tbnr sombre occasion as n
lc\tr ro force llliiOJh our oJ bts ancestral palace. Mumru wa&
buried Ia a stripped. cold palncc robbed or all its eosrty rrApp·
inl', lorer coolly • ro Sbabjaban'• ueanry. And it
"'tr< aot mcrcly the trappi ngs, mentioned above, wbich ""'"
rcmo1od but also the RaJput Ptacock Throne which was kept
amid" l.bole rupleodcat surrouadio&l. Because what cl&e
ct«Pllh< P.ocock Throne could be kepr m on coclosurc cor·
donc4 Gil' b) t <m·studdcd marble screens, and equipped with
lll••• doart ood &old raihngs1 Tbe Peacock Throne which wac
Clnt<d to Inn wu. tbtrttort, nor n Mo1ul bur a
••n •octto\ ilcrcd, lndlao Ksbotrlya throne which might even
d&k b>tlo to IID>O(pal or the 4th Century A. D . or Vlk11JmJ·
d\1) 1 IOUO bcjan the Vikram in S7 B.C.
0 21
The pttu where tho Toj II now situated was a bu•Y
t.,. w•••h•p l no ... n .. th J ••
T•
1
• m tngpura and Khawupura. The
-:.• "'' ;the fotJI ceotre af thote townshipt. "Pura' ' In
laDd. I 110> U I buw tOWnthop Inc! not l.R open plot of
l ttOIAl'f MONUMBtiTS Ca iDri'IO l O A.LIIM MUJLIMS
(l3) The unlvemUy cooccclcd fact that theTa) PfOI'Cfl7
wu taken over by Sbabjabao from Jahinp b • 1i1nlftunt
de toll which clinchco tbo l11ue. The belief thll it wu an 01'C1'
plot that Sbl bJaban rook and nor a ready palau Ia rooted In
rbe auumptioo tbatl•• built tbe tomb. ·There 1$ no otbec proof
for ot. That usumplioa b baselus.
( )4) The TIJ palace has variauo other •ncuu outalde ill
outer peripheral redttonc walla. TbOK were moeat for counkn
ond ol.bcrs closely oooacctcd witb tbe palaeo.
(3S) The Taj bad • araod aardeo, II araveyard never bouts
of luocious fruit a.nd ftaBOlDt 6ower tr«< sioot tbe idea of
eojoyloc the fruit aod ftowcrt or a araveyard orchard it revolt-
Ina. Tbe gardco could bave, therefore, only been tbe adjunct
of a palace pure and olmple. Tbc trees, moreover, were tbOM
b<:ariog Sanskrit names. and select sacred plmlt at tbatlike
Kctaki, Jal, Jul, Champa, Maulaahree, Harshrlaaau and Bel.
(36J It Is on record that Babur died Ia hit prdcn pal ... at
A1r1. There h no otb<r palatial building ia Aara exocpr the
Taj or which tho gordeo wu to important an adjiUICt u to
form an loS<porablo aod iodlspcnuble adjoctlye, Tbt prden
palace In which Babur dltd four gmerallont before Sbabjahe,
wu no olhtr thao the Tlj.
(37) Akbar oa his early visltt to Aara UJtd to lil Y In
Khawasputi oad Joisinghpurs wbich dcarl7 allows tblt be
ttaytd IJ\ the Tlj. He could not stay there permaaenrly lo •pita
of iu maani6ccnco because its defeasl't"t St:ut(Uf'H bad ell
mowed down in •ucc:csst-. usaullt And Akbar. deeply bated
as be waa by all from hit own son dowowards. could not all'ord
10 ttay lo an unb:trricadcd place or pal>tt.
(38) Btrootr saystbat the oel hcr-chambtrt of theTa] '""
opened only oott a year aDd no aoo-Muslims nre aUo....S io-
aide. That shows the blllb·buall tcerecy maintained abouttbo
undergrouod noon of tbc Taj. It II • Pity tbal bodl -
aod our scholars allow ao CIJC11'CStto opal up
tbo undcraround cbamb<:n of rbc Ta), clear I be debris. prowlde
liphDJ, remove rho lilhDII in slalrc:un ed roomo ud lei
srudenll of bisrory aad cwa laymcn ba" a fm ""' oi!M
pre•IJCS. The Go .. ro-1 c:u eata a baocllomo f-
"""'" tuncaJCAL ltsiAaCU
..
>*to I<'')' ftlk lbc lbe
.. It .. r ': OJCM«U will be all lhe wlter by
lr! .. _,_., auara6odl<» of tb11 araocl
"""•""" II tb< n.,..
11
roc11 6nt·,.IC matcnal for
... flJtltnd c.•d be toEDC buntd UC&SUIC: dtcre
-'"" """s:::. lb< c:;.,..,....c, acd all .-ton• of I be
;:::::.
10
,.,. bj tbf'l'IDI op<ll 111 toaJcmeat to all ,.ho
CS1f ta uc I
t»l nt Tarllb .. To) !>h i>JJ deed hu boca dettcted to be
,,..,.,
("'l Tta Ttj pte•·•lt are 6ued •lib maPlvo, beavy,
a;o'ltd 4oc:l
r
4
u ,. mod ttoiiiSdU oo oome ttdcs of tbo Taj which
tutlt wu a palace bcfcm be na coovcrled Ia to

bt•=mW< ... po!Ats -kl be blou&hl up on favour or
- _...,1100 llol II>< ,e•t •lilt W< lllvc aaid above lbould
- 10 '"'' C&t tilt tradltioDSI ICCDUOI ar Sbah)ohao
u•q l!t Ta Mihal sbouiJ raal u one of tbc b•IIUI
Ism d r) Aacl lbt pntktal of !be Ta1 bobble OUIOo
II&!GilJ of melliA<'II butary. We IDI) buc
.,rcbbl) nr:a!11t.t •ord• of lbc wrc•• bbtoriao Sir B M
lo pm.a 10 lair CJ&l>!·TOJUIDC !tully Of media•
rnlwo:ldo lw ,..., tptiJ ud polmcdly rcm.rked 1hatthe
l:l!1M} of tbc Musluo perood '" India "it an •nterffied and
llOl'lld<Dl h'""'.. Uofon••mh lbo fraud baa boon laid 10
*<r lllat""' I""'' lUi. Elliot 01bo l<oew tbAt 11 wu a
•u Olol' cbcl.!rd '"'' bclitlint tOme upcc11 of 11. Tho
!Ud hit ltt<n 110 eouaa01m>te tlw l<ll<rltiona of ocbola,..
::::=• aod hkc Fcr.....,n. Vio«nl Smilb &lld
,,.. bodty duped I bopc that .acbolars. 11udentt
If llti!OSD '"'"" II !cut oow 'il up and tbtnk
tlia1 bcada lmnad •• tbe &and a of faoctful
:U"" ..
1
11
' or "''""' •• lod11o acbool4.
.._WII DlotiiUhOCtl 'Altice h h T
nrWaa ll:< "'Jb I an I< aua ty lj
- ......... .,..., .,.:
0
'
1
.. "'"' \ acd ml•u«4
-..c._, .. Clllt u&ll1.o • ! ""' of the Moaul
P'Q.b n ut.omae.ically earrlt'•
aUt he ...... butl<hap ID lit tralo OUI or lbc faoclcd Mo,ul "'
tb< Muslim yard 10 aeneral .,here thay lay U>urpcd. c:oa&acat•
cd dumpod 10 the name of varlou• wltans. emptton,
eunuchs, rauzdars, polleD aocl •••o bhlltlos. ADd wbal all
I bel< bualdmJtll< removed from the Clcdll ude or Mull1m rule
io India tbelr whole history is reduocd to a ahamblcs.
Tbe new tlgbl lhrnwn on the o;lgin of the Taj Mahal
abould. therefore, induco in our teach.,., professou. ocbolan
aod "udcou of history and uoavc11itie• the need for a tborouab
in this fasc•natlna tuh)tCt uolt\1 we are reoolulcly
rcJigned and sworn to perpetuate what olrcady appeart 10 be a
bad joke aod an uncon.cionable load of falltboods from onder
which Indian bi&tory cries out tO be reJcutd and relieved. Will
our historians rise to tho occasion or tbe publie cry ow for
tbdr tiJbl to be told tbe truth I Wbal pusu for lbt history of
lbc Musil en pertod an lad a a today Is 99 per ceat or tbcllulf lbal
Arabian Naghto IS mtde of.
Tbe agc-old araumcnt of believers io tbe oo-c:alled Indo-
Saracen•• that tbe Taj it tbc eulmill2tion of tbll
ilylo, no longer bold• aood """ tho Taj itself is only a Rt)put
palace converted 1nto 1 Mushm tomb .
Endorsing tho fiodloa that 1ho Taj Mahal far from bcioa a
17th Ceotury Muslim tomb. is a mueb ancient Kiodu polaoc.
Dr fvl. Flagmelor. President of the AmcraCID Sodety ror
Seandlaavlan and Ea51orn Studies, 40S9 Monroe Street Nonb·
eall, Mlnaeopol!s. Minnetota, U.S.A , wrotc an bU letter dat<d
Dococnbor 6 196S addreucd to the nu1hor : "We ba>'e looa
bold in the absurd nouon thll Shahjahan bllill the
Taj Mabel. Your scbolatly lnvestianuons hoVe boulertd our
own theories. and you arc to be commcndtd for the clantY wuh
" bieh you have presented th .. new and refrctbin& '""'"" or.
turbulent chapter of lodtan bhtory ••• (On my visit to tbc TaJ) I
•u by tbe fact that in •p•t• of cerlaln ,Mogul wp<rli;l&·
hiles, thll wu NOT " Moaul bulld•aa. For enltlplc tb< tour
lllllllrciS reminded me of bad seen of HtoJu •
lure 1n Whll wa• then known &> RaJpUiaoa AI>O. tb• o<IQO"
liil 4uiao wu dcfinatcly of Hlodu o<•l••·"
"
1lt ,__. "-'""""\. Tbrone sporited away by tho
__., Houuu I .
nr •-Sll.all .
0
tru. is no ongcr on Ulltence. In
.. ,..,.. Sidjt fur) the throne W8S dtS:nembcred aod liS
-..dlat• or givco away. Bns of tbll
pl p/11< ld prrhapl be craccd among the royal Jod
_.,.t
1
""' if a proper search is undertaken
lltlllrltoaiiS cs me any with tbe impression lbat tbc
\ llit.m
10
:Ul' mean on& The Peacock Throne) treasured
TIILht-c-la"' possessions there 1s the throne seiud and
_, '% Sadir Shab. Butt be extant Takht·e·Taus is
camt6 . sso'a "'itb oo peacock tllliY on tt, It gets its
bbH\*
100
' ' · b f T
- "'Ta•" lt.t Peacock) not rrom tbe ut rom a us
aa sout11tarl of a former Jranlan ruler wbo loved
10
.U.IooeiO tbt lady on tb.ll throne.
'"'*""Uy,lbr Ptaeock Throne also belonged to the same
.... famill •bleb ltlt owned tbe Taj. It was sacrilegious
r. a WilLa MOardl to bave ordered a throne with anomal
lodltb< tbzOG< and the Toj e.oter into the unauthentic
about the same time. The
•+•• palace (DOW koo'lrll as the Taj) provided just the
"""lfPl ol tni!O& fCK !be tciotdlating throne.
A..-'ISoCslrl J- M .. )W
II lk toioht olthe crowded city of Agra IS a huge citadel
•• ...,IIOJie •ans. IllS now called tbe maio mosque. But
: '"'l !:::"''of lllltOoe Willis and Other indicatiOnS SUCh liS
..::: -ot pooot out that it could only bo an earlier
..., =:
1
<1Dple of the royal deity, Usually principal
.,.._ Moal
1 0
'
01
India wrrc eaptured &lld converted into
- 1\o -• IIIOI<IO<s l.t, lama Masjid.s in mediaeval
'111100 tablrt ""
0
h"
• n b .. ,_ II" ays thar the mosque
¥ •r lahaa.t • d
a ,.._....,. ra, IS a forgery. Row coul
• • "" I* late ••tr butld a palaual
.. ,
,, ...
A>as .,
... .:_-....... _
1A lliloo r
104
"
0
ne complu atop a
·-"'" \:
'
11
DOWO U filch pur Sikri.
1HOIAN MONUM.BHTS CIU5DITI!O '10 A\.IBM WUS:U.W.S
...
<:urr<nt lod!llo blttorlcal tcall o.od tourln htcratgrc profaun4t
1
wert • the royal 1own1hip wu built by Akb&r, thc tblld
1CDCrltton Mogul emperor who rulecl ovc.r I large: pa.rt or htdta
from I >56 to 160$ A. 0 .
Since all ella at mediatval monumcnll tbrou&hout lndta
evco tbouab or pr<· Muslim oriaio, bavc been blatantly cred•ted
ro I hi& or that alien Musltm tu1cr It is oo wonder if the
pur Sikri royaltownsh•p also sull'cred tbe llmdatc. Butlbe"'
ts volumooous evidence to provo that Fatchpur Sikn wos a
Rajput township cncompautna all hs c>taot moou·
mcots, conwuotcd severe! centuries before Akbar Tbouab
this would be a Ouing topic for a book yet In vll!'lf or
tho amoynt of evidence ovAllablo a rapid 1urvey of tbat evi-
dence sboutd aivo tho lay r<nder and reseacbcr alike enouah
&rounds to scour out from his mind the traditional notion tbal
Fatehpur Sikri was built by Akbar or for that matttr by any
alien Muslim overlord. Tbc malo points of the cvideocc may
be summed vp as under :
1. A number of Muslim chronicles ptrtainina to the rcicos
cf rulers precc:diog Akbar allude to this towMbip as
"Fatbpor.:", or u "Sskri" and even Ill "Fatbpore Sikri" •
2. A bistorieal book tilled wriuen by Jwto<c JM.
• Sbtlat and published by The l!h3ratly3 Vidy• Bombay,
carries fncillll page 82, a painton& ClolpUooed "Rnmayun'o 1roopo
entering Fatbpore" Here 11 may bo remembered that Humayun
was Akbar's father. The paiouna Is dear proof that FatbpQre
(Sikri) t)tisted before Akbar.
0
3. Tho fttlcful bailie between Rona Sooga and Bab•r-tho
rounder or the Mogul Jynasly lo lodi•-w•s fought atound
Sikri "within siahl of the hillock" u Is meotlonod to
BabtK"t Memoira Rona Sanaa had to come out of the walled
township because the beli<alos Mogul fo=s were ravaa•oa
tbe • n11ss.-.erina innocent clvihans and poisonto&
the water of tbc Anup Lake which was the township·• ma1a
rn uvojr. The R•n• )lavina emerged out 10 give b.\111<. Bihar
states that tbe ball!<: was rouaht wltblo view of the httloct .
4. Tbo formed ore hkety to arpe that the <OJ,,.IDCol
was rou&ht a few moles eway al Kaowoba. Buttbat is oot tile
.li INOIAtllllSTORICAL a-
••eARCtt
,.holcrrulh Tilt Kuwaho bottle was only an iootial eoco
• d d I b UOI<r
belwctll Lbt1 fotee>d I . c oc or Ran a Sanaa•,
(ore.._ The uhun&te tcos.-c atl•on was oOUBbl around b
pur S
1
1tro a few days la1er wilh the main body or the
b) 1be !Yna blll!torlf.
< Tbc maS5J\·c Will wbicb encloses lbe e11tirc townsbi
io<ludin& the and of acres of plain &roua:
aUII bean marl.s o( 'belllog. Gaping holes in the wlllts arc
procf or Lblr' > troops having aimed tbror guns at Rau
Slog• 1 defeoctl •
I Tbat Akblr himself hved io such a ruioed towoabip ;,.
USiified 10 by a representative of the British crown who called
oa Jab&OJII !000 afitr tbe.latteJ succeeded to the throne ofler
hit father Akbar's death. Tbc caller has recorded that the
m"'llllip WU on ruins. even ISSUmong that the township WIS
buill by Akbar, when we see oCs magoiliccnt monuments stand-
mt rnfltt for Ill these centums in all their splendour, as
tltou&b lbey were built only j";$lerday, it surpnues one' s imagi-
oato"" bow the towndup, prcsumrd to have been completed in
ISU, could have beta 1n ruio$. withon 23 years when the
EnJli>hmon VJsoltd Jab1ogor there. This piece of testimony
• • n elrar that Akbar .all along lived •n the Rajput town-
llup !bot bad got batlered wheo his grandfather stormed it only
I lew decades rarloer.
1
Aootber Eoahshman, Ralph Fircb sited Farebpur Sikri
"'September IS&J. In the notes that be bas left or his visit he
u."'ll41ra Aara .. nh Fatchpur Stlcn lvbieb shows chat be looked
botb •• aocorottowrabops. Had Fatcbpur Sikri been a
_._ .:..DI:w rownlblp completed around 1583 A D as Is falsely
aD MusJ h · .,
dol h · om< tonoelu, he would have said ao and would
10
e •;• coFmpaoed the lwo, He alto Sllys that merchants used
"'' to llthpur s c · d'
Tbi k '•"
10
osplay thtor costly goods for Pk
••
1
'
110
lndleaiCI tba• the mercantile
pranw;,: Had Fet b S • .
lhor Fucb would e pur ••n been a now town·
., luat Dl•t have • .It with aoclcm Agra-
a .... ,, IOUIWied P<clllcally meDIIIUirna Patchput Sikri to b<>
towa.
L Tloc Sull.flt II&IDC (An up)
or tltc buce lake (now dry)
ff(DfAH MOtfltloU!'NU Ck8DI'BO 1'0 ALIDI" MUSUMI S9
ouuldo Potohpur Sikri abo provet !bet It wu bu•ll by tho
Rojpuu In prc-Mu>llm 1lmc:s.
9, Tho f•ct that tbc Aaup Late butS! In I S8l compclhna
Akbar tO Hn•ily d .. crt the IOwnthlp also IUIS<I.II tbat lhe l1k6
had long suffered from nealeet and laek of matnlena,.. fru a
number or decadu (l.o. evcrsince llabar had nor mod Into aod
Fotehpur Sikri). Hid tbc lake been nowly conmuctcd
10
a waler·roservolr for the FOiebpur Sikri 1ownsbop ot sboalcl
not have bunl.
10. Mualom atcounli variously aserobc tbo
bealnnina or lbe conotructlon or Faith pur Sikri tO 1564, 1569,
IS70 •nd IS71 A.D. ThOR dilferina version• tbemschu PfC'C
their falsity.
11. They further m11011on that the lo,.nsbip was completed
around 158). If tbst is to why did Akbar (in ally abandOIL ltln
158S 1 tbc real re .. oo waa that the lake bulil in ISS) made. It
impOS5lble for Akbat 10 live In tho ancient Rojput
Had Akbar 101 both 1be loke and towntblp coastructod and
completed by 1 S83 then firstly tbe lake would not have bu!il ID
1583 A.D. and secondly Akbar would rather bavc &ot 1be lako
th•n 1otolly abandon a newly built polacx-eomplC10
But Akbar bad 10 leave becau1e he lacked I be koow-bow oven
10 repair the lake.
12, Jun wbef< the Elcpbt.nt Gale {Hatbipol) opens on the
lake os a miniature cower with a aporatllna ualn:•se runo•n&
around h. The tower bri&tles with scorel or llonc brackoll.
Th•s Is • 1radltiooal H1ndu Oe<p-Stambha I •· lamp poot
lnrront Of lompiOS and palaces. !'art ben lamps Ultd 10 be placed
on chose brackets. Lookin1 resplendent tho lamp-post was
called "Hir80lllayo (aoldeo)". Tbut same Sanslmt has
now beeo defily traostormrd into Hiran-Mlnor to lit 1n with
the forged Akbar-!eaeod, and the tower is 111d to mark lbo
bunol spot of. per dcct or Akbar. Did dtcr aprCII L
dying wilh for a Hindu lamp-poll with a spiralllna 11alreue u
1 memorial?
1:. Tbc bolts or two bugo elopbi.DIIIIouiluQI tba Hathlpol
pie b<>or muto WJiltest to tbclr orl.ala, Tho IIDH .,._
pbants bave tbeor buds h•mmncd aWl). Their ,,...., ... 10
INDIAN 8UIOI\ICAL

form 10 uc1o 010U tbe eolruco eaactly u !bey d
city palac< Ia a RtJpUI otate c:apitel, Kotab cveo n ° "-
dtphoot pra .. ,. on Cbiuor and the Red Forts

Silllllt,
Ddbi I !Jam fi'OWIIJ on all lclols. Moreover tbc el b Ira 1114
oU alooJ been a of royal aod cliyiae misbt ep tat baa
pocy ia l:l . .odu mytbolou and history. lt is
1
u., 'lid
fadlaa aalmal. Tboa provu tbat far from consrruP<,c"fto•n,
Hlllupol pte of Fatebpur Sikri Akbar bad lhe •: "I lbe
bebndecl and tbtir srac.IUII.Y arching trunks h• <pb
1
fllt
IIIIIDtftd
..... ,..
14. Similar vandalism may be noticed inside
11130
F
por Sotri IDI.Diioos where peacock plumes oo walls :0.
dalaclleclaway. • ......,
U. Tbo eutore township with Irs stables for houes (A
sbala) aocl elepbaou (Gajubala) 10d intricaleiy omamsbva.
HlDdv workiDIIIShip and motifs ;1 in the traditional R
lfyle. IJPUI
. 16. Ewa ill names and associations arc almost cxolu I
u Paoobamahal, Jodl>abai's Mahal T: .,.ly
:::t'· Borbal Mabal. Tbi• show, that alien Muslim
u euy ::oae. ornately carved Hindu buildings with
.. aiCleucc.
17
• Tbe Salim Ch •
Handa mublc templc iDJido t omb. is ao _ornately carved
caoed llllrblc pillar "hicb bu out. h 16 an cxquiJilcly
lOmb. It bas liJo a .... b
00
PIIICC to • acnuioe orfaioal
.-•1111 Ulllory pahlae.
11. Tbe -- r
,_.,_ • o a Mu1lim k" •
- u llldf proof that the '- . a
1
" tomb anywborc In
-..hlp because mecll
1
M tloo llllrh an ancien I Indian
._ Ia tho modn utlim fakirs used to take rffi·
lly .,..t arc This may be observed
IOJDb't in Dc!lu d
11
Nlumuddin and Bakbriar
..,.....
10
tbat of Moiauddio Cbistl In
lt. Ia tbobat
Ill& Pay au tba 'luadrtaalc ft.tllltocf by tb II d I d
h l'oal'a 'IIYII Ptnoay there are e so·ca c Bu an
..,.. Pll oi'Stlaa Cbisu. Ch k b .acore• of other arave1
.... Had Akbe, y )OWl , Witb it lin tbO
toorafbtp could be baw

IHOIAN MONUMI:tn'l C&(D\TIID TO At.IOf MUI\.UR
allowed 1be maaoiGcer.t, buae, paved quadrooato 10 be turned
lnto a aroveyard 1 Which monarch •outd c:vtr loko on tal&
.,avcyard •• his pillow-bead 7 o\ppatoolly tboso arovn .... or
lbOI-C Muslim combatants wbo rell tberc. while ltorauaa lht.
township in 8tbur's time, Of of fakirs ,bo rctlded in tho ruins
aubsequently. It l1 olao doubtr..J wbolber Sbeokb Sal"" Cboali
11 all lies burled wberc be it suppose4 10 be becau10 bls crave
appcan quite difl'orcol In 1bapo from the other trianfllllor
mounds.
20. One vcraodab of that same huge quadrangle Ia also
desiaoatcd u a mosque. Thls also proves that thil botcb·potcb
or. mosquc:-cum·cravoyard-cum-royal quadra.o&Je pierced by
totrcriaa majeJiic aateways was a makeoilo, improvised m.e of
a captured Rajpultowosbip. E.W. Smi1b and otbcr Western
bilforiaos bavc noted that tbe 00o¢liled .mosque bas many
Hindu fcat•res in h• intricate workmanship. A c.lose exam11ll·
tlon of tbc premiS<J shows !bat tbc hu&c qoadronale WlL> tbc
kitchco·cum·dioina square of Rajput royalty before the to.,o-
ship wu uptured by Babur.
ll. In tbe huge quadraoale Jnfroot of the Panch Mahala
buae Cbaupa1 board bas been delineated on thepavecl redstone
O.oor. Chaupat (Backaammoo) is ao u clusivtl)' Hondu • of
hoary origio. It used to be tbe mall popular pll$tlme in media-
eval timet. Cbaupat it never played in Muslim bduscbolcls.
Tbls board also proves that the township wu buill by tho
Rajputs .
21. Tbc term "Sikri is of Saosktit oroaoo. In Sanskrit
"Sikau" me.sos: •·sand". From tbi.s a native priodpalhy in tbe
Ufldy Rajasthan! oract is !mown as Slkar Tbc dim1outi'c
feminine form of Sikar il ' Sikri" , If Is common for people
from Sikar to name 1 new towruhip as "Sikro' '· Thot 10 a
JlOinJer to the facttbat the oriaioal rounders of Fatehpur Stkn
may bavc been a Rajput clan from Sokar. Tbc suftlx "Pur" abo
indicates a township, In Saaskrlt. The prcfia ':Fateh" ••anl6c•
a township. Therefore, the Muslim prc5a "Fateb"
itself l.t prooftbll t Fatebpur Sikri is ao earlier Rajputtowoshlp
captured by the invadina aheos,
23. In the quadraoalc to front of tbc Paocb Mabal to a ral:aoJ
INDIAN IOIS10klt'AL a,
li$e_t.a C1,
IIC!IIl rtai(Ottll d<eortltd •11b I bU&O pylhOn·lfkt CUtVlo
>tDat ""II, Tile tc.&l •u m .. ol for I be royal Hindu Ul a I 1\'<1.
donor rul<. 6n rbc a!cll are iiiJCI' ibed epiSOd ro ;•••
H•adu antbolon aucb as Gajeodra.llloksba.
01
rom
24. Oppaolfclbc anrotoser's seal oo tbc otbor trdo orr
qllldrlll&l• is • acaoe •.at!!r-c:IO<k rucb as was invariably u he
ID ttll tbetlare, rn all H.rndu ]{Jbatriya and llrabmln b Sed
111 SanoLrrl name is Obali·Palnl. omc._
2S. In rbe recorda of Al:bar's reign rhere b not cv
r
1
b b F co a acrap
o paper prov na t 11 1 c &lcbpur Sikri township
comrololooed, materials ordered mane was ever
lobourcra or aoy day-to-day aecount kept. Had Akby
10
o d td • h . ar really
• .., IUOn • uge townslup to be constructed b .
or at leur some camrtd bits should ha prlu or
able lo lbc M.oaul record captured by tbo en avail·
26. Cootomporary Jesurr• at Akbar's conrt hav
rbar nor a IIOne-cuttor's cbi$el was ever beard or
0

• aod tbat, rbcrtforc, rbe city oc':: ld•DJ
uaVt .,.en burl I OVtrDr&bt I$ if b m . • IDUII
dreutd to tbo requrred size must for wbrcb stoou
from the drllaot quarries" Th co brought ready made
o>eroi&ht without tbe sligb;en ciry be buill
''the btoabt of seotimeaul no s oy matettallytag abour
tbe fUI!rbl• talk of Akba 's fi
0
Apparently takco in by
tbo Jesuns could hardly couuiers whose lanauage
ootloa ro lhtrr mediaeval sim 'r I Iauer have made tbb naive
ror ua now tbat noting is of
10
ry aod belief io magic. But
tho mediaeval tame

.significance In sceina
ur catron of Indian hillorr.
27. Evco before tbe 6ttit'
of Fatcbpur Sikri rowtubip

on which tbe building
A\bar, ilra recordtd . b. lS c revcd IO have been begun by
fOf
10
p:.:tory ';hat be used to aend bis wiv<t
Fatolopur Sokn at tbal .. ,fur 'tbia clearly shows rbar
;:.oo100s St for royal
0
.' Akbar's reign bad srately
pin""':) clear oodoCAI!oo tbatlbt coo6oemeot. In spll• of
nrtred
11
rhe very be& . arebpur Silm palace com·
fahdlcd reogn It is slyly
ro)'al Ptt- In Sahm Chilli' wrvu used to give
1
cave" (slo), The very
63
uscrtoon thot Sallm Chl>tl livcd in • G&> .. b r.t.. . lh hve4
omldll the >C.Itly ru•n• 11 alt M'Otlim did Sceondly 11
4u&bt to be real1tcd tbat Akbar·s wivcJ wcte not li3D¢S\CJ to
&ive birth t o tltttrt In cavu. Thirdly the os>cruoo that /lkb•r
to send hos whu for delovery to Salim Chi•tl I• 111ell
euno-us bcuutc: St.lllll Cb11U was cerutln1y not a practiiiOI
-c:ertiOed mldwife.
28. Mcordrns to eurreM falsiliec! accouou Fatehpur Sokfl
wu uoder cooltructlon from aboul 1670 to I Sin. And yet that
wos the prcclst period whon it was capital How could
A\bar tlvo In a under construction 1
29. Hostory rccordl Akbu.t forever left the towruhlp In
1585 payina It only "ftying visit In t6(11. Thll a monarch
.. bould sray 01 a plocc amidst huge pilet or build in& mllerlal for
I S years and tben auddealy teavc tho brand ne01 towa•blp
immediately a(ter ltl complc-tiOD i.s OD the Very face of ll
absurd. It only proves tbat Akbar lived i.D • RaJpOt royal
-pr.Jacc complex Slormed and captured by bis tnondfatber. He
bod to leave It on ISSS beCause tbe lokc-bur11 tow>rds the end
of I 583 made life In Fatcbpur Sikri unreoabl<.
30. aaploa boles so I be outer massive wallthll enclosct
the hillock and the surrouoding pbia is vivid proot or rbe Ia \I
battle rousbt there by • agaln11 Ran• Santa over rhree
decades before Akbor u«ndtd the tbron•.
That in spite or oucb mossive evideaco. currenl hislorlcal
• • and touritt literature should assert anachronistically thai
Fnrehpur Sikri n pMenrly Hindu t owMbip-wllJ eommluloned
by Akbar, Is one of rho major and slarln& lf'\l&edies or blunder·
in& lodlao historocal rcscareb.
Acra Fort
The other lmportut buildoog in A&N it tht reduone lort.
Since /lara ("") It a S•nskril name and cily wu a Oouri•h·
sna capital or Raj put rule11 before the odvcnt or the Mu1h111"
il had to bave a fort. That ron moreover is built In the Rlll'lll
$lyle. The 10 tbe $1ylisb Diwm·s·KhaS aad [)l,un•
l-Am hall• not only bOll,. a cl01e ru<mbiM!ec to that of lite
interior apartmonta In Amber loll (oear Jaopor) bur " aloo o(
M
11<01 All lfrno
lbc B od kro..L -
I u mudtp desrp. No Muslr tat..
or lbc r<Soutcrs ro burld h m ruler •• er b
H d
•uc I COstly ld t•
JD u a•mcs •ucb at "A S •ort Ira •• .,_
o.u· AI !be mar rnsh Gate" .....
•· u n atuco or aod ... ._ ....,
tad iD full regal Raj pur pr;,,,_"'"lbia...
I
ra.
r Is abturd to txpl•m th•• roa
a""'<Qill away as Ale._ •
,,... oo of tbt valour or rh . .,.,. la r
•'lllllor/y in tbt dcftoce of Cb. e POIIC<f Wbo dle:<-beartt<l
ltarlfCI of torlrt r Rt fort • his a
llllft) <enrunes Ak;::ur prrocts an.d tbo fort Tilly. "tba
r &SC<adtd tb b "as
At.ra forr is a
1
.., f •
1
roue. ""''t
ro Akbar and •norhu O.lbr Red 1-"ort. To a .
builr lhty •rert bu,1r b • rs Wrona. Wbe Jeribc, One
lie doeuauotary t'Vidt Y rultrs. Tbtre •

IIIey
bootr by Mogul <mptr:: tbe claim IUtben.
lla,.. madt a Vkvo • thar cl . . ty "<re
8o
us error or Juda:ntoL arm bJJtorian,
rb those forts ba.
an:bittcr e •roue llower emblems
K:bu b.tlts ,, o( ure of tbe Diwan.;.Am · <>n tbeit- llreb-
laa•e lt-Jr rerra tbt Ollltmeora/ Hindu roa :nd tbe Diwaa.,.
illloaq c-.st roots and no domts or ll ap style. Tbey
frawru on rma;es• !:'e••_a>s or both. the Elepbanr
ton:. fearu . ' ustun monarchs IS. Smce
Th flllg tlephaorrmages. could never conuruct
e elephanu at A
lbt:zD rOdt Ra" · fort bad ,.
111
.
u b.tvio& bt JPUI Prruca in full reaar T trapprogs and over
R en ordered by Alb •a. o tllplaio rbcm away
I'L IJPUI pr/occ • at" to COIUIIltmo
'-"'ltor 1
1
qfrem . bravery durin • l'lltc some
lrtocbtry aod b ely ndrculour. In Akbar s sje&< or
Wbca Atbq ravery ••re &afore
1
;
0
1
_dayS Uu!aoca or
COZolll,adera aot «<ettd statues _was endemic.
• Dol .._ COuld he do II for or b., brave
... -.. deprct d ,._ an entmy ' M
""uea Ja)'cbiAd b • u..: enemy · • oreover. be
baa •P u a doo k ad acr up a likeoesa :; accoutremear.
Tl>t r «per-ad oot ;, ro)ltl rrtbvlraj he bad put
b re " a110 IJIOibcr . &tyle.
" a.cmo.,. !bar bt P••ce or evideoc

aJ Aara r. bad iOJral/ed
8
aold e/aimr 10
Clllllkor 8rllllb :J'· 1bct clatm bu bee c
1
'
0
ot JUstice in bla
Morrao1. Tb• n "lilly" b
ICCDIIDaJy , 1
IDCirculoua d<ralla
MOtlUWl'NTS Ca 801Tf0 TO ALU!.N M\ISt.llU
6S
provodecl by Empcrot about lbo cbiiJ.o have boc1l do ...
counted to be misltAdlo& and intc.odc<l 10 ampan vwadt) to
bll d>om h iJ abo potnlcd out thai Anaoapal. l be To.,.r
Htodu kinl of D<lbr bad, io f..:t. io&l&lled a cbaoo of j iiJtidJ io
hos palace at Oclbo. Soocc tbo Mosulr aod other M.ushm rulcn
bmaycd a l!Ogular wcakocsJ for Jfll(liDR IICCOIIOIS of Jla)pol
&Jones to tbc:1r O'ND retco.s. Jaluna:ir·• reference to the aofd
cbOIO Of j ust it<: in Aara foriiJ an iGCideotal due tblllbc Red
Foru at Delti oad Agra Cllilled even in Aoanspal"• time., '•·
around 370 A. D.
Tbe arehtrecrurc of the royal opartmcou at clottly
r ... mblcs lhal or lbc TaJ and tbc tWO Diwao ball& lD tbc Red
Forts a1 0.11>1 aad Aara. All lhe above conslderotloos arc
' proof cnou&b that the Red Foruod tbc Taj Mall&l ot ...,,. arc
Rajpt.U bu11t mooumc.ou.
Akbar"l Torab-SikaDira
Si• milu from Agra •owards Delhi. is Sokaodn. Akbar i•
b<lrc..:d to lie buned Ia rhal mooumeot. Hiatorlans aay that
the rnoaumeot was SibJider Lodi's pal"" before beiqued
.. Akbar's sepulcbr:. This may be true so far as it lOti. INl
even Sikaodcr Lodi did not build 11 .... the lllOIIUtDCDI
b<trays many Btodu sigos such es I he lotcrlocked triUJ&Ice by
the dozeo on ru mosaic ftoor.
The iotcriGCked triangles as ao _,!eric si&o bavc ao place
io Muslim tbeology. Oo rbe other hand devotees of aodclttas
amongst Hiodus bavt amooa tbtir accessories of -ship a
small S<juarc copper sbecl on whicb arc embossed roww of oatcr•
locked rriaogles.
Tbc conclusion that Akbar bas beco buried ia ao cntwbile
palaoc makes rbt oriaio of otb<r tombs bi&bly boca-
Akbar was the migbtittt amoaa all Muslim rulen of l odla. If
<ftn be was DOl provided aa origiaal tomb, bow coal4 odlcr
Toll)t, Dicks aod Harrys amoaa Moaul rulers havo booa pro-
vided witb specrally coostructed rombt?
Vu>ccat Smrlb stares tbal the fuocral rilel of Akbar wnw
performed I<Ctetly ond pcr(uactorlly. whicb apia pro-lbal
... w •• burled just when be lay raran, ilL

,. 66
.,
INDIAN IllS too
• ""'
Mcmo•n or Jahanslr make a sly '
" t>l<h •s••n n10lru the tomb's origin • to Akbar·,..,
rhenllehts lk notorious for chcir 11"-o "'-
dorm•. E><n In <Uch 11. chronicle rbe referon• rr>olou, •nd ,...,
·• to Akb • ''lis
u ,,.f) ob1dy And <baky. Joh•ngor cl•ur" that
1
., ''ou.t.
bu•IJ•nt of h" fMher'J comb to 1 sec of "Ork re <otruu...,
lbac Wh<n cbc butldrog was complete he fou and len It
wrllt •c On tospect•on, therefore ;,/ d Chac tbey h=
bvllcllnr be '"'cably altered. ' or •red •be
TlutiUICemcnl brl11le1 with anomalies
0
d •
D IS I be,....
obvtous he. Tho work111pn avuoloble ro Mog
1
'"Ole oa
aucb oD.,Cd ac the or jobs 4J co make
1
mess

""• not
10 thcnt Moreovor such a project Is under I be c k
001
fllltt<1
Villon of nprrr arcbneou end • ntineers. Then '"Per·
bad tnll) buo1led Chey would have bl &Oto, •f tbry
uucs which was Jabangir't Uiual mode •ely. ''?Paled oa
who roui<Jl his royol ire. Jabangir has q d punllhtng tbott
f hi
. uoce .
o 1 hlvlll8 101paJed people publicly
00 1
tnltaoc"
lie stle.ot abow any punishment I . talct, buc bu
vue to "orkme.n wbo allegedl.l' mad tnvmg be<n mcced
proJ«I e a mess of tomb
Tbe quostioo tbco ames why d 1 b •
co b•s bavmg ordered o tomb fo a at a lila)' c!Jim
not f Tbt r<a•oa wos tbot he r b d or when be in fool did
Mualtm oJllnJOo. Afcer Akb "''' e • co nllay ooncempanuy
•· ar was burted In s·•· -d
l"l"'« wbtcb oarlier • been
8
R . '""" cr Lodi'1
ADd oobkmeo ro•nced OU! J. b •JPUI Pn!ace. Muslim priuts
lliaoglrs, wbtob
0
3

many signs, 101.,.
up auon tnconsruictcs and to ushm tomb, Boch to I.'Ovtr
for bt• ckad f•cber a m b exbtbn his non-exiscenc solioltudo
C&ll&rd lo his .::

monarcb, Jahangir incroduecd a
for 1m father. And be •mtng tbal he ordered a special comb
kll-lalc lirtts lod canard would be .o.xpocod by
11001
ber ile that tbe work "'" trtod co cover it up with
I'Ul1 •bout <>en ll.kbo • meo mode • mess of it. Such baoky
o,!_laatr llluaUm sovo-,'r'o tomb
11
glaring proor lh• t I he combs
... - "" s arc all co
H ,,...., Dluoumenll and or captured
to '""oeik Ja..::.•t .•
011
8•oal Mus lim cooJtrucuoos.
Akb•ratomb ••• blllt false claim that he comm•f'
' -...u ' e n:ln
<ace, of chat butldioa evoo lo
l toi01Atf MOMUMtNft CltDITtD TO ALIEN MUJt;HIH
67
Akbar'a Time h1stonaos resorted to tbelr utual t.Uptbod
·U'PitoiLion I bat Ak)>l\to be&an conteructton or bl' owo comb
and left h unftoistlcd and later Jabaogir eomp1cred al . Tbey
., •• .., the simple f•ct tbll Jahns" ololmo 10
•nmb (rom rbt very foundation.
.Khurru Bogh- AII•tu:: ••
All•hobod pro•idcs anOiher ....... tMJOJICe or mlnalcen
•boul Lhc auth.OJthip or onc1ent monumeoLL Th.t lwo
importllnt mcdtacval mooumentt teen ln A\lahabad 4tc the so-
called Khusro B•a• sod the fore ac the connuence.
Tbe two magoi6centarcbways, lo the town woll, oncleadfoa
to tho Bnsb ond the other to the old town, are both of Hindu
They ha,·e the stooc·Oower cmb1enn, omamC.Atll
wlndow• aod cupolas t uct\ us arc 1cc:n on the town waUJ of
141pur and other town> 1n Rltrutbln. Beyond the orcbway,
io11de tho town, Jiu Rani Mlodi and Att• (now
abbro.,ated tn vulgar parlo.ru:e to "Attar>uyo") locallh<t. II
was tb.11 Rant (by whoso name chc "Maodl' CJCiml lnd her
R•J• who lived In what If loday mlllalcenly behoved to be
Khusru B•sh Thte was cbm p>lace wl\lcb 1•• demolllhed
whco Muslim 3rn:ues stormed the towo. A fow apaumcntl
wblcb escaped dcmolihon "ole bttr Ulcd as sepulchral <him•
... Th10 will be app.>l• 1 from Chell ve1y odd 1110 IUid
enciroly lliodu workmanship. One or cho does oat
contain aoy comb at all which how• that <all tbe ni•IIDS aput·
meott were builc for otbor than <epulcbtlll purpa;e< lo another
abambor lllllloory h .. been pilcd rtaht up to the CCII·
ina. The .ume of a woman Tamboolon assoolatcd wuh one or
the tombs is ogoin inmgulna since Thmbool (mcantns •
leaf") is o Sonsknt word. 11. hugo wall coclosurc cordoo101 off
those mliuable. &roc,sque and truncated mooumcnl• also
'"'•m• uncalled for. If Khturu Baah were 10 be properl7 ,..,._
vaced ic would rewal plinths and other remain• or oa old
Kth•crly• palaoo •
Anocber pertlncot quwion whtch nrisun !bot if lbMe...,.
•poclolly built tombs why • che) 10 the Htndu • SIIU
aoother 11 that tf lhase Itt< tomb< butll for lbo cla4

68
llfDIAN KI$'1'0-'ICAI. -··
• •
wbuo at< lhe eorr.poadlll$ palaccs of I be livina ond I
\4ud,. Ptl-' 7 ru loa
41Wooh• Fon
Allahabad fort baJ allo beet> ""'oocJy auribult<llo Akbo
Tllttt arc many clues co prove tbac Alla:.•bld (on .,. '·
t«"<ral CCiliUntl before Akb:lr. A ribbon-like
ICIIIIop desoan runs tbrousb cbe ron wall a1 hoah ftood le
1
e
Thai desoao and cbe oroomeoml pauero or rhe wondows .:• ·
lookona lbe eonOueoce, cbe iatricaee carvinss on some or

..... chamber$ or lht ron, and lbe existence of the Ashok
Pillar, I he Patalesbwar temple aod tbe Aksbayya Wat (lmmor.
tal Ute) Inside the fori is adequate proof or the ron
havlns been buill mucb before the advent of the M usllms.
When emperors like Harsha visited erayos I.e. Allahftbad for
Jivina away all their wealtb to lbe poor, tbey s oaycd In tht
fort. That, 1bcrofore. is a very anclcot monument or pre-
Musllm times and Feraussoo did oot 1a1<e proper tare in
its construction to Akbar. 01her hiSiorians quotiaJ
Ius autboroly have all aooe wrong in cbiol<iog 1ha1 Akbar built
the fOil TillS ll 0 lypicaJ IOSiaa<e O( hOW lndJIO mediaeval
buoorocs bavwg beta based on c}tt slippery guess\lork of some
bluaderooa aulbors, bave all become disconed.
111m Chat• DtiiiOIItbed
Tberc It aJJotber a.spcct of aneicot Allahabad wbieb bas
remained hidden from lbe public because historians bave failed
10 delctt f•eiJ It bu beto often wondered bow tbe holiell or
the boly con,ftueore or the lbrec rivers at Allahabad bas DO
&ball for pilarimJ to batbe on evco !bough it bas been ao in·
variable Hindu custom lo consJruct masnifitcnt abaiS even '"
monor plaoca of poiJrimage. A popular myth it that since cbe
• Oanan cbaoaes hs bed no gluts could be cooooruttcd. This Is
a fllcilc n pl.anaUOil lo JUcb rases JbiiJ are cooSirucled II chc
fartbtol limits 11 wbk:b tbe river !lows. Tbac is oor, 1herefore.
a uuaraccory upl&naclon.
MOftoYa tbe c:oniJuCDCe is aurrouoded by very aoclclll
• t owoslupa Joke Ptali.,b&npur aod Arai, on lbe ocbn side or 1he
tt•era. rac"'a All.ababad, A careful e•plonclon of chc area
r<vtals that &batt ..,bocb taltltd alona 1bt backs were dcmolltb·

L/
YS CJ.ftOtTlO TO A\.l f.'H •n.I.SL.lMS
OCP"'" .,ol' UMfl' ad ono&tepUOD of
"''that the aiHh<·)<at·r::s:d by Akbar .,uh
cd • pltarom• was rcr source of trouble In
abOt.n.,a. I •cion and a\ • fH)tcnua to ttve. bat be •ncl
• (or tbc polanm• Akbat &Jill other
ordc.r co mot • urtct on tbe nver-front. . rea!on to
•"""td 1be ahall· Tb::•g:;.:ve: l'.llsbabad
Mu• uo r did uitt clabOtatc rav
believe tbDt there
1
Varanas•·
wbocb outriwlled tbo5C 0 of numerous golden
• l" coo wo.t made: up • ons
"'ttc: town • s\ty me · rul towc.ttn.a maost
·, rs und. bea.ull • •
t.emplo sp
1
rct, p1tocc towc a bleat o-ppea.taace coocalntnl
llut rod•Y Allahabad presents and Viclorlo.n or post-Vtetorlan
IIOiblnC but •hocks, hovels I ot be> ror&oUeD tbBI Prayag
dec:adeot briClk tencrncolt. It mu: n laces In India whie.h hU
(AIIabobodl I• lho toolicll orhO y wealthy rnerch•nls IUid
• d by powerful rnonarc • T •
been v1s11e ( droe
1
mme.morlal. o accom
commoners ror aencratlons b io Allahabad counllcss husc
modate t'hcrn ther<: YtCrc Ul s aod gbats lJ was, there ...
..rois. oempld, monaltuleJb • • ..:u raz<d IO the
for< tb&l mort tb.ln any Ol er co y d dcmoli·
One or I'IC>SC buildi0£5 wboch par1:;. • Khosru
uon but '"" latu used osa butlt by
Boab •rca. The Olhcr Wll chc rorl wbocb w:u
Akbor but only oec:upot<l by bim in I 5&4.
The Memou> of Shabjaban make a llallntin& of
havil\jl dcmoyed 48 H•ndu temples •« Allahabad. And 11 tS ooc
ol •II lnoprobablc lhol on faoouc vandalism be wu• ooly foliO"·
iog lbe precedeD II of hiS falbcr, grandfather and Other preCtd•
In& Muslim rulers.
Abmcdabod
Ahmedabod II another case in poont of how Rojput monu·
bllve boeo a<crobed wholesale to Aucceed\og Mu\hm
·utcrs .
Bcrorc belna named uOer Ahmad Sbab I, Abm<dabod "-U
••""a a\ IUJ••Il•'· Karnavali and Asbaval. Its bi$1ory extends
lo • •'<ry temole plll. Abmad Shah was a ''<ry fllDIIic and
tyrann1cat ruler. Aa ,...._, tbe pracoee with Mushm anvadas
Abm•d Sbab used captured Rajput lcmples and pal&c:t> u
moaques and lombt. A ahmpsc or bos outokranl depredauona
INI)IAN IIIS10M.t
C'At. llllt..
caa l'f 11'<1111 Mr. Kurnr MaJUmdar'a lQ,
'11mr • ,.hl<'h '1\U published In rho
011
klc lhl
"'rh< lriO'IIn Maaavne (Orlhi) or i\ SP«•ol Oo;."'
uausr 19,59 ,,,
In rtllr ht al-Str'e<. "In A.D. Sultan Ahm •
0· ,ararorrololrJ ao ofli«r ro dorroy all HlnJu ad Shlb or
•·• •od tbe rask ,..., exeeured wrrh


1
,.... d'l •
1\nl oar lhr Sullao biroulr ""'"' to S11Jdhapur
0
1

Ru•lramalutl•}• temple or Srddhnr•J 3Dd broke lbo
rnl•' • mo141u<. . The r<rpn of rhe nororoous It
• 15[1) was \'Cl iO come" The d uharnmad
• wor "d
obvaoull)' s•anifirs rhat only Hinclu wonhlp was <!trot'
the "'m" bulldlnas were occupied and used drn..,,,d
liS mO"\Utl,
In Jplle or rhc many naively mislenll •ns
Ahm•d Shih's rcosn l\U:ribing rho se•erol uccounr& or
in Ahmed•b•d ro hom, there ore unmistakable I mooumcn\J
lh 11 c uu to P
ar • rho .. buoiJongs only approprintcd d ro-e
uuercd b) hun.
00
not coos.
Tho rhockly popullled =rea or the aocrent walled
AbmeJabaJ IS strll known IS Th I IO"o of
•otd mUDJDJ •••usplttous•• lt w.ts • .,!ln5kru
ttt!DC'd •rtb l<mples All tbose rcmplcs have oow bero ,•usc .'!
•oro Ala <ebb d uraoo
otbtT oom m • rJ filii or mosquu more than ••r
parable town, At almost every re" h nd d
tbcrc " • tomb or mo u rt yards
onoate RaJpUI •tyle. sque. Wbat os more, they oro ollou tbc
In Abm1d Shoh's 11 b
1
,
bod rofinores•mat me l e h. uslrm • population or Ahmeda·
mo•q•••s' ;• sucllot was rmp0$toblo thor tb• ruler
ICC!too orbo• •ub rctsa all over the rown for suob o small
IIDJ tombt d I • Neuber could he have got the mosqurs
one on lbo Htpdu I
lu•e lud obtdtoa lo•e temp c. tryle, One who would
tO)' tcmnlu for Hindu liiCbueetuo. ''"'Hid not dr<t·
,. '<OD\·crt them into
Ulc !'C<>I'I< u Sb mosquu and loot and mllnaerc
..... ab did.
Apto ii bt b4J burl!
rbt old Hnldu - o( .. be would oor bave allo•l:d
1'llc b Blw!ra 10 CODIIDUt.
•lllnplc-ar<b
• bi<b I'<O•ida ear prcway kDowa .. lbe TeeD o ..... ua
tJ
10
Ulc BUd.ra ana, u rt>dlro cbe onaa!f
utoiAtl MOHVMfttll CJtt'01l1 I) TO AUrH NUl\..\w.J
,,
Hindu ttylc. II• lfchuccturc mty be eomp;aced with t.be H1ndu
mooumcrUI Ill nutb)' Oitbho1 and Modbcra..
So-OIIIcd J••• M••Jtd
'lbe •••• n mO<qUC or Ahmcdobad l<oown ... J•ID M .. Jid
w"'1 the 10C1t.M Bhodmko.lt temple.. Tbat w.u. tbt: prCSJd•nJ
dcUY or lbc cn.y. (;rom ita ponlCO to the (nncnDMl un.ctu.ary
IIJ ot1.o1c b il•rinJ proof orit< catll<r tol•
IJ Q HIOdU lcmplo. The al\lc or tbc aanctuary bU onr
hundred clo•ely >CI p\llllff u •re common on Hindu ,oddus
tcmplcl.. Oenuine moJqueJ do not have oven o. aio&Jc
f!Hl:ar slnco tbe-y hnmper ll\llu pr1lYC1l•
tn lhe 11fchu or tho sanctua.ry arc fbcd 11•one..f\owc:r
emblem• AS the Muslims were wool to do in the eo.sc or a11
cap1urcd nnd converted mooumcntS. A or lhis buQ.e tcmpto
bAs been used o• a aravcy•rd.
The CAtVIngs rcvul m•ny Hindu symboli 11\c fto,..rs,
<b•rns. bells ood alcbes. The upper poruon of one of tbc twio
qHICI Of I be sbliDC bU bccD chopped Olf 0> COUld bappeo ID
the 6tsr OU>b of vocrory and coo><Qucot 1-oelUtot l\lry.
Ornamental "one> whlc:b feU oii tbe stormed ttmples cao be
Ken tcattertd in the vic•nlty. One sucb is. wccl
as s fillins co a wa.ll of tbc pubhc bvaloTY the
on tbc maio lborou&bforc koowo as rbt M•lllrmo Oondbi
Mar£.
Rupm•tl ol>ll Uboaumorl Mosqucs
Some mo>qurs srlll "'rolo r.hc•r Hindu nuoa•toODI
ond unm<J hkc rhe Rano Slprl mosque aod rbc Rupmoll
mo1quc, Rani •nil Slpri and Rupmau ue Saruk11t o1ma.
Tbry only proo-e that Qonl S1p11'1 aod ltupmstl's pal.oc•
<OD!erted Into mosquu The aomc rslbc c::;uc '1\'hbAbllled&b&c!'o
tnm101 monuments the Bbadra arc&.
Aloocslde rbe mooumauo tb.lt arc bclllJ used ••
oDd tombt, arc a llliJilbcr or otbcn wbocb he ueaJ«Uooo olDlllloll
bur.ed lG tbc acul . TllOK ru1AJ, idc.auc:a.l sn udutcctute wtda
the othrn uodcr uK, •rc ocldruoaal proor tb&! In the \toaa..,W
that foUowtd lbc Muolom rovatloa of the IO'IfD a rc• Huocla
JJIIOIAN HIITOAIC'AL "
71
r<:maoned o<&I<Cled and abandoned, because lbey
damaged, "'''t&ed and deJecroted •• ro have ;:;::
J.a..afc u\CJC'""
su"•• T""'" .
som oftbt moaumcotJ bave cowe.rs w1th D rare c.naiote J
'o-••• Mrl or I hem. If a • is it or d imbt to •• upr
0
1
rommo<• ,. .... .- i • ' d Per
otoretoroooof rherowel1. gr P• us st?ne won ow Wil b borb
haodl. hup •t hard repcareii!Y for • wbolo and ao his bol4
• .... •
8 11100
ge feclong of rbc to .. <er shabng undoth
,,cCJr ... .
1
. II
fcet AnY •·isiror who happens 10 be on t 10 twoo tower will•ho
apcroea<C the same fe<liog. Tblr rare engonccnna
and I he e.quosllc griiiJ tbat arc seen on most of the so-called
mediaeval mOI<IUd in Ahmedabad are all producu or Hindu
>r<hll<etur.tlsLIII, siDCe the so-called mosquCJ and tOmbs I re
all pr••·iou>. Hindu buildings.
Siddupar aod Clumpaoer
Siddhapur, an oncitut town in Gu1arat; bad a very famous
ud buse Hiodu sbriae known 11 tbe LINGAMAI:JALAYA. It
wu destroyed at Ahmad Sbab's orders. Irs buge towtnoa
arcbWiyt now 1tand jn naked 11olation. A few yards away tt
the IIOCIUU)' or thll famous temple compl<x. But the $aJltiU·
ary bu aow bun converted onto 1 mosque. This eon>crtion of
a famout ancient ffindu temple, baa been 3d milled, tbousb
Dilly llldirectly, by tbc Government of l ndia's Arebieology
Oeparomcnt by puuin& up a "protected monu me or" t ianhoatd
there. Tbcstooc Dower emblems appearing In it s many niches
obo pro>clhc fact that mosqou which have stone·Oowers Ia
tbelr.ntc.bes, were earlier Kiadu monuments.
Oa•ptDtt oad Pa•acad
3S miles from Baroda In Gujaral it a town known II
..., naner. On 1 nurby bill is an ancient fort called
· llr)tb an <I Pavapd arc SllDSkrot nail>< I
..,_ • • • Yet an Mchaeolog, lgnboarJ
docl&t., that Clumpancr wu founded b; ' q,. .
llutory ru:ordo llat Mohammtd Bagda was a sadjst ruler. Ill>
oy,.uay aut! torture knew oo boundt, This Is apparent frolll
Mr. Kumar MuJumdar 1 remark quoted earlier. Su<b
rulert do not build bul only destroy. Moreover, MusHm1 d\d
ool JO to Wl1derncJJCJand found citles. They c&phuc:cS aourltb--
ina cnwnlhf1n, laid tbcm waste. manal:fcd people. turned
1
e.mple:s into mosquct, and fo•ttcd their own o11me' on anc.ont
IOWOJ• Tbal IJ hOW lbcar names 101 a.uoc:iatcd Wllh VAYIOUI
10
wn&hips. Had Mohammad B•sd• founded Cbampana he
-would no1 hiYe given it a Sanskrit name, nor would he. have
found ooy people ro massacre.
1\ very huge shrine at tho rear of Chatnpancr Dlso bears
cnoutb sran.s to make one conclude tbal it Wll o..o earHcr
temple. Ornate paneiJ dislod&ed from the monument dunn&
cbc icooc>c:lllUic fury running riot after capture, can be Scc.u
sboved 10 11 random wbec aubsequent'y tbe bul1din1 was pu'- to
asc as 1 mosque.
,... We sball next turn our IUlcntioo to the town of Ohar aruJ
the neatby mountain fort koowa as Mandavpd or
They are in Central lodia. ibu •urvey of a crou•sociiOD of
medlaevlll monuments. situated sevctal hundred miles from ooc
aoolhtr In different parts or lndl1, is jui\ to •bow that the
S3mc story has been repeated aJI over India. Monuments co-or
trUCICd dUfiOJ different 'periods or liiodu rule, spread tbTOUJb·
out Jodia, were, ancor Cllptu.rc, coovcucd to MUJiim UK. Tbc
iov•ders and captors btlonaed ro different narionohtics, .....,.,
cultures and 11rata of Some or them wore mere
footmt n Or freeboottrS who bappcaed tO cap«ure pariS or tbc
eouotry and proclaim themlclvcl rulers. The diverse tlled
oncluded P•tbans, Abyuioians, l raoi3ns, Turks aad
A robs.
Dbat
Dbar is a Sanskrot namt. That clty was the capilli or a
nourishina emporc on ancieot rimu. As such u bod mao7
temple• and palaeet. Mou or tbesc oow sraod convened mto
moaqucs. Even their outward appearance sboul<l suffice to
convmcc anyone 1hat those monumcats ouatnactd aJ temples.
.But what l1 morc, there is wriuen proof. Slone• cwbtdded in
the toll aod tbose plastered over io tbc walls. btar S•n•krit
-inacriprioos.
A arapbic that of a monument copbllllllllc:aiiJ
'7C lHDIAtl ltltl'O .• ICAt.

calkd tb< Ko!nll Moul• Mosque. A few ycoro back ,.h
P."toOQI of tbll bu1ldoU cnombl<d they revoaltd 1100 ..
0
.....

plld aft<rp.ll<i of Sanskrit dramas 1nseribtd 0 """'-
II bot aD" b<dl nlablisbed 1bat the monument ko
0
'be...
SARASWATI •u inte.oded
uo.qut IJbrtf) or S.Oskrtt tneratutc. It wu UDiquc bcca_ '
ht<ratW< 1nscnbed oo stone tablell, lnllead
d<JJruelibl< PIJ'<'· Tb1s iostanee obould auflice 10 10<! oa
11udratt or butory, arebaeolo&Y and atchittcturc to <IOSt'7
eumJoe ell med.aeval monumenll which to be 10
or m-un. One Is sure to diseovor that they were •••
""' ICQI
RIJpul temples and palaces.
Moo4ar&ldlt
A few mllcs '"'•Y lo thickly wooded country, lies tbe ooei.
ent mounuro fortrua or Mandu or MandAvaadb. This " a
SIUUI.rot name. U Is so anotcnt a Site that its or lain cannot be
utablisbtd "ith any dearee of certainty. Reins a am all locality
aU rll cxllftl mooumenos should have alsoed sin<e prc·Mullim
to bn• b<co a useful fori and apilal. Lacer. donor
Muthm oceupaoioo obe R&Jpuo palaces and temples were coo·
•oroed colo lomb• and mo1Qut1. Its pillars, bracktll and 110 ..
ftov.er emblem• bear mule Witness to tbc fact that a.ncitnt
Hoodu bu1ld1DJS currently stand disauoud as t .robs and
DIOIQU<I. Tbe Archaeology Department sisnboard on HO'hlDI
Sbah • comb adm1ts tbar the building used 10 be a great Fllodo
ahrloe where • areal anDuol fair used ro be held. b uscd to be
• Sbtu Temple kno\lrll u Neclkanrhcswor Mabadevu.

. Tholotcrlprlon on another nearby monument odmitt tbal
0 fl&1oally a Shi>a temple, 11 was turned into a pleasure resort
by Sbab Budap Kbao, Governor of Mandu under emptrol
Albat • !ounces should be tnougb 10 sbow that
othm nl i4<111ocal coru1rue1ion fa!Kiy ascrrbed to various
Mu•llm ruln1, "ere buill by earlier RaJpUI rulora.

lo &ucb cases tbe urmostlhal b c:ooccdcd by hitlorrans aDd
trtllacok>a•w or tbc old school. Is that the auceecd1nl MualiJD
"'I<" O>a) have 11Jcd RaJput build1aa maoerral and shea. Tb<*'
-nl.coaAS .. ould hue "' boll••• that lh< orlaioal RaJP"
1
tempktl.4ld paltccl were pulled 6ow-o aod rcbuJU ltOOC by
stone and brtck b)' bfttt.
Anyone upcricocc or bu1ldift1 or wb.o bu
t:ODJUittd Ci\'11 C081DCCfl, tbOU}4 knOW lha\ there t:aD 'be oodUtiJ
so s•IIY and qu•"otk IU dcmoUthln& ma.u,ve: m.c4iK't'll tt.ne-
turcs, and hapln& or aucmpt•Dl to ccbutld them ll the a.am.c.
lit< with obe debrit ood rubble or the llcmol<Sll«l mooumonu.
Sucb II lhtDI it lmpos51b1t, unrca.slblc o.od The.
only log1cal conclu•1on would be that ready ttmpln aod
pa1atct wet c. aa looobs 110d mosques whh ill ten ...
11on lhrowln& awoy lbc irnaa< ond hucrlbiog ,.,.boo
tetter loa.
A C:.tcllc araumcnt oncn put Corwl)rd in thi• connection ''
ahat the vch. tbc dome and the Umc. waac1e were ,ouoduc;e.d
to todta only by the. Mu1Um mvaGers. And t.lncc rncdtat\111
tombs etnd mosque• have: tbe·sc c.ha.ratlcnitics d'lc bul\dlDI'
bavc bcc.n com.auuioncd by tbe Mu:1.thn ruler ..
Several anomaHcs and contradictions coutd be: pointed out
10 the ror .. OtflJif&UmcnL Fu·il or a1111 must be ob\Cf\'Cd Lbat
C\'c:ft coo«:dina (or arcumcot's 1aLc thac lho arcb. dome and
hme concrete ¥were nc..-.ly mtfoduecd 'nto lndr:s. by MUihCD
tnvadcrs bow do H1ndu features hkc uooc .. ftoVwer cmblcau,
piU11rs ram•rY'"I ,nto four braek<l' 11 the t?p and. ornameou\
brackets near oho eelllna appear 10 so-called Mutllrn moou·
mcou 1r 1he Mwhms IDUoduced thetr own domn aod arches
they would na.turelly ba.o.,c 1uppor1ln& (Olumo} and otbor
reaourts In tbcir own 11yle. l'lll•rs and braokeOJ or tbe H1odu
nylc 'upporting nrcbti and doou:l or Muslim cooccpuon 'lfat.
310blleoturnlly not (euiblc Moreover the uncornpromiiiDJ
renaoiciiDl or MUIIImlnvadorl oould DOl hOYC cole rated ia.6dd
ruturu In ..... d. reh&iOUS bulldiOS> Ilk< tombt and
n)OiQUel, bad lhOse t.trUtturcs been erected b)' lhcm *dl no'"o'.
Evon Mu<llm eo&loecrs (1r aoy Ullted) would oot bavc 1olerot·
cd tbc .ncorporauon of Hiodu charaetcJiUtCI 10 bo,tdtap or
Mu1l1m conecpuoo.
The only cooctu1100 one bu to draw. tbtrcrorc. " thai lM
mooumon11 orlaooall) Hin.lu bear .,..,. or M"*"•
11atcnoa.

"
..
76
• • •
Htalbc:r tbc dome cor che minaret arc Muslim 1
rumar) tbnnc. tbc K.aba hu neither a dome nor
1
1
nc:c hlarn·,
m•oarct
Aj..,
A;mer u tbc conupt rorm o f the anc.tcat sa . k
.A. •&fi·Meru. Its et.olral now houstnt
1
°
1
rn en)'
ollion baa been fabely claimed iD fawuina. naucrona .... ,
co ha•c b<en buhl by Akbar. ron[tJcl
Ajmcr wilb iiJ spacious and massive central pale
mounoain fororus ofTaragadh, obe mO$QUc hnlf· way •:· lbt
u-.ck.'eadona 10 the fort . rbe oober mosque inolde the
•portaoa owo fat soono lomp.posts bristling with brocket
11
'
uomhtaklbtc future of an Hindu tcmple- th• , •-l on
M I dd' Chi 1 • . ' . o·ca led
1
ohnAu
1
at . tomb, the Adhao·don·k•·Zopd• camouOaged
"I ra IC cttcrong, and tho Anno·Sagor toke ore all f
M111ll R · · · T o P«·
01 •Jput orogon. hey have been falsely credited to ali
M1111im monarcbt. en
:"'•t Adbao·dln·ka·Zo;da Is the extant part of Vlshal·
deo • been already utablisbed. The Taraaadh-e
Sansknt namc- os • . fort of immemorial antiquity, u old as tbt
Ajaya·Mcru townsbop. The rposque half-way up the mountaoa
lrsd WI! I Hoodu temple prior to the capture of tho fort by
tbc Mushms. Tho mosqiiKitln·lomb on top, ln fon was 1
B.rah.miftl Still &<I a >bare ill t.be ao.oual ofl'uio&s by
1
usl!m polr.roms attbe shrine. Tho two ta.mp po;ts also teuify
bat II wu a goddess ocmple. Bao&Jcs, a symbolic ofl'erina on
Hondu a.re still offered at tbe altar during tho nnoual
Muohm fcstoval. The Moinuddio Cbisti tomb lies amidst the
rulna or tho fortoficauons at t he foot ofTnraaadh As hos been
obkrvtd carhor Mushm faki rs U$cd to occupy nnd
ruinrd Hindu munsrons. When tbc fakors docdtbey were burled
11 tbe ploct wberc the• I" d 1 cd
1
' ove • a course of lome tbe sho anum·
mportancc u • shrine. Exctpt for the triangula r mound
markloathc burial plac-e or St. Moiouddon Cblnl the enure
1J pan or 8 hugo Hindu maosion which CAme under
0
; throuah COllqucst and converalon and
01 .or t. Mornuddon Cbisti.
JtlHMT••plnla ),1 ....
Aoother Ionic kllo\Oon fa<t iJ tbat tbC£0 18010 arches, domes
11
aod lime conttt-lc were antrocluccd to \he bomdarub or l.be
:,\u)li(Dt by llt\Ctcnt lod•ant miUcoiunu bcfo·rc Mutlam iovauoal
of lod1a bcpo. Tbit lt toown from "'·era\ c.lu.cJ.. For tastucc
at ,, nauntln&l)' aucttcd tO tbc baitory o' ldam 1b.a.t 'bc(Of«
wat stor(l'led and convcrccd into u blamic lbrioe. '' con•
tatocd buac tc:mp\et boullna 360- 1do\t.
Tbc: term Mecca derives rrom the S•askr
1
t word M..a.khJ L•.
ac::rificial f\re wbicb tbc noclc:nl Htndul were knowo to worshiP•
ThM firc-worsh•P was widely pteva.lcnt tn. tbc Middlc-Eatt, can
be j udged lroro tbe Panb who orlaJnate from rcg\on and
are J\oclont fire temp tot are known to c:abt io..
Baku. Oaahdad and otber places In tbc Cenorat rcaioo
even today.
The c:c..otral object or tstamio wonhip In Mtce4 is a:tiH the
Rindu Sbiva l.tOP· Tbe ancient Hindu rite or cucum·ambulat·
ina sbnncs '' still at M.ccca by all Mu!thm pilarim'
tbnoab h don oot prevail in aay orbtt mosque..
All tbe countries from Sukkur 10 Sua. bear Sao..sknc oames
••'fra.o.am" mcaoiaa us;ahy or barren around"' Lttbc orialn or
Iran. Nls.bapur tbc biotb·ptscc of poct·philosop!Kr Omar
Kbayyam, iJ a Saosknt word. Tori<CSIAD (abbreviated "'
"Turkey'') is Turaaa-Stban- und of Horses. Arabia il the
abbreviatiOO or Att'lallhln WhiC.b io lUfD il. a cortUpl form or
A.rya-Stban- I.Jond of JioJSCS (wbrcb it very much Jl), Atva·
$I ban chaoalnJ into is not 11 all far·letcbed. "Va."
in Sans\oll has lovnriably chaoaed mto "ba" lo Prat rit u
uvachan" (prombc) is pronounced "81e:ban".
Afghonlsthan II also • word wbich it explaoncd by
Afghans 11 tbcl•nd wblcb poovided the tra•mt link betwcu
India anrl Ccntrnl AtJa.
Temples of Oanu h, ShiV& and other Hindu deitiu c:ao still
IK discovererllyloa on ruias Ia desolate areas of sevcoal C.ntnl
Aolan countrlu The word "AliA" m .. ns "Mother" or
"Godden' io
ManoscTopl> ofNarada Smclti !lnd many otbtr anCient S....
ktit ltxl> b ... b<tO dua up from t he sands or ...... MI-. All
lbio porDII to the fael that tbOtllaods Of ytarl b<(Ote f.slaa ....
>IAI.,.{6>HC'-------------

71 I,..OIAN IIISlOkiC.\t,.

CftO born l•nguoge and Hindu eullurc held
1
the Mlddlc-Eut Hindus h•d built ••••Pies "'•r
aod ma-uliOn.J all O\'t't Ctntral Asia. It
15
•mt"•
..- h I . trtror
001
carrcel to n y thol 1 e Mu<l ms tntroduccd the dom '·
I d
. I . •· n ...
c:o.ncrctc and ehc arc:b to o tl.. c wa.s JU.Sl the OPPGIIft or -.
Tb< Muslim word Gumbaj for dome is SIMkrit KumbbaJ
1
"-t
B<wuSC Indian mediaeval bistory bat! brtn put In the.,
h I
. • •••
from abe very start. arc. aeo histouan
1
:a-ad
archrlrCI$ have all along presumed that lbc mediaeval m
I
. · Th id ••u·
mcntJ lfc tll of 1m ..obng_n. at
1
ta and nur.
1
ured for the last SIK ro c1g t ccntunes 1as gro"'n 1n1o a mon
. • fi d d'ffi ""
wbicb many onuquanon• n tt r cult tO l hakc oil'. Thot
11
"""'""'they sta rted wot h wrong ond
Tboy mull now unlearn that and begin lo nssocin1e the dbm."
arch and lime con<rete as inher<ol and lndogeuous fral ure• or
Indian aoehhccrore.
Bljepar's Whl•pering Gallery
Tbelast omportaot mooumcn1 wbrcb I now propose 10 deal
wtth specrfieally IS the Gol Gumbaz (The Wbrspcring Gallery)
or BrJapor. Bijapur is a Sanslrrr1 name aod s•gnifies a very
ancrtnt and nourishing city. II was caplured and ovtr by
the Muslim Adil Shohi dynl.sty. What rs now tcrmtd u the
Ool Oumbn was the ancient l>hiva >hrloe or tht Lrngayall
(tbc lonl Hrndu Community) who arc greal Shaiva11s (wor·
ahlrpcrs ofSbova). Around that shrine lie scauered and burred
innumerable Hindu images. A few or the excavated ones bovc
been oollrctrd in • lmall mustum in a nearby building.
The acoustoc &Jmmiclt buill·in In the dome which rtvorbcra-
IClthc aliahteal sound II limcr, was inlcnded 10 produce lho
Nada·Br•hma, 1ba1 11 pbonetic ocstasy, during the great Shlva·
rlln aod other PUJII ofJ'cred to Shive. Shiva is !mown ror his
Tandan Nr01ya (Cosmic Dance) wbicb ia accompanied by a
peal CQiallc din of mridansas, d•m•rus, cyllibala, bells and •
aomba or otbtr rnllrumenl<. IJ wu 10 rcverbcralc 1hoscsouad<
Htadu enzrnecn bad dcslsneollhc Gol Gumbu. For Ill
OfolJnal Kpulchrt DO IDCb &rmmiek Is ever Of hcUUII
• WNI bu 1o rcalro peace und•nurbed. Moreover wbo dati
b1 k or such fe.nt.aJtlc a.t mmlckl, nc.vcr heard or 10 IIJ.am. \ G
!beD tombrc mood of a •orrow1D1 rcatm 1 Oo the 01hc:r ba.ftd
tbuc are a area\ many cluu to behcvc, chat h wu a Sh,va
temple because ehc entire tunouodiaa mrca bean uamtJtlb.b'o
--sipl of tna .. tilfcdc.atruCCion aod dclOlauoa or
Tbc ornamental "one drcss,oa or 1hc Gol Oumbn Htdr hu
.. pporeotly been petled olf ... t.bat lhe wul or tho buhed
monarch may ft"lt to peAce. Mr. 0.0. Josh•. aa areb1tect (rom
bat wrinco to the autbor lhat he spcc&ally \Ill& ted 1be
,.agpur. • b. · d d
-o 1 Qumbal on bt..ariaa of &be IU[bor 1 1 eslS. an COG\'IOCC:
thatrhe Ool Oumbot ;, on raet a pre-Muslim HIDdU
temple built to the onclent Shilpa Sbama speclflcalia"' ood It
-not an original tomb.
The huge To) llavdl ond tbe "'"sive walla around B•japur
town lltC all or pre-Muslim orr gin. The Ad II Sb•hs ouly captur-
.,d the place and ruled over it. They deslroyed a sood many
buildings and built none : that is wby too are no palaces
i n tbe1r oamu.
Malana
Spacious lounaes. parlours and apart:meast in mtd:ae:Y&J
monumtou ace vaaucly iatroduced to lbe visitors u
··Ma.ct.rus.:' Under mediaeval tstam.1c rtoglmtt 10
l odia, wbc.n aU r.cademic instruc:uon was coo6o.ed 10 tbe nc:it&·
tioo of the Kono. and tbat 100 10 an )CCI100 or
the Musllm popula11on, whll rulcn-drialc IUld dru1 as
t hey were-would ever build stupc9dous mooumcoiJ for
Madai'UJ t.•. scmlnarlu ! So the very [&ct that i pacious •pan•
mentJ in mediaeval monuments arc speciously and nebulou1ly
palmed otr on aullible loy vositars, uod unsuspcclins
as Medarsas is further proof lbat 1be mediacl>al Indian monU·
mealS whicb contaon many rcoiUrct lncaplieable to hlamle
wage are on f&ct pre·Muslim monuments. The n•me
Madam llleka to lbasc buildiop bccousc they ....,. Vedic
tcbools.
Bibliogrophy :
I. History or l ndoa at Wriuco by IIJ 9wu HiJtortaus.. bl Str
H.M. l!lllot aod Prof. Dowsoo, Vol" I to 1.
J
'
50 I'<DIAN HIJTOII,ICAL II.GtAl <:it
Ablll Ful'• Vol._ I ro 3, Bibhorbeca
104
q
..,ia
] TraDNCIIOOS ur lh• Arclllcoloaical Socrcty of Asn.
+ Tilt XI\ curury and Arlet-A Moarhly Rcvrcw, Cdltcd
1>y Jam"' "•••Ia.
< Pucr \Iunday • Tra•ds.
6. Comm<nt.J.mll
-. Tra•..U 111 ladtl by Ta\'unier
i. Hmory or rbe SbabJ:alw> of Dihh by Prof. 8 P. Sakscna.
9. Tar•kb·•·Firozshashl by Slwn'-i·Sbiraz Alif.
Rambles aed Recoll«tJooa of an lodi1o Oflici41, by
lr. Col. w,a Sleemao. •
11. lmpcnal Apa of lhe Moauls, by Kesbav Cbandra
Mazumdar.
1:!. Tankb·,.Daudi,
ll. lfaodbool: for Vislro"' ro Arra aod lu Nci&hbour-
1(, ...W..rnllrnya Doyaokosb, Vols. 1 to 2l.
Ignoble Akbar Believed Noble
la • halon<> I be oame of I be 6rh pcralioo
Moaul emperor Auransub baJ become a byword for cnaelty,
rreaebery, cu•le aod fanaticism But Akbar lbc areai·IIT&Od·
facbc.r o( Aurana:zcb, was much wone R..a.corrcl WTilkD b)'
flauercrt hove rcoded carefully to shroud Akbar'a miSdeeds
tear 10 small brrs all evidence and s•cep Ill- bill under
Jlkbor's ro)al bedchamber rue. " .. rolmd<d in IM chapter 10
pre><nl 10 lbe reader a umple or l.hat evidence Wbicb II 10
10 be a fit subject for a scpararc book. far from
bclna noble, therefore. Akbu should rank amoo1 tbc """"
lyranls or •-orld bbiOI')' DOl to speak or llldia alollc. Aod 10
raak brm wub remort<ful and protU bco<fiCfon lrU Asbot r
rhe hci&bl Q( ocadcmic ab1urdity.
£YC11 io 10 OSICDJJbly partikJI aa:oont of AJtbar I rcrJD,
tilled ''Akbar,lbc Great Mogul", Vtnc:cor Smub cannol llclp
observina oo pace 32 or bl• l>ook rhat "Akbar WDuld biiVc
lauahed at rbe remorse fel bo A•bok for tbc IIIJ .c u cauoed b)'
rbe cooqucsr of Kallop, 6nt: would have ullcrly coodciDJicd
hrs areat j>redtcusor's decuioo to abstain from al f1UU1<:r •an
of •acreuioo."

Tbc Vtcw lbat Akbar's cooqUUIS were rettcodcd to &ehic\e
the arcat goal of Mldras rhc l<.s.cr 11a1es into a arut em puc
Sm11h dhmlnes 11 jun "seorimenral rubbish." '
A perusal of aceoonl$ of Akbar'a retJn wrmeo b) COOle•
like Abul Fazl, Nlumuddio and Badawu and by
Western .. bolan like Vi-•• Smith Ia aou&h to oonvi- lbc
Rader lbat sfa'#U) in tit mos' abjtet forms 8f't•-•" .. •
Akbar and bls rciao wu full of atroclrieJ. lawlwncn rcprc.-
".oa aod rclcallco eoaqoosu of a tiod rarely p&raildeJ •
h1110ry,
U<J>IAN UJSTO.ICAL .........
n
1
a co!'T<CI appraisal of Akbar's incllvldU41itu
1
To amn a d" cl h • I
-..-n
10
rev
1
cw tbe rra 1t10nJ au t e. ataodard or
• b< farDtiY rrom wblch Akbu was d<JC)ended,
bcbaUOUr ,
7
o( btl boOk Vil>c:enl Sm1tb obse· vcs ' 'Akbar,..,
Oe lodll· tl< had DOl a drop of lod•an blOOd iD hit
I t thO"" hoW sencraiiODS Of lodi•n stOdtnlt btvo
mru..
1
. • • •
bo<a chcalc4 lftiO kUOIDI by rote and rcpcatm& •• t btlf ,,01,..
1
pen lbll Aktw wal 10 lodlao aod ODe Of lbt &t'Cat<St one It
:I H• .. u oot •• lodian. AJ for the olbtr p.trl or tbc IDYib
thal.b< wat a areal mao and ruler we propoae to prove In I bit
••.
1
that be wat oo• of I he mos1 detested by evco bit ntlltlt
. _, gh b
or \los and all Indians, •nd, lhotuorc, ou t to a rooked"
Jucb '" Indian blllori ...
In cootlnuaUoo of 1bc above..quolcd remark Viocen1 Smith
'"Y' •hal Akbar wu a direcl dcscendanl io the 71b gonemtioo
00
his rather'• 11de from Tamc1lain, and on bis mothor't side
from CbaQJI& Kba.o. Tblll Akbar was desaoded from two or
the mOll croeJ maraud<TS known to bislory who mado lhe tallh
quail duru>J lhdr lifo limes. Bu1 Indian hitlorical cats would
almolt bavt Ul b<l1t>e thai Akbar belonged tO t family Of
people u aalolly u SL Fraoc:is o( Alsui ud Abou ben Adhtm.
0o pop 294 or Vincent Smilb'a book it is slaltd that
"loumpcruco wu the beltlliog sio of tbc Thnuroid royal
family, u II "" of IIWIY other Muslim rulioa houses. Babur
{wu) tJ>clepcol lopcr ... liumayun made himself alupid with
oplum ..Akbar pcrmillod bitDStlf the practice or bolh victt ...
AkbaJ'a two oons died lo early manhood from chronic
alooboUam. tJid their elder brother ""' saved from the aom•
fill< by a moo a eonslilutioo, ool by vir1uc."
Akt..r't unc:le Kamr .. , aays Smitb. bahiluatly "disgracc4
bJIIIOCI( by iolht1101 on bia opponents the most fiendish lor·
nua. DCM tp&noa •••• women and children." (Page IS).
l.h.ro..pout blsllfc was • to deadly combal
'P
1
DJI nu 0100 brotbus u •u IUidl with all Muslim rulera io
lod11 He wu quilt a maUb for Kamran ao far as auoc:ilies
-• -racd Wllco caplurod, Kamran wa1 aubjcctcd 10
Smull rtmaru (p, 20) "Humayuo fell hnlc too•
-D for lua brotbor'l IUIJertDJJ, KaJDru WU pulled OUt Of b11
-
83
• eeLrBYID )'K)IL.I
eoNCJI\.&,. b1t kaoes. a lancet ... u
b 1 a man sat oo d lt weft
I ' d down and ¥tl 'c. 1e100ft julcc an A
unt , It K,acoran.'t cyu. some. _ .. ner be was out on
(btUJt tGIO d IO()D •
' bbcd into bit eyes. an " With • ua,dlhOD com-
cu ride :away wi1h bil ctCOrt. uocle and Akbar'• own
tta-ck to . bit (ather and . , is extremely
10
1 dowo to 11 poulblc vi«$
1
a_resuainc.d to a . do -tb&t Akbar wu ooe of the
u -•• rl u our hblotlct ,
<-becky to _.,c •
h mant ever bOrn. . I
noblest u • . of Akbar's pby•ical cbara«cnSI ct
From tho l4l it is clear tbal Akbar' s WliJ
aiven by Vinccnl Sm•lb (p. h.> b Is quite consist cot clhnoloa•·
vgly, deformed personality w vicious romily. Smith aays.
dll)' SiDCC he tx:Jongc:d 10 a YC f mOdCrnlC stature, perb.BpS
•·Akbar (in middle lifo) wu d. mao 0 waisted and long armed.
. • b b oad·cheste norrow ' ,
In bel& t, r bO •d iDward• and wbeo waUdoa bo
I ••'" somcwhal w< . • b d
HIS egs I fi I as if be wert lame. Rll ca
-slightly ri&bl lboulder ... tbo nose was
drooptd a It • b bOny promlocncc in the middle, aod
Talb<f shOt!, Wll a bo I
. ' I cd · r wilh anger. A small wan a u
.,.ostrils d1 at .,
1
• ' th tbG
balf tbe $1ZC of a pu ... CODRtcled the left nostril WI upper
r b' s coroplexion waa dark." ln spite of sucb ugly fcaturu,
ttlf·llyled sycophant of
tdp. Abul Fazl, described by bis • as a sham.
tes:s l!altcrd', dots oot lire of user liDS that Akbar was tho
h
..
••handsomest man oo earl .
History is replete with lnslances of "kbar's extreme addle·
tioa to sllona drloks and stupefying drugs. Be also used to
take liberal bel plop of horrlfyina combinations of bolh, drup
aod drlokJ. Akbar'a aoo Jabaoair ,r<COrds "My father whether
In hls cups or saber momcoll alwa.ys called mo 'Shekbu Babu".
This clctrl)' impliu that Akbar wu very ofteo drunk. Smltb
ob&<rvcs (p. 82) thai allbougb paoegyrisu of Akbar mate oo
m•ouoo or bit dluntco boull It ls certain !bat be kept up tbo
family tradilion and ofleo draok more thao be could carry,
I
Aquavlva, a Jcsuh al Akbar'a tour!, aaya 1hat Altb&r "wul
to such eaccsus in drioklna lbal ho ... Oli<!D feU ulecp (wlllle
taltioalo •isium), tbG rraJOa beloa thai be made 100 midi
-. oo.mctlmca or arrack, an 0111ancly beady pUIII wiM, ud
•• I !(DIAl' IUSTOilfCAt II.
.,. ... ..,
GJid..cDel of pose. a aim•1Jr P"'pamtion of opjum. ddt.nC'd
by .. .. of spocts" , H11 bad <xa
111
410Q
bt
11
., of inebfiiY ,.., folloW<:d only too faithfully :
1
• ••
who
1
ualncd manhood. On page 244 it " rn.nll:nb,,
tblll wbco Akblr nad druok more than wos soocl ror
r{
_ •• variout tDtd freak$. He specially fanco<d
1
pe Ollll<" • b d k . \'tl)
l>ddy todd>'· I>J an 'lrernliLYe e co e a '!"ctd ••fuLJo,
o1 op!WII Ae followed tbe praeroce of bas family for .,..,
in consumlnJ both mona dnok and vari'O<ls Pit.
p&riiiODS or opoom JOmelhneJ to cxctss. Any oumbtr or'""'
pusa;eseould be quol<cl but Ibis should suffice to


tbe ,,,der, of A khat's very vicious II need no1 be '"esl-
cd that a coosoknllt Ill at ease wllb an ever mounliog !010;
11

abl< bord<ll or sin alone £Cells csoape 10 drugged &lupcfaclion.
AU bulorilliJ uaanimouJiy testify to Akbar' s illito.
,..
1
. Fill- Jahla&ir bu recorded t hat Akbar could neitbtr
aor ,."rile but u£0d to pose as tbougb he was very learacc1.
11 I> oot 10 mucb a que&tion of Alr.bor' s pos1og •• of otben•
humouriD( blm Into 1be behef thai all !hat he said or d1d wu
tbe outeome of profound WISdom. Wbnt else could they do
foeed wllb a cruel aod unscrupulous, oll·powcrful
monuch !
Albar'sl•f• iJ a aood cumple of a Sanskrit adage whicb
A)'S
' 'outb, Wuhb, Pover and lntcmpcranec
bob t rDJI) Cia b<IDJ rUIO
Wbat lh<n wbco all eombioe.
On pare J I Smith saya " Abut Fatl never liru or repeal in;
tb11 A\bar duuna hot urly years rcruained " behind a vt•l".
What he meaos tbcreby ia that Akh11 used to speod mo>l of
h•t<m< iatbe harem ... On page 81 Snutb 1oforms us tbal
Aqu•"·"· 'the aood (Jc.uu) father had boldly dared
r<pto' • tbc <mpcror ahatPiy for h11 hceo11ous relations witb
• olllCII .. Akbar bhubtasly .. euscd himself." Abu I Fazl dcscr•"'
"'' AUw'a hatcm U)a, "HI1 Maje&ty mode a large enol<>-
"''" wub t!oe buildlnplnslde wbae he reposes. Tbough thcro
••• marc than S.OOO womu (ln the he hao given to each
as
Od )1081..1
10_... A " Tbis optr1meOI portiOO lo or eoun< I
a ac ·ate aparttl)t:DI• . of Akbaf't \imes wbero S.OOO
lie :.'au•• tbeto I• oo build••& odatcd in ,.para to apartments.
d h
0 \)C:CI1 JCCOt'Dn\
.,omen eoul av
1 1
odllcd by Blochmaon.
00
pap 276 or ·,,y hu utabli•b•d a wine
Abut Fultollatbo reader, Hb . {" .. oflb• realln wbo coiiCC'I·
•hep oeor tbopalacc .... The p<OSil<:Ounlcd 10 large wu their
cd at tbo sboP eould be 10 be takeo bOU>C by tbe
aumber .... n c pocloa a.arls wlotcd to have 1l vira•n.
courtitrs. Jr a.oy well 'I pc•miuioo. 1n tbe: aamo
tbey •bould ftnt have llis Ma)d y d drunkenD<SS and igaor·
way l:ooys proilhuled anMoj<tiY bimoelf call<cl some
aooe>non led to bloodshed .... :d asked them WltO
or tbc prioclpol VIROINITY 1"
OJ!l'RIVI!D THBM OF be who were these •o-Clllled
A pcr1iocnl qu<lloon wodiu_ldd whole armY of prostitutes
·, ,_ 1 WbcrtCrom a 1 1
rrnw u - , cal like a ,warm of OCU!"
sad4<nly dcsceod ' " Akbar ID • r tilutes were none
The: answer 11 tbat these ClfU·IDCfC:ISIDI p 05 d ' \
· bose )lomcs .,., . •• Y
otber than decent H'lldU women w .
raodcd and plundctcd ood after tbeir menfolk wore Clthor
ma,.a<Tod or eonvctled were helplessly len to fend ror r::'•m;
Jd..., and were 10 tbe mere)' of stx·hungry ogu
courtien.
O..pile an uclu.ive bmm or over S,OOO womeo, and all the
vir&io "proslitutes" of tbe rClllm whose virtioity, as Abul Fazl
tells uJ was at Akbar' s exclusive royal command and could aot
be violared withuul speelal permission by anY eont11<r, th•
honour or che whitt of noblemen and court leu was it,. If olways
subJCCIIO Akbar'& ,.. Y pleasure. In Vol. Ill of Aitbaroama,
odllcd by Sir Jodunllh Sartor, Abul Fazl says " Whenever
Bccams or tbe wives of nobles, or other women of chaste (sic)
ehlracter, desire to be presented, tbey 6nl notify lbelf • i•h 10
tbe ><rVtnll o r !he sera&Jio and walt for a reply. Fro m thence
lbey send tbcir to the oftic:en of tbe palace, after wbiCb
those who arc eliaiblo (•Jc) are permitted 10 eater tbo llarem.
Some womon of rant obt1io permist1on to tcmaao there for a
wbolc IIIODih."
llemomberina I hat Ablll Ful has tho reputation or bolo& a

J6 ll<OIAH Hlft'oiiCJII.
• • ft&Jtc:rcr••, tbc above pUSIBe t.s a clur ad
thlt 10 compel "IYCI O( eour11era &ud • .::;11 ....
1
.,_
11
.u .,.,., be felt sufliei<Dtly anraeted, to remain .,,
1
h"""'
b I
•• bo,
baR'• atlwt for a moot at o 1 me,
This c<tnclus•on IS (urrber ICinforced by a peru.at (
0
lbt
or I be Ileal)' or Raotbambborc. The first CObd' t
' " b h II
110
ft
.. , Ullcd b)' \'roecot Smrlb, W&l I 81 I • c I e(s or Bundi ( .. h.
a• ned tbc (oM) be acmpr from thai Cullom, degrading
1
JU
1
rur of .-odlng a clola (bride) IO the royal harem. •
sloO'I\ lbt Akbar bad made II 8 petn1Ct0UI CUllOm 10 dcmaOd
cbocc ,.0 mcn from the household of vaoqullbcd f<Xs. Tbus •U
• 10 temtonct conquered by Akbar, whether coauo00c"'
or of nobk or royal det«ot, were at Akbar' l mercy.
Oo pale • 7 Smoth referring 10 Akbar'a extreme weakness
for " 'DmCO loiYI '&rly io JAnuary ISM A.lchar mo•ed
10
Oclb1 .... Wbllc be •u a Ions a road a mao standing
1
n
the balooo) or a roadside building an a rrov. wbiob
IDJUred .,Lbar 10 tbesbouldc:r .... Akbar sums 10 have discouraa·
cd aucmp" 10 uecnaro the assailant'• lt:eomplic:<a. He wu
tileD <Dilled ID I tcbemc or mllf)'oDg ladleS beloog10g tO
fam1hct, >od bad compelled ooe She1kh 10 divorc:< b11
•1te 111 b•• favour. Tbc auempted asstslloltloo .. was probably
p<ampocd L) regnlmentll tbc royal oova11oo of lbc booour of
famli1<t AKBAR. througboul his life allowed himul( ample
lalllude ID the QIAIIer Of WiVeS and CODCUbioct !"
loom tblt .. rd1d record il seems cl<ar that ain« Akbar bad
10 c)c oo B.alram Khao't wife, and married her soon after
.BaiJam KbiD "'" murdered, Atbar mull have caused lbc
"OlaU locfltalle <Od of Jus CUitvblle JUICdiln.
Oe ,Pel< 37 S1111th ducribes bow Akbar's
A<!bam Kllao •f••r dcfcatioa Bu Babadur, tbe ruler or
W .... •p4, >cut 10 Akb.r "D.Oth101 ca<cpl a few clepbanU.
,..,,.. for billlldf tbc womco and cbolt:etl arli<:lcs of tbe
llpllll • Allllar left Aan oo April 27, IS61, and wub rorc:<d
...... ._ IWPfiscd Adhlm Khan JUtl to aer for hoauelr ollc
•-of ... llallaclut't harem. Akbar'a harem wu tho•
a. .. , -·••tlr by bll04rcdt or ,.omen. The lol of
a IU.IIVWD ttOILII
o()I'OII.& ,.,.... . .ould oot II&•• beco.
00100
010
only be any deceot h•••a.
obcoc ., tcb of Jmoaloatloo, poo•• and therefore Abul
only live

decent apanrndiU
Fail' I uscrllOO tho I of court nauery.
accmt io be obe usual p1CCC • ent on pogo 163. wblch
Vlnceot smuh ref ell ' a couslo or
111
,
0
poiott to Air. bar • nd '[be prblccl version o
Bbaawaodas, was ocnt oo ao ern dead Oil lbc way. Kls
tbe u.c;dcot '"Y" tbll Jalmulr those pe1iiOUS dayl pre par·
wodOW 00 loo&CI deSiriOI 10 fuocral p)ife. Akbar IOSI DO
ed to buro benclf on bcr butb> ' d her and put11o& them
time io ebaJin& those. wbo is likely to reveal
in pnJoo afier capture. A d ath and his w1dow draa•
that Jolmul wu deliberately done to e
ged into Akbar's harem. b Akbar
I
"Orunon's statcmtnl " at
Oo page 185 Sm lb $1YI • d his other coo·
bad coo6oed blmself IO one wife *?d from olhcr
aoru amoog the courlleu Is not co Akb& 's lccbery
sources" This addt a new dJmeosJOD to r . ttc.1
""--····- .it uvcab bow womco were c::onside:rec! as c:ba
.,...._ kba d bil courucra ID a
to be fn:cly excban&cd amona A r an Tbt Ulte lambl
continuous merry·ao-round or .... traffic. y were: be
in a muuoo mark<:l bema freely pulled t bi> side ••d thai I·
weco ohc >codOJ aod I be cullom<< u> commercial bagUoa.
Tben there was the noloriout ioslilutioo of Mccaa Baur
oc:oordiog to which on 1he Now Ynr's day tbo women of •!I
Hlndo hou .. bolds had to be paraded before Akbar for biJ
choosing, Any number of tbueliokerung tales or every
able fotlD o( lechery CID be found l11 the acc:ounll of Akbar I
rclao.
Allbar't Crodty
111 cruelty Akbu abould rank amODII tbc pciiUI udiou or
bouory.
VotK<:nt Smith .. )'1 (p, 20) that io privately uecuuoa
Kamran'aaon (namely Akbar's own oousin) at Gwalior to IS6S
"Akb•r oet an cvlt •••mpte, Imitated on a lara• ocate by b11
dciCelldaoll SbabJaban aod Auranazeb." Tbc per·
, 1 hoD ood Aurangub were. lhereforo
0
pct!Sied bf Shl'i• , bit ,..u.wom • hooded d....':
lbl11 .,...

Akbar. II cnuld nor ""• •·
llolr u..mou• .J b h d V«Q
bJI I uae If we that umanuy s e us ntedlo.
• thonn'" oeourb ways over a number or genera
1
;
00
: •• rwo or rbrec removed
lb<JI .U. d A • must be many umes more CTU<I I boo

10
• o- h' · 1 h 1 •
• ,.. b (?} desceodaot<. llveo r IS 51mp e trul s 1800I<d
:.:::: of Jodiao hi$1ory who have perpetuated lbt
ftOib of Akl>ar"s SttlllltSS.
• • L •• 6 I «6 the day o!ler the bailie or ranipa,
Oo n"Ytmuo • .v •
b H m
u was brouJbl before Akbar. wounded and se
1111

"' eo e k i h ·
· "Akbar smorc }lemu on rbe nee w t h1s scimilar"
:b. Akbar wu lheo just about 14 years age. Ev.n
f!OID I bat }OUDJIIe he &Jorified in I he of help.
Jets aad p106trale enemies ; sucb was bts upbnogmg.
"Ocr lh< of Paoipat Akbar's victorious forces
"marcbtd $1taiabr ro Dclbi, wbich opened its pies to Akbar,
•bo mad< his <otry io • A&ra also passed inro his posses-
"""· ... accordance with tbc &butly cusrom or the times, •
rower wu bQnr .,1tb tbt beadJ oltbc alain. lmmtosc trtasures
_.. takeo With tbe family or Hemu, whose aged fatber woa
ntcUied." (II 30 of Smith's book).
Ia &appreuio& Kbao Zaman's revolt his confidant
Wok-ld Niralt "wu lorturcd for five successive days on
lbt QCQ!hoa IIOUJld. Eacb day lle was trussed up in a wooden
fiUIC U4 piKed one of the Tbe elephaat
..,..., kim ia blltruak aod sqUeezed hiiU and Oung bim from
- lldc 10 lbt other ... .Abut Fut rclaJes this borrid b&rbaruy
•illloua • word or CCDsurc " (p. S8).
Allot llac..,._ oi'CIIitror, aaya Smith (p. 64) " ALbat,
... oblt1U1e oncocd 10 bit annt,
•-' wor w llldaou llld Iowa willa mcrcdcu seventy .... Tile
:::..
1
,._,., m••ac:rc which resulted in tbe dc11b
·-..... ..
·-•'sthll
... , or Atbu ia Petb&JII pre-led .,

AICIAR BII:LIIYbU I'IOIJLI


d' remark.. that in Cbhtor "The anperOt a
lbe areal hiltorlao To • ld by !he mosl lllltcrale alroelucs."
,.-ooccdiogs were mllaC
p Akbar doftatod and captured I be
In No•cmbet 1572 "_!l•n Sb b be ordered bl> opponents I o
Ahmedabad ruler Munuar •
be u-.uopled ro dealb by clepbaJlll.
ba
'lllary commandanl was barbarously puolsh·
Ha.mza o. a m1 , •
cd by Akbar by the ucisloo of his tonau• ID JS7J.
. . lation of wb.o had
M•sud Hussa1n MIIU,
1
ncar "' H:J o1bcr
risco Ia rovoll, bad his eyes sewn up tbe skins of
300 supporters were dnawn up before . f ll!m
I$$CJ bop and doas drawn over !hell faces. t
wcre'executed whh various iogeo•ou.s tortures. dltJU$UD&
to ftnd a mao lillc Akbar uoeliooiog such wbleh he
i nhcrhcd from biJ Tartar ancestors," aays Smuh.
When tho Miru was dofealtd in the baltlo o( Ahmedabad,
Sepl. 2, 1 S7 J, "3 pyramid was built with 1hc beadJ of abc
rebels. more •ban 2,000 10 number." (p. 86).
Wben the ruler or Bengal, Oaud Kbao, was defeated
"followlna the barbtrous custom of 1hc times (Akbar's com·
mander Muoim Khan) musacrtd his prisoners, whose btads
were sulllcitoUy numerous 10 furnish eight sky high minartts"
(Akbamoma iii, 180). When Dnud ove1comc with thirst asked
for water "tbey filled b1s slipper whb Willet and brought It
to bim."
These inSiancu should suffice 10 convince 1:te reader that
Akba-r'a wbole rclao Is a continuous tale of hornd cruelllC$
Smith's account or Akbar's contaios numerous 10stancta
of Akbar's perfidy, On P•ae S7 be says "Ao e11raord1nary
loeidtol which occumd In April while lbe royal camp wu 11
Tbanesar, the famous Hiodu place of pll&rimare to the oortb
or Delhi, liuotl'l a ather uoplcawu liJbt upon Akbar's
cbataclor.
"The Sauyasins •sscmblcd at the holy tank "'etc •
into two Pltlieo, caUcd tbe Kurs aod PUris. The leader ol' tbc
Iauer eompl11ned 10 the Kioa thAt llle ICun had UOJU&el)
octupird lhe occuaiOUitd 1111ioa pluc of tbe 1'11111 "ho 11rrc
fO INDIAN lti$TOIICAl
•ot.,Cit
rbu• debarred from coll<ettna rhe paar•m•' alma... Tb
asltd 10 dectt!e•b• ISSUC by morral combat, They we ey """
up on c
1
th<r .,d< with their arms drawn. In rbe

dra,..
rho combaranrt ustd swords, bow• and
1
rber
11
ontt. "Akbar s«ln& rhar rhc Purls were
1
•d
I be 111nal ro some of hi• more nvage followers to b
1
''"'
•uht parry" Tbi• wu somerlliog woroe rbao the P
fable o( rhe r•o quarrcllina ears approacbioa a monk coep,
dr••dc bclw«n them a lump of cheese. In rbis fi&bt
10
rbe rwo Hindu Saoyasio seers Akbar saw ro ir rhot borb ., ten
uJtim•rely annihrlarcd by hos own fierce soldiers. ' 'The cbr ".e
<l<r uncruoully adds:rbar (Akbar) was highly dellghred wirb ':r
rporr ·• remarks Smnb.
1
Ar rbe balll< of lbldigbat when Akbar's forces were rao&ed
aplnsr Ran• It was mainly a fighr b<twcen Rajpu
1
•Dd
Rajpur h<cause Akbar by his demoralizing arroehies had terrj.
fied a number or Rojpur chiefs lnro s ubmission, ond tbrou&h
tlr<m soushrro subdue rb.e proudesr of the clan, Rana Prarap.
Ar • rrme ,.ben rbe sides were locked : n baltic aod it was not
easy to disrinaubb berwctn Rajpurs allied wirb Akbar, and
rbose him, Badauni frgbring on Akbar's side, a.kc<l
Akbar s commander wbere ro shoot so that be may bir only rbc
The commander replied It did pot mauer, be could
•haorln the midst or rbo Rajpul armies ond whoever
wukillcd,ll ..,., a gain ro Islam. With that assurance, says
Bad.tunt, be bod oo dlfficulty and he starred shoouog wirh aay
1.baodoo ro rhc b<hef that no precaurioos were
llt<ZSSiry .
Mrer rho capruro of Chilror, uys Col. Tod "Akbar deflliled
every monument that bad been spared by the conqucrora.
Akbar .-a• lona r&Dkcd wirb Sbihabuddin, Allauddin and orMr
amtrumenrs of drltruction aad with evc.v JUSt claim and like
bt ., '
consrruet<d a mtmbar (pulpit or reading desk In a
m..squc) for the Koran from rbedelty orl!klioga (the hercdirary
of tho RaJpUU)". Tbia give a tho lie to ahb assiduoualy
OStCJed view rbat Akbar wu tolerant towards rbe Hlodua aod.
ra)ICC1ed tbelr deltie&.
"Ia or abour A.D. 1603 Akbar wbo was us:d ro rcrirc to
91
IONOBI.I ,-XIA& t108U
tl happened IO emerge earlier
bl• room In rho artornoon (or re ld nol ftnd uy or tbe scr•
lhiiD wat Cl pccted ond ot Rtttbco,uhtonc: and c..-oucb he •aw •
Wh
b came near t c I b
v•nrs. on e • 1 Jeep close to the roya couc ·
baplen ramplisbrer' coded up d n • d bhn to be thrown from lbo
Enras<d ar rbc •itb• Akbar or esc . d ·eces·•
d b
e woo ola)bcd inro a tbousao pl •
tower en • · b
• bstfVts u Akbar's poh.cy •
1
'
On poses and 146 • and perliduous. At tbc
resard to tb.e wn, wel'G approaching bls court In
very rnomcot be b.ad organized an army
responoc ro rhe froeodly tovl Tbc Oesu•t) fathers were dis-
ro uprurc tbe pon;·rbe du licity of Akbar wbo pre-
gusted or actually orderina
tcndtd a e11rc:
11
hostillliu: '
to Auausr !600 when Akbar' s foroes Asiraarb fort
bur bod oo bope or victory, says Vincent Smtrh (p. Akbar
"raolved ro rely on tbo•e arrl ofJorriguc and guole •• wh1ch
ucclled .. .. He. rberefore, ioviled Klog (of Aw·
prb) to come out ror an hue.rview. s:weanoa on b1s O'tfn royal
head rhat rbc vislror would h< allowed to return ro peace.
Miran Bahndur aeeordloaly c•m• out wearing a scarf io a way
slgulfylng •ubmiuion .... sitting motionless as a ster.uc ....
At Miran Babadur did reverence thrice aod was advaocoog, a.
Moahul officer cauabr bim by tile bead aod rbrew him down
forc•na bim to perform complcre proJirarioo ... a ceremony on
which Akbar laid much 51ress. He was held io custody aod
asked ro sen.d an order in wrnlng to rbe fori commandant to
surrender. The Inner refused to surrender nod senr bls 60n to
uk for rbc k10g's release. The youth, asked whether bls farbu
Wll willln& 10 1urrcoder the rort, &AYe a Spirilcd rcrort On
wbicb be was ilabbcd. The fori commander, iarormcd tllat bl•
son bad h<cn done to death, addressio1 the ganisoo 10 de(CAd
rhc (Oil ro the I:&JI man, llraDJUiatcd bimSCif with II scarr. This
ln11ancc will provo rbat notbloa wu roo mean ror Akbar aad
rhllt tria perfidy could 11oop to abysmal doprbt.
Lull for weollh, womco. territory aod power was tile chlet'
mo11ve for Akbor's eooljU<JU. lo tbo Raotllambbore uary-
rbar rbc vaoqutlbod w.ro alwaya COID.,.u.d 10
,
91
INDIAN ltiSfDIUC•
"L.,
der their women to Akbar. l n connection Witb
' "'"" _ apiottlln llahadur we have already obse
d b. ,_ r.eos n...
.Utler"J I"" for women ma e •m overlhe Adham kha...,
Conlfd marcllct. aile he way from Agra, co make him 0
alllht wom<D from 8u Bahadur't harem I bat the
mltlpptopriatcd for bimaelf. ..
w,
1
h toprd 10 Akbar's campaign against Boodelkbaod' llq
Dota••atl, Smtih wails (pp. S0-51) "Akbar's auack
pr;aca
1
era characl<t so noble mere asar"sion, wholly '
protokcd aod cle¥oid or all justification other than tbe
c:otlqUCII aocl pluoder .... AI!bar'a annexations were cbe r
4! ordinary t togly ambillon supported by adequate
anact. de¥oid of monl j usli6catioo, on the ex cell col aovora. I
llldll or lla.oi Ourpvali wu made on the principles wbiob
dd<rmlocd lbe subsequent ennexations of Kashmir, Abmtd.
napr a.od olber t inldoms. Akbar fell no scruples abou
1
u,.
ililtinc a war aDd oooe he bad beau a a quarrel be hit hard
without mercy .... His procecdinas were much the umo .,
lboso ofolber able, ambitious tiogs,"
Oacribin& AUar's wantoo auack against ' Rana Pratap oe
Newu, Slllitb remarts (p. 107) " It it not necessary 10 adduc.
&lly putlcallr loeldenlu supplying a motive for the attack oo
11» Roo. Tbe campaip of I S76 was intended to destroy 111<
ud c:nllb bally bit prctauioos to Sl&od outside or the
"'JI!Fe. .Tbe CJDptror desired lhe death of the Rana and the
abaorptioo of his territory."
Wldmt&lldiog of I he struggle between Rana Pratap
to

fboeld by itJcl f be eoou&b for aoy JUdiciouJ obserVcf
Allbet as a rank aaaraodlur. Since tbe two woro
dmls e:.:::pu- were opposed to each other iD
1111i1J of adiadaioa ltoclatt or b11tory cannot cacapc 1he respcnul-
iiJIIIIiae.IJ1Ua - of theJD .. representing tbe forect or
of ...
11111
.,; _and Since Rana Prllap waa a soa
••b .... folio IIIIa aplast aaaression ic auto-
., &I tllat Au., L -
-· ll••lllter aoc1
0111
muss "" cbaraed with weatoo
!llll .,, u.,. Alld

Cri- Ia attackia1 principality aner
' au., b•a• ._. turlouJiy cnouab I ndian bistOTY II
..........
1
""""" NP-tiiiJ hi8l &I-
.. t!I!LI.VED t«)M.I:l
tol<oo .. e A • Coined on lodi•O b tllal
0
of tbc sinisccr Octtoos d by hi> found•n& of a "'orld
00
oo<JneU il prove n of truth
• angelic I . • 1s is a complete perve::nto
Ak Ued p io·e·ltabt. Tb • bAd reached auch a p11Ch
bauabllness and • obe"ancc to
Ak b could ool tolerale P". Akbar that be wu
• In tbe nome. of reha•o';;oral and spirilual authority •
• • • ;:pic pay respects to
d lbal on oo • . tbereforc, a ncpuo
an o Altbar'a inmlcnce was. ' ale to bimself unbridled
pet50 • u cmPI to appropn d o
-li•loo, aod an a lbc destinies or men ao wome .
•• • . ed power over
and unroscra•D m !led his subjecls to grcel each otber
To tbaleod Akbar Akl,"" .. which ioterprcccd ooe way moaol
wilb tbc term • • ar re subtle seoae inlendcd by Akbar,
n bUt lO ha-C mo
"Ood Is bimself is A.llah."
meant that . 127) "The usc of tbe
Smith el<pla•n• (p. cbe most extreme triticum••
kb • ••ve eotour co cb
' AIIabu A ar .,... . hal lbe innovation ar oused mu uo·
l!veo Abul Fatal ( Akbar) ,.nowcd bimsclf t he fancy
eosy feelinf. Atumes b b d bridged lbe gulf between the
thal1D bis own penon P a
nfi
• ..
fioile and the I otle.
F tber Mooserralo dncribtDI! bis mission's failure wruce tn
• (
148
) "It may be suspected that Jalaluddtn
aadnen) of heart i.; to summon the Cbristtao priesta, DOl by
(Akbar was mov . · d••l
0
TO
any divine iospiration, but by a eelt1lio cunosltY or a g
l)I!VISE SOMETHING NEW FOR THE D ESTRUCTION OJ-
SOULS I"
Oo paac 125 Smi th describes bow !be Bible lbc bad
prcsenlcd to Akbar "he returned to them at o mueb Iacer
date.··
Smitb observes on paac 153 " The truth is lbal Akbar's pre•
tended 'rchgtoa' coosisll essentially io 1bc assertion or hts pet·
sonal supremacy over lbloas spnitual well as
comporal . Tbe four of dovolloo 10 His MaJeSty con-
of readioen 10 sacrifice pr<'pcrty, lift. honour a.nd reb·
aJoa." (p. 154).
' ' Notwhhat&lldill& the fine phraau about aoocnl lolcnacc
INDIAN a{Sa

whl<b O«UPY"' !usc lo lhc wriJina• Abu! Fau
1
IN oAyonl' ol many acts of fien:e oniOicrtocc .... "!
.,.,
01
cuuc:d." (p. 1$9)
AbO<ol pololic.JI. sb&m rdi&Joo, rcmarlo (p
I60) •·ne whole scheme was the ou1como or ruliculou1 vooiJy
• mruutrOUI lfOWib of unrtStntinc:d autocracy. •• '
\a\itr, a Juuol 11 Akhar's oout1, s!ves o lyplcal
or Akbor't pet6dy io makins people drLOk water in Whlcb bot
feel bad bcco washed. X.vi.cr wriles, uys Smilb (p,
Akbar poocd "at a Prophet, wishing it lo be uodcrsto()(l tha;
hr worlct miracles tbrough healing the sick by meant or lbc
w&ltr ln which be washes his f<et. " A footnote on I he unoe
paa• quotes a conlemporary cbrooicler. lladaunl, 10 soy lhaJ
thiJ
1
pcclal 1ype or humilfatloo was reserved by Akbar only for
HondUJ. Sayt Badauoo u;r o1her lbao Riodut came. nod wished
10 become ditc:oples a1 any sacrifice, His Maje.sry reprovrcl
tbcm "
Womea Ia abjecl misc.ry and sheer despcralioo subjected 10
npc, pluodcr and lorturc used to approadl as a tau
rcsonlllyiDJ!hcll children at IUs feel begins for mrrcy.
Rcpra&loo ia 1evcral forms being daily roulinr, as observed
a.bovt, !here alwa)J used 10 be a crowd of women and children
al Akbar'• courl gale. Bul wily nobles interprclcd lbir 10 lbc
JnuotJ 11 <\khar's cou" as their co;nina 10 seck Akbar's bless-
top u a h•sb priest "Bicssioga" they ccrutinly sougb1, but not
•• the ac"'" 10 which il bs been cunningly lnle•prclcd. The
women and choldren aou&Jlllome relief from hellish toriUre and
tyrauoy lei loose on them.
Akbar's having married many Rajput women is onen !rolled
ou1 •• a atorlfied inslan"" of his Jpirit of to-ea I led cooci1111ion
a.od tolerance Thit iJ addio& iosult to injury aod puuina •
premium oo lc<lhery. It has been amply illuslratcd above lbll
Akbar C0111idercd bit entire rulm as a huge harem, and !bat be
-ab• the women of all be vanquished, through coercion and
compui\IOD Thai was ODe or bls devic:u to mokc the humili·
lliOil or bll \'ictortu compfelc. Dragiog Hindu wom•n tniO
th<or hatcma had bccG a pemoctout uadilioo wub all iovadert.
Akbar, roc ocural re .. oos bad I penchant fur il. To parade
9S
t&..tiJVeO tfORL.I] . . hy

ot<JOU'·Ii D , rc tbo. of pc:rvus •
1 ahcre•O •
hal v1nue -'· vadd lodaaa tus\OfY• •
it •• spcCd ca\ubu)' thot per f bit bo aschold tO
ao a s1oatc woman o
d
At bar ever I
Do Htodu 1
manl•lc co •
d In aecoU.OII of
JldJ• • boo6 ,mpertlncruly repeiltC icio\d .. J,uya"'
A blind • be bad aboloJbed •• Muslim rulers
Akbor's rei& was exuaclcd by Indo ad I be vast maJOroly" ' oo
x Tbb IIX who forme d I nee
ta . b , l:liodu subjcCil, M Jlim country, an s
from I \ell I hill t odia Wal 2 U fTe:t3not- allowed a Yilt
thbo of ucoerotily from that of tbe ruler's
1 e · 0 dilferent ' f uch suffer•
(l'l:l'otitY t OI praetace through their nose or s .
th;Y (!he people) '""'' pa; no! hi ns bul religious blackma•l and
Tbis therefore. wa I his helpless subjects.
.aac:c. •
1
d by lhe ru cr on
<obbetY pcrpclto e . abolish« of !be Jiziya extracted It
A
kbar far from beong an r !be Rantbambborc treaty
on clause n · di
witb all vengeance: :m lion from tbc Jiziya for !be Bun
stipulated for_ spcc•al tllio/wilb !be visil of a Jain monk lti.ra·
.,uler. Asaln to co1111«1 !hal be again uk<d for exempuoo
vijaya Suri (p. 120) we hearth I people were compelled otr and
b
1
. ·yo. Tbal proves •
0
of I e I mplion from tbe Jiziya. Moreover eve
4D to ask for • ::=t an occaJiona\ visitor across the court
1f • In Jbetbouab• thai tbe visitor's requeSI for
tbres o farpom !be JWya had been sanctioned, we bave by
uemptoon . h · ftnv
now loami enough of Akbar's ways t o I at '' was¥ ,.
•bing but an cmply auuroacc from a WilY bosl.

World's MDst Ha!td Prrsoo
Farfrom the angel lhnl he Is being "'presented IO b• In
Indian history Akbar wa. perhaps !he world's mot! haled
person, Such wulhc rcsetllment thai everybody fcltlhat nume-
rous pcuono from hi• owo aon Jabangir downwards altemplcd
to murder Akbar.
Smhb d .. ttlbet on paac 220 "Tbrouabout 1he year 1602 tbe
1>rioce tSallm) con!Jnuocl t o hold court at AJIAbobad aad 10
01ainulin royal &laic •• kina of !he provioc:et wbJch be bad
uaurpcd, He empballted his el11m to royalty by smk.laa bolb

96 INDIAN l!J$Tl)ll
....
,old ud copper money, spccim<nt or be b d '
de- ro >c:od ro hrJ farber. He sent

1
bei"""-
Mobemmod, 10 Kebul, at bit <nvoy lo negotiate • Door
On I'll" 2l7 Smirh tells us "Jabanair'• rtbcflion ·r' • •
mull ha•e rcsult<d in hlf paronl'a durb." In·, au..,._.r,l
paJ< 2J2 dealina wirb Akbor's dtarh it Is stared .. •
00
rbar Stllm ardently dtsir<d his farber's domise. ·• J •
A fooroote on page 191 nys "As early as 1591 wb
was sull'ering for a lime from stomach-ache ;nd
00
Akb1r
exprCJSOd suspicion lhot his eldesr son bad PDiso ht
PrraceSthm, wbo became rired or waiting ror tbe cro:e .bl111.
to obrarn Portuguese supper! in brs intended figbr
0

throne." or tbr
On page 276 Smirb reUs I be rtader, "Akbar usually b
rebelhaa somewhere or tho orber on his bands and lb ld
1
record<d ourbroaks or disorder in the provinces,
dealt wilb by the Faujdart, must have been hloumerable." ' Y
Among Akbar's own supporters who revolted agairur hi
one by one we.ro Bairam !<ban, Kban Zaman, Asaf Khan,
Mansur (the Finance Mrnist<r) and all th< Mir2.11s that ;
1
blood
rtJIIoODS of the royal family, '
Akbat's Murders
On page 250 tells US of bislorian Wheeler's aJS<ItrOO
that Akbar kepi a paid official whose duty it was to polsoo
people wbo incurred Akbar's falal displeasure- Accordina ro
tome blnorlans Akbar dltd of polsoa pills be mistakenly rook
bu1 had lnrended for Man Singh.
IJI a footnot< on page 249 Smith lists ponons who wore
Jccr<rly n.«ul<d or poitoned by Akbar :
I Secrttuecution of Kamran'a son at Gwalior, 1 S65.
1. The bl&bly suspicious deatba of Maltbdum-i-Mulk and
Sberkb Abclur Nab! a fret their rtturo from Mecca. Tbe Jkbal-
n&alo e.xprenly states that rbe Liller was put to dutb by Abril
raJ in punuaoct or Akbar' a ordera.
3. Tbc cquallv llltnicious dtarh c;f Masum Faraoabudl.
97
AI' ut&.IIVEU NOftt.lS
'""oaLt AC8 • I Mulk and anotbcr by rbdr
EJ<eeullon of Mit Muru.u
I IO dcalh all Mullas ep•n•r whOm
one Akbar seo
S One bY (U d uno rl, 285)• d
d ,uspiciooo • • • ld like 10 •Jd rbe rnur er
he M be obo•• 11•1 rbc wid!IW A.kb>r cbued, a.s
'Toll rn Kh••· and of Jatmu ',w b best as arpcars from the
of Ba r• dttcd "' Akbats •
I
bren mur
Oil ( rheil dcOlhJ,
circumstance> o • ' shments (p 250) as •·sentences
Sm
ith dOJCrtbeS odes of looluded-
1
, ktnd
0
m b h d' 0
of(otl) eppal on& • - b elephants, oruc:iflsoon, e ea tn.,
P
,,...,,.,, uamphna r -ftalties mutilatior. and ""brpp-
'"' d rhcr>- As mrnor r--· N cis ol
ba•&••rr ••
0
• ·e commonly ordered. o rccor
inC or I wc:re kept. Perwns acdog at
pr-ed•nSS CJ ro follow Koranic rules, Akbar
judges thOU&hl 'ThO hOrrors or an eX<CUIIOD around are
rrinl by ordeal._ or the copies of the Akbarnama at
• depocred rn one
South Kensington.
- a contemporary or Akbar says " Akbar
th po<urious an<l of money." On page 263 Smotb
" emptror regarded bimstlf as the betr or all brs sub-
j;:,;, •n<l ruthlessly scoz.d the entire properly of deceased
whooe ramfly bad to make a (rub alar!, COnlto&<nt OD the
toodwill or 1be emperor. (P. 252) was a b.ard
man of business, not a stntim":"tal pholan.tbroposr,. bos
wbolc policy wBS directed prfnctpaJiy tO the ICQUJIIlrOn Of
power sod riches. All the arrangements about Jaairs, braodios
(borscs) etc. were lltvlscd Cor the one purpose namely, the
cohancomenl of rbll power. &lOry, and richeS of tbc crown."
Tbouab A\bar's mother died just over a year btforc Akbar
I •- al\tr Akbar bad made all bis eouquesu and boarded
immelllt weahb Lbrouah usury aDd rtpreuion, y<t h< coold not
rososr the rcmpralioo of Goutia& btr dyiDa w11ob. Dacribroa
tbls oo paac 230 Smorb uys ''lb< detcucd lcfl in bu bouse a
J.rcc treasure ao<l a will dhccttna that il abollld be divlcltd
IJDODI ber male dcsc:endanta. Akbar ... wu too fond or IIIOIICJ 10
whbslaod rhc temptation or aoouloa her wealth, the wbole or
,.bic:b be without
will.'
INDIAN ll

regard to rbc terms
ot tbt
lodia' l pe"'.ued history has along striven bard
10
d
lodta's alrca rulctl bcdeclrcd wlch glories borrowed fro <J>I<j
""ilrm JoJho rulcll' descnplioos. A rnoarkable iosta I'll Pr<-
,., . f Akb ' . nee or
t u.:b
1
parr " (ouod r'l accounts o ar s rergn. Ia imitar
or ..

lJ ufd c>f King Viknlmaditya a myth assiduously fois::
00
mrdracval lodlan b.Jstory rs that Akbar bad a similar
811
,
1
Y
Clf moe Ltlcnrcd man called tbe nine gems or hrs courr . Tb
Akb.tr did oat conlider anything than a aroup
rdrotJ. rs tcco ro a cbaractmsuc remark of brs (p. 2S8) ;
0
whicb
be say""S "It"" the grace of God that I found oo capable
IDlDIII« orbtr,.i.5c people would bave coosidered that my
meuureo bad been devised by them."
'NIIIf G..,.' A Myth
EYtll otbel'l>ist all these much publicised men were mea of
oo ..,nh. Todar Mal, v.-as associated wilb devising a pemici·
OUJ system of "serewrog" money out of people, to exuact
" b.Jcb they bad tO be ftogged and to remit wbicb they bad ro
••ll tbelr wives and children. Abul Fazl bad tbe reputauon of
bcloJ a "sb4Didess llatterer" a.nd was got murdered by tbe
CfO'I>'D priMe Salrm bimwr. faiti, who died a premature dcatb,
trU a medioc:rt poet boosted up In a court where sycopbaot
l!ancry llourubrd at it.t woru. About him Smith remarh
lP 301· :102) .. Bioc:bmaon beld that after Amir Kbusro or Delhi,
Mubammadcn India bas seen no sreater poet than Faizl, . .
Adantbng.the j u11iee of Biocbmaon'• verdict, I can only saY
that the other poeu of M.ubammaden Iodia must be wonb very
lrnle ' Bnbal dr«< ro a battle He wu supposed to bave bcCO
,,.co ,. Jaarr wbrcb be never enjoyed. The much utolled wit.
bumo11r and repanec ascribed to him sre in fact tbe work of
10111e wac who used BorbaJ'a name and court auociatioos as a
flcuuouts,.lkiog bollC. Sbab Mansur, the so-called Finance
Mrlllmr. wu rxccutecl at Akbar'• order by Abu I Fazl b•maclf,
So from bc1••n•na to cod it 11 tucb a 1ickcoing ule that these
tDucb nuntecl D•oc &etns' turn out 10 be: hapless •
ceutln up Ia tbo roferoaiiD&l:bioc or a corrupt and reP""''"
l dDIIDII IratJoo.
UAI HOOUI
t Ot<Ol'Lf A
• wanda< once stabbed birru:clf in dllaust b<Qusc
R•J• Bho§. f his aituollon i n which be bad soven many
<>f rho utter
0
d cousin• in Akbor's servoce only to
. en folic sons nn .
or tus wom ' treatment, In reru m. Man Smgh """'once
....,eive despiuble d k Aktiar and subsequently was to be
1
d b" 4 0 over run • .
11
rbroll e himself hlppencd to uke the porson pr '
potJO.n<d b Ja at Singh drunk biroseif to deat)r. M.an SrDJb s
'by mtJtokc- II m<d to woo rn oil probabrhty
let Mon Boo, m• • eel b
5
'
5
d e In one edition of Jabangimama rt II stat t at
111urdcrc d • thr ee days' ond died, while in another she I'
1
be • commillcd suicide by taking poi.son. It is known
Sill< do• '• fasting is nor eoougb to krll a woman, and
I . . r I
reo\·er Jabangirnama uself IS ootonoUJ as a uuuc_ o tCJ.
mo h msclf is knowo to ha•• been a very C<Ucl aod
Johonsrr ' . ( ., · h •
· monarch who poiSoned hrs ather, got .,ul)a
scherorog
fi rst husband. Sher Afghan, murdered, and 9ould look upoo
wrtb pleu urc at the sight of a moo being Hayed alive.
Ou waotb. a young painter, at Akbar•s COU$1 stabbed him·
self
10
death. All snch suicidu by Hindus bJVe been reprt!enr-
cd Ia contemporary Mushm records, as having been eomuritted
ia a fi t or madness. This dcscrrp<ion is litet'lllly trw: in anotbcc
sense namely that coodiuons in Mogul courts were so intolcr·
able that the Hondus driven 10 lle$J>Cralioll by tile loss of
culture. honour, propeny, women. sanCtity of tbcir homes,
reliaron were dnvco 10 mow 3Jid death. Todarmal, io sptte
or ht> bavroa sold b11 conscrenc< .o Akbar, in devmog" system
to fl eece tbe subjects, bad all h11 private altlU, to wbrch u an
orthodo• Hindu be w:u very mucb attached, n:movrd togttber
'With the Idols he woubipped. To an orthodox f-l indu in those
day1, when idols were not 10 be touched, even by persons In the
oamc bouscbold without a batb sod holy attire, summary
removal of all idols by MuJhm • ..,.,., a mon•f•taa
And yet such acu wcr" cncouraaed by Akbar e• en
wot h rcg.1rd to persons like Todarmal who had mortgaged and
all rhcir in Akbar'• service. Ia dirgun Todarm•l.
therefore, rulaned and left for Dananl,.
Pn r•l aad a ....... l.'l,...tre4
Oo PIIC Sm.itb says " Akbu then cnarcbrd to Prayaa llld
·- -
100 INDIAN HIJI'fORIC\L
·-t'lt
00 10
s.nmo. •bleb """e plundered because ......,le
• t •• .- .... ., lrtrc:
rub enousl> to cl- ...... a• ...
Tlo"uplalos wby Prayaj hu no river ah•t• and 'll<l<n
t>uold••Jt. All thot Prat•a (AIIohabad) hu today is Ytcto .
1
t>unaalowl of prooti1lng advooatet. But for lbcm
I"'"""" 1 bkaL appcAuocc. AI an aocieot boly plott, it...;::
llOI t-o 11re:utd thai Pra)lll had aceJienl, lo..-erio& river &h
on hot h 01du of the Oans• ond Yli.IIluna along witb


liccnt fort. Tbc d,molitlon or Ptayag's gbau out:
1bose at 8.\oaras, and maoy maostoos and numerou,
tcmpleJ, must be laid tquarely at the door or Akbar.
'" popular bellrf the ramou& Kasbi Vishwanntb temple II
ll.tnaru was finl desrcrated by Akbar when he wreattd
, cugrOJtce on 111 peoplo. l o fact no quesllon of even vengeance
.,,... The ltld••n people are traditionally koowo for lh<ir
.. trcme dcvolloo to royalty llod Akbar's Yi$11 been barmtm
11 could not have oco:asloned ony other feelings amongst
lhrwu residents co;eepl those of the deepest rever<nce. Btll
from tbe very r•ct l.btt thcy sll.mmed their doors against Akbar
It b tlur tbal his <ntry lnlo Banaras must bavc be : o occasion.
cd by lccberou• and rapacious motoves.
SLa•urla hs Worstl'orms
We ha'e alrrady S«n lbal Akbar iOiisted on complete pros-
lrlboa oil and \undry before him- He made people drint
l.bc "atcr in wbieh he wtoah<d his reel. He also made people
dnol. water oo wbtcb he bad bre>tbed. Ralph Fitch, a coolem·
porar) Eaahsh trl•eller h•s recorded that William leedcJ, ao
EnJillb )eftllu II Akbar's eourl was "given n house and five
ainu.' Oa .. 1' 141 Smith saya "Aquaviva (I he Jesuit) had
oblaootd llltn austeoanee throuaboul btl stay at court While
lcaVIaa. lhcrerore, the only boon ha ask<d was to take witb bim
• fliDil) or Ruuiu llavu, father, mother, IWO 1001 and cerU.in
dtpclldeot• wbcl had been amoos Mohomroadeo• so lona as 10
bo CliNnlanl In name onW.'' Tbls •bo""s that Akbar held
llllhiiDinble lit ... of Vatiolll ... IIOIIIli hu.
Oo P"P SmUll averatbal " Ia the years 1581·82 a larac
811111bct of Sbelkbt &lid Fakin , apparently thoao wbo rcsl1ttd
• -uoo, were <ailed, mOilly 10 Kandahar, and cxcbaoacd
10\
ttl.l!VIO tl()l o.8

oto01•
1
•u••
0
•• " Smltb also dCf<'rlbet
. enslave.... . bu
ror J>On<" •h;n •
" "" • 11 wu ai&O • comm
-'ld<d eaa••·
0
be •laves.
:o "' aft« a battle, lh' -'- Akbar prac-
... uoocro bod of slaverY. w '""
r• .., subtle IXICI of braodiol ..... ry
,\nothct vc .. , otrneot, wu
wbioh eauted srcal r<S4 ' II rorehcod. Thus whmoe•e•
• b I Dower mark on ' . 11 • subservient to
bo<l< "'
1
automauca Y .,.._ .__ d-
ocd a braodcd botJC lm wjle.rcvcr found were .,..n
AlllhO • in follnd himself between
cd
Th
us o mao owntO& . bed to be free of Akbar'
· II be "''' b' h
devil and the d«P .. a. u to let the borte lo01e on w oc
totclasctbe onlY WAY open IV ee and beast orbllrdcn in those
--•c be lost the ooly d the borsc the forehead mule
ADd if be rctaon< --• •
perilous d•Y'· d or his having been redu<= 10 per
wat a. c:onAhlnl remln er .
pctual ..,rrdom bY a crud ttlck..
Horrible f amlnOI • s rule led 10 ramioes of uo-
Akbar'a lawlen

Delhi was devastated and t.he
__ ..,. ottd horror·
0
• • d 'th his
P'"""'
0
(p '288) Bedauo• wtt.ocsse "''
mortality wu . . wo . kiod and the appearance of
WO eyeS tbal men ate u oCif 0 k
;,mbhed sufferers .. u so hideous tbat one could scarcely '0:
u o them .•• the whole country was a desctt and oo busbao s-
.:.;, remained
10
till the arouod .... Gujanu, one or the rocbut
provto«a In India, and generally reputed to be exe(Dpl
from tbc risk of famine sutl'ered severely for lo.lt months on
1S7l-74. Pesliloncc as usual followed &tar11ntlon so that iobabi-
Uoll rich and poor, fttd the country and were scallered _abroad.
Abul Fazl wlth characteristic voguencss reconb tbat tn IS83
or I 5S4, as prices were high on account of tbe dryoeso or tbc
year, l.bo means of subsisraoce or many people came to an end.
If we may judge (saya Smitb) from tbe slovenly way in wbicb
be lrtall l.he tremendous calamity of I S9S..98 wo may infer
tbll tbc famine of I 58)..84 wu serious. h does not seem 10 be
mcotloaed or even alluded to by otber cbroooclers .... "
"Tbe faml oc which began in 1595 and luted three or four
1C&n until I 598 equalled in Ita borrora the accqsloo year and
CliC<IIed lhe vlahalloo by reuon of itt !OOJCr duration. Jaund ..
102
I
•nd •
tP. :!\i)
II<DI41< l

oc:euionnlly matred Akhr't
rtiiD"
tbll Akb3r died, in Aan ron IIOQc
ud ItO ••••J> milhon otcrhng 1n c:uh. There wcro


I>Oar.b Ia "'other cttt<S. A_nd )<I does not ..... lo

1
Ltn
10
y fomtnc rd1d mcosures. Descnpu
001
1
...... d" . d 0 lbt
-'"' ,,n b) Abul Fazl arc ttmrs.s< as more Oaucry
Atbat"• Wtre BrouJ:bl About by BlockDtoiJ
11
hU bteo ,.Tongly and fal>cly uscrtcd and assumed th
R
. .
• mamages wuh 8JPUI pnnccsscs were broughc •bou
"tlb the 'el) noble •lm Of bringing AbOUt COmmunal Untty
htunony. This clotm be debunked by asking lhc simple
queshon whclher Albar cV<I olfercd his own
and n••••• or tbten In marriage co Hindu chiefs nnd noble.
men!
Secondly il il • co suggest cbat the brave Rajpucs •ho
rrcf<rrcJ mm burning of their women rather I han lelchcm
flllla lbt hindi alien gentry given to ex creme drioklna.
clnlwa& aod sa-orgies. felt proud in olferina their daughccr
1
to Albar aad bu l.lnsmen'
Let UJ lhc lbe oftbe }3ipur royal farrnly "'bicb
bad to suucodcc away of iB daughten 10 the Moaul ruleB.
A a oa:ounl of how I be Jaipur rulers "ere cocrctd 1o1o
1<11d1D1 lbetr dau,hceu to cbe Mogul harem '' found on
rea<HliO 63 of Dr Asbirbadi Lal SrivaSiava·, book tilltil
"Alb&r tbt Grtat". \'ol. 1.
The bane of Indian biltorical scholarship bu been cbc
rductantt or loabllhy co draw the rigbl, logicul coocluslonl
from alllnQWll facts. Dr. Srivaslava's occounc or Akbar's capo
lUI< or lbc Jaipur i> a typical ioslancc.
The rul>tOI) of bow Akbar tcrroritled 1be roynl bouse of
Jalpurto part .,.,lb lbeu bdO'cd dllugbcer for being locked up
l>cWod • burqa In • tcnrun& \logul harem, hal been carefull•
lanlo bill &ad OOCI'<DtcOII) '"'<P' under I be royal rug of
AU!u'a bed dla•bcr.
111
•111111 sa-c lopth.cc tbo: frogmcnll of that busbed •P
_,
103
- -·· ........ 11> !<011.11
ro..a ..... •
r Akbar'• commaadcro wbo orpnr·
SborfuddiD "''' one o bar (old Jaiput) lbtn ruled llaja
sed .... ral rords oplnil Am• I a lara• uibu<e
8bortnll. Bc1idcs uuacu mal's oepbews Jaaaanath. llaJ tDII
able to .. prurc tbr<C or Bb:• I .. bollo&CI ud obviou.sly thr:;
aod K.bJnJU· TbeY wore cp I an out·or-tbc·WIY place c:al
tenCd witb dc&lh Kacl>hwabl cbicr (Bbumol)
or. Snvurav uys bolptcu oonditioo sought the
raced .,.doc< ion and beocc IO al h Akbar " ThiS clearly sbowa
inlerc<Slion of &ad •n t bel Jess . prince .. was made a
tbatsurrc:odcriD& of ID r!tease or Bbarmal'l lhteO
prc-c:onditlon 11Y Akbar or
oephcws.
• wu 1urreodercd at Sambhu ud
Accordingly lht was secured io ln
lbC release or the tbrec prrnccs be paid
addihon • tarse 1um or mo_oeyb • bad to be
osly
00
rbc Jaiput side lbts um " b
• over and wbllewasbed tl a marriage aod tbe tn otc
"' •
1 11
d "bed tl dowry. Bot there
paid bad 10 be eupbetntSI ca Y CSCII
;. no" reoroo wby scholatl of loday should feel compelled lO per·
petaatc lhc mytb.
Dr. bas rur1hcr $\lied lhll '"Aner a day's stay &l
Sambbar Akbar marched rapidly to Agra." Near RanlbalD·
bbare.Bba.rmal's so.n.s, l"'Odsons and otber relatives were mlro-
duccd ro Akbar. These htrid details pul tbc whole epiSode ro·
to bold rcl1er. It Is well koowo lbBI in 1be 161b Century a royal
wedding was ao elaborate afTa11 luung for mootb.s. And yet
Akbar bad no more lime to spare cban a day'• waystde halt for
Ibis prcudo-marriage. And obvtoosly oooe of Bbarmal"s reiD·
elves aucodcd lhe humilialin1 surrender or a royal prluces>
honour 1ad ebasrily as is apporent from lhc fa<l 1bat Bbonnai'J
soas, graadson• and olhcr rctaclves " 'ere introduced 10 Akbar
•• Raatbambborc.
It was th•s IDJtial matllll &rip whicb enabled tbe MosuJ>
to force Jllpur to part wub h> other daughtcn oo dem&J)d
Iller.
As &I Bbarmal bad been fOR>Cd to cede bn daup1cr to
Akbar lbe ptll hts commaoder Sbufuddio oo aoolb«
JIM tN'I>IAN 111"0-fC
. -'!. .,
., • .,,., bllockmallin& liii»>OD namely the reduction or tb
of Meou. 1 "''
AR mauoal ,.;cb. other • rullna boo,
wcno tbt rnull or s1milar eotrc1on. H1s1ory ir l'<pJ
I d h . elc
•••- or many 1 help ess aug ter or btioa _ ..
away under the •-cry oooc of rclO<:Iant and helpless pa
pardla.DJ by Moo S1ogb and olber bcoc:bmcn of Aktoe""" 1i1C
abducllool aod kidnopp!ngs have been glorified io hrl,
aJ
. llOr)
Akblr's noble, 1ntcr-commun mamagcs brought •bou -
the lofty 11m ofbnogiog about peace, harmony and uotl).'


Dodf ollodloa Unlnrslllu
In view of the above observations it is I he duty of lodl
WJIYeltilics to scrap all to great au. r,
0111

oducatiooal textbooks. and r.ostrtute chatrs to briol ouc
bomd trutb about Akbar's tyrannical regrmc. From
account it lulcat that A.kbar deserves to be ranked •lib

world's most bated rulers.
IJfbllotropAy:
I. Atblr the Grut Mogul by Vincent Smitb.
l. Akbar tbe Grut, Vol. I, by Dr. Asbirbarll Lal Srovau
1
,.
l Akbar b1 J.M. Sbelat.
4. Atblroama by Abu! Fazl, Bibliotbeca Indica Jtri<L
S. Comrncotarillf,.
6. Annals of !Uja.stban by Col. Todd.
1. l odla's H11tory Aa Written by Its Own HistOr1aot,
and Doi!IOo, Vols. 1 to 8. '

Misplaced Faith in Mediaeval
Chronicles

. dian hlstor,c•t rcsearc:h has lhc
Aoothet blunder of In b put in mediaeval cbronlclel.
11tisploccd faith tllat boo I with very little grain or
Tbc:S4- chronicles arc most y llous era in which the
truth. Tbe court bad to indulge in
literate peop1c wa ensure the safety or tbelr own
abject ftattery of the.r patrons to M d' eva! chronicles must,
persoos. ramlllu and property. c
11
A b ' an Nights than
therefore bo regarded •• supp1cmttU\ to ra 1 • . .
as histori'es. Whatever bls;torir:al m.atcrial tbey coo:aiO
it only iocidcotal, and would have to be: gleaned Wllb Ul·
moo caut1on after firm eonoboratioo by cYI ence.
SU<h trutll would be u dillicult to 6ad as a needle, tn •o hay·
•'lcl<-
Waroiass or th11 kind have been uttered by discerniD& and
ae:riow bjnoriao.J c\'Cn before but ba\fc oot been heeded. For
inslltnu tbe late Sit H.M. Elliot aays in the Prerace to hts eight
volume critical study o( mediaeval chronicles that the History
o[ tbe Muslim era io Jodin, is an ulmpudc:ot and interntcd
.
In addre!i to tho All lndl3 Histoty Co.ngress session held
al Allahabad, In 1938, Dr. Surendraoatb Sen, o secrionnl presi-
dent. simtlatly observed :
"Here ! decrn >t ncceuary to sound a note ofwamios. There
h • leadency rn oertaln quartors to treat everttbiog written In
u a prtm&') sou roc of hiatory. Notbiog c3o he mote
nd•cutout, •. Thc tbroo.iclers wcsc ma1oly iott1t1ttd m the court
and tbe mlhtary &rlltocracy. Some or them deltbcratcly sou&bt
abe P.troo•&< or tbc ruhna sultan aod the prioctpol noblca.
106 INOIAN HlSl'OillCAL

n. \fDlhtl WTiftra _.ere uldom free from rdiaiout b'
IUde tbem todolftre11110 the cultUJC or the Hiodu., n,• .. llo.,
.... clclade4 mllbeliun doomed to <l<rnal pcrd r • Iliad,.
I"'J tllal "' 'I"'" of tbt.. dcftcll the Poniao ch'
100
:"·11 II o
• b b • I . JOOIClQ I
-"'"' to tonotG« I ISIOn<:a WOtU of India,' ' Ill I
Ot S.N S<a thea w<ot oo to quote Dr. Tcssitori tb
Jut•u tcbo1u co saf that "Tbc history o( mt4iaevai
1
; . lrtat
boca"' rat oompllcd oblrfty from the "'orkt or Mush.," h!' b"
••• •he up<tKottbc Ra)put prioocs In an
talllnJ tbrm tofiol<l doas, hudllroO.i rebel•. etc. Buron &bt,
.. rrH:odl) ftclloa lbc Mobammeden bistorian
1
n•vc
0
8
ou,ch
h •• • ro uiL
JlbiOCO 10 I c omponaot role whocb RaJ pUt princtt pia• "
1
tmpan1 campa•gos ... :•a .,cu n
Th< obove In tSIIICIS should be enouab to hi hli ht
b!1 filhop of tbt modlaeval Muslim cbrooiclert :
:::.;71< tbnr chroaoclt1 DOl OUt Of 3 literary urac 10 Jeavc
fort " OICCUOI> of ccntrtnporory happcoinp for polleroty but
;n• mainly interested In Oan·
....... t lll<ot • view to curry favour for .. rr.
wttlo a .,..
11114 01
dno'tlback was that they wrote
rdlrio<t wt.Q e ... apum I be local culture, people aod
'"-' apmu the: · • 1•
•bda a tnlt '"'t ompanoa lly, veracity aod
"" o,...., .t>ould -···
.. """"' ........
MIIIAif IWO ,-tUilUII ft.tto .
"""• bttCDI t.bcaueha Oil media n OUt bbtoriu
.....,. ....... , cu:lwhd nal Mlllliru cbrooiclet aocl
.latweiU • aa.-.,.. a)· r:us for tDJI4occ works on
-.., loc tloe blti<IIJ ollh Yff the prcfocc that our malo
• •• llll;»nair or Akbar lo tho
1o ba>c been ! wub to ppln1 ou1 thal
u:_.• ' Jabu.IIJuma br Jaha •nth:u b)' tbc rulers 1bcm·
r..; "'iiiCD lllbc • :r So-callrd I<COUnll of
-..)IIIIo
1
llaciUu.bo..,. bo .:.:: IW<fl by lheor under·
..
1
b, 14da Al>clul tlatoi4 UDI Of lbe rclan of
• llior Pl•mary ObJCICC .-..
10
,:,•• 1'011 Ptovorkations
Jlkl I fat1e ICDIJC O( tbe
I ol tloc IWdaa Kaoo.r
eo..-. Allat.abad.
107

10
• • trown wuhb out of aU propot1icm, arscl
jOVCf(l ' I""-·'
10
aJOSt over tbc rulcfl' many m """""
Wbilc. tbttefore. mcchaeval Mushm cbrontcld ao4 rulcr
1

mo
1
rs ouJht co have been baodlc4 wilb lbe utmost auttcm
"", dtf:fdioo I lind that our hiJiorics have &ooc all outlo
10
" .. dE ord '
rdiaoc:c on 1hesc lUtpte·touJ t. very w .nucn
:bct<in oecdato :.e properly wellhtd and verified before beina

lt wiH bo round that sometimes records proVldc
adm1rablc material ror adverse Inferences. At times, the UIC't·
don• in them need 10 be talcen With I pinch of tah, somelimcs
th<Y give us o <lue 10 the glorlu or previous Rajput rulm.
while rn other tlmea the events dealt with in them need to be
carehliiY turned and examined with a pair or tonas.
Bcoouse or th< ondiscrcct ond blind reliAnce hitherto plaocd
in mediaeval M uallm ebronltlet :and rulers' mc.tnoirs m.aoy
myths ba..., become embedded ia Indian hi.,ory. A proper
reappraisal will JbOW that thc.rc is absolutely DO C.VIdenct of tbe
kind aa will stand io o court of law 10 pron that Akbar buill
uy of tbe foru, town>. palaces and can• Is ascribed to bim. or
I hat Sbabjaban buill tbe TaJ Mabal or the Delhi Red Fort. l.lto
rumours Jlarc•og as oral c::aoatdl all tbne oripoa«·
ing as written yarns have become sacrosao<l behcfs tbrouah
ftpetition, lf h1110riao.J take tbC troublt or CQlDJ tO tbe VCf)'
root or these mucb vaunted cla1ms tbey w1ll fiod tb.Jt the ctajm'
a.re bas.e1ess.
Ia support or the above contcntioo I than present bcfotc
you a p•ooramic survey or all important Muslim c.hronlckrs
and !he. much quoted records leO by tbem, to •how whY diiC<rn·
ing bistoriaot bnvo repeoted1y pointed oul lbo utter uorclia·
b>lity of these men aod their workt and bow l.o spite or tbooe
c.rvclllts tbc app1c:cort or lndlan mcdiatval history conuoun 10
move mrrrity lbrnuah our achoolJ, coHcsc:s a.nd rt$tarc.h la.sutu·
tiont Ullmlodful or Ill rots• ood Insecure wbccb.
l.c1 Ul Ilk< Alberuol, l o biJ euc aa in lbat of others lhroU&t.-
OUI mediaeval blslory, we are told that tbe ICCOIIIIII that
AlbeNnl hu Jcf1 arc tho ooly eourco or oar taoelcdae ol lito
ctcau be bu deal\ wnb- Aod 1000 after •• ate cold &Me
Alberoni bad ICODI rcauJ ror truth. ID this ---Or.
JOI IWOIAN' ltl.st'OatCA•
. ·-"'a,
E4'onlld c Sacb•u the ... n taown scbol&r·bisto<
n
. d ... --
"lllllon< tndiboo> (a ••I us. we arc rc ueed to a rioaJc -.. .,.
..
o( author' s {I_.. Alberuoi' s) work'. wb::""
trtOie Kin& Mabmud (of Ohnnl) had beco dead on I •
wreks At 1 cauliOUI politklan be owaited the issu/
contnl (bet'lffl:n tbc two bclra Mahmud and Maaud) and hr.,
Masud had been finaly otlablisbcd on the throne or his ra7t..
be II OOOC to dodicotc tO him tbe greatest WOrk O(bt;
t
1
(etbe C11111J11 JIASUJ!Jr.:>U tr he bad alfected by any Ice!.
ill& o( lio«re ptitude 10 the dead kiDB be (ought to bo
pnlaod bim aod dedicated 10 him bis work• Ia lf&lof:
-ry). Be bas not done 10, and the terms in ...,i<b be
spub or Mabamd tbrouahout his book are not such as
1
OI&D
woald ... wbeo spukins or I deceased beocfactor. He ODIJ
mcotions bim u Amir Mahmud (wbile the P'"face of Oritatal
authors used to auajn tbe beiaht or absurdity in the coun o1
Moaul emperors or Delhi). Tbe manner io wbicb t he aut bot
mentloos the dead king is cold in the extreme, t he words or
pr&IIC . .. measre aod still'. lie says or Mabmud 'He Ullnly
tuiDed lbe of the country (India), aod perform«!
tboae wonderful nploits by wbkb the Hiodus b=me like
atoms or dust scanercd io all dir«lions, like. tale or old ill
tile mouth oftbe people'-·· Tbat It was not at aU aa•iost th<
-' priaciples of Albcruai to write such dodkstioos 10
pnnca is sbowlt by two otbcr publications of his with dcdin·
._. wbiCb <abibit tbe customary Byzaotynism or the tlmo Ill
lbt preface or tbe CAronolo,y of Anc/CII NarlonJ (traotloted
aod ck. by EA!ward C. Sachau, London 1869), he tliOh wltb
abuodaot praise the priace of Hyrcania or 1urjan, Sboms
Almuli, 01ho ""' 'dwarf by the aide of giant Mahmud. Tho
otudled or tbe oeaJeci of Mabmud comes out mo,.
..-oo&)y if we eo111pare tho unmerited praise which AlbeNOI
lnUba upoo IUo soa aod sueceaaor. Tbo P'"faoe ofhll C••'"
Jl .... ou II a forn&O of biab•souodin& words io booOUI of
Maw6, wbo ...., 1 drunkard, and lost io less thaD •
I. l'hlau to 'Aiberuoi'o lodla' b t l odia reprint, J96S.
hY S. ChaDd A Co., 'New Dclbi, edit ed by Or
rd C. Sacbau, Prormor in tho Uolvenity or Bttlia.
109
' ,,. CHROrUC;LU
.. ...rn ,_.Jfll
.. !$ ...... d ,. • ood
bit iathcr'l sword ao po ;cy pt
dcc:<ooiuiD a>OJI or " He(Mosud) bu oooferrcd upoO me
31 ycJ.ts AlberUn ,. d me uodcr lbC obl•pti.on or CYC1'•
lob. h distln<t•on and P
1
"':"
1
this we lind that Alberunl did not
I II . d ., AI aJOlDI rd "0
Jll'tiDI a.rautn e huoi because, io Dr. Sachau•a wo ' . ur
bOO'' Molllllud 0 ,. oJ his lifo from 101? to 1030, earned
•••hor durin& tho 13 yea to tho centre or Mabmud's roolm. did
from nnl1vc the ldug and h1J lcadioa men .. He b.att
not enjoy tl:c ro or cncouragmeot nor any bope or royat
•• ofllciallnduocn•• b in all tl>is take• place whh tbe
A t" d lui c ao &• •
rc:wan.l ••·• d T"ere is 00 more comp\aaot or the umc
. a o' Masu • " • tb 1
scccn•o • runi ilallalce and enttauoo about c:
111d lli rul«· ,\lbe h"m Witb • s-llin& h'art aod overtlow•n&
-

to 1 •••• , .
ta''Otlt • • I •
1
the praise: or his bcnera.ctor .•.•
words h< prot
11
m •
II I would like to quote another hllle
lo:odcDIO y d c S•chau's preface In which he observes
(rom or ghats at holy b:lthing places
"Sp<akml s o ' I t• i• they (the Hlndut) bavo auoined • very
Atbcruo oays n "' • 11 ) h h
r arc so thai our people (the Mus ms w en I ey
blgbhd<Rrec
0
°nder
01
them Wid are uoable 10 construct any·
- •
'l. L oo
thin,. h r.c h1C m •
•• Sacbau oliO says that 1\lberuoi ''do,.s not auack lslem,
!WI be auacks cbe Arabs. Iollis work on chrooolo&Y he
ll tbe ancitlll Muslims witb having de•ttoyed the OOC1C111
• of Erao .• " Or. Sachau adds "To Mahmud the
Hlndus were infidels, to be despatched to bell as they refuted
to be
From the exw,cts quote-d cbove we arrivo at cbo following.
:
1. That Albcruni'a asstrtions nerd 10 be uamioed with the
utmost caut1on and disc:ernmcot btcause bo wrote witb an.
ttumus agamll Indians. and chat his praise or deou.ociatton
varit4 in dhcct 1)toportion to the favoura be recc•ved (rom
Olbm,
2 Secondly, be ho> made il clur lbol the ln•aders who
d•zed by tbe mere river gbacs io lodla could har<lly build
wonh the name thellllCIYl:s. Tblt was but natural
alltbclr cneraica were dissiraled In loot, drlokia• oriJCI.
IJO INDIAN HUToatCAL .._,
IDNN<I'<J ...., d<nruttion or '-tds .....
... 111M or AutanJZd> And ,, .. DOl dim<uh to .....,. ..
!bat .... ,.,.or tbe build loa art presuppos., u,,.....
IOJ!I'IJCiion a.cd pcncvcrioa atudy. Those became I.,;,.
lodra 1. 000 years o( Muslim iovurons batb Ia
Muslrma and Hindus. It is, therefore. el•ar tbat the
0
or lbo
h ld hd

mate maalery tbatt • n tans • Dlln1ned Ia tbe
011
SCI"""" or bUilding Wll$ o( I he prt-MuJiim era. lOd
J. Thirdly,..., cao doduoc from Afbcruni's statemooe lba
lbe la•·adcrs destroyed olieh•l was 800d and beauei(uf not Ool 1
11
lodta aad Erao but wb.erev<r I hey went. All ••lk o(

llfulfrm rulers of.'odia. thoreror_e. promared ••tlo
111 1
u formJ. and buJII mooumcors m bnct a.ad stone is bastJttt.
4, Fourthly, wllat Afberuao ascribes to Mab.mud Gbazo,
camc:ly the reduction of the Hindus lo particles or duu and
acaueriaa them away continued, 01 lenst 'till the end of
AOriQit<b'J rule, and f<JJCned l,hercarter c;>nfy because Of the
d..-deooe o( Muslim power IO a Sllle of harmlessness.
That FirdcuJttoo (tbouab be bas no1 wriuea oa lodia) ., ..
•• oo • benet tbao Afberunl In the nr veraetty bt·
awe be "" to \\ nte praises or dc.ouoc:ia:tio:ns dtPtQd..
m1 on tho be reeeh·ed the rulers, iJ clear
Dr. Sa.:bau'a appnisaJ or him. Dr. Sachau says in the ume
Jft(acctpaJe viii)' lmmortaf Firdausr had to fty ill diaauiseto
.. Ide tbo doom or beina trampled 10 death by elephaou
Attra.c:ted by the rutn& fortune of I he young emperor, be stCIDI
to hate repaored 10 bit court only a yeor nfier entbrooitatioo
,_,_A. D. 998, But When be finished his Sbahnama, and fouod
hlDIHI( dluppooated in Wa hopea for reward, be Hung at him
Ill• ltmou. oat.ro, ••d fled Into peace less f'Xlle (A.D. 1010) ....
Malomud "'ho boarded up per hap• more worldly treasura lhan
tl'ert ewr bD&tdod up, dJd not kaow how to honour a pori
.S..taod fOt IJII.IIIOtUitty." Stnce Mutlrm ruk followed liM
Nabmud Gbua.l PIIIC111 lhroupout, Firdausi's iDJIUCO
11
dear rerutauoo or ro)'al Mutltm pauonaae aad encouraaemeat
10 the aru lllld Jenera. Whatever patronaae wu ut<oded
to • aad to vulau krod or dan:c aod "'"'"',
eccompaottoa dnoksaa orliea.

Ill
' VA\. Ct4...0tfiQ.U
t4
,v.ca.o fAI111 I h he invariabty tdcrt to
MIS: t II lJ .-cH knowo t •; HIOdU counters ancl
IU (M Badamu:.anc:c. or the oaomountina to uy that
ClfCU ,1 abU.StVC l t f
tbc mere mott cnv 11 ••
rukrf in '"':o ,c')tlndrel went to oil furopun
"111• FILl we ftod I t Oallcrert. Mr. H.
Ccn>ID& to d him •• the doycnF Alo •·Akbon con-
1ll,toriaoJ "'' troutlntcd Fnl hu (ar
be or ftaucry and
firms . en ;:acc-uJcd 'I
10
the rcpuuu1on o '
too orten be trncnl or fact• damag.oa.k bly ia hit aucmpl to
.rltful • Fnl aucccc.dcd . rem-;:.: mokin& them believe
roastc:.r: ,.. • almost all h•ttonaa.s one or •he 3ll·<lmo
baodWI••••a monarch like Akbar w:u
that a a.ocade.sa•P'
ts of b•story. . have aone on record to
at<" CoatcmporaricS Hl<c toto Akbar'• favout
I F •I bad war c ' • .
aa'f that Abu a f
0
, ntal Works-Ill< Aon·•·
a·brothcca lodica Collccuon f the originol J>crsiun
I. A'kbari by Abul Flltl Mndrns, l od edition
b H Olochmono. M. :•
0
Col M A Pb.O., F. A.S.B.,
,i,;,;d by Bengal, I Park
published by I • boy finl edition
S
Prefaee to I
0
• • b I F••i
treet. • d J•h•na" knew A u -
2.. Thll C<)Url!C" :i" in the bioaraphy or Abol
to be a bypoorlle II meouonc ( tbc Altbarnama. The
Fazl appended to tbe Ill Jab•n&ir were apinst
bioJraphcr uys "The tbc latter to Abu I Fnl
Abul Fatf. An • . •
10
chorac hom wttb
pvc bim an excel!••• found 40 wrners busy
duplicity. Oo cnterroa tbc hoilise Ordcrlns them to
ln copying commantoulc' to • the emperor, ond
foUO\V at oocc, r•

• d "What Abu I Fnl lc3cb ..
ahowing hrm.thc copres e •h••, ho pracliecs ;
0
tbe hou·e.''
me Is very d1fferent rom w a ry •
The: Incident ia uid to have prod .. oced a tcmpon
mcnt between Akbar and Abul 1-azl.
3. on paae t78 or .•he 1!' . volubome

quotu Badauolt oprnton • ut u ( fficfoUJ
"Abut Ful when once In r.vour of tbc .emperor 0. II
aa he"'"' and aimc .. opcaJy • .iJ
lludylna His MajeSiy a whnns, a naucrer Y
1 bounda) took every opportunity or revlllna ln
1
the :a.
ahamcful way lhl\1 sect whose labours and cnot ves
b<en 10 little apprcclat<d.
I U INQI.AH Honoa

I>) ,..Mit ltlntf)', tod lbJI ftom lbat vantage • Clo
.,.,.be&IU)bocl.l'· Jabonair rbe <ro•o Prioce h!"'•••
II} .,,
11001
uoda obe overb<ariog autboriry
(o.od bll pctorioo so Intolerable as 10 be com
0
1
"""' Fld
abou• ob< .....,IOJdOO of Abu! r&xl .
1
P< l«t
We bJ•·e Abu! Fnl's own coof«sion ro sbow I bar
timc-te:rver 10d opporcun1tl. tn Bfocbmann'a be Wi-t,
rbo first edition be has quoted Abu I Fad's own r prcfoce ro
ALbomama in which Abu! Ful UyJ "As fortuo:::•ks fro111
awn me (l.t. when be failed In bit first atre I nor e.,,
Albat'• aueotioa) I almost beeamc selhh ancl :;.'.,.'.• Oll<b
"""'or learniog had made my braoo drllDk Wi oh • llcd lbe
otelulioo .... lbe adVICC of my father Wotb diiJkulty :e e Idea Of
from ourbrula of folly." PI me btU

FoorcO!es in Akbamama describe Abu! FazJ
wbo uied ro coo.some abour 22 seers of food eve • aJurroa
oerrainly ougbr oor robe one of tb& atrribures or ry oy. Thio
nih 1nd Kho1ar. a
100
''C b1sro.
TbJl Akbar bimsclf r.aarded Abu! Fazl as no m
ba d rrr · oretbJaa
d an. a camp • . ower " . proved by the fact thor br
' ••• II el<!_an cyelod or _rllsc a finger on Abul Fui'o
uuuonatoon. ...d be been tbc JUt! and •rear rut ••
.,.,. heeD wro ·• d • o- er "''' ..,
• . • .. Y "'' e lo beheve be should have arrai--'
"''b the cbarge. •-·
Abul Fazl's :;tand strareay wos ro birch bl
A \i>!t'•
1
> W3&on 10
0
,.,; IVO SO u IO (or&e
1
life·lona link for ensuring blo
Ada lftllfll/' prosperuy and eom.m•nding authority 11 court
' •ntaodioa of this role or Abu I Fazl is osscnrlal for
1
rome. appraisal of hiS Akbarnamo,
h lbould be elcorly d d
.. )ld
1
uo cnroo that Akbarnama wu a

• tl>ot Abul Ful Uted 10 fulfil his rcmportl
IUarouc&l ,..
1
.,..
1
urate to reprd It u aoyrhiog more. Ao)
-dtolll This "•. therefore, happens 10 conrato is ooly

01
"'by •o liS teeming pages we 6od all
1. Ia Abul Ful'
1
b,oar.
lho Altoon.o..& the pby appended 10 lbe lSI volume ol
ru ... Ia says "Jabangir op<oly ....
••nlcr, •abrl he brouabt abouo Abul fall'•
..... • cncrn)'. ••

..
tt>tAIVAI.. otaONlCLU
II)
eto '"'"'' ...
oilS,._. b un .-pc a coherent and deullocl
. 16y-aOI tbtOSI uodc.t t e ,·. is Hu:olct withOUt lbc Pnocc. or
lrrcw kbir't re•JO· Lb "'
.,ccou»l bjCCt l.o writing tbc Aa a.roama WU
Hi• very n k h cb eould be uc<Dded iorenotaably
.,;mselt • ru w
1
• W b h
a.sti&tt. to d' d It il II sort or Penelope. c . t at , ..
uolll be Of or loformatioo
whY It is • b'nes
10
rates and metallur·
bamlana 1urn11 1 D
ft,orn s rocesses to ba.tlf "onlp.
Jtcal P . u lbc Alcha.ma.m.a a.ad its author bu rc1ouh·
fallure ro •
1
" t':.conecprioos about Akbar' s retan and bb
cd ao abe. :bul Ful•s owo testimony Akbar' wu 1.0
per_>0•
1111
1•
1
:drunkard' aod 1 sovereigrs who Irs spire of
opaum addac ' wives maintaiDed. a harem of over
ha:via& 0 "merous
wotaeo.•
1
o page 69 of tbcln Vol. M Akbamama Abul f ad reveals
• "Whenever Hit Majesty takes wine, opium or
Jane< he calls Sabr•s I.e a drug par eaccllenec <;<>Dlltotng
obc qulnteJSencc of ull orbcr drugs) rbe servants on
place before him the sraods ." Al<bar'a addocllon
ro drinb, drup and women could only result tn Clltrtmr
cruelly and oyranny rowords his helpleu aubjecu conrro:r•
oo tl>c claimsabouc bis exemplary jusrice. fairplay, lmpartoa
lily, aeaerosiry and nobiliry. Obviously be was anorh<t
Nero.
0o 1»1• S7 ot rhc ltl vol. or Akbaruma uanJiated by Mr.
Bloehmano Abul FuJ records rbao Akbar "docs oot driuk
much bur pays aueorlnn to these (Abdar Khaaal mattec:s.''
By now, being well familiar with Abul Ful' s uller unrelia·
bolily ..., coo construe the above as "nlmpeotbable cvldcncc
of 1\kbar's calremc addiction t.o drink. In the taller part or
the above quo red sentence Abu I fazl emphasizes the aueo·
don rhoo Aobar used ro bC$tOw on his liquor cellar. Mort·
over we musr here recoil lbe fact rhal Akbar's desccodaoiJ
and •-slon borb being ioveocrate boozers be could not
be 111)1 dill'ercor from them especially when we have the
above reinforcing testimony from his own chrooicler Abul
l'azl.
3. Ia Aln-15 d .. llna whh "The Imperial Harem' Abul Faz.l
rolls lhe reodcr " Hos Majesty has mark a lArac eaclosure
:"b line buildlna• toside, where be reposes, Tboup there
re moro rban 5.000 women be bas given ro each a &eJ>Arale
apor1111nor. Surprislnaly enough Abul Ful fails ro meolloo
11
, tNDtAN •nnoaoc.,L
Ia •ddiltOO tho womenfolk or ALbar's •ubJuls &od
,.. "'"'also oomp<llcd to op<nd up co a montb In bia
00
•n.
• •·.e the ""Old or JabanJtr 10 prove I bat Akb&r barcoa.•
Y" t Pll . . • 1f'la .,. L
tfhttfiiC- ffc. couf6 nd1hcr rc.ad oor wntt a word. At • '•
... •'"·I F,..d waaiJ bls readers to believe thbt lbra '''"''
d L j • t\lfro.,
wbo lc4 1 rut life and wbo • • • " rnsetr on lnoessaoo
fartoo ruonlna"' .. rtb paoroo." hke Roon Pratop, ,..,
1
,.,;·
ibal u.<d to pert'orm moroclu and tbot Akb&r .,
11

,.quailed composer' or mualc and a first rate iovcotOt
Jaouq><rablepdccu. devfe<1 and p.....,sses. From tbe •bo or
_..s.c.Of)' ann'butcs It should not toke lotcUisent 'I.Dd
IICO<GllOCIIDstoriuJ or e>CD la)lll<D 80)' lime ID gause tb&t tbc
wba< 1bil b.uJe blrtm ,.,., locmt..t. II should have boca
atiP«Ol eomple• where 1 tnigbcy emperor·!
s.OW lodJed In royal comfort. But tbCJe iJ
DO Juch bulld1og elliot, whleb proves that theae haplcu
"O<Dcn must blve been herded togecber lo abject misery Ia
"""clbin& n•embling a c.attle shed owaitiag tbe pleasure or
Hn \tt)ett)''s IIJCivioua urg<J,
I Oo I'll• 47 oftheln Vol. or Akbarnoma Abul Fat! UJS
"o1>eacvcr bepms or tbe wives ot noble& or Otber womeo
alcb&stt cbaracter, duire to be pr<IColed, lbey finl
tbctr .,,.., 10 the servuu nf the " '"&lio. and w;ait (or t
RPIJ. From dteocc lbcy " od their requtst to lbe officen or
tbe Pliler, trocr ,.bleb tbose ehaible are perm itt«! to eot<r
tiJe bamD, Some V.Omeo of rank ObtJii O pcrmissioo tO
for a wbolc month .," From wbac we lloow
orrcm,•••• nature it illmpauible to believe chat women
or rlllk IJid <Illite, decent women aod wives or noblemen
Would be110 be victiiDJ of Akb&r's !cabery. This leadr to
:::.:"d •alt. ooe cooclus,on namely not content wilb bis
Wil'tl aod cvc.r S,OOO coosons Akbar ntvef
::;:t_..,.. wlva of b11 eourclen ond subjeett from his
l!mpaar Sucb llcentioos behaviour backed by
...,. ... wit d m1l11.ary mlaht perhaps uplains the
"'-' ..... ,'"' - lbe RIJPUI airls married •• tbc
a.,. .._ S::
10
••saouy or co auieidc, the insanity or
Tck-lo...::. tbc voluntary retiremenc of Rlt)O
2, lliloa EllBtiwa af 4k '
llaa lid "'P<rbuman and angelic quail·
I* I &I) 16, 11 It ,
1
'!':-«" arc described 10 /!.IDS
' ' • ""· 37, 38 eta.

..
l iS
•"'"L Cl<ll<»<te&.d
.Slll t!< OllDI I
- J'1ID r l d U IO mueh ICIDI 0
_....... k d up ao<! P
1
e
• olf ar• all- c jol>ICCUnty for Abut Fatl
aod cn>urc d boW billorianl have been
• MIDI)I,It ,. at I JoJS tO undc:fS':: clailns tbaC A 'kbar wu areal
t•ll and unWmrrant d of cvldcnce 10 support such
.. •• by li ablolutcly aot • Jbre cod mediaeval Muallm
wbc:D lhcte 11 thoia who have r l "mt
c:oi.CIJJSIOn• A ' mntrs koow that the stcreolype. c PI
:hrooicles :.nd ru1cfl bmflt sera is. sunk well I and , constructed
obsttb<Y du& cooalsd favour of olmO.I all Musltm monarc.bs
road• ba¥fl b«:D rna n of whom there was no dtartb. wb•le
trbO II"' servile chronicle 11 sadiots and etuel tyrants wbo
tbtt tbey "'ere
1
• st
tc is toown cs and other dopieabte cumes eptn
,odUIJCCI io of cbis fawa1ag chroniclers bave
woO)(.Q aod chi h rcs- cdve p:uron DlO.O&rchs were are-at
dimed tlll.l t .,. ,... cl
1
• id buildota, Ia yen of Jlrclens, CODOOISSeUrS 00
laveoron,lnttep ' the most Ood-feoriog ucl kind·hearced
promorc.rs or art an ...
iodividuals oo cauh.
We shall now examine the laboogirooma wb,cb. purports co
be
10
account or bit reian written by Jabang" bomaelf. The
Po<tbumous p
1
pe
11
of Sir H.M. Ellloc on cbc
edited by Prot John OoW10n are an cxcc11cat cmocal atudy
:,.,. so<alled chron1cle. From !h• beginning co end Sir R.M.
Elliot's obsernttons underlloo tbe face tbac Jabaoalr'£ mcmoiB
... roll or falscboodl.
111 tb< wry outset Sir H.M. l!lliot debunks Jabanair's claim
to have written tbe memoirs uodcr Ius own baod
1
because as
tbe observes, Jabaogir was oot a m:ao who
<OUid undcrcakc tbc laborlou• tosk of wridng a blstoucal com·
P<lldium. Contconporary accounls SJ)cak or lobuoslr having
li«o many a time In a state of eoma because of excessive drug
ood drink addicclon.
1
• :trF Memoli$ or .Jahaogir (Posthumous Papers or
Elliot edu..t by l,'rof. John Oowson). The
,,_, Y1 The b"tory of tbc re'sa or Jabanair depends
under , upon tbo memoirs wrlnen by bJmselr or
"' thit

:i:' been perhaps coo basolly usum·
be w., hardly tho mae 0 ouemOII$ Wtlb btS OWl) baod, for
Dllouollabour."
0 10
have Iaten upon birnself aucb
116 INDIA!< •
··--' . ,
J 10r CAI&&t.tali
arod qiiOOith<S of CI'O"llj<WtlS 10 IIJirODOmi<ol u: tl>t \\Joo
1111111 bl>loriaM b&\'0 ob<en'ed very pertJoeo
1
t .. ,.rea lb, '""
1
,_. lh '7 ........ .
_. 1 ;nrc ,., s "<port an an <mperor•1 ••rratloo. ""'lt
T1oc cwm' o( Jahaasir U> have otUtaU• I 1 bell or
bit ra!><t 11 "P" aeybody to riD& oad dtmood
10
H M EIIIC!I lw dJSliU.SCd &$ "silly... Kit, S•
wmiDUtJihe mu<h •auoted twchelnstitutos wboch
101 tO Jlb&D&if, formed tbt basi• or his r<&omc S' ilccor4,
Elliot .. )l tbll those bave bceo meebAniCIIlly rcpe&;ed

ll.M
alta MCISII111 tuler (llcb pledging to root out ran" _ y "'.
1
"
•vrrup1
rampaot prc>lously. Thus betweon tbcmselve.s thcae chro


aod me moors provide uau;ring evidence of tbo
'"ent ood deplb or corrop11on tbat prevaoltd under All rul ab
from Kolllboddio to B1badursbab ZaroT. tn
JlbJDflfJ c.J&im,• to bnc built seraij. sunk "'tile IDif
I ill the Pl•f- to Jllwlgim.ma the editor "S' H ,
1
tqects ,·e:rs:ioo u baviog bee:n writtc,: by

ntbtr lhlo an emperor tbe preteoded lCCUrat) aDd
IIIUUIItDUS Wllb which the V>JUe or &Old, SiJvt and rcriout
, • .,.Ia" II> to, and tbt oboondioa uaaaerauon dfspiAJtd
•a caomcrotJn& sums • ..must be nonked with the 6elio"' 0(
Euooutd Pl&lamaomr."
:. HiJ'!'ry Vol. vii, paae 206 r<OOrds "lo
tbt idly cbaoo of justice wbicb the emperor tell•
Aclr biStcacd palace at Agra to I llone plll.ll
a ad tt does not llppeor that it w•• ever sl\Jikco,
Tbc ' u never meant for anyobioa but pa,.dc,
tO
0
mreCltD,itation or whut wal attributed
Kllutra'• !'lub hot Y h1nose emperors, Yu 1\1'
1
, Ml•
tllln thJt •·Raj •pArr. Vol. Ill • • Orienta l l!dhfoo
lltlb1" 1 hll · '
1
nongpal hod •l•cady dono obo umc 11
rut.noo ,• ear nldcnce or the bobil or Muslim
lit<Jr RIJPUI P<od hctnltl>es With tht recorded JIOrid of
'"Cn ha\t. 'llte «:'e.UUr\ Thertrore. c\·en tbouah Muslim
•octo i-
011
...,
1
1••oe•ny duoroycd all Rajput rt<Ordl
"' '.!""' •a Muslfm chrooi<lco and rulcn'
,..JIOII f\lltra to
10
.....,nstruct tht hf"o' y o( p<tYIOCII
J. Sir H M Ell I1IC <>ltOI
lalwllif, IOC"t Cotnmc.al On the fiflh IMIUult of

,.tr&.ACIO tAITUIN MLDIARVAt. C'UAOJ'illCLU I 1l
otbef ame-o1he-t for wayCantt it cyually tootf.cd •
1
by
"';';i".ii. Elliot 01 JOSI another yam unwonby
So r< an bll prtdtc:CSSOro hld b«o Ia the babot of -baer
11millf empty aod llnl'oundtd cloim•
10
obtor
ctcdll
sabanaor's d•lm' that he reprded evttybtdftl'll>llt pro.
tl'/ un•lotable 1nd soerooan<t Is rdutcd by Sir H M Elliot
r cihDJ tho cloSJIC Instance or Mobobbal Khan. I molllary
1
mmandcr of Jah•nair. While tbotltadcr·ooldlcr wu 6,toolna
on the frontiers of Jabtoair'a kingdom b11 f•mlly
wu unceremoniously ous,cd rrom h1 mansion so makt room
fot Printt PMW<Ol This also lncldcotally provet bow detpe11•
tdy obnll or occommodaolon tbo Moabuu uatd to be aod
thorcforc tbc hollownus or the rraditlonol doom of rbcor bavioa
beta areal and intrepid builders. These obtcrvatloos ot tbc
Brioitlt schoton redutc the verltny and rcliablhty or tbc
Jah••a•m•m• almost to 1 dphcr.
Lcr us l'OW turn our aucolioo to Badshabo:ima or tbc:
-t or the reosn or Shtb)lhiD wrlll<n It bls ........ b)'
MuJ11 Abdol Htmtd or Labore.. It mull 6r<t be Jtaled bert tb&t
c'ltt SLoce Abul Fnl len behind bot Akbatnama aub>equ'"'t
Moshul rulen were tn duperato seanlh of similat cluoniclera
.,
00
w11h their •icbcmlc pens could llllko bose, crud and tyran·
naJ rc·"lmu appe:tr rc.splcodcnt, ri&blcO&n 111d "nctoU'J t\S had
b<eo demonstrated by Abul f•zl That Sh•hJOh••
a tolerable prototype io Multo Abdul lbmod' un be
Commenting on the tbord losututc of lohlDQtr whkh
ohilm• that all bcln to property were !Wilted oonrettcred
cu)oyment of the deceased's property, Su H M •. Elliot
"The descent tO bcln ll a IUtiC ot
Tlmur's lMtitute (Davy aod Wbllo, Joslitutco n(Tomur. p.
373) but bow little it wu adhered to may be <c<n I>)• ttfct·
eoee to biltory of llb•nair'• arand$011 1\.uf'loptb, wbo
ll&in obolisbet the SIIUC CUstOm or CODfllcaiiDi the <\lila
or dtccased aubjeeu. wbicb be u.ys, wu ptatt< ..
td by bls predec:usor ( Mirot ul Al1m).
2. In tb<; Postbumouo Papers ottbclatt H,M. Elhot deal-
loa ""'h tbc chroolt:los of SbabJiblD • m,o. be q'\!"'"
M'ulla Abdul Hamid to NY tbat tbe cmpao< <SbdJ!' ':!
desired so-c to write tile lllltol) or llll rwop ••
1
II< INDIAN IIISToaiCAL

,.... rrom the f•c• tbat lh• Iauer bas IUcce<ded in
1
oDIQ tbtt><locrtbal Sbal\iahao built tbe Taj Mahat ••

• ••
Fon al • ud Otdcr<d I he Peamct Tbroot, withou:bt
•••
10
, rr<><>f HIS me"' aucnioo of 1
_,.,
0
)1., and coolt<lcmpt in favour of Shabjaban •: lro,.
rt[lldtd bv J<neralloOS of orberwise ditceroing lllld d:• •
billnrbn•" uulb. llbhna
Tbat Sb\bJihaO bad no scroplu •• ordenng m.U.bciln.
aX(IDDIJ 1> be omneo 11 apparent from !be fact lbattbr<e
aflcr Jabansrr's dco!b SbabJaban order<d a fake Jabang· )ea"
, U"l''ama'
10 be wnrtcn as e subsucuto Jo be forced upon o.ll couttiera •net
olrJc1111 who were askc<l to surrender copies o( Jahanafr's
orJpnal ••rs•oo. TbiS wa• done Jahaogir's venioo COO·
• Udl<d "'' aod dtsparaa••& rcmorks about Shabjaban Iince tbt
laUq bad aU along proved 10 be DOl only a problem child and
I Q)'Wifd ton bul also 11ra1t0r by raisin& the ba.n.nct O( r y 1
qaJnll bh rtoJDIDJ falbor. Given Ibis rae! dots h ••od
tbll the account or SbabJaban's own reigo written It
b" t.JdlDJ by Malia Abdul Ham•d caonor bur be sham.
Suillbt_Tanlr.b·I•F"ItOZSblhl purport!O& to be an ICC:OUDI of
Aft:l• Sbab Tugblak's re•gn wriuen by Sbams•I·Shltot
1
un que aatODJihe mediaoval Muslim cbroolcles for lis
I!Utnle dhrcprd o! •II canoot or billorical wriring, a ad reck·
ll)lt or Abut Ful' .L
Hamld"oth .
1
Alluding 10 Abdul
1o point ofSbahJ&ban's roign Sir H.M. Ia quick
••Jbor'•
11
le h.• lft.llesl objeQiion 10 tbe work is rho
Jodi• : " or lbal aduherated kind lnrroduted
H .. .,,,,
11
••raJ .. Abut Ful aod Fai,i.
(Abu! FazJ's). .,......, and fubome u bit master
I lrr li M. Ellil>t ill h!l p bu
duuaidol of lah ..
1
, ,.t mou1 Papors dealiog wllb tbc
autbor or Ma·luJr·i:J
1
h quo1<.1 Kam11•• Khan rllo
lo 10 lluorutna 10 say that be wu
,.... llo llll4o tbo bllm tbaa J
1
abao Jn the !bird year of h"
•twa
1
abaoaJr bad dooe 10 Sbah-
th!';.' ••ued 111c .... • h111 "' v•t• terllll for
1'1). 0 revolt ... ,.... hn rarb«
..
C
!O fA)TH l>l M"ED1AfJYAI.. CttaOtfiCl.tJ
'"''""
119
uocoo.oerl1 for lroth.' The author tell• u1 that he wu onty
1'" cars ol<l wh<n Sutton Firoz tro.Mplaoted tbe two 1\Jhont\
ll J pillafS, and t»t tb'- IUibor'S &randfalher w&l of tbe
"o,nen'• • .e. This amounct to a eonfess,on that bis record1np
Su ta •- "M • .L. · ,
based on mere beanay. '1 tBtw;t ,n.orms me"' aay
1
the
orclbor tbO.t Sultan Fcro1. dua two inigat!on canals, one oacb
ou· S'od
(
001
the JumnG and the utleJ, • th•t tbc Sultan foundtd
'vortl!OWnS, buill paJ""u and laid out vcrdwll ptd<IIS by
: score. These assertions are like. the. onu we make w•t1c

!airy tale• to ebildr<n 10 lulhna them to altep Had
lbete nurncrous bland statements been true the autbor could
bavt quoled bener sources !han merely a'"rlbing tbelnforma·
don 10 bil Rumour-moogctl always a""ribe such iofor·
r:a,Uon tO somebody.
All rhOS< canals. suals, forts, palaces and row01 wb1cb a
fcrouhab, Sher Shah or Akbar claims 10 have conmucted
abted cen1uries before bim. A more dlllacnl • •nttlllgent
Jludy sbould convince aoy dispassion are and disccmlog r«der
1batlbe very d' etre wb1cb brought 1b<1e alien invadeiS
p[essin& and burtho& dowo oo the (.ndiarl sub-continent was
CAploitauon. plondcr and massacre. Tbc. Tarith·l·Ftrozsbab1
and fulubal•e·Firozsba.hi contain enou&h proof of tbia.
As an in11ance or mediaeval l'o'ritcu' wanton di$rcgllrd Cor
1ru1b I wish 10 bold up to their aneotion tb< very 11dc
"Fu1uba1 t·flrouhabl", "Futu.hal" ll&nf6u vic1oncs of
abab bul rbe surprising fact is 1ba1 in all the four ma1or cam·
palll"s or his rci8" be suffered crusb•n& defeaiS-tWO in bis
upcdhioos aaato.st Lakhnauti in Bonsai, and two againlt
Thauo. The accouol conlatns absurd staltmeoiJ
bow tho Suhan' s "VIctonous" ann•<S conlinutd "' fall b&Ck
•bile the "dertared" eoemy followed lh<m in bot pursu11.
Lei UJ now get back 10 examioln& Shams·i·Sb.itu Afir's
Tatlkb·l·f'irouhubi o lillie mere closely. Throughout 1b11
I. Sir K.M. Ellior's Posrbumous Papttl dcalinl wub lllo
-r;utb ... or A6f, u cdlltd b7
rof. John Oowson.
.
uo IHOIAH HISTO.Ic
"L .Ill
cbriiiiiCk tbt author ha< contraditlcd himsctr
OD« •• UKrtl that tbrouaboot the 40 Y<•rs kvtrat ''""'-'
"'"' "'l"lcd co npl<te prospcru :r
tot b1a
1
lht au1bor dt.lt'rtbe:s coodilion.s
0
: Dd hapPIOth
•Ita (oodpttOt •ere not avbbble ev,:n at two acute dl'"'"
ucl tJJmnJ people hod to resort to boilonc ole! b ru.,.., a...,
••• thll•atcr auoup on tbe abscocc of a b' •de and dtlol '
more aubJl.lnt•af. nyt mg belttr 104
OaliPI • the two A1hobn pillar$ said
uaa;plaorcd by Sullon Firoztb.ab the auth to ho•c bteo
h r ood I or tells us' ..
aut onty o « IU.torianl" lha.t the $tone
1
on the
lltclu wuh wbtob rbc hefty Bbccm (the mi
111
P ltors WGre the
tbc l'lndavat) Ul<d to teod COllie. Tbis Is :al brother ""'••&
Ull<r uan:llabllhy or the Tarlkh-i-Firo b h. . ther proof or the
• autborulco" He recklessly aoc:ribcs zsh' a '· tis ourbor and bll
b'· • b IS IDfOrtlllltion
.. •at '' and th<n to "aood hiJto • . .. • oocc ra
ablunltry or dubbiaa rb As!Ml;:o$ • wuhout rcalisioa the
•••ts c a P•lla" to be Bbetma·,
n. aut loot alto ..... "'. too r
Ud IOWA> .. bc•i•& b«n foun g ,,, or a•rdcnt, palaccJ, rona
lila all or a nd4u I<IJ theca ded by Sol lAD Firouhab, and
·-.......... table <lue 10 OUI or I be baa. Uowiuioaly he
h_r • Jt that tbt Sultau lnln• I e bascleuness or his claim wbeo
riali to' llimsctr. A ntler ., the stone pillars •• mcmo-
lowat, Prden•. f'Oil<U JIOI to bavc founded Stores of
Pf••...S 'toftdet· pill•ra
10
be ;:,ns not need mtssappro·
Tbc memonal.
autbot oftbo Tarih . F'
<lor to tbe•o-called Qulb orozshahi sives us ft diaarmJPI
........,. "" Atbotan piU '""· lie .says that Sullau Flroz
""-lit ""' lbo otooe ";'
0
" memonal to hio:n<elr u Sultan'
.... t6caa1 "•t IO btn>sul( •
•• 1-o 11rJ.ya. fu'lt! .' • Th1J stetemeol ''
1
, _ bt· """ tboui4 k Y tbc author or 1bc Tarlth·i·
""._, to k oow beuu th
--:-:--....:....::.,:•boadd:: lo n ao • not
1 .... .. UJ he d.. .._,"h tbc tradlttooal
l
1 ..... ll11e" of flit T
._ 91 ol .. T
.... .

••
..
...
Ml.t\oA-e£0 PATf1t IN .. .IDIMVAL. CH.kOHICUJ tll
. tbat l(utub<tddtn bu•h the to.,cr, s-odly theauthol
1
• • mdireetly confcMet that Allmaib
. ppropuattd tho carhc.r RIJpul to"'u 10 tb.c. rnaanu ot


firot. Gtisappropr•a.t•oa the Atbokao pdbrs u bu O'fli"U

Tb•• cursory cuo:unauon of a c-ross.-u:cdoa or med1ac:vaJ
Muslin'l cbroo•cles and rutcra' mcmoin and or the mot;vtt
hlth impelled their authort should •ufficc to coaviocc .. udcoll
:r bi>tot)lthot lndlon hiltoric:al '""u which lave based
,eJves oo chclC unreliable chronicleS h11ve sro$.5\y erred i.n mate·
rllll parlic:ulal'$. Tbc$c chronaciCI ba.olDI been written witb
uttenor motivu, ony 111Storic:r•l material they migbt con11l'io ,,
onlY ineideoral. 1bey were written by d me·tcrvtn for
a.rindioa,. t\S such these chronicle• were. ntvct Intended cvcn by
their very ou1hors to be taken s.criously They were mctto\ ooty
to fu161 a conlempOrary purpose namely humourin& tbe SO\'tt·
CI&D llOd winning ravourJ. Or where tbe cbrooicle1i purport to
b•« been wrineo by tho rulcra thcmsclvu or at their biddoag
they ••n: intended to compel tbe subj<CU aad offic11ls to
mt<haoically repeat the officool vcr1ioa to drowo tbc dreadful
upcricoccs. mc.monu and mtSCfiCS of d&umlll tyranny io
pf!K:ial bluff and bluster. Posterity hu erred 10 ovcr-lookiaa
this primary ObJCCIIVC wbteh Impelled the writing of the;< fake
cbrooiclcs. Uowarrooted reltanee hovlos beeo placed oo these
couoterfeat chronu:les and memoirs h Is uo wond¢r that our
mediacwl historical tells contain uns uspected blunders.
tt l! not o:ny coateotioo that medl8cval Muslim cbronlclu
and rotors' memorrs be cooderuued out or hand, As contempo-
rary writings they cao ba or great help ln mcdln-
biSioty. AI srrcssed abovo thoy may be ut<M for adverl<'
mfctcnccs if for oolhrn& else. B••n fake documenu maoy •
time t>r<Mdt .-.tuablo clues. What is in Leaded 10 be conveyed 11
th•t lhty ••• far from truthful records.
1 hope, lhcrcfor<, that VOIAfl<l Of truth ancl l!UdeOU and
medtaev•l lod•an btSIOfY \\1>Uid witb mcdculoUJ
"-R *"d u1most cauttOD rc.Yae.w medilllcval Muslim c.brooadtt
and rolon' mcmotra. At 11a1e tbc !W<l1ioDJ made tbemD
G«<<to be sub)<Ctod to a cl<»e .cruuoy aod eareful -
J :2 Ill DIAl< tiiST'OlUCA

.., a.
.............. l)ncnpltOilO or <bauvJniJil), ltlf,p
ud claorm "'"'' coc be ao:oo<JII<d uoleu OO«obo
11
''"
'""""""'"' , .. ck... • • by
It_,""' to< f"'t..(I<D tblt riley m1kc IUlpieio.,.
'lP' dalal or I be ••nous rul<n bovina eovcm<d lb •• lltrto.
.. the or lolly Pftor:iples. I he ndtrs bavioa :::.:··• ...
.... 1,.., aoJ all lbcm bov.os dus t:llmls and b•oh .,,.,
,.,.., ....... ood rom. .. ..
If mcdra .. al Muslrm cbroololcs and rulen' mt
1
• mona1
•••• 01udocd "rib 1bo •lall•nc:e aod dil!ecnc:c urscd h
6
••blorruhon of tbt tndidonal Implicit placed 1 In
lam '"rc. 11 "'oil be found n«c,..ry 10 rtwrite Indian °
1

en! biiiOJy. mcdta•
h .... I mUICJ O( pktnnt SOTpti}t: tO me wb 1
tht \la,araJIItra Hnald (a datly published from p:") io
It IU' I "'"" rcpon of a spcccb dclivc:rcd at
8
a::bao July
b) 1 Mu•lrm bluory Professor K A N' Y con.


ckbunktn
1
MtdJ:-..,oJ Mt111i,; Allso•h
lll>ttmtWOrtb) S b 0011t l$ IDO&l
of. uc
1
tulonal appraisol from a Muolrm
'"'" lbc dotbard Aliprb tradition Is
Clbc:Doc:ttaoa • l"'re:
Olbtr M .. lrm acodcmb bad ._
iloodl) aoJ ""Iter emula1e Prof. N•zamo'a
omtrlt CUI of lbt bolts r h
laJina.c tutottttl a.Qd ball
1
o I e1r tbauvtnisue
ouuock
0
lbc llllUbtnt or the TRUTH
Tbt bcv.' rtpou raa It uoder-
80\IBAY, lulv 10. " PJ b
btUDtocalcnqu\- d•J )'C oblotory" a new technique or
'
6
" Y•na anro lhe Ill 1
ltoo• or billurw
11
In I be
1
en lA make· up and mot iva·
rwtM'CtOoubt•ebout ah: ••r. contcxu of lhe.ir hBt
.. I be I hh CCDtury •be :"••ty or mediaeval Indian 1\IJtory
""'" dtclraoor "
1
• Arab hlltDrinarapby tradition
Rcco.-·•ltlat Jcchn
Oc Coo.ho.., • by Frtnch hill"·
f( ...;,, P'Oic- of o\Ur.arh M • r.,catcbc,., the form«
=
1
.... ,.nculat r .. lt Uoivers11y, Mr K.A.
··-by tile .. ·-- "" cbtosuct .. or court h• ..
_. ·-lio b" .
UIOII811phy lradrhOn
...
(D pj\lfll U" l•tiiDIAI'VAlo CIIIOJ41Ct.lJ l'U
.,v.c
Wbltc cbc 1\rlb binorilo ''d1td11otd wnt•o& the blJtory of
,_\(.r ao4lDttelld the hittOf)' o( AD *lOt•• lbc lta.a.J:tD
1
0111
n *'lnduJ&cd lD t10rlfitat10ft Of ktnp l.fld fi)'DUl.lt'l
'"
1
dlcJI oC his moral oblipuon IO adhere to truth lnd tdti-
:::;_ ..• pror. N•uml obs.cr\t.t .
"Our usc.ssm<DIJ of Mubommad Bon Tugbluct. Atb&r lad
Auril.Dpteb-tbree most intercstrna yet complex pa10Da-
litlt1 or mtdioevallodoa-wlll remain parllll and pcrCill>ctory
1<1! lb< Interplay of psycholoalcal ractoll in tbe apPfOltb or
is carefully iovcsciaattd'._ Pror. Niza.mi ootct io
Culrurt" on Enalish qwartcrly pubUJbed fJODI Hydera.
bod by tbc lslanlit Culture Board.
S•y• Prof. a psycqohillorlnn alone can analy;u, con-
nadic.1ot)' situations and motivation• to arrive a• the ''billotlc
facl'', A tl•uic paser for a hillorian h to wbll nlcnt Akbar
..., gulded by considera1ions for Raj put ladics or his bartm in
1
doptiog vcgctawm h1bils, wh\lc revclJina lo animal buots
eoJOrncd by tbe "Qubumamab".
HUtoriaas• aecourus cao't be properly fnterpntfd un1eu a
1
rcsdtr 6nt undemands tbem, their psycbolov. !heir predilcc-
trons and •bove all the duality of their minds, obsct"ts Prot
NtuiDI· For instance, Abu AI-Ful. ooe or tbe m0$1 impOJUOI
bbtorf:uu of m<diaevallndil aod aulbOt or the "Akbamamab"
ttCOrdin&.thc ocblevemcnts of Muahal tmpcror Akbar, laments
in a letter 1hnt "I have become a slave or dirbouru and
di.oau."
Prof. Nizami analysu that whenever Abu Fazl round bis
itael!mcnu of a situation runoln& In a diiTercnt cbannel from
he very ortislically hid himself in • pletbor• or
bl;b sounding words or quietly lei out boa v•cwa on abstract
and pbilosopbic:al lanaungc.
. bia ftorid nyle l>talo• 10 so:tr bi&ber, wbcrcv<r
hll philosophic ideat become more obltrusc, be (fl.ll) is always
rae;,, lOme psyebolog!Clll lituatlon ...

be A<w11011 of lraoi>o bistoriana, not <I Prof. N'll&IDI, cauol
';!"'dtd U tOmprtMDIJVe Ot liUiy telltttJve Of lhcif lioacs.
"'
1
Y l.bcir worh t o ruloDI mooorchJ I.Dd coaokler-
12• INDIAN lfiSti)"IC

a1 any rtfmnce to commoa mao or hlo PIOblcrn
101710
tbe an of hittory wnt•na. • " dflo"-
The PedlaD Rcoaluuc:e afier 1he I lib ccotury
· 1k AfJtorf o/IAuar" ioto " 771• lrl11o.y of •h•
towoardt !be br&IDOIDJ or lbc JJtb ""ntury, bfscorjoof l iJd
,..,. wnuco lo Peniao in all countries from Jodi&
1
""•b
l'nlt NWimo's coDCiusioDJ aro abo home "••
arcoonla of Brollsh hil!onaos. • •
1
by
.
unlike .t.bc Brahm111J, bav. •bowa
a lildll aod aph!Ude fOI wrtUO& Of PIOfcned blllories, 10 lb
....,. Muslim dynu1y In Asia bas found .ill chronicler," , ,::.
Brhisb blllorlao, Vlnccnl Smilb observed lo his "fltllto,.
l'trlod" tint published io 1920 ••
'"" of tbe "Oxford Hh(ory of India."
Vetil arllcr, Sir Heory Ellio1 commenlioc aboul lJx
Wabammadao period In bit Hlsrory of India as told hy Ill """
BIINr llllV ctlllclttd lotlancco of "fabricated cataloauc of msou.
atcipco aod c.brooolo&Jcal tables of Moabul Dynasty." (P'D)
Prof. Nitamo's appraisal !bat Muslim cbroniclea belor
t)'COpl>aot DO!iop of coun atooau arc not wholly reliable I•
....... to , ., u ,, ·-· Sui ll docs DOl ao far enoucb. ll b
.. IJ a ..... aeocral aummation. I n I bat it still Slicks 10 •he
t)'pioal mmtallty or a 1-!uollm lndiao or appear ina to b6 vc.ry
lortllnpt aod impanlal withoul coocediog aoytb.oos concrete.
Ha abolll4 """• add<d cbac chronicles have •
-..1 OljiCllrad Hindu edilicu and t ownahipS as baVioa bccD
lllioool bJ iltolod.., Mlllldlll : !bey bave cam011ftased the hcdi·
- IIJDIIilla of tbc rolioc IW.mie Junia, !hey have i UD&
,..laoa 0( - 1. d'-lulo flki11 at areal Sufi uiniJ, and paioced
.._ llon01 ...S • ttl) or hlamlC rule u eoricllmeol of Hindu
1
II
1
L 11oo failaft oo Nluml't pan 10 ident ifY specific dlllll•
:•: ltq coa ohllauviai51lc Musl
1
m writlnas illuJira_tet
- • F l ll ..rillttned Muslima even wbro appu noa
!.t,
1
llill-a.., from tbo naked and horrid !Nlb
...... a ...., 11&111 •
• , 1
• • _,. callli0111 wbeo !heY com<
8
'
1
J a II lla """-a by Muallm and CbrllliiD
..
..
IU
..
tot £0lAIVAIJ CltkOHICU'S
efO
"" ""' ch
111010
faolba were tprud lb.rou&b fcnu
.. bO ntiY cbey bavo de;uoyed lot of hiStory
Vfr d ConJe<luc .
00
d fraU · ed lh< reraaioder.
ood diJIOII • ople or Europe and Amenca and of
p.iab' chlol<ina pcAfabonlotan to Algeria mull •••lite lhll
t.tulliiD oealmts frOID re-CbcilliaO and ple-Mollamed bl>toty bat
tbcif owD real p b batte bc.e.O 00 a ra\t hU\OfY
.-.• suppreued and' ub·ugacora. That ruacory mu>l bo
bY chOir aod pre·Cbrl•ll•n hlllory or
co....- d d !be pre--•"'• • .....
rcpodiate' an ti.tDOldial Vedic; unity mUll bo tc¥1...,
buro•••'Y • P
1\fJth of the Indo-Saracenic Theory
of Architecture
bJuodor Of lodiao blltOtical r<"otCb b th
,......l>tliof lo tb< wtr<Uot of so-called lodo.Sorocenic e llll•·
....... aad tho formulation or • so-called theory b3 mdonu.
lh<ftl ••
00
M already ot»crved by uo all mediaeval mooumenu ·
1
.-
IOitht TaJ M.abal, Humoyuo' s Tomb Akb>r'l To-b ond c ••·
-- -H-• " I • Mi , ' • '" an the
"". "" Gar .,. pre-Mustim RaJ put build in s.
OGI) .. cltmccl Ia lOme or them Is confined IO s
.....,,_..,,.home •upcrliclal tamp<rin&- It u lik Araboc
....U..r ..,.body m<Uiwue IJid ereb. < so'!'ebody
O&alC • 11- Ia cbat cue Ju.st u tbo c: '
0
1 one • own
.... b lire ..... , ...... or the be credited
ooll<l'lbtp tbrootb coaqaen ud etehin • mere fact or
ailularly lk Cljlll>f> ud I • g OCt I OWII Dillie O.n it,
-b ....... bo d•i- to :aprr•torJ or. mtdlatval monu-
moaumcot·bu!ldtrt
Tbo or lk ruto
cd IQ lire IDIIplaotd btlld' that .,: tbtOty it rOOI•
... u...,. bulh by t!tlt or that M •J .r.tahal and other moou·
•lnad! PfO>cd that •he Toj Mihal Dlhm ruler. Sinoe we have
q- alltcd u lll)put polo aDd Olber tombs and mos-
tl'""' thc lallt).SIIIcnuc lhe:• •:d tcmpleo in pre-Muslim
II .. •aal-c tbc ry o l!chlt<cture has no basis.
........_. ,. term "lad s
:."::'' ''.,.,e., moau...,., b II "'r araunlc Arcbitccture
-.-u. •c... SatiCaiJ.. u t a "Jodo.. I
.a.""* So tbe V<ry sty e by " non·
'"w -...o. dl.u lbt IDODUmtot D&IDe of tbc theory amphet
.._ ... ltAJPon, ll•botnya cotircly in I be 41
•-"""" - - ,.,,, ....,.. • !bat It admilled
a..;, --. IIQually but It by
•alo •- • ' - r ,
......., <mont• merely a
..
-u! lt'o0-SAttAC111'11C 'litCOR.Y 12?
tlft1'0'"
of c..,tdcn«- And we ha"e alteady cittd O\'c:rwbtlmiuJ
cP'1cf d c.ao produce much more to tb.at e:vuy oa.e

10
0
u
01
cntt a i)tcd to pre-Muslim limes
.,( t1o0t< IDO
1
tb"'•l •hcory hu no1 ooly adulleratccl lndbo bi>-
1b alsO iofcctcd archatcctura\ to:at boolcty Hc'GCt it
,.,... be tborousbly debunked rut. prescol ••d future
(OtS o f thi.t t.a.s1c: Of di50WOIOI aod jelUSOa.·
ardut:as.tc coocept or 1b.cir prorcssaoo. We would like t.o !Wllre
;ol • lb.SI the is not as overwhelming and formidable
11
tb<l•" All th>t needs to be do ne b 10 delete tho word
• 1 b L ·
n
ic' ' frorn arChltCClUrO text OOd Whttc.vcr lodaaD
.. saracc . I f I b'
ed' c'lal architecture s rc errc<l to. l et t \at Brt: &ltclurc be
-en,..
11
d
10
and susdle<l as purely lodiao mediaeval architecture
reoerr• · I s ' \ k l b •
. b
1
Jitlle
5
uperfitll arocen1e t n cr ng sue :.s. eograv1D;t
at rondom ln><rtioDI as ad hoc Ollln.gs of stones dislodged
he• the buildings were stormed or bammcrtd
;
0
icoooelostic fury •
seve-ra1 otber (harp considc:rutioos too bdp us prick and
«8ote the tndo-Saraccnoe Architecture Tbcor) bubble.
1. Taimorloog, AI Brruni and other atieos bavc coofcssed
a rcerioa of wonder at seeing Indian river gbats and roagni6·
ecot, towcrioz.. massive sculp\U(C· lcnpticit 10 wonder was
a cco!euion of tbeor loabolity to buold anytboog approaching •I·
2. Mastery in seulpture presoppcses cerrain bi£bly develop-
ed skills carefully nurtured and practised over o number of
acneratio05. tnvadioa Well Asian hordes consisted of ollherate,
uocultuJtd, uoooutb desperados unskilled lo any human artt
mcpl fighting •
l. Hlgh $culptural talent presupposes n ccrraio refinement
oftcmpcroment. T ho invaders perpetrating unheard or b3CbUI·
II« were onnoccnt of any rc6n<tn<OI boslll.'llly CS1<0ttal for
bdog &nod, aniatic buolders-
4. Had 1he invaders been really great buildtrt tbey ball
lbeor own undy strctebu 10 buold on. Tbcy oeod no• ba•c
locurred tbc odium and r isks or to O(btr
r...cr..
I :I
Hod tlo< oouol<N be<4 f<,llgrat builders they "OUid
_,K •'"''"'e4 the Htadd &l)k of butldma. DOt
• H-.J lbt' bed- gruc builders in tbc'r owa riahl tbc
have CDtrtb cufltd tbc•r so-catJed 0\f./O PIUtrQ Y
"" aod 4o:mC oo the lodta.n t(Ylc of archuccturc as n f1t or
lr.ad••aJ• Tbc dome .tad arcb a•vlc:t ln lndta • -"-
t.-11•1.0 Thcy•-cre "ot iatrodti«d to Jodla by oliecu
•bo bno.r h
1
t
0
,..n .lti!h aod dome would 1p10 ftcto brloa th'l
Cftllrc u-odtr-sttuctuJc with H roo because the dome 1, ,, th
. d •• •
att,_ prt-tuppolt a certa•:a un cT-t lrutture The dome and th
... Cl'uld ool h., .• been d<><lopcd Just in the air by Saoooen •
Had on•r rully de,.loped o >pc<lal type or oreh aod do.''
they • o•ld how: had a special style entirely their • •
lmm th< foUlldatioo 11pwlld.
1 AD) chat aJlU between West Asian monu·
axotJ and ladl&n from the f1ct that Tatmurlaoa aod
g tbtn drowt: lodt.tD uaftsCDeft It sword·pOiot 10 tbcar owo
UIA,. laodt to bodd tombs aod mosq••• olmilar 10 Htodu
boolthop tO lodta Taumrrlati& coofma 10 tbit '" bls memotrs
I••IDboocrarb>l
• lllw llccll usened tbal b<eati1C mo<t or the
ttafl•J:DtC v.uc H1odut OJ lodi1n.s monuments ordered by
Mlli•IDI IIIPP<D to be teplcto wltb lad tao mourt and ttalti.
ntals lb<cr c: "''"" 'Ric Btilllh rulen or lodla aot their
thllllllltl wult the bdp or Hiodu aod Muslim lobourert
dd nafllmcn and )'t t tb.etr chutC!hct do uot contain a Jinole
mQU( of 41am 01 filOdUitm.
0
h
9
l'lopollrnh of 1h• lod.,.Soraccnlc lhcory of architecture
;.;:,Y :<ttaln b!eoo•eoient ques1lono. lu order 10
.,...,,,. tbeor) \hey lllao auened that Mu•llm
.. __ .. t: modllitVIJ monuments only laid down
.... ...,.. tpc,.;:t,lc;aUoot ltav n :1 b
laboumt to tr&lll 1\e
1
I . to I c IWect wdl or Htndu
.a.l(a h u ooo,' dQJrn •ttb thcu oroale p&ttctnJ •nd
F.-.tr luu"' .. "'
1
'"'
11
Y foraotten that thtl Ia tmpoulblt.
·•- • ...... tills for •hom H d
..... • tbtm Jn u moll(;, orn•mroto·
lnJI 1e oi'O<Iallr
1
would Dc>er perm1t IIDY Hindu
......., ....u, the- buoldtDJJ. S..:oodly, oo anlft or
,.,If bo ..... a... wilb l•r••• •
..
yne utOO·IAaACIHIC ntrORY .,9
... "'Of
b brOid p.auero of a new cdi6.oo. He will WOtk out the
oo11: c:
10
tbc last dtttU. Th•rdly, wbeo thc:rc are tbou.Mads
ctC-1'
00
rcn •nd craflsmcn working oo a bul.ldu:.g 1f tbe &tal\s
to them the. whnlc proj«J wl\t cad up in noth;n1 but
.,e ( beCo\USC tbC Of WOrkmen WUl aU be Of
"'" ... v d • • lf'crcAJ b)Ckgroun I. SlritO, lftlJllC aUatnmtDU a ad temper&·
do
1
lk.Sl.des. workers were always a mbed srou-p of Riodu1
..... . h b b ld •
d Mutliml. Aod oot tna ut c _aos wou tnult ,r tbcy """
::n (0 fill i.o minor dcllil\ or dctiiG u per \heir: individll.11
prcdilc.ctions .
An architect has to give tbc workmen a destan co:mplc:ted
tb• loll dclail. Allowing Individual workmen 10 ftll In
;olls of desi&n and pnucrn aoeording to I heir own 101hims and
r:ncles is just not done. lt b impracticable. That myth was
·avelltcd bY Western aeholar• unable to cxplaio wby allegodly
monumc.nts followed an e-otircly Hiadu plan and
dcoign.
10. 11 oced not be streueJ that h is tbe IIUID who payo the
piper that calls the tuoe. Tb11 shows that lbe ornate, Riodu
type or structuru could not have be-en commiasioned by Mus·
tim<. Had they eommistiooed them they would bavc iosisad
oo the buildings beioa cotirely io their own style.
If, Had the mediae9al buildioa• beeo or MIUiim IUtbDI·
>blp their trine p11Uerns ... d deeoratloos would oat h•'•
,bown signs or uunperiog •• ore seen in the so-<:alled Kutub
Minmr t\nd surrouod1ng structurea.
12. In foci even the tombs and moS(jue• •• l!ul Aila art.
caofltr lndlon t cmpln ood polncu because 11 bas olready been
poovrd that Indian rule once extended upto Arabia. Tbe Soor·
Sidul Kulptural drawloa io 1he »called Taimurlaoa Tomb at
Simattand is proof tba1 Toimurlaog wa.s burled io ao erstoNbllc
lodlao palace b<.eausc Soor-Sadul is tbe Sanskrit term Soorya
Sbudul meanooa the suo and tbe tiaer-wbieb is euelly • bat
the sculpt ure depieiS.
ll. !WIIbc alien rulera really buolt aoy moouiDCliU tb.ey
would not have built ooly tombs and mosqua wllho\11 bu.odrcdt
of eorrrspoodioa palaeet.
1!0 1""0f4N UISJoa
IIIII
I' Tbr had come 10 ••Pioil •od
4
1ao
aoc 10 1oiland build lord 11 .,_
1
r "-•
I$. ncir r<ISnt WCr< run or turmoil ••d
,ocau:nl otrc.osare and campuilDS • unrest ceu'td 'b
nd re,'Ofl5· thcrcforo, did not
•• ..,.,m,.,ion hugo buildings. limo Ood
16. lodfa•, aficn rultrJ d1d not have the
18
.....,...,. 10 orda liUprodous butld
10
gs. Alllh bulous Wtahb
lbcy ptbacd by plunder bad lo be coosla
1
• ""to lib 111&1
la<Ddmxlr, clamourooa noblemen aod I be ol Y doled oul"'
L. IDrQ.II" o(
.. mm •• 10 1be finioa oul of
11
1
«111•••
Al:bar'• u ... orcr once dtd DOl have e•·cn lb cos { e•P<duloo\
II u menlloncd by Vioceol Slllllb DOd 0 c lry Jum or Rl
ustav. r. Lit Su.
17. The Moshm invaders betn of .
11\c MibJM. Pcnions Turks A lb KcliV<fse n•tionolllle.
Ab -·'·1 • • m s, szaks U·• •·
y...., IIAI. aod ar dii'Cflr lira r, · ' ...,._, 111<1
OOiall di•P-l•• tbc same via rad rolll punces to slaves, could
'OJ bu£0 • pencbonl in order·
Cl<oat< Br.Wu ll)lo Tb r mosques and all ro lbo
b.t•c- baih by lhu < ICI thai all buildings supposed Ia
b.tpptUto b< oJcnual bclero&eoou. &roup over • mdlrnnlom
pro•u beyond d b
aarpcd Wndu buil<llllp. ou 1 lba1 lhey arc all
If dotlo£ Ibm IIOO.
-lclb.t'<dcvcloprdaapcci )<., rule io India lbo Mu•llm•
• it aile sed
1
:
1
rondocu for Hindu archhoclur<,
b.tbrt with lbcm and ' •• would bavc by now become •
.... Mu&limt, bunt::.;'; lbtt 20th Century We would bavc
loalpla a.od hom.. But ,.b mosques "'d home• like Hindu
::!"" a..p.. OOIUIIDI "' nouoe It quile dlll'ercal. No
- 1hc pluub ro P••••cJc
0
;. Hindu 1rai1 or mo11r
51
adosotoollhc HIOdu llylc Thll
11
further proof rbDIIh<y
...:::. &14 IOIIII>I '' tbe Ht .d «cro...,, wbll opprar to b<
1
1'Pr•Pnalcd 10 w.:llu tl)lc arc ia fact earlier Hiodu
It, Tbe I .....
' 'U ¥ .........,
1
lb.tl Mu&l
n 1 1o1 It":.,._,....... Olbc.'m' , ckmolithed old H10du
aa
1
butldlnas from 1be umc
oco .. r up b
I • many dloa•callllc•
..
.,vnt or ttUI tf'fl)()oSAaM:aNtC Tl.I:EO&_Y Ul
whJ.Cb propoocDLI o( &be lodO·Sa.rate:QIC. tbcory af arcblltclu.re
flo.d it bJ;td to upla•n.
Ltf us presume tbDt tbe so-uHe<l Kutab M'oar b
1
Hin.du
b ' !dinS If • MutHm conqueror 1ptco.d1 tO dhman,te
1
t aod
"'
111
m
11
torlal to erect .-.notber bui1dina be would chhtr bave
us• r ' b
blOW up tbc tower tom Ut nse or aond up workmen 1n an
proccstion to 1he top to dislodge evecy atone and
...,..ruiiY brlna It down all the way. Then be would bavclo
urnber 1be.m and lay them out in out ro .... , pile upon pile.
wiU be nolhiDI bul quixotic bcalusc it woll lovolve
1
bu&<
,.,astc or t.fl'ort, lilbe aod Most ot tbe d"loc1&cd t.toncs
.,rould e.hip off ln the di.smaotling prcxcss and turn out 10 be
ustless for aub.sequtnt use Wbeo the court IUU«ure 11 diJ..
mantled tbe whole rouodallon will have 10 b.- <J us up £or A
building wuh a new detign. Since the Kutub Minar lt a rouod
struclurc 11t stones would be useless for t1 iq.uorc or rectangulor
IJrueturc. Tbnt meons l hot by dismnnllm& • t<ulub·Minar liS
s1otte!i can be uacd only 10 re·erect the •amc tO\\Ier over aa,aio
1
And wbo would be so 11upid as I.O disaunllc a buac IOW<I and
rc-ertCl il Slone by Slone and boulder by boulder once apia
foe some dubooua sali1rae1ioo. And cvco ir surh a one iJ re-
<r<CICd 1bo crcdil ror the struCiuR' would bavo 10 be a<vco ooly
10 lbo ongioal builders ror lbcir desi••··· I be build••• and
culliOS aod lbe 10 lhe rtqUUed spmfitlhODJ.
Morcovu even 1bc bypolbo•>C&I rebuitdins or 1hc Ku1ub
from lhO dCbfiS or lhc pR'ViOUS, dosmaolled IOMr WOUld be OD
impo»ibilily because most or I he 510001 dumajled and chtpped
oil' i n the procus or dhmontling would ' not rail inlo pillet ..
bororc. II Ia common cxptricn•o thai in tho •••• or • abop-
rronl t buumd up with wooden planka unless the plank$ ore
carefully numbered lbcy do DOl rail iDIO alae<.
20. One VCI y lmporlanl coosldcralion is tbot while lodia
bu h1d a very claboralc and mulcrly SbilpubDJUa Lt a sac nee
of arcbhcCiurc, aMitnl and MtaUm \\arid bu had
DOibUt& oonupondina 1o h.
1
community claimins arcbii<Ciural skill mull b••• bls••
descrtblna IIIUCIUral rorms ond llfeo&lb Of mat<lil iJ
'" COnllruollon Ancien I aod mediaeval! odi• bad lbcte.
• Muslims hod none,
J)l ti'DlAH tiiSTQRIC.\
1.
o,..;
11
aatep (uttb<r we may say tbat iu""di
tlllllfJ ,..,. smdomonaotly flllf<ratc DOl to talk of":o t.f"'lon
Go! rloN>ratc .,.,u, they powe.,.d. Y h•abc1
tr tbcr<fort. lh<tc lis close limilarily b<twcon lDed
lftdou monumcon •nd those In Muslim cou >i rott or W


tbc contlu11on 11 clear that I bose monumontJ were "'"
the t>rlr ollndlao •rchltcctt, cnsloeou aud workmen, loihh
Aa:.,unlt of MohAmmad Ohotoi'• ond Taomurlll!l•'tl
• n\'''
1QOJcoof<l •• much whw tbcy atotc tba t Ioken ahock b ·
bclut> aaJ vaod:ur of lodlan palae<s, lempl<o aod river
Ill< o lw•o.c: b.;rt>.Juc iovade" u&ed to •pore lolled ,.
0

111
'•tnta
eoJ l«bbl><oam fr0111 mw massacru only to drrvo them
roinlr• \\'ttl Asain IO bavt tombs ond
0101
"
Ito t 1111\11 blc "' Indian monumcnll. qu.,
II· a•uu, lh<rc(Ofc, !reverse the currcot and"
tfllltn•t .. d of Muslim nrobitccl, aod <Cginens havr/
llriiJU<d •nd buill medioeval lndlao buildings it wao
•I•• bijili Wtll Atlan monuments.
21, point to f\c nottd Is that all :xtaot lnd1an
llltdia:nl m OliiiCIIII ba•t bcen built a<cording to the lod11n
5b lpa but•• •reci&ahoas <>co 1f they appur •upcrficially so
aoC IIIOJIIIJ<S. Vt.,toro to lodiJn moaumcnu ha\C
ltuour I . I .
era uttUllel o tulonaa comr: •o auociart wry
01101111
' tb< oqoan rcctanaulor 0< OCiagon•l building oh11pc•
••rP<d ...,,b • ..,., w th ·

1111
• charac:lcriatln of Muollm
bttrn/or Thll
11
perhaps a unique irutnnce in
•'<
111
m •i c:atoon of record• and mete £rafting ohcp·
can • • •

hulldonas and orchu rid or Hindu im•a«
1D Wt()fld tnctudtng ltudent'l of arehiltelurc
,......._ burldrn&> arc burlt cnhrrly to Htnllu
lllaJ ,::::_ k·•<>lo, tbat they \O Cre commiuooned os
a._. tnJ.
lt '"'• •ldtt•h<o ho
.,. -11m 1 bftrd
11
t •• qmc motrfa and
• ..,.. doa
001

10
coorcmrorary Muahm tomM and
•• Utdtli&ol
1011
or bother the hillorical,
"r .. """'If , ·-
1
doam• or ao-nllcd ••peru
- IO•IIools dUIIDI with the topic aboutd
..
......
,.,.e tNOO'$AI ACII><tC t'USOIY I))
d
10
brina bomc to tbc reader the false honom
e<JP. II iJ bf.r.:C.nic Atcbotectutc Tbcory.
rtb< Ind.,.
0
e INTilLUOBNT TOURIST'S OUIOI! TO TR I!
lo Ttl t!AT IS BIJAPUR tbe authorS. Padm.a'*) OMctvcl
OI.ORY
1
0
evidence at 81)apur (which is the city with the
"1'bet
0 11


""' Gallery ood many so-called Muslim tombs,
fiJilO"' Wt
1
jof any foreign inOucncc but very &trona evidence

• c. dillon odoptioa nsclf to the Muslim requirements.
of If:
1
detail In the oplcodid buildings II 8\japur tbat
Thet•

•plolned u tbc lo&lcal "qucnoc of India's livina
<tn'Ot ..;,, To uoderatand tbc buildinr.s of the M1Uiim (?)
!JUoldiDSto '
0
,•udcnt must first turn to I be Hindu ViJtynaaor
S•J•pur • I • d • • "
(faillOUS <'!pita I of 1 med1acva Htn u cmptre).
lo the ICARNATAK OARS HAN volume prucotcd to ao.
n.·MioiJter. Mr. Dlwakar il Is stated about the Wbispcrin&
UallctY that "To ihc north is an octagoMI cbamber whicb
lt<mJto Mvo not been used ot all."
It has already been oi>Jerved In coonectioo with the Ta1
M•b•l that tho ooiD80n II a purely Hindu •bapc. Moreover
tbellllused chamber ia an indication that tho use or the Wbts-
pcrlos Oaltcry as a MIUiim tomb was 111 aftcrtbouabt rn wbicb
oo.,. could be found for every chamber of the ear her Rtodu
t.oildica.
In the boot TI!MPLES, CHURCHES AND MOSQUES by
Mr. Yakub Haann rl Is stated oo page 16S that "A prcullor
style known IS Saracenio was invented ... Mutlim architecture or
•oc couotry dilfers from the Muslim architecture or ano1ber."
1h· falac claims in the above sentences bec<tme apparent
ou • I study. If Mr. Yakub Haaaa clasm' IIIII a oc,.
S..raccole style was developed be abould produce she ne<essary
.. , of iht rtyle. Secondly tbc •dml»ioa ''·•' 1\h<lim
rlectute or one country dilfen from thot ar " .:lc.tr
rtOO{ tb" Mudlm invaders used car Iter indta<uous butld·
.. sbtoll)bs and mosques and staked a fahc claom to h.sve
11 1
em tbcmsclvu .
tile Soclcty'e journal titled ARTS AND LETTERS
elo Akb-. tbc Maatcr Buildof ooatuiDJ • cbaraclcrllttC
I >I Dt AI< IITsr O

&re'rll« II t }' ' Tbc lar,e I rombs 11 "-Jh' Oao
" "-'<' ' art i
plao OJ ra•bef lh CCftlr•liOmb cbambc C
1
<lif1r II
1011oded an plan wbrcb bas ancient
1
r !'<••• '"·
or I«<J.. ,,
n 1 tralrn« again undcrlrnu how all studenrs
ton t b4 bluo, have been mistokloa ancient Hiod:r bn:ha, ..
• toe mlstrol Mu.llm crcacloos merely bc.cause
5
Uildlnar
ltl:IM b&\"C bt•D sraftcd lo tbcm. Omc Mbtlhn
Ia rbe anldt VISHNUDHVAJA ... REVIEW, Vol. XLI
of tbc 1962 of tbe Bhudarkar Orfenrot Rt 1'1'
hnttlilt. the author "rrtes "Profeuor K. •
Rcsetrd. Ssoskrat Uoweuity. Va.ranasi. mfor )a'•·
lblt G.t.mi rook tbe models oi the Ddbl ...
a ltd Klltub M10.1r) witb bun to Gh8Z111 for a similar , ""
h
. • ••• ••
truclloo l err. He carrred away Hrndu ma•oDJ from Mllbuoo
\
ro buold b11 mo"'ues and palacea a! Ghaznl ond the
arthor<ers built tbc rlofared maoars ar Gba.zn.l likcrhc
...
Sbri V S.. Beadre 1 aored bll!orillD observed in rhc paper
fba, be read at lht lndoall Hisrory Congren, Calcuua se11ino,
ltJS rbat "Akub Bb1irav Kalpa"- Sanskrit manustnpr
sna c!<UiJed drmensiODI and c• eo tbe qualitln aod tho
= Olllle Vlrn>ut k.illdS Of llronabolds and detailS of
001
of"'-"'· to,.ers and doors bave been defined a ad
"""""'> •oousb these appear Iota fly perf eel wltb what islefr
llie ruooed forts." (Paper rlrled "Urgent Need for
T

Lltcra!ll"' on Soleoce ood Technology or Oldeo
1
":;..' )piobllobcd lo rho Ruporel College Publicorloos,
••• •
l)o&pu, ron · 1 L
fanlte·-. llll4" '•"'Uc I p<rfeer example of ancoeot Hlodu
,. 'Ia....., y ,.. curreor texta fal'"ly clatm rh•r rhe
..,._ no..,.,.., A<LI Slab of B•J•pur erccred the fO<t r.o
6a.. alfonlhc d&tm can be uposcd by J<;veral clues.
,,
1
• L r
0 ...._ y._, -oor "" contrrucred in ooc )CA ·
::,--......... le 11411 Sbatb, Sbolapur, an aoclellt clry.
ect"'.:;: or..,lrl
1111
01111 Thirdly there ore J<:V«
11
I .,._
11
one bat been turo<d
,. ._,bar Sb••• rcmplo. wb1oh bit
13S
,..,.,.uCJ>'II: ntliOJ.Y
of
-•"' b the Muslim conquerors' ICD1IOClallic:
d•"'''"d y
<" bldiY
=n'· nc.crin& ,kill of anc-ient l ndla '' tc.&b-
'Th• eofiJ\IIIII1l
010
""f'
1
atioo specoolist Sir William Wollco•
bY I Vlorld !amout. Lhc gooiaJ of your
tbe physical facU they were Will•
llocl401 WtiiCrl nOI in &ptdtu:st language, bUt f8Cl$ wcte
.b
out in rho Pur
3
E can•l which went southwards,
iftC
010
\'Cry .
tbc.rc- "U the sa · e a river Ukc Bhagiratbt, or remained a
.betlrc! ''hal • • was originally a CJinal. They wert
c>a>l hke rbe raul parallel to each other, They were
IJl>CII out ond dul 13ccrJ jull about the dostancc apart that
,poccd aport • • cd. I remember quue "'ell when I beaan
aotll thould be p ac fcanBJls for rhc irrigation of the collolry.
a system o , · •
10 looc our d find everywhere that a $0-CIIIed dcad·nvcr
IStODISht 10 I d ..
1\\li • ju>l where a canal should be p ace ·
00 (he tMP f ba
the eyes of historians to the acr I I
• the Tarlkb·I·Firoz Shnhi
olalml rulen dug canals •ro falte. The canals they P.ornl
caoals dua before the Muslim invas•ons by
11)1ers. AI barhanao hordes sweeping across lodl8 they not
"'" t\Cn ordJOary elementary cducarion nol 10 talk or hr&bly
tt•'tlopcd skilb and rechnic•l knowbow,
About Indian eaperuse in tONO·plaoning Mr. V.R. Ayar •n
lh> b<lok TOWN·PLANNING IN ANCIENT DECCAN quotes
rbt rillllous rown planner Mr. Patrick Geddes IO say about
Cooiecvornm " Here 11 nor simply a city monumental by
lrtltte!llples and 110b and varied by rnnumerablc mioor ones ;
..bar reJoim me Is to 6nd tbc renlizalion of ln cxceptio04lly
.. tll·aro•:><d and comprehensive town·plan ; and this upon a
t<alt of spadous disnlry ; com booed with Individual arri ..
"' fnedorn 10 which 1 cannot oamc any equally •urviviog
Plrllld .... "
0. If l!Urotlons and arcbacologins will simil1rly •tudy Old
lbotbey wliJ find in II the (Ommon ancient Indian
• • • or lay•aa down a oeorral uial road and plllOO!D&
'
141
•1 relldenrlal lanes around It to form asecurity-cocooo
• • , ... , ... b •
•• Y • peripheral wall. lo the cast or Old Delhr

I )(I INDIAN HIJTO.IO..
.....
Ckadllt u 1he u oal road wi1b lbe kio&'•
lool fort) It aae ••d and I be . or his btr<di .. hloc
'lilodl all<> !be prol<ehve detly Of !he IOWOJhl <II),
,.,...., tho Fal<hr Jro Mosque}-o1 IJ'Ic Olher,
Old Delhi wu bu•• · ctnwms before lbe Moahul
0

The nouoo I hot '' was Sbahjahan wba r::'''r
Old Oellli i• billeloss. The same holds <rue or oil >no! D4td
rd towosb•p• wblcb Jtill e• isl and thousands which &"lodnt •
, . V '111M
rd and bum! down 10 India's deadly >rruggtc Whb "
1
-r
M\11 Ita
,ovadcn
Coruidenlion> hko cbos< ci1<d • bo•·e }bould be enouab 1o
rr"'e lilt dloJjC&Iny ood myUucaJ character of 1be IOocalfd
lado-Suactoic Tbeorr or Atcbrtecture. No medlaew
1
t sa,..
ClmiC atdlll<cture <JJSIJ U> IndiO IJld .even >broad, All
batldmp •• ....ctllrd Mushm countfles (rom Arshanu
110
10
Ataerao .,, or pro-Mu,llm ori(in. Muslim captors only
ed 1he Koron oo I be oaterior and plooced real or fake

llllldt. For 1011ancet when o fancied arove In Sbab·l·rlad
111011.,..., io Rosm, wu dua up ot did no1 reveal any bu11 ..
rtllll1111. Simlltrly Tamtrla•o's aravc ias.de a • fa
Samarcud if nplortd il hlely co be a hoax.
Rae an a few CUI llld drY hints 10 debunk tbe claoau o(
Cacxd Moll!m buddto ...
I. If !be Uied II uf OCbrt COlour iC is DOL •o 1111101<
lonkfio
1
.
l II tile boildlua has •tmmmical ftalures such as paiu ol
lo"tn or paiu of Uaircaau 11 Is not lslam1c. •
J. A ""'kl"" ""''"""& to be a mosque or n comb muol oev"
be
'-lido:...,._ h Q
..., ""=;! or 1 t ibla (prayer oicbc) are no1 accun·
• __ ._,.
1
° Cbo IC.aba 11 Is no1 a Mushm
s If •• , ... ll····-
• I ..._ ibrtae hiJ a -;::kttl.atOr)' ruUJC
..._ _.... ol pcrombuW.oo u Ia a caplured '"'"
6. ,..,,,
........ ::_lwtrlaa oc:taaooal feature Is oon·Uiamoc
11 Cbelr base o 4 10 6 loc•
,.
ll7
·SA&ACOIIC Tt-1-l!OILY
rue
00
bl
,...,., I pllnlh atrlp. That "ao e
ocii&O••
ofllO"', atur<· · d 1 d bosKd
J{iod" ,c
1
vo dcsiaaJ intct•be • 10 • • • em
th dtCOt4 I I
£d
1
6Cd • • . '" wallJ &IC nc.vcr Mut 1m. .
1. 01 painted on dozen steps must never be mtsundcr·
Towcr.t Muczzin·s shouting t owctf, A mucJ.xio
i. , 10od tobo• climb and uncllmb hundreds or narrow.
who ll ""
1
fivc lime• • d•y to •ound tho P'fr•r
p wreck in no lime. He will ru•so
II will be • ocrvous
"' job ond run away.
Jsucb , b'cb bu
8
butll-lo drum bouse (aliu musl•
9
/. bo•ldmJ "'
1
• •
• I It never or Muahm oogto.
ilb a dome iS seldom of Islamic Ofi&JO•
o. ,. budd IDS w tb
1
10
buflding 1hould ool have s encrally more •.•
II· An Ullm Uns•mmelrical mloarels are ao IslamiC
ooe mtnarec.
Q' M(
'ld' ' wilh more tban one dome and one ' a prayer
lj, Bu• )••Be never Muollm be<ausc lbey cannol be all aligbed
o1cbe ar .
10
the Kaba althc some umc.
ll. Domes and buildings wi1b decorative liont , and
olber animals and tolus patterns are never IslamiC.
14. Buildiog1 witb three, five or sim•lar symmelfically placed
· domes 1te cever fslamtc.
IS. A buoldios •ilb irrelevaol, frivol0\1$ lsllliDic overwull.og
iu usurped prc· lslamic edifice.
16. A building •ludded with graves Is captured property.
11. Buildings in ruins splattered with Isla moe wriclogs. or
araves ore ulso captured un-lslam•o properly.
18. P•loutllomht or dead potentates wi1hou1 corrcspondlng
man11ons , re olher people's capcured properly.
19. KorAn•c 01 other hlamlc in5Cripli.ons Interspersed wilb
••·blarnte deeoralions arc a sure sl&n of Islamic UJurpa·
l!OO or Chat odofiec,
•dlfitc Uld 10 ben mosque or mausoleum must never
1
ll.lvo surplus, unaecouo1able accommodauon
1
" and a non·mosque 1r ol idcotlcal 1ilc aod ibAape
1111
1D!)&q11f. tbould be deemed co be an •
I tWOIAN fiiSTOtlf"'A

!: .
4
bvJJiPI ••1ft oo mtnarcl or Wtlb tnore thaa ooe:
C.Sft flt""C' N • 1e:outne mosque. talaflrct
-
'l \ Muthrn mawoleum muse never hAve ony mio
\ llreta..
., • Islamic ceiling must hnvo no cboin bonalna
cooe&\'f tnr Such chains nrc 0 fc;uur; rom tht
Tcmrl<> to hiPS Wlltr-drippma p11Cbers. c or
"-! Aa:oumc
1
unm1el.1 u soeiated with hutoroe cdoficoo.,.
.,.htomoe feature. "'
!6. unac.tura .,.-;th Vcd1c:, Hmdu, Saa.slcru
0
.....
(Jucb 81 GolconJa foil or T&J Mahol 1•. TcJomabtta )
mutt ne>er be deemed to be Muslim. >•
21 StrvcluftS wnb frivolous names s:ucb n& G \
Gumbn arc oev<r Muslim.
0
.lS IU\'Iled 11rvctuns must always be Identified to be of oaa.
M 111l1m or; ,.a.
29 Gram oasldc pabtial buildinv, woth no name£ insaibc<l
mWJ be deemed to be C.U.s.
lO Buil4oop 11itb ,...,., cbannds, cascade• etc. are never
Mwllm.
Rcadean wbo meditato oo tho above suidellocs will soon be
able to d11<0\Cr that not a single building or town..bip around
the world ucrobed Islam was founded or buolt by Musl1m1
Islam ODiy ma10pproprutcd other peoples' properly
I' the Mogul School of Painting
Myllt o
I there IS aoythlnJ like l spe<W MOJUlatylc
Tb<
11
'
1
, d d What is kMwn as the Moaul
UfttOUD e_ •
ol P'
1
"""'
1
• otbang but the umc age-old R&JPUI style
..,JaoOI of paootonJ ''dll The Moaul co uti and for that
1
contlouc • · k d I b
o( p.,oun •II mcdtacval a hen rulcrt in lndta ree e w t
tb< orgies, sexual revelty, eunuchs, plottios and
,.Oomy, rders and musoares, nod destrucuve and

0
first studard "udent would find It
to '1onceotratc on bis stu diU to such an atmosphere •
tmpO>II • . such an aunospberc profound and noble artl
To aSS<rl th>t to .
•-• of draw on& and paiotin& wbteb need peace, pros-
like,..,_ . d · d t
. 1 •
10
• and unalc-mtndcd cvouoo an concentra ton.
penty, car• • · 1 d
tt«lvcd any special 6Jiip and patrooage ts no unwarran c
eooclusion.
Fino oru cao ocvcr prosper In an atmosphere surcharged
wnb bate, torlutc and massacres whieh were tbc hallmarks of
Mushm rule to India. The few artists wbo eked out a precart-
oos bvehbood by practlsiog painuoa and sculpture coottooed
., '"'"'"' art lor wbicb 'Mogul An' is a bluodcrioa m•s-
aomer.
blarn tS I be very antithesis or all an since the Koran forbids
all dtcoratloo u well as the skctcbios of any livlns being.
'Tb&t is why there arc no 6talues io Islam. Muslims do not
k4n bow the" Allah looks like or bow their own prophet
Mobamed looked like. Muslims arc disallowed from sccioa tbc
r .. or any .. OIDlD or the feminine burqa A doctor
called ID to attend • Muslim womao pat tent bad to fccllho
J'Clbc of the OUIIIretcbcd band but Will DOl allowed a &hmpse
oltbe • fact, Can aoyar1 grow or tbnve in sueb condttioos.

-

,
1
·th of the Development of )tusic in
· } Mediaeval Muslim Courts
W1u . trll< or paiotia& holds aood for lllllJIC.
1
musiciAD assocltl<d witb tbc eourt of any m..ti:aoval
oolr ':r in todla, is TaDJeo. But the credit for his auaio-
oli<D rd ...
401
bdooa ro Akbar Dl all. TaliiCn was already a

1
ccompllsbed muticlao before be had 10 be Jllf'UD·
de=:,
10
Akbar by Taosco'a cratwbilc Rajput p3Lron. As o'b-
abO«, lbc in mcdiuval Muillm ruler•'
cootu rccl<ed wirb all vicious auribures in which no profound
.,u could ftourisb. Far from 6.oc aru 6ourUhin& they bceamc
dcg&dcd to abyssmal dcptha. We ootioc io the Ramayana aod
lb< Mahabbarata aod io accounts of sub$C<Iuent K.>buriya
roltn thai daociDs. paiorioa, mtlsic, po<try and sculprurc were
coo,;idered as accomplisbmcots aod refinements bdittios e\'tD
JfCJt nmors aod scholars. But io our owo timO. we lind
parC!lts rclucraotto seod lbcir owo dauptcn to music and jWD•
nca cbsscs. This peat transformation, degtada!loo and detb·
roocmcol or the 6nc arts from their high sacred pedestal to
tbt•<"Pf'!SCDI rclc&atioo to a statut or bate and suspicion came
about boauJC or tbe prost itution of those llrts, their misuse and
wociatlon with drinkina se.ual revelries IUid amorous
IOa&tdunoa mediaeval Muslim rule in India.
H' I
u ory must, therefore, not only renounce t he oonon that
JD• al\s received aoy cocouraaemeot during meaoaeval
..:; ';'rule but reverse tt aod usert instead that t b< tine ilrl o
oboe to • lowly status of hate a nd ign0111i0y durinB
It abo t... ·
lid othtt . mcotoooed here tblllbe lllVCDtoutl of Jtnllged
• pat tostrumeats hke tbe So tar credJted to Musltm
IOG&Je IJ all part or !bat prusure • h . h
1 U IIUTOatc
•ta.,.
••a.
G'IU a eDDCUm tt,ed 10 lfON 0\-c:r aU a tre-e
c(.....,..., )10 ••til DOSt.I)Jk l ffi>UGIS of , .. ....
a ne for IDJ:Ia.tt« de: llOir, tu,..,
rr= 1>0 \ HI co·m • Sapu·••• · aiiDlfl'"'r '" .....
.a M1'C At such u iJ • very a.oc.
1
w t:u. •

1 ....,: II Cl ODd> rtmOIC &Oiiqult) tlat ,. ..
111
r..rc:t"• pmocl. We bur ol 11 onl) ••• ... bet
1111 (•em lhr o:moteot ume&. To •> tba;'
1
tuu,.
., na......, &Q' tpc<isl eocoungemeol ia lb ,
1
dau •ucb ••
mr:3 ofmc4:ana1 'tasbm courts 11 maliooat 'tD.,uoc,.
Tl>c c ti!C Ill• " I uadotiQD of lndill tmcraeo 1
• nm "'" ot )tars pzior to blam. 11 Ilia
.., Itt cui• oMit 10 Sanskril. The teachiaa lr>dUlon It
a ... I ·-· lu IUD ...... WOV<D oround lord
cr Sbh'a ozlh< Tyl"cally ladoaa such tbc sprin
10

ttc a:c,_. Alltbl! las aocoantellon wub lsl•m.
aw::t MutlUIU praetitt 21111 pursue music tbt) do so ID IPIIc or
bca1J !ol..r.an. n.u h lbey ITO all or BllldU descent .,bo 'l<otc
ot ro 11m1 \lwllm. Cbau.,nom bl\c ftoat«J
bo•- C!)111t lltr JOmt luoea or a•n11na or mw·
eal 10 Allur Kbusro or Abdur Rabtm Khan Kbana.


Myth About the Mogul Garden Art
\loaul Gard<11S Jpphed 10 lh< rorden or O<lbt's
Tb< '"':' Bbavan Is a We b•ve already
monumeo•s in l nd••· be they tombs or rnoa-
tlllt rlier RaJput paloces and temples. As sucb the a•o-
qu": "ftr•:auern<d prdens around them represent the Rajput
rn<tdn .. lt"le .tnd not the Mogul. Histories tell us thai Arabia
Jill eo ' II · d d · ·
d sod wbicb or< now de.erll were ,. . \'tgt latc out irrt·
80
1
d 'Iandt durioa rho curly Christian era when those Lands
still under todoon Kshauiya rule. Soon lhetca!ter bow-
.-.cr, whca tbe era of ali<n and destrw:tton st arted
tci<ntilic methods of aancullure l nd wat e. works fclll.oto nc&·
I«L SubJ<Ct to plunder ond durruction and iruccuJity of hfe
and limb all eovollnd life and pursuots ground to a hall. People
bad to Bee ro rbe forem lor protection. Histones t ell us that
before tbe Sl#rl of Mu"im invasions or lndi! tbtre US<d 10 be.
broad weii·DWDtaincd 400·milc hi&hway, a lmost liD arc:ade with
talllbady uu.s plonred oo either side of it, from Labore to Aara
T_b• iovadcrs ruthlessly cut down those bugc trees for camp and
kttcb<o 6r<J and never cared 10 maintain the great bigbway. As
• areal blgbway wrvives only in name. This is only
• typitAionsrancc or how Indian civilization and prosperity JOI
wrecked nod ruined durina rho millennium of Muslim rule in
b<lltlolna with Mohammad Kasim. Indians were driven
• their majettic maniiooJ 10 leek shelter in wild forests and
They wcro ruthlessly ferreted ou1 or oeir
)
' • ' e rodents and replil••· h is th.u long period or i 100
us of dntructooa and .
rQiiy rtsponllblc t DOD·producrove hobemalton whicb IS
•hJCb rd or rbe present aoaemoc c<:ooomy or India
uses to Ptck up eco . b
nomoc ealth despole •
I
.... ll'tUIAH IHSTOkJCAI,. ••
.. ..
eii'Oift """""'• 1100 )<111 of bl«doo, miscbier ••d Qplo;
111
oi.U ....,.,... Qnnot be made 8ood a row Fi••·Y:":
......
Aomot a«aunts tell us lhalth<r< Ul<>d to be lusb i>rd
4 pr01JICTOUS. otdlards in Siud. Afgb.:oistao, Persia •
be(t'te tbole reaion• were reduced to arid wasres :)'
«aturlea or Muslim turbulence. Those lands boa Sled of Verdant
6elds and buulo(ulgardens In lhe pre. Muslim <ra wben lodlnn
J..ohatrlyll nJied in I hOle tcSJOnl OS hu been <Xplaincd t i,._
"bt'.ft- en thh bbok.
hl\uioa! att undtruke.o to ravase and not to pJaor a:ardeal
Sapoleoa md Hitltr "bo tnvaded. did lay •a;
prd«LJ tbr:rc. Willaaybody plao ao IDVISIOO of Bnta
10
jou
10
tu<b tbt Bnusb how the ti)dc Pork on London could be tnadc
mnrr btluhful • Therefore rhe eoocept tbar inva.dtr aOer
Mv>ilm oo•adct laid prdens golorc In lndoa IS n dcspicablt,
motlmed hlamfc fal.,hood perpetuattd by gullible Brilisb
tocl><olan-
Prrbapsla lbe 1970's Sennlor Moynihan was American
in N•w Deihl. HI• wife <>nee drove 10 Dbolpur
1uoc1<d by •• crtrwbllt 6tf holder of I hal naJivo state, Sine<
lll\&dtt Blbu r•'-rt 10 aome aordeo around Dbolpur as "My
prcl<n'· Mn. Moyn•ban "'ho was perhaps browsioa throu1b
ltbvr'a Mcmo<Ta (IJ pan of btr tlfOrl IO know IOtntlhina of
lodoa'o !IJttOf)) lit: previous nl&bl, faocotd I hal the &arden thai
siJc ,.., trampjatabout, thrtc milts from Dholpur city, was the
-planted B>hu• She aledully •nnounced that at a plta·
aaat dhcov<rv. Equally lsoorant newamnq fluhed 1be
0
ewr.
lloth of tbem weoelgnoranl or lhe r ••• I hal when B•bJH referred
toll u "my 11rden" wbac he meaoc wu the &arden cdstioa in
tllo l<rtllot) cortvJ<d by hom, u Napoleon would refer to
••*- -...n b)' bom durona hot MOJCow or at
Hiller ""'""'niar would reftr IO &ardeot lberc as
..........
....,., JDaDOtru mcnttoo emplo)'tog labour ro miJOfiiD
.. '"'*"' ta htci>pw S.kn ole. Tba1 ooly meant tidyioa up
... doD;..
14S
UL OAJ..DI!.rl A,R.T
..,urrtt< "
00
,. (1Sl6-IS30 AD).
'"'" ,. Jodi• ooiY (or rout wars aptnst toca_l
81'"" Jo•...S •• be had to wage. coos! lanoloa aod plaotiDJ
lavader I' ne'lcr thllllr. o P
·-•1 •• b be co• u
- • r
tul<l1• . 0 is I typiC&! tOSI&DU 0
••"'"''· niban' f b•••Y from a lbitd-pcn o.o
W"' M•:.,. dtbbliDII In

boslory with wrona
bOif h••• s•ddletl n
p<>IOI of voew
)iODS.

''> thiral Golden Periods Under
Alien Rule
Our b11tottel nostalsrc3lll describe sorno such ,
1
iloc n:iJII c! ShabJ&han, during the year !" etch or allen
mil: litf1n•••J 11nb Mobammad Kastm, os golden aae\'
"Jbh u I""'' pr:<VCI$100 or lrutb. A period duronll whreb sona
<A lllt murdtn:d, musacred and ruthlessly perucuted,
111ar propr:() cooDaterl \\Jtbout rime or reason. jUSiree was
rdcptcd ta w •iums 11f n:hgaous fanaucs, revolts. fanuott
o.1 ..:fatt u:e mdrmiC, uo "ub no JUSU6cauon br rerard·
c.ll:miAI a =null! sood penod. How can an era ro wbteh
.tJ lbr of I couatry, form n \ '3$1 majorrt)' of th
klrJaa of 111 ai&Ca mooarc:b, att regarded 31 second
d.w at zcts ud to a tbrrd rote existence throuab
b< rcaarded even :u a tolernblc age ? The
wlrolltpcnod 1100 )un man br regarded u a harrowrn1
... A nfwl LO ltcOSnrl< th11 truth amounts to equaung cruel
...., Wlllll:lod aa.1 coll&htened natrve rulers, persccuuon ""b
....._, IIW-.:res •lib 611al proteotton, famine wllh obun·
...... '"'"n' 'lritb rrcbu, xan:lcy with prospeuty, rape ond
.... .W. 'I>ODoar aod ardet, c:oofiscauons with srcurrty of
:..:.::•:. 1114 ••llliolll f&Dallclsm with fre<dom of wonhrp.
.. Ia -:..":,1111. lhcntorc, aot only be aurtably amended
....._ '"' •ta <oodratoos will have to be tborou·
- •
21
.. '-IJ ltttncd.
{' Correct Appraisal
. 'pies tor a
J{c) PrulCI . Mediaeval Hist or y
of (ndtan
bould coovioc:e reader tbt
bcretofore are ieces of flaucry aod no
o·;:d••···' \luslim b:cu efulh sorted for coo•
tustorlc.al records. no enormous amount of fnl>ebood.
s<
111
,., eviden« from
5
, H M Elliot W11J of tbc same
,, h'storran '' . . t.. tb
7nattb< ' r bls very succinct remnr In e
l
nioo m•Y be ,.,uged rom . l atudy or metliaeV"Jl Muslim
I t•hl·Volume cuuc.o . ' .
rttf.t« 10 h •• p • f Muslim c r 3 10 India, IS 1)1)
tbat ab• bastory o "
ebrD nd lorerested fraud.
11!1Pudeot • b qucot students and of
Uofortunat ly IU atteDIIOD 10 lhe import or Si r H.\1.
have oot pltd eoou& .
!!Uot's profound observataoo
It . irooic•l that Srr H M Elliot perbap. \\U un-
f tbc far·rcachio& rmr • o( brs 6od1og He and others
who •ere coovin r the fraud" dtd not
t-.11) fathom its deptb ' Colly they were u kcn n by
:cl•lm.s or slippery asseruons tbal mtdiae•·al monum ott
built by .then Mushm rulen, taints, nobleO'IeD ann the
like. Sir AM Elliot was unwittingly cheated tnto
bcllevlna lh•t tbc Innumerable mcdraeval tombs and
' ' !< &eoulne original conmuctroos while they are in
urlicr Rajput palaces, mansions nnd :emples wbicb 11 crc
•ppropriated for own use by conquering Muslims.
This OCCtnitates tbe formulation Of principles for 1 C
larcrpretatroo of mcdtaeval writings. Tbcse key
p..,ue &auoJer ·
I. ClatQU in Died 1 M
llltaa raeva uahm chronicles tbat a ccna
1
n
...,_ or for that matter any ooblem.an or C:Om·
tOyed temple> and buth mosquea·• only mean tbac
,,.ooos
""""" ..........
bd Ob•"' tomb oar Gwaloor were oot built after
ood Ill<

H'.
110
,;
1
os maY elooc:ly uamioe thuc buoldlop.
cbclr • lbiC 11\ the ftk< or Mualim cooqueSIJ lbcar
'111'>' In bauorod ruin> •• fakirs alwayo do. Wben tbcy
,.ioul,,. wo burled In their "Iivia& quarters." That Is wby all
4"d • • mentioned above all look like ornate 10m pies aod
• • h • r . . I • b


In ru.lnJ even 11 t e tame o ora&IRI occ:upalto.n y
htVIDJ """"-
be Musllm aaiou. p1ueot oo c:obcteat p1u.
1
4
_ Tbat bue;.t \U 10 1n01bcr key principle for I be eorrcc:c
..,denUod•oa or modlttYal Muslim cbrooiclet, namely tbat tbe
tocnb< ol rulen W<e Humayuo, Altbtr, Sber Sbab (&I
10
JIJ"Ur), tbe Lodo Tombs (on D<lbi), tombs of prin«s like
(ot Allahabad, Kbwru Daab). aod tombo of noblmeo
likc-S.1(dar)aoa and Abdurrahim Kb•o K.baoao in Delht were
tbc p.>ll.., and maooiooo in which they loved while alive. lotO<C
"'""tcly we moy oay thll tbosc ondivfdualo died In the very
bulldiol' in wbi<b they lie buried or arc auppoted to have been
bumd. Tbose palaces and mansloot were captured from tllrlicr
ltaJPil1 rvlcra .. Th1l Ia wby 1be.y arc :so spacious, mas.s1ve. and
orutc In the Hindu Jtyle. It is historically and ocademiCIIIy
obsord to .. , .. d thoto buildiop as prodocu or lndo-Sar-nic
ln:bittC"ture. h must be realized tbat I hey •·ere capturtd ud
R•Jput maosioo> and temples. Tbul So hod no
•..u a a.plurecl R•Jput palate io which Akbar d•td and nt
buried. The oame bold• sood of tno,.. ao Homayull'l
ToODb aod or tbe other mtdiaenl tombs lhtOUJhout JodJa ood
lb<Oid, broadly speakln&o
$. Claim in Mediat.v41 cb.rooictcs about tovadlna allfttl
Mu.s}lm rulers havina rounded ch1c4 arc tiiiWtlrt.lnltd Jn
medtacwl Muslim parlance .. rounditJI
1
' cillu meant o•crtly
rtehdstc.oloa catller ciltH. Tbis .should be- clearly uodmtood.
Tbuo wu oot founded by "hmad•bah but just
cooqucrecl by b1m aod lo h:h on ftlrt'l« a:upp1ao1ioJ
tbee&rller .,.,. • Ril)oapr olial Karnavali Tooikb·I·FUOl·
ab.abJ naively &tala tba.t wbilc.- FCfOI.Sh.ill wat poated to acnb
*' Oetb.i 10 the con1u1 (Of tbe thrvoe aflct lbc CJUiiU ndct bad
diCfl, • 100 wJl bot a 10 bim. a6Cl iD oommciiDOnhoe bt (oucJ.
td • lown.sblp Ju•t wbcrc be .,... C'a.mpana.. Slacc 1M _..,
n•me we.s falth Moh,.mmad tbc towaslllp •u oa.e«d r:-.ltba·
ISO
• II<OIAII BlSTOalCAL ilUU.IIat
bad. pucnle damiJ bave mlaled hillorlons. Whnt ..,.,
1
. I • G
foci done was thftt an ex•ll ntt anc1cnc township wna n•m•d
.nu tbc o••··born. If thiJ not clearly uoduatood and ralle
cl.ttna made cbroniclcn are co be acccpctd AI liccnUy lfllt
tbco Allahabad .. bavc to • rcganled u h•vlnc bc<u
f<'U11dcd b) Allah Himsdf(or rather Hcnclf b«ouse "Allah"
S;o.utktll ltrm for a Goddess)
6. Whal we bavc said above should help us to formulate
ADt'lhcr rriociplc io understanding mtdiOtval Muslim
chrooidu. Tbc pflnciplc 1S lhoc not a sinnlc <Alent mtdiaeval
t-ridt•· canal, tomb. p31ate, fort, mosque. manoion or townsbip
co •b'cb the t ourist goes oul of historical turlooity It buolt by
ahrn Muslim Invaders. All m<dlftt\11 monurrcnts utnnt in
JocUa art only on •nfioitcsirool part of . Its enormous arobitt<•
tural " 'ttllh wbicb got destroyed in a millennium of icoooclutio
and all-destructive tovasloo• and vandalism. Tbe moou·
m<11u a.od canals cta1med to ba•c been buill by allen rulers or
oobilit)' arc urher l ndtao creations.
A very gnpbic illusuation or the of elaims I•
found ID cbronicleo rclatiog to Sbcr . s .r••a•· He was a
mere landlord who led .a •·ery brclle l,•f• rctgnma as •.
forleos than balf a dCIUil yura. Wtld c:laillll bu bavlO&
buUt mao} for1mse5 and numerous • .'::;.
been duboncstly made by sycophant wncero. They ba
hllcl)' DO CTIID Of ltlllh. Alltbe fgrl$,.and bi&bw&yl OltDIIODcd
ex,.ted ror e<oturles before Sher Shali h nrom our
I
a011 1 s on wbicb we rue
7. Ao IDOidcnta • u I • or an alien MualliD
lovestigatloos Ia that wherever be must be decmed
ruler or oobleroao attaches to a bat earlier Ra)put moou•
to be tbe datroyer a'ld captor o t Tbus wben a r-•• i!ll<ril'"
ment than Ill ori&i.nator bullderi auttlt tbot 1\kbar bum I
uoo at a de•alllted llt< m Kaahm r. J bel um at Verin•J II
uouod tbo aourec of :•;:: from bultdlns It, Akb.l•
tbOilld be undontood to one.an t a H' odu temple of Vounoa II
cleiliO)Cd !be LOCtCnt maamflccnt \,why we t<< onlY
tbc .....,.,J wurcc of tb.e rov<r. Tbll •
and Hoodu oroaJCI II the sue. "aofdCO
I refet to some
8. McJIICVII wo111clet luJII y
OOIJ>Eif I'UIOD'
Ul "
mediaeval history. These claims ore potently f1bc.
l'<"ods "! enods could there be when 99 per cent of l ndllnl
Wbat sol
1
00
:.ted by tho ruling o.lien JUnto 1 Taking a concrete
were .,.y point out tbat Sbabjabnn'a reogn is claimed to

olden period" or (!!dian history but I bave sbowo 10
TAl MAHAL WAS A RAJP UT PALACE tbat Sbab·
mby ' ,.,
80
was full of !be most bornd c:ruellles for ll vue
Ja•n• · I b
·orily of his subjects. Whea such ton ate crue ty was etog

1
galnsl most of tbe population could it be called a
:;ldon period ? The entire 3.lieo rule in India for over a mille·
ooium until the British tool< over was a harrowing oigbtmarisb
per1od io which rap<. rapine, levy of cruel and despotic cues.
mtoslauahter and rouocUo& up of Indians to be sold as slaves
abroad were common occurrences.
9. Many current concepts of mediaeval hostory need to be
completely rev!;r5Cd. For Instance, it bas been. repeatedly
elaomed !bat Indian mediaeval monuments were built at
tbo orders of alien rulers by alien arcbtteets and craftsmen.
Hero h must be remembered tbot the existence of thousands of
psluoal mansfoos was itself one of the strongest pulls wbich
allrt<l<d the predatory pnentloos of alien Muslim invaders.
Secondly, just as the Western style- of architecture is currently
In vogue all over tho wc;rld similarly during mediaeval times h
wl.lthc Indian style of architecture wboch was followed tbrou·
&bout the world. Tbis explains lbe simtlarny of Msc AJiao
IOd lndoan mediaeval
• monuments. Hence tbe cootmry principle
• arrive II is that lnst<ad of alien Muslim design era and arci.
liDS boviog built med' n II d'
d I eva o tao mooum<nts, It was Indian
mooum an workmen Who fashioned mediaeval W<al Asiao
cots. Mohammad Ob-. • d
actually d znt ao Taimurlaog have
lf&odeur tod"i;" co Ibis. Tbey have aaid that stunoed by tbe
IO'Ocrt l ad river of ID<han tcmplet, P-'accs, IDIOIIODI
leads, they •••d at4 wblcb had no parallds io their bome:
Potratlha 111Us c>-aearcaate skilled Indian worlcera boro,.., ""t
POl massacres nod d • h ,.... •
b., DIJ lotOIS lb< Jodi • fiVC I Ole GrtUIS II ... 'Ord·
tid IOII!bs IIDd nn border to West Allan couotr lu lo
::::U Tbit Wu lod;.n tcmplao aod
oq lie limtlar to lnd' a at "
1
Atl4cl tombs aod
' • o palaces and temples c:on.-qcod

10 Mu•hm .... rrr.:tul• beCIUJC !bat \loU lbe very baste I
tion Tbcrr(OTc the pnnetplc wo utablisb here i1 that for
alo<o Mu1h111 arcb•ttcll and "'orkmm bnioa buill medaa'""'
lodaallm<'OIIIIIrnr•, 11 •as lodiaJa who desianed. faahloacd:
bllalt Well Aoaao mtdtacval monumco.._
10 Mott of the ley princtpl<J formulat<d in this cbaptu
would bt found rel.-·anttn I prop<r understandiaa of M ullun
h"'"'> cvtn lo other couotrics For iastanct, the principle tbat
maui;'< vaod tombs wore I be of the vcry P<rsoos
-.bo II< buriod in thcna, may well apply to Tnmcrtain's tomb In
Samarllond '" tbc Sovi<l Union. 1>. drawing ot the rhina
1
un
and a rampant tiger decorotiog its walls reanforcts our finding•.
What Ia more, tb< drawtng il known by its Sanskrit nome
··soor·Sadul' (Sooryo·Sbardul) meaning the "suo ond lbc
llll<r' Th< cxbteoeo of ao "to6del" drawios and its Sansorit
oam< prove that Tamerlatn was buned in ao earlier captured
Htndu palace in wbtch he used to l ive.
II. Faile claim• tn r.>rdiaeval Muslim chronici<J somehm ..
alford us a Jlimpsc of earllu Rajput rulers' archi,•u wbtch
wcr< c:aptur<d tnd burot lbe cooqu<riog alaeos. Tbus for
11111111« Su H..M Elltot )\as poanted out in biS crittC31 study of
the Jahallauuma tbll JahaogiY'• fats< claim to bav< anstallcd
chain of JUillce to b" palace at Agra was plo8larlt.Cd
from aocounts or Anaogpal's r<Jgo. Such oo•talslc c\aams,
rb<tcforo. far from applyine to India's •lien rulers, afford u• a
&hrnpsc of account> or earlier rulers' r<tgot, destroyed
by tbetr alleo succeasors.
I! C'lalml In m<dlacval Mwlim obrooicles sometimes lend
to adverte lnrcrencea. A broad, sh•dcd blahway
OOlliiOCttd Labore aod Agra, u d pcrb•, ; cxtcodecl rlaht upto
Altocl< oo I be Indus lbt abadod trunk road cxlt ted from Ul!lt\
&aux .. moroal But duran& suce<Uive Mllloow • the hlab·
ony • &A almull cl .. lro)ed from lack or maintenance aod co::·
tut buY) maraudloa ttaJI!c. Huac ttces lbat lined th< hiabway
........ aid< I"' bac' cd by the lnvadcu for cooluaa rood a lid
.,..,..,, • otcr • boo tbc)o camped by t.bc roadside. l o aplte of
• uch a cleot<ut CIDDd- oo l obe claima have b«o amplutcd iO
r

,.,,-nucAt. •aa.•oos
1
Sl
mediaeval tbroniclcs or lovadina I lien rulers bavro, filii bu.tlt
ahat and orhu arand 11unk roads
JJ. The claim• m1dc on bcholf of ruler after Muthl1l ruler
bcllldona • • mall P<»ll and oth<r amonallesat sborr mt<nat.
alooa roadJtd<t are unfounded. They \Oerc Jifled from a
1
.
r
o. • · d e r oa
0 rcoJPUI Cwo.rrty an deftly implanted io MuJhll)
chrontclca.
14. Scrawhna huge buildina fronts wlth Koranic l«tt b
predominantly tlliterare realmes lithe ll!ediaoval alien rill
rrgim .. ao ract wcre ...... s ha<lf suspicious. II is a common ;:;.
chological A•iom that only literate regimes would care
10
k
m"'ribcd records. When highly Illiterate regimes scrawl M•;;.
acrobss huso s
1
urr:ccs It is a case of " tbe lady pr,_
telltng muo roo muc . n oact tho; < who stake false claims
are over uo.lout t o prove ownorsblp or oritio of the bu ld
b I
. b • , • • I 10@
y ..:raw t own antcrrptooos on captured butldlogo.
Even otherwue pJcntckert acrawl their names on the 1
b
. Tb' Paces
t ey vosat. tS " a common human faalioa
Renee antcrrplions on medtaevaJ Indian bu
1
1dlnp
"'ll lpP<anna to be tombs and mosque•, 111ust never he m
1
..
raken ro ol&oify lb< orlaioal builder bur only a captor. occupirr
&Dd
I' Vincent Smith has tutir.ed tbat Akbar, and conS<queDtly all
11
"" Mu•Um monarchs used to have an army of sculptora and
IOS<Jibcrl IU their CO d
mman to acrawl the aoscrlpttoos they
waoted on captured buildings
mod/' Another Princtplc tp remember In Indian
• history is that Muslim chroniclu arc mo.st UoltUII•
rcec d h c:..use tbcy were wrillco oot wltb t he lntcrlliOD ro
.... ,; • ronology or events but Just te> ftaller ro}al or other
COn•· PAtrons. lienee lo lbctr op<rar!Ye portions the chronidn
• almott unad 1
<•ltd h u l<rot<d fa!J<bood• A few quoretfoas
creuode, Ill
<IJ!m
1
about M . IU Ce 10 CODVtnCO the rtld<r bow flit<'
O>cat>
10 1
d uthm r.ulcrs or noblemen havana buill moau•
D ll fla•e mttled &enct&hOOJ Of bittoriaru..
vf AKBAR THE GRI!AT MOGUL wntt•
1
be ob•e,..... " Tho •a-coiled Jaltaopi MaiMI
1!4 C<DI<)I IDnOIUCIL

111 e.. "'" Fen. • ..a Fur-= ,ally obotna, •Oillcl blt4l,
t.. - o! P'-a at Cllimr or o...-... •
s.i4 dlee .... CID 1.0 po&DI Olll tlw IlK 10oCaJ1,U
S.i"o MaMI "' Sil:n ban a •
10
tile J.-,..,. .. U&l.
<:J:to f""Jia D)'l iDfompriQo • II my dupo&af CO.
.,.,. r •lie IDIIIqllC encted by Akllat (1) u \llnl!A
(Men&) (D RIJPGt.DI. &l)d II moy DOl be purdy \{aiJUD ID
c.:p • Had Sill< Ill oaly beea <areful :0 take cote o( tl;e
COCSIDOC mcd•artal Mcahm or OUnJ COilqutred ltlllpla
• aoooqaa be would lave arnved at rbc correct COIIChuioo
lb&l lbt 10<1lled ·banda<>me m<>iqCJ: ,...., D<'cr built by Akhor
blot 10 faa 11 il to emwllllc umplc wbicb came to be wed u a
-.r .a ...,.,. Akbar .• 11m<.
Apia S-.1> u )r ''Tba JiW2D or ocnic:c portio11 or tho lla.&
r> u Fattbpar Sitri, >Jth<m'Jb 11 profeuq to be copkd
troD a model or J.ltcco. )e\ nb:ihits Hmdo construc:hoa tO tho
pna.., &lid roo!J>J.
•At 1na ,w.c:.r m.._,, •• tm!lb) suCIS r.o t1e purdy
'P &r.d CD>I:.d•n , DCftJ'Ihd:ss, !be IJVI'l"!plall baed OG tl:e
pUCijlilli o( (cr;u chambm n>:::llod OIIC lfCU caoual r-. io
pwdybdl&ll
--n.e tomb of Mobd. GJ;.aos 1.1 Gaalior ••• nobody ClDVId
...Wah U for AOftbUIJ but AD Iodil!l tDODUmtDL The bol=
Is a "!"*"' meuutlD& 100 fL QD cub side, ••tb • bt:u b
tower attac'bed b) u aa&lc to eadl corocr. The IID&lc tom
dlu:btr, 43 f'- oqo.arc " mrrOUDded by a deep oc11odab :::
\:Cled b) cJLtraordtlllnly large ea..-a some of lbe "!
&lid bucket cap1rals miJiu be loa& to a Boodu ttellf.;.
(!'qt 316 ofSailib't boo .. ) Wlat Smith ud otbm m•::.,.bol'
-=a a a.1e b - rnlai,.& tile face tb&J 1M -ued
011
woW. c:;u,.. _
601
., :aJtl.JJ1I .. n., his death bolr wu
-llcr U.p.r< le luLl.
AbcM::t !!<: SL ., Clulli aomb at Fa!cbp<lf s.:
s,.;,t. kwm .a 111a bnAit or IlK ltl%tlt bur r .. ls to ar-: .
G>OCt••W.. ec oo-ca.tltd """" :a a lciDpie bcnlt bJ : .::.
.,....,. o( fudtpar s,Ut. Oo pap 32

·-•L -.oDI PWODS ISS
.,.,"_
k s ... lh s&) l UJt II ourpriUJI& to tmd lllllDiJtakal>k H.-
bOO
10
11u arc:llircttrm of IlK r.omb ol a - .,.....,..
sail> I. boll tbc wbok 11t1><to.1:c s.da
ld od 1101>ody cao muW:e IlK Hindo onp or lllc eol-
illJ. b b .•
..,J """'or t • pore •
Tile r.a ... that !be boi< comt}atd at Farcbpcr S"okn
tmd wou&b the Bulalld Darnza on OliC side aDd th< ro,aJ
:.. ao the orbcr wu 111< royal RaJJIUI ldtchen-GillZH!uuac baiL
Tbe -'Jed Cl11st1 lOmb .,., lbc temple Of the falllily dal) 10
•bom lht Ro!put& taid G11cc before be&ianiag the COIDmUIUiy
Jo loos ro•s and rbe ••raodab whieb sW><b coo•UWS
ioto • •as the royal klrcbco.
' Abo•• IIC. r ... Prillcipln CD!Ied to help a COrrect ooder·
s&al)dio& or lnd•lll mediaeval hisrory.
A dcme fOJ Of 111&0}' &.DOtrta)ics aod tbmrdiiJCS hu 1>ca.
<llftlopll>& lodi.ao mcdi&.C'<al bmory. For i.Dstaacc fimly a
COI:Id oor be apla.ined wby ahea )lfusliJn iDvadcrs tblll>Cierlac
aalh=a a pian the HlOdos. on•nrmously feU for !be
to barld tbeu fllleied tom!M ud IDOSQ•t'l : aod
"""""''Y •b) tbcy b&•c lctl w obsoluttly oo record or IKuld••&
Ill) IDOII!lmcou..
Tbc beaornu or tbe lbove prtACipks lhoald belp the ,...,,.
dcml nudcut or btsr.ory Ibid • ,..,. out or the ros o:
eaoy
000
11lllltt aad a.baurdiucs by makiog i1 dar to hJID or
1>cr the bulldlo&J look Rtodu btc:awc they uc 10 C..ct Pto-
MIUitm H•lldu CODitrucuoru, and Meslim uchi'.et <OIItllu) oo
1
ecord o( I heir COOJ !tll<tiOO becasue tboK SO<'aUed IOtllbJ aod
.,.,. D<>cr buill by lbecn but were Ot!ly adopted (or
Ilk.

.61,.., No. 9
Alexander's Defeat Claimed to be Great
Victory Over Porus
the easy forays tbat lndla't inimical neighbou
11
mab "'ith imp111111y in mocleto times ancient India's def<DC<S
bciDa much 11rooaer, aureuors were 1<nt back staagering and
reelloa.
Ooe sucb adventurer wbo aot the shock or his life aod died
1001> tbercaflcr on unkeriaa with India's borders ....
Alcaaoder, the Great.
But to spite of Alexaod<r't discomfiture our bistorlcrStill
b11 mlsadvcntu:rc as a peat victory over lnd1a's iovJJ>o
ciblc scioo, Porus. Tltis great tra•csty of the truth bas lll'lbcd-
clcd ltKlf 10 Indian hbtory all tbc accounts that have
CClme do10'o to ut of tbaL great encounter arc all the parliun
GrrU: Aod it is •ell known that aurcuors sulferiag huml·
JlatJoa dcfcalS shroud their revcnel i a the phraseology or
Tltis il what bu bappcood Ia tbe cue of Alcaaodet't
lodla.o advcaLUrc.
Ala:aDckr the Grcat-u be is known-was born in 356
B.C. He wu the son of Pbihp n. Kin& of Macedonia,
tbe of Epirus. Philip was known for bu
utcsmanthip lllld wisdom but Alexander's mother is •aid to
haw boca ua.culwrod, Ullcdueated, uncouth, a t orccre.u and •

AlllbllJOUI pl&o• for Wlllll& aggreulve wars and cxpandina
thc borclcn- of tbo kingdom ftlled tho court atmosphere ID
Mwwloll11 dunoa Aleuncler'a childhood. Macedonia look<fl
fwWUII 1o be thc lcada or the Greek 11atu and win reno"n ID
... II,. .....

IS7
tJVC'"or:tt's oi1'!A T
' ramo us Greek philoJopher Wll appointed tutor
Mlstotlc tbowben tbo tatter attained the ase of 14 But
to Alexander for wild adveolur" r.roued to bo tamed by
Ale,_ndeb
01
pbitosopbical advice. Rather 1ba.n tit
..,ademlc

aide of his tulnr, Ale.Jander preferred . to bear
meekly by
1
from tuvellers, adventurcrt, sold1ers and
lir$1 band :' ked to ta.tle life 10 tbe raw. Once during his
an>t>s';"dors.

the capilal, Alexander bad led t he realm's
f tber s ab><not h'll ' b
• ell a rebellion by the 1 Ill es.
troops tO qu '
this time domestic trouble between Aleundcr t
At obOut omios to a bead. Tbey decided to Pbihp
porents wabs c ''c named Cleopatra. Olympia, the queen, lert
took aoot er WI I' . k"
1
Alexander whose turbulent nature wu more a m
lbc pa acet.•·r·s· left w'ith her 100. Cleopatra bore a son to
10 h1S n10 u... ' s ·
Ptlillp creatina a rival clAimant to the throne. omebmc later
Philip was murdered and history bas suspected Alcaander of
potrlcidc.
Alcundct's complicity in his father's murder docs not seem
improbable 1n view of his makina common cause W1tb b1s
molber.
Havioa been koown to fbe troops aa the royal prince •nd
bcir apparent for a number of years, Alexander was bclpcd by
t.bcm 10 arab the throne after his father's dcatb. On comins to
throne, Alexander bad bif cousin :md step brother murdered
so lbot be may have no rival to throne.
Aleunder now laucbed on a carrier consolidation and Cl·
p&psion. Re first subdued the rebellioUJ hill tribes. He then
1&\led OUI tO the WCSI ltnd a nnexed tho tc8(0U IIOng the
Danubo river. Ia tho meantime I he people of Thebes rose 1n
revolt Alexander struck a t t hem with great agility and rued
tbclr copitalto tbe around. This cstablisb<d hla n:putation as
• warrior of promise. Tbe Alheniana and all other Greek com·
muollles now m'de submbsion 10 Alc<ander a ad agreed to
help h1m <onqucr lrao aod otber countries.
Tbut ... Utcd or lupporl Alexander ICl aboUIIn )34 B.C to
tbe world. With ftU ormy of 40,000 MacedonliLD•,
1
Yr ans, Tbraclaos and otber Greek commuOitl<> Ateuod•r
"'1114 lo the call,
INDIAN IIUTOIUCAL
'bl"'ctt
Alcuoder first vistled Troy and worshipped h
buoo l1f tho Trojan war, as an act o! faith and'

or tht
tn& d1Y1nc bfn .. nss (or hll tnlcnded .,.,..,cr of- nhoo ...
wnquut.
HtA"DI of Aluander'a advent tho king of fran
for"" uld to be numerically superior, to nip • •
1
"&<
IJnna In the bud, ••,en before be
10
ovcrru . •mbJ.
Tb
Dnloa Alll
llilnor e two arm1u met on lbe banks of Crao
1
cus • ,
' •• B h . " " " ..
eoa'J<meot wu .ou..,t. y sunset t c lran.ao army's t<sl,.
lance brok< and it ft<d.
AlcJ:aodcr was now m full oontrol of an routes lcadlae
of Asia Minor. Ho declared the local Greek sottlemcDts


indcpcndtnl, appo.inted over the other cooquerod
resloos and proc:latmed b1msctr emperor. The newly anncatd
reaion loll euily to Alexnnder because Its large Greet populo·
lion and soldiery proved helpful.
A yur l>ter Aluonder annexed I be ltinJdom of Gord1um
1D Nonh PbryaJa. l.c&•od ba5 it that there he cut whb b
11
IWOid the famod Gordian Knot tied on the chariot of Gordlus.
the aneicnt Pbry,W, Kio&.
Simultaneously with his land expeditions Aleaander'a oayy
bad moved Into the Hellespont, That armada bad helped him
keep lD toucb •itb bll native country. But now aloee be Intend·
ed to pro;>eed 10 dln5nl lands Aleunder ordered his oavy tn
retum to ttl bue,
Soon aner Alexander. navy witbdrew from lbc Heii<JJ)<'DI
tho ltaolan UV1 r<cclved ordcra (rom their king to prepare for
an attack on Greoc:e. To call orr the thrcal to bit boroolaod
Ale&aodor tbouabt or overrunning l.be Syrian COati. ·ro provide •
laod oovcr 10 hla navy Ki na Darius or lrao personally ieadloa
1 lara• ro,.., entered Syria. The 1wo armies met at lsul 10 3)3
B.C Greek hmonan• record that the franian army fted In
dll&ffay leaYIDI tbe1r women·folk behind but Aluaoder sbow·
e4 .,. .. , duvalry and rostra1nr. Dariua oll'ered 10 with half
bit rul01 but OOihtDI shore of the whole would Slli>fY
Al<undor.
He now bcs.qed Tyro. Tbe liete
1M •bole 0( Pboe!llcia wu uoaed.




159
... , nnF•AT
•Lil'•,.o
0
Aleunder entered E&YP'· Tbe l!ayp-
t.ater capuulaa •-:· their dehverc:r from rraatao rule

ant ..,tlcoiDed him b Winter of )32·331 B.C In EiYPI II
1
bo spell! '
0
• · B
"
tcaaader w dod Aluandria at thia 11010. ut aa
li
b havln& foun • . d b'
crcd1ted w • h nory be moy bne totsle 11 name oo
oil
•• happened 10 1
6JJ b J
a.n earlier towns IP·
1
... eutoro CO&SI or the Meduerranean
·as tM en I b 20
MO<ll h '
1

1
ahlf
0 0
Iran Itself. On Soptem er ,
der now act JJ
d the tiarls river. As he traversed Mesopo-
8 C
331 be crol&e 0 •
· · . d ai
1
ead rho Iranian army led by anus eon·
mis and IDOVe d Th
11
h ar Oosmil . A sharp eagagemeot followe • e
!looted lm ne . d
I
jy
o•aio surrered dereat and Oanus escape 10
Iran •• otn • • b r
Media. The bailie of Ooamil is aileroauvely known as t at o
Erbll town of tbal name 60 mlles away.
Alexander annexed tbc Babylonian region of tb: Persian
empire and catering Persipolis, the capital of l ran, ransaeke;:l
tbat wealthy CIIY and lhe'b burol it down. It is sa1d that IbiS
wos in reveoao for the burn1oa down or Oreek temples by an
• • king, Xen<CS.
Dariu• fled to the north. But now a regular bunt ronowed.
A kin& wu pursuing a king. Darius was overtaken. He was
ucompanied by his cousin Besam and a few noblemen only.
It was the summer of 330 B.C. As Alexander's men were about
to move forward and Darius tho Iauer's compao1ons
tbemsetv .. put him 10 death and handed over his body. to
Aleuoder.
Theroaf1cr overrunning the hilly country on tbe Caspian Sea
"?"'. Alexander moved towards Afghanistan. By oow h't•
Yl<lones had so •· b •
be a demt G nc 10 ead. He now considered bimsel to
<halteoaod of worship aod unquestioned, un·
royal costum He adopted the rranian regaJta and
Mll(edooiao ,;.;., 'r caused &reat re=tmcnt amongst bJS
bad beauo In hateP',h· hey suspeetcd that their idohscd hero
til) and was •e
11

:-" to 'POrt lht I .. tng esrrmoged be
UDplleit Obtdl<oce •a;lao royal COSiumc 10 court ond delllllnd
lhe raoka, Of ;:vc of iolcosc sprc.ad
Ollo!.ed lllbeo I he It my •••ndtr'• at my. Serioua diss..nsioos
waseocampe<J at Propthuia 10 Sman.
160
IN014N HtSTo
Tho cavalry eommander Pbtlotus • klse..•a.
cbaracd " •tb • Aftunde .•nd I OUD>ber or Otb
almost decided to CJteatte t bem r • mUrder. Altun:" ""'•
He viiuahud tlat su.:h a "OJ>

bel!.,- tounsela Pre" loo4
bon, and cad to further di• "'•foes
' "'· ..
lo the •pttoa of 32S B C AI
nd · • <nnder cr
I InDUed I be of Baetria. Simme HiDduku;b
came to tho aurfaee. By then AI d rtna dtssen.,ooa •-·
tbo ou bl b cxan cr had eha d rlll
' ll 'I auaht) potentate. A number of or nac •oto a
arntaned wltb plottins agai nst their fuhrer a my ollieera were
un. . • • nd PUI to death
10 tbis region, Roxana tbc d •
r uler Oxtcx, wu taken caprlve ;uabrcr or rho local
Alexander. ma •
10
ploy 'fll (o to
AI bli armios moved forwud towards rh I d
rrlbei borossed them by constant . n us, Indian
·• d , >DJptnJ. Those w
we ourer <•<noes of India tbeo. 11 was
11
rh' 1 ere
1 d tb AI . . " I me, soyu
•a•n • at exander tdonttfied sacred Mount Oceaa aod b
tnd: of Dionysus oo i t.
1

Alexander waa now PDlSc.d oo the outskirts of the Indian
aub-eontlnent beyond the lodus. lleyoocl tbe lddut iosode lodia
II rrs nortllero lip lay three kingdoms. Kina Ambho ruled
rcai"n around Jbclum river. (Texola) was bot
aopital. Po rut rulod o•er t.be territory bordenng on tbc Cltcnab.
1tbile another kin' rultd tbe Ahbisar remtory around Kasbmor.
Ktoa Ambbl l>cioJ at loggerheads witb Porw saw In AI ... •·
dcr't ad•cnt an opportunity to scllle old ocorcs. '!'he Abbinrt
• Jected to 111 on t he fence by keeplD!!; both Porus ond Alcu nder
guttllDI by 4Yowlaa friendship wltb ellhei. Poru1 wu. •
fore, left alone to race the invader wbo was actively helped by
Ambbt
Tradrrlonal accouoll give oo dates. A bridge wa1 tmpro•••·
cd o>cr the lodua and Alexander's armies croued over onro
lod11 The tnudina force cncampc.d 16 milu ro tbc north or
Allock. A lot of iocoolillcnciCJ, aoomalica and lacuooc coo be
detected on o .... I OC:OUD\l Iince thl:y lind It bard 10 uplafo
away the m""b ..auntcd and idoliud Aluandor's uodoloJ
todoL Tbt)', prcreod to dcpiellltll Alenndor
mapan•mJTY tbtcw •"'•Y hh """''lldts In l ndra and rerum<
0



• OUfi!AT CI.AI)C.eo
,.uatl·" ....
161

•'•• tend. Jo abould not bo forsotten lhat be rcturn<d •
boJD M I • • J
eb sober mad, bfokco o t pmt. &Ore ) wouaded • a.d ••tb hta
(qrce badly battered.
Ae<OidtoS 10 Plutarch Alcu.adcr't army ooomuaa or
ll);OOO roormcn ond I S,OOO horse vastly ou111umbctcd ""' foru
rJ>at Po<UI pul In tbe fie!d Ale.uoder was bclpc.d by Ambbr's
rorccs mdd PttSIID recruu•.
Pa&e 53 t. Vol. 7 of !be MabaroJhUiyan Onyaokosb (= yc·
lopacdia) says rho< Aloundcr's ood Ponu's U mlct met In 10
bead-on clu b on t be b:>.okl of the Cbcnab. But Curtiu> write)
that Alexander w aJ cnenmped on tbe other aide of tho Jbdum,
"A division of Alexacdcr's army reached no island 1o the
Jbelum. Tb• soldiers or Porus IW<>m lo tbe island. They laid
slc&o 10 it and rbe Greek advonoc guard. They ko11ed
manY Greek soldiers. To escape death many jumped into tbc
rh·er but were drowned."
It is said that Aleu ndcr crossed the river Jllelum with bia
army oo a dark oi&bl lo boa IS at a sharp bond about lilly
mOts above Haraopur. Porua'• advaooc guard was led by bl$
soo. In the boule thll cosued be sot killed. It is uid that II
•u • rainy day and Porus'a mt&b<y elepb:lnts aot boued
dcwn. But oecounta left by Greek h!Stonaos if properly coos-
IIUed make it clear that Porus's elephant corps caused havoc tn
tbe enemy ranks and roared Alexander'• mighty host.
Arriao records !bat "The lodion prince wounded Alcnoder
••d killed Ills horse Bucepbalu•."
Jus110 Uyl "As the bnllle began, Porus ordered a general
auauh. To avood bloodshed Porus (generously) otTered to 6abt
the Greek !coder on single combar . Alexander refused (rhe
CAIIam off?r). I n the engagement that followed, h11 hone,
; ••rally hu, alumped under htm. Thrown down on rhc banle·
eld wllh a rbud Alcxonder was In tho dooser of l>cloa t or•
rouadtd by l be enomy but was wbisked away by hli bod•·
&uard."' '
Abotu <be terror rhar Porus't elephanll sprad 1a t bc ar.t
Cun,o.s wrncs .. These aotmals •ospircd lfUI terrot Iaiii
(lrumpcl ltkel ctoe> ftoJbt<ood 001 OlliJ IM
IU
INDJAl'f HtnOIICA&. ·-

Gtetl hm'ln •bo $btcd away but also tbtir ridcn. Tbttca
IOdt an tbcn ranks tb.a' these \t:lerans of ma lllcd
•Yo
WIO<) ..,.. aroun or a plac:e to "hocb they <OUid
r<)'l•r fo< •bdlet Ale.un<l<r thereupooeommanded b
01
bnpde
c1 tilt 1tJiu.IY atmcd Atria.niaos a.od Thracians to 10 1n1o lottoo
tl*•lllt Ill· elcpb.lot oorps. lrritated by Ibis""'"" tbe "OUod.
od anunah c::barctd u1 rage upon the llttacken who wrrt '"
coDACqUtocc uamplcd to death uuder teet. Tb.e. most
of all ll&bt<""' of tbc the Orcek
l<lld1etTwlth thdt ltvnks. boistlng Jbcm above theor heads and
dclov01iiiJ th010 over Into tho bonds of their riders for bolna
bel!r&ded. TluiJ the outcome wu doubtful, the Mac:edonlaOJ
t-OtDcttmtJ puuulos and sometimes fteei.na from I be elcphetou.
oo tbatthc srroule wu prolonged till lbc day wu far spent."
Dloilorultuti6cs thai "The huge elepb•nts had r..ormous
ttrG)Jih &ad proved V<f'l useful. Tbcy stamped under fool
m.uay Gre:e\ tOldacrt cruabiog their bones and coati or rnaal.
lbfo tltpb.IDt< CIIU&bt I be saldotiS by their trunk< a ad dashed
that oplou tbe lfOIIDd ia &rut fury. Tbey also aored tbe
10b11tO to dcatb W'llb their tusks. "
AU tbac dctetoptooos sbow Lbat either tbe bailie took place
,. • drt 6tld or thtt noco lr ••• it did aot bog down Poroe's
ckpbaot CC'I'O u " alle&ed.
Ia qoi1< of tloac dtocrlptoons or the rmor tbat Porus'o
""'"' &nDy tll"lltlt "'the Ot<ek burls I tis claimed by portlson
Otae\ lctoUDtt tbll Porua tia.s 1ilr'Ounded ADd c;apturcd 111d hi•
-y bad to\&rdown armt.
1\11 " & taoard &nd a motiVatc4J rnytb ft olao borne
: .br
1
"'-'*<ltaent evco\1. Oreek blstoriana would wbnt u• to
•e:-w. tbat Altuader 'ltbo bad a record or numerous OJ3114•
':':.. m;:t._

• &ad down whole ci1ics wu so
...........__ ... , nllfVU brave aDsWcr •ben aatcn priaooer aboul
--. tt...S II. atiO&rcb lb. t a.1 d '
- oo.l• \0 b ' I n exaa <r JraCIOu&Jy IJI<td
# rtlets It termcrry bus add to h •
bat 14ncd tbc "ETHIOPIC
- nt ""' -.ort U IICICO ( ._ ·•
•• ,. .... 0( AM!ts1et. He ot; _ UIU 0 the IIIC luv
•1-
1
larpcalOOtiJ ·to lbobottle or
·-· .. ....,. .... killed.
1

"'LSX.-NDta'J o:UI!AT CLAtNm l6l
ruliz.ed that 1f be were ro coctiauo D&htioa tat
" ld be coaoplctdy Jllincd. He, tbercforc, requutcd PoruJ to
..-ou figbrloa. True to l odiao ,,.dillon Porut clid oot killtbe
• enemy. Arter this both siJOCd a treaty, Alcnodn
I b • .
lhCC bdped b1m D IDOCliOJ 01 CT tt-mtOfle;s to hJ.s
..
Jcio&dom.
Tbc rea.son aiveo by Mr. Badae for Alena<!ct'o pllgbtlo
that his soldiers were ane(-ttricke.n by tbc loss of thoul&ll.Clt or
comrades in orms. They 1hrew lhrm weapoos ood UCJed lbeir
reader IO ••• for peace. Mr. Badae addo tbac , ... kina lor
pe,ee· Alexander said uPoru.s plcaae pardon me. 1 hayo
ed your bravery and Now 1 C<11111JH bear cbese
agonies. Saddened In heart I am plaoomg to pur ao end to my
life. [ do oot desire chat my sbollld be ruined like me-
l om tbll culprit who hao thnutltiem la1o tbe jowo or death.
Jt docs not bccomo a tina 10 tbrwt bio soldizn into tbejawa

to spllc or sueb clear cvidt:occ borne: out by sobstqucat
dc .. dOptJ)t:ou. b1Jtonans have been prooe to brand and di.smw
the abo•·• p>Uaac u an iatcrpolltioa.. Evco ''""""0& for &rJU·
mcJJI'I S8kc that the abo•o P"Uii< could 'be •• inlerpol.&looo
• ·c tbe qucslloo 11 to bow Alexa.odcr, "ho bad joiDCd
battle wnb cbe avowed iotcnhOo mak1og Porw'a bead roll
like tbat af Dariuo, not only •l••rc_d PorU>'s life bu! ilio t<lcu-
cd him from custody. return J hom bJ> '"'"" tiQidom and
threw ia some other territory in •ood meMure ioro tbe busaro
11 a IOrt of a reward ? 'Tlll$ 11 as (aotaatJC as PYJD& that •
deodly cobra which bad reared It• looud to srriu furiauiiY
suddenly changed Into • prlucoe who ":tithed Ia •miles
presided over a prizc·fivlna ceremony.
The very rae I I hat Porul woo rrom A!cuoder some •ddJ.
uonal territory instead or to11na hll owa .-bowa abat
ool ooly sued for puce bul lh.al hi• rout was so comp ele I I
be had to ecd' 60mt addiHo.osl lraC'Ia to PorUJ.. • •
hi heJptd Ponra WID some 4Vwll1001
<:iJetl eceountt tbat
1
bat pride tJo.mbl·
it is quhc clear tbiC A t.l!" ,. col •tr .. u.n<kr Pont.
c d I UT'W IJ 8 tUvJC. I u
mec..ly •&
1
«
0
. 10 1nd1.1 •oa so. 1a0t•
11 repJnllon f01 b•• fouuttoa
10
164
INDIAN lllSToaiQA
L •uc,,c
1t"11ory for II could be thai the <ld' N
• . • 1110 ... 1 I
""....,.w 10 Ambb.l the lmtg of Tuila who w ..
0
•nuory
llD4 the Abb•INin "'ho ba.d mauuaincd dlpiO!Dat P<nly ho.tolt
tc ac.u•raht
Aluandn'• ml&ht •:u so col:upletcly y.
oohd eranuc •all of anQcnt lndoa's defeoe" tbt
battle woth Potu), soldiers refused
10
G,bt a aftor lht
c:aD well be omaaoned that when Poros alone could h
combined m1ah1 of Alexander and Ambb1, 1bc former
0
" tbc
not lave Hen crossed tbc lndUJ if Ambbl't p>triol could
b d •ot I be bcllcr of his onimos11y for •ad
E.no eflcr dc.:ldlns to return, if is dear thai Atexaodcr
no1 allo,.-cd 10 retrace bis Steps lbrough lhe rcgooos he ::
already cooqucred &Dd knew well.
The recorded (oct tlu\1 Abbisar «fused lo meet Aleundtr
also po1DIJ to Alexander's defeat. Bad Ale>Alldcr aubdunl
Poruo 's m1abt, u 11 claimed, Abhisar wl\o hod rc_maintAI
atulral, would biYC prtcipllately rushed to Alexander to make
peace aa.S re so
Alc.uad<r's forces croued Cb<Mb and tho Ravi whbout
llD.Y u tbc Orcclr: historians would ba e us bchcve
Th a only sbow• that .tbole Porus bad barred h1s cmwhlie
<D<IIIY AltuGdcr from rct.rtttiog into Ambbi'w norlbern ttlfl·
lor, • •1 tbeacc Withdrawing tO the or the lndu• Poru•
ba.d m•coanlma""y agreed to assun bim >afc conduct lhrou&b
ho\ own turnory if Alexander proceeded soUih
Till' W&l • •cry rarslabtcJ move on Porul'\ pari beCIIUIO
had bo lei Alu:andor sa back tO Ambhl't rcgion aod ioto
Afah&Di\lao Alruntlcr may have lroJicherou•iY regroup«!
f•>ICCI far anot h<r atuu:k lU •ubscqucol Muslim iJIVadell rep••·
tedly
As •oon a• Alcundcr's armies c:rossed tbe R•••• lndla'l
oc..oc>d hn• dtfeace wr:nl 1nto octlon Poru• bad provided
a pcotcchve coftr throu&b bis owo terrllory. But he
\ocw lhat Aleuadcr •ould never be able to SO uQSCitbed
tbrou&h Olbtr pull or lad .. wbidl ...... tborouahly aotl •e•·
auarded by ovr bra>< Kshatriyu, 1Gd !bat by tbe "':"
be WCIDI ""t throup tbc; othct end bis back would be COIIIP •·
p."J Dl!.fiA T CLAtMt!O
'Lp.UOO
\6S
od f
1
r trom !Kina a world-c4nqucror be would be
tel)' brok<D
1
aury and dcttituuoo. This it cnc:tly what happen·
reduced to pemuat therefore ttlte note that far from bcona a
..o Bostory ' ' I d' h d
"'' C1l Porus mull be laudtd as a great o IIlii ero an
deft> I o;bo stropped AlexandCI of all hiJ pride and proud
stol<flllldD forced him tO return home I wizened and tobcled
armY an
prodlpl.
BetweeD lbC Ravo and tbe Beat Alexander's forces bad 10
fi h many fieroo eogngcments. In ancient timet Indian arm1eJ
18
1
so >l<tl that they did not tolerate any armed intrusion.
cul'"n was n soldier. He did allow mlJplaccd com·
pusioo to the bcnor of his patrlousm. War-weary, wound·
cd bomc·sick, Slorved and ticrctly opposed at every step
tboy were armed intruders, Alexander's soldiers refused
to figbt aay more when they reached tbe banks of the Beas.
They hod enough or h. The engagement witb Poru.s was their
raurtb and last bia banle in Asia. Its harrowing memories were
too much for tbem.
Belos unwelcome 111 the territorits througb wbocb tbe1r patb
of rttrtat lay Alnander's starv1ng soldiory indulgod 10 p1llagma
dcfcncdeu civilian communitios. But this fact bas beeo twiSted
io Gr ... k accounts as proof of tbc falst claim that Alexand<r
turned south after tbc so·colled subjugatoon of Porus, to con·
quer more territory and collect plundor.
Alexander relr<atcd through Sindb aod Makran. At every
lltgo tbo ranks or his deplcltd bost were geniag thinner
tbrougb skirmishes, sniping by Indians. and
distal<.
During this retreat an Indian 1ribc callod the Mallois gave
•atitr figbt •o Aleundcr's Oreel: hordes. In the many engage.
mco11 tbai followed Alexander himself was wounded lo one
baute be bo ·
d wu a ut to be hacked 10 p1eccs, Plultlrcb ltu
:;. ed I bat "Ai<Xander was on the point of bt1aa cut to
b' by the Malll. the most warlike tribe 10 lndJa F1adia•
•od his 1moll company much plied by !be dart• or the
... r...,.,aas he lca""d . b
baDd b .... •nto t eor modst. They ari&Cked bun
10 11
'ld ·to- and fiabt Thcor •words and spears pu:tttd bit anaour
""•ndcd h1m. An enemy arrow was sbot at bJm wn!b aw:b

166
II<OJAN RISIOJIJCAL
• • •
force that 11 made 111 way tlirougb his cuirass a
reatoJI of bls rib•. Alcunder feU down on bt's ••••rod the
· •••es "ben
cocmy toldtcr rushed to slay him wirh a sc
11
nir.r p ••
•ad Ll mnacus placed tb!ms.,Jves before him, but


and tbe other "'Oundcd ' led
Jq abc melee AJczandcr received a sevore blo• from
bludgeon uron hts neck. His bodyguard c:ar11ed bim awan:
llfcty uneon•a•ous.
Throughout its retreat the Greek borde eommlllcd
•trodtiea, Wbc1 her drunk Wil h victory or reduced to dcnltu.
11on Alexander's Greek force reacted wi11> Intense cruelly,
When refulcd help t hey fell upon peaceful rrsldrats whb
•mmense savagery nod put all women an.d childrea ro the
IWOrd.
Llke the Maills, MusiCJlnS. Ozicans and Sambu• (oil l ndton
tribes) COIJibiocd 10 infttcl anolhcr severe dcfeal on Aleuadrt's
mlrudtna army. Wilb 1re31 difficulty and a badly drplrlcd
foroe Al<nadrr re.ebcd lhe mouth of tbe Jndus. To a•o•d
eDOounters 0J1 land IIOCC his COnfidence in the tnvincibilht Of
h11 arJQJ had been badly shaken Alexander toyed wilh lhe idu
of rctur01oa home by •ea. Re evrn 1en1 a scouuog par1y obnd.
Bu1 be laclcd IU·,.orrby boatL Very rtlucranlly, lhcrcfor:,
-'kuodcr droidod to proceed wut acro.:s Baluch,.lhao. In lhiJ
r"'lon the Cirtck armies were bua$Sed by I be Oruas. As he
aun: to llaJQ)IIan and Pa1ni the cxrremc: aummcr tcmperaturct
IO\d UPOa his famlobcd Jln&glcrs. IUa ranu Wore (urlbcr drci-
IDatcd Weory and downca•l he crossed Mrdresia and reached
Cat.....,la. There he W•• joined by tbr conringcnls under
Craoret IDd • pan or bh oava.t force.. 'Thi• reunioa in It"'
boutte tcnltOI) pur a lhtlc heart io thio barrlrd and bauercd
an.t. b lbac territories lht Oovtroora tb1t
,. ..... .,.a •PPOI.otcd bad eraaool%cd the local pc<>ple by
IIMw ...... ,_. Tba proptc " -: "0 ,. arm a ••••oil
...... lo Alet•·def t.ad 10 tbc aovc.roan.
..,,_ · b ..._ too""- I'Uited u • I"••• llUd aohlc
..... .. """- ...._ .._ ..._ lla-. 0( llac1ria "wu
.. • . , ..... "''n I k M I ...._ At.UDdor had him
I
161 ••r AT C:UIWIJI
II'S J)r;r
,t.DAIID bad blo oote and can ehop-
b bis KrYOOit and tbco d<ath Aleunder bad muy
•hipped Basus wu put to cd did ool b¢11te to ae-
pcd off. orals brutally exccuc • Kalutbaoesc: fot baviaa
s<" n IUtor Ariatotle's nephew in tbe Pentan regalia.
cure bJJ o":ticisc Alexander for '":: :Is owo frleod Oytua.
dared ro ·n a rage I e • n was olso dooc IO
On"" '.rusted lieutccant • • • • wenc it burnt dD\1'0
J{is (atber s d Wherever btl army . ·•"drcn IO
b Alexan er. men and put
death yl • carried away tbc of World History''
whole c tiCS, 12 of bis "Ohmpses • d ooncciled
death. Onl ::eg:ru writes w: of hlms<lf
very cruel ood vtolcnt, hl:s of I be moment be
some Ood In fics of anger or ., d areat dcics with
almost as • , . best friends aod dcscroye
· ·ned sons or h••
•• • 1 " rtran
tbelf inbabltan s. • If with two prin.,..... o t
Alexander bad helped HIS geoerob too bad I& co
...... men of otber reatoos.
amooa "v
,., wherever they went. La d Oo bJS way
• h\ll' had bae ... rc • k out to
Rio • i"M dia a serious rcvolc br? e d!Jmis-
h was camp•u•n e Maccdonians w'ltb
:is Ale.ander • from
sal and raisin& an • revolt was quelled •
Wicb great dtfficu ty
reach•·d Babylon in 323 B.C. d I d to move out or
1 wauchc u' of hialrt
T"' ' dayt before le d a (etst II tbc boutc h bitter
AltX4ll<
1
er happenrd !
0
• drmklna, to ted
Medin lodulgcncc
10
e 'de
10
the lndiiO m 11,. --ra old.
L' b mbled P" thea Ollly •· ,=
ruemorios of • u ' tb fcver. ll• wat days he 10411 bu
to h,. being stricken WI b'ah<r After len C. A!exudcr
d
d rOI<I I ' '23 B.
Tbe rever prrSISte an JUliO 28 Ia • bonl to
,.,.. .. of speech and later,:::....... soa .,;c. UJd
died 1n a coma. A '7,"
1110
aolu bolb A
Aleuoder bul within • •• tb baq btd
iafut...., w.rc done to du •ad h<pD w.U..: bls.....,..
Aleuodtt'o remuu,:._ lo ,.c tbc boc:::,....,.. be wu
•bl:n be llloftd .. •h• ladla'a "::• OIITOWtj •
ID<nl and lticd cot a ltb I wbhapcr .
. boCk •
.... \!II081Ct101
161 INDIAN }IISTOAICA•
•tsllAJtClt
li<OiliiiA•a In lo4ra. lbdl> woundod wben bo ret
· rtated "
Wo• be • e•n .... ore <«<bmg bome. Hi• mt ht •rom
pr<ttatcJ. d>lmal PICtUre or complete disarray. •rtny
t.bad'ort UIQ' tb.c P4irus-Aiexander tocountcr to ry 03uu
l'l>to< •• tl>e uod•oput...S bcro. It is btgb umc that lh ""'
4
'
01
cl.wllo or Gre<L cbroaitlm ....,.. clo•cly crou-uamiO:,rc""••
eat tht truth about Aleunder's Indian camp.,ga.
0
find
Bti>/IOt•.P,r
1. I'Yol HArts Cbandro Seth'; Research Paper on tbe
10
rat! altht !tllthabad Scs11oo (1938) ,or the Jadiao IU• PIC,
("PIIt1<1l - tory
l Prot$. L. Bodbaokor'unicles on tbe top
1
c.
3. t,labarasbrriya Doyaokosb.
4. Etbtoprc <'<1. by £.A.w. Badge.
S. GllmpJe>orworld History by Jawahorlol Nehru.

Adya Sbankaracbarya's Antiquity
Under-Estimated by 1297 Years
Among tbe quesuoo morks or Indian hilloric:al chronology
one of the most tmportant relatu to !be great philosopher
Adyo Shn Shaokoracharyn. The groat Sbonkarocbarya is held
In
001
versGI rcvorencc throughout beoauso his Advaita
(non-duality) philosophy is to represent the quin.
reiS<DCC or Indian metaphysical thought-
This great philosopher founded many pcethas (monastencs).
Four of these have traditionally wtelded supreme reltgto-phtlo-
sopblca1 authority to 1beir rtgtons. Those tour arc :
The Badn Kedar Pectb in the nortb, the Dwarka Peeth ln the
-est, }aglUlJiatbpuri io tbc cast and Shtingerl in tbe south. Tbe
lifib a>O!Wtcry-11 Kanchtpur•m-wu presided over by tbe
pat himself until his death.
Sbri Sbaobracbarya wa< sbort·hved. He hv...S only for 32
yea,._ But the crux of the questtOn IS, which 32 years 7 Old bA:
lite rrom 788 to 820 A.D ••• has been IDIJD111tn...S by Wcsrem
acholars whose word held unqucsuoocd sw•y durina BriiJJh
rule Ia Iodin. and ,, coosldere•l saorounct even now ? Or cUd
til< Sh•okaracborya live (rum .109 B.C 10 417 B.C. •• hal been
held by a number or Indian scholnn.
The academic io the controversy are bJgb, An error
maram of 1297 years io eitber vtew 11 a $Crious mauer wbkb
cao throw !he whole cbronoloey or ancleot Indian history 0111
o( &ear because Sbankaraco•rya formt aa imporlaal Jand••rt
••lndian bittory. h. therelorc, bec4mu oeecuaey to review tbo
Proor. adduced by either • •de.
The Kamakou Pectba 11 Kaocbtparam where tbA: Sbnb,.
<basra finally octtled down afttr a pcnpotetoc motWic -·
170
liiiTOiliC:..

wu fOUJldcd by hom on d2 B c. h hu <'>\
of IOCIC«d•aa poatliT< cwr Tbe l4 uabrotea
b I . P<CKIII IDCQ-'- .... ,.
10 I C lilt The Ibm! Ill lbe 114e Of --:"'t ll l4t
San-IJDIIIII&D aad the 4th, Sbr1 Satyabodb h Sltr,
and 104 )UIJ while the l2ad •
1
.,..Y for 111
CbufAonaadafibaaa presoded ooly for four Y<ara Sbro
.-tUdr tbc 3MI pootrlf, Outsukbanaada, held 'au the P<r•Od '"'
- _. IO bo ltacnrn "'bile bu n
11111
e & ure dot.
tbc periOd II 001 rccordrd. I I ID the lilt
I
Tile .. n aae period of each or the 68 pootiiTa b
oJ5ot u Sbaobncbarya duriag the 2.,4<18 )ctfl from btld
to 1966 A.D .• "''<u OUI to 36 yean which iJ oot ao . l B C.
fiaurc •b<o •• c:oiiSid<r rbar tb< 10cumbeor• were
bala who led cnmplary livcJ charnruizecl by cootie cc '
t<mperaacc, fruaality and purity. '""'·
A tbord vielli supported by one traditioa or lbe Shriaac
11
monastcry •• that the arut Sbaolc.axac:ba.rya on 44 B.C
We shall aow .,eogb rbe available evidence to derermoac the
umc ,.ben tbe greor Sboakaracbarya lived.
1 A C.mbodoon onKTiprion mentiOIIJ 011e Sivuoau cJu.
cnl>cd u a pupil of Sbanb111." Sivuoma wu the
l'fCCtplor or lndravarmao. ne lalltr is known to bave hwd
aro11nd 118-887 A.D. TbiJ is oiled •• evidtllec that Shankar•·
diarya h\td from 768 ro 822 A.D In rebuttal ofthia v1tw 11
mUM bo po1ntcd out tbll oo Si•uoma is II <ted among rbe arat
SbGiuua'a dtleiptcs. Moreover s ... soma has obvooU>IY alluded
to a wcaa.or Sbanlt.oracbarya, because ever tioec the Sbao-
line wu founded abo prcsldin& pon111T alwa)O
botn referred to w1tb the deepest rcvueocc.
2. A ..,rk calltd the SAU1•1DAR YA LAHAR! is attn'butcd
to tbt Great SbaDb.flleharya. lu 7Sab verse It hchtv<d te
atwdc to rbe Tamil Saont Tirujoana·S&mbbanda u "Dr•7
41
Slliiba .. S•Dec tbat IIIDI hved to the 7th Century A.D.
I bat a canury must bavo ctapocd bofore bh fotm< apr
aU Dftr South IAdoa aod that, thcxcfore, tbc arcar
dla:rya •bo rcfen to him mtnt hururlf bave loved '
0

Cqtur). MID)' Ito•• oan be dct.cttd In lbil araum••
1
• I, ...
lbc *"""'P'- tbat about a century oad ootbooa more oor
AtmQmTT
>D1"
rY for • maa' t fame to aprcad throughout tbe c:onany
I< o«<.. ted. second!) tbe usumpuon that tbe SAUND·
It

1J tbc &leal Sbanbrac:barya't composnioo 11
!<RY". biY doubtfuL In any case the whole or 1111 DOt com.
him. 11 could be 1hattbe .,.ork is tbt creation or •
f.t,sequenl Sbaokaracbarya •
II IJ uracd tbal all a<'COUOI> or Sbaal<aracbarya rtfcr IO
• ,.,th Kumar• I Bbatta, the outhor of the pbiiOJOpb•·
biO-- •• p .,. " S' Bh I d
catlr:act known At oorva ... lun3nsa. 1ncc aua t"\C
.. ttarlier than 700 A. D., Sbankara, considerably younger
t: bin> mull ba" loved m tbc 8th Ccowry. In rcbuUJ>I it
011
be pelatrd out tbal tbe two were no doub1 coniClllponl·
m .. but KumarO Bbaua b1mJCif is mutb more oacieot a per·
• • • tbao botberlo swpcctcd. Therefore, instead or belitviDJ
tbll be and tbe great Sbankaracharya lived ncar about tbe 8th
Ccntary A.D. 1t seems mt-re certain rbar. both lived in the 6th
Century B.C.
4, The SOOTR.A BHASHY A of Sbankaracbarya is said to
contain a refutAtion of the Pasupata doctrones from tbe
PorJnas uslaned to the 4th Century A.D. 'Ibas IS cited as proof
tbl Sbankara.cbarya lived in the 8tb Century A.D. Agaiost
IbiS it may be uid tbat tbe datmg of the scvual Purnas Is
Itself by no meata faultless. All Indian cbronolaay having been
worpcd by Western scholars to suit their prc.conccivcd notion
lllat tbt lodaan tiviliz.at ion IS not very old, tbc11 auigaiog the
lolid Puranas to tbe 4tb Century A.D. is uself quesuonable.
S. The SOOTRA BHASH YA 11 also said to contain a
qootation from Kamalaslla's commentary on tho TATTVA·
SAMGRAiiA of Sbantarabbira. In reply it may be pointed
out that the sard passaae may as ... n ba•e boen lift<d by
• from Sbankaracbarya's SOOTRA BRASRYA
IOltcad of bcoog VIet versa.
6
· It Ia pointed our that Shaokaracharya. rcfUttJ the doctri·
acbolat1-A$aJiga, Dlnaaga, NaaarjUDJ& aod
•••I &bhoaba, These latter are auppoted to ba•'C hvcd DOl
••rt ao the Jrd C A D
h .. e lived
1
cntury • .. lbcrefoR, Sh•nkara mutt
Ottdsro be
0
t.he 8th Century A.D. In refutation of tbiJ 11
porottd out that Shankaracbarya DO doubt rcfutto
!lt <6·- --------------
172
IHDtAH OlJf
"•a•
Sntanlto VtJO) .. anda aod Sboonyavada h
ltWdbha tb<'vlhl lout he oe,.. mCDtiooa Auoaa, OOia or
N*llf]UOI b) 001110. n - p.trticular Bucldbiaho .... or
propouaJc4 IODJ before the Buddbut ::' " ""
d"'"'J*'D<'Itbctn duru•&thetr O" 'D times. Hence t bc

r<btllled 1>7 Sbaou ro .,. aoeleot tho A on
O•noap ,. NaprJuna. Moreovu it" Probable

.. :11,
ocbolan ll\'l:d earll<r lbu tbe Jrd Century A.O.
0 1
tee
,
7 " UtdT 101 have li':d aflor Bbannbori, tbe
amout ...,.nt nr poec. ne bavtot bcet1 atcribed
10
60()..
A.D Sh•nkarachArya tr belteved lo bavc Uved In lh 8 h
C<tltur)' A D. Bhartrihori no doubt lived <.lrlier lho.o
ehaf) l bUt the clllm that l ived 10 t he 7tb Cent
A. D. h •••elf quutlonoblo. ury
8. Those ISSt8Drn& Sbanlcara to tbe 8th Cent•ry A. 0. quote
,.,. cbroooarams ro support. Ooe chroooaram fi ndioa
1
uppon
from a brtncb of tbe Shriogeri Peetba putJ the date of
Sbaowa·• brnb at 788 A. D. aod death io 820 A. D. Tbe
<brono,... ·
.. , .. ,.
• ••n••i- ""'h'""'•u••:
Tbe npress•oo r.H""""" Jiv<J UJ tbe ligure 9883. Tbi• bas to
be ,..._d llli<C tbe Sanskrit way or quoting the dl8ill Is the
or ot.bera. Tbe year tbeo would be J889 or the Kali
crt StD<e tbe KaJJ era b<aao in 310.2 8 C. It would mean that
Shan bra was born in 3889 m.ima J 102- 787-788 A.D.
Another cbroooaram wbich reads 'Otilat4oor fur01ahes tbc date
or Sbaohra' a de11b 11 819-20 A. D.
In rcbunina tbe above cvldcoee we mUll conalder other
dcllilt •hlcb "tiD to b .. c acaped enouah onentlo11. Tho very
><no •bicb aa•ct the you u adducu scm• more evi·
daxltulo tbe day 'l oirtb. It uy1 ,...i •nd onf•
- • nm •bicb 'IIC&IIS Sbanb.ra wu born In the cydtc: )'ear
Vobban .. I be \'aoaballba month on the lOth day or the luoar
fOIUilpL T1011 •boD) da100m610 IJid undermioel tbc eiiC of
lMio wiiO put Sbankartcbat)'ll io tbe 8tb Ceoaury A D ·
173
cttl'au·s AtfftQUITY
•• . blrtb il admillecl by all
>I' lie ) Cif of !;bankar•. • ewaoe the lunar date on
loc<O•". (oor admittc4 to be the Stb
10 be :;•:., borD iS alto • • the bittb aootversMY da)'
b.dl h< d r tbc !Otb. .
• o<taoa>i) •• ""cod tbrouabout lad••·
obit" b (ael rbal wbat IS bche .. d to
1
;..s rrom t •
0
fact
Till> aootDJ y .. r the oria•n•l Sbankaracborya IS l
be tb< l ear o J8tb ••=•sor Abhioava Sb_!lnkara
abe year ao "'h•c:J' t.bt presidc4 over the Kamakou
Tbb Ahh!OOVI
1>0
10
• (rom
788
A.D. 10 840 A. D.
J><ctb• I <:Ommcorary ruled SUSHAMA on the
,l.unaBodba compoled by Sodasbiv Brobmcndr3
tb date of Abhinov3 Shankora thus:
,.r,,. ro •b• " _
, • • (otl#lf.......W
wcfirli .. fm llll '"
bo
• tb< .... ·ctic year Vibbava, Vaisbakha mootb,
l.l be wu 111 ro . , K I.
lOth day or the briabt rort oiaht or tbc year 3889 a' corre,_
poodm& to 78S A. D.
Tbe PONYASHLOKA MANJARI by Sarvajna Sadashhft
8odla also eontirals Atma Bodha·s assertion 1hus:
·-,. •• ••.0'14 fit . .. ,,....
R 14111r.tf ,IJI(MlWJfi{j'ftf4q'1 •
• •
Sine< all eotucmporarres bave been referri ng to tbe suceeed-
illl pontiffs pr<aidana over the Yllrious $)liri1ual seat> as Sban-
b!lltharya,lbe identity or 1be first Sbankarar:harya got mixed
up wn.b Ius 38tb succeut>r on the Kamakoli Peelba, Abbi oava
Shlohro. TbiJ mlx·up wa> occuioned by a very close s im
1
1u·
lily belw<en the evcniS O( tbefr Jives.
A Adi Shaokort was born at Kalatl in Malabar wbi lo
bhiaa•• .,., at Chidambaram. Bu1 according
tradnion Ado Sbaokar• os considered to be a nallve
1114
' . b.lr• m They both travelled extensavely tlrrougbout
KLik.:.O Adi Shankaracbarya, Abbinava Shaakara also
P:.tlll ,.,'' ,••d PF<Iidcd for •ome time Over the Sa rvaJna
"·-· • ,,., that be proeced d K ·
....,.lrtya ea •
10
adu, l he
ve •ad •as }teo oo more.

174
IN.c'-'N
The MADUAVP.EYA SHANKARA VI •P•I,Ioc.,
the t"'o and auributed tb JAYA • • •
.ShonLara to '-dl Sh•nhracbarya The let d•ora or Abbi
0
,_1
• • fer died In I( •
Abhonna Shanh ra docd
10
hit Slnd ••<ho
"'bM"<vcr llrwt mlaooot hom wu careful Y:::.ln 840 A.o y.,
lllc·lp&ll of ooly 32 Y<l<l 10 Abhina,. Sb""th to 0><toho a
Shaokara 11 koown to have lived for 32 )<Ira •ro "t>ce Ado
by advaodna the )Car of Abhinava Shanker • "'"do.,
) cars. Thua a branch of the Sbrioaerl Pecrh b:,. <a!h by 20
Shankara'o Ouharravqb (eorerioa rho cove ' • •

• • Adl
••••i which correJpood• ro 820 A.D."
011
"" ••
In thla connection let uo refer to the l'UNYASHLfl l(A
MANJAIU wbooh the date or Abboonva Shankorn as,
fioarr""'""":. ","sf• onit •
\Ill which means he doed In the cyclic year Siddbarthi, In I be
month or Athftda on the New Moon Day corretpondlna to tbo
Y"r 840 A D. -
AuumJoa the eulicr Shringeri reference to Adi •
de•tb to b<- correct It could D'>t be that Adi Shoohra and h11
38tb tuccaaor on the Kamalroti Peetba doed within 20 of
each other. Thrtcforc • tbe carbcr "'fcrenoo of
a ShaoU.rachltya't dralh oo 820 A.D. •• to Abb•n•••
Shaokart'a drath The )<lr 820 A.D. should on feet be 840
A 0 11 ••plaiDed above.
Thut tho•• "'ho &ltCM Adi Shaokara to have lived In the
8tb Century A.D. on foct confuse him with bb JRtb sueeessor
Abhlnava Shankoro Tho confusion or laJer day ""
lo fact antkiJIAied by Atmo Oodha wben he wrote h11 work
Suobama In the nut quorter of the 17tb Contury, Horconorks l
(1<1!"(!111 '\"o!'lt "'• .... . fliOII'Ili!T(t 'Rlfoit i!lf""' WfO
'"'" •• ... nofti""fl! '""'"""'' ll'll'fl1!• qtl
r .. ...rn•••• ;.,, .n.•• .,.. •
(SUSHAMA 16)
A worL utled the MADHAVEI!YA SHANKARA
171) &&IJ tb.ot Ar,10mb• (moobcr of 1.:.. Sb1nkaral p>< blltd
lO 1 10ft IQ u a .. ;p Ctotlt u ccod.ol wbcn the SuQ, Mlrt :'.
S.tum ,...r• 10 nahaut>n aad Jupiter In Kendra : ..,OIIf(•
,.. .. , ... •" ... \""' "0
17)
'S Atn'IQUITY
contrary to orieotal
.or•s" of that verse" VIJAYA,
A S · r Shmnkara's bonb
icc: tbc author:. not rncouoo the o eras nor docs he
ro;:=.cr h< ..... of tbc prevalent l nd•=:.e .. These arc
:....rdlDI tbe lunar dote of bis evidence.
t»eDdon tbe m nc;i d wblch YltlllC ' utoe Jnd•an asuono--
·ou• dil<rtP' J not round in any gen
sen oao arc "'''
sueh taeu
.,oal birtb data. Ad' Sbankar
3
maintained by
In tbe baroscope of f is stated to be 3058
brfoacri Peerbo the dated: the Sth Lunar date of broRbt
S • Samv>tSara. Suo ykh But the planetary
h of Vnisb3 a. · 1 h f 44
half or the moot o does not tally with t hose e t . er o
io tho horoscop either the horoscope Is wrong or t.h•
a.c. or 788 Is incorrect. But the horoscope With
.,., JOSS Ktll
1
u
1
with
509
B.C. We shall deal woth thls
• • it may just be noted that the year
I""' later. For D P . ed for Sbaolcaracharya's bortb b)•

8
c or A. . assogo
two ;lilfercnt ocbools arc both wrong. •
9. It is claimed that Shanlcaracharya's to the
18th sootra of the 1st part of the 2od _chapter. two
eitiet Sbr.ughna and Pataliputra of ancoeot l ndoa. at putra
lavina bteo destroyed by Roods in 756 A. D. he must bavc
lived btforc tllat date. This argument lllogocal because "'e
olien refer evco to ooo-existcnt cities like Babylon a.nd Nineveh
10 various cootctts ..
10, lo the same commentary Shankaracbarya draws dttcn-
tion to the lllng1CBiity of SlatcmeaiS like "Punarvarmao
'"'<ceded •· barren woman's son." This is tnken by som:
rawcbe,. to be an allusion to a contemporary king Punar-
Yo(Dll.n relanlng in far-ofT Java Anotbcr king of the same
Dime is mentioned by Hucntsaog aa baviog ruled over W<stern
Mapl!ha Aod slooc Shaokara wrote his commentary to
Puoarvarmao of '-bpdba must have been Ia hos
'IVas lo Mapdha during 637·638 A.O
mao must bavc atceoded the tbrooc about hme
lol fadle an araumeot. A pblloJopher
o ara oxpla•nloa a mctapbySlcal PDiot

I ..
1ndh·idual. Punan'armao could L.
......... 111fT'( 1ft) 1\1 - ut:
.... ""
1
-l ftlll'lt Jih Tom. Dtck or Harry. h 11 puerllc co
ool• I ""'""'" I( b - I
"" 1' that Puaarvarm.an """'· c • rea coo ..
U')
10
• n:n cf:tn •hy aot also try t o fdcol ify the barrco
::::;:" ..J"b<r
100
(11 100 I(., all thzr< could be ooe.
tbc coG.ItltY I here •• pos1hH! evldcocc that the Maaadb.J
011
raryo( Adl Shaob""'baryo w11 Hall. Sodashov
nolU <OOrcm,f'O OURURA TI'IAMALIKA (21) in
Brahmdldra d ·
\\fin; me.nucna Hala of I he Andbro )' nllst)' who rc1an ..
1 11
'"
1111
'""''
2
.6' Jt. '67J or Kah em CO{respoodiog whh 494-·481)
• • a
8-C Ha.la v.ll a of Nara of the onaodm dynasty
ar Kolhmll mcnuoncd ln t he RAIATARANGINI.
II. Thc MADHAVEEYA SRANKARA VIJ AYA men110n>
AdJ Sbonhra to be 1 conremporary or Baoa, Mayoro and
Oaadr (Sarsa 1$. 141) thus • • •·••Iii••'"" tfnTf"'!••'l I 1\11\n!l.

S•noc profeuon Weber. Bubier and Max Muller hold tbar
Otodrll\ed rourc!s rbc end or the 6tb Centut) A.D. and Booa
aDd MI>UfliO tbe betlnnrof o( the 7rb it believed tbar Ado
roo muu ha\e h\-td about chat lime.
Km 11 be poroted out I bat the MADRA VEEVA
5H.\l'IKARA VUAYA octdJIO be n a bi&bly unr¢li·
able • ""' It also makes Snkanrocbaf)-& (or tho l llh
C<otul) A 0) &Od AhhmAvagupt• (oJ the !Orb Ccotury
conlrtnpe lriU of Adi tbis ar:nouols to l umptng
letFclhtr at cooumroranu of all people from Jesus Chn" 10
Nehru T at wodt itself is a n :anaebrontt m liincc
htnt&b ... ;autbor or luthort hvcd '" the eurly part or thl•
"'"tur II 10 1\Crrbed to M"•dhovathoryB or the
l•th C«-n1ury II c1onot twoccmurle•olct
1
1 "'t. t•o b)l Dindima and Advalto. l ekshm•·
Tbt 1tlftr bclonp 10 the fi ru quarter of rho J9tb Century. It
iu.l \tu:, C\1rlt1U ff"flioed l ad altered beyond reeosmtion by •
aumbc-r lll ladt .. .,uals 11 a plaintd by Ve turl PrabhakiR Sastrl
•• IW lrlod< to TAr Aoodl·to Potrlko (Madras), Sarurday,
Mata. Du.rmau SJmwa.tun,
11 II b &tJ'U(d 1ha1 Shanbra·• precep1or wu Oov•nda·
pad.l n., lance • pttccJ»or Gaudapa.da't commenw1' on
177
btl.,."' Krtshna'• SAMKHYA KARIKA .,,, tr&ml•red ioto
O>ioeiC perhaps in S70 A. D. Tbeserore Gtudapoc!., muot ba•e
about ch11t umc and h11 araod-disciple Sbanu.r. muJJ
hvcd about l'*-'O centuries lAter. Tbia araumecu is
001
tausJble A man' s v.ork docs not become so ramow:-eapec.i.
In 1 acicot 1imu wnen there •ere oo prioUng presses aDd
roodtrD publ!Cil)' med•a- and ltl ltaOtlatcd iJI far awa.t OOUD1•
ri•• lilcc Cblna ommediorely. II eould be rhar a period or
"'verot c::cnturiej clt.pscd between I be wriliog or tbc
111 troll.llatioo In China. Thit provn rhot Gaudapada
ooviodop•d• ond Adi Shankota Jived ccnturlu berore '10
A.D.
IJ An emperor TJivikrllmn menlfoned iq a Tamil
CJIIcd KONGUOESA KALA is &aid to bt\0 becu COliVOTICd co
Saivism by Sbankara A crpper.plale a;,·es the dille
ol I •• rhc 4th Century A.D. and rbat of Tri\i·
t roma U ,., 6rh Century A:!S. It b araurd th., tbe Trhikrama
coo...rtcd by Adl Sbanhra, wu rhe lattrr. In • or
\bis coalcnucon 1t moat be potnlcd ouc th11 Adi Sbanka.rJ. •••
oot interested ia Shaivaite S«tutaniJrn aod He
.... first lnd roremost a philosopher. Tbt • •
refcrrtd to wJS. 1hcrefore, ooc nr his later succcsson. pcthap-.
S.rcbi&1111oda Ohano, rb• ltd pontiff the Kam•koh
Peetbo.
Arrer havrog tbus poinred out rbc locunae, IUiomaUcs 1111d
cootmdicllons tn 1hc ViHIOUS srod1t10 n s 11bou1 AdJ Shllnbrn't
lime quoted abo\'0 we sholl now dlscu;s the support·
Ins rh• vicw that livod rrom SOli co B.C.
Wt base our cue on the rounwfng:
(a) The records or the Dw1raka, Puri 1nJ K•nchopur•m
Peethll,
(b) Tbe more ancient rndhloot or rh< Shrin&rrl PO<IIa.
(e) The PUNYASHLOKA MANJARI o( Slrvajnallodbl
Tllr GURliRATNAMALIKA by Alml Bodba, ted
(d) On «llain YCfS(S or Jina V•jaya, & lilA ccriptu« c .. 'tl.w
tainmg duct to the t ime or ShJohrl
V.c thaU ditcuu lhe.c one. by one
171
m Klattnl 10 Adi Sb.tnkara and •PI'Urlnl In
VUAYA isquottd by Alma Bndha
PltACHI usu• " A. ltr<adt:
ID biJ -k S ""'"'
""" • .,... • •
ft«VtC4AIIIIif• I

CW1fd'41'\ t1
lo lb.< above., •• , . • Aoala' Ia 3, ' Shovadhi' is 9 Is S
•• • ans 2 Pulling tbtse down we get tbe 6auro
and · ...
100
• k d r
39S2. Rcvcn lnt It, betaUI< of tb< pecuhar Sans rll mo c o
I I lh. d
l•ilJ. we have l593. Tb•s rcpments the yeara
m.,l
00
•• ' • 0 C H lS9l
of lht Kall era Tbe Kali era began '" 31 2 B. • cncc
Kall eo>rrtlponda to 3102 minus 2S93-S09 B.C Thai wa• tho
, .. , •• •b•ch Adl Sbankara wu boro.
Amouc the otbu dcuilJ wt the eyct•c )'tar
\'aUllakb.t
111011
1h aod Sunday "'b"'b was Sth. dar of tbo
brotbl half of lbe moo lb. Tbe uomdan1 was Sa&tltanus and
the COD.lteUauoo Punar'I'Uu. Wb.at i.-. 11 that
Sbaol.ara'a bmb a.ooi\·CJUrY is all ovtr lndll euttly
w
1
tb lbt abo'tt data e'-ery yur. Thercfort. tbetc
:':.ould be ao doubl oslo 1bc outheotteity of tb • ytlr ofhb
bltlb betn& ll» B.C.
From that date tbc Dwarka Pcetb.t bas an unbroktn line of
.,.....ioo of ocarly 79 ponlltrs. tbo Pur• Peelha has hod. • •
140 ochlryu aod tbc Kamokoll Peelba, 68. Tbe lr&douons
prcocl'ocl b) tbctc tb,.,.Jicat centres caonot jusl be lanored
anti bcushed uhlc.
Tbcr< " aloo 1 oopper-plate insrnptlon of Kloa Sudh•n••
odd..-! 10 Adl Sba•kara himself. h Ia reptoduoed oo P
1

l9 of VIMARSA. a -.ork wrilltG by o roetol head of the
O..ru Peolba. Tbe lluc1iprioo 11 dated 266) of tbc Yudbh·
thoro en •b•cll oon<Jpondt to 4n-.17 B.C.
Tbc cllroaoloa1 of th< Oovu.UW.. Ptttha or Jaranollb·
pgtl ..u.." lis that of o .... u..
E- SlinDJCl'• wbtcll bu lad a cboq..,.d bit tOry
c1 pc\lda' apbcanla hu a u•dition b)' wtucb Ad I SbaD
1
1
m! aro=d 44 B.C. aod DOt to the ltb Century A.D.
APYA
S
....,..CA&ACfiAilYA'S AlmQI/tTY
JUimakoli Ptctbl llntiJe or doaciplea IV<ettcliOJ CO I be
balltarad>tt)'l pootilkate is recorded '" cite PUNYA·
;HLOKA MMIJARI, lhc OURURATNAMALIXA aod
10
SUSHAMA.
pUNYASHLOKA MANJARI consists of209 ve
1
,..
00
,_
It<! by Sarvajna Sadubiv Bndba, I be S4tb pootiff of the
Pc:<tba. He lived io tho 161b Ceolvry. ftc tcotifies
tbit most of tbc verses are very old, banded dowo 1o succeed·
lng pont.iffs through lbo ages. verses lie vcultble
QbjtUIIf)' notices o( thO pontlftcal IUCCcssion mentioniOJ the
dalt, month, ycnr and place o r the demfte or each. Tbe venes
••ere Intended 10 be recited In memory of I be de paned pdotifl's
• bile poyiog cbcm homo a e.
THE GURURATNAMALIKA cootaons g6 beautiful and
tcr5e stanzas oompotod by Sada1hlva Brahmcndra, a di><tp!e
oft be 5Stb poo1itr of tbc Kamakoti Ptetha- Paramasbivendra
Saruwati. In thoK is recorded the ruccessioa to the:
P<tlha from Adi Sbankara'• l imes.
SOSRAMA ,. a oommtnllry wriltto by Acma Bol lia on
tbt GURURATNAMALIKA Alma Bndbo wuchc disetple of
thdltb poolitroflht Kamokotl Ptttba, Adbyalma Prabsben·
dra Saruwaci. He Is abo I be author of'. a loss on PUNY A·
SHLOKA MANJARI . known 11 MAKARANDA. His tS 1
hlchJy rritical and historical senius whiob compels lhe reader'•
admiration.
Historians have lsoored tbe race or a remarkable slmtlaricy
••tho records or the Kumakoti, Purl, Owa"'k• and lCUdall
P<tlba1. Shrin&orl is tho only uoepllon. It would be .,..ry
uoralr to imssine that the htlld.l or tbc forme.r four DC IOID.e
date conspired ••&ether and faked those records just IO
cnulu.d PG•rcrlrv tbeit antiquety. Far from ever eom•DJ
loettber lbcao pontiffs known for Ibm plou., 11mple tod
:
1
"-Utrt livCJ would oevcr have colltchvely or ladhidually
OOpc,j IO I be YtDiality Of tlmperfnJ With I be <!aiel Of I heir
,.:-;:: fo•nder's life )ull (or the fUU O( It Wttbout lhc rtiiJOo
c OCt: or any material aaeo.
hntorlan• have oommilltd tbom.-lvu co ccrttllll
--.VUOIO&k:a •b•cb they doamautally U&ume are uo•Miillb&.
IW
INDIAN IUSTolJC..
They rd.,.. ro admn dares "'hicb L
' mrtJOO rhou&J> l1lpPOrred b •
10
<onru,. rb
h •• ••• or rcvolurlooary cbu 'I Jlrona e>id<oct " ..
are undtraoins amcodm::- E- •a<-old .;.•
lbctefort !hat rbc 17rh-181b c ••• : ·
lmmucablt and U.Da&Siilablt. ry bastorac:al tbtoric.
Thc cbronoaram wbrth PUIS I be d
$(19 B.c. II &Upponcd by Jma Vi'a s_hanhra·· bi"b"
lhOUj\b ft Js OU!lpokenlf bosriJe 10 Jar a ICtrpiU!< 1\tn
Yudbrtrbh• cra which con-espond . ara. It "'""• tbe
Yudhruhrra, 36 '/UN bcl'oro rh• K!r IO lbo COIOnlllon or
minus 36• JIOl B.c.
1
"" hesao /,,. lUI
The Yudhl11hlno no or rb J .
I r ' Ulo B.C. c l iDs corr<Jpondt ro 461 Kstr
The chrnnoa,.m acru II
Blrtna. But '""' he aod ;by records the dare of Kumanl
hc:lflll.l.lln biDI tb . "ere contempornfrs the
"'"' I bur • • rune
0
Sbankaro Tho chronoa,.
01
'!Ri•n•ml!'f lP'ltNl •rw•;,•-
,.,_._ • ..w .. ''t
v ' '\'"'. ,)lil .. fi'"t14lln. II
;rr-n .. ... , ·t'Rifi;r. '
' • _...,tlrf<n•'"
II tbt IIIII'U T .
M .. rhll'' au, " T.. . llthl • 1, W:tra h 7 Poorna l> 0
c:4 "· ''""' h ' .
"t t>«onrt: or the y e figure 7702. Wlum rever "to
Rb m•nl!1 Wn SS1 B.C. rhlra ... or the Join!. ,,,.,
aha ol Ia rhc birrh dare or l(umotll
h" IIRrfiAT SHANI(AR


.. )tlb..l Kum•ul A VfJAYA lhc. author Ch11·
or ''' ft'linu • .ca Ci\'ts • rhua SbJtnlrar• by.,.
B.C. at Sh1nhr•
9
• )eoir
"""""'· b -
• io -.I.e.. lv lrt•c mer !.;
1lla hu I Sib )CU tbll
Is 2 Sl .. ·,
lilt. Ia..
11
<» foboJ -dmJroJl NA VIIA\A
J'tAI .... , ... l
6
)4 lniDU• )fS7••77
p IIIJ lquO<nl '" llll o\til 01
ANnQIJITY f8l
AtJ'tA .><"'"
fi(E pUNY ASHLOKA MANJARI also pull rbe datb of
I• rho year 262S ltall or JI02·262S=477 B.C. In rhc
R>trauhl, on rbc II rb luoar dlle of the broebr half of rhc
vmbabba monrb.
S:btok3r8 YlShcd Nepal dur.na the reiaa or Yrishadcwa
v
1
rma, who co Nepaluc b.iltory, reisac:t
(rorn l61S .Kall to 26S4 Kall. (Kora Vcnk•racbelam's Chron/1-
I•IY II{ Ntpol Hurory. p. SS).
rhu dolo Is con6rmed by BRIHAT SHANKARA
VIJA YA wrluen by Cbirsukhochorya, a very &obcr
e0111<mporary of Shonkora. Borh were close cbildbood aompo-
nioo.t. to tbe 32nd chapter of lhat wodt tbe author says ulo
rhc 10tb mootb or preenancy marked by all autp!doos sicus.
rn tbe 263lsr )car of the Yudhisrb!ra era, lo tho auspicious
)tar Naoduo on Sunday rhc Srb day or rbe bripr fottnlpr or
lbe montb or wbeo tbe StUl wu ID
Aries, tbe had advaoccd in the Puuarvuu t:Oo.srell.ttro.a,
wbea Cancer was U«Dd&nt, at m1dday. at tbe bovr too•n at
Ahl>ljir, Jupr!er, Veou.s, Saruro, Mal> and Suo all bao1 in
culrarioo, Men:ury bclns pofrled wrth rbc SW>, llory•rnb•
• !Sbanlcara't morber) cave birth to the atoriow Sb>nmulcha."
Yudbtstbrra ern 26J I corrt1poods 10 2593 Kali wbich it tht
ume 1J B.C. The horOI(:Ope IJ <IJI (rom rbc above dara
•ould be OJ follow' :
s.- 111< Nodu ba.-c
tlcc:a o<>t...S btn
IHDIAH IIIITO,ICAI, tou.
"""'leo•
ooo boca mcaoioncd I bey hu,..,
c-ru••& 1h" wi1h 1bao maonlaoacd by lhc
s• ,,., . .. rcclha we fineS bolb !don heal except for lOme
ce>nr<1oDot. Tbc horoteope Ia I be Sbrinac rl Pcc1ha dDCJ •• :
., .. ,. .... h rtanelary • in <44 B c . .. h:<rlloll<d from
crhcn filet- Therefore. white I he S.brinacri boroiCO()C •• tnor
or leu ICCUUie !be yu.r of SJwllr.Jn't binb which I hoy belle,:
In 11< u D.C. it aol j u<hfie<l. Oo the olher hand lbo pllllllary
l'()tilloat menllone<l by Cbnsukhacharya do Iaiiy whh lbo do,..
ptHIIIOO or piiOOIJ In 509 B.C.
NtprjiJna VOAI Ia alJisned lhc dale 1294 O.C. (p, 110
CHRONICLE OF NEP ... I. HISTORY) hcnoo 1hc bclltflbll ho
.,., a foocrunncr of Shankar:& IJ eonce1.
Kum•rrl bovlos been abown 10 bavo been born In HI B.C.
ra nsblly oonoiJcre<l a ocoior contemporary or Shanka<a He b
abo coiled BbarlrlhaN or Bhatlriprapaneba He wu I be aoa of
GO'IOda Bhaa•alpoda 1M (>«C<plor or Sbanbrl.
To 1booc •bo oootcod tbal pullioa Sbaahueharya d.,...o
oo 1bc bib Cco1ury B.C. h almoot makona hom 1 conlemporary
oll.ord Buddha, ol mu•• be poiotcd oul lhal Buddbl homKtr
mu•t be ante-dated. Hat aodquily too hu been under-ellim.tl·
e<l. Bul ....... lhc fUbJ<CI•maller or ouolhcr chapler. Lord
Ouddba lmd from 188710 1&07 B.C.
Tho BRIH-'T SH.-.NK-'R-' VIJ-'YA a ivct lbe dateoo
•tucll Sbooklra wu fUlly ordained on Sanyaaa at : 1hc second
day or 11ie brrah• h•lr or lbc Phals·ooa month o r 1hc year 2640
Vudhltlhlra cro Thai C<orr.,(I<Jnds 10 49!1 B.C. lutlher corro-
b->rallnl lb< blub dale 509 B.C. II Ia lhcreforc qullc
thai .1\dl Sba.a.UJocharya woo boro In 509 B.C. ond died In
477 8 c
• • • :
I Tbo Trad•llonal Ap of lbe Shanuucbarya aod •b•
Malloo by A 'NallraJI Aoycr and S. Laklhmlnoruln•b· Satno.
l S.wodarya Laboto
' &ooua lboab11 by Ml ShaoUn.

,nAOACKAIYA' I AlfTIQI/In' 18)
,.ou J'}l/l
suobama by Alml 8odba.
pgoyasblokl Mao)llrl by Slrvaj oa $1dl(lun Bodba.
6. Maclb••ccya Shankara Vojayo.
7
Rajallrana••• by Kolbua.
1
' commeolal)' oa hbwaro Knthna'• SaM:Iryo ICtltlko by
Otudapoda.
9
• Ounua10•mahka by Alma Bodha.
10
• Makaranda by Adbyllma Prakatheodra Saruwotl.
11. Srlbol Sbankaravljayo by CbiUukbacbal)'a.
12. Chrooolosy of Nepal Hlllory by Kola Veokalaebc!am.
roocoolo-Since Adya Sbankoro'l period noc<la 10 be 1111<-
dtltd by 1297 years II ia obvioua thai tho enlire ... narlo or
Ids life chana•• and 1ba1 hla real llfe·llory Ia nol known. In
OCJth • 1hua1ion I luggtll 11 o hypolheala for 11udy and further
loYC>Il&lllon lhol ju11 u bo C1lobli1hed four spb:hual oulpotU
tnlodla be •bo !ravelled •broad by 1blp and on fool 10 1bc
"'" ond ctllblished hia 1plrhual hcrmiiA&e& 11 lht Kaba lo
(wbicb wu lhea 10 lolcrnolional Vedic 1hriDl) all be
Ill Rome aad 11 C..oterbury lo l!nalaad aiocc all !bote
1M. ba>c been lroduoooa l Ccnlru of Vedic l.....,iDI u d
Tbc Shiv WOrlhop oacl Shankarad>arya tndltloe
llCIO. lllrrc Placet bu boca dull wnll a l ao- lcatlb 110 aay
!laic Volume lolled- WORLD VEDIC HERITAOE.

Lord Buddha's Ant iquity Under-
estimated by Over 1300 Years
In lbc Year or GMI« 1956 whcn l od•• celcbratcd Wllh grcat
pliO tbe so-calJed l500th bulb anntYC!Sary Of Ont o( her MOst
soas Sllal)'S Munl Oautama 'the Buddha, the eelesllal
tJmc-l«pct must b&'< lauthcd bis slecves and tbc sercnc
•tato<l or "The Enltghteoed One' all tbc world over. must bavo
broLen UIIO a broad. tolcrant smile at tbe underesllmalton or
Tht Buddha'• &Dliquity by ovcr 1300 ycars by a not so eoligh-
tcncd pouerity
Modern lndia11 hiJtoriu and world billories have tended to
tcll radert that Lord Buddha was born around 544, 563 or 661
B C. u d died aflcr SO yeau.
Tlus ncms to bc yet aootbcr blunder in Indian bistoneal
ruurtb bcc:a:us.c: lbc:R 1s very sttooa evidence to prove: tballbe
Buddba wu born an 1&87 B C. aod died i n 1807 B.C. Tb•t
mu n• Locd Buddha's antiqotty baJ b" n underestimated by
o<e1 llOO JU"-
The quutlon then arises as to bow and why such a b•a
mar1111 of trror ttept Into Indian historical chronology. The
eaplanatlnn is tbat India bavina becn under British rule for
ntllly 150 Y<•rt and tbo eotlrc Indian educational appAratus
haYin1 b«.n domtoated by datea acceptable to them alone
c:aCD< to be foilted on Indian hlftory wllly nllly. Tbe British
•became to ntl< over India io t he 18th and 19th Ccnturi<l
bod ...,. notions aboul the humt.n cteation. They
tllooP• •• w., oa!y a r.,., thouuod years old. Cont<quently
lMf pmu....Sihatthe lndia.o d v1lltalioo wu not more tban
•-10 frtoe!Moauo!l Jean old Wttb that erampioa asaumption
lloof ......... al1Ja4aao htiiOIIO&I <hronolOBY OUt or shape aod
trdod 10 .,._ada aajor •••••
11
aa 111ft a date u posaable.
-
r
tolD aUD.OIIA' S ANTIQIJnY IU

Like doubrl•& Thomasea they Jirat c!oubttd ..,, ADd
th<O .. the bc:oeftt or doubt tO aJIIUcr c!atea, They ba ..
bowevcr. eotercd a very pathet ic ccnfwloo lhat they them:
• , ,
1
... ore oot very su•• or their faodi.ogo. On paae 171. vol
1
of Th• Cornbrldg• H131ory of lndto MJ. f'.J. Raplan
·•Uufcrtuuately evco after all lbat bas been wrilten on rbe
,ubjtct or early Buddhist chronology we ure "'" unecnaln aa
10
tbe e•ael date of The Buddha's birth. The dltc 4R) B.C.•
adopt<rl In tbitr bisrory must still be reprded as provisional."
Ukcwise Mr. Vincent Smith obs<rvn on Po1&< 44 or the 191S
edilioo of The Oxford Hbtoty of Indio that
date of Buddbo'a duth is unecrtaio, but.,htrc is JOO<I reuoo
(or btlievina tbat tbe event happened in or about 487 B.C.,
possibly four or 6ve yoars latcr.''
In view or this confusion h IS wor thwhile ma .. ballioa aod
sifting all av• ilabie cvideoce and finding out wbetb<r Lord
Buddha's datu of birth and dearb, could be fixed with aoy
c!ogreo or crrtainty. Such is of areat amportonco for
l adiao biSioricai chronolosy btcausc Lord Buddha forma an
Important laadmarlc and maoy other .. ents can be dated with
rcferciiC( to Him.
Jt would be: worthwhile not icing at tbe outsct bow Weate111
scholanbaveaarivod at their da tes about Lord Buddha. BocaiiSC.
oftbeir pet aversioo ror dates recorded in the Indian Puraoaa
and utronomit;al data, tbe Wostetn scbolara by-passed these
completely, lostead !bey plumped ror rbe peJ or some proal-
mate Weatcrn rocords and hun& tboir alJumptions on it. In
the case or l:.ofil Buddha, flouting alllodlan data, the Wostcnr
acbolars took Alexander'• invasion a.s tbe ttartina point. Si111.-e
they believed that contemporary Orcelc blatorlana were the
moct reliable they tried to trace bact lad lao historical cbto-
101Y to The Buddba's t imes from tbe dara rbey round bdp(ul
10
lite Oroet chronicles.
Greek hiatorians mcntcoo threc •uocea.-c rulcn of
COGtem
1
u ; Xaodrames, Saodrocottus and Saodroeyplld aa
<lt t Porartcs Of Alexander, It muot first ba DOted bote that
•od Arabia ohroniolen are notorioua for mutllltltlf all
lbeir and placo a ames out of RCOJOlt loa to IIIII
manoera of 1pcech. It Is, therefore, blahly diiiJenMII

, ..
.t:a• r-'l .,_ ( t- ttar e>cW.tioou. Bat

II.
•MI Or 11a•t, •ll'olon lliaw Tbq bcJc.o iloot
•lime-' .,_ lo M.lll)'a. loa Predoca
.. - l llla D3onnl!ld•) aad •• -
l • !nt:. a aii iDI) (b T cd
Ia< rode: ... l lXrC liO NlillU1I} bctll'ttll IlK GRo<k
• s.a.!.a· &J . ..
Q,...'" .» =<>t 111 -..etl>et it 11 Chaodnppu or
0r Gc;oca c- dyasQ Mr. Kou V.al atad:d••
clr oa C'C I cl ha boc>t HE AGE OF BlTDOHA.
W::U'\0' J:J"-G >\.\I'TOOKA A:o;o YUGA PURANA
u.: •n:s """'"' \.!d<olicatK>Dcl tl:..: Chao<lncvPta u
Oil. OM' c , .... .., oltja•Pt T\1ii!ed echtc chroootol)
« c.. - .... cl BUn: md'olfi:I tl:t d.&lt o( t..o.d
l ld'k ..
ct.-. beu lo.IJ. Kou '\"..,b!Kixbal A ) I D.>e
10 Qoo the V'>'1r.n loatot) ot Bbara1 M.
l1aa U.d. • a c:l t: ..,,.,..,.. A.n•..:et'o b n·

- ;.-.:c • r-. I! c " .. OpadtaJ"'pc.a o( die
G:;ca - ::.Jcwv o.o n-.;zo a c.
n, X ....... , to b) lhe Gretk chrolllclen IS
<'hNt; o . ..... a-m lhe las& AllodWa t;ac ol
H Ht wu swcrcc:d b:s ::J:;n:a<a:.::>a.n:D7
• .. , 0..::-a • 4.t of !he G:;n d)1IMI)'- n-
Os .......... • ..,.w S.:,dfocoCt11t He wu
- 11111 t., S.. • .!-ap;ra.. " d rliu Sa-::r.>dRJ"pu w1>o ..
'C"i' &< G: .. u :•Carme "'
•a U:C. - lry tt.c fint Wlft o( Oand,.JI'J"L
"fer lk ll;:kr .._. &o b)oau n a.nd dcclale
• !C 1<1 - •..Ut Tdc to be lhe bell C«n.a& IO
ct ...... b) .... .makmal lf1Jid!.ubct·
.. l.lro, cfN:rol., M • d u 1lit r1111m t..a& ulhe
.. cl AlnH hr 1 -=--, II a _,,.po-
..., Grtdr -· - - lire ll:nc wr cill•< n ...-. o(
"•• • ,
-· .... - .. ,..;o. lk ........ ....s.... All ....
r a ...., 4eat ca chs :a2 • • r• of J ....
e,
5
.. 01. M•••Nwrua wu. "Did .., •
116
1!7

3Jl B.C. Traao& tbt n ,_. dJat:&a
lheiD- re.otlo lbc ..... or • (of .. c.p •
.,.,..,) cr \facadha ua 326 B.C \lr Ka<a •
.;.l""""u ce PI&• l ollw book tlo.• .....,...,,..,.of
ol \bpdh .. ll:c -··=...,..,., of
Akna.1er t&&.bd an dues ol•·ncjau !;.r;l(c:d ..
•ll< .,....s &ad oc=lar lotcrawro ola.,..;., tr=a o1 Hmdwo.
B::dj:U .I..Dd ••
p.,T&IIU are the ooly rco.able •ou:ce , ., t<COIB!'*l tllc llio-
cory or UCJUJ IDdu. Tb: cbrooolou alc:o.d llom 111tm ..., ....
"'"' Ilk• lbd tbc 'rlcccr wa, 10 •
J!tctlh< ....s or tilt "falubh&rata War (lU, B.C.). 1iJ1 coro-
11111ien date awl.s lbc t:l 1 =a en caJl<d tire
Yatmthita s.u lo tbe l "lh ) cu o1 his miD lDrd Kraaa
dl:O. From ll:c of bis c!cat)o tloe Kat. Yep <tn)
tJq;tG .tloat ..-u at 2- 27, p.r.-. o" :1ldl Febo&>J 8 C.
K. ...::.U lad lbUI loveJ f or I !S JCCS.. lUI roc uo 1..«4
wu bono lA J2Z7 B.C palled IC""S) •
Xl"o B.C. Ycdhatbtra s rt ill, lbercCe<e U.:ed £iu fl ,.,..._.
n. pouJ::J any or Yu<lk:un..-.. 01ru tJ:o btci • i o
1
ot
GIXlia en lt>OtJll U tl:t Sapurfti or l..a:!;bta ttL 0· Bollia
R!=S '"l1lo lbu fioclic& ( piJU o( ViDIA..'I Mil·
QLAAY, .ol Yi).
lUll. Y wdbtttlt.ta m d S.pt&nhJ aliu labtib au lrra•e
.as been PfC\-al<Dt U> loda 4!111 WTT< q,..,tcd m ""'"''
<>:::u Acu:ual allli&Oacs beltd ot1 tbcm •<t: CCG>piltd for
n cr •met. Wcttt ro b41omm" 1UtfUG<IS tlw llle
HiU:a nd 110 cua 10 date ... Lbudcn.
\:>)or:.o • bo kaows t.be HiDda peac:!unt (Ot asuoiOSJ a.td
1;1 '1«ood tutuap lbc7 obutTcd 10 Wid oru . .. ...,._.
ec-4\o 0. W'dl U lh<ir COCIIpnbc"""" of <tU uri - Ul
CLc......W.J be ICIIIICD»I1 Oft._ • - aJ OIIClO Upcl llit •ci:ra
tJ:c, " <T< fu IQ keep DJ a ' """"' o(
en There u.., j<ut.Jic:auoo, t.!lctcCocr, foe Ill< •a-
for Alcvodcr'o .........., ua.,.co..,._
P'1 &lid lbco lctuo1 tbC"Ir ,... wild •
' "'' tl:c w .. kuass IDCtl toocC>J b) 111c G<ed: •• •
....,,..,q m ta.J.oao bJ11«J by aott to .:.C c 7 -
>tAM ..

hi !NOlAN IU.!TORICIAL ll£sEA•al
Hav•na po•att<l our lbc uaet beaioning or lho l di
ft l d B dd • "
m• •• nn" lllrN ro x or u ha s rfrne whb refer.
ci'CI: 10 rbcK eru
L«d ll..,!:•h, • 21 bora in 1ho lksh•altu dynany. Tb
(,,..n6fr, lbh,...h rc!£ned tl the beginning or the Krira Yuga•
H•• S6
1
h datendant11'll< Ouharaib. The S7rh wos Lord Ruma'
1be hero or lbt Rtmayana. The 86111 dosceodao1 Bribadbal;
.... l.!lkd in 1he Mahabhtrata war. Thi• long hoe or des«nl
otf in1o man) ramnies aod •plil l oto many prioeipafl.
li<t known •• Pava, Malia and Lichchavf
or llkshmaoa) lord Buddha was born
•• the Ucbtbavl branc.b. Oautama wu bit gotra (1.• . religious •
to a pl11iculn hous.o of priests). Tbis lioeagc Is
rteanlal1n the Upodghatapada In the IV chap1er in Drab·
auoda Porana, The fiJI name$ promioeot rulers or lhc
lhhmu dynasty from 111 iooeptioo to lhe end or 1he Maha·
war (lll& B C).
Accotd••• to tbt Mlltyl, Vayu, Vishnu, Brabmaoda and
oilier Purana1 30 Kiogt followed in lbe lhbvaku dynasty from
313B to 1634 B.C.
O..Uwd Bubadbala, kollal io lbc war by
Abhjmon)ll, W&l SUCCeeded after rtiiOration of peace, by
Bnhadhhana, The 2lrd descendant in tbeline, Bftcr the Mab3·
bhmt• "'"• wat Shuddb04aom 1he l'lrbor or Lord Buddha.
!!'<loiter, lr.o01oo " Prince Siddbartbt, wu the dueen·
n."t, """"•• •as tbc lan and 301b dosctndana in the line
.._ cxl )0 k10p 111\td ro, 1 total or !SOl years (ViJhnu 'Purtna.
.-.n V, Cbaplor 22). '
Now, lo flo the 11m d · ·
-of bia
0
UfiOI Wbacb be lived we muSt refer to
tODianporarrn "'ho <JID be daled w11h c:trl&loty.
0. P"ll 10 of hla boot M
'"lledAa -lllo r. Kota Vcnkallcbclam say1
or Kthtmajit, Blmbiaara and

1
• 2ad tad tba 33rd kinas rcap<ctfY<Iy or
hHh•••""'-..
'* e'-a
1
*" I hat Lord Buddha wat 72 yc.\tJ
04UTAM" 1lte k•oa (P 70 or the book
bJ ll:ru tdo .....
1
1
.... A lo Tbt Keritaac or India aerlct.
'· ... octWoo).

..
.• ,
DO
HA'S A}lnQUITY
t.()PJ> DII
ddh died of dysentery after parllk•ng or food
lArd Bu d a
1
_ a t Kusbinara In 1807 B.C. at the •a•
"' bY• cvo-
011ct Ctil
of SO. b 2lnd kiDS of 1be lksbvotu dyn;uty .. tho
Sakya,
1
" , (l l08 9 c ) became ahc ruler or rbe north·
bbarata wa . .
r.Uba rtion or tbe Kosala kingdom IYlni otlbe f?ot or 1ho
wostern po
4
. ' o' n• t-lepal. Kapllavastu wa1 l u taptlll.
Himalayu.
8

' o
"Tbc Sakyas and Licbcbavis arc branches or the umc
"
1
tbe ll<.sbval:us, says Mr. Bimafacharan Law
people .fe.b. book KSHATRIYA CLANS IN BUDDHIST
!"'SC 17 0 IS
INOlA.
Bhartla's Commentary 00 the AMARAKOSHA po10U out
S.
Lya derives rrom 8 tree hown as Saka ncar
ahe name •
wblch " king of the lksbvaku d) nasty lived.
B ddb.a was tbc
500
or Queen Maya and KingShuddhodana.
u • 1 II' tb age of 19 mnd under·
Slddbarta renounced prmce y .e at c
took eoanee ror six years under a Peepal ttee ncar Oty£
whor! he allaioed tbe Buddhabood. His son tu<Croded
to l be tbrooe.
Ajatasbatru is iclcolified'in Buddhistic works u the of
Queen Mallodevl and King Btmbisara whose upoto •••
Rcjogrlha. .
. r b B ddh• ahcre b uoul1111tY
About the contemporarou o I e u
bel ween Buddbill litctlltute and modero billorlc>.
or I he Maaadha rulers found
According to lhe ehronology • I wasLbc Ma&adha
ln tbo Puraoas, Somadbllllias

dyotsiY bad 22 Kinp •
at the time of Mababharat• war. alcd by 6ve rulert or
They ruled 1006 yun. Tbey were Tbtn rolloWCAI
the PradyotB dynoSIY who ror bO for )60 years nr
10 King• or 1he Shlshunas ram• \ w rourcb on the SbisbUDII
thtso 37 rulers the Jtar (/,t.
1 0
rory ofl.old Buddba't
Ksbemajll "'" the • • from 1892 to IISl&.C.
raaber, Sbuddhodonm. • • Buddha ,..., bOra (IQ
7
II wn durin& tbal perood that B' mblsara (ISn to 1114
B.C ) In the rc\an of tbe 3lnd btcned Ooa (1.., n..
B.C.)' Prince Slddhorrbft bccai!IO 10 1811 B.C. Ill
8uddhal oOtr six nf

190 I"DLUiliiJTOAICAL
tbc oftbo 33rd Kma. Ajat&lhatru Ct8141o 1787 BC)
Lord BI>Cidba dJ<d {180i). Thai &••n us s cobcrenl chroQoio · •
o1 Lord Buddha'• M: CY
Born ................... . 1887 B.C.
••
............ I8S8 B.C.
Peuoce .............. 18S8-18Sl 8 C.
Death--· ..... - 1807 a.c.
It the Buddha is deemed tO lived In I he 41h Century
B.C. u 1t oow presume<! then it tallows that bis contompora-
r.u K.shemajll, Bimbillt.t and Ajttasbatru otso lived durlos lhat
period. Smcc: Btmbilara wu tbc 3lnd ruler from tbc date of
tbe Mablbhanta war tbe total period of 2638 yca1s ()138
m>nus 500•2638) would mean that on an ,ave('llgc each ruler's
rticn lasted for 82 yemrs and months. On I he ocher band if
""''>tdinl! to our calculation Bimb1!ara was the 32od rulor (rom
tire Malabhar•ta war unull807 B.C. (31.38 111ious
Cl".b rukrtcigned on an aVtrago for 41 years wbicb is more
ptauublc.
1'•-Hico, a Cbiouc Buddhist who toured India at tbc close
or tbe O:ncury A.D. bas recorded that tho imaae of
• Bodhiwv• was put up during. the reicn oJ K1ng
P'cna of •be Chow dynatty. That event took place more chan
thrte hundred ofter Lord ·Buddha's demise. It I$ known
tbst Kin& p•lo& rdantd from 750 10 719 B.C. (A RECORD
Of BUODIDSTIC KINGDOMS BY FA·HIEN), translated by
Lcue. (Foocoolet 3, 4, edition 1886). Tbu meons tht
IIQCOrdona to Fa·Hlen ·a lnquiriCI The Buddbn was born not
later tban tb.c I lib Century B.C. Hl1 lestimooy, tberefort, allo
di<pr:t)><> the current belief that The Buddha ltved Ia tbc 61b
Ccutury B C
Adi Sbankancbarya, the JtloAI Indian philosopher who is
•ronaty pla.ccd by modern bi11ories 10 tbe Sib O:nlury A.D.
wu born oo a Sunday on the Sth day of tbe l>riahl half of the
-u. or va .. akba While S>gitlltiUI was " *ndaot, iu tbc
C)'CIIC )ell bo ..... Nandaoa in the year 2S93 or the Kah)'U81·
Tllat OOrt .. pOOdl 10 (Jt02 MlnUl ll.C. This lhOWI
bow ShanltaraCbarya abould In f&cl be plae<d '" the period In
wltodl The Bucldba 11 behevcd to have lived, while Tho

191
01
bo plaocd much carllor bccauJO Shanbracborya rt(u•-
mu b · I b'
ouddhi•ti• mellp ys•C$ n ,. commeollry on •he Brahaa
Sunil· Tbat Sbankaracbarya waJ born about 1300 YUI'I aftor
t,ord Buddha '' quite plausible bccawc soon after Lord
1l ddb:t b1s doctrine nouri1hed in India. Then ., centums
:,ed 1h0 bOld of his philOSOphy on the public miod bepn 10
• lhtn, and while in that decadent IIO&e Shaobracbarya·a
vtsorous propa&"tion of the Va1dik doctrine obhtetated
BuddhistiC metaphysics from the Indian mmd, one. for •II. So
the revised date for Shankaracbarya •ho lends support to tbe
view that LOrd Buddha lived in the 19th Century B.C. (lbe
<laborate thesis whiob justifies our plac•ns Sh•nkarachacya to
tho 61h Century B.C. bas been dealt wilb indopendeoOy)
RAJATARANGINI (an ancient hl"ory of Kosbom rulm
compiled by Kalbaoa in 1178 A.D.) "ates tbot a !Uhotnya
kin& oamed Naaarjuna came from tho land of the Bodh,satva
and did penance for days in. Kashmir durin& Kan•ahk•'•
reign. Aaain (in 1-277) RAJATARANGINI llatos thot the
11
mc Naga1juna resided in Kashmir for lOme elmo and propa·
&lied Buddblsm during tbo rule or Abhimonyu, succmor o(
Kanishka. Nagarjuna is Slated 10 be a K.shJtnya k•ng and
lh<refo,.. must not be confounded whh any .Buhmin or Sudra
of lho time,
Aceording to Kalbana be has narrated tile history of the
tulm of Kashmir from his ov.o time (1148 AD) co•euoc •
period or 2330 years earlier fro(ll chc lime of Gon•nda Ill
(1182 B.C.). Abhimanyu, the father or Gonaoda Ill, rUled fur
52 yean. That means Abhimaoyu's rule b·cgan io 23l0
4
Sl•
2382 years before Klllbana. Thai marked the end ol 1M 60-
)<ar rule of his predcce$SOt, Kllnishka That pro'<s tb.t
Kanishlla'a rule began in 1294 B.C. Which means th" Naaar-
juna Bodblsatva vished ..Kashmir between and 12J4 B.C
Since Tbo Buddha was born before Naprjuoa B<>dlus.atu
could Buddhism, the dacet 1887-1801 B C lot The
Buddha stand corroborated.
During tbe rei11o or Abbimanyu the 52nd of Kasllmlr-
(1234·1182 B.C.) lho seholllr v"ltl'd Kllbnur
to lckb and populariu Patanjali't trultk (M&b& BbaoiiJ&).
192 IHOIAtot HISI'oarcAL a-.
• .-cr ..
Wbrlc thtre ( b4lldracbal)'ll bloacf( wrore a ara
111
rnar lie
lliJo tbc of Pusbyamirra Suoaa CI 21S
10
1
;;•
B.C 1. NaptJuna vraitOd Kashmir for Propaaaun
8

duron
1
tbenme rime. Therefore, The Buddba mtat ha.eu\'td
t>c!- ..... r J.
RAIATARANGIN( at aces tbar J 30 Y•ars before Loktdbuu
1
4 :>1cmponl)' of KaoiJbka {1294·12}4 B.C.), Lord
lllllioed Niru1111
Accor<lioa 10 Westero Kbolau Kaorabka lived io 78 A.D.
1r Tho Buddha diad 150 )c.ars before Kanishka we gr1 228 B.c
u I be dare of Lord Buddha's demise wbkb COnOiCIS wilb •83
B C blC4 by lbc Wcs1ora scholars lbrmselves for The
Buddb•'• dtmltc. locidrorally lhlt also proves lballhc dalo
for Kao11hb ad.,OC'td by lbc Westera IS wrooa.
Hasbka, Ju•blca and Kan11hka could be brorhers or a rieur
IU>rdared coorcmporuies. Tbe 6rh tlaau io the 81b Tarana•
ohlllli or RAIATARANGINI clearly srar .. lhor tbey reigned
COttlcropotancoraly.
Tbouah Abbimuyu SU«<edcd Kanishka be was no sou of
tbclaucr. KaoisbJcc bctooacd 10 lbe Turusbka famJJy while
Abllllll.lnyu roan Indian Ksbatriya famrly.
Abblmao)u '1\'as succ:ccded by biuo.o Ill. S1oce
'IOOC<AOts ••• Ul,..lly named afrcr <mioom aocesrors i1 is clear
tb&t Abbtman)u aan1cd ancr the Molulbborara hot.) bcloosed
10 rhc lilouanda d)'ntJty,
Tilt ID!crvol bct·vecn RAJATARANOINI't da" ( 114B
,; D.) alld lbc bc&looin1 or Kaobbka'a rei an u 2442 years. If
ltaaiohla'a date, .. fiatd by the Wt1ktll scholars is Ioken 10 be
'II A D .. tbc date of kolhaaa't c:<>mposloe Ra}atarangioi will
A.D wh1tb It ye1 ro come. Wb1cb me•ns
· " to bo born htocc, "bleb souods like Nm<
-"loticat Pte<li<Uoo l ad oor b111ory.
.. ,, If >oe lal<e 78 A.D. as karJJsbka·, dorc a&
..... b) l<bolars, IOd Jl 48 A.D. I be date or tbo
"'llvca by k llbaoa u wJII mua that b11
• ._ lkalt "
1
111 • lliaco,. or 1148 !l))out 7a 1 .... 1070
itA's ANTIQUITY
tUOOI
""
10
• and lhe composhlon or lbe AAIATA·
Be!w«n Kamsbka a suc:ceuioo of 86 mooln:bl. Tbo
193
RJ'I'IOINI tbere le worb oul to 2190 yean Caavloa 111
pte period .:,. rule
10
eacb moolli'Cb). Ocduerlnr
era&• of over Y from it .,
0
&cl an of rt20 years
•,;. period of I070 years! d for if tbe WcSiera acbolars' vitws
I
. S uoaccoun
tcir den& "' •
ecepred bserv
,...,.. I of hi a book Mr . .Kota o CJ
On 37 ·elcd wilb tbcit presumprioot tbc w .. ,.,..,,.,
rbol since I t cooftl.k aditya or tbe Ill Coolury B.C, ud
concluded r.bat y, A.D. never exiared. Amber,
Solivabana or lite II od Sa!ivahaoo Sakas wore lbe same
lbey llalcd lbar Since lbe Welt= acholut pot!·
as A:r.es and Ka t baoa dyo&Jty from B.C. to A D. ro
dared rbe Aodhra Suva II :d "Sa!ivabanaM as "Rail
b . rec:cnt dote, tbey ca < f "S II" I
JUpport t. CJr b I "Sata" lea synooym o a • a
Satavabana .. argulng I be ell• lbe aulborhy or DOft!S
support of lbtir y KATHASARITSAOAR_. aad
ond romancu like LILAH la • Saravabaoa wu no Olber lbao
olbers. They allirm tbal a
Salivsb3oa wbo lived io 78 A.D.
S and Sail toay be lynnllyma
Philologically rbe names ala . IO""fll< AJ ror Dil-
es lhcy II'USI r<maur r- her
but as proper nam as Laksbm
1
and aqor
lance if on• wqman spells. llr mcallioa, lbar I DO
as ucbmi, bolb lwo and IDSJstiDa lbal tlu -
ground for coofouodla& I e. • S•n•krit namcwblle lhe orber
•lgniry bur one person. One IS
is Prakrit. r. dcd lbc Soh era boiOOJCd
Salivahana ot78 A.D •• kiDJ btiOOJCd ro dro
10 1be Paowar dyually ( m 500
10
495 B.C. SabftlsaDa
Satovnbaoo race and ruk I rVikratoodl!Jll wbo fouDt!ed lbe
was the gnndson t•:. 78 A.O. biJ arai"Ww Sail"""::
Vimma C.l\1 in . . them IWIY frotD lba COUDif)'.
U<rcated lhO SOkatl and lJid COII4uer0d COI&Dir* l:.!f.::
p<rformed tbc bouo JO<fl (rom vaaquitllecf rukrL lrlo
r.:rsia and received lribure wit• Oln•roJf u •••
b I ruled ovor l.o Mqodba l'lo• ,._
llndbra Sal ova O:n family btld ... , Blwlo,.. ID ..
c•pllll, Tbe A d mota llltCDded from lba - --
10 ll7 B.C. Tbdt
0 1' '-"''lr ____________ _
1 ..
INOI.-.H JUno.

...... Oor••
.,SIC.
Ia INI dya.uly Satavabao •-•
• ru..., rrO<D .....
""" to
Srliraheaa bad bit Clpotal 11 Ujjtio (A .
lad a ''
1111
) oo Cc01,.1
M t.:rbhcamacbanar to 1uJ HISTORY
SASSARIT LITlRAn·RI! (l
937
<d' f ) OF CLAssiCAL
lllr ......_. •- "I I 100 WflltS 00 o..
.-=- 1 ... 1 odoa bas 11.1 wcll wrin• · • • """ 2 of
hrana; ubobnlbll boiiOI)' and cbro l eo bostory aod lbc
plwa f,.udl "
00
ogy. Puraoaa are not
Mt>ellcr condemned tcndcncoes of
alllfi' lbc or•m.atoallon 1o run wild on tb W7"•m tc:holou lo
od aouuaa. He stld ''Men who o b .. as of
loUIOrian lot. Ntcbubr have tho I rue facully or on
•'-- ' •..a IDC r rom p i S$ •
Clll ..,. hJtlc>rJ C>( I OiltOn whose 1'1 IDC JentcOC'C>
,_.__. ocba b •· o eratwe had oal• J' u•t '-·•o
..... bow ' • ""•
•lat So:.l>ubr had left uodooe e;,er fi lbougbt tbey could do
ol Kalida'"- fablca or a ter perusing some poems
ANASDALAHARI orobe ADESA Jome vencs oflbe
Gil A Ill<) pft "'•lb tbe • O( the BRAGA VAT
ol l11U>t • hllloncal ega.<theau and Appoliniua
Noc OCII) ... ..,..,Ill COltclOiO:uat or the lod'an nation.
-.:1} lllllertala butlbc moot been drAwn fro., tbe most
nticl baY< <mpiO)ed qucauooable and spuro..oua autbo-
'IMI11J>ItOol." • Wolboul the lout historocal
Mr. \' A Smllb obocrvea .
INDIA.Ihcledotirm, lll2l) OXFORD HISTORY OF
:=::""' ... Mop4ba ••• • • ioeideo11 or tho
tOttll amo enuilcd "S•fll<l or on lbe ancoeot poll·
Ito C:, P<tltal't Ia th< Sib Caot ua {Modro Raksba•a)
u ullll1 11-1• &o rely ro ury after Chro11 Bu1 i1 would
.. ""'• work <of 1 r lllltltcr-o(. b
alief a.. - lll&ftl&ltl..a com • IIC1 atoric:al oarrn-
dra .. '"ld... POled some IC\'en teOIUrles
... tbc"
"-·ka-lltdr -- tebolo"' da
,., , , •• ('lOt ,.,::- of 1lO B.C fOr or 78 A o, Cot
,.iod of 1101 ,._,. l Aahh 11 -. oatwo
lit ... Ji8a)- 0•:-:;: ....... Ollly l•oOUt IO 10 IDI<r\COIOI
n u Ilk :hlilo ndcn lttauu (49th
............ ) C:ID>e tOibC
195
LOIO IUODH.4S ,.,mQUtTY
h""'"' Tbol would mean 1bey ruled ror ao avera&e of u
4
• • •••h which os ablurd·
Mr. A.V. Tbyapraja Aiyar io bis book INDIAN ARCHI·
TECTURE writu tbal a tomb io Athelll discovered rioeoallt
]las
30
inscription wbicb reads " H.cre lies lodian Sraii)IDI•
ch•<Y• rrom Bodb Gaya, • Sakya monk taken 10 Greece b)'
his Greek pupols and the 1omb matka his death about 1.000
B.C." 1r Buddhist monks had gone to faraway Greec:o in 1,000
B c. the date or Kaolsbka must be at least 1100 B.C .. lilld that
or Asboka, 1250 B.C. and I hal of Cbandragupta MauryR, 1300
tB.C. (vide A. Somayajulu's DATES IN ANCIENT HISTORY
·OF INDIA, pp. 11 2, 113). Tho Buddha must have lived over
·three centuries before Cbaodrosupto
We may now sum up the nrioUJ theories about Lord
·Buddha's date :
1. Sir William Jones believes date to be 1027 B.C oo
the strength of the Cboocse, Tibelan aecouou, Abul Ful's
writio£5 and the Dabostan Documeol (vide Joan's Works. Vol
iv, pp. 17 & 42-46).
2. According to Max Mueller, 1he Chinese aeeouott '*""'
850 B.C. for ,..sboka. The inte;val between Buddhi Ntrvaoa
and Ashoka's dealb is 371 years So The Buddha mUJI bavc
died (850+ 371= ) in 1221 B.C. (vide his RISTORYOF -'NCI·
ENTSANSKRIT LITI!RATURI!. Allahabad edition PP• 141·
143 & pp 3·8 of the 18S9 edi1i0<1 or 1heaame book).
According 10 Muellor Ceylonese occounll ossian JIS
B.C. for Asbokn 'Tbe Buddha nirvana would fall lo.315+
311 B.C. (i.e. In the 7th Ccnlury B.C.)
3. Dr. Flee I is of the oplnioo 1h11 The Buddha dled In 16JI
B.C. slnee A>hoka lovtd arouod 1260 B.C. (oo lloe - of tllo
RI\JATARANOINI), Fltcl oaya " We should lind lbal lbe
RAJATARANGINI would pi- Aiboka somewlwc .-r
t260 B.C. We abould prefeo ro tclcct tbo date &.C U.SO ud
thea we obould s<l about •rranJIDJ 1bc •-loo o/lbe ....,
of lndoa ouclf from the Puraau with B.C.. ll.SO (OtlM
XlmDtC doiC -cuJon of Ashob U Ollt l(altiall ..... •,
m.<>·!f""------------
196 I}IDfAif HISTORICAl. fli!$1Aaclt
{Qoottd by M. Krishnamacbarya in lili HlSTORY OF
SANSKRIT LITBRATUIU! lo.troduction p, XCILG).
4. E.J. Rapte>o's yte for The Boddha's demi.se, 483 B.c
,., oo1y prcmsional even aoeordiog to his owo
(CAMBRIDGE HISTORY OF INDIA, Vol!., p. 171).
5. VlliCCftt Smith did not undertake any original rueareh
oo tbe po1nt but believes in that same date (OXFORD STU.
DENTS' HISTORY OF INDIA).
6. RAJATARANGINI places Buddha's demise ISO years
before Kanishka That gives \1$ 1294+ ISO= 1444 B.C.
1. brought out by A.V. TbyusarllJo
.o.,yar places the evcnt lo the 17tp Ceotury B.C.
S fa·Kieo surmises the eveot to have occurred nround1
1050 B.C
9. A.P. Siooen i.o hi1 ESOTERIC BUDDH1SM (VI1! tdi·
uoo. 1903, p. I?S) wiaos 643 B.C for The Buddha's birth.
Tbe abo•• tbeor1es all conftict with one another end if ooe
amoac them, uamtly that which alludes tct the 6th Cenrury
B.C •• rules tbc t-t it is a mere accideor. Evco amona the
ahme lheoncatbe.6rh Century theory is the weakest.
Soma)'IJUlu Write. "All Jaios aod IIinuua qrec filar in S28
8 C. \'ardbamao Mlhavira diod and that Kumaril Bboua
(U7 to 49) B.C.) wu vehemently atlackiog tho 1a•os oil over
16d.oa and ,.., followed by Shaokancharya (509·447 B.C.).
Tbo intet•al of tnuc bttweoo Shankara and tho Buddha wns
about l'Un. Hence rho Buddha did not live In the 6th
C<11tury B C The accounts kept by the inhabitants of
Ceylon lle oo autboriry for fillnr; tbe date of The Buddb• aod
e&kulatiDI all elates In IJ>dian history on thet basis. The
J
- ... tcqulrod lluddblsm •• the 7th Centur• A 0 hence tbc
lpo- e&Jcodar II DO .... J
1
• '
lllo ""'dba .... .. ooJ u autbomy tbe date or
ocllolan ..._. Y ••formauoo The WHtem
•- n.. ..::::', '::'ta':.'" -dille to the or whims and
liMp of ...., •••
10
1041.., ochoolt 11 limply a
<DAllll Df lDd baaolau coojecturo•
n.. wllo ..._ n.. y OF INDIA, pp, 112.·114)
IIM4taa
1
• the 6tb Cattury B.C.
.
OHA.'S

197
d
w
1
tb Milinda. According to the Bh1ra11ya
' "' Menao er I (D s· , fc' · )
osored History Vol. I r. liCit\ art "'
Vidya Cbavan spo
10
tbc 2nd Century B.C Milinda livecl1n the
Meoaodcr Aecordio& to the MIU.N'DA PANIIA tbe
14th Mill•d• nourished soo years ar.er the demise or
v avaoa loo& d (2) soon after the reign of the latet Mauryao
Tbe Buddba, ao d (l) probably before the accession of Pu•bya·
kiD& Sa)lsuka, a.o
mitra-aboul 187 B.C.
, •
0
three indications afforded by tbc MILINDA
• tb Puranio evidence we fiod that.
<t>ANHA Wltb the d kin in 1584 B.C. The rei&D or the
MaurY• was crowoe g 14 ears That the l!lt k••a
kings in the dyoo.&ty ldostedl 3220 By C , According to tbc Puraou
· · k • rci•n ende '" · ' 1 1
Sahsu a s o . •
807
B C Milinda ame SOO yeors • cr.
The Buddha died tn I Miliodo'a time. Tbls surely is after
That &i•CS us 1307 B.C. u d ·
0
the MIUNDA
r S I ka
's reign as stale '
the close o a IIU rowntd kiog in 1218 8 C
PANHA. Sung• wa:tc; Mllillda (in 1307 8 C).
h
' ICb aga•n was certaonly loos a ,
'W • h logy II accurate
This sbows bow Puraote c rono . ' ptioos ar< oflen coo·
Some names found ID Asbtbn countries and rrom
founded with the oames of ru o 'oo of Indian ehroootog)' It
the kaowo datu of the Iauer ,.,.all
attcmpttd. 'Ibul : d t' Ged with the follow•••
f ore 1 eo I
The Vono o rulers of other eounrrl ..
Ashoho lnscrlptlotU AnUyochu,.Tbeos II o(Syrla
Amliyoka PtulcmY PbiladelphOf or l!IJipt
Tulamayil Aotlaon"' oonatut
Amt•kinc
Maps . )
Maka Aleunder {ol l!P""' '
Ahkya Sudblc ed ly to tbc lootilll oyllabtet-
Tbe above sinlll&riiY is co;:::,,, that tbO ''""' tbc
Wbllc Alboka't oniCI•Piio:.:r<Mfed oo tbe al;:'.a.<>'"'!
rulers cocotaoocd by ,.
1
1b tbc oaiDd aa ., •• ..,.
confUJed by Y.c>ttro dhJAat ua.l• Syria- ••:., _..
1
otenptoon• rul<cl

• (roaucrs with maA!r o;_ _..
or t7SO mllct rrom I! pt ,.., at a diltaOCC
ntt I)'

19J
Dar I) JOOO miles .,.,.). So Aa111ro1.a ,.,.
Jl!mau•• '•vao• pnDCe wlioa oo Afaha
01
,
110
'.,•
rW:! from to 1<06 B C. Th. Saaakrit word Y••••
1101 be ll!crrrcttd 10 a. can tbe Greeks in 147:·1416 •ht•
ta Alllltd, Gr .. k, u a UDkno"'n ..,d lite
••tt 100 Grcrk 01a1cs oa rhc c,U.o <>f modern Greece. \'1\a.::
m la4oan K\hatmll • ho ruled beyODd tLe Indus.
Rb)S Duods afler di!OCUSnng !he reliabiloty of the G't<\
• and Duddhost cbronlclos, in bu hook BUDDHIST
1'101<\ ""'"'or rhe conclusion rhat they were u,eles. for Oxtoa
lmtn<o<•lchrooolon.
Buttb< Purantc has never been conltlldictcd. From
1bc l'llranu B.C os the unambiguous date or Tbe
Bool4ba'a deauoe.
To tn 6xoof IJ>Cleut Indian historical cbtono!oay from
Mbena, Kind), loodoa or Tok)O dubbing or prcsumooa tbe
IJ>daa l'lloaaa• oo be fraudJ os •t best a Yef) • .,.,..
olladoaa butory.
\ Tbiru\'tAUIA<banyu fonneriy bead of tbe dcparta>ent
of Go•'UIIa>eut Ans College, RaJabmundry,
'IIOok•Of oe tbe aurocomial ·:lata available of Buddba'a lofe
! .. mel} tbe Mooa'• pbsa ud week days mentoooed for
- C\'QJII of The BlldJba'a hfc) bu also arnvrd 01 1.07
A C.*' •be daoe or Lord Buddha ·s death He S3)1 tn an artoclc
Oil the lllbj<ct lhll on DO otbet year dil« the data SiVtn tally
,.otb Clllro« ta the <t>bem<rin in the )ear 1801 B.C. He
lnOd S"Ul\ Kanno rtUao•s LIFE OF GAUOAMA Cor hos

lla P 8'1&11dc1 ' ·Tbe epoch or Gaudama Is a point
:.._'"'do lbo ••roou• """"" profcuin• BQddbllm do not •
8 • I -.. •rmc:tc 11tad StaCDa.e aa_nata plocc thai rwot
...
Oriooa• ' modclle 0( the 0.:.

he fore rbe
"- ... 6: lobelaaa. &1>4 a. a cousequcox:c the M.u:r-
flitl a.. .• p4,aq lbt neat ... " . .:! Jtundrcd )'c-1 ra
, . .., ....... ..... _.
FP iq b' t p __, cluoaoloar by COOiplctely by•

411
1
• lloc -...pcioo rbat tbey .,..,.
ItA'S ANTIQUITY
t,OIP at!DD
199

codemoc Tbe history of a
• ·•-
fi'IIUds ao:n cr be properly lnv«<.tl•·•d by suJpcettn& ""'"
people can
11
"" ond recorda ito thtor own land. Sooee tb11"
C)'Yn rradolloDJ h tau and tbcir dl'ICiplo ba•c a•tempted tQ
.,bat 1\'oocrn ll<h
0
d up in
1
.,.titer ot aumerOUJ coolhtuoa
their rcJc:arc e• co
dO.
dote
1
multiple d•tes hopdcssl)' wub
loS •J••D>'
1
-dy been that l'llranoc chronotoay
ther ot olio r.. • ndi "' I ·-
one aoo ount or ancient lodto. I u 11 gro,.
Jiv<> • coli>rtnt •« mend tholr currently profuse. e.bronoloaJ
••Jhl. buth at 1887 B.C.. and Jcmue at ISG-7
uod put The 9
1 1
h eveotl properly belona. 11te
D.C. the datu to v :;,cof ancient Indian history doted durong
other unportant • e h oo Tbe Buddbn mu$1 abo be Jokc-
tbo coun< o
11
f • bO>toricl <ooo:c they all falltn a homO•
,.,,. :.Joplc y ' • • h. .
_,·,vc of oneoent Indoan lltor)'
Ill"•

I Tbe Cambndge Hostory of lodi• by EJ.
. • H or Indo> by \ OIICODI A.
2. Tnc OaforJ Students ottory
Smitb. y
d Amti}ob aad up
3. The A\)e or Buddha. Molooda ID
Purana by Xota Veukatacbclam.
4, lndluu Vol VJ d t9,l
s. GouU\mD The Buddha b) Kenneth Sauo en, •
edition . b llii1\JII.I,chaoall
"· Nobotroy• ClnGS on Buddhlll lndoa Y
......
•mba by Bh;lrau
7. Cammcntaty un the ... ...,.. ., _ tro ..
I
toy • •
..... R<eo<d or BuddbiSioC ..... ,. Oilll
lated b) Jomes ler&•·
9 RIJliMID&onl by KalboDJI.
10. Buddb!JI l ndoa by Rb)J Ouo.U..
::!0() ••si..\IIOIJ
11 Ult "' Oaudama by Bishop Blgaodet.
1!. r:soltn< Buddhnm by AP. Soooen, I SOl edhloo,
U HutOI)' or AJJtleDI Sanskrit Liltrature, by Mu Mutll
t r,
14 Hutotr orOassoeal Sanskril Loteratur. by M. Ktlsboa.
llla.Jw)L
IS. Oalttoo Aocoeol HoJIOry or India by 8. Somayajulu.
16. lodwl l,reboltelure by A.V. Tbyagaraja Aiyar.
Antiquity of Lords Rama and
Krishna's Eras Gr ossly Underestimated
Bolb Ramo and Krishna are held io l he re..-ereoce
n India aod by Indians a ll over as divln': foc• rna1ioos. Both
ore regarded u the mos1 ideal bum&JJ beoogs. ThatJS lestofied
by 1be epilhct "Maryada Purusbottam" applied to both.
Bolh 1ymboliJe 1wo very aocleJJI stages of l odioo elvillta·
lion. They Ire 10 aocleot that we 5eem to have lost track or
1beir etaS. Bultbc remo1e aouquity or 1beir times do not on t he
lu ll $1goifY tbu 1bey lived io less eivilited co mmoDities t bao
our <>WD. lo fact 1he lofty thouaht about civk- duues, eoa loeer-
la& feats, armaments, quality of raiment and complteated
artronomiatl data cootaioed 10 tbe t wo epics Ramay3oa and
Mahabbarara deahog with l he life-times of Rama aod Kmboa
cuah11o coovioee u1 in all humility that compared to theor
I&<S our acbiovcmeoiS appear puerole.
II it sometimes araued th&l the Ramayaoa and tbe Maba-
:h.arata no doubt contain very lofty and noble thonahl the
of Which ha• hardly be eo equalled in any other age, but
; • marodal aobicvcmcnl, it Is sa td tbat descroplioos rouoci
'
1
8
b!liosc q>lcr are pure fiction and ought not to be bcltcvcd on.
u araument in rac1 becraya our own lgooraooc or human
Pl)'cb
0
Jo•u H
'11tll l '"' umao community progress IS never lop-s1docl •

10
1
•ay commuoil iea wblch can reach the rummu of
• • cal aod civic concepts would never Ia& beb1od 10
"""ICII IQ .
llledqJ •enuona, lndUJiry, ootor-steller travel aDd
......,d Becaute h It after all the saiD<' human
OCitcr

1
toy, Wllh metaph)'tlcal conocpta that run a w11d 10
'""cJ. I Qns Jtke iDVCOtinl m .. 111 0( lemporaJ COillfOt ( and
IWWAH tunOAI(.'Al. .l..l
(A-C.l t
Out btlrer tbet we tn tho l Otb Century b
adun.S lbc1•hiJ or auh:r••f •onohoos never beroro reath he
r1101NI In an uno.emntcd IUumpuon. We bavo btco •.
1
. <d
11
QIC' JC\'ma
!hat buman h 1 11n1gbt tnek naruna from tbt <a
moa 10J tuiMIOIIIOJ 1n tbc ptUCftl <OphfllfC<Jted IIIJe.
l><lk'l h ••••rrenled If"'"" look around we shell find lhlt
« '"'" • tun Ilona dllpw 1nd not atnlahc hncs. Tbe
uuh onJ oth<r ucllar bod1cs are all orbo They oil move!
Ma.,elie 1od electric fieldo too ate


Applytna the oame law to humnn civllizationJ we would·ftnd'
that they too rue end full in an cycle At coch
1118
,
lhoy ruch srcat hcogbls ood theo di$11ppenr. Tho anmo could
the Cit•• wub the emli>:Ailoos dCJeltbed In the Romayan
1
and the M1habharato If this is clearly understood then thoro
be"" difficulty in vl•u•lrztog tbot 1bo two Indian cptc•
two rul, ancient civilizations and tbe ocbievemcnta
ll>ry <l11m 11c no mytbJ lnvcnced by intaglnatf, .. autbort.
the Vedic tomes aJJd the dmu of the Ramayano and
the \hhabbarar• reprekat tbue di•unc:t ood rmponant 1111<1
ID l nJ1on biotory 11 iJ 1 pity that no, 'Jympathetlc' and J<riaus
atrempu have btco mode to Ox their cbrcnoloay. This Is a
bauc dtocrepor><:y in current tnts of Indian history. Ia feet our
h1>ronea JUil brush pan thate three >118CJ almort dubbin& them
•• and fables.
The «>lOa far thh academic intnenslgcni)C l1 chat India bu
btcn ruled by a.lient for over .. thousand yeats. or tltcto Ulo
""' 800 yoaro Muallm rule wore or complete chaos and
barred between tbo ruler• and tbc ruled. Ourtn1
lltflllh dornroauon for tho ooxl 200 ycara WeAtorn scholara'
tmm11urc mcdloevol concop11 about time and spaco, tho orl1ln
of the co.moo and the appceraoce or lifo oo canh were hl1h·
baa4<dly lmpo•od and Implanted 10 all •eadcmlc • • • • and
rder.._ Tbcy made ut believe that 1111 very tardy we
tii'Cit •D monkey• A(lu eomc. ye.an wbca we ltarnt Iff ..., ·e1k OD
uor aod uw tbc forekJI for broods, tbroulb the .. ..,.
- llafl - ... llOOC ... lo •od behold, JCJUS Cbnll lpPCII'
1M • •Ito aa,o and """" tboo bomeolly tsccd to 111 p.-
1
poa!tloa 0( _,......, proarw.
lh)
gr. U MA AND
wnQl!tfY oP
' h Wc.stem phyatcal ICtcntt:lll h., ve tun&
... 1
1
cnouJ r 1
(IJHO""" t'mhlvo 0 \lCIODI lot00Ut the llfiJin n I t
e.arhtr pr h
s.t.cd sa.u• b 4W • They ou "' 1.al .. Dh"'u' t C' cuth
ond lb< um
..,....... b thont of year< '" d1d th. IJICIC'OI l ndron•
"I '"' II ,. I ( I •
aad" e at •Ctcnusl! 11nd h1ttonatt1 .tt cu to
belf o•n soc• bl
Yd
1
pocr Tbe latter dosacul) <hn& to tbett unten• e, ,.,.....,.
•o;acbn,01,tie nouon.S-
1<· •· • I L h
•oOl
1
bould nO\\ help us 10 rea •:u h111 1 e
MoJcro 1e1.. . •
I d
. Q conl:>'pl or tunc rtnd osmtc ougtn tneaiurcu 10
ane-1enc a 11

1
of • Mahayugas and Manoos (r.e. ages and neon>)
1
ttll an omntaclcnce nod comprdtenuon whoeh thr.

modern l'l•n has nat been ablt 10 equal.
Th•; rcallz11tlon should prepare u> psyeh.,logioally t o study
b R•mayana and ci•lll:u tiuns as vrry

If, thcrerorc, tnternal •nd c><ternal evidcnoc l ndt·
Cit<' rhll Rama •nd Krishoa l•••d t huusaods or even bundrtd
or tbouu nd )ear• aae one need not s uft'cr fro m • hoelc 1
Wutero ..,bolars a nd their loell are prone to.
At lwc th<rc is no harm in cvalu&tiDll the traditional
..,ldcncc Tbe mere fact thai 11 indicates Rama and Krishna
10 h< of rrcat ontiquii.Y should oot put UJ oft' bccau,•
lu>e alrndy earlier Chat bunun Civilizations ba\e
risco :llld f•Ucn rn an unending cyde
lord Ramn regarded oa tbc LCVcnth incarnation The
trmr or his htrth lo kuol'!n with He was bone Dl t/,.
olrolcc 01 12 noon The day of his birth coo Is lu10IYD for cer·
He wn• boru on l.he nlrt•h day of the bright hQif of the
tarlton month Cluutrn corresponding to the Qnd of MDI'Ilh .wd

or April The onJy i• about tbe in
;IJlic
1
• • born. That could be calculated nod tallied with
<rent uVarluble dntn.
'l<eotdtna to 1 d ·
• ., Yu •ncrcnt o rnn trRdJIIno the prcl>Uit era i1 the
l·ll

Hindu •nrooomy h01 Hmed its beginning u from
, .. of the 18th February In 3102 B C, che momcnt
•st planch "tre ID CODJUDCtiO.D in Arc:u t/,e
rouomer h • t« d d h '
atb.rahoos r H • or e " >nlaumeot.uthc unatnny
, . .
0
1ndu outtonomy.
"'II Etll
.... Pr«cded by Dw•p•r, Ttclll and Krrt1 Vue-
fN'OfAN I"O:HOJtiCA.L tt•.s
' '•liCit
tru) •• that ordtr. From Knta 10 Kali lht dUtltton or lite
fout ,.,.. bu bc<D calculartd. to be 4,800, 3,600, 2,400 •11<1
t.:oo yean tn tbc .-uo of 3 2 ; I The di>toe
1'ftl"' furacd 1niD bumm yars amount rc-spcct
1
vdy
10
17 28.000 12,96,000 64,000 ; l.lld 4, 32,000
Oftbttotal 4.32.000 year span ortbe current Kato •ro
olll) $,066 )<&11 ba•·• dapscd '?esc y<an when •dded to tho
1,64,000 ytars of the intcrvcomg Dwapa.- era 8"• "'the
lil"tC 8,96,0 66 That CliO)' years b.avo pustd since the <odor
the Tteta .,. Ill wbieh Lord Rama bved. A I 2tb pan or tho
beJinnbl$ ud end or e•ch era is regard<d u rormina the
ttlllltUOD pwod. To our l3test figure we, therefore,
1 ,08.000 years or the troosltion period. Sinoe Sbrtc. RUillJI ;
1
lltd tO have lived rownrds the end of the Trela era, 11 means
that the epic Ra1111yana deals with tbe life of a society uluona
UoUI I miiUo:n) ears nso.
Tbe fauna desert bed tn tbe Ram&YJID8 includes pachyderm>
•ttb four nab Elcpbauts witb only two naks were also oot
llllb......,. The •re espec:Wiy mentioned amooa
.ooomals found iD RaVIUa's eapital LalJLa.
Aoeordma to anuquarians elepbaots wtth four tush
boc ame txllo<:'l about a miUio11 ye.an ago Thts '• JLI.It a speco·
mea of tbelilld of JCicotific cvidmce which awaits to be pro-
pcrlr ••..tuartd
Aa a wly we may a.lso uu the traditio111Uy banded down
bor.,_pc ofSbrec Rlftlll. Except for the positiont of the two
Nodeo of tho Moon. 11amely R.ahu ud Ketu. the posllion
tht otb<r celenial bodies boa been recorded on Sage Vntmfkl J
Ramayano otself It could be thul it waa not the practice then
lo 'pltc:c' the Nodes. S:bree Rima's horoscope Indisputably
ooc.ptod ancloclopted throuJhoutlndla for IJH Is on P•ll"
Even tbo.o who 1100fJ at interpretative astroiO&Y •houfd
lint oo quarrel wttb Ill m.111' ,Weal upcet- oamely amo-
-1 11111 11 the •datively ti.td posiuon of atan helpl aavl·
,.._locate their poootooo on tbe va.1. bewddertna. featorcldl
npn11c of tbe -· 11mol.erly a plancruy <hart helpo "'
pl8p>iDt u ••a.1 ra tbc •Ill, ..._tldcnna olllmlroblt ••t>lllf.
cf nNE. llld matbcmatlcilllt would do '" '
\
lOS
fi d out bow many yean ago tbe above planetary
tbOrtfore,
10
0
d J( it did occur about a million years
, tion oceurre .
comb••• If nthor Indications in and ouuido the Rama yana
bfck

to the some conclusion we shall have doted a very
tl!O pot
1
ndmork in tbe lndian ctvilizauon.
importaot a . .
11
could be that tbe nme planetary combonatoon recurs at

1
fLoodredJ or tbousand.s of year$. Even then we
ontervt 1 o " • b
cculd take alllhose dates and try to mateb them wnh t e.,t.ber
ccnobcrating to find out whieh of them should have
btc:> ... llama's btrth dale.
Acy body who knows eveo the rudtmCIIU of astrology
II'Oilld be able to notice tbat tbe particulars of Rama's life are
boroe out by the planetary posiuon In hi.s birth For
tomoce when a number of planets arc exalted and m<lSI or the
rcmllomg arc •n their own houses they indicate an irrnistible
ms!!oetism whlob makes almost all callors-oo kneel
• promatc. Moon in ita own bouse and Jupiter culled
belag poshed toactbcr '" the 1\scendant CAncu signify a per-
"'••lhy fervently dedieoted to trutb, wedded to stern dUty but
a ad juar. Mars In Caprieorn in the scv.:ntb bouse
;,doc.atuseparatlon aod occasional rebuke$ from the $po
1
• ·o.
J
'"'• the Uolnltlatod ore not likely 10 I !And tbls
''10• rot looa we leave II at that
dolllls coocernmg Lord Krishna's life are
tO •.

of Indian scripturos such os Bha&\:al (part
v, Chi t' art II, Chapter VI and VII) • Vishnupu.rana
111, •tanu
1

4
• $,
2
3 and 37) : Matsya Puran (Chapter
and Harivamsba (Part I, Chapter S2)
;JII &.MOl a A\14 AHD CJ.Dil'(A.I ra4.S
or &Ad s.rc-kecp<q o' !Wnl [.,.
1>0.,, b&t bed a.....,.t. " o.spte:d ud
to .a lAdJa, II Ia DOt. t!at<dore. r jll: us;o::t
lt :olll4 be that >D (r.t::hc
""' t'C>DI able tO l&f bls baD<!& 00 !.to pe oC<
t«>P"o Q011C lA 1 w-IU c a a:>:. !k; 111 ....
..... .-.eo if t•o. th'ec ot bo<oocopu a:c l:l bc a;
.we are .-ar.out wa)t o( r!an f)'\q •bd> C.=
- ne best method trOUI4 be 10 f1o4 - lllot :< st';x:, cl no.
_.1 bodt<> (roe> a%1Cl<Dl c;.obc=l or "":!:t-..s ::al aX•·
tioll> .r the d.alt, ,._., aa4 '"" of binh :uc t.ooa:.
"'"" rcsc:b<4 from tte ,._
-pc be &&ll!ecl •itb tbe c•eaa oft!:< =.ea"t l:!t AJ
10
pltcin& pl.u<IS lD o•o or culttd I:DIIl<i t: ClSl: be
th&llhc plauetl or uu.or4lDary pcrJO'QI c;
Cllr!ordiJWY Had llut cot bccD UCI& r:4i
,.oaJcln<"<r b&w: dupla>ed tbOK q,AJ,uo. I -.., t..
pointed 0111 tlut or Ill aU lktihcMII borooeopcl btta JU:J:
lhq eao be ten6ed by rdemtli to It:
deploym<Dt altbc Ulll< ot the illdi• 11l111'a b :lh. It =- tliQ
be sttt<d that if &IIOCDI IJidiull ar< ,.._
Jio:l "tb borOICI>pct tbc IDOCI<ro scllobn l:lo.-
(ar >D <q.Wiy cneuc •c b!IDd prc,'UiL:t .,,
cbaru wbocb of proi'<r c:2U c:: as
k&>t"' daUDJ the c•<llli of IJ!c, u tbe ttl
asual o*rnllulll arc oo tbe au Gn>
'Th- •otb DO &eqU&OOliOC:C Wllb astrolop
DOlt that it b not US) tO fabtoC&tC &IS b ·--- ll IS
easy IS pl&elDI 10} of the OlD< r aocu rucleltl Ill
the t: bouSCS ff I 0001« cioclll b< caD c:>S:I bJ
even 11 cunof) aloocc: for uuuac:e lf tbe: Sodn ar: DOC
pbc<d opi>OOJI< olh<r or Mrrcury u ool • ..,. _,.
or Vct1Ul ,..,,bhs t ... o houtn of tbt &UD ot a t : m
it. ll'fO!'O piau 10 tb< boforcopc f01 a JlTtD nll tile<. date
and QQDlh Etc-D lf aa ra.bdc:ate:f l!l torefcopc cs.:a
t.ti'O be •enDed •atb rdctca« to 1hc n.. Sit llldlt
IUb.)C:Ct a.o4 e•tOU o{ htJ lift bU 11!"&ftNc=. ,ud
arc ... • lOP' cca aad .:sa •
tbcm an be ,,.,.,.d. •••h
2()8 ll<DIAN
Spq1
1
a« bro.dly aboul Lord Krishna's horoscop.
1 abo•-.: lloda rhat almosl a ll tbe planets are Ia the, •

l • · 'J O"'lf Ot
cu Jttd JIOI•t•ons. Socb a pettooa rty os verr y a 0 0dbead "!los.
sr
1
tttualaura homage. Aoorher very
lnJ and to(alhble rearure IS the moon rn Taunr
1
lte<o.
4Jot wb10b arvu subje<:r a very attractiVe persooalhy, Thai
b v. by lord Krrsbna •s known as MOHAN "the very
auractn-c
By rejurioc astronomical data so tbougbrfully recorded In
aM•eot India, modern scholars hove dooe great harm to
resear.b • of such data out or hand
iosinuatlon that aoolent lod•aos almoJt aotlotaltoJl 20th
C.o!Ur) rt .. Dtch ICbolarSblp deJibera!ely fabrica te ll!rr&l dara
to stake a Cillllll of &rnll Ootiquiry for their OWn cfviJizattoo U
lfillllt other civiliutioos.
Madero b•u apiasr aocleot astral data tbougb based on
Ill< bcit of IDltDtiOD$ bas Yelled IO the very Oppolitc teJUI!$.
h is QOI Ullltkely lhll the lllodem abborreoco or astral dal•
bas I'CIIII!cd 10 fotlltaa false dates IU>d tmplaotioj uawamottd
cbroooloD' tD lodia11 lustor)'. To illustrate tbJJ poiollean
&a actual IDiliDC< of bow such btas bad almost led to
fOUIUtt a 6chhou• date oa a research tbcSts.
A adlolar kllown to me wu wotking for bls doctoral theat&
lin ' aoude' w" 10 lodlan Cllrtauan who bad Imbibed all the
dcq>-oc&trd P«JUdoc:n or Western M:hOillt'l for ladlao astnll
clarA. Tbt rub,..t of tbo tbcal• ""' Nana Phadaavecs-tbo 18th
Ccfllur) •
Duuoatbt ouurac QfbtS research the ieholor found three
dilll:rwt clatn mentfnncd by conte111porary Enal•sb officlala or
1M Eaotlnd•a Compa.,y, ba•••a a beariaa
00
Naoa Phadoa·
- ·· \lrU.. Tbc lbtee ollki&h had retpceltvdy rec:orded tblt
11MJ ..._ IIIC>tl '" receptlooo lrt&GICd by lbe Pbedneveet
fiiDoily Ott Ftb<Ulr) 12, february 2• IIDd Deccu,bct 12 174lln
•ltb the b•rtb of a ooo •
..... ftfot- •ere ••lcrprcltd by ao.,. acbolaB •• coo•
--. • or Naa bittla "'
- tM •ual borDO<ope ......., ldditfoo tbere
olalt •Ilia. _,_dcd •rtlo MCral cla11 IIDd fadlan
__ , 12, 1142. .., IIOqUI·

OROS RAMA AND KaiSHNA' S 8UJ 209
or L
• Wi I IO wrtlt hiS lh<Sll brOUi hl I be l hovo fteU IO
iota.nce who 'auld<' seyioa thll lioce the lodlu boro100pe
tb< oot•C< of wt:b tho date meatiooed by the finl Eoahtb·
{lltral d2tC)
11
N
1
Phadnevees'a autbeotic birth date.
lh.al wu s an
rnan. d . b<cause of bls learned prej udtce aganm aural
The 'guo eo lllvt •eytl<lng IO do with lt. He.,.., oot cveo
"''" r<fused
1
d any corrohorstivc value ro lt. Thai •lmost
prepared
10
• u<at in• that whenever Indian Ia horn
ted to •n11n • d h' b
omoun
10
many astrologer forgers arouo rm w o
tborc over dumping OO the world 0 sheaf Of CODCO<Itd
toke delighl In f. d later scholars or just for the fun of
opes to coo ouo . •· did
hotose , 'd • therefore lns•Sicd "" ' 1= caa
010
forger} The aut t o the three dates mentioned by tb.t
confine officiAl• and burtreSS oae o1 tbt1t date!
coolemporary Eng I Phadnuvt e!'S bltth Tbll preJudiced
as the real date of In tmpan ina a " amp of autho-
lns15tlloec lftlgbt ha e r h tcaroed' ob?rt•Jl&httdocu
"I\ tO I wrooa date btCIUIC: 0 I C
" .
of tbc ' gu1de.' • caodldot< ,.,
1
b rue iatl&bl
Bul as htelt would have cv•n tbe two dtffuioJ dii<J
LOUld A for mUll by W I d-... CDt'DIIt'ICCJ 10 l}u:
could bc reeoocllcd wtlh the In' ""de' thot onr of thc tbtec
He .. plaloed to the eh tallied" lrb tho lnd,ao
rd d b
the Enal ol.m n w ' h F bt •k
d• tes reco e Y
1
dlte .. Me lbe e • .,
date woathe rcul . ceremony f thr
roccptton IMrkcd the nam<na 2\ d•> from the blrtb, ln \ 1.4Ja.
boy (alwnys observed on I he I t lcllnu 10 moMhsl reception
rashtra) nnd l :lth December ony Thi• eonv•nccd the
wQs to mark lh< pat<·!hovlna i. am IIIII not sure wbelber
'suldo' or the rana!loo b•• eubled
lh&l dlsorml ng and lllumtn•rl B osaoost ladllo ut«>aomt
'•uldc' IO • bed •ome or hi! prCJU •
e d • I of C\ICftl'· f
<AI notinp for rhe atlll h t mocl<rn tu•P•••o• o
This should convince
1
111
of

loduao ;aurooom•ca1 rcco t b.urn to lb« tejtd•Df
ma) ha\c rt:lulced In l'"rdu•l!"'l h) bclle.vc in tl
bbtorieel chronoloJ)'' b)
It Out or band.
1
thll all other trl.-.
h .Jll be/C. I
All I "'"'" to emp •
210
INOI.\N ltltiO&rc
&tla,
borOICOpn too moy be critically examrned cs ,
1
<11
rbcrc &rt more rban one in vogue for tbe
1
Ptcllllt "be
"h r 211le •vent It
p=t • rRoce o them u somcthina d 8urr1,
raal record " u11 and lurmru• ,' b<bllna
I
• 0 I c •
dear to b stctrans. Tbcy almosr stem
10
•er . ' tltr!o
.. , . . • P>nrcky ,
norOEopn arc pur rorwud &S hrsroncal evid•r. • A •'t:
horo:::opu or aural data point out to lhc . ,
1
_ad
• o< lDitnur
perJ<lDAhllu or even" whrcb lo<lbolan bave •
1
Y or
be
proo, ro
auumc or presume ro comparatively rcccnr rbclr
'- 1 ho . knrc of
&ul'C•· .nows no unds. Suob drsparity Itself maker rbem
jcrtlton I he utral evrdence as a fabricarion.
ModtriiiCholnnh•p had, therefore. berrer ltarn ro 'Ill<
wr•b asrral dAr .•. There can be no borm done in ,. lrarr
't11bllv c:umrnrog such data and acceptiog It roferco,. ,
1
pcmrhlc rrtuMr where other indicaJions too do not cuttQ
&D) dc:11lve conelu,lon.
lo utral are found 10 be occurare tber< uo
be DO be<kr 11100f fo• daring brstorical events and peuotuh·
IIU llec:auH U1U eb&nge and eooJd be los! track Of in rbc
burly burly ar hrstol) but astral noliogs could be alwaya idtllll·
!Jed by calcolarioos. Ancr¢nt hdians ratb<r
deterVe to he conararulated for therr uncanny bi to11cal !<0\0
10
not•ota<tral dati for individuals and evenr •• rather than ect
CUrled a.ad he IUipt'ICd Of IDOOCCOl fun or not 10 tnnOctnl
hGrGICQplc for&eriu
All thoat l,avina anything to do wirb Indian historiClll
....... !. •hnuld, therefore, be prepared to ,.,ccpl tho &••'
11
:,""UIIy or the Indian clvllizahoo, uod tbe utlhty or reeorJ<d
"'data. No acouta• hlatot ic:.\1 research ol on> krnd of any

1
• I'CS1tble by ocbolon hat•na •nd suspcctiiiJ
1
COU!Itl) • P<O:>Io lllld tbctt acrciect uc:rounct rr.rdltront.
1 dAa "am ltlk•blt • O( the immcntc ,nfiQUil)' Of lhC
. _..., a•Uturloa It 1f d •
s 'ICr .. 4aac!o, • or eel by a LutDrKAI probe of lou•••
a '* M. Ia ••anc aad astroaomi,.al ""-tbem11ti<::t..

• r.u, we 10 We oull liod tbo•e 1t11 on I tc•coctl
.. - !Wt .... DQ,a ol"'tod), Not to talk or bern& obi<
.._...._- ... "do- - -· aero"' any pc11od
Ish- -. Ia liMit fOfiDaUYe !IIJCI AI

'
Al<fiQl/ITT OP LO&O'S aAW• AIIO U IIHN•'S £lAS
211
-:ego back uuioa their blllory we 6ad every mautro «fcrrioa
10 10
me old m!Uier alooa ao unending trail roecbma bock ,.
10
uor[llc:eablo aotiquiry. It should oo! tbereiorc, ' •u•prLJe hrllo-
naos, if as rod lea red by Lord Rama' s tho lod
1
1n
civili-.atioo b millions of years old. Thst • • sbnald
001
k denied it only because it docs not fir ia wirb the medloeval
prcsumptiota that human civilita'.ioo itself hu a very rc:ceat
origin.
!Jib/logrophy :
1. History ol' Dbacmasbutra.s by Dr. P. V. !Cape •
2. Tbe Age or Buddha, Millodo and Amliyoko aod tbo
Yuga Purana by Kolll Veokatochcl•m.
3. Various Indian Puranas.
4, Some Notable Horo1eopeo by B.V. Raman,
BlooJtr VtJ IJ
• Arya. an Ideal Misconstrued
as a Race
Ovtrrunnona As•• in the of ' It
'"mIn tho 18th Century, •cholo' I ' nascent lmpcrjp.
poundona half-baked theorfes nod forcio rs ran berserk pro·
the illbJUJoited peoples of the world. 8 mi$1Bktn thcsea on
011< lucb notion fore d
••r•Ot v.orld wu the phantom of ae on
Eocr 11114<. armln of scholars so-called Aryan ,.. ...
v.orl.d o•rr b«o hard rut 10 d fi have for geocratioos all tbc
ldenuiJ bn i•nauaae or I e De ,.hll aD 'Aryan' soao•fi••·
Tb ancuagtl loeote bll bomrlaud
"•hadov.-cha .. og "" boand •
tutu C)ofurion and toUl l bt to result in notbrOJ but
khoilr>hlp hal th •• C:OUR blundtrina Weucrn
Ra«:' OUI Of 110 OWD lm p. aD tom of the SO·C8lltd
a•andonr of tho Saolkr t•tB nauon caused by a basoc mosunder-
j ;rm Ar)il..
.II
£
1
'
04
1
'"
1
"
11
now O>aoloblc thnt lh• A
tit r "' ryons. were no rare 1H
. rc ore, lhtlr !IUpposed
IPftild ,..,
1
"' •nd mig.ration jn wa.,.
0
,., Rd
P"ltPocll•o. Europe a ppears to be • blp joke ' "
• • I ndi
IIJ.bi{) ••Ideal Toith , •:• h•tl coined tilt word 'Arto'to
l>fcd .o P<rftc• pmrl:m n
1
"
0
' """AryA •iJ!IliOcd • tharouah·
kl-bt &reat IJetlllh and •,o idul person ... ll superman
ll)' rtfcrrcd \0 ror purity or bchllviour ahey
h.ich nuy • • r)-a concept u :a 1111c or
\\'llal bt IDIIil otplre.
l
11
''
\ II'Af& fDat!m wt\tda t tl I hit lf"Ulh nn be (OUUd thJO tbo o;wcll
"'ITO YI5HWAM ... ::-••
00
alllndiaos tbc ldul 'KRUN·
YA\t /,, " MAKE Rr
213
wotll.D ARYAI'I". Had the word 'Aryaa' siBDified a race
cbc: above dictum would oot have comt ioto bctaa because l"'iCO:
QODSCio"' people far from wanliOJ to auimilate the 'wotld' 1
tbcir fold htli<ve io mainlainioa an exclusive identify.
0
That the word 'Aryan' aianilleol ao ideal mao and .oo l#e ls
again proved by Lord Kriaboa's admonlliao to Arjuo "Be DOl
a co..vard ... •bed uo·Aryan feelonao-aod bt ready to ataod up
fiaht.'" Lord Krishna beina A divine incarnation be woold
never ideolify homaelf with only one race to the dltcrfmonatioa
.,.lusion or or hers.
Another proof is afforded by tbc vocatiw: UIC or the ltrm
' My•' lo ancient India to oceo1t the husband or the king. 'Tbe
otbcr 5yoonym (or a husband WI$ "Vara''. fn Saosk.rir
the term 'Vara' slaoifics a bl&hly accomplished mao. htnco the
ttrm Arya too had an identical connotatioo.
Therefore. to rcaard • Aryans• u aome and a very
pcoud race at that, wboch dlstiosuosbed ludf from md rutb-
lc$Sly dominated tbc so-called Oasyus or staves is a blundet
which bas vitiated the study of all ooclenl lodWI and world
history.
The tC11D • Arya' wu notbioa more tbaa 1 gcuml honorific
as a modern speaker addresses his aud1tnoe. •• ''Ladies aDd
Grotlcmen". Thai docs oot mean that the speaker bimldf dOCI
not count bimsolr OJJIOOJ gentleo%1tD or thattbnsc not prcocnt
among the audience arc not "acntlcmcn"". Ja tbi.-caae JuSt ••
oiladies and Gent1cmco" do not eonstJuHe IDY rpcc.lal rJCC
similarly wben ihc nnctcn" llll<rtd rhc word ' Aryl' thoy did
not refer to any race or dl1t1oauish 'Aryans' •• masters rrom
some others ouppo!<d to be 'tlavca'
Dunn and Dob•haotkY biv• on tbolr boot titled HERE·
DlTY, RACI! AI'ID SOCIETY aprts,.d
1
"mllar oploloD
when the) obterwd "Mil r.toeJIOf ... OD on uolocky day asrd tile
wordt .. Aryan Race' ThiU tbc,. ltuly out of lalt aloae
an imaai»attvc crcatutc'. Al'fiiJ IPD - •• •JT
1o bll boOk utl<d THE SAN_..
Profes10r T "fO< lbo lode>·....,... ,.,,..;oa ol
lANGUAGE obo<rted allllolc lo oil& tal o1 til&-
ladla oo direct <Yi- It •• ... •
>!AJ.U.>If"------------
li'OIAII HlJTol -
IC..t. lf
...S. trsctr olrhou1b htaro1'1Cal all · ·
b
(
• are
t crt ll no r< crro« anywhere ro rh . not uneom
IO) cldnot< tod!QIIioa thor It of rbc miaratio
ftDlcrnbcred D. nor
n .. nldtDC< rs eaouah to rtfure the n . •
l odoalll art a <ooalomerate .,f Ccotral As olton, loo, beld tlta
la4•aa bJ•tOr) • <tart by mak. tan and Aroric I t
tbt ,.,n OUt>¢1tbat ,.e are learn by rhe rot::,
0( loclra wert rbc abongooals. We tbc ah tb; r<al inh•blttot
olm"'l urermonated us original mvadcd India an;
bchcvt, Tbot.e: of rbem who surviv<d r "" we are asked ro
ed ID rbe Ar,•n fold. II " ntcessa be holocaust aot absort..
look •• thlsllnlster dcxrrlne. ry ro rake a second,
Onc way looiJot st and classit'yl
buo '-"don tbcir complu' ?8 human bfings b
le>tU Ulajllt arOUJU of • Thus II is satd that there t"r
tu-·•• d In OUt WO ld •
0
·-- aa Thb m> . r • wbttu, black
to tlkotafY tho ,.hit- IU " A y alngbt so far aJ It IO<S a'·
pi
" I')&IIS ' ' h' • Ul
ooned urher • ArvUI' wu IJ a tStorkal blunder. As
Thcrt for<, ooy b for a 'gentleman' , a
lul'ptlll e could be called • Aryam' t above four aroups
1114 Toe Germans and Gr k • This '' enetly ,.bat
to ••• dolled among wbo llre whites aad tb<
llut ''""' :' If t.ryaoa were a r•cc are all
bo-. bta .,. people> have a comm could not happen.
other, usln& tbe honor':: culture they
Ule ol the word • c ro refer to each
to

eOicrn scholarsbip lpe •ubsequently made
, .• n It II • rau, '
31
cadod by MOl Mueller,
It h Ibm or IICII h
lkl ••t. t at IInce: laogua et .
llallt. &04 kOf Clllt 0\CT. Y<ry ..! With amni·
......... It II.:·.·.· K&b. lbey m"'l bt reaoon from Boll to I be
*
1
cl'- 1 · - a.ve :1 co
-h·•t u,. \o ' """"'d tlur tb romoo llnaulstic
Ilia• lito llD-· S.ubll but not Sat oncestrallanaua•e wu
Iidia _., dooat lOiknt Th
0
alao ... ,....._ to rbc •o-ctlled • eo it io oraued
• .,_,_ •t.o 'POlo tbe II
ao ... .,..._,. tbe T l ndo-EuropeaD
na ...... ... .. th•• olen;· he eotirc thcor• or
...... ucr IICID I
........... ot
Ilk orl&loal bOlD< or


• tt>!AL r.uscows-rauao aACe lU
•AJ'tA Al."''
ant aod routes ' A' and ' 9' ronowed by their two
tbe mlsrations. Readtnasucb descriptions ooc wooden u
01
':.'t,
0
.,., tbe luckY cbrootelcr wbo sat detached, perched on
10
b' tb rock. or bopped all tbc way observing and chartin& the
;.,;,e followed by .,,vu of miaratio& '"ryans"· Hi1toria.M who
l(O gcoeraiiY lcoOWD 10 ask all SOrtS or bedgio& <lUcstions
bcrorc acocptina aoy tbeory seem to bav• 'gulped' tbe 'Aryan'
'rnigrltion' theories without mu<:h of queslioniog or
thlnldog.
Soll)elioguists seem to lay down the dictum that the ougl·
nome or the Aryans must be deemed 1.0 be tbe resioo
wb<tc the ma;ority of Indo-European are spolr.en.
The ioevitabl• conclusion from this would be thAt tbe so called
'Aryans mlgratod from Europe. BUt philologists are oor agreed
eveo oo thl!. They roentron tbe Pamir Plateau, Turkey or
Jcolaod to be the original homes of the 'Aryans'.
Tbelr very basic uaumeot that Europe ou&hr to be tbe
original bome or U>e Aryans btcause a majority or lado-
Europcao laoauaaes are fouod to there. could tO fact lead
to a 'it'fY different cooclus•on. Let UJ take 1 c::ontempotatY
iostane.e. ln Ameuea n1 our own umes we fiod a cooccturatioa
of tbc most vatted dialect< not onlY of e.urope and Eoata.od ro
particular but of roaoy othtr reaioas. Wbot does it sipfy. II
does not prove that Amerieaos colooi .. d europe but vooe
\ 'C($i,
By the same token we can say that if Europcao • •
show a Sao•krltle baac and 1r Sanskrit ftburishes in its pristine
story ooly In India tho conoluslon io obvious lbll it was eat«-
prhing lodiatu who m•a••••d to •II rhe other cootlneott. Llt<r
on wbcn In tho course of ceoturln link• wrth radio anopped
the Ewopeao tanauaaes retaloed only tr•••• of SIDiktit while
rea\ Sanskrit ,clll nourlthet at til to\lrcc namely Jlldta.
That eooclusloo il furtber relororood by tbc f .. t lbot tbc
IDC1etll Vaid1k l n.JtllM did have a dyoamk dopA .. Kruavaa&o
Visbwarn Myam' ( Mate tbc wbok woriAI Atyaa'J .,.,... .....
led tbcm 10 push tbclf oe>DQOCIII aa4 c&plotl,_ 10 diO
r<QIO\Ctl taa4• to apread tiKI< p owlodlo aa4 0111•-
216
INDIA!< HISTO-ICA
L •£Sru
Wub Ibm lbeory o f lbe A Cit
ud Aryao m•arauon tc> India Euro pean scb ryan• bcina • ••ct
pr<l Ved•c lcraa t he basis of a su olars lt?d to '""'·
lbe •o•-..1••& Aryu· and lbe RIIJYe f,!"'d sed <onft•cl bct•cta
tetms 'A•a b ••o. Tbu, lh
' JI WUa (oon-sac rificcrs) 'Sb' Hed"
• ·ors•· ) d • . • ••nadevab' ( h
1
wpper> an P•sbaogabhrshll' (black) P alu,
Europeao scbolal1 to be derogatory ter m •;• c:oncelv<d by
AryonJ for lbe natiYI> 'black' Indians I use by the luvAulna
SU>pect lbat the Europeans quue rusnnab!c to
on a byaone ase and on • ' •" colour Ptc)udiu
S.condly, Sblva b:ing
1
uf ' Arya"''·
'Sh11nadcvab' meaning pball ;),' '" I • edos the t<tm
been deroaatoty at all. It • could not have
pcd Sbova while Otben did not I some people worship
purt.l)' dJJtiDChn trait M - • lcnse It could be a
mno 'pw•onate' or 'd Shosnadevah' <ould ., well
II all Therefore lo . ynaauc' and nol ' pballu>·WOCShippers'
"'"'" u lballbe "''"' signifies lbe Orovo·
pluloJOCIC&I rom ' Aryans' i> illoaocal and uu·
Til< Word • Pa&boapbh h . ,
or.d Dot
1
blact colo m
11
eonnoi<S • reddbh brown 11nr•
ur.
Mu Mudler't illilial bl nd
cml, l,OOO ) .. n old bad cr or dubbin& obc Riavcda to be
bdlnona lb&llhe Mob<Q· cd to another blunder namely of
,,.. mlm be pre-Vedic people who lived f<l"
Nollcaj14a
1
o aod the ·dee;"'

• find of • Sh, vo ploque '"
to lllc llldut Volle, w pbe""l of the namef of the Vedao
lllaono ocbol&n,. h ::_llnp !lave e'&plllded lwo fond belie C. 11f
4oo -• oo tooger ._
.. •• • ""' Vcd' uu:rted tha1 MohcnJij"'
" t... alao -. •·• "' • I
U. 1om, PIOY<d lhallllc be CIVI IUIIOn SfmultanoOuoiY
,..,. old
11
-lc. lief I hat oho R1aved• " only
"'" ..,. .... boltor
.., ..... ,. lblltllleVodoa
•t d .. , • DOiciiS \ba\ COD._-.. ltuu of aD)' colour
-v.,...:';:- ...._ bledl: w--.:.:.:. •be '0-C.allcd • A,,.,,_,·
•. , ••• eilllifrCDiiov ••• ,.. '" r.c. . on.S
"n• ..,.a.-...... • * •tnraa. ..,., .. =.
11
alan•la a clht""
-. •sl' · _,_ aDd
.... P?b' ; ,,.,..
10
._. .. S•rc
• .., lblp' Ma -.. leclra. f·ar f tOfD 1bc
- • .,. bet
...,ca coloured


•,av• All rot A'- •uJCOl<StRUED AS A RACI! lll
p<Ot>ld we find the so-called Ouu and AryatlS beltll bolb
bncl;el<d tOI<Ibcr u eoemlei by a l bird party. Thu> ,.e ha•e
lly=s wllocb sa)
"Oh Manu • ith your belp may we eonquor bo1b the Ar)&D>
and Ouu
Oh lodro wllb your help may we kill both the
Da>IS aod Aryau."
(Ri&l'edli J().8J)
Should thiS be 10 mean that before I he rtal
while Aryans ' Invaded' lodla t o me nlllvc ' Aryan' variety
already existed in India.
Reference& 10 Arctlc aeaarapby whoeb LokmiUlya Tilak d1J
covert in the Vedas could only moon that composera of Vedoc
bymns bad penurated u f1r as the Norlh Pole in nplo-
ratory teal insp11ed by 1hc ode•l of carrying cducatloo. oci=
and cullurc to l hc four corne11 or 1bc world. Thi> bat been
discussed by Dr. Ab1nasb Chondra Ous on hb book mled
RIGVI!DIC I :oiDIA.
A diliacnt $1udy o f !he Roavcda '"'"reveal thai lb< 0AJ)UI
• ere no rival race d111'erinc 10 pbysJolo&ical characccriuics froiD
-1he so· called ' Aryans'.
The word " Oasyu" oecurt aboul 40 urn<' •• the

• At
DO place don II •ltnify a !ICC or rbc obona,o•b ••
cd from the • Aryans' believed to be wh't"· Tbe ephbet Alllt
:u applied 10 the Duy.- Is ,ntorprel<d by •om• Western ,.ho-
lars as implyioa lhose havHII no or • Satoan•
mterprets it
91
"mouihlest" which it th.a1
lbe Oasyusarc nla:o known .at "of lmp:urcd ux:ech ' perhtpt
due to * corsc.
1
h term • would 1larurr
Since "Au' meoos IO • I I • . cia (tllJ/t!l rd'en to Jbe
tbc 'wande.rcr"' ' 1 c &YJ)tlC-t. The R••w TbaliOUDI
" Klllina of !be O.»)u< for lbc .. ""')tDI ol
&hal tbc OaJYU' bra-'* ehc
lhc Ouyut b • • .. and to ebclt bOOk
D&ayus were: d
1
lb.tl Dnyu 1n m&D) ,....,.
THJ! VI!OIC tNOfX alto •pi:; to oupcrbumao co<oa .... todra
•o tbt Rta"eda tJ clu•IY •P
1
JNDIAW lUSfOIICAL.

ts a Go.i. tbt r&la·a•ur, one: who os.td 10 release h&ht IDd t
•t1tn to ditpd drouaht and d.arknt-5$. He smashed .. P\1
or cloud I aod or IOOW .. hocb bl«kcd I hose ....... To r ..
• rtad ID
a raoacd allu$100, II Westcra scholau do, 10 the d<1o
hOO or abc ...... ned non·Aryao civilization or Mohtnjad':.
rnd lbrarpa by tbe 1\ryao Lndra is to re•d tbcoloo obd
as history.
Mcrdy bccawc the Duyus are detcribtd • • those not per.
fonninJ rttualt; ucrific:e. or worship doea not a.lanlfy any
cnmlly bet,.cro thcm and the so-called Atynns In our 0 ,_0
Umtt tbc Jalos aod BuddhisD could be describcd as I bose 001
rollo•lnJ tbc Hlodu form or worshtp. That by oiSclf docs 001
connote comity or beitility betwceo the two
Tbe Duyu> arc dciCflbcd as the eocmiu of the couotry ond
""' of U.. so-called luyao peoples as such. Therefore, inllcld
or Ar)&Ot btaa.atupposed to be rorciJ,.Dtf$ a more proper in1tt·
P'tllhOD woui..S be. that some suptroatorat be: mas aile-d the
0 »>vt wert mtmo<al ro lh• lodoan people. Tbe lndlao peO!'It
f0ft1JOCI'L l'bey 'tiRU people who used a he term
Ar)a u II idul lo bt atc.aiaed or as &I) boaoufic at -.-e. u.sc
lite. lmD .. &cnlkmul' '
lbtll.orcda 9raya "Ob Jndra, • us that alory
;::b D .. )UI Will bteomc Aly&l and all tbt human rou will
-
ctHO)td.." 1'bU .I!La1ef b quite clear that 1hc term
"' •• •llullluma bel ' IG be 0 OJ anu that there wAt oo racltl con•
1
,
011
b
1
:"ct• lbt Duyu1 and ' Aryu', Tbo lndlano wanled the
co.ld ,:m• supemllural roron to bo turned tr tho O•>yus
tbc ••o t&med and dvillud lO btcomc •• h meant thll
-.at: nQt dl!fcteot ln race
.., .
Ito tbc 1\o&>cda d
\lrnra dau•J''' tbt. t . en 12./2018) to ulndra tbe alayct of
-.,..._.., t<llol..: Kmboa Yo a! o .. yuo" h Ia held aloft by
..s tk ..,,k • tba• the ... ,nndina. Aryana•• dc&ttO)•
eotc: IMi Uac kirwtda l d Btrt •be, d<t not to ba-c u k.-ca
u.. ...... - .... ,.,. . ...... dal k. ThUO
UO."' •u M•.rlk-. 'f&, tbc. IOD or Nrtthad .... bbcl"
wdl uc w-pued. bJ u.!UUII m lhc .,h Mandala or •be Rl··
-u..-.. • OocKu••
trtlnc YaJW'VC:4IOJ.. Thlt 1bo••


ll?
bal • Kao••" tbOUJb dark on complulon waJ oo O.u,... No
or iofenorttY It ID\'OIVt:d iD ac!miUiat KaaYI lO be: of
dork compluooo. Ooe Rir<dic bymo (8/85/J) '"YI "Oh
tbtl Krhhna It makin& oO'ctiop to you..••
••Krishofl" tt8-n•fi« a pe:rsoo or dark complaion il would mua
chat tbe composer or Chat hymn WaS dnk jUil II
voai o uyu•" h taken to sigoofy tbot the D••>•• all
• Bymn 2/3/9 of 1hc Risveda prayo "Let
our otfspnna be tawny (Plshnns)", Since tawny It noM•hilc
pra yer pro'\o'tl lbru no aciam• o.uachcd lO 11 non-white com·
p1u ion and, tbero was oo quarrel with the IO•ca11ed
Da•Y•• on tho b11sis of ''colour." In bymn 1/ll-1 tho •
are specifically dcscrlbeu as while which provu tbll • •
or Vedic dmu wtrc a mixed pc:op1c even u 'hey are today
h••••s all sh•d•• or complulon from abe milky white to black.
Tborefore, 10 im•&lne the AryllliS to be a race. tbeo oalllbcm
ford&n invlldru and cb.s.s them aJ white 11 all pure rutai-y.
Accordiog to Sayana I he word Ouyu dtriv« from the root
'Du' meaoma oa.e who hums. 1 his apia bears out abe car.lirr
meaning tb3t tbt 0Hyus were {aupcr-oatura.l) bettlp who harm·
cd tbc people (by oburuclioarain el<.).
From h1norital parallel.J we can l.bJ.t rC"fcn:occ lo
colour or the compteJIOD o0c.O rtren IO tbc leadership OOIJ
and aot 10 the actual people. Thus ,.hen lodi.. hootorlu rtlcr
to ' 'While" arm1eJ tbey ooly mean armia led aDd coCDma.oded
by I be Europeaus or tbosc wblth fouJbl ill the cause of
Eorope:ans. tlle en1lre .,-my was not ''wb•re··. ID fM"I
1 vast ma}otiiY wat nnn·wbltc. And yet It,.., called a ' 'wbH•
army." Conslderina aU this obe (ontled ?f tbe
so.c:.Jlc:d 11Ary
11
•• wub the "Dtt)'UI" beJlevrd to bo nauva II
all a case or nH•undcrttt odlnJ aod Walenl
tcbolan bave plated havoc wllh obc Rol•cda lo radioallllo It •
'CIW" and ' tO!Ollt' tltUJJIO and iD trYIDI to iqU«IC- blt10rtCIII
tbcorlCJ our or a tbcolo&tcal•mk-
coaclu:dc tbat tbc •Aryaa.t"
From tbt d1.Culiaoa •• ·
d ldOII of • cl>.,....Jiow.d ...
were no raee but tbc ID au
1
. th
1
.-c l.od aU tbll!
Stcoadl)' tl'lc n•cc• "'

"

... _ .. •··-·-
orl•'nolt frOID ••1 ·- --
•orld ovor do .. -• o( $aolknl tPt'lr••a ...,.,. 10
but from obc p•-'" .,.oot

:.tllt.<-6· !{-----------
ftlt) the lOKI! or blowltdp aod culture to rtmoce Plru of

Aoocll<r we dra.. from the above dlscussioo"
lilac s. .. lnt wu oor ooly widely spolteD lo l odia but It W&la
•lddy 1poho world laoauaae io ancieot lime$.
1\cre blVio& beeo ao ' Aryao' race as such all cll'orr
1
to
th<lr bon>daod, cuoes or their migration aod I heir orlsia&J
'llll&•tl<' wre bouad ro be fruil!eu u indeed they bave b<eo.
Tbh belief In ao ' Aryan race' bas been a blunder of hfston.
eal l<i<ucl> 1r needs rob< rebutted and all rererenctl to rbc
'llryao•' 111 11ee and lhdr suppooed miaracion oughr to be
deleted from world hlllory. Instead It should be clearly under·
nood tht u the Indiana wbe> migrated from tbc11 lodo-
Oaaa<tt<, l'laojab. Kashmir and Gudbar bome to all parrs or
Ill< "011d The so-called lodo-Europeao laoauaacs are all
dtmed from the l ll¢ieat·most l111guage or India oamcly Sao ..
ltlo luetic 10 re&ard Sanskrit u a collateral or lon&UIJC.S
l'cnlaa wl lAtta ud tb<11 cry co find their commoo
•-tO<, T1aesc lltcmptsall derive from the miJtakeo aotioo
lllat tllctc.,.,. 1 people called AryiDS who lived somewhere ••
E....,. &o4 froe there mi&ratcd 10 lodoa. Stae< cbere were
.. - Pl<plo then WIJ DO fiiiCied lanauaae of lhetrs. Wbll
lila,..,.. 11 llac sole souree or the world's aaeieot·mou
........,
11
DOl •IJido.Europcao" but ooly tbc " lodo" clvillutlon
... ''la4o" ll&&ua,. vi&, Sao>hj,,
. ..,.,..,.,
1
• Sow ll'llclc• oo tbo topic ••rilten by Or N R Wa•hnd·
_..,""'Deihl . .
! • llaca &Od SOOtety by Duoo and Oobtbansky.
•· SaaQrk Loea••a• by T. Mur111w,
Tilt Vodtc lido by ketrb aod llkOoon<l
a,,....,. lad(a bt Dr llbo.,.,., Chandra D•n.


Antiquity of the Vedas Grossl y
Underesti mated

. In THE HIS fOR Y Of MANKIND,
The C"oofiden\ that the Rlgveda ... humanity't
• recent UNES.CO pfl'l aturo is u reecnt •s 1200 B.C sur
ldest e.xtant piece o ' c:r ... .
o sch olboy howler in its absurd•ty.
p ..... n 0 • It or I he VedaS>Od In foci
Undere.stlmation or .•be hamstrung Indian hbtOr)
all major tYC:OlS Of I DC ltD I lnd holars eonuollcd the eQtuC
C'ittsJnce uninformed niC the wake of lh.tlt DtJc.¢nl
.
1
pparatus in As11 •
cducatton1 •
8
h d 20th Centuries
cmpirt:J bttwccG the l I 10 ( such l:n•
d • the VedaJ arc o
Ac:cordina. to l.ndian ua •hGO_dered ApJurwhtf.l not
• OJ tO b• CODII t'o• ol
traceable anuquaty .. . Ooe intcrpreu 1 ..
posed by any ldeollftable humans ,.bo first una rhe
eom uau anU t«U I
this term is that tbe great divlnt: inlpJration ru ,,.,
Vedas attubutcd their ultfrln«l lO
out any penonal credll , Wheeler anct Prot .
I l'kc Sir Morltmtr belnl
Wcslero scbo ..... I d tlpllonl or I he Oasyu•
Piggol read in tbe

•• o":J:al a11u
11
on to the
killed by !ndra • fane • rds ond • Y n
be loa succ.euivel)' pushed II the very outsel
ioa Arya.oJ, TbliJ • bY dlvh.lif'll lhcmh •nto :n:;h
· · , wedae amooa n ptdtntln.t 1 em
oravldlaos and : c
4
11rd • •
cncm1eS or eatb otbcr oad lrtltJftlftJ t - 4 •t
. 1ncicnl •II U lhto'J e;a:C.I\IIIOit
under ima,toar)' de TS' tupport I I nd ••
as the wicked tnva rt •tN pown«J upot\.,
M h adaro ,nd H•c•pp.l bt lilt .a-sUtd Aryaoa
o enJ - uont o¥Cttua abow ltciiL TM
Dra-...tdi.ln Cl'VIlll& of r.U.Cif' lft the
\ T)crc Ire I


Pu)1IJ ""'te oo b1•m•n l*inv 11 all but oaly IUPt
b<lcp IDCfra •• the l>ti'IODi6oation or Divinity ::""'•
1
r
1
e or Ood- Nritbcr wu be an Aryan nor
1
• ,
Tbe foacled Aryaas are DD raee Ill) r
Tbc on>rc1 as -d by tbc aacl<at IDCfoans &ogoi6ocl a thoro
Ind. •clltzllonClcd, blahlr aoeomplisbed,
4
'
tdeal buman beiaJ. Tb<ir ideal was to traio all bumoru •, '
a!laio that 11'1<· Tb•s is teslilied to by the aoeleot India:
muim '1C.ruawUJto Visbwam Aryaro" meaning "Mokc th
• " E • e
caore •rorld nryan . very super1or wa.a a.ddrused as '*Arya•'
HCOIX "Arya • was honorific aad • com moo. term USocl
ICICOIWIJ mo1t itldav-idu.als. •/Uya' tJ abo a surname ill Jcdia.
Ua.ms bcdl so widdy wed. hke the current term "Oniu ..
11110" Mas Mudfcr aod otben mistook it to be a race.
lroclllentally, the very wide usc of the term Arya and Its
proud auocoatioo1 allobe world over pruve that the ancient
IDCftaDs oolonosed aod ruled over a very large part or the
woolcl. IUd II DOl beta SO the UK of the term "Arya" 10 accOJI
people WOIIId ooC hl>e been so •idesprud liS 10 be mbtakco
10 be a <>« comprwoa aU European• and all Jodiaos. Tbao,
lto...,.u, u a "'bJCCI for a separate dhurtation,
'
SlliOC th:re wa• no Aryan race it need not be added that
tbcre wcro no Aryan invasions •• Coutequeotly tho Dravidllil·
Aryan confttct •• a myth.
Tbe Mob«<jadaro aocllhmlppu cirilaation• dod oot evco
..... dntiDa tbe tulle or the RirDCfa bee> use .... •hAll t<C
bonattet ooly a pan of North India wu lhco extant. The rest
of tbc subocoou-• 11 tnown to us tOday was 1ubmcracd by
tho TclbyJ SU. This iJ appueu1 from topographical and aeo·
ppb]cal dtKriptlooJ io the Rorocla. 'Tberefore, far from there
ball JI<O'Vodlc cl•olcutioru tbe Ved11 pr<Ceded tb'*' clvlhzo·
c..-. by mDlconauma
AU refer.- lD lncliao billories 10 ao<alled Aryans, tbcor
......... "'India, the IUpposed doviliOO or loclianl bctW«<I
AryiiD lUll! DrnldlaOJ, the pro-Vedic eoucept of the Mob<a·
lodaro &.Od Kuappa, aod tbe Rlredl beona as reocnt 11 1100
a.c. __ , ........... be sultabl, aocl drattlc:ally .... ..
no. wloo ..... 10 UMR 111&1 I be lliJVeda [a U :-11 II
lll
rt or nil v.o.u
•""Q<II h
1
Lord Buddha wu born arouod 5'4
I
atstr' t it h b • r
lz<IO s.C. • so uddba Is much more ancoent I an I at " o
R
c.
Thll t.ord
8
but even oiluming thai to be
rote matter h 1 b
ouro<> • scp• bolats should have asked I cm.sc veil e

1
re h•story of the indian eivilizatloa
qucsuoD

Buddha, which ineludu tho rill< and
frolll the ll•l . bt covohtatlou• as thAI of the Ramayat>a and
(oJI or such""' Ybad •
1011
1 range of no more thea 600 yean
thC B.C.) ? Tbh simple test-question should
(1200 B,C.d
1
b
0
k the theory that the Rigveda is no older than
Jficc to e un · f
•• C. But there arc still o1ber proo s.
12CO B.
e Mababbarata 11sclf aoes b>ck to 3138 B.C. becaUJe tbe
b·ra era of Jodlll whoeh Is stoll quoted and bas com-
YndhiJt
1
c
000
years began with the crown ina of Yudbisthira
plctcd over • ·
teo days after the Mababborata war.
The M• h•bhorata civilization was preceded by .the Ra";la·
· In between there may have beeo many onternoong
yana era. v d
covillutions. And beyoocl tbem all loom tbe • u.
Ceotaon portioos oo the Rigveda describe some extraordillll·
rily devaSiatiog seismic events. In the RAJA T A RANG INI (an
ancient histOry of Kasbm11) and in NEELAMAT.
tbc event "described lo rnythologloal terms while 10 the R•s·
veda the same is dercribed practically in scientific detail. Tbere
It outated tbat Jndra the Ood of thunder andligbtniog aecom•
panlcd by tbe Manus (Tbe wind c!eity) and Varuna (wbo
cootroiJ .... ter) broke mountains, killed a number of people
let loose enormous quonutits of water from the mountall>l
lent alundcr. That water Rowed out in the form of Sapta•
Sindhu (Ieven rivers). lt is apparent that the Riavedtulludc.l t.o
a natural cataclysm of repeated earth tremors, accompaoled
by storms IDd li&btaing. Numerous hymns aive tbo detai:. or
tbis bappeoioa.
Oeolog•m admit tho oKisteneo of a big lako In tbe KasbmJI
11
•1ln anc•tnt times, The 1964 edition of the Britiab Eoc)'Cllo-
011101 on page 887-8 or lis vot, 11 tbal at ooc tlmo
• wu on inland sea wllb •• "ArchopcfJIO of volcaooo
tllDds". On •c.:ount or the lcCIOOIC movemcntt of tbc cartb'a
OIUJf the " 001 or tbc Jako IOIC Whole tb< DCIJbbounn&
221 INDIAN HISTDIUCAt. ll
fSt:AlClt
alro rtflltercd a sympathetic r ise in their
1
f K h
1
htude
1'11< oowh<ro mouota1M o n am ... tbe Ptr Paojal
art 110• too1011 aabstdcd nd water Nbicb Bowed out •
•••• the enttte .-uhnur take. I ned
• de Terra and Paumon have <! scrbed
doaood b<da r .. ohiOJ from the ftOW•OUt. rredrick btbe
ew
1
,
dncnb<d !be huJ< Up&Dle Of the lake anJ tiS great de b
aboot Pt or
Apparrotly &COio;ical upheavals aroused gre•t · I
• 1n ercn
contemporary world because even the Zenda-
'l<l!a ''''" to cbe creation of lhe Land of Sapta-Sindh
!Haptba Hindu). u
Tbrltll loft io tho height of the Himalayas took pl ace fi ve
b•ru!rcd thousand ) .. rs aso according to modern geological
otodtd. S1DCC the llla•·eda refers ro the great se· ·
1smtc events
"'biCb pu>bt.l b<cl tbe Tethys Sea and pushed u the
Rl .. • • " elur tbat the Rigveda • P
ltfipltHC IS a very a OCICDt
lt.t tb!l lhe language or the script of
ac:ord But
11
must be remembered that
1101 IO tbc IDdtaD lladlltOD lbt Vedas
aft<t ....., 11aoc1 and rraos
1
were regrouped
lbto\¢b f<CII I UOO II) lied from gellcratioo to &eneraUon
ntt) t11d • :: •:· likely that after
-lc lklcnbcd oun>hong covnttacions succeedioa
...
ane,eal t\'entJ in tb .
Ill&&< Tbu••blle til<
1
•or OWJJ contemporary
-of tbc Ve4u woul;ncaagc and aeript could cblloge the
• the 1ame
Sotuo C>WPit •• • to ur h
'IVJ reon u l:r .. IIM the Vw &•
1
at man himself be ina a
&m"i•ll> or "'-•Y huadtd ,:• n>t be of immemorial
lata• _.,..,, man
1
, '"" • • old A<100rdma to
• •
100
""'4 lh< canb a mllli;• «tent. The belief lh• t ape·
:. .... ' " "' n "-• on\) .:...,'J<•D •ao aod lbJot tbc real
dr.. Tllo aatlno
1
1 40
-0011 yeara • co Is oow
"- - - lA II po oaut Dr Leak
• ..... tao I ) I •• 411CO'. uc4 tb cy. D•rcc:IOr or
Yale u: ....":
4
lllll!ioe ) Ora ••o e boou and skeleton of
•bo Sncd •• .I.A. • ll&o 4-...-..;ror I! L StmOIU or
,_,Ito n. JIW· boata of a mao
... or the di-vtry waa
AtrfJQ.SITY Of TH2 V201\S
ueetttincd by the potaasiumaraoo tecboique u to
tb< 1•64 Proceedinp or The American Aeademy of
Science-s
Unfortunately hilloriaM tho world over bave stuclt to thetr
prilnittve notions about the comparatively very r«cot OIIIJO
or cbe huma.n race while almost eVerY branch of tcicnec bas
repeatedly revised and pushed baek iu borizoas. Modern
phy
11
cs bu accepted tbc cooliouum t.beory and hi•
admlncd tbal the proceu or creation and destruction or miller
goes on ioceasaotly
Both these concepti form tbc very foundation of Indian
pbilosopbieal, sctentifie and mctaphy1ic:al tbouahc from Umes
immemorial. Indians have always held that our pride in tbe
20th Century civilintioo havin& ruched the ape• of demo-
cratic thinking and sclcotlfic disc:overies is mJJplaeed. Jn the
et<rnal whirl of time, uoeountabte civllizations have claimed the
...-roe di>tlnct ioo, aod have perhaps attained greater beoabu or
remporat and spiritual acbievemenu but have been lost and
rotgoueo. Likewise oura is not the oo.ly world io tbe bdlaoal!
vast cosmos. Muy other civiltulloos morr woodmal aod
similar or di·ffc.rent from ours could czin. Thtt too is ao u ci·
eot u iom of tbc Hindus who term God II' be tbc Lor4 or
Uncountable Millions of World• like our own. That the whole
creation is a conti nuous cycle wit bout be1innlol or md, u has
been propounded by tbo tliodul since Ume Jmmemonal may
also l>e verified by lookloa arouod our cosmiC coflroamcnl
Oor solar •yscem II m• d• up of orbs wbith haye been soloa
round aod round In an endle" whirl Men. aa1m1fa andTeft•
tabielire t•Jrn roood In a eoootaot cyeloof oreatioo and deatrut>
tton. Time and apu c too hove oo bcaloa••l and liD <OCI
Considered •sal nat thi• bactsrouod It Ia illoalcal to-" rha r
in this vUI mcchan.iiiD ohtcroh) mlD alone for lbc lilt lJRIC
be&ao from tbc cave-man •••te about
40

000
y<a11 .,.,.
Tb
Ph

0
r northern lnJia as It h taown toda) 11
c topoar• , .
d If
I
'rom "bat ,, ••• durlaa Rtredlc 11-. nc
qu1te 1 crea '
1
d •· 10
Rl •cdlc S<>ot••· byiM 1S or Man ay .....
1
1
ft w na .,.,, oftb• lah borot II dcocnbel dlalllw
acvcn r vera 5o1udra (Sullf'Jl Pltutlaol (auri) aad
Gaop. VlaOrnll .. lowed iD 11M ... ioclopcodcllllY lo -
Saruwau •.-

l26 (Nl)IAN
.., tltDC bo-r lhe Y1muna joias tbe <lango at Proj
aod the St.taswatl (tbougb now <sbnct) ia kao '«
10
bl•c bttn oocc JOioioa the <Jansa ao4 Yamuoa
10
,,
11
:
OODII- at the umc place.
H•llln 9S of Mandala 7. ;'l'entioos !hat tbt
Saras<o'lfl (alit 1010 the sea. S1m1larly SutleJ and Ravi .,.baeb
are now tnbuuriu of the Indus. u.sed to fall into I he set direec.
/IJJ1nl (Cbcnab) tnd Vilasta (Jhtlum) which now arc tributt·
r1cs of the Indus used to join together to form the Maruvridha
rJvtr aod ftow to the sea. Arijikiya (Beas) also llowcd to tho
sea dlr<c:t ln11<11d of mergina with the lndUJ. Yamuna belna an
lodcpoodeot m·er ftowing to lhe sea shows that durlos Rla-
vtdl< htDU tbc sea northwards and eastward& reached 01 leau
up1o wbol we know os Allahabad or Prayag loday. In lbe West
tbe oca eoteoded beyond the po1o1s where the several lrihula·
net meotaooed above JOined tbe Indus.
Tbatlbe a< a oxteoded over mucb of wbat we call northern
India, dunn& R1SVe4le hmes is funber eoo6rmed io Ria vedic
ll.toza S, hymn 136, Mandai 10 which says that the tun hu
biJ bo111< ,,o the sea bo1h 1n the cas1 and the west. Tbis clearly
means I hal tbc R1g\'tdoc people saw the suo me from the sea
aod set 111 the h 11, lberefore, apparent that I be Saplt·
Suod.bu lllld tn V;hicb lhe Rigvedic people lived bad the su 10
ill uu, aou•b and ... n.
Rla•ulc rbhb also dCSClrlbe the Saraswati as a moghty river
ODiho of which they performed penance aod worsbtp.
The Gaop and I he Yamuna were then comparatively small•
lodlao ttadllloo also presewes1be memory oflbe Saroswali II
• ml&bty rover '"bkh of
0
curse was turoed upside
dooru and acn1 IO lbo nether world lo Dow through fUbletrl·
_,. ao•croo Lllell a•oloaic:JI researches lea
1
ify 10 1ba1 find•
lac u<l laehave tblt over 6ve lturulred thousand yars musl
Ia&•• elapte<l ,._ nvcr SarasWMi diuppeared uDdera:ouod.
o\lllloit lsoloa &!, IOPDtropbical a.od 8<0&rtpblcal cv1deoee
fooao4 •• tbc l.•aveda lcado 10 tbe inetcapoble concluJton lhtt
lk lllrc4A far from bccooa compcncd arouod 1200 B.C 11 of
'-'ol ••
11
"1•"1 •• is riaholy believed by tbc KJa.lus aod
la ..., ..... "' llloir llofalboaublo lradltlon. All attemP"·
tbcrcfo••· to rank the Ril"eda as a colloteraJ or otbor •'Ci
SCfiptures arouod 1be world are biahly loaebroaJsf ll...:
is 1bc bUiC SCflpiUre Of lbe whole WOrlcl, DOl o':i, or
fl
iodus, 1nasmuch If lbe olber scriplurca wbkb ap lloo
· h I' ( · J PtUGIOIQ
below 1n 1 .•d 1oeb1 auccessioo aner tho RiaYetSa
derive conat era e tnJpJtl hon •rom it bolb in d:ou,bt Ud
contt.nt.
That tbe Riaveda is lbe oldest pleco of human scripture or
lilcrat.ure tbe of whlcb soes back to Immemorial aetJ.
quily 11 a staggenos concept for those
10
Primilive
Western lbloking. Bul wben ill antiquity II vrovcd by topo.
graphical and geological evidence eonllllned witb{n the RiaVcda
itsclr there is oo ucopo from it however much h may bun our
corny tcademlc IOU,
Bib/iogrophy •
1. Tbe Sp1bnJ1 Spcalts by Dr. Jwala Prasad Singhal, 1963.
2. Britbh l!ncyclopaedia, 1964 edition.
.'. GcolOJY or lnd1a by D.N. Wadia, 19S7 ed1tloo.
4. Geology of India and by R..C. Mebdullu,
1954 edition.
S. Genlosv of India and Burma by M.S. Kmhoaa, 1960
ftfilion.
6. Aryon Ka Ad i Duh (In Hondi) by Dr. SampUIUoaod.
7. Ramala by Nandlal Dey.
8. The Ou1llne or World Hillory by H.O. WeilL
9. Hlstorocal Alia$ or India by C. Collin Davies.
10. Rajalaranglni by Kalhaoa.
• 11. Tbc Ancien! Civoltzauons or Porus, by J. AideD
19
S1edilioo (Pelican Boou).


8/ulldu No IS
Origin of ' Allah' as Hindu God
and Kaba as Hindu Temple Forgotten
Ooc of lbe greatest tragedies of lndlan res.arcb,
baring a beanng on world history, is that lhe •way that Indian
Kmatnyu once held all over West Asia bas been clean
fOCJOllt:l.
all traces of t hat sway got obliterated in lho de$·
tniC!iYe fury thai seized that part or 1be world soon afl<r the
ofblam.
Tbat de,:ruetive fury, with lis epieentre io A ·abo a, spread·
in& in a ella in or sboek-waves soon engulfed the .vhole of West
Asia including Afgbanistai.!J...AII<&>uotries sutrus.:! by it were
made 10 breakaway completely from their past.
Eneyclopaedin lslaraia and Britannica tell us !hal Arabia
itself obliunued all its past history by destroying im;IBCS
remrds. We are DOW told lhatthc 2, 500-year history of Araboa
« rorc the founding or Islam has been ironiCllllY wriuen off ••
an " &&0 or iporaGO<" !hough it was in fact the "wlse" succes-
IIOH 10 chat •&• who chose to remain ignorant by a cleliberatc
bJeau•ay from lhc pasL
There are many clues illll wbicb if pieced togetber C0?"'"
00
11J ol' lhatiWay. Ooe Is the naming of different COtiDltiC$
01
''Sihan''. Just h lo modern lime• we hac! the Brllisb em pore
spn:a4 owr a luac J!Qrt or tbe world which resulted in dlfl"ereot
,.._ bc!D1 o>amecl aa Oreeoland, Jcclaod. Buutoland, •
lud aimllarly the worda ZabulbWI. Afsb:,:i
tan, Bal...,blttaa, Turka11an, Arnstan, Kurdistan ab
01
'f"•- 111 !'bat Sanakrit apeak ina Todiao Ktt.ltriY••
00
lblod- tbotc rcaooos.

(IIJ(Jllf "" • ,.u..AB' 119
n ero is a]JO anolher piece or evideoce. Albirual and •
aodent bne ncorded chat Buddhism prevall: d
o"er tho"' regoons_. aro DO! very Fr
0111
tho
Buddha JtltU<J noucod on those rcatoos by Alboruai and othera
11
would be wron& to au en tbat lho .. regions followed lluddh-
11111. We bS\'e 1 contemporary parallel. In our owu times whea
.Mahatma Gaodbi commanded universal r<Sp«t his statues
wore set up at vuiooa places. That does not iolllcate tbat
people ror.QOk Hloduitm aod took 10 Oandhism. Sim!lorl;y I be
u isteacc or lluddba starues only implies lhllt Buddha being a
ramOU$ Hindu of tbOS< times hi• Statuti were erected in the
JCclODI where Blndu.i<m prevailed. The or Buddh•
statuu lo West Asia, tllerefore, prove Hindulm wo.s the faith
followed by all West Asian people whose de$0Cndanto now
profess Islam.
Some footnotes in 1be book titled SULTAN MAHMUD
OF GRAZNIN' wrinoo by Prof. Mohammad Habib or Al1garh
MuJiim Univmity, h85 some relevant informatloo. On page 14
be .. ys "some time before tbe Chnstiao era the Turki Sbahi
(Kushan) dynasty of Seylhian Turks founded by Barbati&io
began 1 career of eonquesr. Under its greatest mooa(Ch, K.ani·
sbka, a large part or Nortber.o India, Afghanistan, Turkastan,
sad Mawaraun Nahr was included in tbc Kt1Sbao Empire. Tb.c
Turks were quickly assimilattd by Indian clvllisation . ...
Alboruol statu that the dynast)' included no less tban 60 kings,
the lin or whom, Leprurman, was deposed by !tit Brahman
1!ltir, 1: llur ..•• Tbe pedigree of the kings wrillen on silt WOJ
PTCierved in the fortress of Nagarkol bUt Alblrun! says hewn
un•b1e to $te h."
A number of Very important concluiiOM ftow from tbt
obc"tlnforonation. Fintly it tells us tbat
1
' Turks b•d tuaimolat•
ciVIlization" f.t. they proleued BTnduosm. TbJJ con•
'
111
!
0
• It further r<loJoroed by the fact that they bld llrsbmu
•::;:" aU Indian Kthatriya rulcrt In India bad. Thirdly tile
: , .that-ancient Indians bad no 1rchi\'el and wrote DO
llory It Pro•ed bueless by tbe rcforoooe to tbe silk scroll ol
1
' Publiabed by S. Chand & Co., Delbl IIISI.

INDIAN HtSTOatCAL l a
IIIIlCH
l •DIJ on Naprl ot foM. India had volulllinou, bluo.
ric.tl rtt<)r.S• c>try IDdlan ruler bad by lradilion
aod
n.>IM:I to tpcncl a couple of hours e .. ry do\Y ftsteaiDJ to b
of 1111 ancestors read by bi1 Brabmoo
Tblli< to Mushm onvuoons and rule over West Alia and led'
d

fot 1 molldlcuum YOtuaunous lo oan records or the away tblt
IO.S..u lbbatro)l held over tb01c lands have been almost com·
p!cltly obliterated.
Ia that olean <Yoecp aod breakaway from tbc past the aoci·
cot Indian aulpu and literature in vogue In countrlu like
Turley and Arabia have also becll complotcly foraottcn. Many
nnw oxprtu surprise if told tb4t before the curnnt
Anblc "'rlpt Arabs used to write in an lndlan script and
aneitllt • too bad an Indian soript aod maintaoned record•
to SaOJkrit
Arabian aod 'Pc"ian oame$ corrupted tbro.>u&b
tcntuncs or mat·proouneiation mitht appear far rcmo>ed
from Snsknt but oever.belcas their origin iJ An
ollustralloa of this m•Y be fou11d io tbc names LcaatureatJn
and hiJ Brabmlo wnir Kallur appearing above.
In a foot.ootc on paae 13 of his booll. Prof Kabob l"'ts the
dates for S'manocl Kinas : Abdul Ma.lill. bio Nub (34J.JSO),
Maosur boa Nuh ()SQ.365), Nub bio Mansur (36S.J87). It
lbould be remembered tbll tbe Samaoids bad a bog emplfe 10
Weu Aua. !!arty Arab chronicles which record the onv11ion1
or Mohammad Kuim and others againstlodla refer to lndionl
11 Tilrh ood Sam•o11. Tbat that the TuJko and Somani•
..... Hindus. The Samanaid empire W8$ therefore that or
lodll• Kohatrlyu.
Tba "OTd "Nub" quoted abo•• is al10 a Hindu word. It II
tbc abbrcolallna o( "Maou". That is why "Nub" b auociatcd
••tb I be lti<Odory' Good" In Well Asia 11 bu bcco the oamo
of Maou on tndl .. tndnloo.
Mauu •• lbt lo• 11•« aod tile oripoator of every -
<mli&al- " h<ld •• lbo boabat rcspcct ia IDdlao tradition
H" 8aiiiC "'"" •ll&rcforc. auoc:Jatcd with l.o.diao ro)alty aiiiO••
I
• ·" • H' 231
.,.,orlf "' ,._.
I
., many titlca. Tho Samanldo beioa Hlndu1 we ft.od tbe
ru tr
J'lub amon& tbem.
ootb<r proof of HlnduiJm bavio& been the faith or aocoeot
•• fouad lo the fact tllat • very tarao part of blamiC

1
tct!l>ioolo&Y Is still Sanskrit.
rcl!l•ous
· .. ,.llab" is iuetr • . worj for " Motha" Of
..
0
ddess". Mushm tradouon tS hkewoJO uoablc to explain the
." of the word " Kaba" which tbcy claim to be their central
• • H' d
b
. Tbat Is because Kaba was a oo u tompl<. Tbe utaot
I noC. b h . ' •
Kaba was su"ounded by • use • liDO CODSlSliOI of 360 Hindu
Images. One of them wu known as Allab (goddess). AllOt her
(a£ rocntioucd in encyclopaedias) was koowtt u "U.t''. The
name of tbe author of ao ancient Indian astronomical work is
"1.4t·Ocv". There ia evidence to show that the Ka.ba and In
lact tbe huge destroyed shrine housing the 360 deities was built
by tbe Indian Kios Vlkromaditya of IDdia who founded a oew
era In S8 B. C.
I• oor attempt to recoastruet tbe story of pr .. tslamoc
A111b12 we bcgoo woth tbc !lame of the country itself. The lllmc
u folly Sanslr.rot. Arva to Sanskrtt means a borsc. Therefore,
Arvuthan is tbe Laod of horses. Its central polanm cttttrc,
Mtcca Is also a Saosktit oame. Mlll.ba in Sanskrit sijni6cs a
uor,liciet 5re. Since Vaidilc fite·worsbip was prev3..1eo.t all over
West Asia in pre-Islamic days Makha. siani6es the place wblcb
had ao important 6rc temple. Mecca·Medilll is Mall.ba-Modoni
•be region of 6re worsbip.
Coiocldoog woth the annual pilgrimage a bugc baz.er 115ed to
up m Makha f • . Mccc:4 since times immemorial. The
Pilgrimage of Mutlims to Mecca is not at aU an iollDYI·
Uoa but. contonuat ioo of tbe ancient pilgrimage. This r ... t is
IIICatioocd on cncyclopaedias
01
:itlcaoc "now available that the whole of Arabia •as part
"tc•t J"" Indian kina Vokramaditya's vast empire. Tbc
r..,...,
1
Yoll.ramadltya'a empire is ooe of the maio reUOOJ for
tllltoa; d• ule fame. loeldcotally this a lso QplaiDJ IIWIJ' i aul-
'-lura about Arabia. It could be tbat Vikr&madlt,a
2lZ
II/DUN HIST'OtliCAL •
_,.,Cli
111111
,.
1
r laid lhll o"med Arnst ban 1f be wu the
6
J...sw> mOJIJtth to it ood brona 11 under hfa away, rn
T1:< ... ood IDIIOJU1u& 111*1 It· the abtco<c or. Sh1Valiota
'" cht Mabadtva c<Dblcm 10 the Kaba ohnoe lo Mete•
SWlJAY At•ld l.r. Blad St<'D<..
Bd'oorc 10••1 onto furtb• r detail a about lbe ancient Voidot
ntooiJ ood no mel &lill clioa1•8 to Mo.slim wo,.hip 11 Mecca "'•
l.baiiJU wbltcvideocc '""hive about Arabia hovlna formed
put of dominiono.
In l.lllnbul10 Turkey," • famous library called Mokhmb.e-
Sultaruo .. hocb II reputed tO bn-. tlie largest collection or
lDCicot \\nt IISt&D UtmtUre lo the Anobtc accuon of that
lobnry 11 on ontbolou of aaeleot Arabic poetry. That antbo.
loa> wos comptled from on cattier work, in A.D. 1741 under
the order oft he Turkitb ruler Sulton Sallm.
The 'PilJ6' of tblt volume ue made of Hare«- kind of
.,ll uk<l for wruio& oo. E.tcb pace bl1 a dcco111tivc CJided
bol-der. Jt Jill)' be rtalkd lbat &ildio& pages or ucrr d boob
ss AD ID<Knl ew•om usociated whb old Saoskr\1 scriptum
rouod ID Javt and ather pJIC:Cl.
The aotboiO&Y ilklfls koowo at SAYAR·UL-OKUL. It Is
di>odcd CDtO tbr<c p111J, Tbe fint pan CODtltnS bioanpbfc
dcuolo and tbc poetic oampottuoas of pre·ISiamtc Anbiu
pocu. Tbc ICCIOOd par< <mhodttl ICCOUDIS aod vetltS Of
ol tht P<nod hcJillllin&just after Prophet Mobammed upro tbe
tl!d of tbt Bante>oUmmaya The tbtrd port deols
later P:lell upto tbe cod of Khalifo Harun-ai·Raehld's tlmtl•
IJ>CJdtDIIIIy " Boaee meaooaa "Voau•· and Umnl'fl •• in
llrbb.cut)yo are Saasknt lliiDct.
llboo Acnn Abdul Aum11, a douinl\l.iJ!Ied Arobooo bard
.... - the Poet L&Dreotc or Hullll-al·RU!IId'a court baS
""'"Plod aDd cdncd tbe aatbolo&Y·
Tllo .. caodon edltioa or Sayar-ui·Okul anthDIOJY w••
P<llll8d""" po•WW...,S ta krt.a on A.D. 1864. A aubtcqucat
pwW••ae Ia to A. D. 19}2. Tblo wort li
--u OF
011"'"
2))
be mOSt important aod autbontltivo IJitboiOI)' of
poetry. 11 tbrows considerable ll&ht o:o tbc
toc:ieot custo(Dl. maoners ond enteruuomcnt forms 10
..,.ial
1
,. · ';bfo Tbe book also eontaios an elaborate descnp-
• .. •••' I b d h I '
. o( the aocieot Mecca shuoc. t c cown an t e annua .au
1100
OKAJ wbrcb used to be held there every yur. Tboa
t no*;
11
ovtoce readers tbat the aaaaal HaJ of the Mushmo to



onl•
1
coorinuatton or the old farr and not a """'
tbl ,_ I I •
practice.
But the Okaj fair was far from a csrniv.l. It provided a
for the elite and learned to discuss the social, rehzjoUJ,
llttrory and other aspects of tit< Vatdilt eulture then
Araooa. SA YAR-UL-OKUL amrts tbat the conclu·
reached at t.hose discussions were widely respected
throughout Araboa. Mecco, therefore, followed tbe Varanau1
rradihon o( prOVtdiag a Stat for importaot diiCUSSIODS amODi
the karned wbtle the congregated there for sptr1tual
blou. Tbe principal shrioea at both VaraoaJ1 io India aud at
Meo<a In Arvasthan were Sbiva temples. Even to this day tbo
central object or venera lion at both Mecca aod Varao.asi con·
tiouec to be tho ancient emblem. It is the Sbaokara
llooe which Muslfm pilarims reverently toueb and kiss 1a
Qe Kobo.
A milea away from M«Xa is a bl& sisnboud wb1cb
bm eo try 10 any non-Muslim oo the area. Tbis " a rem10der
oltbt days when tbe sbrioc wu stormed aod captured 50lely
lor the newly calablished f11hb of Islam. The obj'"' obviously
wal to prevent its recapture. •
•i Pn&rlm proceeds towards Mecea be it tJked to sbaw
' <ad tad beard aod to doo special JaC<ed attire. Th11
"""'""•r ,,.. I - .
""' ) ess sheets or white clotb. One IS to be
round tbc waist, oad tbe other over the shoulders. Both
lliod ""' .arc remnants of the old Vaidik praolfoe of eotcrios
u lhnnra olea b •
'Ohitc •• n s avco aod wub boJy seamle.s, $11011•
110te''
1'bt Olalo ab •
Ia bo,. nne 10 Mecca wbteb boUJCs tbe Sb111a - '*-
• I& the Kaba.. h is c lothed io I blat:lt sbroud. n ..
INDIAN ll
"'-Uc.
could also orlai nate from lbe days when il ,.., tb
_,,.., to its lffApturc tbrou&b camouftaa .. lh1
••
• to eocyelopaedias llritaaaica aod blaaua
t.:aba bad 360 tmiJCS· Tradit ional accounts meatlon thai lht
ol tb< dtiliCI amOnS I be 360 desltoyed when tbc abriot ::
ltt>rlfltd Ullblt or Saturn, another or tbe MooR ••d YCI
1t101hrr 1411 one called Allab. lD lndta tbc practice or Nc•-.
paba puja that is worship of the nine is still lo vocuo.
T...., of these noae arc tbe Saturn and the Moon. Bosldes, the
Moon ot always Msociated with Lord Shankara, A Is
alwt)l painted across the forehead of Sblva emblem. Since tbc
pres•dlna deity at the Kaba sbrioe was Lord Sblva ' ·'·
Sbankara the cresecot wos also painted oo it. It l< that crcl(tot
wb1eb ,. now adopted as a relitious symbol or Islam.
Anotber Hondu tr>ditioo is that wherever there os a Shiva
I he sacred stream of Gonga that is tbe Gancu muse
al"a)s c;o.cxost. True to thot tradition a sacred fount uom
orar the Kaba. Its water i! sacred because it was reaardtd
a but aootbu Ganga sonce pre-Islamic times.
Tht common Muslim exclamation and aovocatioo "Ya
Allah" Is tllo of pure Saosknt ongto as may be observed by
refrrttDI to tho invocalloo of Goddess Saraswall wboeh runs
thus Ya Kuodendu Tusbar fiB1 Obavala, Ya Sbubhra
VutR\'rlll
Mu11im p•l&ums vosnioc tlte Kaba shrine go around It sc•••
lime> I o oo other mosquo docs thl• porombulation prevail.
Htndus oovarlably perambulate around their shrloos. 'rhos It
)d aaotber proof that the Kaba sbrioc is a ptt·lslamtc Sbl••
lratnlc • bac the Htodu praetitt of perambulation "still mrtl·
CIOI011.t' ob.erud
Ia All>h, ,o kka 11d Amha arc oyoooyGOJ. Th<f
'iJAd' I aoc14c., or mother. ·,be tum Allah appelrl In S••"
ehaata ""''• •ovoktoa aoddeas Dwp '·'· Bbav .. i. TbO
bia- ""'0 Allab lot God b therefore, DOl IUl IDDOVIttOO
... ,.,,_, lM..Utttppcllatloa retaload ud coohouad to
-"' lalaa

ot
llS
. . .
rambulatioos too are srandicant. At Hondu
The 5<'«
0
pe • the bride aocl bribegroom ao rotmd tbo
I
ccrcmontU . . b •
,..dd as . es The practice of seveo peram ulattoos
$J<r<d fir< seKvebo Mcoea Is, therefore. a Hindu Vaichk
dtbe • a · f
arouo t is also proof tbat Meoea was Makha O< the shrine o
cutiOIDo
1
6
und wbteh worshippers made ICVeo peram-
tbc sacred rc ato
butations. ..
R·UL-OKUL tells us that a pan-Arabic poetic
d
10
be held in at the annual Okaj fair 1n
posoom we . • . 1
• • es All leading poets used to partocopato to 1.
urn · d
p 'd red best were awarded prizes. The best, engrave
Poems eooSJ e b d
ld late were bung inside the temple. Otbe<$ etc e oo
on
80
1
P oa; >kin were huna out&ide. Thus f'or tbousanda or
c:ome or g ' f .. _ A b'
1
cbe Kaba was tbe treasure bouse o the .... st ra tan
year . .
1
, .
partie thought. Tbis tradition was of tmmemcma
But most of the poems got lost and dunn a tbe
stotmina or tbe K•ba by rropbet Mohammad s for":"s. H11
coort pott Bassan·bio Saw•k wbo was amoog the rnvader$
eapuued some of tbe treasured poems. His io tho
third generation hoping to earn some reward earned some of
salvaged poems to Kbalif Haruo-al-Rashid's court. At
tbc Khallf's court he met the well koowo Arab S<lbolar Abu
Amir Abdul Asamal. The tatter rccciveli from tbe bearer fivo
gold platcund 16 leather sheets with tbo prize-winoiDJI poem$
engraved on them sending away the Iauer happy bestowed
witb a good reward.
On the ft•c sold plates were inscribed verses by two ancient
Arab poets l.abi Baynay and Akhtab-bio-Turfa. This discovery
led HatWI·ai·Rasbld order Abu Amir 10 compile a collcctioD
of,:! composltioos. One of tbc compositions in tho
••;o wu by POet Jlrrbam Biotoi who Jived 165 yean.
•• : tophct Mohammad. Blotoi bad received tb<> topmoet
Mtcea
01
tbe btst poem for three yea" In auccessloo II the
01
All thoso three poc!D$ of Blntol isucribed
Jlocont ';'-t• were buna inaldo tho Kab1 sbriu. Ou otllls
11 •• :ted to Kloa VtkramadityL Ita AralMc: tralllllripc ia
236 INDIAN HISTO-ICAL -
ow•ac.
"l trwhapllal S.Otul Bfkram11u1 Phabala
111
ee
0
K
Vanapbetlla Wayowa.uaru Bibillabaya Sami01io I!Ja M


btoane, Btbillaba Yubee Qaid Min Howa Yapbalbtru

Asa u Nalwlo Oslnm Bayjaybaleen, Yuridun Diablo Kaj.l
lllnayaU.taru Yaba Stbdunya Kanateph Natepbi
Atadan Bi!.la Muauratren Pbater Tasababu Ktuool C
Majahralbada Walbada, Asbmiman, Burutan, Kad
Waw ta111 Bihtllt ha Yakajibai nana Balaykulle Amtrona
Pbaheya Jt1111tbi1 Amaray Biltramatoon" (SAY AR-U 1.-0I<uL:
I*&• l iS), Rendered in En&)ith !be above poem means: "For-
IUII&Ie arc those wbo were born (and lived) during Kina
Vtltwm'a rctgo He was a noble, generous, dutiful ruler dO'olot-
cd to the welfare or bit subjects. But at that time we Arabs
oblivious ofOod were lost In sensual pleasures. PJonlna and
tonure onrc rampant (amongst us). The darkness ot ignorance
bad enveloped our country, Like the lamb strusalina for bcr
life Ia the cruel paws or a wolf we Arabs were cauabt up In
tJDocaocc. We had mayed from orderly fife lbrouab
our tJDGriDCc. The whole country wu enveloped in a darknc61
u tot<ue &1 oo a N., Moon niabt. But tbc preseot dawn &Ad
Pltua.oJ lllllsbJDe or education is tbc result of the favour of
lbtt aoblc K!oa Yitnm "'bo&c btoevolcnce did not lotc al&bt
olu, for<lanero •• we ,.,.._ He aprcad bio sacred reUJioo
.....,.lSI ••and oau ocboJ.n fro111 bta own cououy, wbo,.
bnll- lbooelitt that or the IUO [o our country. The"'
sc.loolan tad throuah whose beoevolcncc we were 0
00t
1
1'1• made coaalsant or tttc presence of God, Introduced 10
W.10Cft4 kDo•leclac, and put oo the road to truth, had
:"'""-
10
Ollrcouatry to preaob tbelr "'li&ion and lmpartcduca•
ltlloa Tbla lbo.,, lb11 the Yuaanl •yotem of medicine
aotbona but to tbe Arabs In aael<nt limes.
.... Biotal, a pro.W..mlc Arthitn poet, io
..,,... 'n- kloa Vob&allditya ,.bo firtt con-
"'" """ • oaj - It pan er the ladoon
• ••• lllo w ... :.. ..
111
':!:,-1tlay lltrtioa from Indio
'1' ' ' -. IC.wt' naa.rns • ..:'_t a&fDq lite Afabao.htan.
._ •• 1 ., ''Nerl • a1111; k-. &ad Anaatao. I 1 bu oo1
._ lllo ladiaaa who ruled
..


231
Iff OP •AJ..LAH
oatG . ot patt wbo a••• alltbc.e
• ' n tbc aococ od d
h·.s e-otite rcaaon. l tabtisbc:d cull ural cxntrn • Jpru
I ' tbc1C coUllt rtcs, . •• . o tbrouabout W« t Asll. It <Ould be
to ...... and covdoutiO I the Indian empire until
taow-. . If wa> oot I par v h
bat Arabia otse Biotoi 11) 1 tbal h was Vlkramo ": o
t , Vikraa;a bcuUSC ut I rtdocal chan&• "' the """''·
ftrst tiooe brouabl ab' a It may be tbot the entire
: ;tur:lao4 Ar:bl; · .... ruled over by lodoao
. n 1><.-.«n (ndoa dl Tbc Iauer perhaps added
re,g••. prlot to Kong Vikrama ' tya.Or it may be that Vlkr•m•·

100
to the brilliant campalan• •:?.,.
dityo bir!lttlf "?nducte 1 tho v•ll rcalon from Karat 1 to
los to hi• tndoon emp ro
Hedjat. Vlkramoditya i• so famous on
Tbis also explains why and trutbfulom of bean d•.od
ort from tho oo t t b ects be tb<y In ""
history. ftl 'o•l "fl'ectioo fora II hluuhJ' d' lo tbc tu&" or
b" "mp>flll a • • h ' s CDS nne ·
ts as testified by Boobtot, .. orld'' &•••t••t rul<r. The
or • be wu per aps 000 yean ago mJy
his•o'ry because bleb be initiated over 2, called Kutub
VikrtJI) w ver Mtbb, and tho ao at •klary.
II mark ho> vtctory o T er commemorotlog tb
"" be be Vlkrtm ow atie>lly
lower may t biltof'Y Jd autom
uuJet o( 80CICOI coaqucstl or
A artat manY Ulldcntaodiaa of lndlan sc:holart,
ulved bJL & propc At recorded by
8
;.':. wortbop cult, pru-
Kins workers sprc3d tho ool; t<l up i\yurvedle
prcacbon and so r nrc mooned ••b . aod atrlculturc
ched tho In • •• orderly. pcaoo-
ce.ot:res. tru,oed ' t' lho•c rcJion• a
and rellalous wuY or II •· I K•b·atriy• rot•l
rut, collgbtenc . Ol tlmd thAI lnd an ld sway over lrao
It Is from such •••;• d Bun>Oks have bob Parsces Aan•·
Comities like tho wbtcb I 6nJ tht
and Iraq It '' tbose blppcrs It h t.berod • fire ttmpl:•
hotrcC-S or tirC""wo" •kina 'Jntlct•tlu or aul ... ,
Kurda and tranl••,:k': B•\u aod

l ndi>O
, p1&Cd o( 111e1 Ul Vl _.. t
cxutioe •n d' and -.c.Mti d ,he oumcro •o>

way from lu ''' to B:alkh an ld E"cT ,,a.:c ioO
• tbc•ot
et.DliCI ltke ttf
Sovic' JtolS11 •P
238
II<OfAN
Vibaru ore onen dua up Ia Soviet RUIIia. A
ocnptur• ore obo fouod •• cxcavatlona an IQ4tq
Uaforrunattly 1bese ebaptcrs or world bisto " ·
altDOSt oblttetated from public memory. Tbey

bave booo
full} dtdpbered and ,.,.written. When these ebapt
10
bo tar ..
pll<d !bey mi&bt lbe n.tire concept and

"• 0010.
&.OciCDt history. Dillion ol
A mo•·le produced by Hollywood aod foalurlog tb
boy actor Sabu if tltlod "The Thief of Baghdad". It •
Jlimpse of pre· Islamic ltaq. Jn that 4 buge llalue or 8
witb a 1b1olna diamond on its forehead Ia sbowo ba
beatific medltatloo In a Baghdad temple. Ia otb;r ...
10
bottled imp when released ls sbown to anume the &•&antic
1
ponaoo or a aiaot watb a ofbair on bia bead 31 tbe lila;:
have. aod a goddess Wllh ••abt amu bas bcco dopacred. Tbis
abowa that cvoo Western script writers cooduetloa retean:b lo
tbc pur culture or West Alia 6.od nothing but tbo Valdlt way
of lafe prevotlaog 10 those lands. •
AI leait ooo Koranic verse ls ao eua:t traoJlatioo of a
IIIOZI 10 the YIJU<VcdL Tbis WU pointed Out by the ftt&l
resear<b sebolor Paodit S.D. Saravlrur or Pardi in oac orbto
aruclcs.
It will oow be euy ro coCJprebend tbe various Hindu
custom• itill prevail1os in the We$t Aaiao countries oveo after
lbo spread or Islam for the last 1,300 yean. I ioteod 10 diiCUII
some or those Hind J traditions wbjcb bavo beCome an lodlv1·
01ble part of lalamio life. The Hlndua bavo a paotbeoo of!)
aoda. People lo Atia Mioor too wotsbipped 33 aods before tbc
•pread or lalam Islam hu cootinued to be auided by tbelucar
... t ...
calendar tbe Muslim mootb "Safar" aianl8es ao n r
mootb This Ia ldoatlcal witb the "Adbik" meaaliiJ an ntra
mootb of tM Hindu calendar.
Their mooth duipated aa •· Rabi" I• tbe c«rUP
1

Jl.avi mcaolna the auo siocc it bu already been
SIO!krlt uyu cbiDIU IDtO Prakril "8•' •. Tbo Mil u aloa
r .. t wal •boc:b fallo 10 tbe moatb of Rabl a ru t»
wllb Oo.l Allo:taer f•tival wblcb Calli iD lbll moot

t ,\J..L-All'

01
, tho pious eleventh day. In
. Sbatcef roean,nJ I lib day Ia alwoys COMidered
rob••• • sbl or the
01",.
0
tbe llk..,a f ceiebratios the vernal •
tt•d'tiD Tb• tliodu euatom whac:b Js rc!lec:ted ID tbc Mushm
p.oo>- u 10 • itb 0 tbe lith day of tbu mootb a
•"""'" bl obServaOCC·
0
ld I t b t
ldllad•l )'Ia •• i tion ceremony used to be be • t IS a
• tdaoavrat

1
•orated in the Oyarabavt Sharcct
11""" 'c:ll is st•ll commeo.
..,
10111
wb1 .
h
Mushms. • h
oft • d tl•o first months eonstatute t e
. du ealen ar • ·
In the H
10
d h e
1
• months their .night correa·
b
QodJan ten • .
day oft • d and oight sueoession at the tunc when

10
the ion& oy f h
pondang . the North l'ole. In the latter half o t e year
Hindus
10
oncestor worship. Tho fortnight during
!be Hindus per or rative rite Is performed is known as the
hleb this eommemo · • Sb ddh Th
w . • h Th observance is called the Plln . ra a. e
Pun Pah a. F.
1
°
3
is a eottupt form of tbe ancient Sanskrit
Muslim term I r
,..
0
rd Pilra.
Tbc urtecotb day is reserved fot' the worship of thole
t lied by "...capons. This day iHalled Ghayal Cbaturdasbi. A
observance koowo u Baraba Vafat is practised by tbe
Mutlillll. Vafat u the corrupt form of Phiphaut meaning death,
io Sanskrit. Their fest ival Sbabibsrat also falls oo t he lltb I.e.
tho Ehdasbl day of tbc dork half of that month.
ltihould be noted tbat most Muslim festivals fall on tho
lllh day of the lunar fortaisltu io keeping whh tbe ancient
Vaidik lmponaocc of the Bhdashi day. Some Muslim festivals
ore dependent on the citing of tho moon. l'b.is custom derives
fromtbe Vaidlk custom or taking meals on Cbatoortbi I.e. tbe
rounb day or the lunar fortniabts after moon rise.
._ Ia tbe Saodbya prayers chanted by orthodox Hindus ollily
loxy ask for P&rdon • •
tb •Or aoy 110 oomm111ed tho previous nlabl
'IIOrd.or deed l"Yad Ratrya Papam Akanlulm Manaa
...

io tbe Atbarva Sbecrsbli God's •
4ar. •Dd lbofor •.treogtb to .remedy tbe oigbt's sins durina tho
S..tlnt tut •

at
01
8bt by rc!ormed behaviour. Tbo
N&obarati P t · Sayam Adbeeyaoo Diwasa Kdtam Papam
. ratar Adbeeyano Ratrl Kritam Papam Naabayatl
240
II<DIAN >USTO•ICAl.

- Sa) am Pratha Apapo Bhavatl," The
C\lfiOtn or obscrviDI tit< Mubarra"' tnontb... . "'"'""'
a• penhell<lC for th• year'• evil deeds refleou tb!'"::,Od . or, .. ,
o( cite Vaodok cullom desc:rtbed obovt, Tbeir montb s"''
0
.. b<e
alro munt to provide for the astrooomkal adjuum

"''
)'C&r's e.xrra day• aa laid dowo by thc Vaidlk
rq an Adbok Maa f.•. a.o month. The word sar
0
"'·
' cldi i I' . • b "
01
t&o
rna • t ooa ll aynooymous ""' tbe Sanskrit word Adbik •
The Mulllm custom of Bakri-c:cd dcriv .. from tlte
• , •
and Ashva•medb YIJDU or ucrafic:e.s of Vatdlk times. I!ED io
S.ru:kn t meJDI worsbop. Tbc Islamic word EEO for 'nt
• I ' I\C
daya aamcly days ol_ worsbop is, a pure S•nskrot
\Oilrd. Tbc "'Ord Matsb an the Htadu Zodtac si&nifiea
1
lamb.
Stoao tn tomea rbc year u.scd to bcg!o witb tbc eatryof
I be Suo in Arb , it was with mutton reaatioa. Tbarlt
tbc oriain of tbe Bakti EEO fesHval.
Since BED means wonhip, and Griba means house tb•
Muslim word ldsah slaoifying a bouse of worship is a pure
Saoakrit v.ord. Similarly the word Namaj derives rrono two
r ooiJ Nama lnd Yoja meaning bowina and wo,.bop-
paoa.
Vaidik daeriptiooa about the moon, the djlforent ttdlar
coostcllatiOCIJ and the creation of the universe have been lncor•
porated from tbc Vedai In Koran pan I. cb.apter 2. naozu
113. 114. liS and ISS, ch.,.rer 9, stanza 37 and cbapt<r
10 10 1.
R<ett.al of the Namu five limes 1 day owu itt ori(on roth<
Valdik custom of Paoehamahayajna wbicb was part of tbe dally
\ atdtk ratual preS<>ribed for aU indlvoduala.
Mu•l•m• are COJOlned cleanliness or five pat .. or tbev
before oommcocona prayctS. This Gcrivu from tho
111)1mctloo of "Sbarccr Sbudhy•rrham Panchaop Nyuoba.
Four 1110nth1 o( the ytar arc reprded II very .. croci
JalamJe cradltton. Tho de•oul arc enJoined ro ablll•
0
.,:;;,.
pluadot aod otbcr nil deeds durtDJ this peraod. Tbll toDll
peoda 10 11M Valdilr. pncllcc of observina the four ID
00
_,.,, u rcquirioa apeolel auaterlt•u and vowt.
241
• Sbivar.tn• ·
, of Shiv• Vrata or Sb'v-
o upt ror111 hi temple tbe '
rat It tb< eorr ao ;,oportaot S .v• rut eclat. It is
• ba! !ord


:::::::


• • • Wba< tbey aCG teut some of the m a rc
... ttot>a "
1
boarsaY at
of•"' But 1oeordl•a oeETA.


rromlh• Bi'IA d , Arabia particularly Yemen
ttlll' aotJ bad aenlc oo those who
Jod••• maoocrt bad d••tY was a huge number of
jj>l

witb them. AI Ubla tribe o f Jets in
.. tl<tC<Ots. Tbc pl'rescocebetoMobammad Is borne out by
""''- ... • • or rop . . had
Allbil durin& th• t!to abadis). Some J at pbystc:aans
til< authentic tradtttO:lS ( kb • o ne o f the compilers of the
octded In Arab••· Imam Bbu •: wbeo Hazrat Ayesba wife of
•••• : ••
58
ys t at on- • . r b
)'rnpbct's t for a Jat pbysac:tan sOT er
tilt Prophet !ell ill bor nephew sen • r of sin&•r pickles. Tbe
cnt An Indian RaJa sent a Ja . .
1
'"
1111
• ..... •
1
uked his eoUeague& also tO enJOY t l.
ProP!>" rcuaulOJ t • • • •
11
ID&Y be recalled tbat early durin& .Bnttsb rule t n Jndta
lbdr doctors eo joyce! a prestige because they were tbe
• J.ikowisetbe sutnmooins of tbe Jat to treat tbe
Ptopb•t'swife iodieatu t.bat tbe Jats at that ttmc belooaed to
11< tullos class lo. Arabia.

Blrmftt • 16
Iodian Ksbatriya Rule from Bali to tbe
Baltic and Korea to Kaba Forgotten
As luck would hale h tbc maestros and memors of tblt
aoc\<otmott crvillutioo wore great idealists, Delog clear tbillk.
crt 1bcy saw oo reuoo why like the air we breathe human
be•nP O'llgbt oo1 to share the entire earch without comparr-
mcntallllng It tnlo parochial bouodarics. Anocber basic posru·
laiC O( tbCIII ..U tblt since bumt.D beiop have 8 COm mOll
101tun, demu, !celiop. aJihcrions and facial rherc is no reuoo
•bl - oommoolry should be superior 10 aoother. They,
aouabt to llunk on !be tbat all huroaos consutu·
led bill OOt family, aod the Whole tallb WU their COO) !DOD
home
At s6<tl11u rh•rr otbu basic belief was tbar since man 11
.s.-lled from D•-.oity b1J life mun be so channelled aJ 10
laul he back to Dtvlooty. Tbey, lherofore, &ought 10 evolve a
.,..._ ro •lucb like a heauulul image wbioned from a crude
lump of mtlll C'tU'J llldtt'idual's buer ln51lncu and dosirct
•oul4 be anduaUy modulated by ooo>raot teach log, rraiDID8
""'-'cal hvoaa Into blabcr urces by which tbrougb rba
"'1*1D1D ttap tbc illdlvidllll could aualn Divinity l.t.
........
'lA a"'; O:,bo! •u lhat every Individual mutl be iO
"' ''J •IIIla bc!ry, IOOi·Uvcd and h•ndsom•
lrM. "'-oeo1 be very duoi!ul, amiable,
1lolo."" ....... -w... ....
• « s'••., . ., deoerp• ooty lr I bey uutttcd
"""idaal "'J '" I I ll .. IDd deed. Fored w11b
.......,.. - -a"-- loa._ ... Tbc •ord
... O.•'•
• • • • · Kle:DtiJc tuav·
-
14)
,. Sanskrit is, lbtrdorc. wrilteu eu.ctly u it ls PfODOUDc.s.
• LOY orbcr laoay•a• '" obe world.
lb
. ideal they summed up io tbcor ramo .. muim
'" .. , b b
10
Visbwa.m Aryam • l meaot I at t ey waat«< to make
":",.bole wO<Id, all human bcioai!Aryaosl.t. '"P<nll<ll. Moeb
'1 .- d•rotaodloa bu reaulled lo mi&eonUnrilla rho ,.ord
m•so ... "'"L _ •
. uArya''. The Aryan• wtre. no race. a.ma_s \\'Otd tipifted rbe
.d al suporroa.o_,. 10 be aspired !or aod r<aebod by e·rery
1
deividual tbrouah coo11anr endeavour. Tbao it why ill S.ookrit
ID tt • I'
.a ,.ire called her butbaod nrya •
True 1o rbclr word, end aaplrarion obo ancleoo Hlnduo ...
laycd rc1oortable virility and cn<r&)l In ,.odina out mlulaoa•
preachcrt aod auldu literally tbrouJ]>oulohc world. They
l '
d
1
d lhe world "ilh lbelr atbraClJ or ora oroa ce.otrea w
ot esomctiroes koown u Vibam. Their word for tbc &lobe
..... .. v l be 'od
or the world was "Bbarata Vanba • S1oc-e an aa u t PU1
tak by tbc canh oo complore a revoluuoo roond the suo II
all elllf* or oval A pari or I hal JtCII aJobe ; ,
llhorata Varsba, wu tbe Bhatali Khtoda 1.1 rhe pl ,...._
Europe !aDd or COOIIO<DI Ia aoclenl tctlllilloiOI)'.
Asia·E.uropc. was coo•idcrtd ooc conhaeut.
As we call • look arouod the mod<ro world. ro spuc or obe
lapse of stores of ccoturiet Wfl "" &uti ue- tnm
of lhc ubiquitous Hindu ''· ddllc culrur< VIDJ """'
-aurrused rhe wbole world.
klods namely IClUif biJIOrlc:&l
Tbuc , ........ or aod J)•DI .. in lbf t.uau-
llrC$, edtoence of SaoslcTh of wotd1, auoomo.
., .. or •ome counorlca, pro UIIOn bl .. t.nd reosr.pblcal , ...
manners aod onyoholo&Y• oopod f'"p acleol Vaodllr and
turts or distaol reaioo• rouo a •
lodian aculpture. R loiJcc.ol oflbiJ .. rd we
b
ord lod11. •m
lei UJ 1al<c I C W flU (J)dfalll, [odi.IDOpGho. '"""
have olllbe world ovtt
01
1
"':,. .. obo lodiaD 0<-nll. llld-._
lodi.lOJ. We.st tndtl'l Eall D
l ndocbtoa. ·Stbao"
01
..,,., f11- ot luol,
Let us now rake rh word '"'' "' obo _. ol..,.
We fiod a arnoa of ,.._
__ .,
"--
-
-
-
II: '"4 ;lilo:c .:
fll' IO'I:al .. --
"'"
SF 711 lrtia ..
» cdc #!fllfl. ['Jitis Ia
'C if ("\aS d
!J.&&l l d •
,01: I" e!dlt I '2"WC oc: rre c:.:t • w
- • _..,.. .: ll:oa. . .._ ..c
""''"'. r.- ' ;a- ,>
- Y"""""-< a:=- - -
.. d. -'ld ....
a., ,......._, •s;:ae: c=f • t2' ra:a
=- ....,.,.. ,..., #.':f ..... a.-
. ooaM::wa".- -s::r *-,_
;cu. In .emlar::lk .,....-...,., !id' ; b
lb».s! YT:! ...
.: 6ri'«M • &! • ;4
""""' .. ....:: -,..... ..... ,..
e:oc d. - • ik '-11:!:: • B.a.
""ir. .... CleF ;: c '""' Dai4
::, ,M4. :: •w . .,...... 1 ! a 1 ·- •:.
0 ic!::• So .. lid¥ rllca .....
d!f"Z
.,.,..._,. s.-rr'•
·--•'=*"-•
... EM- _t:I,!;

!fcrg . SD .--...- f.:, C. •
,:-c.-
[$<
101' ll!llt p.;mr! z. 5 .,
Tl><- 0(10116 be pod ortraq and Ira a and Arabia.


a Nul Lilt uatb <tOtury A.D .• wc fiod il mdltioncd io encyclo.
1*4"' that Araboa tOO •as a ,..dl and veaetatcd land.
JIG alo<oot 1,300 y<an •to the people •• Middle· Westera count-
.,.. •tt< Kll«< o(a Ot• pboi0$0pby, I new way Of fire by
•bocb tii<J orpnllcd tbeauclm lnlo raidiag bands and raided
ne{lbbounnJ countnes 10 li"" oiT tlle toil of other people.
Tk rtau where Akbar wu bom is eallcd Umerkot. tt I&
11toatrd lo Sind. AkbAr's father Humayun bod souabt the
or a Hindu RaJpUt chief wbo ruled over Umorkot
!'ben Atbor was born. Thuc instances should prove that Sind,
Afsbanutao and Baluebiltao were regiooa where Indian Ksba-
tny .. oulad uaul 1,000 to 1,200 years aao aod t he people used>
10 be all RondUl,
....
Wllcdxt ,.. ..U lhe """otry lrao or Pen11 both are Sans·
knt hu tle:tm from lranam, and Persia from
hluiLa. The •0)'11 faau1y or lraD, tbe Pehlavis are a Hindu
• llltlioa fatlllty The n&IDC Peblavi ooeurs lint in th;
ID \bl tpilock o( &Uempt lO drivo-
IWIY Wmo Vukuu'a boly •-·
..,. cow. """'"'the warrior tribes tbot
.,...._ ... r ...... 0 .... defence Pebla . . .
... recur I.D lbc . ' ' Yl ll Oot. We aaaio
ut u olbboot of lhe of Vikramaditya. The PaUavu
11lt lit" .. Sbab••
,._...bean 1M wr. t;:;'

title. The Hiodu kina or
•-1111 ,..,.,; il alJo a common
"'lloa l'raiap fOt t.dia's de;!» turocd over all bls wealtll
::.llolooartp klac c1 =
110
•" u llbama Sbab.
..... ,...,.,.._ dtoltlla "SSoaio" by tbe Muslima wu
• •• c1 lito ...._ lrula" Kioa
...::'ill ,,
111
1111 U11D - old .... oriaitl of 1be
sn,oleolh "-lito- 00 ._ •-- . mooarcby a4o
L --. lad!lo Kaba·
II • ••-iohon,.l ;. II' IEen.
• acioa ........... -
J<S!I.41VYA auu 247
,.,, .. berwao is eo abbreviation of Anuabriwao wblch is a pare
SaJ>tkrit word.
,.. tbe time wben Jslemlc iovuions apion Inn nancd a
.,arc of tbc common came away to lodia. They are
too•• ss Parsecs. Hostoucs also record that tbe Iraoiao royal
family too was coosiderioa leaving Iran and aed:ina sheller iD
IJidia. This should Induce aome Ncwcooiao tbiokior. Just u
,.,,..,
10
o deduced from cbe apple falllna to the ground and om
ftyiog away cowards apace, lhat 11 muse be aravitarioo which
pulled the earlhward eimilarly historians ougbtto CODiidcr
•h•t a>adc both the common people of Iran and Ita royal
family think of coming away to india of all tlle countries or
lbe world. Incidentally we bave aiJO a recent ioaraocc. Wbeo
1 pan of India was cut away io I be aame of Pakiltao, who were
those who souabt shelter in lodia 1 They wue the HiDdus. So
tile vory facl that the people and tbc ruler of Iran tboqht o(
coming away to India io I be face or Islamic raids ,.._ that
they were all Hiodua.
Our is further u inforo«< by aome other proof&.
tbe lra.aiaa Jaoauaac is iuelf a conuPI form or SaolkriL lt ls
a blunder to uprd Sanskril u a collateral io the -lied
lado-EuropeaD family or laoJUIICS. RfJWda beiDa a -r
ucient aod the ancieolmost acripture its Jaoauare Sambit il
tbe &reat·grandmotber of al.l lr.Dowo laoauarea- PeniaD il.
therefore, a descendanl dialec1 or Saoakril. Saolkrit - tile
spoken laoauaae or the Iranians wbicb iJ the reuoa wby.,..
&ad ibe present-day Peraiao u Saoakritiled u tbe Pralnil
lanauasea in India.
M>loy towns in lsao have Saosltril tWDCS. Tho blrtb place
or Omar Kbayyam, a well·lr.Dnwn Pcman pool. is l(IJ!uopar
"b.ieb Ia a Pl'tc Saosltrit Ictal.
Iodin !loops atatinlled lo w ... Alia dtuinl World Wara I
U ba•e rrponod sec loa tcmplea o1 Jillion deitia lib Oauaba
lad Sbaokat lo rvlu on _., <*olate araa of Jru.
ArJb&aioteo llld other _..tnn.
lraoiaa IIIJtlloloQ 1uoa llab wltll a••• ladlaa Jan. E-

248 INDIAN lflST,_.
-c... L lltlo •.
tbc survivu io their le&cnds. A . --.....,
Mooaey God from ll'lll can be • buog in • cr lb,.
M•tcum an H1dcra.bad. Ills • shaw monkey st 1,
01
blod lcp &Dd hftinc a huge piece of rode with •:Ia a on Ito
abo•• bls btad. With their Ilea witb the Hind ada ttilcd
mappocl for centuries this Monkey God IOtt
• 10 Itt .
mylholoay as a l1n or • sort of evil spirit. naoa
The Parsecs thought of comins away to India wh
cocci walh conversion to Islam precisely because threat.•
6rc·wonh1ppen They also wear a holy "•••
ba>e a thrc.aokeremony for adolescents. Tbcy i()(:ludc '•ad
Rod 1n tbtir oblations 10 the fire. Tbe'\1 draw •eomoaad&).
ru h' d . o ••neal
p& <01 In W lit stone poW <r In front of eotrancea 10 tb
bo111ta as do the Hindus. Their oamea Ardesbir (Oordbwa

1.1. "one "'bo holds b11 head blah" and Nausberwan mea:l'
"Aout.brt " b S k • • • • na
ewan ave ans rat oragrn. Th1s shows lbat befoae
lalam " ' fORtd oo Iran and other countries the lnbabhaoas
or rbooe reaions were followers of the Vaidik way or life.
,,..
l.akctrao what is known u Iraq too derivea its name from
tloc Sustrit <001 "lr". On paae 31 of the preface to "Aibl·
nun's India" D "cl
r "' ward D. Socbau asserts that tbo presen1
in Balkb derive• irs name from Nava Vibara
.;· e New Cultunt Centre or Hermitage". Tbe head paiul
,._rhucaurc obvlo"oly aa Indian, was known as Paramob.
.... ••• to beeo .. •
ea11 ilaell p me
1
... usllm. That family conunued 10
lllhJarocou •ramak. In course or time tbat name came to be
- tloc Bar"::;' Bl.tllmok. And until about ten years aJO It·
.liD IDdlao family that ruled over Iraq.
Tloe ......... t:allod Balk
1'"-d 111 lbc lodia b denves Its name from Valbil<a men·
..... • v....., :.::_ Sull.rit "V" often cban&tl 1n10
v..._ ......_llaoftr. Blchan aod Vasudeo, Buudco.
.._ .....,.lluu tllo N oro. """"' to be koown as Balk b. II aJ to
ava Vlbara Ia •-
Dt ,,.. allo
hac. • lllforaaa uo lba
.. • liillllbaa be -tlollad t looa after tbe Paramak
bdla. Tbo ,,...,. ka
10
roaaao Ilia connectloo whb
pi IIDdloa their moo for beio•
249
I(SJI"Yan'" auu
pill-"' • Tbe ruler a11o bad all biab ofticiab to 1'\lD
1
Jtioed io 1::: bospltaiJ, farms aod other ettabl1sbmenu,
• ...u. 0 •
""""-; (rom lodaa.
,
0
1
part of Iraq il inbahited by the Kurds. They
of their Hiodu customs and names. Tbm
sdU

hal many Sanskrit words. Bagbdad, ,•he capual
IJDJUII¢ .
11
bas an ancient 6ro temple. Tbc buald1na may be
of recent but its oite is of prc·lslamlc aolaqu(ty.
COlDI" Somnath was repeatedly destroyed and re-crccaed 10
e..,.u · · · ds r
·•· • 6re temple. Tbat one still eJtiShng reman one o
"'"'"' . . ..
rbotl'l"cls of othcn ltampcd out or wawout a trace
01
were turned into mOtques.
.r.-
Afler having dealt at some length with tbc Vaidllt oriaioa
or lllamic and Arabic traditions we shall now tum 10 provo
abo Vaidik origin of Parsec traditions.
II bas already been oblerved earlier bow !he worda Peroia
oo4 Iran arc Sanskrit io orl&ln. They were aiven Suskril
uma by Sanskrit people •bo ruled that rc&ion. II b tbote
S100krit-spcakioa poople who introduced lbe fire wotabip ud
Olhtr Vaidik rituala in West Asia. Under Jucb carcvmsta-
ians but natural that rbc nameo of Pancc dcitica, mooths
tie. ahould be tbe same as those of the Hiodua. And 10 lbc)'
are •
Parsees too have 33 deities Ute the Rlodua. ''S"
is oflco found t ransformed 10 " H" Ia tbeM names at "Sindllu"
beeame ''Hindu". A comparati.c table or Billdu and Paraee
Dllllt$ or dcitica il &lven bctcuoder :
._ HIMw ,..,_
Ancira J.odra Abur
Apl Tbruta
Vorethra Vritra Saknloah
$pub Spath Vridlralho&
Ha.Om Soma JlbAIII
A.thavya A.pta VadalaY
Vivaahaata Vsvaawata Maltbra
Asur
Tnra
SUralllll
Vriltllll'•
Bllap
vaura
Mild
>!/lt.t6>J:f"----------
l'C) I'HDIAN HISTOIIJC4J. •
· De.uc..
Panrc "Ros 11 lbe same u Vaidik Nav
1
Sa
IUUiblla , t l'k" Year Day
111
""••r-
n. SaA•inl .,riiUI of tbe Plll1ee clays aod monlbs IIIOJ be
j1>4..,J from tbc follooriDi table :
,,.,,.
Abu !>isba
,.. .........
,...aallryas
"'ll&ba)
AD:JBID&IO)U
Amrail&l
Abua•u

Fai •Iidia Mah

.As,, .. ..,,.
,._WIM
rae naW'&ItjtMy
,, ... t
Pa"" "O
.....

• I t
...._,
, ....
8111>11..
Avaa Mu
Wa&umaa
Wao.h•yu
Watab
Anaramanu
Amrita·Tatva
Asura•at
Cbh&OdiWIIIho
Pravardb1o MAS
Atreyadbill
Amsb&IJ)Udu
Marclaa Mu
Kasbtra•eeryaba
Aoamak
Povanam1trt
Artowuhi&btbl
SbtO&ba
Ostbavat
Sbwetomat
Sauro tat••
vuara

.
1
... ._ *-•·- - be lb ed from the bOOt
z., r 1wn.a1oo. p cr
..... __ _
-t S - ... n•aw lk bz"P"III eou111nCS tO liDd OUI
.., "-o( • at b-- lb-
1 • , --. 10
....... ... .,
.. ., .... ,..a • Lcocloo $e
-of CalM' - Ood MltrU ....
ttSHJITP. rYII ltUL8
iog tbe
1
uo was found buried uoder follndotioa oru old
buildio&· It was said that tho Roma111 bad iotrodaccd
100
worship 111 Britaio durioa their rule then. ThiJ sbowa tbat
ancient H.aodu culture bad traYClled lo EnaJaod at kast 'ria
Greece and Rome. Bur it could aa weU be that H.iodu cuiJare
was carried to England by Vaiclik lodiaos rbemaeJves.. Weliad
some proof of the Vaidik culture baviog prevailed 111 lbe Amic
region. If that is admrucd what could prevent tboJc AlFie
people from crossing tbe small strip of tbe sea ioto Britain.
This view is reinforced by tbe maoy Saos.krlt roota and
words fouod in the English languaae. Thu.s tbe Saoskrir root
•·pada" me.aniog the foot gives a whole range of words lilre
biped, paediatrics, orlbopodic and pedestal. Pcdestnao il san ..
lr.rit padacbara. A root ia widely used for Eo&Jllh clctiva·
tives is "Dant" mnnins a toorb from wbicb we bave dentisc.
dentistry, dental. Yet aootber Sanslcrit root is "mrityu" mcu·
iog death from wbleb we set Eo&lisb words lik mortuary,
morgue, morral, immortal. Tbe word Matr den- from tile
Saoslr.<it word "Maou" meoaiog the miod IDd lbereforc
signifying a lbink!og beiog tbar Is a rational beiq. Door ,.
d"'ar. The Sanskrit " Pra" as ill Pratasb. Pravnnl "
widely used to English as Ia proffer, proc:reare.
This inftuencc of Saoskrir, it Is said, permeared toto EoJ)ub
tbrougb La tiD. Ltke the Persia a Jan&u&fe t.auo ia suffuaod ";:!
Sanskrit. Tbus we act dauahrcr. parer, ?lllt« •.
f P
• . " • • I • Patricide. mun<Ocle,
rom 1tn. IY._. ua n • • • ' IUld
all Sanskrir words since 'cbida' m••;• to respocrlt'OI
1

·awa' Sl&nify (,chcr, motber aa oae K •
r Sllllknr wonll COQIIAWQI to
A wbole uosuspected boor o 'd<OCC of Jodi&AS bavirll o-
exist io E.c
4
ltsb "vcf)' .rroqb••• o-'· Tlcl<el aed raal, N....-
. E · cvca &I 1 e • ru... _----..a.n ...
bcld sway an uropc are proof of <n<•-
Jaad and statio> pcra>stloa
11
r
1
.,_ •on!s od rOOU &R:
Bntrlh rule ov:r lo.Jia. some o S drll
s a.utl .....
Preach
Adore
«Jill
Nloc
:!$)
lt<OIAI' ltlst'OIUCAI. l i!SL\a
0 1
Palll
Pi til
Decimal
Dasbmalava
M-Da
Mauu De.,
Dec> de Dasbak
, .. YGJ&lll
oa.soa Asbtakon
....
Wa)aCD
PentiJOn Paocbakon
Hr
Sib
Chrisllii3S Cbrbl· Mu ,
S1w
Sa
Un (negath·e) Un (also as
negative)
Go
011111
Vesture Vastra
Coli<
Apma
Rand Ha.sta
Uoll\ltb Uoritl
Ccot Shala
Cow G1a
ln<eroal Antarik
Two Owl
Terra Obara
Tllra: MIDd MAna
fGOif Oatwor Ni&bt
Naktam
fm PiD<h Six Shad
s.... Sap!&
c-
n. • ooce follower. or the Vaidilc way or !if.,_
....,. " •ucla a olosc .; ' Ia - ...
-...... o4 lDJ Oty udWedl their JodS
• ..,,10.,.. .,.,lh those of cl •
-n..<lorcisofl)<lreS • • • lodla. Tbc
.. ""' .... door "d- I oncm lUICC Tbeos is Dewu
Ooil'o 0.0. ,.., t1oc d .._ • door hence Theodore means
• oor of a temple.
T\t Valdak ..... Sbro
c.,.,. lloc:au;o tbo lou , ,;• for • corutellation bctomes
Aaeperu
1
vc
11
,..._ " really ltaods for the sound "S''
-• <Day be IDidc ( b • '
..... Go.- roao t • followooa table :
C.'Oiopoa m.., CrHI<
... ,,. ShrOII.I
" tao
c-. ....
Alaa•
Corona
Au ripe
Bootn
Saplttrul
l'nku•
eo ....
25}
SOlD• oreek names are liaeraltranslllloos or orig\JW IAd.iln
such BoOtes (Herdsman) meanioc PaJbupeu.
OpblucbUS • a snake-bear<( is lbe lranslalioo or lbe
IJlcliaD 1erm Pharud bara-
rrance
The French laoguage derives ila sandhi or merscr or b
.owol souods from Sanakrlt. Tbu1 Lc 1able Is prOIIouoocd
1

Latabla Ro1, Reno mcaoin& kin& aod queen, Duo rneaoloa ,.:S'
!'ItS" meaning cobr• and Jaou slcnifying tbe knees ore all
words.
Germany
German dcclenlion of oouos follows tbc Sansknt method
rour square. The word Nacbla prooouuced as Naukla is the
Sanskrit word Na.ktam meaoioa ni&ht. Tbll lheopcll·
in& or the word " ni&bt.'' A deeper study should reveal tllat
mos11aoguages of the world lh<lr emteace from Saos.-
krit to • far arcater exteot than is now sUJP<Cted or admitted
Tloe AJclie Rt&loe
We find io the Mababbarata a deseripdoo or bow HiDclw
hod proceeded to, uplored and coloofled the rqioo. l
<OOuld like to quote bcrc at aomo leo&lh from ao anidc
"Aurora Borealis Was Known 10 tbe Anclcata AI A Maoifeata·
tion or Narayana" cootrlbutcd 10 the cq"uinc
1
' Ncw lodiiD
Antiquary," Vol. Vll, Nos. 3 and 4, June, July 194-4. conrrll>ot·
ed by Mr. Aoikchandra. Rc sayatbat ia tbc Eoahah traaalatloo
or tbe Mahabborata by Mr. M.N. Dutt io 1bc SbaaupiiYa on
poges S3S.S36, $42, aad S66-8 tJII>Cits a clca-
crip1ion of tWO coaducled by aocicat Iadi&M 10
the Arctic r<gloo. One .. pedii!OO ,.., led be three esplorm
kooWD as Ekata, D•ita aad Trita and rbc olh<t by
Natacla. Their object •as 10 ttud)' the Aurota BorealiS wblch
they eall Narayaoa mcaolaa tbe ....,_
Tbe RitbiJ pr<>JOI ID 1M d-a«tb. Tile 11'11
Riab)s •talc that tlwY u.,...ook proloefld lo-!puao. Tbo7
(at hmea)
1
tood 011.,.. foof, bP lud roda ol wood (Ill lAUD
lllo W.o. It Sruet pock io 11110). That country Uoo to t
1101111 (I[ Moo at Mcro (Altai) ancl on tbe shores or tbe 0..::
(I[ Milk (Wl>ate Sea). The 11cppes between tbe Ural and Altai
(lolcrol Ia kJIOWG to bave been the scat or Vaidik culture fot
""'1 lool pcnod ao aocaeot hastory. Tbr k.shiruaar mcanan •
tbc Wllatc Sea stall survaveo. All island which tbcy called tb!
S•eta o-pa mcaoioa tbe •oow covered White Island 1s
1101
tnon by a to aacleot name. Tbe cxpe4itions rcacbcd tbcre
11 1
,_when the canh'a South Pole was inclined towards the •un.
they could not roake tbc observations they wMotcd
ti>o lbcy hiYC lc(l US dcscrlptiODS O( the inhnbltaots Of fboso
"SiDlu u be ina or snow· white complnloa, tbcar bodies emit.
liol I sweet llDCli, When tile IUD returned 10 tbc region they
CIOUI4 ol»<nc Klm aOer a I on; alld difficult Stay. It abo
caabl<d tbc:m ro JCI to koo" the inhabitants lleuer.
The dc1Ct1pliODI rouod ID &DC:Jtlll Hindu scriptures allude
to cn:atotcs like tbe scab, musk·o .. o. walruses aod perhaps the
_.,1< bean. The epithets wblch tbey use to describe the fauna
(}/ t.bt plac:c &R "CtDIIIiDI acctleot per(Ume, bSVIOJ DOO•WIDk•
"'I r)ICS, •••b no attnul orpos, tbc foreicas always JOao.d as
Ut.oqb ID prayer. wilb rouod crowned bavioa: 60 tecch.
a1110na them etJbr beana snail, i>.tws joined whh skin• havina
_, l•n<>oo tbcm.'' Nooe of them honoured the explorers
•.ur 10 '"""" u "'"" a ood, complAin the explorers. Tbi1
PI'Ol'a lbal lAc lohabltants lbcy were refcrrio& to were
...... b.
N.r>4a .,bile 1Cilin1 out oo the npcditlon tells two other
=.!"&Ad that be,.., fully pr<parcd for tho
lrooo ba..... lcsillrt tbc Vedas well. N•rada IJ said to
a-t,-= :'"" loto lbt lkt to ly to Wbitc Island which
11
ltr "&& 10 them.
n.._...,_ be
-
18
--
1
Wbhc W.od aod Mount Mcru as
Is.._... 10 bc 10 be Yo)snu. The VOJIILI
._ - -· <i,... !'; ht U... rbcro u &real
llo dool..s.iu "'•l.alo.s o( a -::.->ura a Yo)ana occror'
· "-..U..aty 3$.000 Sta4f.
QtfDIAH UlfATIJYA auu
lSS
.il lbe euct distaoce between Altai Mownaios, tar. 46 N
10
Novaia Zcmila or Cape Cbeluskio Lt. 7S N.
Tbc cJplorcrs describe tbc cxceedaoaJy woodorful spcu
1
de
that met their eyes lookioa lo the north·Wcst<m diroet
1011
. The
sun witb its face turned 10 all aida (rincc •t appcan 10 '""""to
4 circle aloog the borlzon 11 the North Pole) seemed to be
licked by several tooaues. They "Y thattbe •ua t.bcrc warms
oot the Soma (moon) meaolna that lhe moon bad not risen
when Narada observed tbc suo.
About the Aurora Borealis Jll&c N:uada says that deslrm>J
of scciog Narayana be cootinued IO stay there. The divine
Narayana bad the Whole universe for bis form (eoverioa the
whole boriz.on from one cod IO lbe olbcr). His form wu some.
what a purer than the moon's. He re1cmblcd somc,.hr butn·
ing 6re. He resembled the feathers or a parrot and 10 some
respeell a collection of pure crystals. He looked aa ..,.,.
'fCSpcclS a hill Of aatimoay, aod io lome a mass of pure p>ld
His complexion resembled tbe coni when first formed, aod wu
somewhat while. That COIVpi<Jion bad the coloar O( SOld a ad
of the blue lazuh a ad or sapphire, Bcarms thes< vuaous
hues-or 1be peacock'• neck a ad a 11rrng of pearb--1hc body
of the Eternal Dealy appeared before Rlsba Narodo.
That Deity whispered OM aad sana tbc <!•yo!ri. Thlt dCI-
• • • n t un fantasy bccluse It "••id tlull • sorr
•Cflptton too..
0
J I' r ' lk the rea•on
SOUDd like lhll Of tho rult lOI
0
II r-
durin the Aurora Bore•H• pbeaomeoon. To tel such oatural
•oun! as that oftbo murmur ofrbc tho wblltlfns lh<
wind or the rbylhmlo movement or • ro•ltray trufn so mu"o IJ
oot uncommon r b
'tl •• ooatala idcolical dcscriptaooa I> t •
Both the .. pod, o be 1 tbat tbcy bad to push aollb·
bardlhipe cocowucrtd. h T :C.rc overcome • aaa-.ct) ••d
·wards rdcotiCIIIy tbo'!.s:
1
a summat !bel' resrol a wbtlo
were emaciated. Proc- Dl (i orclura It mutt be DOted lbat
Then Narada ....,,..,..s bll
11
r, Void,lt aplorm aull rctam
• .... by ...... ur o( _.. ,.
the oamc:• .,. -'Cetu lipt&a a mouotAIO •-
their meaa•a••· n Akal allo umct tbc .... eNI:lillf,.
tbc Urai·AIIalo I.UPII"

ll6 llisTOJO.JCM.
Sumnblll actually the people who had miarated from
1
SuiDCtu re&iOft. It os no woodu, therefore, if ., bbo
. b A • . ast e
laoauaac oo 1 c rctoc reaoo11.
tofucooe is further Jtrtogthcocd by tho fact that
Paoonl's Satukril applies to the language spoken In
lht Lat•oan resion or Europe. The people of Latvia tradition-
ally behove that their aDCC$tOra came from India. Their cap ito
" It •&• u on Rlgveda.
Th(s same Vaodik civlJization had also spread over Scaodi·
oavia. Convinced of this Dr. M. Flagmeier, President of tbc
Amuican Society for Scandinavian and Eutcro Siudict wrote
10 the author on bis letter or 6, 1965 "We ate concerned
with the relationships between Scatldioavia and India. One of
ow pnzecl pou«tlons is a manuscript of the late, noted atu·
dent aod Scaaclinavlan Swdies, Dr. Kcsbavadeva
Sba11ti. In thia clla<narioo Dr. Shastri concludes that tbc
siaul.,ty beiWecl> Scandinavia and Hindu mythology, euttoms
aDd llll!itutoons ai- proof po$ilive that the Hindus were tbe
oaual fOIUiden of Scandinavia. For cnmplc be writes on page
J6 that the very word Scaodinavia is in Sanskrit Skand·nabbi,
moauia1 the abode or waniora."
Account& have .. IIIDCS appeared in neWS!)apon or abipS
lllvq,od from tho frcu11 doptbt or the Arctic oocan contaioins
Hilldu Lokmanya 8.0 . Trtak, tbc well ltoown Indian
....,.tt·patriOI, bu al&o adduced lOme evidence in trellist
llatDod "ArctiC Home lo the Vedu."
....
1. So.lt\ l.uaoa onainltca ill Sweta White
., I IPIU S.-H · ·
_..._ • GriJoD to .. _ JC.aabyap, a Ya , ..
-.-,. -.v co&.a s' d 1M -.-
k• •• aa Dait .,:; ... oo. Ria clctceodantl were
Jt.n:aaoa z bJ • Tbc IIICICDl kiapm of
Ca-a rqloa. A uopl L ...... Wtcoriu. WU IOOIIIad iD 1bo
red to oa 11M lacliaa .... _ • hlad OWW Hlrcaola Ia mer·
alroaoiJ ""''""" ............ '::"- ltaalopp. w. bl¥0
Pralolad to br roW ._. a '"••• '::': ... aoo pdnce
.. ...aortb-wcttltiO
I
IIIOIAtf (SIIA T1UYA RULl
frcntict reaioDJ or tbe Indian sul><looti.otlll. from 111
11
.. cu
deduce tbal tbe Horca11ia kiosdom CllCllded from tho c.ap
10
regiOO 10 lbt nOrlb•WCitem boundary Of tbc laoboa 101).
contioenl at least.
A Russian trad• corumissiooer posted to Jap&A in 1791 bott
the name La.kshman wbicb. derived froro tbc Ramayano, Ia a
common Hindu name. Dooma lllld Agal meuio& smob 111d
fire retain their original Sanskrit form In Ruuian becluoc
Valdik fire worship was prevalent io tbc whole or tbc Bbara••·
Kltanda that is the Asia-l!uropc continent. One or thou"' ads
of those firc-worabipocum·<ullural centres atilluill< In S.ku.
A chain of these fire temPICI can stili be traced from the JWllll·
mukbi temple in tbc Hlmaobll Pradc&h of India, I be 6rc t<mple
·n Baku, tbe fire temple in Bogbdad to Mecco wblc.h Is $IOJkno
kba" mean ins the aacrilicial6re. The CUf!Om of obe l<V<Oo
a d fi 1111 pn<tiMd oo
fold perambulation lmund tbst ucre re "•
the Kaba shrioc ,.hich was obc abode or 6re IOd
sanctuary of 160 Hindu '""'''"
. ' h ot ;,oaipt.,..,. 1#11
The Ore tconplc •n Ba.u u qllll
'bote towuda ohc upkeep ,r lhelempk
Indian mercbaoll eontn dhu ocsidd
11
obe rcmpl< oo rbc
Sometimcs o .olltary
11
the lui cloys of Muohao Nit
midst of 1 or PIIDJ>b bavo 1b0 clcbtd Olll'
in India soOJO holy meO (rom II of thalllto '""'pie, fbl>up I be
mukhi on tbowal be orcomparatlRty occrno
uittin& bulidlnl of the • OJJtlquiry. •
coomucdon the .ue being explored. romlniao
yield very .. lutble lbO V<t"/ oiplllcaoL Ill
oamo Svctalaoa to Rulli• !....,..,. -illl "'lllo r&lr·foted.
poodlDI Sao•krot fC)(Dill lo tiiAtto•• •IIA• "lltl,...,
Salllaruod m•••• $11111' ,.;.. I tCUiptoml d""""' coJiod
to be Taaoaolalo'l .. ';:. Iii"' aplDil a r"':'.: ::.:
soor.Sadol
10
11o a Muslda ,.. h<a«
bO
"' tbll wbAI r •·ostnoofPCikl•l llollaM ·•-
' _ ........ r ....... ... .untoJ .... I .... __
- ao -- doo ••• aad oadol u
Sar_.,.SOOf1e
Ill-""'· pt .... -
11 .,. ... s..... v ......
Stblrla•
1
pa
llleloell p<OI)It. b a pur< Salul:rit word aian•fyioa ao e-...p.
_.., T1lt Dl.IDO derive. from tbe temporary campt 'Wbic:b
t.d>u bod to aet up •• Wt lnboapitabl• «linn 10
<!'<cad Vatdik eni!Ct<•
The d<il)' Kai'Ciltra
from a Moo.aolia'D
""""""'"'
-
I
"N.JJ&fj\10& the IJc.ll
Jadl .. philosopher. I rom
1
mi\OUICUPl of lbe
J(b>m rt&icn or Sin-
kl••l· Tbb perip•tctic
preJc.he-r WAJ ooe emona
thousands or lndiaru
who in anc:1ent times
spread Hindu culture io
.countries at remote as
Chintt and Japun.
.. a lo 11M dlo-
putadoa
a Kbom ,,..,..,.do-
pl•ll thia lodliln
IIDJ>ber drlvlna IN• -·
b- ia • -·111-
cal dioauol••·

SANSKRIT DHARANI
In Central Asia
A S•IUknt Oharana amon& tbe Turb of
tbtmome. of the ronowaoa \'aksbas.
tbe eighth century. 11 •eeords

\IIQII- (el'l'(
.....

....

•r<t4lfll(\
ftijlllfl'R-
,. ••••
.. .
'11-.i ito """"" 'II
--- _...,.... e ·
..... t ..
-- .. ...
lndrab Sorne Worurrah
Ptayapatlr Bhatdwaja lsanascandanah ...
. .. IJiairocanah Kama Srestlra Klnikantlralt
Kanthako
Wadlt MtllliciJfah Pranada
Upap<uu:akah Satagir Halmawatah
Ptunakah Khatllrakovldo Gopala
Yak.ra Adavako Nora Raja Janarsabhas
Citrasmasca Gt111dltatvo dirghasaktlsta
-..,eo ., ""-=•" -.,....-
-...,...--.,.. --,.,.. ., .
:.:.--.= .·;·· .... l
4 ., -.:a;;- ... -· ... ,,
....... . . .. , _ .... ;:;.:; , __ ..
-- -. -
P ftC ' b ... ' .. ,pe •ttttf ' t . ... ,
--
.,., -· ... _..... ... . ...... --· -· . .,. --
--· ------
_,. ______ _
.............. . ...
-
-
- . . .. ..... ,
.., n = w .. -·,=·
-· - ... - - ·-
0
•"'..
1
• I .. : e ,, '""'t) ell : ... -
'••e ; ,. . ' t " · a.e:2(1
·--...... ,,, .... ,..
'"'' o
1
• •· a. , ••.
o,...utl a.,.. •••• , Juai q...,.aao
.... ..... , •• ...,......., ltp• ...
••••"• ' " • • K• •n • •
nwn• ... ,, ....... , . a.a, ... , ,
.... u c.,...u,t • • , .... ,,
Du,.•u

t' tJ•h


tt4lll.u' s;SHA111tYA IIULB 261
Jo Mooaolia tbe days or the week n:lato tbeor Saotkrit root•
_. Adiyn (Sunday), Somiya, Aoaarakb. Budhoya, Soow aad
Sancblt (Saturday).
Tb6 traditional medical sy•tem PTCftleot tbrooal>out
Mongolia even today is the lndiall
Tbc Indian system of astrology i. practised on Monaoha.
Ancient Jndia.o treatises on utrology, medicine, proaody aad
grammar. rarely round In India are stilllreawred &lid
Mooaolia Mongolians alto yearn to ttorc and worlhip Oan,n
water as do 1 be Indians.
The Indian caclc is the guardian deity of tbe Moo&olran
capital Ulnn Bator.
Mongolians study ancien• Indian lore cooner:ted witb kin1
Bboj, Lord Krosbna nod the llitopadesb. They alutthcfr hb-
tory with Milllu as do the Indians.
Mexl<o
Mr
Chamaollll's book 'HI NDU AMI! RICA' dtttriba rite
• • T aad lito llldld.
dote similarities belweeo the Maya CITI !
0
'""'.
0
.... l8d
• I d' 1o M<'IJCO dcttoes
Tbc very word Maya os n •••· rrad' iaMl _,. oi!M
the Sun have bteo Ia tbe ;; lito IDCIIIIcr fti1a
Mexican people tbe seotomcnu urn:: ...,
1
.-
bidding rai'IIWCII 10 ber FICiaiiJ. pool£"
similarity to be...,. ,_ ,. tlrtrt t•••>
or aocienl Mofeo appear
10
be

111
aoclaotlodld • •
tants orlndla's nortb-castcro ,.,. 1 .. ,.._...,
IOJY the WCIIOIO btDIIIpbctC II rouJd .. llrtrtl 1lrtrt aJIIs.
contlnonta wn known u tbe Patala. tala rtafao 11111 ftiaiUIIMIIJ
•lou 10 the drjvinJ or Jill ... roib• ..
slanlry hl1 defeat aad wol '"
llaJI islltod to dhiiDI Mai<O- 1M-ol ....
dly
.... ..,... ... ·-- ......
):I&YIOI tbUI btoa
lo trace Indian .. uurol ••
Uall oow rurn IO the Eall·
a'
t 3 ,.,.(*:116

lhOIAN IIISTOJ.ICAL ll!ll!Al .:!t
of Brahm ) Itt nvcr< l rrawady and Chiodwio are S.n•km
"".-.. lo SJMlnl lrawato m<IOS full or water aod Cbiod .. io
dm•et u o•mc from Chontvana or tbc Slrcam wbocb
'"'""'" 1 rM .. t uKd f<>r m<dotatoon. Salween os the Sanstm
the n•<t ,.hoch ftOM tbrougb I teak forut. Lon!
IDAU·s !DD.1llt tbr sacuJ faor-bodi<d elephant the Aoravot mco.

10
lodiao lore dero• es oame from the region watered
In ln•ata Uoloke elephants in other regooos fair· bodied
cltrbant• arc found only on ohe country around the l rrawady
Jo ll.oortDL.,., SaruLrlt 'T' cb.llnges IO ' 0' · For the head of the
swe lh• Burmele use the word Adip!l.dj wbirb originnt .. in the
Sallltrit "-otd Adhipatl Their kiogs bore Sanskrit name$, and
Ill< CIOronation ecremonie.s followed the ancient
\'lldJk fUUel'1l. Tbelodian festival or throwing colour WAter
an •U and sundry it nlll l&Utily observed in Burma. The
Barmd: OIJCJ \1cLllla. Ranpa and Mandalay derive from
Swl:nt •ocds hkt Mitbila. Mondab and Ranga.
Ia no"h·cuttm Burma-.. billy ugioa kllo"'n ,.. the Shan
SW.t-tb: ladoan c..uom of the • ptopl: wear in& head·
pan ('( lona sbeeu or doth wound round then headJ still
ptrullL E.acb bu • temple or the guardoao deity wltb •
IIIla poi( ®WIIIDJ Ill tall spore. The elders or the village J<d
lor 1111:- KDiot .-uldcot f<Cel\'C honoured auests II the
•W.• bouadary Tbo auc:mbly ball also serves u tbc
pest boU>t, •1>11 •omeo from the trader's bouse
- fOOd 10 tloc IYCSIJ, brought rrom their own bomet io
•ood..,. All tb1J IJ reminiscent O( oocicot
lbt>t!u cult"'" "'" prevail In tbat remote reslon. These
.....,.,, aoc tdcotocol •ub th- provaihng to Indian volla&cs.
Aa lto<l- IDL\om "'Attb. "-·
llaldet '
1
• Bbava" eo join• on tbe bouso•
I
10
UUI lk 1-l " a •cnuble God hone rant ltr&OJCII
ate 11 10 caacna fnd ,.,th ) ·
baUs 0..,.-. lo all •a<ry and boiled tu at tbe bouS<·
...
1 1
o.- ....:- Each lczltmtnt abo hu an altar
loiiaa
lloc .. poa CO( t.ill>k co.lt
....... 1,11 u.., ,__ lire 1«11 •• Soam- tore It o--
Pift Sec! flUe ... _ It 11u OOd "'PoaJapbocal DllmCI arc of
""'" catlccl A)odbya, Cbolpun,
I[SHATRJYA J.UU 263
R&Jpuri. Fetebpurl. Tbe unlver.:lty on Bangkok, capital of Soam,
.
1
as Cboodalankarana. Siamese temples bcll.r S.asknt
like Wat Deva Sbri Jndra •nd Wat Aruu to S.oslrnt
' Wat" i.s a banyon tree. In anctent ltmes tbe sacrtd banyan lrtt
would almost always be planted neat boly shrio01 to provide
shade Md shelter and because or its medicinal Businus
est•blisbments like photograpbets and • bouJCs btar Sans·
krit names loke Chbaya Cbiuako.n and Suddha Bhojao Hotel
respectively. Roads and localities all bear Sanskrit namcllikc
Rlljawa.osba (pronounced "Rochwong) nnd Ban Kapi mea.nina
the Monkey Forest. Siam's natiooal cm.blem I• lbc Enal•
sacred to lodian mythology. Its name too iJ lbe same Sanskrit
'(iarud' tbougb il is pronounced as ' Krut'. To be l scholar of
Siamese one bas to be well versed in SIUIJkrit. Siam bad luop
brariog tbe name Rama. Tbeir king• os also the folk
all bear Sanskrit nameJ The kina's coronatooo 1S eam<d out
a«"ording to ancient Vaidik rites. Ercavatooos io Siam yocld
Hindu images and The royal ttmple of tbc
Eraenld Buddha in tbe beart or Bangkok bas..,..,., from tbt
. "d r ptnpbcraJ wah wttll JUII·
Ramayana painted on tbc IDJI • o liS . d
able captions on marble slebs. Siamese dao ... mUJIC ••
COStumes au all of lndooo orlaio.
• I" b <d lamps art 8oattd do'too
A SiamCJc festival ln whoch •a
1
,
1
___ _. Ma
. allel$ The ........ _ ... w
ri\'cr strenms hDvc lndoan par Stn•krit t<llll M• Olllll•
Kbakong dcrivCJ lis uaroe from the
i.e. Mother
Malaya •ad Singapore
111
&Jidcol lt>t!iao
Singapore wo• an .; tbc Patala Lok
shipping rout< from South oam• • Ucoa 01)'
and the Paetfie ulanda. Ill •• leodod •• Siappore toww4>
Tbc Brit11h uploret Ralflet •b:., ,..dod "' lu• )oklloln
tbc eloJt of the I'th Ccot•IY reo.,,.,._._. lotalod'"'
bavrn1 oe<D a fororetJ Rood •'- to doe--
tbc altc now navtrt«<lo)'
ocafront DOl
10
So.,..,.... .• _... lill.:
Aao .. tbt ,....,.,... cba8 It a eo•- Semlcril
Mala)'ID poolo•ull.
204 !NOlAN RUfA.Clo
Mall\&O r
0
.,
0
s •II bur Saoskrir names. Thus we have S.ra .
boo whocb
11
Ram Vana io Sanskrir Suneci Pau
101


Tb• rule .. or oah\e stares io Malaya. llOd member• or rbc
ro)al ramol) bur Saosknr lilies !hough for cenrurics now lbey
have bccO prorc»tnt Islam as their religion. Royal princesses
an: called PUiri, Mabadcvl, Vidyadbari. Rulers • port titles
Rtma aod Lai:Jbman. Tbeir palaces arc known as Asrbana
wbocb hI Saosl:ri t word. Two geoetatiotU ago the ruler or
Johore lllhru 1\'.ll lcoown a.s the Maharaja. Tbnt I otic Still
appcarl embroidered or embossed onlb.Qi.r
AU ucavations tn Malaya yield oorblog b ut Hoodu imn,es
aod tttllplea. l ull a few years back a Sbiva remple was •••••••·
"' io Sunaei Pauani.
A few mtl<l a eiry ealled lpob is a bot warer sueam.
Tbc aociCllr Sanskrit Puodasika Srotta was found there. A
aw1lk atab framed aod bung oo a posr at the spar ha< ao
atnc1 from lbaracropn11e oo5Cribed oo ot.
Aa lodau moalt lcGowo u llrabmacbari KaOasam alias
Sll'llllo Satyanaocl ..,bo bad s<ttled io Malaya, and who ran
....al plllltarbropic IMlirutioos in Malaya and Sio&apore bu
-. and a book called OUMPSES Ot>
NM.A Y AN HISTORY. In tbal book be bas deacrlbcd in aome
dNil IIICI of IDdJau historic and archloOIO&iCal inrcrcst found
ICIIbc l!ut Asiaa r,.lon from Mala yo ro Korea.
' I Ia
llldaz r •
..._ "''
1 1
oatm culture iJ Biadu, Va'
1
di' culture tbouah
..,. ,.... .
..... -:: IIIey haft bee profcuioa tbe lalamic r .. th.

ta : lava. Sumatra aod Bali arc all Sanalcrlt
"" .stc '
t 'all _. • • " acu tbnnca "' *C ded1cated to lod••n
..... 11a .:::--fro. IMoao •1*1•• aculpcural relief
fJ1 Jd._ ,..
1
· "":."""" lodoccai.., <!Jncc and mull< aso
's ,,. ms'!
1
'*
7
•u citiet. Yillaact and towu tw'•'
bk. ,_ 111 1111 • en ,. ,..._a are moatlY Sana-
-puree.,
7
'r r.. or Yawa. The r•Jdeora or BtU
- Voldilt Nlilioa. Tiley lUll rcrliD rht
I
UIIIPIAN KSI-IATIUYA RULO
26)
fourfold Brahmaoa, Ksbatroya, Vaiabya and Sboocl
tioo of sococry. Tbe) r<cote the Oceta and bit"' elaJ.ufk..
Valdik rttuals.
0
f'ft" YlfiO\I'
Bora<o
A part or Borneo " Sara walt. Till very rraotly the Sara,.alc
parhon was ruled by ao Enallsbmaa Bur he too bo b
1 • • rete111e
RaJa. Tbar shows that Borneo wu a part of tbc ladia
jn Eas1 AsiR, n emptru
• An DHARMA quaotcrly publiabcd by tliC Pure
l ofe.Socooty, tn Malaya had o c,ouple of ye..a baclc
•• ort oclc In one or Its IUUel dcscribin& bow 4 bcU whb
a Tamol ioscrlplioo had been round with •• 1\UIIrahan trlbll-
• Maori. The bell was obvoously used by an todiao shop wbicb
gor wrockcd near the Australian shore. Some Moon fishermen
hoppeoed 10 find h In !heir haul. Tbal is ho" they tame by
rbat bell wbich hu survived u a nre rcli< ur lh<l&< wbca
Indian ships sailed the hiah ..,., carr)iDI lad!.. u mlu , IDir•
chants a.od $Cbolan 10 ' " tbc p.>r!J or tbe alobc lbto ....... .
the Bbara1a Vanba.
l adocbiaa
\Vbat is now known 11 tho lodoc:honeac Pcnonwla coou.roaa
ofNortb aad South Vie to am Cambodia • • LIOJ .,., •
sear or a pAwcrrut lad lao empore. The p<)rf S.IJOD Is ... IJICdl
od . tom111011
lodiJill, Son•krit name. Oaon sosno6 .. • town • "
1
suOU .in Lodia for many township>.
• from r.t
1
Oanp I•· Moth<i
Tho r iver Mekooa • •t '" ..... r Rami the C:OUDir)
Ganga. RcllllOhceot or rb• ,:. t-1 people. Tllt
t...os Is aho pronnun<td
11
Lava precl .. lt bcuurc rllaJ
l'rentb who ruled ther• rpell"' it.: ,, .. l.IYI. Tile or
spelling eaab
1
.J rbem to P
10
";"'
0
,
01
too n lllblcod...,. Tbo
Lvo eQunrry is Vicauaoe. Tb
1
'':-r.1101r "'p1w u Vu Ooa•
local people prooouocc rb• ..... o( rho SIJIOtnt -.1 V-
wbocb is a corrupr peoo""':r:..t•oo4 r...a.
Chandan munoar • ,.,.., _._. IIJ aa<idt !Jid--.... ,,
Since UJ)dalwo<ld •at ...,- bad ol>•""'"' • ,.,.. ..
proru .. ty to ohrll ,.,,...,.. n•

l66 INOIAH IIISIOIUCAt. a!SEArtCI\l
Aadal•O<Id planllUOliS in Lava country and ila capital
vua Cbandan. Sandalwood is atill widely ustd in tho rolialouo
cm:morun or the Lava people.
Ia Cambodge there is still to be seen in a lilts
artb·lt(1l:lral story an ancient lodian capital called Angkor
Wat The su.m>uodoog area is still called Aranya Pradesh.
Hm too 'Wat' means tbe banyan tree 'Aogkor' signifies ha
•pntut. 11 oould be ohat the sapling or a banyan uee was 6m
planted oa ohe area \0 mark the dedication of the site for the
propoKd cap1tal. Ruins of this ooce prosperous capital are
sprud over an area of 100 kilometres. Amoog them we find a
mwive JlCrlpberal wall interspersed with towering statues or the
Bnhma·VIshou.Mabesb trinity of tbe Hindu pantheon ; o
lia&otle JIODe S<Uipture depicting the mythological legend or
the Oods and demons cl>uroing the ocean with the Vasuki oer-
pellt as tbelr rope aod the Mandara mountain as the
rod. The mas11he Jtooe figures of Gods and demons ranscd
011< !Khiod tbe otber oo opposite sides clutcbiua the long
I<IJ>alt u tbou&b engaged in a tug of war is a breathtaking
lpetiiiCk
StaodiDJ in the midSl of &bose majestic ruins one observes
lll around fl'Arious paved )'&tds, temple spires. palace tower$,
beautifully canod 11/IDdows, lofty shrines and tpaeioas luxuri-
ou. l>llaecs.
A1110n1 the&< rultll bave been found 11umerous Images of the
Hiodu de1toea and on10rlptions mentioning the names of tbe
lodlao luap ••bo ruled ovet tbe rtsion, and their CJ<plolts.
Soot Tot D&mca of aome of tbaK kiacs were Jayavarma aod
ball,....,_ Tbe name C.mbodce is itseLf Sanskrit . Khambu•
faau\y those boro of him were
Tot.,_,..,
10 111
copit&l Po• ., c;.:: oftbe oamc CambodJC·
- Mdlclu ,.,,.,., ••• . "full of oothioa elso
""" U>JC: lpi;OilO,
Mlllll• ntaab ....., trlldiiiDCII or
..... n.... \radot-.1 .,.lhoral corocoatlon prevaol oo lndo-
•ana o1 tbc I...SI&o - roiMic ed Is oo
aalatc \o lilt IDdiU M)lo • ,:Dod:,:.' Ud daDCC. Tboy

umM tl ltSIIA TRI Y A RULe
Sites of ludian archaeoloaic:alud blttorl l6?
in tift reg,on from Malaya to Korea ba be cal mte._ 4aaorp
de><:ribed io Brabmacbari Kailuam's to oUusllalod lad
Japao
What Is Jr.nowo as Japan IO the outside world is .
by the people of thai country 11 Nippon. dt:aipatcd
Tbe Japanese monarchy, also about
2600
.,.
1
h rJ 1 • , .an ••• au lib
I . at o rnn, c I lUIS descent from tbc 500 as
00
the
1
Ia
Kshatrlyas. nd a
Long before Japan adopted Buddhiam u ill oat!aoal coli
that country followed t.bc Vaidik way orlire l.t. Shinto. Tbtt
culture which is more aocieot tbao Buddbosm suil ftoumllea
side by side lo Japanese life. Sbiato is tbe corrupt form of
Sindbu. It signifies tbc culture of tbe people hvooa oDtb< buks
of tbe Indus /.e. the Siodbu. That" wby ill • Sltla•
sbrioes Goddess Laklhmi, tbe ofobe Anllla Nan No,...
war i .t . of Lord Shankar ill tbe form of half ... ud IIIII
woman aud sucb other Hitldu deities -"JIY • ,..,. ol
booour.

INDIAN lt!STO&II: AI. •
Mnuaya.u ua•cllcd 10 Japan 1n the 8th-9th centuries.
s.- 111<11 m&llll&lo ha\c been writteo in Japan io the ""istic
Slddbam cript of ladlo. The eminu= or Japan's cultural
nollutoa, lib tbe ecleb:ated kobo-daubi (774·83S A.D.) have
bequcstbcd a rtcb bema.- of ujas and manlras in the per fcc-
'-of tbCJt e&UIJnphk a". UloJtratcd obove IS the supreme
CD&Iltra 1D tlle d}'D&IDic haad of a Jop01ese master.
•••
1llc C.llbodJU NatlocaJ Thu•rc drawa its ..,.,., popular
,..._ rr-
1111
Huu.,oan I• • • ourot< htro of
:.... laaaraaolcnbaa poopk of Cambod • pbot'·t• pi\
IDe
11
be u tlqoictcd •• Cambodia tl;.baatbUJI 1 1ho
conoa '-l.

wirb
lo Tibol lndra is rcpru bo tuunratioo i1 reba
SHANKHA. Tile
1
vc Tbcrc buodr<dJ
fro111 a Lbara xylaar•ph.
110
ycd Ia lffr'l
or auob Indian 1'9'plc
Tlbcr&Drem
•••
-"·' _..., ..
oc--' ....... ....
A Sa111krit •
00
wvCdiolrid tJto8
1104 A.D. oo .. tiiU: vua. $aalllril
covered by Prof.
0
'·,:'14 .lift.
top ro bOttom and "
newe l..,..,_.
, .
210 IKDIAM IUSI"OiliCAL aQC\•CJt
Tbc Jap&KM wt•JtliQa style with 8Ymnuta "<a
ooch•aa a Iota dOib, is of oria1n. So
11

tdf..S.fC8Ct calloJ Jajllllll. Thai IJ a Sansb11 word Wbocb
- aalbc Ani •cne GEETA. Ia ..
knllk word k YayuiJU. II l1£0iJie5 those dtsu,;nu or fi&hhat
SJ.mlnl "Ya' •a} O(tco cb&oga 10 'Ja' in pra\.m as Yasbwaaa
booool::la JUYIJII aod Yuwan a youth is c:alled Jawan. The
EQalil.b word )»VO:Dik also dcrivo:s from Sanskru Yuwan.
A-or-r.onb•p form1ng part of the Shiolo ltadi1ioo
11
liiOther 1ad1ea1ooo ofSh1DIO none else lbao 1he Siodbu
wllom:, naco commemorating the ancestors through rhuls
IOUDI one of tbc basoc practices or tbe Hindus.
Cremauoa amoos tbc Japanese also poiou to lheir bavoog
bcea adbneau of lhe liondu ruth. Japanese has mliJly Saosl::rit
•ordl. They use lbe Sanskrit word 'Nama' u his wbeo refer.
nor to lhc oamo of a penon. lD Eng!islt too the word on.,.
oatl!l ao 1be SanRnt word "Nama'. Tbe Japanese way of life-
lnpl. snapk b.,o, &lid bigb·thinlciog origina1es 10 tbeor tnci·
way of life Their interrogatOJ)' suffix 'IU' bas 1ts
- 10 t be interrop10ry sallix ' lcim". Tbe Japanese
aloo caakc part.LI} usc: of a lc:ripl bued on the Indian alpha·
bctQJ pboocta.
We have llws olmned in a rapid survey almosl from one
cad of tt: I) abe to the other the overwltefming proof of Indian,
\ aidok Clllture bavioe once permeated almost a 11 parts of tho
llobe. It IIIIPt be "'lmdcted as 10 bow t ba1 was accomplisbed.
Tloos Rlllarkable spread was made possible by tbe adventuroua
•P•m of tile IIIC>eat Rood us ..,bo had developed a vigorous
aoi•..Sa dYnamic: c:ohun: and entertained the lofty
::!::' ol I"DIIoq tbcir n plorations and dhseminatln& tbe•r
• "'" lbc ••IIIOIQI pan. wotld.
..,...., lila! •na •• Yicw lk.r ld • 1 ......
- ,... 'la1a C CO JCrS Utabbtbed m Ji-,
"'O 1 po tof>t, CODtra, aod admioiatratort
' I&W a -.1
01 9
-ues while tho prieally order
• op .. m ••• """'o j - a llloaloaopbiC toDc to the wbolo
no.. e'Otttl '
101
&Colllibcny IO aU,
-...,.ht ua u•IJiaru liu tbc Nna
a ut.J l)f ...
a in Bolkh. Maoy sucb Yibaras have beeo ddco..r<d
111
¥obat ru of I he world like S1bcroa aod
rcmote pa
ld
.... a mostak• 10 belic•e that lhtse wtt< Boddh,ll
ftWOU .... I' -
Buddha never roucded a separate re 'JIO& or I<C\.
Vaidik vihan..s bad been established t ?l Oftl !lit
tllndo or · Wb B ddb '
Jd since bony aotulu•ty. en u a •llDOUI uo
wor c .,. old teo<U or Hinduism .. -. •• rn•.cwcd 111<1
i_ndia tbe sam . . ad "·-· i •·
d b ougb the numerous ""despre ...... .,, a to5
u we fiod lo our owo times tb< IWIIH of
oamc o_r N asSOCiated with tradilional p.-pu. to lead
•Gandhi an c . new force and glow, Jn course of tune
those same io Indo a declined and the worldwode
wh<n tbc Hon u g r funds ood learned pruobm.
cultural ceotru were o india snapped. Slo« Buddbil'>
all conneclioru and hnks to be iovol::ed at tbe nriOIU
name happened to be the Ia ' of !be BuddhA leh tb..r
1
nl ce.ntres memofl< d lJ.
JodiaD CU tU • f V d k culture dti::d up ue 10 po
stamp while the str .. o ao '
tical upheavals in Jadoa. Buddbul \lbatAJ are P"rdy
Wbat , tbercfore. oppcu ;o ,..urs of Bmolu, V&ld.lc:
Indian cultural Tb b world sudlkol) f<(!Odcd tea• ,.,
culture which had sufl'u!Cd t ' " the Jodi>' cullunl
behind memorih of tho llud • ld h i• lb· • • blltOn<&

I
n IO
1
, 10 OllU •
ism or accclcrat o h I I ' Wtlbe oppotu<. .
out the wl!rld. The lrUI J h ,.bleb inspired"" IOtd•tn.
.• • Y d preochon 10
The dynnm•c ,·•a,'o- scbotars, prlotts • • -'-to til< four
. d In m ••• aad
scieousts: u .m nowtcdp, urvlcn the Saaslcnl
.carry tbecr ftas. k ld
11
;uromcJ up Ia
coroe.- of lhc wor
couplet Cbaturo vc.Jolo
Aaratu h•••"' Db•oub
Pnslat.U Sa> Jda111 Br>b.OIA
"'"""""'
ldODI fldopl .,..ud bJ ItO
Sbapadapl Sba k>h lb: (<ICir Vcdu ..... --
M'#/o carry • 1011 u 11JIII
Wbicb me&Dt ad!' ro tell rcopla •
• · ld al tb• •• ..
""' ._.
11
witb • •..-•
" ir Gd2
'""''lf"· ---------
INDIAN HISTOiliCAI.
II llSI..\
:
I N.,• lcdl&tl Aouquar)', Vol. VIL
2 Gh!DJ'ICI of Mala}an Hostory by Brahmachari Kaot
3 'DhArma' (issuts) published by the Pur
Socltty, Pctahog, Malaya. • L,r.
4. Hoodu Amtroca by DJWIO Cbaman Lat.
S.
' .
"I
.,
'
Blundtr No. 11
Role of Sanskrit as Ancient World
Language Forgotten
Among lbc many misconceptionJ current in pruont-day
historical thinking one most far-reacbina relatea to the rololhll
Sanskrit bu played in world biltory. Modeto IDIUI sooms 10
have clean forgotten tl.at unlike any otbor laosu•&• io bumao
memory Sanskrit bad once been so widely prevaleoc u 10 juslly
claim co be a world language. But the tragic irony IS clac we
find maoy a 'modern' tcbol&r wooderiag whether Saostril hid
ever been a uolversally 1poken laopaac even ia Jodia il•tr.
That India's entire aocJcol liJctalW'C is culllli.eiJ io SaaJ.
kric is overwbelmio& proof 1bac s.ouric ws cbc oaly 1«'111'.,.
wbicb was understood aod uoiVeriiiiY spokco llltoUiboat 1Dd11.
Aparc from titcracurc all sraotl, orders. iojWICllo_,.. ordma-
wcre in Sanskrit and so were all dcbalel, sympoi•UD. -·-
and discunions.' All cexc boOb bavloa been io Saoskrh the
teaching wu all in Sanskrit. All rcJiaioUJ cbao.., Pi*icn. _.
and sacraments were Jn Sanskrit. Tben was ooca u:rwly a.:!
of lcicnco ot arl wblcb did DOl bavo ltsol ::!
1
ud
Saoskrll. Tbus we God lbll Ill• eotJrc ID all o !o! --
learning wbelbcr in •
1
• • ':.Ill).
pbysics, psycholoty. loak. m:;:. PboiAJ biolGIY• •• u..,,
CCODomicl. politico, bomo
11
IC .,.a:u ... ..,;,.,._ .,..
111
rw.
pbysico, biiiOIY• - ionriobiY .-1 a I 'wiJ iD
o-OIOIY ot ........ '", ............ azd ---
Sa!llkrJI, All #I ': ..... ril. All n'W* ...
oliO c.,...sacted -='--; ..... _,..... « k n _.,1
wbctblf relali£1
10
-• _., S !Ill- Will It
..... - 'b
-reo oliO -;:.,:,;..,..
11
dill aa tbal lllofol r II li S
...........
poatr'l·
l'• ll<l>lAN
11 ....... ooe's lma&onauoo how •n the faee or Ibis stauer•
""..,;.s.- anyoo• cao sutl adamaoUy nnd scriousl) mllatola
,.,
1
Sntl.nl••• not a uno..nall) languaae on India.
Ia
1
..,.11•• (d)OOliDI bood of Saoskril for ccoturie> in the
....... pUI bas b<to"' stroos that ia .spite or the many bruk·
•••Y t.ad<I!Cl.,. the strcaL or Sansknt that runs throuab our
our natDtt. home:t, ctrc.monieJ., rhua.ls a.od btri:.agc,
romu porhapstb• onl) cohtsi'e factllf whicb maku us pull
to,<tb« II> 1 uallou t\'en today. B111 Lllis •hould no lonaer be
ta'en for IIJintcd since whb every day, thtl link 11 gell ing
ohonner and weaku.
When cwy bumun ach•ol)' In andenl lndln from home to
c10cnllonum, ha,nlotto palocoand l<mple, low court 10 charity
hOIII<. bulb dutb. sunrise to sunset, eoteotoinment to socru·
mcnl ICbool to aod bumour 10 meta·
.!dCO<IIt<> u s cnndurud in nothiog but Sanskrit what
f11ttbct nldc- Is r<quircd to pru>-c tbal SaDJkrit was the one
.., aah laaruasc of P"bli<: tWJe throughout India durin& the
cca1w.c:s 111 lba1 l11eraJu..re contiaurd to pour in a
tQfftDt.
Tht UIIIU.C:C '0 lliCICnl times or ICJU or l<ornin like
:!:'ud&td&t>d wbtro thousands of uudeots fr!m all
wor at • tunc ul-td to be imparted
1
thr •· f IDS fUCtiOO and
compi .. liOO o rderc..oce •o-r·ta lil . '
t)OODj'IIU ltbr Amarkoshl for loft.aoee < <ncyclopatdl.. o (
._.umudi. ana lulcons rurtb" the lndlon Slddhn
Sao1\nt ha•rna held undupuoed &waru the conclUsion of
o.w..W lln ... &c and mother tongue y "' llnCieot Indio's
H"" •• ordeo to be conviac.d tbll
-14 tao sua .. durooc tbal very period Saotkfll was also the
•orl4 oiiO<l&y"' of ohc recent . I look around tbc
ltt.a Let •• tab the c:umple or l'!."!' ··g bdpful
ud thr early part of the 20th """I tbe 18oh
a '<ll ,lar&e atca ol u..ec:::::.., tbeu <mplr;
,....,&1,. ':to be •iddy tpakca on Canad IConsoqucntly
• fQ artld tll&ly otba arua. •· Dd•a. Chl • l
.
...W .,, ••• :.:Joe Dona, and Ponu-
a tbole a&hOa-J tbc.i laa.au•ac• Pre-
r a:utuaty coo ..

quests· II may tbus be noted that military """"
. • . r b •• ..., .... n ...
d$tOUaJ pre·rcqnottte. or t • aprud or a IIDru>Jt- Tile bod
epic Mobabbarata and tho Indian Puranat •oo••
. cop..,.s
-refuenccs to lodoao conquests (CIIled OigviJayas) bor.
1be world. The people and r<gioos m<nuooed "' tbe!
1
' li bl od Tb • . • ...
;dent• a e even t ay. cor mohtary conqoem ,..,. .,..,.
1)0SSible by invincible 'c.ur·fold armed for= co01111101 o• ,.
fa.nltY, animal corps (elephant and ho110), eavtlry
included forces who moved over land aod Wller in ••bocleo •ad
boats and air force (using aeroplaocs, guided mbtll<l and other
air·dropped ammunition) equipped wnb a remarkable advanced
technical know·how.
Here the readcr'a oll.cntion mu11 be drawn to another hlno-
-rical mytb wbl<h is very widely preYOIIeo11. It il often u.loUtll
<onteoded tbat through some inherent m•si• aocieDI WI••
<ould just scod a beaming lmlle acrnu her borde" to be uoo•
versally loved, and iu ltnl"l&• Sanskrit reJpottcd and koo,.o
,hrougbout the world. Such a thlo& nevu bappom Th< Wlp·
age of one countrY spreads In another ool) thrn•&h m•!•WJ
<onquelt and cooJ:queat administrau•.., coarrnl. If. thcttf'OfC,
olber traces or mihtary cooqutst han btea oblrorrattd lbl
'Prevalence of one o•a aaoth<r" •
sign of the ioBucocinJ coulllry bavon& ruled o•c• obc ooll<r.
1b's can be deduced from < .,..e,..helmiu& oo
Interminably P"""""' "' .rodb d.e•p•t• IDdll
1

mont of freedom end her nch. ancocnl htrilll• or s,.m .
It rnoy be tbat ancitno India Is :::
I
b military conqu.st .,....utc
respected tc er
1
aod the ruled. llldia't t1101al
discriminate bel the ru efl .,... a fuU.ftedpd .,,,_
philoaophy or resardlnl ever'/ 1111fCC1 fot lla' IIIII..,...
irrespective of oltiOOIIiiY. Of:,:,: t1Je fad thai wllifa _.,
odmiration Thia bl !:'.'!.., tDI If«'/ -dJ IIdia-
modeto nauon pracutcd
tolenocd or permitted ala...,.· wlllcb Jldpa a ,. do.,.,.
Yet another eonrctrt:',:',:":. ... a,. _. ladil8 ,. Ia
t he universal Jpr<ad af o1o ...... lilt..,
1

tlmu 11 t.._ £ql1 patt ot• .Mol _, ...,. at
.,r Britub rule .,-• .. .,.
276
mcd
10
• ruch as Jooland, Greenland, Buehaoalond
fOI ... , •••• E»tlad•cs West bdies, New York, New England
S.•OI• ...... • I lb
.,.., "'
00
, nat ru es e world (or L
11
nor cbt • otld) "'" biS own names to vu t l o
lbt": ':; o/th>J r rit!Ciple if ..-c arc &b!e IO J>rO\-. I bat SLO•Jcrit
,..! wc;c rtedomio.a.ot•o the ID<I<OI . :Ju "' tball have
... ty PfO'-.d the existeooc of lodioo rule aod Saoskrlr
.,.,, JDDII be ooeirotworld.
LooltDI> o•tr cbe oacntnl aUu ""find like Bnluehll·
lb••· Af@aol•lbtn, Zabulinlllln, Oharicbiltbao, Kurdisthon,
,.,...,!ban (roodt111 Arabia), Turagaslbau (modern Turkey),
Si>.llh•n and m•o) otb<rJ. The suffix "sthan" in the above
ft&tllt• II IIIli C4jWYIIcol or the En&liJh ... ord "l.aod", Ira nom
!moJ<RI lr"•l aad lr14 derive from the Saotktlt root " Ira"
mw>JOI ,. .. ,.,.. " lrooam" Is defined io tbe San•krit dictioonry
IJ 'loalty, dcl<ll around". Bailll Is a corrupt ronn or tbe
Sanakmlerm Kandahar was originally "Oandbara"
rD
Greet twlltt lile D:odorus and Thcodoro ore corrupt
rorau of D< ,.ower (God't door I.e. temple dO< r). The MC<!i·
lmUUll 11 • S&otkril term bcc:awe 'mcd • is SaDJitrit
•MI4bya" (cco:cc or middle) IU>d "1<rra" it " D.ara' ' (earth).
liul& •• lbo middle of lbe earth-so to say, hu the Mediler-
ruc.on JO 111med. llallll iu Sanakrit name almost
... its OliJ1111110T111.
l'auy•tuJra (now called Navbalar) tn the anolenc Balkh
ftl""' tad •• lrao arc oamea. Pata.tlka Ia
Ike Se•krlt or,atn or modern PetaiL
Mocb or lbc lalamlc teraunoloa 1 d
1
""llrll lbe lcllll "All b" . Y ' roote o
"'"""t. 0111 of u.- lodl a " • I)'OOoym lor & aoddeu In
E.., tbt l:ta •·y
1

11
I be Allopanitbad.
Ire"' • ..._rll u 1 San•lult u lllay be judled
IWIIIoJIOQ of UoddcsJ Stru..•ti Wb!Ch rcada
Ya adu Tll&lal Har Dbawala
Yo 'Ill *• .. Vrua
Ya v.,..,..,. Maad1ta Kara
Yaa._,_, ......
I
"OU! OP SAN!ltklT
ulio and Per1ion are doalecu oiSI<IJkrit. Orat ""' bo<·
rowed • lot from San•krlt. Freocb w flnallah
1
full cf
s 311Skrh wordt, roou and tp<e<h forms. Tbt "'"or P':,. , •
• • u l"l oco&o
for lhe neaauve ... Ill •mora s Saoskrit. Tbt l<rmloatloo
"JtrY" as In Denllalry, Chemillry de11ves from lbe
.,..0 rd mcaoina science or braocb of knowl<d&<,
Word• fash•ooed from roolt like "Daot'' (u io "deoW ...
. ") " M I .. ( • .. I
dentistry • ru u rn mona .... monutry, moraue .. ,pon
mortem) are all Sanskril. "Vclture' ' for apparel it the Sanslclol
word '
1
VaJtra''. Commoo words like ••ooof' (Dwar),
are all Sanskrit, Nuroerals like " 1010 (Dwi), Three (ltoika.
tripartite, tripod) is bued on tho Sanakrit word "tr)", Four
(Chatwar), Jive "Paocb" in Sanskrit gives ussucb words u
pentagoo ... peotecostaU, ll• (Shat In Sanskrit), seven (laptal.
eight (.utba), oloc (nava), ten (dasba gives us words like
decimal, decade). 'Goo' is the Sanskrit ' Kon' meaomg 'Ao&le'
Christ-Mas is really tbe moo1h of Chri11. In Saosknl • moolb
is called 'Mas' . The Saosbil rool "pada" fool It_.
to words Uke b•ped, centepede, pedlalrlcs aad cnpod. .Pedal-
rian is almost a puce Saoskrh word which ls ClplaJoed •
Sanskrit as "Padais Cbaroll iii Pad..:baroba". :::
" Bbaro" meloin& weiabl &•U lraosfarm<d •• LatiD
"Barus" and gives us words like

• .. i ht"
1
n Saolknl bu "" to
word Nakl&m m<an•DI n & ' d Tilt •
like "night", Naucbt

onal••l SaaW:il
Eo
r h ord "PedeSial' rcll•lll liS " n-- [)cos..
8 '' w b b words Jlol, ...........
form pada·sthala", In Frcoc
1
• Ood KJied and Coin
Genou, Naga meanin& Kioa. Quct•d:.. Tbo river Nile " dol
II S
aoskrll wor • • "bl " ......
respectively 1110 I d " Ned" namely ue • •-
corrupt form or tho Sanskrll (D oruolao.l tbc $&albil
is wby 11 Is called I he Bluo N•!e· riJioal SaJISkrlt --
word "Sambandbl" Is used lo •li -•Ins • Uoa, it dol
ina • rclalion. In JaaiUIIC it bUid..:
Sauaktit word Simha. • nolr capltal "Rip" Is Usa tl
Pan
·,
0

1
•a Saoskr11 1ratDaaar• _ __... PlllCu till la•F'sr
word ··a .. - · . lbl 'n •
root we find in the o(Soedrilll • stnr ill .....
Af&bAOISibiD Ill dlalad eM ........ ol-
ofThailaod. Ia o.n: s.atHil poltorS-
almot' rour-14• .....

l}fDCJ\ H HIS'T'Oa !CA 1.. AUI!A ltat
::f
.tayr from Moncl&y to Sunday
T1o< "''_.. c( .., u rat<! do•,. b)' Sacukrlt·apoaklnt
feB<-' tile ""rid
0
1
world the
0
:., )'CAt bcpa about
1
_., __ 1• tbr ,.,.co
o4 'cnaJ rtt:D .aow. The nama
Arti11 •• •. • from cbe Saosknc word•
s::hmtm; and O.ubama I.e. the 7th. 8tb.

1
tb·' TM c!clly "Mttru" •orsbtppod m the
'"h '""'" "r h Hi
ld

• Mtlro" or !he Suo God o t e ndus.
-r""f "- bbJ ' S L (
S..odlftal,.
11
tlloabod< of urnors (Sknd !'Ia •• ana.r I)
I• o1 obt \'tl!nr>.
Tbc atom·e ''
1
mere umphnl wblch, h is hoped, would bo
eiiiWfb tD • COD'Inct tbc rcadcr of the WOtld·wide awecp or
Saonlmt.
,. ..... ,.,. .. to another mytb or world ttstory oriainattct
ltiattrD adlolarr. Tbt} bavc been moiorttnlna tbac
i.,&,.Gaawuc laop•s• duo .. from JOID< otb:r parent laoau-
.,. II tllat II ...... ast. wbi<h is tbatlaoawoa• , In .. bkh
pan of rbo world Is It spokca 7 To thi• IIley baw: no ooawcr.
n., _._ tllat tbc p&rmt lancuare bu. been wiped out or
a..._, TlW iliA illop:.J coDCIDJion atiliOJ out of wront
"""' p<aWDphiiCl
AI to .. be lhOS< people ,.ere wbo 1pokc tbe p1re.o1
tbe '"'"" peobapt iJ tbat tbcy wtrc "Aryan•"· But
.. altca4)' dtiCIIJJC41be oo-coll<d At) an race probltm In
• r.,..., •• cbapc<t • • wea tbat " Aryt" ., .. oo race bul ooly
u idGI. Tbat • ooovtoce the reader that the concepts or
1
lll
1
nito« oDd a I'll COl loaao•sc other than Sanskrn arc
attfu.
... .. ba¥t llloc..s, pro•·cd in • rorcgoina chapter tb4l
-...; i!:! ';".-'"' antlljully. hundred• or tbou .. ad
h"'oc-
1 11
.,...tc of tbt: Vcd&J is Sanskrit aod It If
-aU.._ -:_.::-•"" •lucb 111tv utd olld
'o u ·• htd., tWa fl'tV u &bould be thai tbc-
M 1
2
., lou1N ::* -• •orld btrUIIJc u lod1.1 Tbu
..._..., ,..,, ...... -w .,_ •ootid bcea lmpowbl•
rt ,. •lioo.
0
lool ';!...&ad nalc4 ovu lbc world Ao
- lllc-PDI'ISl' worldabowo

0
,sWsnrT
••••
EosJisb words, names and custom• apread OYer 1 W..
"' • tbe world oolr when the British ruled over anu_
O tftpqucst alone oaablct the apread or One COIIIItzy'a
M•hltrY- d t' 1 1
e culture, customs an re tg ou n a·not.bn. That
'in the ceaturie• before Jcswo Cbrist and Propba
1
b''ammad ruled over most parlt or the world is aiJO borne
Mo · f "D' " (I "
out by the • o_ . tJVIJ&yas ·•: conquests)"
,....rded io aacient l odoan Ia_ aa ,carher chapter
h ve alrea1y cited cvidenco of Vtkramaduya s rule over Arabi&.
proof is the cxlsceoce or the Samaaaid empire. Like
the word ''Obawavid'' the ori&ioal word in abc term
"Samanaid" is "Samaol". Early Arab cbroolclcs when dealing
Wtlb tbe invasioos or Mohammad Kaslm, Mohammad 0h11%11i
aod Mohammad Ohori tefer to Indians OJ "Samani". This i•
yet aootber proor that the empire was the empire or
Jodaan Ksbatriyas. ThoJC l ndiao rulers who were later fon:ibly
converted to hlam now seem different and arc looked upon u
alleos over this discance of centuries.
That West Asia was ruled by lndiao Ksbatriyas may be
proved by tracing the ancest{Y or Barmau t.hc erstwhile rulm
orlraq, and PeblaviJ (lbe preseot rulers of Iran). The Pchlavis
are mentioned as an Indian clan in the Ramayaoa aod the
Mahabbarata. The Barmaks ,.ere !be Puamak (bead prieat of
Navavibara in Balkb)-a Sanskrit cerm-who gained asoen·
datllly and ruled over Iraq.
'The exiscencc or Sooskril \YOrds ln RussiBll, the numerous
(/.t. cullurnl-oum·religlous centres) being bro'l&ht co
llghc through excavations all over Runla and MonaoliA and lho
flod or Sanskrit scrlpturea and fire templet over a vast region of
Europe and Asia is a clear pointer to Indian military conqii<St
and subsequ<oc administration for numcroll.l centurics a
part of.chc world. It iJtbat whtch cauud tbc spread ot
CUkrttlanguage, euttoms and cuhute tbrouJbout tbe world.
Siacetbe basic $Cripe urea or that cullurc, I be Vedas "" of
anciquity, and aince they and the SaoUrit 1...,...,.
.:: tbe exclusive bcrita&e of I ndia In our own tima, it llllould
•• ,?parent to tbe reader t hat tba oldet t laaawoae (SuaDil)
CUlture (Valdik) known to tbo world a rc l ndiaD. Warda
INDIAN IITSTOIUCAL W 8AACII
210
IIJid " "'"U' dcn>t from SUr aod .O..ura bccau&o
!.U • · -• "u" Tbc words " Mall aod
•• a.- ..,.... rb< .,. ·
"') " wbidt arc tile ooms of r•o Afnco.n sratts are found
R&....... Till> bn<( SUI\'e)' of lbe IUlClCill WOrld should
'
•· _ .. ., rtut s
1
nskru n• oooe the spoken laoauap
"'"'"'"' _,_ I II • b DOC c»f)
10
,.,. • bole oC lodoa but a most a o•cr t • world.
11
I> d•• rouatllll•bcad ..t mo>t lanfua&n of lbe world and bas
OUIIIJII'I""'Ir taroobod aad others.

Jijndo Origin of Prophet Mohammad
Forgotten
;.propos the obscrv3lloos in a foregoing chapter proving
bat ALLt.H IS A HINDU OOD AND THB KABA A
TllMPLE evidence is also available indicating that
Prophet Moba.mmod Himself was born a Hindu and that when
He ohose to breakaway from tbe family's Hindu tradition and
heritage and declare himself a Prophet tbe j oint Bindu family
broke up in an iotemecine feud and Hazrat Mohammad's own
uncle bo.d to lay down bis life lighting to save Hinduism.
Fartlung Hinduism had, therefore, its own Karbala in far·
•""Y Arabia. There, tess a person than Prophet
Mohammad's own uncle Umar hin·e Hassbam. a staunch
Hiodu sod a ferveot devotee or the Hindu God lord Sbiva laid
dowo bis life fight ing ror his fai th •
This piece or information unknown even tn historians aod
scholars, thanks to the successful destruction of aocieat Arable
binary and other evidence, is round on page 235 of tbe famous
atUhology or ancient Arabic poetry titled San·ui-Okul.
Ao extract or tbe page bas been reproduced 10 black ink on
a ;cdstooe column or the fire-worship pavilion in tbe backyard
·; tho L&kshmlnaroyan Temple, popularly called tbe Birla
emplc, on Reading Rood in New Delhi, for anyone to ace.
Acco d'
the
1
• !o another extr&llt cited on another column or
H':me pavolton, which will be quoted tater in this chapter,

1115
"' held exclusive n¥&y for several milleo.oiums in Arabia
li: Mohammad. In faot from Prophet Mobammad's
"1DDt ltwarda the entire history of Arabia down to tile
ltiid eat &oUquity ia ooe of continued away of Hiodu nallud'
Q •onhlp prevalent io tbo wbolc or Arabia ud oae •
:t: DfOfAW HlJTORtCAL • tJaAlat
18 !lie •bolt o(Wttt Asia. Tbe IO lb•
Bud4lnml io tboK rti!OI>I arc to lioct the ruuh
0( • e....Unt&DIIJDJ aod a IDIIJIIIcrpi'CiaiJoo or hlltOry. Sloe.
loofd14 llarp<D<6 to be IIIL moa ra.mou• Hlodu JUU
lodoa't ,,.. •itb oull)tOJ n:pcnu snapped, Buddha ltatuos "'ere
.... c"""t<J all o•tt. From IliaC. the myth that Buddhosm pre.
uolod oo w ... Alta aod some pans at le&J1 or Europe proor
10
Cllnfii,\IUil' aod blam. took root. But Buddha'• ttatuc
1
,..,..
., up ool} bcautt be wu ClOIIsldcm! a areal Hindu reformer,
.,..,. as"' our o•·o tlmtl ttatutl of MahatmA Oaodbl tO·
be lmtallcd '" dilrtrcal peru or the world.
Tbc P"'••lcaoc throuabout aoc.icot Arabia or fllodu WOr&blp
a funbCJ piOvcd b1 the Sanskrit aames Makba-MedioJ, cur·
reotl) prooouoccd u Mca:a-Medma. 'Makba' means llcri6-
cial6re, whole '\ledt11o mCUJ 'land'. The twin terms Mcc:ca-
Medua {Mal:lla-Mcdllli}, daerc(orc, DSJiiry the strop of land
........... ramooa .. a peat «<tl'l' or 6tc wonbop whoch used
to the OCOJre of an annual pilpimll•· Tbc pre scat Haj of
lJMao .. a lb<tc tOIIUlloatioa or WI same Hiodu rcliaious COO·
...,.""" IUidn a nval label.
Tbc tnm BIJ ltJ<II derh es from the Sanskrit "''Ord 'Vraj'
up.f)Jill 'ptlJnmaae'. Tbat is •by cccluseJ who-
..........., the ,.arid ud move Ctom .,.. holy place 10 1 nother
ore toowo 10 Sustnt u P&rivrajaks.
It 11 apparcat. lllcrc(ort, that (Makha-Mcdollo) Mecca·
MedtD& rc:IOIIIIdc4 to the cbaats or !lie Vcdu aod tho wuod or
dnaa, ,__ aod bciiJI that aceompaoicd tbo wouhtp or
Lon! Slu•a aad tile l60 other Hlodu dt11les, 10 tbe Kaba.
Hura!Moloa...,.cl'a uDdc •bo died 6&1>1ioa to aa•• liiodu·
--aaJMd Uau.t bJa.c Jhgbam. He wu a rcaownod poet
.., ... ,_Arabic poem 10 '"*of Lord Sbo.a aod Ill•
•w! lied of Hmd•haa appean oa pqe 2JS or 1bc Sayr-ul·
Obi a•ho4op. 11lat ...-. cited oo a rcdJtoDe columo lo the
:.... 011 flllllc I • Tempk. N- O.lbo, " u
X a«-.... JiUa Nla C..._ Tab Ala'"'
• r n• A wwal ..._ We Ta,llltln-1

HilT
lll"pU l)tJQTlf d a Kalal • LihraW11
-•lkbt1fObl U
1
1
Tab Asayro-2
\VI r., naY Ja .. llt·bay '{111m MABADEVA·O
!V1Nk•Y
1
A 'abu Ar3 meemao
3
911
,t.Jialolba M•obum wa Sayanaru-
ojail JlaiDU I umil HINDA y
bflll b. Ka)'·Y•m Feem•· Yaumao
WI SJhl
1
1'1 Latabejan Klleeonak Tawajjaru-4
Wa Yakulun Huaoao Kullabum
lofU!Sf•riY I
283
. A'a.at Summa Gabu , • ..,
)lljUIDU
0
J • d Shi
A free ttAAdation or the above lnvokicg Lot va
i! ., boder : • d
Tb ao who may spend bis life in stn . .
• Ill
Or wure It ;
0
lechery and wratb-1
If at last be relent a ad return to rigbteousness
Cao be be saved-2
If but once be wonhip MAHADEVA witb a
pure heart
He will attain the ultimate in spiriluality- 3
Ob lord (Shive) exebanae my entire life for but a
dafs sojourn io- India wbeu: obe altains
sa.lvation-4
But one pilgrimage there seeutts for one all merit
And compaoy of the truly great-S
(Sayr-ul-Okul paao 235)
A oumbcr of very i mportant conclusions Oow from Umar
bfn·• Husba ' I''
m s ••• aod poclry as recorded in Sayr-ul-Okul.
• • lbll the fil'l t battles between Hinduism and Jalam
"'" ouabt io the v 1 d
tldllllvtaod . ery ao wh1cb baa been tla unted u lbc
-... ongaoal cradle or lalam aod that the entire Arab
......,... "'ere d• vout h
Ilk same lok f wora •Ppen not ooly of Lord Sbin but by
91
eo
0
tbe enure H111du panthcoo
•Jballsctb
0
·
14 "'tJb.ppen o/rea er that the Arabs were DOt Ollly ct.dicat-
lbcy PlY bumble h Lord Shiva, 1WhJcb they ew:a DOW are "-
'- lbattbcy wer
10
tbe Mabaden emblem ia tile
"-bet c e a Ill ••HI rccuera o( the v edaa.
OGciiiJIOD we derive from u
!
II lUI Uold (daiD rcvtrw! lbe process or pofaromaac
all Arobi ).-n>ed 10 lndoao temples II Prayag. Hardwar.
\udall. and other shrioes. Like I be rest or the
- •tvl4 I be) rcptded lad laD sages. rilhis. savanu and
YIWI<Ill u lbcor meotors aod auides. II bat tbtlr feet that
lht Anbt came to proltratc 10 attain divine bliu and spiriluet
lnltru.diOG
t'mu bon-e Hauham was bcld In sucb high reaard that his
.. ued him Abut Hokam meaniog The Father or
........... , Hoi<OCmlco,JcaiOUI or this pious mao, during the
rollowcd dubbed him Abu JihaJ-lbo
Father ortanorance.
01> page 2S7 of the same ancient Arabie anthology Soyr-ul·
Olul Ia another ••<Y lmportaot verse, The compose< is Lobi
lno-c Albtab bl ... Turra. He lived 2,300 years prior to Pro-
pbc.t Mohammad. date l .t. about 1800 B.C.
L.abl po1J devout b&rdlc tribute to the Vedas and meotinos eaeb
- olcbcro by name
Tb.tt the Vedu wtrc the ooly religious seriplu"'s to which
lllc Arabi Owtd alleaiance as early as I &00 B.C. proves not only
Ill< Ul.quny of tbe Vodaa but also tbo u istence of Indian rule
<nti the eourc rc&Ioo from the lad us t o tho Mediterranean
boca.uic II II ID ulom Of hillory that rcJl&iOO fOllOWS ID tbc
•akc of' ld.IDLOtJtrative oontrol.
lo tbeloabl or tboo cvideocc tbo very confident assertion in
THE HISTORY OF MANKINO, Vol. 1, pan 11 publ ished by
UNESCO, thai the Rlaved could not be older than 1200 B.C.
-lOOn& than a schoolboy bowler.
Tbe very oame of tbe poet whlcb Ia quoted as Labi blo·•
Jl\blllo btDoC Turla II remioiMXnl or lbc Sonskrit mode or
1nant r>tf) oodlvtdual's aocatry 10 tbe tbord JCntflltiOD.
Tboa Ia Indian marroa ... tad other lmponaot rehaious ruoC>o
tbc .,«tb)ppct II at•a)s mcouooed as the aoo or aucb
:: = '*- aod lbo IJ&IIUJOD of such aad sucb Tho Anbf
1 IIUrtllled
10
lbc Indian Sao•lu•t tradttiOn adopted
=.:.:

10 Ius
-1M-Gf Ak'Nb •bo Ill' lbo soo of • Ttrus ubo
.. , ......... Ill< SOD or Turfa.
-



oumu oatGJJI or n.orHtt
His Arable poem lo pnhe of lbo Vedas "hco - -.......,
the Roman script reads as folio•• • ' '"" iA
Aya Muwarckal Artj Yuahllya Noba Mrotr
Rilwk
Wa A<adakallaba Maoyoaaijau Jikaratnll. .. l
Waba.latjjali Yatuo Aloaoa Sabab1 Alba-a11m Jikra
Wabajayhi Yonajjelur·raaul Minai Hloclatuo...2
Yakuloonallaba Ya Ablal Araj Alamom KuUahom
Fanabc-u Jlkaratul VI!DA Hultkuo Malam
YonsjjtJiatuo 3
Wabowa AlamuiSAM WaiVAJUR Mloallahoy
Tuajedao
Fa..,.ooma Ya Akhlyo Muttabay.an
YobanberiyoiLljacuo 4
Wa·is&·Nain HumaRIC·ATHAR l'lssa)hio
Ka·•·kbuwatuo
Wa Asanat Ala·udao Wabowo M.ubH-ntoo ... ,
The two Arabic poems quoced ill tlua article ...,. 1111011
Ill• moat prlr.ed and volued rti prC.Idamie aod _.
hung !ascribed ill ten en of aold lo the Ksba obriDc ...,.. W
around the prcseot truncttcd mooumeot a temple bousm& J60
ffindu dcitioa.
A l!oatl>b reoderioa or Labi'a ccteb.-ted poem """"'
f lh< Vedll woll be at •
the pra•se• o
b O
' vloc und of Bblrtt ... (bow) 'VCf'1 1'11
Oh 1 c ' bl..-cl an oo
tbc CbOIID of God
Bo:eauao 'l'bOU ,.llh Dlvi .. cocu .. .l
t.d wblcb lito lour
That Ccleatlal KAo• P abooe ,. aotlt
on ladlao Sopa Ia
nroutb tb• (uttcr•- lo,..rold abor"«•·-2
all b.-fbi""' wllb llallclo ....
God .... wilb Hll Dltiao ..... ... ,._ ,I
'Jill patb ·- -
\
II<DlAI'IIIIJfOIUC\1. atuAIIClt
...,., wub (Druce) IJiowl<d&< are SAM aod Y AJVR
O.C bcslo,..d on Creation
H.- ""'d><n mp<CI and follow lk Vedas... ,
JUJdc:l to satvnlloo •.• 4
,..., Odltn .11>< RIO and A,TRARV us
• frar<rnrly
Slltllrrlna uadutbdr lume clispcl.s d.arkness
1111 creroiry •. 5
Tbe aupr<mc reverence wbreb rbc Arabs bod for Iodin, lhe
lodas and Lord Shrva and cooacqoeorly for Snoskrn nnd
lodllll culrorc in times is amply borne our by I he
abiM ••• poem•.
Anc1ea1 ladlaa u.otvtrstlles hke: tbose at Nala_odo and
Takol>ubrla. rbereforc. carered nor only 10 srudcoiS from China
bot abo from counrroes as far as • and Israel ond perhaps
C't'CIIEI)lll
Ubi o!to clearly m<ntiOOS thai Arabs W<IC rOililled lo lhc
loclaa doemae of bUlllaa fral<mit) and mooolhbic brorber-
bood lllrouab !be study of RJ&vtd lrld Albtrvav<d. Tbia If lit-
.,..., of a rapccled aoer<Ol A,.b poe! provet Islamic
-i•r c!Ala lO preacb!Dl brorberbood 11 rocorre.:l.
ADOeor Arlbit'a identify will> Hindu culture so clearly
tronre out b, and Um.ar auJOJDAlically Clplaiu rho exit!·
Buddbt omaaes and lnditn fire wo11hip tbrouahout
Wt:rJ Air a.
Srnao Mobaa.aud'a uncle was a Hrndu •• clearly
-liOocd bY him rl follows lbU io lbose limes of join I fomi•
I• all mt111bctl rncludtns Propbol MahaOJmad were born
Kllldlll aad .... ,. aun:<l rn lad ran ttaditloo lo- d I
, .... ao c:u ture.
II b aloo I'D<tlli) J)ltSUGW<I lbU Anbc
---.s1, oo 1114ta aod lft.aalal<d •• maoacrr como
a-.UJ PICI:oaa up- of'" """• of ho boou ••d
'"""' Mph•ran!ly r.o rbctr ...., ;:le.ood sere,._ iatrOdtteed
0. a link ,,_
loaralq"" - lroo ratrodueod lluo cloar 11111 profound
......... ErMI•- "''lrr•a tbc <t'oru or Cltual
on aod <artful plan·
\
.rltiOU OlliQU< 01' UOI'IIU
"1>iD8· The lelllmooy ur Labl and Um.ar lod or l in•·
'-- r o · .... "'
1101
{auo quoted rom Sayr-ul· kuloo I be ebapter p
10
.;
01
KAlA
WAS A HI NOV TI!MPLB AND AUAK A HINDU ClOD)
imparll qurtc a now mcanlna to the billaricalasl<flioo rllaubc
Arabs pic lee<! their l<aroios from India. It muas lllat ladoaaa
duriog their bcoevolent rule 11stioa (ot aumtrOUJ «Otuna
over Arablo lmplrted all thcrr profound l .. rruaa 101bo Arabi
and wilboul any superiority complex rreared Arabi
00 1
par
-wilb Indians. Tho POrllh or I be biahesl knowledge were DOl
only opon 10 all but were fr«ly aocenlblc b<caosc under tbe
aoclenlludlon way of life all essential S<tvlcu like medici ..
..-nd wora free of co11 or char a<.
A sign of rbc profound hnpocttbAt lodla bad made over
the Arab mind durin& millenoluma or ill rule Jo Arablllt
found larer rn mediaeval history whoa .veo marauden lito
Mohammad Kasirn retained rherr foirb •• a.molotyaod ..,,.
• tvitb reference to rhefr areal annd fat ben in rba
"'Pulra, Paulta and PrapaUIIll"llylcofSID>krilw.,p:
11 iJ cle.arly meol!oncd in eocydopacdias 11>11 in pr<-lalliiiC
1imes Arooia wu a land of caull and lush ,,. .. IWds U wu
<>Diy when renounc:in&lhelr erstwhile pel«ful Wit of hfc lllal
Arabs took IO pluoder u<l mauaac aad •lirrmey aDd luraed
C\'cry laod I hey for3t<d, iolo a d.,.n. Th•• Arabra Ia a J'lpbrc
1 of Hinduism bu always llood for pe.a«, I"""
ex amp •
1
crudtlloo aod apintual
perity, brolberbood, j>rely, lbOIC of Ubi,
'b
lis> Some of the ern tell Arab ao ·• paid
• rvtdlY and • •
Ji"hom and Umar have uor<JC r
111
uo rallded culloro, t.ro-
tbeir humblo trlbure lo us allarp••" of lbat
,;
08
and •prrrtuallly. Luckily bood uabercd lodlaa ...,.., ano
:golden •a• of human brorlbOer• ul dctplto lyllcmauc vudalloll
• .. d in Sayr·u · • .
•lrll crea<.«
01
allrbc evrd<Ott·
-which revelled ID wrpiat o

Tbc fint plJ< of tlte Monrohon trQntlation of tbe Sanskrit lUI '1"9:dlwl'lft .. l'l MllljU<brl was :M tutelary deil7
(bbtadevata) or tbe Maochuriaa empuon.
Go"iprabba llid
Ia diaD _,as. wlioae aamM tad
dcteriplloas uo 'mbwa oaly
throop Tlbdaa sourcM
__________ _

..
MONUMENTS
IN
PICTURES


DELHI


I roo Pillar., .. , 1'11 Q
Th • • • • r ... .,
e pillar bearong • •r
tna un·f\ISied through ram
10
>Ctrpuon h" bt
.o-called Qutub Minar amidot th ne for mollenoums
by Musli?' hordes QutubuddJD e surroundona tcmpla bat ""'
of matertal and dua
1 5
ra
1
could !lever h-. brou l<tol
(called the Qutub) th rog fouodatloo ror the ...
I
C ftltrOW t c _ OWtt
temp es and other buildina k
00
'"'" or aumvod
0
Hindu images on one aide .::r Drslodaed liOn.,
around the so-called leuenna on tho ollon
Muslom conquerors staked f I I . Tower 1110 provo that
through sculptutol se c auns to Hindu monumenrr
ICIIuMlut
This 238 ft tall tower called lutub ,._
was erected by Klna Vokrarnadit)• for »lrooOIIIteal *"•
tions centuries before Islam was cvtn founded Thr ...... ..,
township called Mehrouh lith< corrupt form ortltc Sa,..,..
term Mihora·Awah meanlnath< Mihiro town<hlp Monon -
Vlkramodhyn"s royal
mRteorologln. liven the Amble tcrm Kutub MIOIIM ....... aa
astronomlcaltowcr Kutub and Kutubuddtn ,.., a oubMtl.,.t
unwinina mil·Up Arouod the towtr wcte 17 _....._...,.
tcmpleJ which Kutubuddraol.,..;puOA ••uaiiiO "'" ... ,.,
ed Tho tower too h11 27 ftuliJslt Near tire dnl _.,
are 27 holes-one in cod> is htcl) T,... to aiM up•-ol
the term Kutub thlsTo_.,..,,,.-r-•-"'


QUWAT·al-ltla• M
""""'
Turned into a mooqut called Q
l
. . uwat·u.I-44Jn ••
omamenta pillars of tha' monument b _ • 'O'al: 01
ailed Qutub to.,er arc a clear proof of

,:!'• ude of lh.,.
ltmplc. No acnuanc m""'ue •· · .• VIO& beea 1 H-
--. .... ...r su.-.u pdlan leo
-of Namu i!UdUI& and bcnd•oa wub
1
r<c•tcn
untly break tbear heads apiost them. osed eyes •••d•n·
Nlnm-Gd-dlo Tomb
No1e the ornamental Hindu 11yle p1Uart an the wlull: llllrbl
itructurc turned &nto Nizamuddtn tomb The a:.rdJ on the
and partS of arches visible on eilh<r Jide of the dome are clear
proof that tnas haphazard c:ooatomcrate of hetuo,_,.. bu•kl-
anp ,. .. , part of an ancieol Hindu township ;rormed by •
Muslim armies. Fakart like l'li.umuddio foll"""'I'DIII<If .. ,,
used to take up residence •• the ru•os of battered INl"I<IIDio for
preaehin& Islam to terrorue 'lllfidtls' OlllbeiTd .. lb theyllled
to be buried an the ru•os whore they fi,<d l1w is •br roml>t
like those of N•tamuddin and Bakhlill lc.b lo Ddlti Sahli
ChiSIIID Fatehpor Sak:rl and or MoJnUdcbn 01JIJ ID A)fMS
present a mb·up of Hindu 11ru<1ur,. dC\oad of any •
plao. Around the Nlr.amudd•n aomb '" Delhi are _W>dfulll.tHI
called Ch1uspth Khamba. crumblin! • ..n .. aowtn.
decedent graves cell•rs, pllnlhl .;;;bered "';,':;
nants of tbc stormed Hindll

the ccoualptUu
term Keel- Ukhll (KJiokri) Kee Jao•od s.oce •I "".,..
erected wbeo 1 Hindu ,...:!, ...,, 10 b< .,
rooted an the MusJi.a>ISSOUII
1 11
Kalokrl .
----



lu'' lboul tl.ill ·•"' ln'm lb., bu.ildinlf lt14 "" •
l ltuuJ)Url ramb I\ lhC i\Uff0\\ l:.ii"CCiJC (rom 'o\IUCh tlunta
Ill< , c<on,l Moshul tmpcto' fell Ddt' If<
•·"''".) 1<1 hi> pulll« ••> ,,,ntrmporMl ohto•"'" lltr •• ''"
I ul.,o. he''"' c.trned to .ond It ••••h<t< •h•l he d1<d • ''"
" 1), • • • II< w•l butlcd in thee••""' cbtunbcr wltr< h•f••
•II u hus huppco<d li"cuahoul Mu•lll• .n 11>1
. ulvc• the tontolillnl "'' <ombt •PI"'"""'
110 pulot«> of i•"ury•<ICCP<d ••h<R potcoUIO!"
fhi noonumcnt ,ull f<ra • I''" ol l>ipul E>tol< '" Oclht II I>
.urroundcd b) rutn<d ••II• ••••••• JU<'t·h""'" ,,J ,.,.,.,J
rr><>IR\ i\n or.-dt of ar<h<> lr '"' IO II •• hUJ'
"nc•< ailed • S<J•• dcn•••l """!Ill
""'" th< urn<> th•''"'"''"' AfJb hotd<' cnc-amp<d I
'""'',round> ,nc lollcrtd w11h fl•••• o' '"'..S"" • tu.l
,oldt<l' <i>IR b) lltndU defend<<> odor< I>UAS <urotd (OI
o u>OtjlCI l,.td 1n <hll'P""''"I H,m. ,..p
206
rwcd"' ,..,. •llldl .,.,.th< focal""'"' ofthc rumcd township
.,.. '-"'>•
01
Kdotn Tbe nearby ruhu Ia wh.c:h
:O.Q:a!DIId4JIII,. bari ... wen a port Of this huae Hindu <Hadel

Romaoaro Gara<o
Til•> I b<llcve<l to be the tomb ofRoohanara, the dau&htcr
of the lut poo.crful Moahul emperor Aurangzeb. Note that It
bu ar.Jthu doma. nor minarets lnstea.d il bos ornamental
pollan Hondo arch"' ood cupolu Very panlmonious and hord·
heone<l u the Hindu-baiter Aurongzeb wu he would hordly
•Pcod any money oo a Hiodu ltyle relliaa place for h!>
dutlfntt't CCMPK Obvaoutly, there:fore:, thiJ, is 1 usurped Htodu
p.:rdc. .. ptlac:. oommandt:rcd lO acrve u a tomb u wu ututiiO
1.ila.t hi'IM'S
191
Fatebpurl
• Tbis so-called Fat chpurl Mosque at one end or Delho
crowded Cbandol Cbowk bigbway was a pre-Muslim Rajput
temple of the city's guardian and royal deity lord Shankara
alias
Its entrance arches have the Hindu stone flo"'cr cmblcm>
on either aide or the apu . The word 'Fatehpuri• mcanJ a con-
quered {Hindu) townJbip. Tbo marblc slab on the ted .. tonc
<otrancc proclaimios it to be a mosque b evidently an inter""
polatioo Tb-. monuments, arches and pillars and cupoiOI arc
<otirdy of the Hindu Raj put style Tbe so-called mosque •
rental revenue 11 all derived • •elusively from Hindu ollopt
'":'"'mioa ita frinaco. Tbi1 pro••• thot while the •tall> rciiUIIanl
•nh the Hiodut their 1c:mplc (ell 1 vic.cim co co.nquut •t:td
CODV.mi_oo.
-


299
b
• • • • 1omb '" Oclh1 wu •• .,..,ml
T d,....... h
1
. ,. "
p&Jacc wh•Ch dt'tOhccl on« c a IC'D mu.s"m arutocucy
ft •Jpulh It hu an oroamcntal Rajput style ptC"tlo'a)·
·- . h. h
.ut&
1
prottC1J\C .. uli with warch·towcrs lNSfiOOS 9. ac arc
ftuuu_.. for " ,cnu1ne tomb Safdarjang. ao ex<b•cf
of 1he N•"'•b ofOurlh had been d1sgraccd •nd dismb-
.:tpnoriO hiS dc•th Who "'ould fool the bill to bu1ld a
lor un unemployed dCC<il$-'J nobleman·s corpse ? A
nO< prodding wllh 1wo >llilrp qucslions brinp down lbe enure
l:fu\ory structure or lO II M uSltm cllums to H iodu buildiog-work.
we u k lhlllifSnfdnr)ana's corpse could nrrord such a 11upcn·
do us he should have hud Rl lea<! len palaces when living
B"tthcre is nont' The Other q'\•esllon is that ir bjs he1r and
r.ucccssor buill lhiS palace for the corpse of the de«ased
SJrdarjaog the rormcr must himscrr have: had tens or palaces 10
Dclb• But he too hJd none Our onswer to thrs nddle is that
S>ldor.J-'"' and 10 f•ct •II allen M usltm rulers and aoblcmcn
"'CTt burircJ •n I herr o"n pafac:c:J C\ICn a.s \I.C ·an our oowo times
h.-e allo'-cd Gtndhi's l nd Jawaharlal Nebru·>
rdlde.ncf!l to r<.lnAtft UD«eupjed OUt Of respect for then
memory A clear understand•• & of this truth solves the puu.lto'
nugma oflnd1an h•-" tory as to why the ahen Mus!uo aova.ders
seem to hurh only tombs 3od mosques without correspond·
•nc paloce> ond mJn>tons II should now be realized lbat the
m01qucs •re Ulurpcd lcmplcs .1nd the tombs palaces.

·100

01
,...+1tbao. Red Fori
DELHI
30 I
Red 10 Oelbc n'" •co
10
p0pular hchcf the h Lalkot ( red·
Coouar)' I •cd to tay on I IS
t
·•ruclUrc. Proth' <>J u
1
_ · - cd
11
the Hondu•
.. d ochre arc co · -·
s.Krn• .. I'll• maon h•&h •:at of Oelbt ktlo"'n
!>Ill a•oided by Mus! oms. octs the Red Fort "'''h tbe royal
tJ oaodlll oow turned 1010 F•tchpun Mosque
• • pb II Old Delhi protected b) a rnaw •e
•- dth'sullwu uo I d
Arou.o
1
• , an t:cccllcnt c..\a.mplc of nnc1t0\ n tan
II Delhi u t)lcre.ore.
wa • . Aocordtop 10 Akbornoma and the Agnl Pur:toa.
bY the Hondu ktng Anongpal uound 372 A.D
J)clbl was dl of llllum Prhll\' ir•J Raso. • work of
b fore the oOUD 08 ' . . · h
times auem to the foet that Prlthvuoj l ived tn os
Lal Kot- Red Palate) on the banh of the Yomunn The
( s •our-•uor< to this descripuon True to RaJpUt
Fori an$wcr •' ,.., 1
d
·
1
on the Red Fort hiiJ a gote ( llothopol ) llaolced by e e-
tra
11
· • ' d II H d
bJ.DI imag
6
The: Pietra Our:a de\1g.ns ms1 c. nrc a 1n u
;... Sawao·Bhado pavilio o ore Hindu names. The portoon
where the Moabul emperors ore bclicve4 to ha•e lived i nside
• itb alwem of S.OOO women. is barely enough for even five
royal persollllges to live in reaal comfort The stone of
the Red Fort cannot withstand connon-fire. proves that
ol was buill by the Hondus in ancient times when wars used to
b< waged with swords and arrows The Red Fort is an Octagon
"1\sthakon" Is a Sanskrot word and a Sanskrit form
oaly tbt ljindus hl't distinct names for eight direction;. The
TaJ (which I have pruved to be an ancient Rajput on my
book TAJ MAHAL WAS A RAJ PUT PALACE' t oo is un.
oeta8,!)nal building.
1

such omJmental morble called !'1etro Dura, inm' _
the Delhi and Agra Red Forts aud inside the Taj Mahal ond
tho so-called ltm•d·ud· Daulah tomb (Agra) is a n eo:irely
Hindu design and art depicting Hindu flora- Such o rna·
zentation was taboo in Muslim All these
monument$ arc, therefore. usurped and misappro·

priat ed Hindu mansions. Muslim court r ecord.<
do not have even a Single document, bill,
rcctipt, expense-account sheet, . design
drawrngs or commissioning orders
showong thot they built even
one of the many r , usands of
monuments t hey claim to
have built in India .
Moht
Tb11 t)mpbooy Ill muble ""IS a royal Hiodu palocc. lis
..ry oamc Ta1 Mahal llp>i66 oolbiog more nor leu Ju octa·
(OIIa) thapc aod the cupolas 2lld four towers at the photh
<Onlm arc all H1ndu feature.. Havell, the English arcboteet
hb •R alouc "trmc:d that the Taj as an c:nurely H1odu structure
m dn:1p ud etteution Wuhin Its three ftoors- :,asc:ment,
ltfOII1' l ond Rrlt "•on-the marble has • nc•rly 2 S·
lr"IIDTn pa.1a,cc 11U!1e n.: foul' towers uud to sport multi-<olour-
ed hchl\ The , J prce>neu art a hug.e buildina comple•
cueomp;.'-.inz over three hundred rooms. The locality was
... •na Jol•ln&hpur h wu •urrounded by defensive muc·
tuta hb rnoeu. hiUOtk\ (for protection apinsl manaonel ,
uphthland arroW\) •ad mauhoc 'kl.lb.. Chronides ajve indica·
tlcoDa •bot lbb.r the Coull<lcr or the Mo&hul dynasty and hrs
*'"""'"" Au .. , •...a lo .OJOutn '" the Taj. Bobar even died
Olttc aut bc•nJa "C"ww> comu so lndt;a he had uprcucd a wish
Ow\' t- be butted '" lut. ftlh'vc cownl") But for lhat fortuHOU)
\tppuuo.a thr laj ..,-o...ld have bcc:D t ... -.. a•
lobu r ) • ·--• to P<ntenry •
WiMl t. '"* 'fti.VloOI(tJm lh\tcad or Mwntar·, ui'ICC •II
f8 tOJ&l laa .. c beat bu.hcd IQ CO d
Huadw bulWa•p a.D
-
The Morblt Scrttn 11 the Taj
..
JOo
Tilt Cottny of the Toj
Th1> Ple<U) I d'
Hindu P""' ,
01
••a 10 theTa
a:.4 •l IIIII yin a In every d garden is like an• other
dtpld d <tail With th '
1,_. O>cr th C lnd described O•e of Other fOrts
liiW< lll.c s fllewal•ln r.,..
1
'
0
lhll book The MY
.. P<cfurot ;o '•h or I I IIIIC<In Hind nnnably make an odd
S I or UIOI ru <<'to for '"'liUiceu l.-d•t•on the odd figure
P'<,..l iu h P<co bot • ...,., "" donora 8••• awa• I 0 I
uc.c reu e.\l'e:n 6 ' •
"'*'"' of tt"'"' quadrancic &ure In front of thll
c>atlo '"'U>o "'-'-" onou, uoed to I "'here royal RaJ' put
....., ; ...._ •'UIUC'nl toe up b<•
,.,.. pot- ,.,.... ••to the T oore the roy a 1
•J &arden to proc<:ed
)07
Dtlhl Catr A
• gra Fort
. This or the Red fort Agt> " crtir<ly in the tUUI·
honal RaJpUt style L•k• many other ROJpUt forts thu too h•d
<lephanl images flonkinQ ot Emperors Kanu:hka ond AthoL
made usc of t his fOrt in the prc-Chrlstiln era All
1
" mtttiN
too nrc oflh¢ c.tclusive ROJPUt The
wh1ch oscrlbe5 of this fort toAlb•r, luplccte>l'
court Hattery All its glteways h••• Hindu aam6 In •dd•l•••
ro elephont 1m•s•s thiS fort had lmo&<' cf RaJpul hor>l•
Muslimt were ;snd not maktM The an.JN
th:at .Akbar crccled thtse cleph11nt and hone lhUUd 10 "''"
mcmorate tht moun IS of his Rajpuc cm:rnln hke P•n•
and A mar •• 0 typK'JI IRitln« of .hO" ,ncon\tRICt'l (''(i
dcnce il 'ou&ht 10 1>o hur1cd undtr pdd
!08
Thit \n,uu B.l$h rJ\Ifhm ttiShfC Agrol fort pr0\('5 that lt\,C
ICOCD(lfrYI ruucra g.Jrden hu RajpUI ongrns Note the
l"bh, lbe J'llil",lht br>tkeos, lh< cupola 11 ohe ri&hl, I he
'""'d ffiltoa panly • adJoonoog the aopola which nre •II
lhJPUI charcctcnslks
Coldea Aa.ra Fort
Tbe cupola on the lOp lert hood
cor11er, the curved roof and chc
'Piku
00
h \'i\'rdJy dcp1c:t thac th11
Ooldea Pa>iUo,. oa A&ra'• Red Fan
,.... buoh by the R.JpUI) for obt
RaJpu"
Tlus SO'<alled Dowan·o•Aam or hall of pllbloc audo-.,.
srdc A&rll fort hal ne:ithtr domes nor 111 Jl'l"(ul
arches and Jlcndcr priJars r& \liJJ the: for H.Uid.u p.IJ)dM
nllStd ror ausprc1ous ccrcmonru Muslrm h.a.s •'"l)s
.tvoided such Hindu, 'mtidcl' pltlcms· Thcrrs
oorouou• •hap•• Tlo< Red Foro In Delhi ooo bo; •• ld<aow
pavWon
JJO
Sror•• of -'•" Slop•• Hortc Oatsldt 1\Rrt For•
Til' "lion< hud bo onp ro pre
Mll>l<m umn h conmcmorara •
twn< ltttCI Tbnc •ere C\otr to MIO)
A mar l>rr.Jba 111 IIIJI'I'I hoiiM) The m·
rcrloc:a II MOJhul·
•r(IUJ!n tlld "of rhc hone "" "'hrch
Amar Si•,- • .... ) rn huff
frl>l!> tllf Mn
0
1oul <<lull 11ln for cnn·
ltd II 11 ohci•J ,,.,,., hu• hardly rhe
ltmt or thr ,roundtnp in
hl•ton 10 dthun\. uch c.1ntJn.b
Tomb of Sadlq Kbu
l)l ltiP ltd. (I)JMCf IO'II!Ct
palocc ltlndioa •• •l'l•n•lld ..,. aJm·b.-ooon of a dcmolo>hcd Raj put
CIOrplr 1 ka1 • ,._ .Uu'lG •••late' lo she her Sadlq Kl1.iD.I
. ·- • tvtr bhDCt
••101n Hti •N '*'' of • a. •·I.Hn,... to the (acl 1h11 tbal
-s u.. 11ppu 11oc.r au..,_ ,:"''- II> niche•, the ar<hed tntr.-•
..... meaor <o"" a piKe for the hvfDI

Joblollrl Maloti. Acra Fori
Jll
Tlut 10 tbt

llWdc AJII Forr "<>lit•
11pical RoJpuldtJOp lOCI
""''kmaolhip u .. rpo-
hOn and caJUmo 1'1(
oc:cupauon rnullcd ta
Moshul n>mn bema
&lv<n 10 uriJCf caplor<d
Rajput buJldJ.,.
blc Westrrn iChoUn
md1gc:nou• 1nuatu
JICfll<WJrcd rhc myrh of
• IWthorshop ofbuildonl' misled by their nJmQ •nd Llrnr ._...
hoo• Tbcy hardly Cllcd whclltt'r 1 bulldinJ lUS 1ttrihutcd to "f.tl1r•
Ch•ad or • Falm·Mohammad
J•,.• \t .. Am
312
ltiru \looar. Farobpar Sll<rl
lh•,.o·callc<l H11lD Mtnar lnfront or the Hathi Pol 841< or
fr.khp..o Stkrt II d•nned to tnark the buroal or a ptl
den (II fln) Of Akbor We 1>1 •bet:b deer had whit
pcrc=S 1 d)LAE•Iih wR Altwr·._ lO k ......,rnrncmoratcd wuh a
fd Hoodu temple .. lllp 1>0>1 • The brutl .. "'<rc Uied 10 iUpport
l.ulopo Sod! p{l .. u •tc «>mmoo tofront or Hondu ttrople>
al>d pabca l c 'P.r&UooM ... ,n:a.., •••ide lcadoo; to tho
cupo1o C<lloprm••n•l> ono of the -lied Kutub Mtnor in

)IJ
Dclht whtth we have provtd 10 be of Hoodu Oriao• 111 ,....,
as ••Dot 11 IJlOikl<d l•kcJOld •hca
bmtlod woth tho "'""• of buodrods of Iampo h>na oe h llb1
Sao<krot word hu been dcltly l••ll<d to be llllllcd lolo
coocottcd Altbar lc&<od
SA lint Cblatt Tomb, fottbpur Sikri
• J ( 4
Pollor ..,ort ... 4Uu
anr- loDI
r .... ,. Slut .........
-

8o1• •• o....... .. ..... sn••
Tbt1 ptcnr io YaLtbpwr!w&:n K cWrcall• ).to-
to 11> u Bijlatld o.rwua u• • !lajput ,__. r,..
11011< 8 ..... <1 eatbl ..... fttJlliOI doc ardt IJlC' .. _ ....
.abl< ""' o/tli H,.cl• o<rpil T1tc tilt« b. I ctpal&t .-.1 to< I I
IIDY oOO.. ""'''"a-Oft til< ....... c.- UC oltlll c-
iiY< lliJP"' d<'... T1tc ,.u..n tpllc4 ....... -
.,...s [Of .......... tlaP ,.non .,. • rot' 4ll -
..,ed,."'' RoJP"' .... - .. no-_ .. ••. • .,.
fl(- • all H ... _. .-.1 M•tl• ol .,
ortho6•• dctor . ,.n: ,oq..-,.., • .-. .. • 1 ·
hmod·ud·D .. Iall's
T_.,
"" rn't" r mural decorauoo in the so-ealled ltmae ud·
ulah too.b, 4\lfll t no Jtlfcrent from that found in the pre·
Jl>lom "·· roat.« n Joopur, whteb proves that tile butldona
•11 .tt) urf,r: R. .. Jrut pa lliC<'



A f o10tr or ltJud·od·Do•l•b'oT .....

13
So-Calltd Akbar'o MtotoltWID a t S lk•ftdra
bcrJ udo, 111pporuOJ bratl<U and capping I:Upoh O( thos
II!OIIW<>C -oD& of pole Upall pile o( pavilioiU proves to the
blh lllat ot wu a IUJput palace Euphemnticafly
Sobndn nor &lliCc Sokaodar Lodi a P.UW, rufct loved on II,
\!Ia ,...,_ "' 111ileo to the north uf Ap 0. l:.nown to poste •
01J as Al.btr'• tomb Ak">r lay ill ond died here Vincent
Sooutb a,. that 4ft fuoent rites were performed "secretly
....S l><'fuoctorol,'" h '' wooniJy bellc•cd that Akblt died in
Aau ton T1lu to eo•cr up tho fie! thai no body saw hit
p«oo••uanncr tmerac ouo of tloe furl the myth th>t his
*> ••l&km outllotou&b a hole In lloo ron wall speeoally
blasou fOf \1>< ru._ .... clrftly arafted into Mutlim c:hrono·
I Cia £, .... , ..... bodr "taken 0111 or the fort lbrough •• open·
"'' ,. U.C ••II the fur..nl pr-.,1010 would u.U have to wend
Ill '"'J"""" ... n: lc '""• lti&h .. l\'t to sa....a ... In his ebro-
&ic:k lOll fiJ.Jotly dauru lO bnc built ch
1
s tomb
r .. 1111 r..tlo<r H""'"- •h•o claom 10 be patently
d"""-' .. ppina ... thai f&b.hoool "•Ill OUIOtbtt mrth that
booil4"'1hla '-" ••lllan llQ """ loft tome Till•
MIC:r'l.ioD llu ·•Ruttlr ao bu h "aucb "'Ylh• ho11tcd P•le
..
I
0
-pon pile co cover meon ... cnienl c:-vldtncc. whJC:h •P ttk
entire Muslim ho$tory on Indio That h why the c.o, ••te4
histom\n Sir H M Elliot <all• ot an "lmfltldrnt •nd
in thr prc(ace to hll cicht·>Oiume aoticat \IUdy ol
mcdi•cval Mu1tim chronodes
320
Galtlti J Sikaodra
Th tat lhc rft.IJC'Uh.: ill<,..t} h> Sil.J.ndr3 P .. C' lht
U'lll uu.Jt ••• lumtJ 1nto .1 1omb 1fttr Akbar t.lt.Jih II
t.aib: by the RiJPUh ccntuncs befor-e Mushm IO\Jdcu l•und t
c. a carttr 11f \.mdlhun .md usurp<ilton The four 'At
ll:Wrfabo•;C'tbe uc Rplkn o(tbt Ti1J Mah .. l
Tbc n- ;.uic ftoori.Dc of the mansion h;u a he csoteuc H•r
Sbatlt>Cb& .. la (tntertocutJ triao&Ies) inl.1id 1n 11 lht '-'OJ
!Muili!n fonttll fit.' of no such design All Su(:h ,C:\IId('l"
Pf'O\'d lhlt A\bar ,..u burit:d here because he dicc1 m lut
Hindu rQn.-on
Sai1IJ.1tl "h11n ._
1 ft l\lau,olrnrn,
· A:r•
Tlht Sal.tbal
.,. Xh01.n''\ m:.u·
\Oleum i) u.
tluo ••: ..ucr• p J·
PUI p..vuaon
a.Jiolted 10 the
IOaa ror bos
'Wdt"ntc On
h,, de:ath he
... ";}. houht"d


JAIPUR Jll

-
of motqua and tcmtt. ..n "-ut A1ta.n .,,c 111>o or
dtDtical 4n1p Thtt prou..s fu from • med1.an.af
..., ID<IItl "'"'"' !><to 4<1if11c.l or ordered \fuslom poten.
uto ud mt'tu!tCA •• • ._, A.sian monumtnB \\hich "'CfC'
and u«ulc.l b) lndr>n rechnt<rrns >S recorded b)
.M !IDDIIIII<I • • ond Ttrmurl>ns
Jmd;-nt.JIIy ll ma) also be po•nted our ch.11 rh' recorded
fKl G( \fohommad havmg been bun..:d '" h11 own
roo I-10 Gflu7nr (I 030 A D) obo pro>., lh>t •II
M"'•'•m 1omtn whclhc:r tn India or in Wet.! t\ :.IJn ('(1Unrruh Jh:
USU'!'<J r.•lacn whroh I occupied lhrrr llrf lime•
tl•c many pract1e1 J conJi•dtntlont c(lmpl •.:ccl) lo\c
&)ll ol«> 1'&: II lh< fact thAI viclom\ or lorUJrc •n,J I) r•nn,
o{Jlatrd ,..,..uden and potcOWc• "ho • !i,h or
011 tbc:r 1ormcn1on death \\Ould cl.lllrcr (.tbulou'
.CIOCJDU 10 build I ptf.aiiJitomb (Or thCif dead IC). J( lh. t
.. m 1&0 &brtc •will b: no ddfcrc:ntt between benc:ot.actor, ur
u:.aq and ptt'N'C\IlOI' Ho-. could botl'l be- comm-.:morarc.J
ID mtrf) ft.CIUIDKllb t In fact C'tn bc-nc:f.1 ":toh ;uc soon
and po>trroly hu hatdly Jhc umc noncy "' Ill<
pt'Cru .o them 1n huJC- monumt.._ 1•
Tb 'uch va.uJunt pl.et and und
Qa<ml 'tic kc
1
1'1 mtdtO.C\11 tnon.urnt:nl\ :uc ttr
1
pr-cd of
:r.r lim "'""""'on• rn lhc pubhc mrnd the b<lltr h "rll
bt f ICDn'CCI W'kttt\l.tndinl Jnd iludy or lndt.:ln mediatvuJ
medrGeul momnncnl< rn India"' leas! ore
I • "<lUI, b) IMC Htnduund ror lht Hmdu •.
Sb!Jtr llfah l Aabat
lll
Rajput origin.
for tbe dead.
AJ>d secondly !hat
. • Sbuh Mahar
u.srde the Ambor ronreu
lo Jaipur wu bulle
(about 984 A.D )
.... before lhc round, ••
or Muslim Kioadoms to
India lro omore laloy
. work is oo difTcrtol frqm
lbar In ,.b11 are believed
to be mediaeval Muslim
mooques IJid tom• It
provcs n.o lhiop ; fil1tly
lbat tbL S<>CIJJed t ... bo
&Dd aaosqucs •en of
lhey were tDttnded (or the liviD,J.. oot
CitT Polac<
GarclcM
. r clri<ll patlem pnlm ,. rront otrhe Cil) -
Tb
1
• """'oor tlllt thiJ h lh< RaJpUI Clardal SOlo
00
JalP"' It pr
,. ..
Palate Gardro Ambar
Tnos pa>oloon aod the garden on the Ambar Palace with its
'l'tked and curved roof. the gracefUl Hindu arch alld tile geo-
m<trocal destp m the · foreground is ty-pical of all m!diaeval
buoldtiiiJ Ambar which lies three miles away .from · nfoclem
Jaopur w"' rounded not later than 984 A 0 That was much
bclore ah•n Mwlirm cstablithed their princopallhes in !ndoa .
.
Th• odentity or the Ambar architecture woth(lhe so-calleq
onediaeval and tombs, coupled woth oY,er ev1dence,
e•ro- one or the greatest blunders or Indian architectural and
lunoncal oe .. arch which had all aloos fondly believed und pro-
r>pted the monstroua myth that olien invading l ndta
buoh motquet and tombs galore durong their restless. turbulent
•nd on>ecurc regonoes but nu correspondons palace<, and that
HoDC1111 the n:wter builders buolt no monuments oo thcor own
a>uatry the many mllltntum• or theor rule from Pandv&
t" PrtthoraJ

..., •
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