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DesrGN oF WTpMENTS
py
Omer W. Blodgeil
This Book Mqv Be Ordered Direct frorn the Publisher
THE JAMES F.IINCOLT ARC WELDIilG FOUNDATIOTTI
CLEVELAND OHIO
Published by
TFE JAMES F. LINCOLN ARC WELDING FOT'NDATION
Special aclmowledgement if herewith made to
Wotson N
.
Nordquist
who has contributed much to the editing
and organization of the
which
tiis
ma[ual
material from
prepared
b.as been
Trustees: D. E. Drcese,.Chairman, The Ohio State Univensity, Columbus, Ohio T. V. Koykka, Partner, Arten and lladden, Cleveland, Ohio R. C. Palmer, Vice hesident Central National Bank, Cleveland, Ohio
Officersl SeeretaryRichard S. Sabo" Cleveland, Ohio
FB3I Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 631614?
Rrrniesion to reproduce any mat€,rial contained herein will be granted upon request, provided proper crcdit is given, to the Jamee F. Liricoln Arc Srelding Foundation, P. O. Bor I.7188, Cleveland, Ohio 44117.
Cqyright
1963 by The James
F. LiDcoln Arc Welding
Fouadation
hint€d in Colombia by Qucbcor Vodd
Y11 100908
P
10 090807
PREFACE
APPROXIMATELY FORTY YEARS AGO welded steel design was first applied to a massproduced product, electric motors. Ihe result of this application was a 50% weight and cost reduction. Since that time, welded steel design has gradually and continuously expanded its usefulness into all types of products with comparable results in economy and improvement, This Iong and practical experience has created a fund of knowledge
which has never been accumulated in one publication and made available to designers and engineers. Much of it has never been published in any form, remaining inthe heads and hands ofthe practitioners of this science and art. The James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation, created in 1936 by llhe Lincoln Electric Company to help advance this progress in welded design, has been fortunate in having had access to much of this information through its various award programs and educational activities. The Foundation, believing this knowledge is now of broad general interest, publisbes this manual to make this information available to designers and engineers for their use in making the decisions they face in applying welded desigr. Only by utilizing to the fullest all of our resources in lcrowledge and materials can our economy, and the companies which comprise it, remain competitive.
This manual is divided into three sections. The first is a general introduction to the subject of weldesign, its mathematics and the general approach to use it eificiently. The second section contains the fundamental theories and formulas needed to apply weldesigTI with problems to illustrate their application. The third section contains actual desisns, worked out using the information in the second section. fo.r all of the major components found in t]?ical machines and products.
It is hoped that the organization of this material will be convenient to use both as a help in studying subjects with which the reader may not be familiar as well as a reference book in solving problems as they arise in designing and fabricating weldments. The production of this manual has spanned several years over which constant effort was made to eliminate errors. The author will appreciate having called to his attention any errors that have escaped his attention and invites correspondence on subjects about which the reader may have questions. Neither the author nor the publisher, however, can assume responsibility for the results of designers using values and formulas contained in the manual since so many variables affect every design.
ft I
The James
n
Weidine Foundation
Wusecrerary
F. Lincoln Arc
MAY 1963
Automation Machines and Equipment Co. MccrawIlill Book Co.. F. . N. Pioneer Engineering Works.. S. The LeesBradner Co. Inc. The publlsher regrets any omissions from this list. N. Co. LeTourneauwestirghouse Company Magnaflux Corporation R. 'rFormulas for Stress and Strainrt MccrawHill Book Co. BaldwinLimaHamilton Corp. Y.CREDITS The author and the publisher gratefully acknowledge the organizations and individuals wbo have contributed photographs or other illustrative material. Bryant Chucking Grinder CoThe Budd Company Crown Cork & Seai Company. to wit: S. C. S. United Shoe Corporation Verson Allsteel Press Co. Ttooshenko and S. Y. Zagar. Inc. New York. . Bmsh Instr'uments. Timoshenko and James Gere rrTheory of Elastic stability'. New York. Drott Manufacturing Corporation ExCellO Corp. and . The Springfield Machine Tool Co. SanfordDay Corp. Halliburton Oil WeiI Cementing Company lx certain subject areas. Lnc. AllisChalmers Manufacturing Co. Woinowsky Krieger "Theory of Plates and Shells MccrawHil1 BookCo. Aronson Machine Co. Euclid Division. Curiis Machine Corporation Dravo Corp. FaIk Corporation FarrelBirmingham Co. Y. J. New York. New York. N. . N..Timoshenko t'Theory of Elasticityr! I{ccrawIlill Book Co. Irrc.. Mahon Conpany Manitowoc Co. Friedrich Bleich Raymond Roark 'rBuckling Strength of Metal Structuresrl MccrawHill Book Co. New York. Shanley 'rstrength of Materials" MccrawHill Book Co.. N. Y. Welding Engineer Baxter D. General Motors corp. The Arter Grinder Co. coss Printing Co. Fox River Tractor Company General Electric Company The Heald luachine Company Hyster Company Interrrational HarYester Co. R. would appreciate being advised about them so that the records can be corrected. New York. Bodine Corp. Worthington Corp. Whitney & Sons. M. Lehma:rn Co. Snyder Corp. the author has made adaptations of work done by earlier investigators. Y. New Idea Farm Equipment Co Niagara Machine and Tool Works Oliver Machinery Co. Division of Clevite Corp. N. Beatff Macbine & Mfg. Inc. Inc. Y.
OTHER BOOKS PI'BLSIHED BY
THE JAMES
F. LINCOLN ARC WELDING
FOIJNDATION:
4Design Ideas for Weldments' Thls series of studies of 56 different machine designs presents hutrdreds oftested ahswers to sucb problems as cost, vibration, impact, appearance, machining, strength and rigidity. Material celection, methods of fabrication and testing procedures are alsodiscusaed. Abstfacted from desiglr entrieg in t&e Fourdationts Professional Award Programs, these etrdies review curredweldeddesign tecbniques used by practicing engfueera rryl derignera. 156 pagea, 8]/2 x 11 inch page eize.
"It{odern Welded Structures  Volume 1' A series of reports reviewing current desigtx approaches to buildings, bridges and other atructures. These structural ideas were abstracted from the design entries of recognized design authorities in the Foundationsponsored professional award program. 180 pages, 8t/2 x 11 inch page size, over 150 illuatrations and tables.
< Metals and flow to Weld Them' This r€ference te'rt clearlv describes the internal structure of metalg and its relation t6 mechanical properties and weldabiltty. Existingweldingproc€sses and their applications are revienred. 400 pagea, 195 illustrations.
The James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Formrfation P.O. Box 17188, Clerreland, Ohio 4411?
TABLE OF CONTENTS
rrogress throug n Welded Steel Construciion
Syslemoti
c Design of Weldments
1.2
Po
rl One
Problem Definition Designer's Guide to Welded Steel Construcf ion
Redesio nino
Equ
r.3
1.4
DESIGN APPROACH
ivo
bv Meons of lent Seciions
.
Evqluqtion . Properties bf lvloleriols rroPerlres ot )ecnons Anolysis of Tension Anolysis of Compression Anolysis of Bending .' ... : .... . Anofysis of Combinid Stresjes  ' Strength of Curved Beqms Deflection by Bendjng '/. 5heqr uetlectiori ih beoms
Loods ond Their
.. .
2.1
2.2 z.J 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2,5
2.9 2.10
2.11
Po
rt
Two
STREss
IOAD AND
ANAIYSIS
Deflection of Curved
Buckli ng of Plqtes
:
Beoms
2.12
Designing for Impoct Loods Designing for
Fo
3.1
Po
rt
Th
ree
tigue Loods
Designing for lmproved Vibrotion Control
urmensronor )toDr
r
SPECIAI DESIGN coNotTto Ns

ry
at
Elostic
A4o
ts hing
Designing for Torsionol Loodi ng
How to Design Mqchine
Bqses
4.1
How to Design Flot Tqbles
A'
4.3 4.4
Port Four
STATIONARYM
D
ENA
8ER
How to Brqce or Stiffen o Member How to Design Steel Fromes
E5IGN
Columns, Legs ond Feet Floi Contoiners, Cylinders ond Shells Design of Conioiner Hongers ond Supports How to Design Geor Housings Motors ond Generotors
How fo Design Beoring Supports How to Design Eosses qnd pqds How to Design Mqchine Brockers
IA
4.8 4.9 4. l0
4.11
4.12
Pqrl Five
f t I
I
5
How fo Design Flywheels
ROTATING'IA EMBER
DESIGN
How io Design Pulleys ond Sheoves How lo Design Sreel Rolls
How to Design Lorge Geors
).2
R/l
,
Port Six JOINT DESIGN AND
PRODUCTION
Weldobility of Steel Joint Design
Deiermining Weld Size Esiimoiing Welding Costs Conhol of Shrinkoge qnd Distorrion
o.
I
6.4 6.5
Pqrt Seven
REiERENCE
Beom Diqgroms ond Formulos
/.1
$\rculor
Flor Plqtes
Members
7t
74
DESIGN FOR,t\AUtAs
Frsionol
Thin
Frome Diogroms ond Formulos
Thin Curved Bqrs
irculor Rings Thin Rings Under lniernol pressure
C
7.6 7.7
Port
Eig
ht
a^t\
Noperion (Noturol) Log Tobles Mehic Conversion Fqctors
Weights of Corbon Steel Bqrs SAE Steel Numbering System
IIAISCELTAN EOUS TABTTS
nl
u.
l'.
I
Welding Processes Chort
I
usT oF
SYMBOTS
AND
DEFINITIONS
cluded angle of beam curvature (degrees); form factor 1 = perpendicular deflection (in.), bending (Ab) or unit strain, elongation or contraction (in.,/in.) = unit shear strain (in./in.) = Poisson's ratio (steel = 0.3 usually) = leg size of fillet weld (in.)i rate of angular motion about an axis (radians/sec) I = unit angular twist (radians,/linear inch)
a
a = aDgular acceleration (radians/sec/sec); inshear
(A")
=
u = material's tensile modulus of resilience (in. Ibl in.3 ) utr= material's ultimate energy resistance (in.lblin.3 ) w = uniformly distributed load (lbs/linear inch) x = length of momenl a.rm (curved beam) y = distance of area's center of gravity to neutral axis of entire section (iu.)
= sum = normal stress, tensile or compressive (psi); strength (psi) r = shear stress (psl); shear strength (psi) d = angle oftwist (radians; 1 radian = 5?.3 degrees); angle of rotation (radians); any specified angle
a = alea of section beyond plane where stress is desired or applied (in.'); length of plate (in.); acceleration or deceleration (ft/min, ft/sec) b = width of section (in.); distance of area's center of gravity to reference axis (in.) c = distance from neutral axis to extreme fiber
d = depttr of section (in.); moment arm of force
(in.)
(in.); distance (in.) e = eccentricity of applied load (in.)i total axial strain (in.); moment arm of force (in.); effective width (in.) f = force per linear inch of weld (Ibs/in,); horizontal shear force (Ibs/in.); (vectorial) resultant force (lbs/in,): allowable strength of weld (lbs/iu,) = acceleration of gravity (386.4rr/ sec, ) h = height; height of fall = any specified constant or amplification factor m= mass n = distance of section's neutral axis from reference axis (in.); number of units in series p = internal pressure (psi) r = radius (in.); radius of g1'ration s = length of curyed beam segment (in.) t = thickness of section (in,); time (min.); time
Ek = kinetic energy Ep = potential energy F = total force (lbs); radial force (lbs) I = moment of inertia (in.a ) ; = polar moment of inertia ( in.a ) K = ratio of minimum to maximum load (fatigue); any specified constant L = length of member (in. or ft.); span between supports (in.) L" = effective length of column M = bending moment (in.lbs) M. = applied bending moment (in. Ibs) N = number oI service cycles P = concentrated load (lbs) Q = shear center R = reaction (lbs); torsional resistance of memS
A = area (in.'); total area of crosssection E = modulus of elasticity, tension (psi) E" = modulus of elasticity in shear (psi) Et = tangential modulus of eiasticity (psi)
T
U 1/
= section modul.us ( in.. )  /c = torque or twisting moment (in.lbs)
ber
( in.a )
= stored
=
vertical shear load (Ibs); shear reaction;
wal^.itrr. v^l,rha
energ"y
W
= total load (lbs); weight (lbs); total width (in.)
HP 
C.G. = center of gravity
interval
(sec)
RPM = revolutions per minute
N.A, = neutral axis
horsepower
hove given woy to modern styled weldments qs shown in Figure 2.. ::cduce welds of superior appearance and quality at :. Use of modern desigu and fabricating techniques . In fact.) l. (A compa. vibration. . 5. but as with any r:trer system for creating machinery. ro ov on foundation because of the inherdnt rigidity of welded steel. weldments.:ether or not a machine is a casting or weldment. I Weldmenrs like this. but modern weldment is shown ln Fig.I Progress Through Welded Steel Construction :LDED STEEL DESIGN has advanced far beyond 1.crder to obtain maximum economy. WHAT TO EXPECT WITH STEET Steel weldments. which is the ::mate criterion of acceptance.rication either in appearance or in shape is a :: stly mistake. Weldments require different ma:::ials. ggldggi$_ is a complete system for ::eat.gh speeds. are different and must be ::signed differently. Heavy press brakes and bending ro11s are used to :::m many ofthe corners and flanges. iliary of the :rter component sections are sheared. 4. rr:loance at the least cost..=:: much to be desired in appearance and cost. s:em for producing bettermachines for less cost.2. and clean overa11 appearance.]st be made specifically for the systemto be used . . speed of operation.Lld transform the datedweldment of Figure 1 into : nodernlooking. different desigrr ideas. Machine can withstand shock loads. to achieve maximum output from this modern :'. AII systems are = : :eptable for meeting practically any requirement :: rigidity.. along with positioning equipment. Machine stays in alignment without depending ::e appearance standards for modern weldments ::\e so far inlluenced desigr that it is difficult :r determine simply from external appearance s::rooth edges. It is the purpose of this book to aid designers.. Machine can operate under increased loads. while occeptqble when bui lt.: weldment shown in Figure offer outstanding oppoftunities to improye machine performance and reduce manufacturing costs.SECTION I. fatigue. so that design s not limited to the welding together offlat plates. output ond 1. 3. however. impact or ::J€arance. .:cle. Iowcost weldment. :r. the design =.ing machinery components. Weldments like this . . : rmbining forming and welding results in 1ow cost. Greater rigidity and strength o increases an. Machine can withstand larger overloads.:echanical flamecutting equipment nov produces ::xoothcut edges on heavy plate. 2.::ellent physical properties of the base material. efficiently designed to use the :. strength. : . Copying a casting or bolted ::f.en considering the use of Weldesign for machin::'. different production :::hniques. The best system for anygivenpiece of :=chinery is that which produces maximum per Fig.\utomatic welding and modern electrodes for =:nual welding.
Weldments require little or no cleanup. Unlimited processing flexibility. Flexibility in design to solve vibration 7. 6.i r l dasi ons 3. Low Material Cost for Premium Properties 1. 8. Ductility These five qualities of steel apply equally to welldesigned and executed welded joints in steel. Welded steel is not porous and will not leak. 4. Uniformity 4. qs to ihe problems. plant can get into production of new desiga in less time. 2. Manufacturing procedure easy to change for snp. when member is properly designed. Strength 2.l 2 / Design Approoch Fig. Small lead time. ?. repair. Unlimited combinations of size and shape. Can be fabricated byManual shieldedarc welding Brazing Automatic submergedarc welding Automatic inertarc welding Resistance welding Semior fullautomatic vaporshielded arc welding Gas welding 6. No pattern cost. 5. 8. rather than separately machined and bolted together. 7. cracks.l.2 The cleqnline styling of todoyrs mochines is qn ottribuie of modern design concepts efficieni use of steel qnd oforc welding. Available in abundant and reliable supply and at low cost. 8. etc. storage. Small floor space required. Welldesigned steel weldments eliminate many multiple machining operations. can be worked by every krown process. Low weight for a given rigidity. 1. Other Qualities of Steel 1. but all metal removal processes are applicable when requlred. 4. High degree of desiga flexibility 5. . Procurable in all shapes and sizes. maintenance or handling. Can be cut byFlame cutting Shearing Punching or die blanking hrr Band saw Hack saw o Friction saw ao n h6 fnrmad Bending Stamping Forming Drawing RolIbending RoIIforming shrinkage Spinning Rolling Swaging 10. 5. measured from thousandths of an inch to hundreds of feet. Manufacturing Operations Low capital investment and overhead operating cost. Reduction in machining costs because more parts of the machine wiII be accurately joined into the weldment. insurance. No breakage through mishandling in shipment and use. 3. when fabricated by arc welding. 2. Rigidity 3. Operation of welding and fabricating shop flexible to meet general product redesign. 6. Can be painted right out of the weld shop. Freedom from gross porosity.
timeconsuming design formuias that must be used.2 Systemotic Design of Weldments WHAT THE DESIGNER. Welded steel parts can be used not only in newly built machines. The indoctrination of 'ed I_ At one time. in In many cases. immediate fullscale production by welding. whether stiffeners should be used. tnd I. The relationship of basic design formulas are also reviewed so that they can be used most effectively. the previous design has been gradirally refinid (1) (2) A part at a time The whole machine \dvantages of DesiEning a Part at a Time Changeover to weldments can be gradual for managements who are hesitant about going into . bases. this practice has been iargelydiscarded. Thus. This may permit a substantial reduction in pattern inventory for lowactivity parts. taking fuII advantage of welded steel construction. the ruleofthumb selection of configurations and sections almost invariably rebut actually are too heavy. Usuall\.. SETECT THE DESIGN APPROACH (1) Previous design (2) Loading only Design Based on a Previous Design Following a previous design has advantages a. designers and production men intowelded construction will be selfgenerating. NEEDS The engineer who is assigned to design a welded steel base or frame faces many questions relatedto ::s planning and layout. . it is often possible to reduce the number of pieces making up the machine member. how to select the most effi:ient type of section. The total effect is a better opportunity to improve appearance and performance. there needn't be any abrupt obsolescence of present facilities . " . and today's machine designs usually are based on mathematical calculations. New methods of determining forces and their effects allow desigrers to determine sections according to these calculations. 3. Some advantages of gradual conversion are the lower rate of capitalization and faciiity change. This section of the text suggests a logical approach to designing with steel. resulting in a better design at Iower cost. This handbook offers a sound basis for mathematical analysis and solution of machine design problems related to frames. This is easy. or people.sEcTroN r. Since casting limitations can be ignored. gradua1 conversion to steel weldments allows them to slowly curtail the production of castings. material costs. These and many other practical questions :oust be answered if he is to intelligently develop rn efficient design. how to quickly determine the iimensions of this section. but unfortunately. higher fabricating costs.nd disadvantages. and more be Fortunately. . These structural improvements can be packaged with an updated power drive system and modern control system to make up a more saleable and more profitable product. The methods presented here will help by simplifying the use of stress analysis and the complicated. andotherwelded steel members. For companies having their own foundry. their size ard wheretheyshould be placed. This results in more efficient designs and more efficient use of the many excellent properties of steeI. thus cutting down the amount of welding and overall assembly time. the practical approach to design:ng for steel appeared to be that of designing empirically from past experience. SETECTING A BASIS FOR DESIGN 2. but also as replacement parts for older machines already in the field. and to reduce weight and cost. It is advantageous in that the old design has performed satisfactorilv and offers a safe starting point for the new deiisn. a single weldment can replace several castings. Advantages of Desiening the Whole Machine as a Completelv New Model With this approach the previous design does not any way restrict the designer. This means higher sults in machine members that 6look heavy enough. with confidence growing with experience.velding than necessary. Less machining is required to facilitate assembly when several pieces are joined together as a single weldment.
the equivalentstrength relationships are used. 2. Desisning fol Risiditv in Addition to Strength In some applications. the machine is basically designed for strength while portions are designed A1l three of these have a relationship with each other in any given formula. The components of design formulas related to each of these factors are charted in Table 1. DesiEning for Strength Onlv Al1 designs must have sufficient strength so the members will not fail by breaking or yielding when subjected to the normal operating loads or to a reasonable overload. and then reviewed as each memberisdesigned. Rigidity desigrrs are common in machine tools. A1so. motorbracke!s.3 on Vibration Control. It is also necessary to decide on some value of stress allowable (in a strength design) or deflection allowable (in a rigidity design). Strength designs are common in road machinery. The section must be made still heavier for sufficient rigidity as well as strength. 3. 3. 1. The load (force) stresses the member. depending onthe type of Ioad. It is disadvantageous in that it channels one's thinking in terms of the previous design and blocks any creative thinking toward developing an entirely new concept in solving the basic problem. If the steel weldment's design is based on a prior casting design.5) or companion nomographs are used for both strength and rigidity whenthe design is based onthe previous des igrr. To find an external load which maybe placed for rigidity. covers for access holes. If the steel weldment's design is based on a prior design. Design formulas are used for both strength and rigidity when the desiga is based on loading only. rigidity (3) No load This choice should be looked atfor the complete machine. These are members expected to serve with practicallyno Ioad and have no specific strength or rigidity requirements. the equivalentrigidity relationships are used. To select or design a certain member to carry a given load within a given allowable stress or strain. There are no preconceived notions from a previous design to hinder him.1. If any two ofthese three terms are known. which results in a strain measured as elongation. the designer should select the most efficlent material and the most efficient section. If a new design is based directly on calculated loading. 1. elc. nor does it affect the basic design. In designing within these allowables. splash and dust shields. every member must be designed to carry a certain type of load within a certain allowable stress or within a ceftain allowable straln. or angular twist. Therefore. the third may be found. contraction.22 / Design Approoch through the years until it now represents a good design functionally. To find the resulting internal stress or strain caused by an external load on a given member. Designing for No Ioad Some parts can be classed as 4no load'. a design developed for only sufficient strength would produce a section which might deflect excessively when loaded. Typical noload designs are gear guards. the design formulas for strength are used. If a new design is based directly on calculated loading. Therefore. Load Member Stress and strain SETECT DESIGN CRITERION (1) Strength oniy (2) In addition. but the solution to this problem is not rigidity. . any faults in the previous design tend to be perpetuated. flection. de 2. DESIGN FOR U IAS Three factors 'I\ are always present in a design formula. In some cases. on a given member for any allowable stress or strain. or 3. etc. Such members occasionally present a noise problem. 4. all problems of design will be essentially one of the following: 1. farm implements. size and shape. Design Based on Loading Only A desigr based only on loading allows the designer to use his creatiye abiiity to the fullest extent. the design formulas for rigidity are used. It ls true that an extra effoft is required to determine the value and type of load in some cases. The tables of equivalent sections (see Sect. Noise will be discussed in Sect. These are: 5. The combined properties of the material and properties of the section determine the abilitv of the member to carry a given load. A member is useful only when it carries a load.
or = allowable tensile strength 1. Force. Value o" = allowable compressive strength a. tensile strength. The material used in a member has certain physical properties. pounds b. Irnpact c. = modulus of elasticity in shear . Allowable loads are determined by applying a factor of safety tothe ultimate strength (tension. These values are used in all strength problems. compressive stress. method of application. in some cases. The modulus of elasticity is used in all rigidity problems. E" III. THE LOAD FACTOR IN FOR'YIUI. section modulus. or shear) or. Torque. Application LOAD a. steady b. in pounds b.Systemotic Design of Weldmenls TABLE a / 1. Application a. Tension b. STRESS a. r (stiffness factor in bending) AND STRAIN € o' b. elongation or contraction. I d. compressive strength. Torsion 2. resulting deformation. R (stiffness factor in twisting) f. b. in inchpounds c.. length. E' f. c. i the value are fully known. fatigue strength e. mornent of inertia. angular twist. torsional resistance. radius of gyration. THE 'YIE'VIBER FORIUUTAS FACTOR IN DESIGN The given information about the load is not :::oplete unless the tjpe.. U. modulus of ela€ticity (shear). d 6. moment. Bending d. Moment. tensile stress. o" c. i d. i a. MEMBER v. ot b. inchpounds Section torsion Material a. Lrea. o". shear stress.AS DESIGN 7. inchpounds c. 1. Type The necessary information about the member is incomplete unless both the property ofthe material and the corresponding property ofthe member section are known. vertical deflection A c. force. shear strength. impact c. a. Variable Property of material.23 I FACTORS IN MACHINE DESIGN FORMULAS : v GUIDE TO APPLICATION OF MACIIINE DESIGN FORMULAS I. modulus of elasticity (tension).l Value a. in inchpoulds r E = allowable shear strength = modulus of elasticity in tension E. fteady b. compression. torque. L c. Compression c. A b. variable T)Pe tension h compre6sion bending . . S (strength factor in bending) e. to the yield strength of the material.
torsion Efficient sieel weldmenis contribufe much to profitobiliiy of modern geor hobber. This influence is measured by one of several properties of the section.24 / Design Approoch 2. x S (bending) o" x S (bending) dr E Risidity x A (tensionor compressron) movement as follows: 2. x A (shear) E x I (bending) E" x R (torsion) A = vertical deflection. Since the engineer designs for strength only or. A11 steels haye the same modulus of elasticity (E). these properties are grouped as follows: Strength 8. for rigidity. Notice that the rigidity of a member (its ability L = unsupported length of member S = section modulus. Cosiings were dominont in eorlier version of mu ltispindle geor hobber. The shape and size of amember's crosssection affect its performance. Stress or = tensile stress dc t = COmpreSSrVe StreSS = shear stress x A (tension) o" x A (compression) r x A (shear) o. STRESS AND STRAIN FACTORS IN DESIGN FORT\AUtAS Stress and strain are given in the following terms: 1. The section's area is the critical propertv when the load is axial or shear. Property of section. therefore. Strain is a unit movement (inches per Iinear inch) which is usually expressed as an overall e = elongation or contraction. in addition. tension or compression shear E.1. . bendingor d = angular twist. rigidity or stiffness factor when member is used as a beam R = torsional resistance The performance of a member is predetermined by the product of the appropriate property of the material and the corresponding propefty of the section. A = area of crosssection to resist deflection) in bending is measured by the product of its modulus of elasticity (E) and its moment of inertia (I). strength factor when member is used as a beam I = moment of inertia. it is quickly seen that a highstrength alloy steel will not improve the stiffness of a member.
The following problems serve to illustrate the importance of load analysis. This is not always ob. and trying to solve the wrong problem can :.S 10" t = 1. stress and :. For example. In defining his problem. Notice this relationship in the two similar sections of Figure 1. etc. 3 given length of time without overheating. A = 19. ihe seciion modulus vories qs the thickness of the section.8 in.. the brake of an automobile stops ::e wheel from rotating and causeg the auto to come :r rest. such as de::::ion in bending.3 = = 50% 51. I I t = 1 in. it is necessary to extend the length ofthis boombecause of the Iarger tanks being fabricated. Now. elongation in tension. the problem itself must be analyzed : :..2 I = 193.::ons is essentialto maintaining product perform:e while achieving maximum manufacturing In comparing two or more designs.370 52. Strain is the amount of agive' :: leformation caused by this stress. the engineer recognizes this as a simple cantileverbeam with a concentrated load at the outer end. S = 50. The identification and evaluation of load con:.9 in. lhe proper approach would be to realizetbattbe ::ake absorbs the kinetic energy ofthe moving auto..:he member serves as a beam for rigidity.5 in..3% :: . this analysis ofthe problem does ::: indicate what the actual design requirements ::e. *:f* . contrac: :: in compression.3 Problem Definition . and brakes developed from this analysis might : : operate satisfactorily. iaen the energy absorbed by the brake just equals ::3 kinetic energy ofthe moving auto.' '::: =rment :he moments of inertia for two designs of :: '.I sEcTtoN . ::.0 in. the moment of inertia (I) and the section modulus for the stress on the bottom surface (S) will vary a6 the thickness of the section. Figure 2.2 4 I = 359. He does this to build in some horizontal stability. alent rigidity vary inversely as their moduli 2 Fig.4Vo = of property of section at left = 4?. A fabricating plant sets up an automatic welding head on a boom. ::s section modulus (S). the auto comes :: :est (velocity = zero).: ::. S = 23. at a later date.? in. The formulas below shoy.refully and clearly stated. and angular twist in torsion. that the section moduli for two designs of ::.:l:n result. . This relationship does not hold true in the strictest sense. is :: of inertia (I. ':. I For sections hoving the some configurotion qnd outside dimensions.. ::e property of the section whish indicates how . rus. but from a practical standpoint is very close and sufficient for most purposes. has something definite on which to base his de: = and it will result in an efficient unit. he then sets up an allowable vertical deflection of about 1/8r' under this load. the values of the section area (A). if similar sections are used and the outside dimensions including the depth are the same. Stress is the internal resistance to ::: applied force.5 in. THE I/\APORTANCE OF PROBIE'TI DEFINITION Before applying the various formulas for pro:em solutions.::ckly lead to inefficient designs. However. l\e property of the section which indicateshow beam for strength. LOAD ANAIYSIS lhen a load is placed on a member. Knowing the weight of the automatic welding head with lts wire reel and flux. Even though there is no known horizontal force applied to this beam.siicity (E). The engineer will now ::sign a brake to absorb a given amount of energy ..'. A = 38. alent strength vary inversely as their allow::: :ensile strengths. with the work moving beneath it orr a track. he assumes this could possibly reach about t/4 of the vertical force.the member serves as a formulas of Table L . The ":::./2in.romies.
'in lT._ TABLE "if.#e opera. Er tz I= moment of inertia or.i0".boom than pr6viously in u Oift"rlnt.".3 _ = deflection (tension) E = modulus of elasticity EI LI o...tion _ :::{i_""*. wirh the same deflecrion {\rl Kr Pr Lr3 5.#T:::HL.hrp. yei qctuol vibr. for equivalent gidity _ r r'! i r .1.:T.s.""".iion frorn .rs = KlPrLr = = o.lliJ'?f.il_.ili vlrtically vears untii 3'ilJ. 2 A long contilever beom corrying o welding heod on the unsupported end is subjected to little horizoniol force..". which is. axis (L) is mucb il".: "" t::??::'l{ili?*". I 1i. rie il['H.r".h" f .l'#:: "Jf ilJ' j.Yd z) rotated ((rg. 'Jl.1'lf:yi:ff i::T". _ Kt P.:1:T:#i/"."""Jion' deeper than to mainlain consrant 1::"1111:"tty_.:.rui"" conditions mqy couse more movement in the horizontol direction thon the verficol. '."djusr rnere rs no suchcontrolfor horizonral .Fig.:"..n'l. maintain proper stiffness igainst possiUle is to mJvel Tgnl :f.. t*:* I FORMULAS FOR EQUIVALENT STRENGTH AND RIGIDITY M=KPL. a""ig". fo! equivalent strength bending stless section rnodulus  (= I/c) lolS.t*t *m l*i the real design problem here _ _.greatest in the hor_ rzontal direction. l"gb?bly ]ook on its longiiudinal 90" centeriine.ff :':.Ti next 20 or the we ldi ng.Jh" boom.: " :li!il'ff l" l:5il"lf l. andM=oS F::::r I or=r(^yL orSr therefore: K = besm coDststt I M = moment P = load L = length of beah o S Compadng two designs to cs caEy the same load (P): =KrPrLr l or Sz .. This might result "'ii section of..::i*ili ii:""li: *:*:ff :i less than lhat about .g:i.'. lrke ihe ori6nir crosi_section lf..:o::"X]:.i":'"X'ilXA:T.."1''J."il1i .=d. L.. f. y. 3="' EI A Comparing Lwo designs ro carry the same road {P).L:'fi:":""f [ft::3.::.
yet is quite often overlooked. ::antial improvement. The first test for vertical deflection. the addition of stiffeners (B) increases the moment of inertia (stiff_ ness) to I34Ea of the plate (A). :.:1s of farm implements must have some ilexibilitv modulus.:016" to . This appears to be a sub. The distance to the outer fiber (c) for the flat l 15 I 3/t" tI ru. " instead of a clear understandinE of ttre . " so he designs a formed channel r=ction from 16gage steel.ress {ar exceeding the yield point ofthe materiali :)us. the section modulus (strength) decreoses.2"___*l V7m77/74T _ __14_ r:. In most cases when a given section is abeefed up' to increase its stiffness (moment of inertia. relative properties as shown.0012'r.n has an I value of 1. The property of a section which indicates its ::srstance to bending is the moment of inertia (I). .4 times that of the original.P roble m Definirion / 1. : deflects onIy .67 I . 4 Althoughnoiusuolly the cose. There are exceptions. fruckling of the new section occurred. The reason for this is very simple. Using thJoriginal flaT ::r as a basis. S) so that the engineer seldom checks the resulting section modulus. depended only ': the moment of inertia (I).71 39..0012".:d that his beam actuallv is the weaker :+1m. The confusion results from his hazy concept :: " strong.06. an engineer has designed a simple ::am from a L/4r x 2" flat bar..pended only on the section modulus (S). For eiample.33 Section property I r__2____1 T tar 1 l__r. if the design problem is properlj. under overload. de_ ::ed. Figure 4. In :rntrast. I). the bending stress in the original flatbar .i. Section modulus (Sj is equal to the moment of inertia (I) divided by the distance from the neutral axis to the outer fiber (c). which accounts for tire resulting Uenaing :. the engineer is surprised to <stronger' For example.34 . . see Figure 3. its strength will automatically increase (section :r stand up under constant usage.:ength and stiffness as he can economicallv ob_ ': :.53 B . a certain amount of flexibility may have to :: designed into the member.ncreosed momenl of inertio (rigidity).. Therefore.:. it has : Ceflection of . Lsually the designer is interested in as much .0016".1. some . The new :lannel section has an S value of 44% that ofthe :lat bar.stronger. . i:rich accounts for the reduction in deflection"from . ffif Section Section I Relorive s l6s/ft 38 R igidiry I 1 Strength . but when the beam is acci_ :=mally overloaded.as held much below the yietd point. yet the section modulus (strength) is only 6?/6 of ihe plate. Under the same load. U ss' U  uw+ 1.rcperties of a section. A second test. its properties are assiEned a factor ::.26 l Fig.. the iedesign has :::de '. Yet. The new channel seci ::f. a. rhe section modulus (strength) moy be lowered when q section is redesigned for r. 3 when the distonce from the neutrol qxis to fhe ouier fiber increqses fqsier thon ihe resulting momeni of inertio.5 .44 0.id thrt mem_ :er is still serving its purpose.05 s=Ic =1'34= '"' 2 eo Fig.4 : 0. Undelload.41 . He believes this shouid be In the example.s the section modulus (S). using a :3ge dial to make the measurement.:e property which indicates its strength inbending .
03 Asr r! " 3..i:"."t*'J.3 J=^rl' therefore: o _ KmaL3 H:.r: r i fr:i&:r=.:#F!'"'3'T:i$I:xr:i:"iJly:Jli"""T""X1*l particular member with thr particular member with the.l"Ji. ljt#r":ffi ruliif iiTi"'"li:1f out its weight advantage.1 _...*:'.'J :l'"ffi:ru X *:.?1".1i.."iI I t i.IAATERIAL SEIECTION .r.t. ^tl y. Li i Jt J."r". ff o.ts.ii.:i:". 1ni . however.J 4 / Oesign A pp rooch ili:'liiri:i::?'i..: ^":iT.: :..:.."." "J"%f il: :::'.T:"i?ii"#lJi"i3i""""J:ll:..Asr \ AAr 30 . one of the men took his nandbook and showed the followrng.".tted equiv_ in a de_ i11. weaker than that with no stitreners (A) because the .l...s deflection. struction steels. Theycarriedthisto reduce Li.' :lii.'# x* :? ?i. ::1.) ihe problem rv.f ':J:[.:li"t ilx"".stifiene. T. fi tr'."""H"""x"'#":#i+ljJ.". .i :*" i: d""Hii."""H"".lf :"+ffi 1'""iilf :#'i:. * * "::":'Ji.sT:l micht resutt in.i. llil Steel has greater rigidity or stiffness than any _. This was becar Ta.rf l .lpi .Lr?i:" same load. :l'.f (strengtl o_est grr requi rement #ii il*t ::..il'i"?ff $i'ff .'r. "" "jT#JJ was hexpe ri en cins some d ir". jl^tyil *9u19 decrease the inertia forces and rne lever.f ..J:ii'#i:.i.:."r""rH:Jji:.8 E of steel = 30 x 106 E of aluminum = 10.yiJfiOi* A = deflection K = beam constant m = mass a = acceleration or decelerarron E = modulus of elasticity (tension) I = moment of inertia L = length Since: f*iqrT'j::"!r::t?*:ffi:t"t}$r"r.3 / /t a\ (')(#j(')(1)3 Y 1901.JJi 3 "r."i. At Inrs point.:'. a.' X10" .".*?:.':J:..l}:Ji.:li.#lfr i{.t"+tt*":. g * :{: density of steel density of aluminum = 2...l has greater strength than any other commercially available materiil.f[:fu::?:ir r:::lil.a 19e 7'' = 1...1ii:l tr Stee.i11'iti. "orr_ "ff .':yi:i: .*::l'::i!ri!il"*:r"jil be . " " *** " the aluminum lever designed for ^.i'..s modulus t.":tffjrjT#:..irl ." .*:ffi:'J#inTii or deceleration.. :l^::g""ing.fi.." " " €rry irs measured in terms of the material.3 x 106 inseftjng the ratios of these values (steelto alumi_ num) into the above deflection formula: aAr ^ = _:r_ r0. material does not have the abifity to. _". #'J""Ji"..'.. {t"" uated_for step is load conditions are established and eval_ tt" n")(t selecting the right a member or the entire machine r*u."""'#"hlt"#.jl this stiffener would ultin i*!g!_.t""":ff:. not where: to true. th. if this member fatisue i"{i""=::#ilTi*.. alent rigidity would actually have resu.if":.il *.:"""".Ttg w€re subjected EI ]J:ffi :.#."tl:. i al ly av a ilabte i ur.. a higher_strength "tifi may be used instead of th1 usual _i"t alloy steli ln" o"."i#il?. "i lli:' :t^T:*l.'}. JH i.13t".^::l.t*'.?:".1'" Jlf '.il: 3. new lever maOe oi alumtnunilor :." """iion strength is required.:ffi i.1"i"i'*!5. i 3i ililil ::1 I".liJl5t3." pJnr .T:nJJ ji jffi.:"S.^to*:ol" might argue that alrhough this partic_ andF=ma rl'."lii:T""1lil::lii1i"".iliiti":. "otu"J rever and not bv sub ffi i l" :i.::?jT:"J"'""J:'": .'.
s modulus of elasticity is oal]r it requires a moment of itrertia 2. Conclusion: weight for weight.49 of steel. mild steel is still the lightest. Magnesi. a corresponding section / l3_5 of alurnim or alent rigidity.Probler Definirioe Figure 5 illustrates the relative stlffcommercial metals. With a density 35.8% that of steel. The relative weigbts on 5e saDples indicate how the materials differ in ti€ir stiffness or modulus of elasticity.9 times that of steel for equlvateni iigiaity. 5 Comporoiive stiffness of vorious moteriols. most economical metal for equiv I Fig.. All samples tsre the same section and are Ioaded so thai all Hect the same :rmount.inurn section would have an overall weiqht of 1. A steel section __ 5or the same stiffness or rigidity willweigh less rsis of several f elasticity.4% that of steel.has r density of 22. the ah. Steel supports o greoter weighi for sqme defleciion os other moteriols.69 of steel's. but J modulus of dasticity onLy 2L. than magnesium. Since aluninum. provided the steel section canhave rn same depth.4% that of steel. .0g times that of steel. Even though aluminum and magnesiue are light_ cl tlan steel.4V0 that of stiel. their moduli of elasticity are Iess it'en that of steel by agreater ratio.i. 54..9 times that of steel or a sectional area approxi_ mately 2. yet its Dodulus of clasticity isonly 3_4. Aluminun has r_ detrsity 86.
. resulting in lonq die life.3 6 / Design Approoch al= ct::::. . rnnt'== r The inherent rigidi iy of ql lsiee I welded presses ore essen ! tiol in mointoining porollelismof bolsier foces.1.:::::::::a 'i f ? t._* f: t. n fi .
Is this nn entirely new machine. Perhaps the machine was overdesigned in some respects.xecklists that constitute a practical s!srems ap_:roach to designing for maximum econom]' and rhe :est functional designs producible under gilen ranufacturing conditions. Experienced designers who produce suci. (1) Recognition of the problem (2) Analysis of the present desigrr tr urr N"Z ANAlysrs oF eREsENT DEsTGN mand for replacement parts? Examine any available 1. What do your customers sav about the machiDe? And. These are important to the designer in evaluating the producibility of a proposed design.i hole nel\' approach to meeting the h2i. The sequence is presented as a series of .some major. fixtures.'. Following is a lDaster check list to help guide designers through the system approach to efficien v rs ing the properties of steel to achieve economv and . or a redesign of a present machine? 2. what does your sales forcethink is right or wrong with it? . ro^ir amE.4 to . some :nor. Many decisions are proposed. Relare everl derail of e\isling and proposed designs to performance of the machine. mprdve functions in machinery.t 3. Designer's Guide  a  Efficient use ot )teet STEET DESIGN FOR EFFICIENT USE OF ' : many design decisions . Questions to ask in connection with each of these check points are given on following pages.dthe conversion to steel be made a part at a time or the entire rcachine desigaed as a . it could retard modernization ofdesign for years and permit competition to capture your original equipment market4. accepted or re::ted subconsciously. and owner complaints. The list isapplicable to either designing one part at a time or des igning the entire machine. DESIGNER'S GUIDE TO EFFICIENT USE OF STEET 1. wananty claims.:]' product or component..l' and secondarl functions of Ihe piopo:ed marhtre? 4. \\hat are ile pr]xca].I sEcTtoN 1. RECOGNITION OF PROBTE'VT :iroduction as weII as later reference for the young :trgineer. The sequence will serve both as an :ssfu1 designs follow a definite sequence in doing The efficient use of steel in machinery calls (13) Welding procedure (14) Control and correction of distortion (15) Cleaning and inspection Some ofthese guideposts refer to manufacturing. (12) Assembly and positioners 3. In the extreme. (6) Plate preparation (7) Special sections and fo. more rigid. 2. This section presents the major design and ::crication considerations in an easilyfollowed ::quence. while other members mav needto be beefed up. What do service records reveal astothede (3) Determination of load conditions (4) Major design considerations (5) Layout history of failures. or qapable of longer iife than required? 2.sn't yet had the opportunity to use steel or weldfents extensively in structural members ofmacheery. or the more experienced engineer who :r. Is the machine larger. If a redesign problem. Continue to do so as the proposed design develops and takes shape. heavler. and in contributing more fully to product planning sessions. The process is essentially ::e same as that involved in the creative desisn of . What pafts must remain interchangeable so as to meet future need for replacement parts for machines presently in service? Be carefulthat any such reasoning is sound. shoul.rmins (8) Welded joint design (9) Size and amount of welds (10) Use of subassemblies (11) Use of jig6.
::i:Ti? J* j il ffil*l ffJ". :tff :f 1 ed beom ists res $il*1ffi ili "..ou.# 1T.is w.6 o' con. L .: :.":".'l..i::.rom which or :"31'l*" " f: :i:.1::::i:..."f .rfk rF i : :!i:i"x r f inri iil::: :::i . .i.tt?i"n".:":{i.."rjrn#".' :"."1'"1'&ilrff :T:"f .i.ii j. :".i.f :::%.""".rh corptere teedon in derisn or weldoenrr. ro bending. j:_l7rol#.: I ii: :: :'"".. dated. 2 Proper use of stiffeners ond crosed sect.v.#'.e.o3rins yei hur be Ged be.3" i: *i 17u" N.l...ll ff DETERMTNTNG roAD j.?:'.f. :i e: :.l:: ii'il :'.ons increose fhe rig "?:".11i3: NN.t"* i0."'i: ji'"'ft "l?illfi T:[".r..":..:.a2.. sriffene6 .:": :""i:tng a starting point f._ U the new desisn which misht be made integrat with the is ::: :mii r.i"" jff k:f#y.H:.""".::n. il i ".1.5'ffJ g: .# . non_functional? " * i'..". What new features must ?. 6..v eq@ idity of members ond fromes..!:.: H:.. .T.y?1i""::i::!Ti"JJ.?. m m ..""1.i:.9 problem in./ Design Approoch fJrld".fi .. il.J "1". 5x$ \!J Fig.l*:::d'.::"i1...'.o" :. Have you or olher mer yft"::: il"i"1 8.:iii1*i:Ti.. .3#::l f tif :u:f# ::T **. ffi . \\\> V) "ouol lL Lo F l1 I .. .iT:T1."13:x.3i1?lili'"1".'"il*"i""il. rhe ho5t etted.11 :*. *id: ."..::.... Is the appearance features of the present design must be be added? I.*il::Hl:..?]_ix. ili# il:Hi." " # T.:13.f : 'Jffi :H+..PPB h.f ::x. N\.:G fiii Hi'"': [?.
5. Slmmetrical sections rre more etTicientfor ?. lf onli' Surface properties (viz. from stock.whereeve: possible. the appearance. / 1. Nlany welds are ccmpletelv hidden from view. Use deep sections to resist bending. 5. 2). the cost will eventualll' be submitted to the judgment of the customer who decides whether to buy or not to buy ahe machine.ich the material here hes been grouped. and Ireque:1ri\ l\ S. The function.. lvhen the designer is at ihis puredesign stage. They demand careful consideration to insure ma\imum design economy. check restrictions to ascertain that most eccomical method allowed bv code is being used. appearance and cost.i 1. hence.3). may be several times better than an open section (I'i9. Use closed sections of diagonal bracing for torsion (twisting).d bonds qnd nozzle vones ore requirements.Designer's Guide to Efficient Use ol Sreel load on mrchinc parts. he must think ahead to how he will Lav out the design for production and how these decisions will affect manufacturing costs.iflness pr<r avna rience of performance might indicate thar it is set ioo high.tsider using a roild steel. 5). The weldor is not lilielyto l{now which welds are critical appearancewise and which are not. the section properties and dimensions of the member. 4. The following design factors determine the perfotmance of the design. Place higher grades oI sleel only where required. Remember that highstrength sieels and other premium materials are not available in as wide a range of standard mill shapes. 3 Shror. He must be thinking even further ahead to how his decision will be accepted by the user of the machine.Lppearance for its own sake usuaily increases cost more than necessary. Specify nonpremium grades ofsteel. Design should sarisfv srrength 405 stoinless welded to mild sieel web. 2 Chc.. which are added ccst items. welding and handling costs. base 3nd hxrdsurf:lci:tg to obrrjn Lhe desired properliej /F ir postheating. \\'ill pfovide rigid 15. if a satisfactorv stafting point cannot be found.43 factory in servlce can be used to wofli bitcii to the : lllList No. ilv (Fis. 'lhese requlre less lorQtil]g l}nc welding. 11. This increases strength and stiffness (Iig. into wh. at unnecessary expense.. resistance to bending. 6. Consider first the use of standard roiled sections (Fis. The m3\imum force required to shear a crjtical liin mirv be uscd ts I st3:ring lioinr. If code woi'k. unless print speciiies them. 6. and use mild steel for l:est of structure 9. weitrresijtance) of a higherpriced or diff i cult to we id material :rre needed. Weld ends of beams rigid to supports. as the lo\r'erpriced mild steels. 10. 13. Proper use of stiffeners w'ith lcss 'reight (Fig. Overdesign costs money in extra material. Specify appea. for example.2). 3nd st. 12. ru Fig. 4  MAJOR DESIGN FACTORS In developing a design. the designer is seldom able to adhpre srrictly to a sequence of separate design steps. The desigrrer's thoughts must constantly refer both forward and backward as he progresses through the sequence towards thefinaldesign. . Remember that higher carbon and rllov steeis require prehesLing.rance required. 3.k s:ferrr frotnr hair o rlca. . This const3nt crossreference Irequenrlv generates new ideas relating a machine's function. design for an assumed load and adjust from experience and test. A closed section. cor. 1).
5 A greoi vori ety of stondord rolled shopes ore qvq i lob le for economicol mqc hine designs. and chassis. Sometimes sections can be designed round so that automatic welding can be used more advantageously (Fig.using commerciallyavailable standard index tables. 17. For maximum economy. 19. 6j. Do not bury a bearing support or other critical wearpoint within a closedbox weldment21. columns. If bar or plate surface must be machined or ground or hardsurfaced. use plate and bar sizes in stock or easy to get. consider possibility of economies in. When delivery time is short or production is Iow. dimension the section so that initial plate and bar sizes can be readilv obtained from plant or vendor inventory (Fig. Choose sectlons according to a planned factory stock list. 22. way units. Fig. . use plate and bar sizes standardized for your own or other industries. 20. Afla a<a ry w # vffi tr L) Fig. 7).1.44 / Design Approoch 16. 4 Cutting edge on mild steel groder blode is hordsurfqced with weorresistqni olloy. heads. Provide maintenance accessibilitv. 18. On special machines especially.
It presents many opportunities lor savings. If a standard rolledtosbape section is not available. Iay out parts of various aizes ad shap€s to be nested whea crd or stamped. 5 Stondord rolled bors ore economicol . b. Check toleranceg and press fits first specified. (b) long flat bar stock welded together. modify shape ad aize of scrap cutouts so tlat Daterial may be used later for other parts: pads. Fig.45 In bne typ$ of 3t. Check with shop for ideas where shop exFrience can contribute to better methods or cost aaviDgs. finched wit$ only 1/8" nochi@d ofi. Shop may not be able to economically hold them. however. 10). This wiu reduce assembly time aod amount of welding. when seciion is dimensioned for minimum finishins. Do this before firmiig design. Close tolerances and fits may not be br 1. the number of operations saved. 5 TAYOUT To the designer familiar only with castings. O Fig. If possible. I Design simplicity con sove much welding ond ossembly time. so as to minimize scrap (Fig. etc. 2. the problems of laying out a weldment for production lay seem complex because of the mauy possibilties. 7 Design sections for circulor or stroight seoms to permit outomotic welding. rhi3 l/4. Lay out for fewer number of pieces (Fig. or (c) special order rolledtoshape section.2 rcutd r6quir l/4'. 4. required. the economy of which will depend upon the footage involved. and wbether tbe contour can be developed by starxdard mill rolls. to b6 to  74' bor. 6. (Fig. Fig. 9). This variety. 7. List No. Design for easy handling of materiale and inexpensive tooling. By uiins o 2'r lhlck rhb rop turfd. consider these choices: (a) a large plate flame cut to developed blank size and then formed up into section. moy @iloble 1. 3.8). 5. is one of welded derign's advantages..Designer's Guide to Efficient Use of Sreel / 1.1. stiffeners. . gear blanks..
9 Good design mokes it possible for ."I":oh. produclion io mqke moximum use ofslock. .. other ports.)ll____l = Shearing Sawing (c. 9. rcrop tos. rigid il.i}. t i I i' I "' t{}rLil l* o. . cur. inn.:r "ae" ili1l::#".nd8. used forpods. economica'i principally: (a) Flalnecutting (b) g.: "'.1::. rhe in_fiu_ ^?. clroub t6r o Floo.eihi.Y.r dir. 1.r: A d. ro r.ingr f.duc. Consider the proper method of producinE weldment blanks.l.'l'il? : f :ff i"fr ?1 isr No."Fnn:"" .ii liiiiJ. t' I I { Fig.'.g.i*""a$1$i*:rf$#i.*"".::lili l. ".iiii.":anarsopiovideL?'liiuliqi.o6 rtic\ ptob.y coh oe ne3ied ro r.T*o9i on quatity of method ro.:.46 / Design Approoch .i (d) (e) Nibbting (f) Lathe cut_off (for bar and tube srock) punch press blanking t ure recrongutc. cufoul scrop sec tions to be 6r Fig..eper.. into the above evaluation. 'ry .. O PTATE PREPARATION ) l i ." " t qedio^ I cu'rir.'fif_uo:j..t?**: $::fu li'jif ii.ll'Tr. mor.0 L:_:_1 R€ru. Loy 6ur eclioru $ ih.luce !c/op to$ stiffsns15.'j'". Welding smell blanks o : ji&rii.^."*i**ru Z t ffi i'HT.h"u'tv.1.o ui. as Io which is most for the quantity and quarrty required. l0 p lon for .
mod. l. L Consider whether dimensioning of blank reatock allowa[ce for later preparation of edge . rffi rchining costs. v d B tg.a=a\\ . fobricotirg ond weldirg costs. A cotrtinuously edge that ttuYe. 13 Formirg of corner cqn often sove moferiol.L fen proposing to combine cutting of blank aDd preparation of edge for weliling.r ltnt&dof cutllng tg. 3. irstead of macbining to bevel both edges prior to weldrng. Fig. . '__r_jtHl.rh. of flar pbre or bcr.4\ \\) )\\ >\\ >> In. sr chipping for backpass preparation. is not continuously welded may be on exposed joints.ridl fM blid plqr. lf s.47 e t. For singleb€vel or singleV plate prepararse singletip flame cutting torch.'.tdins Buildlp don 6hpalr.sEl k z'\ prcduc. retd6d ros€rh. ll Cut segments for heovy ring from cl plote ond nest to reduce scrop.Designer's Guide lo Efficieni Use of Steel / 1. 8.ond overoll production ca6ts.n. Consider arcair gouging. a thick plate is prepared with a J or U groove because tuFires less weld metal 5.__ l dr.d\. flqrne g9ugi11g. 12 Ef f i cient relding con sove roierio I costs. If plate plater is available.d by w€ldlng dt i3 l.ld 5q6 ro!. W.. For doublebevel or double Vplate prepararse multipletip flqrnecutting torch ao this b done in one pass of the cutting machine.s rlEn kr+ sv€d. ) . sov.d frcm lamimtioc t vY/\v/ Sfff.B @n b. !6ctioG by sldins io cul on nochiniig ond ndtqiol @rt tlub with € . remem& mt all welds are co[tinuous.
"..:lling a ring in plate stead of adding needed stiffeners to act as ribs in_ ^. l4 Roll rinos i nsteod of crtti."T."" *"jiffiri :I h?itr.T.ot wil coure q l ."t1. l8 Use minimum qmount of weld mei ..48 / Desig Z n Approoch FOR/VIING AND SPECIAI y L isr No. ofa "n.nh and . i?i.ri.I"JiTff i .lJjlf sections to in*ease f "g"i.t*: ri*+r.T?!. 5 hoded oreos i ndicote omounl of qdded weld metql..t":.1i5i. :" j3f &1?: L7).x'. 15 Flonoe on lof plote incieqs.qun. sEcTtoNS if""?ifji"r:J:lime."11ff :ff problem the desisn ail .i from heovy ploie.J. Fig .il'"t" Hrfi 'J.9h co'. co"t '" i1"":.alion indentations Fig. ** .1'. 8. s?il.ii ." (F"igc. ^U... 4.".posir r.._ sti ffness.'ffi .1. * and torerances.lr":tptify r*. Dete.f . f.l ."il.d De.: to reau"e uiU. .i'j".t o"* ".Ev.*""::[":".Jtn"" .'. Au tomo ti c we lding e liminqtes need fo r much beveling.h""".n "" _urt*O:ln"td"... stiffne s s. (a) Press brake (b) Bending rolls (e) Roll_forming (d) Tangentbending and contour_bending (e) Flanging and dishing (f) Pressdie forming and drawing r^2.o o. LWb H..:.tow .. using the following forming f Fig.Consider using corrugated sheet for extra 1:'i:. Consider possible rnstead 4.stT# rabricatins a werdmenr :f j:.rmine whether the f:Hi.*#:**.3*fi :::]t :!iiilii".fl t'{.":"lrt:trr. 3..l." : "T.Consider whether a corner should be bent or than welded up from t*" pi"""" savi of curting from p1".
18. 2. uee dotbleV instead of single V to reduce tbe amotmt of weldmetal (Fig. or rwo ddc or.$ n. nurt b. \ L.or reld3 nGr b. earg or tongues are consider building tlem upbywelding rather uaing forgiugs or considerable machining.c6lbl. 17 joints by uslag automatic submergedarc welding which has a deeppenetration arc characteristic (Fig.o. Eliminate beveling on a large percentage of El€ctrod.t! 1. WETDED JOINT DESIGN Bending up edge of sheet before welding to next sheet provides stiffener. the ie selected. lips. i. bowever. bottom left). top left). top left).ron e I increoses rifhpss. Reduce tbe convexifir of fillet welds. h€ld cle lo 45o wh. lL A small amount ofhardsurfacing alloy can be by welding where it lrill do the most good.e fill. Ih. 6. 18. dd filler metal.Derigner's Guide to Elficient Use ol Sreel / 1. left). variables in design end layout can Elt in startlitrg cost reductions or cost increaaes. ioinr3 md. 16 Pres in&rrorion in flot . Fig. The type of joint should be selected primarily on basis of load requirements. IrI l. 18. Once. *lrh b. A 45o 19 Design must ollow occess to ioint hr welding.o qvold plccins pi!.nt EGy io dow. tg.On thick plate. Select joint requiring a minimum amormt of 5. Sonetimea a single weld may be usedto join tlree parts (Fig. ro olla . of usiug expenslve material throughout the Wherever flanges.49 fr. 18. a\ mll e rhct on. bur ft€ 2nd €ld T@ cloa to sid. Use minimum root opening and inclrr6sd sngle 4. 3. in orter to reduce filler metal required (Fig.n mlins th.
.'#[i.'. .4lO / Desig n Approoch I'iJ*. ffi il*:$. l::l!itf"f .iliiy""i'f l#i..ifl1?:Hn' ..n:.20 Overwelding i.'..:.:."?i".. .1iig1q.".f*fr 1+i.#rf?: : "L"::: :".:.$:. o"".Tff ili':.il ".:: igl?. 9 i##*#.*"".1"s.^rtn:.:r..3*:*f ntu.'* nl j#".'""J'":.ii""T"1if.'"Jff WEID SIZE AND A..*rtrn used br saletv factor.].:t :.1 ono .1! ffi l:: i."1'.'.i?1...:"r*: ""'J'.:':*t jil:::ii{fi.ij Z t isr lr1e..1.Jff " 9.ii.#"..'. mffi .lJ:l.t:tl:lf ":.."..J. Place the weld onthe shortest seam. *il Fig.. w= :. If there E4 i3'"::*.ffi a.rightroador :..t.jJ'1i:.lft. ^.*t fl l#.r !e).JJoi.... liii.5: jLtr.0."..?" Hjl.:. ._l.*e. Don't ad'd rhe desisner have a "l"wables ll:. *..3i3'.j.mmir"r "' "rt """}* " "iiJti _ .f i.*....O' r.:.iJ". ft15i}..".:lf# +.X.iiil"rT"":tf*:il"H'i5iJ"ro"iotoon" .T1.1?#r..ir. i. ".J l.."j. :::i.1.Tff y.il' i.f.. u.".'.ir*.x': .!'..X"....l?:".?::"xi".T..1'"?:J""...IAOUNT il. r:g size of fillet welds is especialy iln "'S' t"'ff .:':.".":i'::""#:"T:X&:1f"".'l.'"'."+'.".?r.".$i*:i.t.t.:llf./ should be ovoided.:l3'..'#: j'"".:1*?..
assembly. 2. 11. 12.. Spreads work out. inrerpass. . 15. Low_hydrogenelectrodes will reduce any preheat requirementi.il end up srrajght. 1. if machine structure is large or complex. 7. so the welding of each can be balanced about its own neutral axis.... The weld takes very little load. ll l. Irnprove if necessa.d be_ fore final assembll. t uo"" duce the need for stress relieving and straightening. weld two similar members backtoback without prebend anO keep fastened until after stressielief. Preset joint to offset expected contraction.Cbeck {itup. 1. will offer some of the followins cost savings: 1.. More men canwork on whole job.Designer's Guide ro Elficienr Use of Steel / 1. the entire welding operatlon is to be done while work is in the jig.4_ll is a cutout section. Permits stressrel. 20.. pedestal or floor.1. ln plennine assemblies and subassemblies. to reduce troubles.2. break the weldment into natural sections. so thar helper can load by pro_ onewhjle orner ts bei ng welded.lowing use 3^f^11.0. 6. . r 4. Stiffeners or diaphragms do not need much welding. Arrange the erection. and welding sequence sJ parts have freedom to move in one oi more directions for as long as possible during assembly. ^^^. loading.ry. therefore. in additioll. U. Caps are costty.First decide if jig is simply to aid in as_ sembly and to hold weldment for tacking or whetlier. fixtures and welding posirioners shoul. vjgjng two jigs.re strongbaeks. .l BtY 1.' 13. 6. 4. lower right). they are often overwelded. 5.ief (if necessary) ofcer_ ..:re1ief.s'uO in machinery construction.ing and releas ing of work. (Fig. Reduces the possibility of distortion or lock'dup stresses which might occur if whole assemblv . . ea_q\ before in Use subassemblies and complete the welding final assembly.of member. WefOrent sfro.. . Don. used to decrease fabrication time. inspection before job 5. Use j igs and fixtures to hold pir. assembly. ""_ l0 UsE OF 5U BASSE. con_ 6. place the welded seam at the cutout and save on the length of welding.t.sothey may be more easily straighten. .Permits leak testing of compartments or cnambers and painting before welding into final to rectifv errors. If need for stres!. 7. _ 3. . if j jg is to be mounted on welding posltroner.VI BLIES In visualizing assembly procedure..1 [ ist No. ing posirioners fcciljtate mc_\imum in the fiat downhand position. rust. Tool. 20. Keeping the amount of welding to a minimum will minimize distortion..dbe . This means shorter delivery time.. and postheat temperatures. Tooling must provide easl. Weld two slmilar members back_to_back AS5EMBtY TOOTING Jigs./ere tacked together and then complerely welded. 10. the desisner should break the proposed machine down inro iub_ assemblies several different ways to determine which. the designer"rfiJOKeep in mind the following points: 1. fitting. f. IOwer lett). 11.4. Operating factor can be increased . xl.rts with proDe ^. .9":". must have means for quicli clamping and unload. / List No. Facilitates inprocess nas progressed too far with some prebend. tain sections before welding into final. . Re_ duce the weld leg size or length ofweld if possible. disto trol of^Precamber rtion. Precision welding possible with modern technrques permits machining to close tolerances before welding into final as""mbly. Usuall. first. not normally reouired Ior welding the mild steels commonly I. rrup and to mainrain aligrment Auring welding. internal stiess.y provides better access for welding. etc. On the other hand. work of oil. Jig must provide rigiditv necessary to hold rTI enS I OnS. if any.8.8. Weld the more flexible sections together ."19 speeds. locating points. Determine any need for preheat. fit_up.3.g"1 _electrodes and automatic weldin[ for laster welding . _.5..7..The need for preheat may affect numerous decisions relative to tooling. Tooling must be easy to load can be built into the tool for . Clamp into position and hold duringwelding._ C1ean 12 A55 E. dirt before welding . in automatic welding itmavbJbetter Lo place the joint away from the cutout area to permit making one continuous seam (Fig.?: w_erdtng W..t overweld the flange to web ofbeam sec_ tions. Where possible. 12.z list No. Prebend th'emembertooffsetanyexpe cted distort ionl=9.l"e 3.
Use an electrode holder that allows the use of high welding current. Try to improve operating factor. Use high deposition electrode. normal speed frequently can be exceeded. I'ri. and handling equipment' 3. ?.gth . lower left). 16. 13.on in the shop. Most of it is unnecessary for a fullstrength joint (Fig. This reduces weld metal being deposited. is a mutual concern ofboth Design and Production. . U possible. which result from poor lvelding procedures. position fillet welds in the flat (trough) position for highest welding speed. before they happen. 1a. Use milrimum weld metal. weld sheet metal 45o downbill. Use the correct current and polarity.readil.e are Iarge enough to do the job. though. Be sure welding machines and cabl. watch reinforcement. 28. porosity.sides. Control of cost and quality. etc. can be .2 list No' 13 WETDING PR.1. repairs due to cracking. Use backup bars to iDcrease speed of welding on the first pass. The designer must be concerned with what goes. the 1. 26. Be especially careful specifying weld size that might increase possibility of burnthrough on singlepass welds (Fig. With automatic welding. 20.weld derol The forces of expansion and contraction that tend to cause distortion in steeL when heated.er diameter electrode may actuall. 2l Joini con often bepositioned for 1. Be sure you are using oplimum travel speeds. 15. 2. 21). and the production man must see that his experience is passed back to the designer. position filletwelds to obtain greater penetration intB the root of the joint: flat plate at an^angle of 30" from horizontal and vertical plate 60" from horizontal (Fig.y controlled so that distortion is seldom a problem. or automatic welding. Deposit the greatest amolut of filler metal in the shortest possible time. 14 DISTORTION CONTROI requir. On small fillets. If 22. 21. 25.OCEDURE These checkpoints are primarily for guidance of weld shop personnel. 23. 9. Use manual electrodes down to a 2rr stub. weld first those joints that may have greatest contraction as they coo1.412 / Desig n Approoch larger Ieg of the fillet wiII be in line with the load where it will do the most good. For fillet weld^s loaded transversely. for groove joints' 5. Consider welding from one side only (if plates are not too thick) instead of both . Use higher welding current. 3.rhir wcld will 18.Use fewer passes. On Tgroove welds. 2. Distribute the welding heat as uniformly as possible throughout the member. position the flat plate 30" from horizontal so that the ror some p. 24.y deposit the weld faster by not overwelding. 4. Thus: 1. / list No. 8. 12. to eliminate necessity for turning over heavjr weldment or using overhead welding. use weldor helpers. weld toward unrestrained portion of member. 1?. Weld in flat downhand position if possible' Overhead and vertical welds are more expensive. 22). welding so os to minim ize weld size wi thoui offecting penetroiion or strength. 6. good fixtures. Eliminate or reduce preheat by using lowhydrogen electrodes.etrori6n chd +re. Make certain to use the type of electrode that will produce the highest deposition under existing conditions. a small. Use a procedure which eliminates arc blow. 4. 11. appearance is not critical and no distoftion is being experienced. Use semiautomatic or fullautomatic welding wherever possible and take advantage of its deeper penetration and uniform deposit. 10. 2?. One of the best ways to save money is to prevent. 19. 14. Investigate the use of larger electrodes at higher currents.. Consider the use of negative polarity for submergedarc welding to increase meltoff rate. Use optimum welding current and speed for best welding performance. Here are some measures to be taken: Fig. Use good weldable steel.
j:ubleV joiots. 3. rid buckling due to poor choice or per: . eyen a (poor' weld is often strongerthan the .On rhin metol. 4. Result might be lower repair costs. : r ::3t is.413 . This is a very costly operation and usually exceeds the cost of welding. c€ . and lower 5.forcing alignment in order to get better a lower welding current will minimize weld faults and inspection. : ': :ctic welding.:::on process.ie wir.ve ioinins Looks ediy on drdwins but 5holld be ovoided membed oi right if . 2. shearing or other plate . 60010 penehorion n oll rhor con be 5ofely abtoined wirh one po$ wirholrb6ckin9 on d ioint witf no s6p. l5  CtEANING AND INSPECTION . total cost. j.:. f.:'..t ist No. 3: ::dvantage of deeper penetration with . H. '. ..as welding progresses.:id buckling in section due to improper :.lr support.'oid error in original alignment of mem. copp€r bockins is heeded or mulriple po$ This i6int cdn noi be These welds Look sood o^ drowing blr dre tdugh to moke r=ri'i' 11 Ld. Good welds must always be the goal.. to reduce spatter sticking to the plate. '. especiolly with S D. Overzealous inspection can run up welding costs very fast.  .emembe. :. even le$ when gap is presenl Abo!r p6sible. ?2 ing leposs welds ::. rvhich can be both costlt and a contributing factor in distortion. Some electrodes and processes produce little or no spatter. ::. Spatter films can be applied parallel to the joint. i ::ne shrink when advisable.. . . = of flamecutting. '.:' on of the member but backstepping may :.. .lding. .. Many plants overinspect. Reduce cleaning time by use of powderediron electrodes and automatic welding which minimize spatter and roughness of surface. 6. Eliminate as many welding difficulties as possible so as to reduce the amount of inspection needed.: have uniform appearance. .'ing lorge omounis of :':l iend io burn ''::h.'oid prestressing members being joined to.se weld will burf ihroush rhin meiol lilled in one po* t I ^A One Iundomenrol rule ro .hdustry now accepts aswelded joints that 3.:l. . o)I e.e joined. do not grind the surface of the weld smooth or flush unless required for another reason.:. position welds opposite each other. . . ts.:: f.. Perhaps a slightly reduced welding speed or plates being joined.rrg should progress toward the unres:. however. equidistant from the neutral axis. il! \rsr.fte. therefore.Designer's Guide to Efficient Use of Steel ^ / 1. 7. Thit is too much weld m€rol ro fill in one po$ . ' . weld alternalely on both '.oqing cdll! for flu5h w€ld Drn'' expec'r.. [nspection should check for overwelding.ce the welds about the neutral axis of .
cloimed to be more efficient thon the cost design.4 14 / Design Approoch Welded heodstock for wood turning lqthe wqs monufociured ot holf the cost of eorlier cost iron unit. flqt Lqthe heodstock wos welded up from 1 l pieces .low.cost siompi ngs ond bors..rsing" Seciion oo sketched fo show contour. Conventionol cosi volute for cenfri Redesigned pump housing is o Iower cosi weldment. .1. fugol pump hor.
"T$i::*T: _ .#i#"r1fi:tj.Strength or i. Or.s configuration.J Ior a more detailed description on the use of this I rule_ . for resistance to twlsting r J _ polar section c torsion modulus. at times an engineer desires to convert from a caJiins or a forging to fabricated steel. However. Lincoln_. These are: A = Area of the crosssection ir:j:rJf?". The Equivarent rabres were devfroped from a simplification of traditional. ( (( i) I.":l""i1lty v_a_]ent. for Specific TypesofMembers 3. z. tbe need may be to convert i. The Equivalent Sections concept is aimed at this Tables since each applies to only a specific rype or design problern. THE EO UIVALENT. Possibly a single member or assembly will be rede_ sigled for steel and must be functional within an overall. usi"ngactual qes rgn prob. for strengtb under . Mthstand loads applied in tensron. compres_ sion_bendtng. Nomographs.. C Redesigning by Meons of Equivolent Sections ? N5 (.Equire_ments of'strength Here again are the basic g steps to converting a casting into a steel weldment bymeans ofequivalEnt sectrons: rigrorry. in addition..1. Three aids have been developed to simplify an engrneer's taking this design approach.lre: 1' Tables of Equivalent strength and  Factors i Rigidity srEPg: cu=."::ifl..S ECTIO CONCEPT Although it is preferable rn mosr cases to de_ sign a machine on thebasis ofcalculated loading.om on" sreel destgn to another in order to take advantage oI \ew manufacturing techniques. machine design still based on cast iron.11""'i. foruil". s6rpJ Determine the Type of Loading underthe Requirements .unde. rhe Clecision may be to Iean heavily on the plant.'ji*". The basic 3step approach to convertinga cast_ lng into a steel weldment by means of equivalent sections is this: U5E OF EOUIVAIENT TA8TEs Each for Each Member. for flexural strength J = polar moment of ineftia. 2. They elirn inate mosi or all direct mathematical. Determine the critical properties ofthe .a. calcularrons and enable the user to find graphically actual dimensions oi steel member._ Nomographs further shofien the design process. in the simplest wai possible.5 . In one respect. Application of each of these three desigrr aids is 9lt_:T""0 in the following paragraphs.designs.'J'L.^n".igroi$ Rigidity for . helpful in finorng the moment of j: ^l:.i:: "ngindri"j . srEP 1: Determine the Type of rnading.of .. theyafe mo re limtt"O tfron tir" fqui_ = Moment or inertia..n i p. the Steel Member . crosssection.lH'li?f.s casting_ experience and pretty much Ouplicate tne original machine in steel rather than go into stress analysis. Dec.. \r. Thiy. .tf ooesn't which would be the case when using the traditional formulas have to work di rectly with desigrr loads uulnb". STEP 2: Determine thJcritical property . they tend to restrict tile Che qesrgner to the existent castjng.1 ori'o rts oi a structure must have basicjobs to this Cast Member do: STEP 3: Determine the/Required property for.. Maintair! sufficieot strength or. forRisidityprobrems t. direct conversion from one material to another. 2. 1ft. rorresisrancetobendins S = Section modulus. 2. Or. rhe Lincoln r Rute.The r.lifyi Rule supplements the Equivalent _I r aoles_ s m ng the solurjon of rigidit].sEcTroN 1.lems for illustration.Jl!"'1"".. or torsion..
lltt tl?t (Table 2). The redesign objective is to convertio have only 4O7o For instance: To determine how much area must be provided in a . If these properties of a cast part or member are known.. ITE= 3: Determine the Required properties for the Steel Member .Ultf tle follovlDg above property fsctor to grt tle equlvs.":i".52 / Design Approorh TABLE 1 Step I I beudtg I toreton Detenoine ttre Type of Loadlng RIGIDITY teDrtoD I cotubn I coluon Step 2 DetelEhe of tle cast betaber tlCs property Step 3 EQUWALENT FACTORS {f. 'To see how the system is applied to an actual proDrrm.:{n properties isnecessary onlyto multiply rne known of the casring by the facioi obtained from the appropriate Equivalent Table.le velue for steel. consider thiqgray iron mechanism. Equivalent Tables facilitate determining the corresponding properties'of the steel member or lowercost welded steel members of equal rigidity shows that the steel member need as much area. Fig_ ure 1. refer to :qy?l 9ewhich r aDre I FIGURE'I .steel tension member to rigidjry of a gray iron casting.1.stba *The factors above are based on publishdd values of rnoduli of elaslicitv.huyu It . r'c" ls for ca. * of tbe celt EeEber by the GteyllonA S T M ASTM ASTM ASTM 20 TABLE I EQUIVALENI FACTORS 50 RIGIDIry Mall€dble A4?gg 950 Meeladte Glede Grede Glade cC Crade cB sub8crlpt h8" lr for steel.equal rigidity (Tab1e 1) or equal :lJ .
lo:*::1. several steel designs are ofthe steel sec_ considered.. Fjgure 4. Fig_ FIGUR E 6 . . J."i*JJ"""?.63/'/rl FIGUR E 5 MUt /eAlT OF sa lNERrta."rif . FIGUR E 4 ure 5 represents just one solution. i"opulties of the gray iron sections are the TJ^ttllft"g by this equivalent'faclors f.:1. *..'j how well each cast member does its job..." FIGURE 3 "ift::ifJ ."&"j..""#I# :? :""simple base cart a 1"i"F. /.i" "" used in applvins tr'" bqul"ur*i jI. Any steel member having this prope y witt do the same job as well as required the corresponding gray iron member.rom Table 1. Figure Each member is labeled as to the type of load2. 3. ral Design: 'From therequired properties rtons.1" an example ol how "". The result of is a required property value for each steel sectron.T. USE OF NOMOGRAPHS 3:Ii'"'1t"*di..2s STEP 2: e/_rraz EAR 7 eaa /i\t2 represents the member.r. when computed.:"1'. / 1. Figure 3.i:13 STFD r.Gz tN4 /i 'tra4E y'z3/hnr f.. consllting Table 1.. This steel design of equivalent rigidity resulted welded in less weight and 45% less cost than the cast 60% iron design FIGURE 2 it replaced.iih'". .'. [y of each section is determined. is cho.l:.sen wfiich a cross_section dSr. tellvatues . the necessary propertytfren. rhe perties."j:.E quivo lent Sections STE P 1. From each cast iron member. te=.h::".irg to which it is subject.: .5_3 .
bet_ ter rigidity is an essential oUlective ln the reOesign for'welded steel. Determine the Critieal property of the Cast Meml)er as the length and depth of the member are rowell re_ marn the same. oTunt. was acceptable in service. a bending loao...2O9oC) Magnesium uuttoy.. :Ir+ Step 2 TABLE 2  EQUIVALENT STRENG TH FACTORS Step 3 EQUIVALENT FACTORS Cray Lron ASTM 20 Mulriply above property ofthe cast mem_ oer oy lne tollowing factor to get lhe equivl_ Lh_e leht value tor steel. Caltoy. 4. Equal o. Slp =. AZ92! T6./J\ subscript "s" iS for steel.3 rigidiry design. it will be accurate enough (within .10 .[ 1. .:criliry. where the shape of thecross_sectionas TABLE 2 STRENGTH Step compre6aioll 1 Determlne the Type of Loadtng tedsion I coluEn I beadbg J toraron DoterEolne thts property of the caat Eeoober. '.gray iron. depending upon dr..be considered equal to 100%. on which a motor and pump are mounteA.fn. For purpose of comparrson.]. The design proorem is thus one 4 / Design Approoch ?o.5 of rigidity. It has one rib underneath and weighs 681 lbs.h: . compressive ond sheorstrengths usins o sofery focror of 3 for miid sreel ond from 4 r. HTA Te]Fra Castings Sand T6 2ZO T4 355 T6 T7 356 T6 '17 J\ o. ezoe. rts cost wil. the member must have ::l"t:*. STEP 1: Determine the Type of Loading This cast base.c" is for caslrng The foctors oboreore bosed on publishedvolues of tensile. * Malleable A4?3i Meehanite Crade crade crade .. of inerria (t) ro resist. crade 85018 GE GD cC GB Cast Steel (.or.g i.iilir. under a bending load.
5_5 to assume that the moment of inertia will vary . 7 Cost lron Bose (68.i.t 3rea.Redesigning by Meons of Equivolenr Secfions 570) / 1. step In our cast iron base example. 8  REQUIRED IHICKNESS OF SIEEL SECIION For Rigidity Equol to Cost Section Typeol esrtiry\9 I0cd. 8aa.i t. o' W3!'. Fig.o:: thickness ofthe topand sides. /i: Zz . the thickness of the top panel is 1r' and that of the side panel is 5/8".4t! tt. Figure ?.._?:i""mine the Required property forthe The minimum thickness of the top and side FIG. .1!: as the iona.o 35o.l lbt H#. or gorng one turther. ".i' 2 9e' /t6 k.t4  t.. 32 p/ati) 9@. t4" t?+' 2" .. v6 .ecr ll.
: and thus one or more stiffeners must rhe i:l:9"i9gg. I I Second Welded Steel Bose (27 a l6s) 4 stiffeners on 12. Olte pro"edr. Line A = known thickness of casting panel Line B = known type of casr material Line C = required thickness of steel panel to have rigidity equivalent to the corres_ ponding cast panel straight edge laid along the point on Line .. .e LiteriJ :Il. On tfris nonograph:" ". the cost is low. that is found when the cast section is "tJr""tiJn 1. this would require finding the momenf ot inertia_ of the proposed section. """rlfl"" greater_ strength.. thepointat which Lin6 :."iog urrE'v"fai .. This is ."J:. 3/8" and 1/4". doing this is covered in a later "*ample.i.t. ^only ing."d: valent rigidity factor.. Th€ weight of the base has thus been reduced by_^5976. tnrctness.. FIGURE 9 The required maximum span oi the steel top panel between stiffeners can bi read f.. y. Iess weight.' centers Totol cost relotive to thot of cqstinq is 34. Therefore. ond nomograph.1s ]Iersecteg will be a reference poinr.practice is to make the base ends the Jifi_ same plate thickness as the side pu""i"...1. Oepenalrg ..rmportant thing here is the stiffener.'.n thotgh it means two different pfate tfri"[ne'sses.r.. comparison with the original cast base. mean_ ing that a 1S" span is required inthe in order for it to have equil rigidity. Ev^e.. or length ofpanel betw&n stiffeners edge laid ac. l0 Welded Steel Bose (28. s"" rig_r" "t""Irnu*bu. Line E wrrr oe rntersected at aproximately b2qo.il. .. fo_". iir. cast top panel Line E = ratio of length of steel span to length or cast span.. This factor is tire plrceniage of the rigidity of the cast material a trrit ot sieJl. i rnrckness of rhe cast rop panel. Figure 13. the required thict<neis of in!imi tfre sieet side panel will be found to be L/4.Ling ..r.. Fisu..lli. "rii'ghr LIne. How_ ever.rep. _lrJ _of the 30t' span in the original casting.1 3 stiffeners on 15.2o/o for one . Fig. bv rhe ::l1tCht.h." . lrin tne_ straight edge reposjtioned i""o"" . Now. A thin steel top panel may requi.re fo.f:rg.".. r€quired rhickness of the steei top panef. ffr" eners do not have to be as deep. ".. sqan of toppanel relauue r ir. A jndicating the lsssLq_Eegesie .r._Y.ll Fig. 2go/o for ren . t .J.6Vo for one. This is.1 . "no "?"i'ii _ This design has been very simple and quick. The.' it requires two operations.tot: Line c will be rnrersecred 20 c. On this nomogra. and the cost by eS to OS7.th.. 8) by using the value ro.percentage can be found on tle firsinomol graph (Fig..5 6 / Design Approoch panels of the steel member can be read Irom the first nomograph. stiffening than the much heavier cast paneI. 30. .s . sfr". The welded steel base which has equivalent risiditv. ASiM glj].ir the steet member. Accepted. U the moment of inertia of the cast iron can be determined.. original cast base has a rib which serves li 1"tif.iiJ. rndrcating the l'.resenrins . This.^rh.l .ln . it can then be multiplieJ bt.1.ross lhe point on 3/9" requiredthicknessofthe and rhe point on Line B . Llar manne.s'l!!ofted. "gCu ar approximatety 3/8. thick. and the poini on Line D represent_ '... An even more efficient desigt can be made by changing the shape of the base cross_section.: Line A = thickness ofsteeltoppanel (determin_ ed from previous nomograph) Line B = known type of cast material LineC=referenceline Line D = known thickness of.9olo for ten lb. ff 52Vo sr ze.h. rhickness ^ oithe the point on Line B indicating the top pur. must be used andweld"J.i" l_ojn:.: ::ipil"t urt' ArL lvt zu gray cast iron. centers Totql cost relqfive to thot of cqsiing is 39 . Figur€ g.C..
. as OetermlneOi.7o/o for ten l2 A slightly better desigrr can be had by fianging :l"^^?pltg.' centers Toiol cost relqiive to thot of costinq is 38.. Lhickness of pqne. Since this " glreatly increases the rigidity oi th" f*l """tion... as aetermi"eJUy lfr! second nomograph (Fig.1. i. in_ crease the cost for very small quantities but reduces the cost on larger lots."" or exrra operation . 1g). plate bent into the form of a cnaon.st ic.Sef Figure 11.p.! ' ramo te.rhe base. . Although this eliminates some flame_cutting shearing and considerable *"ldi"g. this steel section can be made of 3/16'..... This may .nd sides then "t]Ill*9. E cosLinq Find L!!349t1 of span a. : . requires an additional stiffene._ il. one steel plate does the work ofthree.4o/o for one .yitl !he r€design based on an equivalent mo_ menr or lnenla.i... Figure 12. This takes a little thickness f. This J:gulr.stinq 90x 'pz t:1 tk t16 tlp f4a +iv. +ft.i"rr. :1"^:.. FIG..:l":rj g..legs of. 24 . 1O). Third Redesiern: Redesigning by lVleons of Equivolent Sections /. tE '!g3..om the second nomograph (Fig. top and adds it to the sides.l.es additional stiffeners..l of oanal e' nodulus af q ta. weldrng them back up. a further reduction in cost.By using one thickness throughout.t:sto:'! 9asttnq 4_s!9:ts!_gog__!_!!Lu . The thinner . I3 hickness of Stee REQUIRED RATIO OF STEEL SPAN TO CAST SPAN For Steel Section to Hove Rigidity Equol to Cost 5ection I rcgl .5_Z Fig. i" plate tlickness can be made. Bendin'gdown the preparing edges for *""fOirg . Third Wetded Sreel Bose (248 lbs) 5 stiffeners on lO. t y:J!!tL7n .brake forming.t' r2 Length of Steel sp4n to0k of G. N! 'se:r!tg .
a cast machine toot base of ASTM 20 gray iron.l divide top portion of the section into the ru areas. this is usually availab.tO. 2. It is desired that the welded steel rigid base be as TEP. This design aiA is esp"eciauv valuable in finding the momeni of inertia a' i. t hen place the rule so that the number 1O is on the bottom line and the number O is on the neutral axis..G. and whose mo_ menr ol inertia is equal to the moment of inertia of rne top section. Since lne member is subject to bending. 1. Fig. A good place to start is the cross section of the base. The Lincoln I Rule is now used to ifre of in_ertia about the horizontal axistinatfris momeni of s""iion.rosssection view is needed through rhe cast base.: This wil.1.. :q*l to. Each component of the cast basefor is converted into a sieel section by following the 3_step design approach. (Be sure to consider top the scale ot the drawing. this view can be treated ai a singte ie"tion.'" unsymmetrical or complex casting. A complete c. Iine across tremities of the section and one acrossthe top ex_ the bottom extremities of the section. Draw a horizontal. _ so that the number 10 isonthetopline anO tfre n"mtei 0 isthe neutral axis. jts resistanceto oendrng must be evaluated. sneared instead oe Bqse (4900 lbs) tion in cost.reduc"_ .) Adduptheaverage widths these 10 areas. Figure 14.t. . 36qo . tiris . DiaE_ onal bracing for additional torsional resistanEe could be used and is discussed in Sect. plare. measure off the average width of each of the 10 areas in the portionof th€ section. "f As an exampl. Thjs rhird redesign has now brought the weight tRUIE In. l5 Crosseciion throug h cost mo chi ne . and divide U5. the Lincoln I Kule can otten be of great help in developing Equi _ valent Sections.on. 2.O pertaining to Torsion.s scale._ Place the Lincoln I Rule on the section. is redesigned rolled steel. See Figure 16. .. 10 points and draw horizontal lio"" th.ss. nave nrgh rigidity under bending loads.section whose y]::1 ]. The I Rule has now transformed the top (above the n€utral a.G.". Braces and stiffeners do not require much weld_ ing.ff on th€. mark this number O.. average width of the top poriion of the sec.a. STEP 1: Determine the Type of Loading 4.the averase width..' 4.3 for more detailed descriptn on tfr" use of the I rule. or rne base down to that of the original casting and the cost (in lots of 10 or more) ti ZSEy ot *nii rt was originally. See sect.. actrng as a beam to resistbendiig. whoie depth is equal to the depth of the top section. M. Estimate the neutral axis of the section bv imagjning where the section would b"l.58 / Dasign Approoch shown. the darli areas indicare rhe sections that run continuously throughout the length of tle memUer.iiff giu" of il.i. iii: 3.. I i ormore rigid than the cast lron base. urtil the entire base hi.e.s been re'_ designed to stee]. Draw ahorjzontatiine ttrrouifr this. In the view Fig. mark these oub".le as a scale drawing on the pattern print. for simptUicei tion.2' Determine the Critical property of Cast Member the The property of a section which indicates its le:lstalce to bending as irs moment of inertit (t). USE OF UNCOTN . With an engineer. This is a. intermittent filtet welding is suJficient. S. Figure lb. 14 Cosr lron By going ro thinner . the blank edges mav of flame_cur.. ^_ Cl.'_ ported on this axis.xis) into a rectangle. . and repeat for the bottom """iio". redesignjng machinery members that must ..
.o" tn b€nding.3 32.i"' 62..location or the two top flange plates musr be retaineO... 4 10.6t1 77.is I=widthlheight3 _.Ln ' 6.obl"I no. iron IIEP.0" 14.0'l 4. = 8640 in.8 7.J. 11". . ihe Fig.4.i..8 \t":''"F: 2 1 2..l rnan the cast section.r i"\ d\ + 3 'R 2.f..l t ttl \9 Height Since the moment of inertia of a rectangular area about its base is considered to be__ Fig.0 14. j. bose.Member ?.This is repeated for the t rhe ne ut ral * i .5 9 Area 10 " ::: :trH:T Bottom portion Top portion 12.2 *Y""\K'It'''\ Total width Average width \.0 2.. o.0 14. The dimensions .i. Determine Steel Consulting Table I (equivalent rigidity).rv is to build up a steel section dimensions I]:.. rr' loi rr*r #l""rn " Redesigning by lAeons of Iquivolent : 5 ectio ns / 1. Aru . the = 3450 in.t?.. l6 UsingiheLincoln I Rule to derer_ mine moment of inertiq ofo cqst member crosssec tion..... 1 9.J1"^. 0 I 8 7 6 4.' moment of inertia of the cast iron base is__ Icast iron = Itop portion + Ibortom portion = 3980 in..a + 4660 in. l7 Crosssection fhroug h sree I .u. rhe Required property forthe castrng.r . outsideof inertia (I) otrt e "ast section aij :uullC 1 monent = 3450 h.lli rh. 8 0 0 .' and.0 4.! slec_tion having at least this valu"r. Hence: Isteel = 4o7o Icast steel to replace ASTM 20 gray casr iron 40Eo of the moment of inErtia 14 .26" L2.
3 Ig c D E I/2x4 6 x 7/4 16.L O 101 238. was used to develop ...s center of gravity from section's reference axrs = width x height of area M =Axy Iy =Mxy = width See Figures 1g and 19 on facing page. F tl 8x73/4 Total 14.i?. cnleved with a moment _of_inertia value of only 3450 rn.8 umes as stiff as cast iron) Since equivalent rigidity would have been a_ .0 6. 3U% les s. rigid_ as the cast base.. = 6280 in. . Its moment of ineirt:a 1I. method known as eAdding Areas".3 pertaining to prop_ erties of Sections.r (or 1. x height3 of area "h.8 times as rigid as the caii Assume reference axis is 12" up from the bottomSize Distance y 24. 6.tddilq Areas"method errla oI the entire section.r 'steel ' T M' . This is ex_ plarned _more fully in Sect.0 +106.t?tio*ilC table of properties for each componeni or rne sectioD in order to compute the moment of in_ The moment of inertia of the steel section is T . 6 r/4 '14 w 1/4  2. the welded stec:l base.5 1738. is founi by the. Now that the crosssection of the steel base .0 4.0 84. has b€en designed. 21 Welded sreelmochine bqse(2500 lbs)... . and Figure 21 redesigned base fully assembled.{ .0 4. A r. ?8 156. 17 8.0 .The s.5lO design_ / Design Approoch must lend itself to the most economical methods of fabricating rolled steel. othe.8 times as it weighs 49qo les" una "ori" Fig.28 4.1.0 o+c7 where: y A Is = distance of area. 2.3L 2.?= = 64s7 _ 63. Fobricotion cost 620/o the cost ofthe originol cost bose.0 Iy +3? 45. 69 .00 7 + 53. base.?8 L1B .._ . 50 B 74xI3/4 L 7/8 x 6L/z M +303. n 2 = 64s7 _.r less important components of rne cast base are taken one at a time and converted to steel.00 63.0 24.ible solution. 'Th.Although this final steel base is 1. steel section shown in Figure 1Z is one pos_ .75 x 3/8 3/4 x." il. this design is 1. ou  4. Figure 20 shows these various components for.: :1u.
l9 Front view of weldedsreer mochi ne bose. r_.il._ _jl \r {i I Fig.Radesigning by Meons of Equivolent Sections / 1. 20 n . Fig.5_ll I Fig. Exp loded view of steer components for we lded mochine bqse. '. l8 Frontview of costmochine bose.
512 / Derign Approoch Cost steel cleoning bor foroge cnopper wos redesigned for os mild :teel weldment. wifh 25olo less . Resu lt: 26010 cost production clion.1. redu weig ht ond l5olo less cosi thon previous cost design. Arcwelded housing of beveroge filling mochine rmproved oppeoronce ond strength.
5
ECTTON 2.t
Loqds
I.
TYPES
qnd Their Evoluotion
sections of this text willde.rl morethorouilhlv with thc vlrri,)uj Lvpes of lo:rd. somo of the mrin Ieafures of elch rre ilcsCrtbed hpre_ 1. Tension is the force thtrt pulls a member from two oppos ing di rect ions. tt resu.lts iIdeform]_ lion by elong:trion. Excessivetensile loedingceuses tarlure of rhe member by pullrng il aparr. Tension rs sno\,vn in Figure 1 bv two examples: the tension member of the simple bracket ,,.\,, and the tensioo member of the lever system "D". As a tensile load is increased, the member elongates and its crosssectional area d""aur""". Neither change affects ihe load. Howeyer, the decrease tIr crosssectional area affects distribution of the load and rhereby stightly increases the unit [ensrle sLress. Even this does nor sffect Lhe pro_ portional relationship of the stress ro strainwirhin lhc elssttc limits of the msreritI. , Any eccentricity in appiying the load causes a oendrng moment. This sets up secondary bendins stresses lvhich are 3dded [o the primary i*i"t t"n] sile stresses, However, this bending mom"nt iuoJ"
OF LOAD tn designing a machine member, it is necesslrv to recognize the type ofload applied to the mcmber. This is true whether the new design is to be basej on a previous model, or directly on calculateJ
loading.
lrter
The load may be imposed by the dead rveight of machine members, or by the wo rk pertormeO 6v the machine. Load is the amount of external. force applied to an elr.stic body, tending to deform it. UnOerloaO, some dimension.or property of the member cha,,ges, Stress is the internal molecul.ar resistance to J ch deformation, tending to restore the body to its o,is_ inal condition ooce the load has b"; .u;;;;?Strain is the amount of unit deformation that occurs under load. Usual.ly the change in the property of the section area, moment of inertia, etc. _ caused by loadinq does not affect the value or nr.ture of the toadine] Sometimes it does, and then the member ay trii ''. expectedly.
five basic types  There.cre shear, bending. of load: compression..
r
3nd torsion. Fieure lllusIr:rtes these virrious lord conditions. Although
tension,
to straighten out the neutral axis of lhe member so that as the load is increased, the ecceotricity decreases. 2. Compression is the force that pushes,
The rugged :erv ice requiremenfs
of such equipment qs ihis moto. scroper demond corefu I evqluotion of the loods ond resulting stresses. 5teel we ldmen fs desig ned occordingly. meet the
requirements.
2.12 / Loqd ond Stress Anolysis
fension
Vlelds in shear
Bendi ng
Lood
ompreSSton
Conpresiion
Fig.
presses
I
Typico
I
exomples
of the vorious kinds of lood ro which mochine
members qre subiected.
or squeezes a member from opposing di_ rections. It results in deformation by contraciion. Excessive loading in compression causes lalture Uy crushing or buckling.
shown in Figure I in the two may exist. A ljng column, whilh mrgnr larlDy buckling, often occurs as a compression member in a lever system <D'. Simila] ex_ ampl.es are seen in the compression Eemberofthe bracket oA', and in the pistoo connectins rod (C,. A sbort column, which might fail by crushing, occurs here in the bearing support for i briOge id".
to:T: jn .*.high it
Compression
is
but not along the same line. Failure bv shear mav follow a direction parallel to the appli;d forces or along diagonal sl.ip lines in a tensile memberShear stresses are often present as a bl@r:oduct of the principal stresses or the appl.ication of transverse forces. The overhead craneway bracket(B' in Figure 1, is loaded in rather high shear because it is short and carries a large load. The beam (E" is loaded in bending, but the fillet welds joining the flanges to the web are stressed in horizontal. shear,
As compressive loading of a long coLurnn is in_ lT9r.."d: it eventually causes some eccentricity, t s tn lurn sets up a bending moment, causine the colulnn to deflect or buckte ;lightiy. flis jeftec_ tion, nomatter how slight, io"rJa""i tfr" toy: tl" bending progress ::ywhere the bending moment. Thismay""""ni"i"_ ro ijY moment is increasing at J rate greater than the increase in load. es a res r of tnis vicious cycle, the column soon fail.s by buckling. 3. Shear loading is the subjectionofa member to two equal forces which act in opposite directions
under consideration. Such a load, as in the beam (p' of Figure 1, produces a bending moment. Ap_ plicaiion ofthe load farther out alonglhe be" *ouid increase the bending moment. A bending moment al.so occurs in the lever system sD'.
Iy to a member at some distance from the section
4.
Bending loads are forces applied transverse_
A bending moment causes a beam to deflect in the direction in which the load is applied. As the bending load is increased, the deflection increases. However, this deflection of a straight beam has no eifect on the position of the load. W'ith
Loods ond Their Evoluotion
llrrgr' dcflectir>n, Lhc cr{)ss_section mj.y change in 'eil !vtLlt a corrcsponding decrexse in ils moment _ inertic. This would both increese the benclin( stress and dccretse the meml)er's resistance t; creirses a[ an accelerating rate. , Deflection of ir strsight beam under load rtkes [ne Iorm ol a curve. FiberS between the neutr3.1 a.\is aad the outer surface are under tension, and those along the inside of the bend or deflection are under compression. Failure uncler a bending load is usually the result of the outer t'ibers being siressed beyond their tensile limit or buclding of oiter fibers io compression.
/
2.1_3
deflection. so thlrt the possibility of failure
in_
fpO,1", lo:L,is er{r .rpplir,,l sucl,lcntv. ujuirlll. jrt nrAh vclociLv. There ij. [r,).lucntly. rrciuul imp:rct ",,,1. (l blow) on the machine membtr byanothu. *""irin" member or some externtl body. Impxct lorU",i." common t() such machines as pile clrivers, punch presses, etc.
oua1. "... ln each cJ.se the velue
Vtrirble
loeds at.e lrpplicd in v!.rious ways.
5. Torsional. loadirg is the subjectionof a member to torque forces that cause it to twist about its central a\is. Cranks, ayles, spindles and other ro_ tating membefs, such as uF" in Figure 1, afe under this type of load. The principal deflection caused bv torsion is measured by the angle of rwisr. The J.mount of twist does not affect the torsional moment and therefore has no effect on the value of the momeut. Failure uRder torsional loading is usually a result ofshear stresses that develop as the load increases. At the surface of a round steel shaft, for ex_ ample, the metal is stressed in shear in a di.rection nerpendicular as well as parallel to the axis of  . it. The metal is stressed in tensiolin a direc_
some cases the load is constan y varying, as in the connecting rods in J.n engine. An cxlreme condirion rs typitied by 3 rotxLing shtft which e.\periences a complete reversll of load on each cycle. II fibers along the top of a shaft are stressed in compression, those a.long the bottom are stresseo ln tensron. any point on the she[t, ec.ch revolutjon produces.\t x cnange trom lension to compression. . .Over an extended period of time a member can wlChstand much less stress under severe vtric.ble load conditions. As a mer.sure of the ma_\imum unit stress lhJ.t a ml,lerial can withst3nd indefinitel.v undervsriable loading. its endu.rsnce limir isofrei estabtished by testing. For this rea.son, jome torms of vsritble lotds tre common.lv referred to as fatigue loads.
o[force is variable.
In
3.
VATUE OF IOAD
ln order to use many designformutas, it is nec_ essary to determine the amount of Ioad that will be applied to each machine member. The methods of
I
STATIC
Tf
]MPACT
VARIABLE
As in deod weight
Fis. 2 A Iood moy be siotic, impoct, or voriqble occordiing to ihe woy In which the lood is opplied to the mqchine member.
tion 45o to these shear stresses and in compression at 90o to the tensile stresses. Below the surface these folces decrease as the centraL i" up_ proached. Ultimate failure under torsionofaduct"*ia ile steel_.shaft is in shear perpenaicularto a\is. Ultimate fai.lure under torsion of ttre shaft a brittle shaft is initially in tension at 4So to tfre sirait Lris.
As in dropped weight
As rn comcction
2.
APPLICATION OF LOAD
.. There are three wavs in whichaloadcan be plred to a machine member. These arestatic, aoim_ Pact,' and variable (Fig. 2). 1 Static loads are steady, constant or are ap_ , f d slowly. The load does oot change very much i.., lue. Examples include the weight of , Ilutd in a,sLorage tr.nk, the dead weight of a slructure upon tts supports, etc.
doing this are many, and are often peculiax to the industry or cLass of machinery concerned. They have their basis in elementary mechanics ani proper analysis of the actual service conditions. Very often, formulas or nomographs have already been developed to aid in selecting equipmenr ror tn€ powerd.rive syslem required for the pa.rticu_ 1ar class of service. These wil.l also provide the basic Load information needed to calcuiate Load on individual machine members Here the systems approach can be of use to the rrame or chassis designer. Like the drive systems engineer, he starts at the working tool with calcula_ tions of required delivered horsepower, for e,\am_ ple.. Th_en he works upstream, calculating alt se_ ondary forces that effect an increase in thJrequirerl motor horsepower. This willtake into consideiation
2.14 / Lood ond Srress Anolvsis
fricti()n. ioertiil of moving mcmbers. rotational rorces upon bearings and their housings, ftl.wheel energ""v, a.nd so on. He now has a graphic piciure ot the loads emanating from the power train from end to end. From this informatioo he proceeds further to cha.rt thedistributionof forces, addinginthe dead weight of mschine members_ Considering individual members, there are many possibilities. Torque on a shaft orother re_ volving part is determined from the motor horse_ power and speed (T=63,030 x hp/rpm). Or, tool pressure and work or tool diameter, if known, permit cal.culating the torque.
ducers are available to heJ.p in evaluating loads on existing equipment or on pcorotypes. [tanyofthese instruments ineorirorate electrical strain gages in a precision bridgetype sensing element. Suchtrans_ ducers include load cells, p{essure gages, torque meters, dynamometers, accelerometers. flow me_ ters, and load beams.
On equipment such as a hoist or lift truck. the ma\imum load on members can be figured teck from the load required to tip the machirie over.
Many mechanical and electromechanical trans_
or
ultimi1te strength !vith propef considerit.tion fo. safetJ,, ftctor. Once the member's proportions are estaltlished, this allowlble unit stress ctnthen be translated into alloweble toad
lhc
of permaneot deformation can betoterated, ade]sisn based on ultimate stfength ca.n be made at less cost_
In order for a machine member to have sufficient rigidity, the maximum allowable strain or deflection is the determining factor. Inthepastmany design_ ers were under the impression that zero deflection was desirable. This is not at allrealistic: if zero deflection is ma.ndatory, zero stress is mandatorv. This would mean the membeI coul.d cecry no loed
to the malcrial,s yield strength. In most mlchine members the permanent deformltion thilt would re_ sult from exceeding the yield strength might seri_ ously affect further performance of the member, TIis is not always the case however; and if a degree
Ordinarily the e.llowallle stress must be rel!.tive
at a]I.
 When following an existing design on a power shovel or ditch digger for eximple, the axi.rrom strength of cables that have proven satisfactory in service can be used to work back to the load on machine parts, . If a satisfactory slarting point cannot be found, the desigr can be based upon an assumed load and subsequently adjusted from experience and test.
4.
FACTOR OF SAFETY
Once the maximum allowable strain is estab_ lished, the corresponding stress figure can be ob_ tained since stress and strain have a proportional rel.ationship within the elastic range. The safety factor is applied here to determine the marimum allowable stress, which can then be used in propor_ tioning the member. The relationship of stress to strain is expressed by the material's modulus of el.asticity. ,hich i" 30,000,000 psi for alL steels in tension. Thus, if the ma\imum q.llowabLe strain is 0.001 in.,/in., the corresponding stress would be 30,000 psi. The modul.us of elasticity of a steel in shear is 12,000,000 psi; therefore, it is essential to keepinmindthe tvpe of force involved
.. The anticipated loading, t.ransl3ted into st.resses, drcraae the proportions of the individual machine teTber, However, a factor of safety must be in_ cluded in the calculations in order io ensure the p"_Tl:.'. withstsnding greater forces ttrat may possl Dly resu.lt lrom: l. variations in the material: 2. faulty workmanship in fabiication: 3. varir.tions in actual load (Ex: hitting animoverloading a lift hook; etc.); and in design computations. There are various ways to determine thefactor ^ or sately..and various ways in which touse it. The r'ro decrslons r.re interreiated. In order for a machine member to have sufficient strength, the ma..<imum unit stress must be limited to some value less than the material,s yield strength
movabLe object with an agrieultural imple_ ment; interrupted cut in rough machining hard steel on a medium_duty irachine tool
Any basic ruleofthumb safety factor that is sufficient for static loads under ideal conditions must be increased under certain circumstances. lt is important to correctly determine the mode of load. Consider not only the condition at time of initial construction, but the possible effects of weer. A cam follower in a barreL cam produces a variable load_ ing. After a relativelv short period of service. wear in the cam track often results in an additio[al
severe impact loading. High speed motion pictures and vibration moni_ toring equipment frequentlv reveal.vari.able Loadins or impact loading conditions where oni.v static loadi had been assumed.
4. error
A variable load lecessitates use of a hieher sirfety fsctor than a str.tic load does. An impact loed also requires use of a higher safety factor. The presence of local. areas of concentrated stresses are usualJ.y igrored in assigning a safety factor under static load. However, under impact or
if the applied forces reached B times rts rated loadbearing capacitv. 9ri(..  . thereby . the designer is to reduce ttis section dimensions arbitrarity. :ot 1": muttiptier to the calcuLted louJ. Ho*euer"." p"oiu".s need.. I  ..'ffi ^_ o.foatirJ This is f)articularly true if his design is basea on princi_ pal forces and the safety fact6r has U""n the influence of unknown or unstudied s"conOar "orr". However. psi. multiply by i.000 p"i ""rui"" to frJ used in design computatioos.0 j:i. and 3.uminum 5. thcse ConccltlritLc(I stfesses vital roLc il rc{iucing li}c mirximum Lresses.orren.\ are presenl ll poinLs of contxct lleiweeu I member "i: "i. recognized as being too Iarge and is prob_ unneces sari ly 1l_rl_. 2. \l __:_ l_ \ Lzr / t.Lresj concclllf]tions . cast aluminum (3 x ltj ) 4. if impact loacts. In other words. thelower varues are based on yield strength of the material and.:." u"fu"" upfl".engtir ofa mareriat..3 3. In either case. the factor of safery of the follow_ ing materials would be: 1.a8."1d urr cne lndlvrduSl members 3.leJ. if the bar steel to fe .A. it".g: ) : =\.i x 1. \n exlmple ot this exists where pressures of high intensitt fr"i*L"n mechanictl filsteners ancl the memtre. rolled steel 2. / 2. commonlv it Hlgh .".xl":.i"". ' A malleable iron design . cast sreer (3 x 1u i.\B LE 1.timate st.. malleable iron (3 x 1r.19:"9 codes dictate ro *..al ive Inte rp retltl iotr of tSC Spec ifjcirt ions :"il_' ". developed horse_ other factors involved intherorelforces ^ _:.ing The safety factor is no longer as critical in de_ . we rvould end up with a member thct would fail onllr.2) 4. "o..t9 giu" corresponding allowable stresses (Table 1)_ If working with variable.e .Loods ond Their Evoluorion vtri_Jl)le l()it(1..: sion member has an ultimate tensite strenctiot 90.not ultimate strength.li."uiou" arguments in favor of designing to avoid peimaneni d^eformation. The safety factor figured into design calculations rs.^ _ It : somejines simpler to apply the service fac T19"" AISC (."?il. 3... extruded al.l tncl its support or loild. The resultsarenotxs reliable. to oe more appropriare to today.\B LE ST ITESSES . multiply Uy i r.. since ttre'in] . forces.r /L\.dividing by the t""to" oti'*ouij give the allowable unit stress of 30.oii "t. "uofr" "y 'rssocirted !r ith rrlrrulrr secrion ch.. In vGw of the p.ads would thus be assigned subjectecl to impact a service factor of g_ For further di. rence otde3d weight of me mbers. t..0 6. chinery builders.:'r'goo \ ot v_ tr'. . even where no code appiies....i.2i .j .nd For example..li" specific"member.re not considered in the resultant safety margin for any individual _".owcble .r = / t(.chine itsetf.1_5 hlLvo :r "tf. muitiply Uy anJ' ^'tr.or as a multiplier to ttre c"i"uimEoio. " 1. if a cast material. see Sect.. gray cast iron (3 x 1!...merican Instrtute of .f ". L>^ where: C.8 +. assign an initial factor of safety of 2.s.scussion of alloivable stresses for Columns. struction) allorvable values are reatisticSteel Conin terms oftoday's superior materials.? p" us€d in our computarions rarher rhan the l?3o i{rrowaole unlt StIeSS.'v!iy oIEen salety the practice.*?i'#i:ik":':.""eth "fjfi" rne member.\L LOIV. T.gl . .rE\r/ : r ot . is as follorvs: 1..s tt con. nor jusr faiiJre."".u/!)' \r'l These service factor values are based on their being applied to the ul. J. {n error is sometimes made ins i mply applying the safety f3ctor to the service load on rhe mc.lng..r) .lrc most Conse rt. the safety factor to be applied to various ma_ rerrals.000. whether the service plied as a divisor to the ultimate factor is ao_ material. AISC rese3rch and specificxtions hsve been rnlerpreted .or fatigue proper endurance value for the material loads. if a brittle material. the is divided by the factor of safety as found abovegivrng us the all.rr""f)L".5 The structural field has widely adopted values ^ for.
fress ono lysis p ho f o_losricity is bosed on siudy of the S Fig. Potiern vories qs fhe qmounf of loqd vories.th Fig. iz e d lighr through o irons loqd. 3 Brittle cootings ore opplied io surfoces ofoctucl members for sfudy oF 5urfqqg 5y1s55 concenfrofions under vqrious lood conditions.16 ./ LooC cnd Srres: .2.'/:" i. Siressccoi pofterns ore obioinecj from dynomic loods on trocror iock Frcme.Anoiysis / :a . I tP tu . Here.4 by poreni m:Cei of the menber :ubiected to siress po ftern re.reo led by pcssing p c Io:.
1:'"::i::lo^'"^:lbo: n d e d .2.:1ii. rined conrrol of manufacturing "f quality. tu re s. orul. within qreos of limited siroin grod ien f.*: :l ". 3).. yancements iiiiii%t"T:::Tf. can be determir"d . . .t p ho roe I osri c i ry hqs been j:. more reliable shel ji 3i. odop ted Here ore ond mogn i tude sign calculations for many machine members. ..l11g_": ot tost productive time agrinst tt" furtt"."il.ii. Photoeh. . ductions_ in building michinery made possible "oEiJ"_ through Iowering thelefety factor.":1^"."i". r nls provldes verificJ. slip clutches.ixjiT". is mainly 5. j:.ffi.17 re ly reveql bo+h orieniotion of principol stroins.lysis.."^lout tnese. .fabricating methods or section io... ll". Mechanical strain gages are used primarilv Fig. tools of experimental stress analysis are 3.rosettes ihor oc.'t"".rro . the coatings are used to study stresses and to locate areas of dangeroussurface stress concentrations (Fig. experimentallv..tromechonicol stroin goges sfrqin. EXPERI/VIENTAI.."*.nrlti. Etec. example. Brittle stresses can De rnterpolated.t.. 1.i:: cal nature of the safety factor is also mi"i_i. overload relief O"O" * p. .ii:?.sticity is usedto study stress dis_ lrrbution through a c ross _ sectron (Fis. .Stress. scs e s il" .lrlly'..". "tong"".. rvsis by :"i.J""ii. .l ""j'"..: Phofo. u:" . o r st at i o n s to . machinerybuilOeri :::.K force fields which discourage mathemati_ cal ana. sTRE55 ANAIYSIS "". straio values. ii o.1xT. 4). Frorn il.:: il:''J".The primsry measurements aremadeofstrains that develop in the memberunderload. 6 The wiregrid ond etchedfoil s troi n goges shown exnrbrf o chonge of electricol This chqnge is nere ore fhe mosf common fypes.tionof mtthemali_ cal analyses. .Loqds ond Iheir Evqlvotion NO LOAO LOAO FIIGH / 2.i"f"."i'. l.r. and also more detailed rr"rrvilJf"'"r comple. Stil."S*I.. geoerelly becter _ rnur". "oJijii#l.tne precise influence of concentrated stresses due to. overload devices often Lead to machine The design must batance inc. resisfonce wiih o chqnqe in lineoiond con be meosured..re frequenrly to esperimenrrI srress 4u ysrs.fhis due to the widispread aOopdon of lml proyed electricxl and hydraulic r"""r6.""""" tor example. reli3bility * _To uid in reducing the safety factor as well as to rmprove machine performance.
. surface of the member. behqvior under lood.f later in Section 3.4. In eithercase.is fairlvslow. Meosuremen reqd by . erittte coatings requi.to_eue r.Tafe measurements of large forces. or ^ "field where other techniques traie hmitations. r.for p_"rron"nt coniinuous record of th"". flexibleetchedfoilgoges ore opplied tobend lines ofq steel member io re_ veol stress behovior under loqd.. :1 orlr e coatlngs are inexpensive. mo re co mp rehens iye histo ry o I elestic oenc. It depends on trensparent models or rne member but is often limited to rwo_dimen_ sional models.r. simple touse..5). fs Fig. is especiallyvr. structurol sfroins on o proposed side_delivery r.2.'. Tius. 19. .logroph.. . in smarl and oiten can be used where spac.photoel:lslicity knowledge is needed ofstress distri_ Durron across a section. photoelastic stugl Ls more expensive than the othei techniques and .vror unde r dynam i c loldi ng than is poss ibte w rth 1. 6). xnd rrequen y providc elI of the informc..i 8 / Lood ond 5tress Anolysis lflstrumentltion for use with strain gitges pr()_ vide a continuous rcarling es strainrleveiips.t3sriciiy. Where3s the othe r tec hniques I ce lim ited to su rra. llembrane analogy is another useful perim€ntal Stress Analysis aod will tu tool of Ex_ a""""ifru.tion needed by revealing distribution of m&ximum stresses at th.7 . rney pe fm it c. 8. Here.J considerable sl{ill to mtke an accurate quantititive analysis. In general..luable wnere turther . does noi permit mechanical strain gages.ce retdings. They can detecr varLa ons ln strain measured in micro_inches.6  Fig..r britrle coxrings o r phoro. These limitations do not apply to (Zandman) photoelasticity techniques pirt"sir*l gxges mouoted directly Lo various suiface areeso[ "pioying rne mtchine membe r (Fig. and exrble etectromechonicolsiroingogesore omplified ond fed into on oscil.1:.oL" dllign qre recorded os equipmenr is pulled over obstocles. in the Electricxl s_trtin gages are very sensitive application (Fig. i1ere.. itmaynot of the forces to which the threedimensionat ""il""l "ff mem_ ber lvould be exposed. Thev are verv .
000 6s..ope.rtn4t dte." i.00o I25.OOO 85.t5 1 t5 o25 o20 t00 o. c tln $ Cr i.*. Compressive strength 6. I Tensile tes t specimen before ond offer fesfing to foilure.v/.9l10 25.l5 0 80 0. Fsi 80.000 I I5. Figure 2. ENSILE PROPERTIES in a tensile test.OOO 18 l8 0. basic Ji.ne . 2.09 Zr 0.70 020 065 r 10..i"J.l 80 90 0 Jolloy990 JolloyS100 r00 AND COMPOSITION OF CO NSTRUCTIONAL ALLOY 5TEELS Yietd Uk.000 70.80 o 25 0. OOO l8 o.t. and . apart. Properties commonly found in engiqeering hand_ books and suppliers caialogs (Tabie 1) .35 0.15 0 80 070 0.i. t5 0 80 0.\ll moterials have certain properties which :f !. .ti'fl des. . r OOO Jolloy.00 o.25 o.000 Il Yoloy S 0."^d: specimen intppo"insoi. pulling progresses.25 o 35 055 015 t."""] i.Ti.70 0 ?0 0. shear strength 7.ultimate energy resistanc m. rne specrmen elon_ _^.8 t80 Sheer & Tube 95. r/zl ffiW laborat.Ioble 060 0.25 o. E:. concern are those thr. OOO t8 20 Republi. load ii of rhe to ir by puiling rir"j. yield strength in tension 3.Jur"li.^n"^. Nomincl Co6poiirio.25 ts 20 0.2 Properties of Mqteriqls I.io Cr psr Ni q" Oth."" i"c. igu.1 machine. usu. ili.8o o70 0 20 0. ultimate tensite strength 2. TABLE .. ooo I 15. elongation 4.rtf.. Steel Republic 65 70 US Sreel 6s.Om I8 O.'9 l. :i ::.".8 r L50 .i jiiengih..t indicate materiat ilJ^tTttt . the machined and ground speci_ men of the material is marked .> best mate rial for a given member.t. TJJ.ust be linolvn . ar two points 2'.r JL ir srow tnclconstllnt rtteofspeed.65 r00. t5 1r0.49 Zr 0. mo l8 0.000 I I5.nE.i.09 zr 0 t5 0..PROPERTIES Ste.l5 t2s 025 012 060 o30 too ..000 100. ror ln eilcn ot the design [ormulls .lance or ?s"/o " etonqofton )4 ?" Fig. These properties are essential r. endurance limit )the r properties such as modulus of resilience ei:. I .OOO t8 0.80 o. ooo l8 0. t5 15 0." Ii : . @0 105."""".25 I l5. j. qo lo:. .. l" i..criltj?n of_what happens woen a specimencfthe material is subjected to load during T i n o rde r to promote ttruir p.t^t"o:1q specimen placed in a tensile resrrng finltffim=.65 0092r 90.000 r05."g. IMPORTANCE OF PR OP ERTIES . 1.85 v.000 90.15 0. rhe various properties .*" . showing mox imum elongotion. modulus of elasticity D. ""r""iiJ" "iG In the design of machine the properries of material which are oX:!:t".":ll iJ.sts.^ "^i 1.is sppiicd ll.11" lh" gaaes at a_ uniform rate which proportronate rs to the rate at which the load or pulling f"..25 0.000 r00.SECTON 2.65 90.000 95. as shown ln fi """i"rJ*"f.55 o 60 0 85 v. o.. I5 0.OOO courresy pRODUCT ENGTNEERTNG Moeoz.20 0.
0.70 0.25 I .30 0.25 0.0@ 3 .20 o. Nominol Compo.35 o.25 o.000 83.30 0.00o 50.75 t . l5  .t2 20 2g 50.30 0.000 70.20 0.12 0.25 o.25 0. St.000 70.000 80.50 5O.lO 0. ?0 0.30 0. l 0 o 0. Republic 50 I 5O.000 60.25 1.10.22  .35 o.000 70.000 70.ition.35 0.o.000 62.W .0@ 60.22 0.03 cb 0.25 0. 03 cb 0.70 0 t5 0.55 0.000 45.65 US Sreel 0.60 o.20 0.60 0.35 0.000 Pitlsburgh Steel Rep'rblic Sreel PirTen No.000 45.2 v 0. t0 t 5 0.OOO o.60 v.000 50.M Vonodi'rm 50.80 o.02 v Zr .12 0.40 o.45 0.rolot No.20 0.25 0.75 0 1 r5 r 0.OOO 75.20 0.25 I ..000 75.2.27  ..0@ 50.li 0.30 0 45 0.02 0.000 70.000 60.35 o.000 70. 0.000 75.30 v v r0 5 5 0.00o 50.25 0.60 0.00c 62.30 0.03 cb 0.20 0.70 0.00 cb  Toble couriesy PRODUCT ENGTNEERTNG Mocozine .18 0.r0 Y'i 0. o.w 70.75 r 15 0.OOO 50.70 160 0.03 cb Koiser Steel Ko.00o 50.000 60.20 5 0.udurol Higt Srrcnsrh 5O.0r cb 0. o.50 0.75 o.75 0.OOO 1.000 70.000 55.30 0.20 o.28 I .05 o.60 o.000 x45.35 0. 0.000 75.45.25 0.0oo 50.000 70.30 0.30 0. 1 50.30 0.28 r.01 cb 0.000 60. ^\ongon.25 0.000 50.ts 0. 15 0.25 30 1.30 0.000 A242 Yoloy E HSX Yoloy EHS Yoloy 50w 50.35 o.000 s0.aO} Trisrcet Joltcn No. I 70.& 0.00o 0.r0 l0 l0 0.000 35 22 l5 0.25 l0 l0 t0 t0 0.00o l5 l8 22 22 22 22 22 22 0.25 0.0@ 55.35 0.95 o. 0.75 0.000 70.'.55W 50.000 70.22  .W Etong.23 0 0. 50.25 10 0.50 0. 0.ooo 70.75 0.50 0.35 0.25 0.75 l5 0. t o. t r 2 0.03 cb 0.rc 50.20 .000 20.000 70.000 22 25 0.000 65. 0.30 0.30 o.35 o.000 70.75 0.20 0.40 o.55 40. r 2 0.22 / Loqd ond Stress Anolysis TABLE 2  PROPERTIES AND COMPOSITION OF HIGHSIRENGIH LOW ALLOY poiti.000 70. o0o 2 0.00O z0.I5 20. 80 o.000 70.02 v l.02 v Cru(iblo Stcel Moxeloy ClcyLoy 70. 7o Cu Mo Cr Nl Oth6.20 v v \olof 50.0oo 50. I 2 3 4 5 50.0oo 50. 0.0@ Nationol Steel {Greot Lokes 70.30 0. 5 0.20 0.20 0.03 cb o.@0 75.25 0.25 0. o.000 45.000 50.t2 0. o.50 0.75 o.70 1 o 02v Bethlehem Steel r cyori R MediudMatrson.@O 50.03 cb o.85 0. t 1 055 0.000 o.@0 7t 22 25 o.0O0 70.5GW .0@ Sl. r8 0.l0 Zr r0 0.el I Dynolloy ll tligh Strcngth No.25 L 35 0.35 20 22 1.75 0.20 o.0@ 50.000 50.00o 45.O@ 5O.000 ..75 0.{.@0 Moneonere 50.30 0.75 0.25 0.0@ 70. l5 0. HiMon HiMon 4. 0.35 0. 5 0. 0.@o o.35 o.000 65.25 r . l5 0 r 0.03 cb 0.60 v.000 45. l0 0.30 0. l0 0.15 I.000 70.000 80.65 Gtx45W Glx50w Grx55W GLX. l0 t0 o. 15 0.40 o.40 0.00o 58.000 75. r0 o.20 o.60 o.000 80.02  .30 0.00o 70.80 0.000 70.20 0 30 0.30 l 50 o. t .r5 0.25 065 0.22 o.000 22 22 0.35 040 0.0 0. 15 0.50 0.15 0.@O 45. 55 Inlond St.o0 0.75 0.55 0.000 64.l Hisr€. Srr.0@ Tensile 50. c00 22 20 22 30 28 o. 20 0.000 20.000 20 0.75 0. 0.65 0.80 0.20 0.@O 50. 15 o.35 o. o.00o 45.40 0.30 0.25 t 5 0.70 0.20 1. I 3 Jt 5O.0oo 5O.{O (A.04 0.25 t. 0.50 0.70 I 00 0 30 0. 22 25 STEELS Alloy Dynolloy si 0.65 0.22 0.OOO 65.@o 45.20 0.20 0.75 l5 0.lj 0.35 L40 0.000 50.2t I .30 0.@0 75.2? 0.nsth.30 0.r5.6GW NAx Hish NAX High 45. 50.75 0.W 70.75 o.30 0.000 70.50 0.
rtin. This stress (a) is expressed ii pounds per square inch.stic limit is assumed to coincide . Here.etr.rs in opposing difections ciuses t permc.(pressedia iinches per inch of leng"th.sfreng fh. The :na<imum pulling load.ling force e. percentage.. When thiljEdl s FeE6T64l[eGiic I men feru.stic 1imit.. or of stress to st.025 0. The proportional relationship of load to elonsa_ '. which is usually expres seA as r. r For oLhec me(ars.. The t.nent el. and the distance between the two punch mr.rentually reaches a ma\imum vr.tltimdie ien_ s il..rbon steels.100 0 0150 0t 7s Q20o q225 Sfroin.l srrelches briefly without en increese Ln lorrtl. [n the cese of ar lo!v.pe of Loilcl. For ordinary commercial purposes. ihe mosf criticol poriion oi the cur.astic limit.ongation or deformation of the speci_ men mtteri:tl. Beyond the material's eh. divided by the originol cross_ The loacl divided by the crosssectional area ofthe specimen rvithin the gage marks represents the unit stress or resistance of the mitterirl to the pulling or tensile force.le.nd is usuaity expressed as a. For low.re plotted in a dirgnm.vith the yield strength. Ductility and Elasticity t0 0 0025 0050 0.vo hl./e is mogniFied.[e yie[d stren$h rd r. This action is aceompanied by a further acceleration ofthe a.1 elasiiclimit oI the m ateri al. Fig.n..) . psiTne elongaiion of the specimen repceseorj rhe strtin {€/ induced in rhe material and is e.l elongrtion of the specimen before failure occurs.ring ultimoie tens ile s treng fh ond cther prcperfies. ecuols the moteriol's.23 seciion.r.nd mediumca.2 A./in. further movement of the 7A test machine ja.lue and then felis off r:pidly. iensile fe5fing mochine cpolies o gulling Forceon the iest piece. in. Stress and stra. Beyoud the el. tne yield streogTh is the stress requiredto strain the specimen by a specified small amount beyond the elastic li. percentage.ridth. The cross_ sectron at point oi failure is also measured to gi/e the reduction iil afea.. the unit sbress aL the yield point is considered to be the maleriel's tenii..vhich the elon_ g3rion of the specimen no longer is proportional to the loading.. 1). continued pulling causes lhe specimeo to neckdown across its orameter or . which is no. Ind r\ial strs. failing. the ela.rns to iri original dimeosions. continues until t po"int retched where rhe elongation beginj to iocree:e 3.In 50 50 o40 o o c expressed as a stress in psi of the original cioss_ sectional eree of the specim..or medlumc1rboo steel. ultimate strength. Fig. lhis is lhe vield point.3 A stresssircin diogrom for mild sieel/ sho. beyond.mit.rks is meaiured (Fig.ster cr. shown in simplitied torm in Figure:1.. Theincreasein length glves_ the elongation of the specimen in g. e point is reached beyond which ihe m. The moximum lood opplied before foilure of ihe piece. is rhe neterie^'s ultimaie tensile strength (d. Both elongation percentage and re*The symbois commonlv usecl for vield stf en*h.en. is the proportion.J. gether. The pul.r. in/in. .Properties oI Moferiols / 2.i11 a.rithin ihe reletivelv shorr neckeddolvn sectio11..\iel elongation. wi th Iittle sdditionr.t a IJ.in do n()t indicate the t. the specilnen breaks in two within the neckeddown portion.v lergely confined . Thispoint.lves of the specimen are then pur to_ .
i.l. ffi:till?. jliff ::.auy by th" tion.o.TT. ^^ 000 and 25.2.T*tlil1^"'::"{t''"9*""io"il tffi: " I ru_ Fig. "iF?#Hf i{l:i:t"".000. nappens.(T) of a marerial simptiti".i.t a 15". *l!e.:tl:i!e.:nhisher errective etas ti c t i mii anJ .i.. and values are obtained for compressive rield :.J" : .is at least partially vatuesdependent ""_p"""." !"fi #"i:ff ". Fotigue test results ore plotied on diqgrqm.represented the .. ^. Thatls.005 5froin.i"" tfr" tion of the steel: the compressrve strength"""0i] "" ofan ".":.stretchless than others.#i#i]lus ".li..ts fi *llql " the member. in.ss is ".treqgth and other properties.E rne young's modulus of elasticity conventionallv used.:"i.."^_ ggq.On ticity = Modutus of etasticfty E vis.t"..:'""$.l.relationship between the"t""i.. a""p"not'n!'Jn o4U OJU CO.3.er.i. ..ti.000 p"i.cN before fqilure.terial.i^rn" ^me.'i! :Til* ff:liiir:t area percentase indicate the materiar's In the design of most design members..002 0. some materi_ . the g o r". ''N 106 I0..n::f xTT::l: are becoming 5 more common .004 0.24 / Loqd ond Stress Anolysis 60 50 f.4 Stresssrroin su1r.:'il""lt"tTt:"".jii":. Fig.. for severol mqieriqls s ho w fheir relotive elosticif Only thoi portion of currr" dirploying.l ji.. The steeper t}re curriei irre or elasticitv ina trre stirier irrJ a stress_strain diagram.on./in. #'"."Jl'ffi"tffi"g o :: :1 i"'::i ji:.. r"T. stiellCth..*ei.ression of long columns is more complex... itis es_ sential to keep the stresses w*hin the erasric ranse.'"iii". the tangential modutus of eiasticitv fE."."iu" nonferrous metals.5 on Compression.1i".) """t'i"oo unj A compressive test is conducted similar to for telrsile properties..neral design practice rs ro assume that the " :* !11i".i....". proportioncI relotionship betw""n rtr"rr lnd srrorn ls d iogrommed. i#p..:li" "r rh" i*.l.slnce fr. the stress to the strain fiift:'Iil 5."" "r'il plied on the speclmen from two directions ini" "p_ axial.X'o'ooo' 3.00i 0.rl? .tlu same amount ofstress.. """l"il::: iT elfecl :::e_rl1 createon degree and may "lii.j'"I.of^is. rnls 3:_s_ri Eaterial is strain_traraeneO aii llfi ::tF:. number ol cycles tions because ^.i:1._ a.i i! usualty oUt@seciion 2. Cycles of Stress to8 :i:^". The ultimate compressive strength is reached when the specimen taits Uy crusUngl A stressstrain diagrarn is developed durins the test. :: Y:d:".: ":ffi'i :i:l1J.. H. to.?ii$ i annealed steel is closer to its tensile strength than would be the case wirh a cold_work"O is less. il s#Hffi:"&itl il"""T l:: Comp.tr. sfress vs.l"ljjlg epac9 . of a. the modulus ofelas_ ffjllil fr:[.ilure develops under the influence of a bLnd_ .il. The viriatio" i" :. oppositi. Se. l._=:!:itil:gr:l.iii"[ strength and the tensile strength ot "orp"L.n :.*.:::: even though the loading is compressive. Th" _. but a short specir"""i" that jected to a compressive load.UPRESSTVE STR ENGTH a)o l0 I 0.:" of applica lltd":' #ffi+ .ij.1x1.r. irllXTrt h.003 0.. r0._ the curve where oirecify iio_ :r the strain.l3TJ:Jli"'"T. tffi its stiffoess with thar of inother _"t""i"f.
ifr" .tes that load can be ca.tim. woutd give theis not .rte.i PR OP ERTIES and ullrmate she3r strength is calcultted from this.rssil)lL.lue.ul.. hign_vetocity blow. . rhepresence ^".. r stari cioa.. I/IIPACT r .. s ultim..o..] the m 3 t e r i3l. 4.i sa mexsure of hoFGElTiIdEiTElidl "n.2_5 \ Si:riL. thst carrying r certain load for severel million cycles of st.ltimc.e. constitutes c.. complete reversal of stresses with each operating cycIe.5HEAR STRENGTH There is no recognized stendr. ."l. the etTect of eccentric loacl_ iog is more severe in the case ofcompression thao tension.ir'ith its cupacity to withstand compressivc lo."". yet brer. The. This at*ays practicat [oJl ever.lifferent indusl ""..umns. it is a common practice to accept the tssumD_ rron. frtig* i""t" are. and good ducrility und. Ccomctry ot the mcmltcr hr. . i.most important properties that indicate .A"for tn tor vlrioLrs types of members and c. IFprct stlen4! is the abiliryota meLa.y trres. the materitl..e [irst of these is the modulus ofresilience iur'*l.s effectlve ultimate strength as the number of cycles in".shear strength rr) is genertllyajSumeo [o oe . Under high load values.jL. . Theoreticillly the load on the [esr specimens should be of the same narure as rhe load on the !:rp9:9d machine member.repected ar relatively high ir"q.. Fig.irn!."f i.ortunateiy. application of transverse forces. tensile. The two. is .Ler jal c:rn be jul)jected indefioite service iife.lcflecliou il_t_ feases. ie" S""tion:. prototypes oi ihe most l:31". in. strcss . The endurence lim jt lu.. Some shear values are obtained from torsional loading. jtj :l un:L stress. the mate"ioi . oU"". f.d:: and this will be discusse(l compietcly under of Moteriols / 2..s resistance [ne to impact loaOlng tained from the stress _strain oosrrm (gig] are ol_ ii.].les ot operation.s endurxnce mr[ must be substituted for the u.."ion"tl etc. LOWER PULL HEAD . Lacking any t""i.ettrfrle info'.rte tensile strength.fhe rcsult is a . condition of the mitefial have considerable]ndthe influ_ ence on the real endurance 1imit. the geomerry oI rhemember.t . cyc.s {)t idunticJl spr.. cjr(.a given high stress va. to. A metal may have gooO tensiie strength.eiai ususlly irt e punchend_die setup usingi rem movine slowly itt x constlnr rxte of speed.rried for an indefinite alme..mrtion aJ resl specimens.te strengrh where called for by the design rormutas.t.i. unoL'r jr jp'jcilic lourl vlluc cxpr... 5).i.l rllc. loz.Properties section 2."r.rd methocl oftesting for shear strength of a material. pure shear loads are seldom encountered in ma_ chinery design but shear stresses fr"qu"ntty Ju_ velop as a byproduct oi principxl .le testing under pulsoting ox rct UPPER PULL HEAD OYNAMOMETER I TEST SPECIMEN MOTOR sfresses. The unil stress is plottcd tl)r each specimen irgarnst the numbcr oI cjrclcs beforc failuic.6).lVhen building oneof_"_t.h ..eneih iJ often obtained from an actual shearlng ot the ..A.seldom possible. expre"""J arllrr... but these are not valid for stresses Ueyoiathe elastic limit. material. 6..d requi red ro punch chrough ihe m"..lls jrrc t.lll:" ot tocal Lreas of hiqh stress concen[ralion. st.' N dirgrrlm iFis.rlJ .uJllr o r ic Lhe mlxLmum Lo which the mit...b on compressionmore With l()ng col. the variable or fatigue mode of loading reduces the material. definite _service or fatigue Iiiu.s much to Jo . (Fig. When the loed on a member is consLanlly varvinE io yalue.k if subjected to . i.ress reversals inclicc.o.ira. ENDURANCE TI/VIIT on Fatigue. The ultimate ste. 6 Typicol serup for fotigl.rt"*i_uri ing momr)nt ttrltt incroas{ts as lhe... handbook values on endurance fimit..\lthough the stanO. energy ot L load delivered onto the to absorb member at high velocity.tr""""" o". .
) be thi base. Since the absorption ofenergy is actually a volu_ metric property.7 In the stressstroin m for impocf.notched specimens. totat For .) is the area OACD under the stress_strain curve.impact loadirg exceeds the elastic limit (or Jnerd srrength) of the material. it calls for toughness in the material rather than Toughnecs._Ibs/cu. Unit stroin (e) Fig.ial. fracture. methods of test Ioqd. '1 taj94" holding ond of opplying rhe The Vnotch specimens shown hove on included ongle of 45o ond o botiom rodius of 0.s impact streogth. the u. is indicated by its u. When. For practicality leithe yield strength(a. the ability of the metal to resist frac_ "u"iii..inTests developed for determining the impact strength of materials are often misleiding in tileir results. in. It indicates the mate rial. The two standard tests are the Izod and Charpv.226 / Lood ond Stress Anolysis i. in which case it is more accurately the testing for notch toughness. Both tests can be made in a universal impact testing machine.i_ angle and the resultant strain (r.at the elastic limit.). Nearly all testing is done with. impact loading.. (See Section 3. Since the absorption of energy is actuallv volu_ Fis.il ultimqfe stress is o foctor in determining the toug hness of fhe moteriql in terms ofulti_ mqte energy resistonce. ond Chorpy (righr) im p o c t test specimens.lowing formula can be used: _where: trv + tr 2 = material's sheat strength o._Ibs/cu.y resistance (u. This is a mlasurGiT now welt the material absorbs energy without metric property. The minimum amount of energv in a falling pendulum required to fracture the speci'men is considered to be a measure of the mate. 6. the elongotion of moment of d io g ro gllergy prov. in in.[l]l Ti:Ttr tAt94" f 2. in psi= u. Ilx actuality.) The modulus of resilience (u) is the triangular 4rea OAB under the stress_strain curve havirig its apex. The ultimate energ. "iglri I nus practicality the fol.010.iding it is not stressed above the elastic umrr or yreld point..s re_ slstance to deformation from impact loading.lti_ 1l: lnd"" resistance (u.i L A3/5" .' in ihe no tch. mare energy. .1 o[ Impact.. test conditions are serdom duplicated in the machine member and application of these test data is unrealistic. = material's ultimate strength €u = strain of the material at point ultimate stress c. the u in psl = u in in. ) be the atttuae ofthe t."./bt"__1 ofriEar. of a 2E where E = modulus of elasticity. lzetz"l I Ar/5" antff. The two types of specimens useO in these tJs JriJ the method of applying the load are shown iR Fizu. 8 Typicol tzod (lefr) lnez'.
{ris 2. The total sec_ tion is ne. the reference a_xis is taken through the base line of the section.i.y along the top or bottom of the section.re under tension_ For practical purposes this neutral axis is as_ sumed to have a fixed reLationship (n) to some ref_ erence axis.o"nt of in"eriii (I) and thjt simple strength fsctor is the section modulus {5)\nother property of section that is of maior im_ pu.(t broken into rectangular elements. In I'igure L. In working with the section. The moment of inertia is needed in solving any rigidity problem in which the member is a bearn oi long column.a ). 3. tne section . Whereas a moment .otttre se"_ tion Lron ls Irequen y of subordinate inlluence on the results.l ayis and perpendicular to the line ofap_ ptied force..\is. The moment of inertia (I) is used in finding the section modulus (S) and thus has a role in soiving simple strength designs as wellas rigidity des ignsl r he moment of inertia of 3 section is expressed in inches raised to the fourth power ( ur.SECTION 2. the legtral axis (N. it is sometimes sufficiently accurate to consider this area as made up of i rectangular elements ratner tnan iigurJ :f^"t:. it is necessary todetermine ihe section in which the greatest rncurred. the moment of inertia is a ti c. ". ihe rtelditi " factor rorm3lly is the section's ... and shear. The [eutral axis represenrs zero scrarn and therefore zero stress.el to the memier. I. [ance is the section's torsional resistance (R). I/VlPORIANCE OF SECTION PROPERTY The basic formulas used in the design of ma_ chine members include as one factor th.iit "t"""""" rviil'LJ In those computations for bending where the sec_ is acompley configuration. usuall. i\AOMENT OF INERTIA (I) is the tendency toward rota_ about an iliSlJhe moment of inertia ofthe section of a machiidEeEEE?iEEieasure of the resistance to rotation offered by the section. which in this case is the base Irne or extreme fiber . lloment of irertia is atso requireO tor iig_ uring the value of the polar moment of inertia (J". critical property of the material and as another factor the corresponding critical property of the member. a modified value for standard sections. In such cases. The moment (M) of each element about the section. A.s reference a. Hoieyer.3 Properlies of Sections usefl]l property in solving design problems where a oenorng moment or corsional moment is involved. Area 1a. Finding the Neutral . In a member subjected to a bending ioad tor example. The property ofthesectiordictates how efficiently the property of the material will be utilizedThe property of section having the greatest importance is the section's area (Aj. therefore. added together.s crosssection. Instead there is usually b".s moment ofinertia. most design problems are not so simpie that ttre area is used directly. ofa section rs expressed in square inches. aspect to the problem and.s cross_section is qsed dlrec y in computatioos for simple teosion. Thus. a. M = area of element multiplied by the distance (y) of element's center of gravity from refer_ ence axis of section The moments of the various elements are then all.If the section is not uniform throughout the length of the member. rnrs grves the distance (n) of the neutralaris from the reference a{is.: . Fibers between the neutral axis andthssurfac€ to the outside of the arc caused by deflection under load. .y be located. unless a formula is available for finding torsionai .J geometry and size. resistance (R). It is a measure of the stiffness of a beam.s structur3. compression. are under compres_ sion.) ofthe section must usualJ.. tteire.gf area preciselv. This is tiue in both rjgidity and strength designs. AREA OF THE SECTTON (A) Th: "r:3 (A) of the member. the neutral a\is extends throu[h the Iength of the member parall. Fibers between the neu_ tral axis and the surface to the inside of the arc caused by deflection under load. is determined. This summation of moments is oext divided by the total area (A) of rhe section.
T.G.to"1 .2.c.1.*:r+. Moment of Inertia into rectangular elements. In using these formulas.>o "' (I) "   "*^ _(4. This rDoment of inertia is equal to the area of the element multipiied by the distance of its C.ris of the compound secti.on where b = width of rectangle. Thus. the moment of inertia ofthe entire section about its neutral. the neutral axis is located 6.g" above the reference axis or base line and is parallel.. 7. the resulting moment of inertia r .sr 336+ 44+ 64 544 _ .ements (Second Method) .r:=. 6)+ (4. 12. I rndrng tne Moment of Inertia There are various methods to select from to get the value of momeDt of inertia (I).I Ax s I 48'. This method for finding I is the most appropriate for simple sections that cannot be broken down into Having already located the neutral axis of the section in Figure L.l {3) f.) equal to that obtained by the formula shown for rectangular sections.) In addition. (Se. t"c"l moments " .l b d.a by El. 6.D . to the neutral axis squared. and d = depth of rectangle Moment of Inerti.(2) +" Tl In N eurlral ..e section is broken for T Problem 2 smaller _elements. the whol..l?E) flz:rzt . These are shown in Tabl.:..8r' Thus. be sure to take the moment of inertia about the correct line. In the second method. axis equals the summation of the two moments of inertia of the individual elements. The neutral axis of the whole section is first found.\+ oz = du = 6... =:U I o. there is a much greater moment of inertia for each element because of the distance of its center of gravity to the neutral axis of the whoLe section.l { ee FIGURE 2 ... to it. a. Notice that the moment of inertia for a rectangle about its neutral a{is is The first method for finding the moment of in_ ertia is to rlse the simplified formulas given for typical sections.?"  L l"=. Each element has a moment of inertia about its own centroid or celter of gravity (C.I i but the moment of inertia for a rectangle about its base line is  L l"=.32 / loqd ond Stress Anolysis t FIGURE I Problem I shown in figure 1 is located in the foliowing manner: sum of all I . ":: The neutral.l t^l bds I . 14) + (2. 8 .a+. Six good metho"ds are presented here. Tabie 1.
2:i5.'t. 2) jbout its routr:rl c\is is lbund lrs [i) olvs: Properties of Sections..i"r.fE #l"Jr..T:[:l.rLu_*lJThis method is recommended for use with weld lt... 11 ng addlng ourr1:]gilq. . y_y elements of section about a common reference axis. rrj _L__l_.(4) lI"=LAn'I qih.. NI3  .3 TABLE 3 fj l'o." n"u....".{i tli J.lT : \:<_..t_ about rhe same reference a\is.lue is not high enough.r.. end then pioceed along without disrupting the previous figures..r" L] d \G yoIJJ.".3 + 2il + S:l. the desisner mav deducL some of rhe plstes end again t. \.. . _ toaat area I.{)[ Lhe secti()n ((loLailcrl furtl]cr in Fiij.Trchine.. If this vr. !.Til..[ationsLlKewlse rt !he va.(5) where: momenLs abouc base =Irl .. he simplv contrnues_ to add more plate and again checks tiris value without los ing 3ny of his p revious calcu.""uy 3nd lake a sub_total.6 un4 o1 l. in.l tl) .d ) _L.ation fo.. FIGUR E 3 Using the parallel a_{is the r(a"bc./ / ./ \1 /\ I t. lvith the third method it is possible to figure moment of inertia oI builtup sections withour firsr direc y m:rking r celcul. This is done inthesame "t"""f.lue is too high.i ...' 4 .. or sum of the areas of all . yy sum of t h e moments of all elements neutral axis (n) has dropped out =totel area. section about its (6) ..ll I + (to + +tl') + 85. ..arT d 6+ I l n fi to'a'r " D'!) 3: D ( VDT?.r \i I + na"b 4 .' l.''^\l ..../ 2. _r4_ _l_L bil: l6 bg l+ _d_ v t3 ..il + 921.._:_1 l ._ sult. = moment of inertia of whole "ouo" I4i neutral axis."t: b":1u:: the designer can stop briefly as a ptate is aclded to quickly find the new moment tt in_ ertia._ roal n. t: 6 d_ vt t Nloment of tnertia bV Adding Aleas (Thifcl }lethod) T"..{#iti{li Thus: L+An! I '.i.n feutroi lly Bose Line /z^'..I:ld'":J. J brll l g vi /\\.. n_n = sum of the moments of inertia of all elements Substituting this back into equation (5): lvl = AMl 1.tl ."f i?'n:x lL = $#. = * .1 * i:l'* l:l i  PROPERTIES OF STANDARD SECTIONS 5 ll=:J2+ 12. t. i.l.
This must lle added in if it is large enough.0 160.3 32. this value of 53.0 s0. lvithout resettingthe slide rule.=L+Lj The best way to illustrate this method is to work a problem. its dimensions are pui down in table form.ide rule.{ y FIGURE 4 Bose need not be considered. although in most .0 336.0 c 6_Y.0 102.ates.3 couid be considered. Manytirnes it is necessary to know the neutral axis.e C as well: will now be filled out for plates B and r=$. the more the likelihood of its Is value Usually the value of Ig is small enough that it being significant.2. Thus.O 16. along with its distance (y) from the reference axis.s moment of inertiar about the common refere[ce 3\is yy is recorded under (I") in the table. yy. Here we bave 544 divided by 80 which gives us 6. resetting the slide rule. :s figure for A is multiplied by (distance y) 2" to give 80 inches cubed. The rest of the computations are very quickl. in. its width firsr and depth lasr.1" l+ ?4.43 L2 53.10. This value forthe element's moment is placed under M in the table. Starting with plate A.0 5888.6 6058 rn=rvfr5l2 M2 A = 5888 +170.nce y) 2'r agxin to give 160 inches to the fourth power.{ n M .3 in.i is then placed in the extieme righthand columr.6 lidJ\2 +6U =6059_3700 = and 2359 in. Every time a plate is added.Uthough I" for any iodividual element is eoual ' iti arel (A) multiplied by rhe distrnce squrred Jm its center of grsvity to the reference a<is it may be neglected: NIT I.0 53.t4. This value is enteied inr the table under A.1. No other information is needed.y done on slide rule or calculator and placed into the table. multiply this by S44againbyjust sliding the indicator of the rule down to 544 and read the answer as 3?00.. It is suggested that the plate section size be listed as widlh times depth (b x d). each element has in addition a moment of in_ ertia (lr) about its own center ofgravity. The tabl. sl. this figure for Ntis multiplied by (distr.0 B 8 The base of this section will be used as a refer_ ence axis. s0. although it will not make much difference in the final yalue.bd' 10. this value is figured by multiptying the widthof the plate by the cube of its depth and dividing by 12.sld = :: =:A80 = 6.3 35..ter added in with the sum of L. .8" (up from bottom) The above table has been filled out with all of the given information from the pl. If the moment of inertia (L) of the plate about its own center of gravity appears to be significant.0 128.ce how easy and fast each plate is taken care of. that is.8.0 5. This happens to be the distance of the neutral axis from the base reference line. to be 13.0 4?04. This value for the element. and it can easily be found without any extra work. Then without resetting the slide rule. 10" is multiplied bv 4.' to give an a. In our example. Problem 3 r. Noti. lvithout A recommended method of treating NI3/A onthe is to divide M by A on the ru1e.0 1?0. The greater the depth of any element relatiye to th€ maxirnum width of the section.rea of 40 sq.34 / Lood ond 5tress Anqlysis cases (yr). This value for I.
IItr '\ _tal_ ( l4 I ' €r al ___l_ .') is not large enough and the section must The fourth method is the use ofsteel tables found in the A. assume thc.=1.It fiSri _ I ilt j  17. . which has the necessary scale lbr cutout purposes.1. The previous column totals afe carried be made To show a further advantage of this svstem.t this resulting momenI of inerti:]. '"2. . using the corrected totals.. An actual scale drawing of the member's crosssection is needed.j' D l'<. ' t6' ii. II .tirl. 2" \ 4i' trel.x cast sections. These values are for any steel section rvhich is rolled.n 4I" Rule functions byconverting an irregular crosssection to two simple Fig.1? in. t.C.3 5  'roblem..S. FIGURE W : Nloment of lnertia of Rol1ed Sections forward. and properties of only the added area need to be entered. (J i6:r? The fifth method was developed bv the Lincoln Electric Compaoy.{. 6 The "1" Rule permits on irregulor sectionrs momen t of inertiq to be quickly esiimqted from the secfionql view of the member. J \. I larger.fj 3lJ =7. to the rlresdy existing section."2 ^+. '(up lrom bottonr) @. Figure 6. must be used. This method is especially valuable for findins the moment of inerti3 for comple. and the Lincoln ][omentoflnertia RuIe.0 l..ke his ownuto Rule by tollowrng instructions on the next right page.+ I I T l ""i 't@ " t. and should be usecl whenever str.. Basically the Lincol. handbook and other steel handboolis.Properties of Section s / 2. Increasingthe plate size at the toD from 6' \ {" to 3" y 4" is the seme as eddins r.I. SIee Figure 5.odard steel sections are used...1" 11" l1!.The reader can e:]sily mr..1.\ . (2359 in.+l(_. L is then solved.
its 0 is on the neutral axis.7A. Remember that the zero mark of the . Fig. Contribution of eoch oreq lo fotolmomenf of inertio is proportionol to width of qreo.. The following steps are used in obtaininE the moment of inertia of an irregular part.e (the same scale as the drawing).i.on. This is called the neutral a_xis. ma_ has twice the moment of inertia.36 / Lood ond Stress Anolvsis Fig. This is done by simply totaling the widths of the I0 areas. 7B An irregulorsectiondivided into l0 oreos by the " l" Ru le.2. The Lincoln "I' Rule divides the top andbottom portions into 10 parts. to figu. of its top and bottom portions about the neuiral axis.rectangle.. Thescaleofthe rule is such that the contribution of each of the 10 pads to the total moment of inertia ofthe section is proportional to the width of the individual part. A rectongle represenfing the top holf ot q regulqrsection. 6. and Iabel these (10". KnowiDg that the moment of inertia (I) ofa rec_ tangular section about its base is __ actual scale drawing of the cross_section: 1. rDeasure off the average width of oc_ cupancy in each of the l0 areas in the top portion of the section. Mark otr all'fO poi*s and draw horizontal lines through them. Its moment of inertia equals the moment of inertia of the original irregular top portion of the secti.. io Figure ?8. tina the moment oiin_ neutral axis and the t0 mark on ttie 6utsiAe oi itre .. 3. Place the . area No. Thus.I' rule on upper portion ofsection so that the rule's number l0 is on the top line and. Draw a horizontal line thr^ough. divided into lO oreqs by the " l" Ru le.i. 2 is twice as wide as a jority of the other areas and. 4. .idth of the entire top section. This divides the top portion of the section into 10 areas. This same procedure is then repeatedforthe bottom portion of the section. rectangles so that standard formrdas can be used. Draw lines parallel to the neutral axis atthe top and bottom of the section. . The rule has now transformed the top portion of the section into a rectangle. 5. wnrcn nas tne same moment of inertia" about l(tr c. Add these up and divide br10. this. Using the formula lar area about its for finding I ofa rectanqu_ base line. ertia of the top portion of the section.rrts about the same base line. using an it is very 2.. (2) The moment of inertia of a rectangle about its base equals the sum of the moments of.". it is fiTst necessary to convert the i rregular s hapd to an equivalent. Estimate the center of gravity of the section by imagining where the section would balance if s_upported at this point. Z iiihee times as wide aud has three times the moment of inertia. consequently. To find the moment of inertia of Figure ?_8.. whose width ii equal to the average width ofthe l0 sections and whose depth is equal to the depth ofthe section above the neutral axis. ttren diviOlne'bv 10. This will give an average w. Area llo.I" Rule is always placed on the 7. labei r=T easy to solve for the moment of inertia of Figure 7A." 7A below. The'resultant figure is the widthof .s the irregular section and can be used in the same muIa.i i.ll of its . Fundamental principles involved include: (1) The moment of inertia of a section about its neutral axis equals the sum of moments . all 10 areas have the same width"anJ the same moment of inertia about a*is **.gl. Add the moments of inertia of the top and bot_ tom portions to obtain the moment of ineitia of the entire section. With an engineer's scal.
€ . Cut so as to remove . metal. If the rule base is of suitable thick_ ness. You can make your own .'I" Rule simply by cutting out the paper rules to the right on this page.ca ra 4 I I € 1r o. The printed rule bears the mosr com_ l*l J Ee_ = c L' = J I o I rl o \. cut right around both paper rules and wrap over the edge of the plastic or other base._o N lo I a : .o .tt q CJ (tt bo qjl MAKE YOUR OWN G' "I'' RUIE bo 6jt the outer guide 1ines. then adhesive_ mounting them (one on each side) to a strip of pl. or card stock also cut to size. l = tI I ^: c l I l FI L ii Oe ti( fN )fFl : o q EJ Clj' C E et €. I I mon scales used b]' machinery designers..astic. rI J l.
3A / lood ond Slress Anolysir .2.
A.s. where mc. to the outer fiber. hence the itversge width can be derermined quite accurr. the moment of inertia of the other hatf wil.r'. When the axis is incorrectly located. moment of inertia divided by the distance from N. even though distonce Dbc is o full 20o/o of the totol depfh. it does not matterThe onl.t" Properlies of 5ections.l. However. . At the top and bottom of any section. v Top ond bottom portions of irregulor section qre divided into r0 oreqs eoch bv rhe. The resulting moment of inertia should be accurate to I or 2Ea.8 Assuming the neuirol qxis isot BBl or CCl results in o 5yo moximum error. With a little experience. wiLl remain fairly constant. if the neut rxl &\i s is pl3ced anlnvhe re w i thin 20qo of t he true neutral a\is. and where it is less accurate.3 9 Fig. Problem 5 To find the moment of inertia of the crosssection shown in Figure 9. Eventhen.. the following steps are involved: rt9. See Figure 8.Rule is very accurtte. which makes up the total moment of inertia of the entire section. it is necessary to more accurately determine the reutral axis since the section modulus equals the The Lincoln ./ 2.tely.terial con_ tributes most to the moment of inertilr of the sec_ tion. the maximum error possible is only about 570. Rure.y consequential source of error is intro_ duced when locating the neutral a\is. ifthe section modulus also is reouired. material contributes less to the moment of inerlir 3nd accurtcy is relstiveiv unimporttnt. Near the neutr:tl axis. it causes the moment of inertia ofone halfofthe section to be high while. [n other words. Thus their sum. where the indi_ vidual areas are deeper and determination of aver_ age width less accurate. the ul" Rute is ac_ curate where it needs to be. it is possible to estimate the neutral axis very closely. be low. there are more lines and individual arer.
. 10).00 1. and 5) give unit values for section modulus (S) above and moment of inertia (I) below. first determine the ratio of its width to its depth and also what perceltage its plate thickness is This sixth method.00 2. Total the average widths and divide by tO. The four sets of Tables (2.85 7 .00 2.2.00 2. the section's center ofgravity (CG). I* = !{ = z6 ia. 1. 4.. TOP PORTION BOTTOM PORTION Section 10 9 8 7 lvidth 4 79 5. values are given for various ratios of section width to depth. Repeat this procedure for the bottom section..' Average Width(b)=5. Moment of Inertiabv Unit Properties (SL\th Method) 6. Compute the moment of inertia of the top section above the neutral. 10. Add the moments for the top and bottom sections together to obtain the moment of inertia for the entire section.". This is depth (d).6?" Average Width (11=1.20 3 2 7.= 162. 3.5" Total Width= 1?. = !4. Draw lines AAr and BBr .oo 2. Estimate Draw neutral axis. Scale the average width of each individual area (Fig.6 1o. To obtain the moment of inertia for a larse section.op+Iu. Values given in each table are for a section unit 1" deep.00 1. The thickness of the plate is expressed as a percentage of the depth and varies ftom 2Vo to B0lo Method. Computations are given below. I0 lrregulor seciion converied to series of rectongles.50" 16. (fig. Computa_ tions are given below. of the depth.led the Unit properti. 1l lrregulor section converted to two simple rectongles. _ 7. I. . all other dimensions being based on the depth. 9.6? 6 6.8? Section Width 1. Fig. The resutt is average width (b)..43 . 8.28.*r=I. axis. Select the scale on the sI' Rule that fits the Section.77 Depth (d) = 6.00 tt Total width=54. In each tab1e. cal.3lO / Lood ond Stress Anolysis Fig. 5..00 2. for several sections which may be fabricated by welding or forming.32 7 I 91lP 1 2 3 + s 6 7 8 9 10 2.es is very easy to use and wiu save a lot of time. ranging from a width of 1/2 the depth to a width of 3 times the depth. 1i).00 2. Iour = 240 in. Scale the distance from the neutral axis to the ]ine AAr.43" Depth (d) = 3.
@J4 .0197 ."31""j"":#:r.04l.0Jll 0651 r:0.01t6 .\Tr.0tr7l .0061 (A) z.01.0161 .t ..5_ lt5] l.0J10 .1 .01617 . . L =0.01.0051 .0610 080 .{ ...0169 .frr _l TABL E 2: IABLE 3: ii lt r L.0616 ." .u"i""lr?j S.0796 .06t8 . it is onlynecessarv to muj.i in.3_ll NIT PROPERTTES TT " z.0891J5 t 0lsll . .lt. muttiply them by the ouptr.. and the rhickness is Sqo of the .0r."..1 I7l: _21j0 .051%4  .0079 .01164 _@56 (B) .::.o116l 1 5. 09t.0t914 .109 . awidthof 5"andaplate thicloess off:. * .I R.m6J .0228 .02421 .0zt2t .0J01 .0880 . I . oi ir.@71 ..r Dct.(8) .1052 I166 t:90 0441t .or8l .l0 14160 .rt6 . 11 15.r. Rarro or Wprn ro DEprH % RATro oF U/rDrH To DEprH .0.f. 10.0t845 .oJ32 .m48 .X?::.0t065 . Since the I" valueisfora comiarable section of f i depth.1 ..1201 .0258 .05789 :: . dr "ot"a =S """rro.a .07210 .oll2t .?lT. .:the depth.170 L_l lt lfI i \VIDnI n) DtpfH l .Properties of Sections SECTION U / 2..06013 I .081.16lt ..02319 .0280 .0.1 lt16 . deep. .ll. I 1 $ lo.O/'661 10.rI .a4ztz ."".il".0250 2 L 3: mtr .oi66o 06I6 .0216 .02r7t ..0725.6 I . itsdepth.04515 t0..01970 069.) oF % il tiI I . .2910 J .009J .s deith raiseO tL lab.0081 €4.S?"li"oi""f.078 .ro7 .oJ142 .le to.0077 .l9l{ .ol"". To use fhese values.0518 .= From I L. on the approprjate table find the Find the moment of a e T" section having a depth of 10".0ltz .\rro.1 .0961 . umt section modulus (S.. the actual section's depth cubed: (e) the fourth power: Problem 6 .)F Wrn rH T.009 t Unit Strength .0tl2l . . dr lower part of Table 2.0I.0114 .00767: hence..) and muttiply this value bv SimiL3rly.0075 . = 76.'o.zl:s The above sti{fness factor vi muuiply fl...0610 . The above 1ry1Sttr factor values are for unit sections 1. ?.@967 .018@ .0t08 Unit Stiffness Factor .01.1t91 .s 15.t . wlorn rsr.001J I .@47 .02850 l0_ .m88r .l ..0060 . On the appropriate Unit properties tbr sections of similar configuration.:::tl:"i .. = 0.01158 .ti9 .0r 266 _02.ir .@t9 . .0..0r416 .1 . .a .c0'67 . r l." rvir.tiDlv rnrs value by the actual section.01:0 .rc{7 A F]FTFR.060 .r61.0101 .@E6 . ..15 .1710 ro. to obtain the section modulus for a rrlrcutar section.0191 Factor .0tl t.00767.02715 .0530 .o.192 .00071 .olo4 .0r14 . .110 _l .0051 l .0240 . iind the unlt moment of inertia (L) for a section havlng these proportions.0106 .
deep.4711 .qtlo d*\ EPTII Tr'r f ltl l .0114 .06171 .05rlo2 .0157 t2 ..015+5 .05766 _0710 .100 . 3r! .1852 .17 . To use these values.0718 .. a section ls finally found which witl satisfv the condil.1 . d.26104 .050)0 .0r9ll .0092 .0130 . ..113.02r97 .1r85 F.0ti8 F t 10.1.0i68 .07r25 . and then solve for its moment of inertia.0281I .rtro % . . .1986 . After about 3 or 4tries. .n exaci solution in less than 2 minutesGiven: a (T' section = 10qo of depth By referring to Table 2 and using the above in t b = .0150 . He is thinkins of a uT" section so propo rtioned that the width is about r/: of the depth.ti92 .081m .ions.1113 . . .08142 . ne desigler will probabJ..i 17. then solve for its neutra.05541 = .0t@ .0099 . multiply them by the cubed depth of the clesired section: S.012. .0159 ._ ol Wtotu ro t.0124 2 t . The Unit Properties method not only is fast. but which of course \.0lto .077990 ..o.  .2.01l8 .0180 ..0tt7 .06. To use these vaiues.0910 .o i0 . dr S = R{Tlo oF q/rDTH To DEprH % RATro oF W'rD'rH ro Drrrx I .0)60 .09su .on raised to the fourth power: L. of depth .050 .13 .0955 I : 20.162. .red secti.04052 .0501 .0.m80 (B) 1.04tlt .0D85 . f = Problem 7 A designer requires a welded section havinE a certain moment of inertia.2150 20.1. .312 / Lood ond 5tress Anolysis SECTION UNIT PROPERTIES TABLE 4: R. multiply them by the depth of the desi. This is time consuming. with just one solution.r0146 . t.{ Unl.02jo .170 q lo.02643 (A) 2.0itlJ 0i70 .L t97O .0302 .ess he uses this new Unit properties method.l ll tl R.190 . and the thickness of both flaree and web is about loqo of the depth.0660 .lt0 .0160 .100 _1114 .16 .l tto .05t0 .i.1190 .01781 ..lll? ..ot5 ..01615 .I a\is.a2L7Z .02445 .12@ or \tr/rorr{ ro )1 I .or5t .1295 .0608 . This trial and error method is costly. He woul.0103 .r .017O5 . .2t? The above stiJfness factor values are for unit sections 1r' deep.o)47 .0198 ..0r32 .06287 .0189 .011t .0r]0 Unit Stiffness Factor l./ill be heivier than required. TT Deprhr 2 TAEL E 5: tr_ l.0tm .1? .t25 .y guess the size of his section.01910 Unit Strength Factor l.084t .1 The above strength factor values are for unit sections 1.co50 c060 .0123 .0rJ36 .09817.04tr0 . .m75 m9E .0744 ...02087 .@67 L .0980 . .04260 . each takinc about 7 minutes.0.0lzt .0210 z 44.08120 i . I :5.. . .0062 .0250 )1 .04t0 .0085 .@87 . but it gives i..O1971 .092 '1057 !o.01456 .0u1 .0170 .0093 .061r5 ].0620 .0850 . or a total time o[ about half an hour.d like to know what dimensions should be given this section so that it will have the required moment of inertia I = ?00 in.
t section __ 2.3_13 the unit moment of inerti!..5'' 1r..5" deep.iusl a little higher than the value needed for I. and its moment of inertia found to be I = 8154 in.: = .te to use in fttbricating the = 49. / 2. Because of the (.0079  = 3100 In.9" t or 15'.inga fl.lso to l'...01{ t6 in.5{){) and d = 14.r This is . dl lrnn . the principle of the torsion pendulum may be used to calculate the moment of inertia about any given a_xis. The problem is moment oiinertir. and tr" thick __ rnay be re_ figured in the conventional manner.. r.properties ol 5ections " mttil)n.Io " 25'. since the lower parr of Table I for 3 simple This would be fa.\' /.j:" I = t.4 sec.= (25).rand a r. sheet metal.for irregular sections made up of a single.d' . it must have a widthofs0.iai " 12 3. to determine [he plu.0 \' l3 l*i =244 ina Torsionor pendurum method of finding momenf of inertiq of irreguror seciion. 50... See Figure 13._. Therefore... 7V7 " for l0 oscillofions T. this base would b€ fabricated out of As a check. = 3. The grven crosssectiofl is cut out of some material (cardboard.'se some ta. = . 34 seconds for l0 oscillotions T. ti' thick plate.0r)?9 in. SinceI=[.I :jll 1.ig. therefore b=/:d=7. I Tooo d. I.. this section must ha. of 2.=."=l. .ve & (l) of 3100 in.5'' =10Ead=7.. .bricated by weld. " Problem 8 tie required thickness (t) is found to be 2ro of the oepth.ght of25".d. 12). rarher compact area. _ = = _____:j_[{ proper thicliness of Dase h:Iilq thg same rhict(ness (f. For proper rjgidity.ar area of the srme moie. r.' wide.61 t2 tL  l6 seconds 6.6sec..\ governor base must be designed to give prooer support to pumps and control panels a..l o^"^_U_r]lq cnt'nnet section. = " thicli. Itisdecidedto make this Uu"" channel section out ofatopplateandtwo siOe phls ""i _^.nks within the base. thin wood.l alongwilh a standard rectangul.ange plate to 1!.. etc. ment involved." x 13!r" web plate] x b _ 2d and ?r/".. this fina. rl Fig' r.. is found to be t" = 0.
ce of che standerd rectangle rndfestened on lhe a\is about which the moment of inenia is desired (usually the neutral axis about the x_x axis). Special Problems A nunber of properties can be utilized in meet_ ing special problems associated withthe moment of inertia in members subjected to compressive load_ ing. The section modulus can be computed directly from rhe simpLified form ulas of Tablj l. the moment of inerria oI the given crosssection is calculated.1.5) o. ( l0) Air has no effect on the period of vibration.FT6 tE. 3. its neutral &\i s is first Located. 1. to be discussed inthe later Section 2. Figure14. 1. and moment of inertia about any axis. these two values are equal. ?. 0. Using the standard formula (#1) for determini. In many cases. there rre actually two vtlues for this property. Usins the following equation. theouter face having the greater value of (c) wilL have the Lower value of sectioo modulus (S) and of course the greater stress..5.0 + 22..versge period of vibr:ltion.the greater stress. include the minimum moment of inerti.ller value is usuallv avsilable in t:tblcs of rolled seclions beceuse it re_ sults in. SECTTON i\ oDUtUs (S) The segtion nlodulus (S) is found by dividingthe momenr oI rnertia (I) by the distance (c) from the neurral axrs to the outermost fiber of the section: " ... in this case the top horizontal fece oi the Ilange: 4. I t 9.n = I ard rectlngle is computed from the following: bdr l! The standard rectangle is theo fastened bv a smell clip to the end of a thin piano wire alihe sNlme line . " (11) FIG URE I4 t5 I I t J'!Lt?) ..nd thicl(ness. With some typical sections of symmetrical sha./oefLln.tions is measured and this dividecl bv i0 fo r. Any of the previously described methods may be applicable for determining the moment of inertia.75) + (1ji .rn be metsured in tlvo directions.5 \.5 on Compression. however.rst for moment of inertia (I).r <!!!t ^F ^^+^ Ef l.2. or from the Unit Properties Tables 2.eased.r6n _ (6 . 4 and 5.pe. Sjnce this .ro + Iod.5 . The given crosssectioo is then huns on the wire in plr.i r*i\. In an unsymmetrical section.listtnce (c) c.5) (6 . It simply dampens the vibration. this is the vaLue needed. . The average period of vibration is found. It is given a slight twist and then rel.5) + (15 . These properties. Since ithasthegreater stress.ng the distance (n) of the neutral a\is fromanv referl ence aKis. Problem 9 Using the previously welded (T" section of Problem 7 as a problem in finding the sectioo modulus. product of inertia. although only the smJ.a...ea ol se. the moment of inertia (l) must be found before solving for section modu_ lus (S). The moment of inertiaofthe sttncl_ of section \ period of standard )' .314 / Lood qnd Stress Anolysis get the i. 1.s the neutral &\is. it is not necessary to solve fi.. If the section is sym_ metrical. Sectionmodu_ lus is a measurement of the streflgth of the beam in bending. The time for 10 complete oscill3.
properties of these sections are needed bv the designer.s the outs ide dimensioo. RADTUS OF GYRATTON (4 The radius of gyration (r) is the distance from the neutral aKis of a section to an imaginary point at which the whole area ofthe sectioncould be con_ centrated and stil.l havethe same moment of inertia. t'l .t. POTAR OF NERTA (J) 'vtOrvtENT The polar moment of inertia (J) equals the sum or any ti6rrd66EiiFifirriiEiTiE about a. In order to get any accuracy. s. the inside dimension is al.Thin sections may be custom rolltbrmed.69 l +t6.(es ar richr . Roiio: rhlckness (t)ro deprh (d) 2A?L l6 Possible error in using Line Method is minimql with low rotio of section thickness to depth. in most cases.r:r.most as large r. brakeformed.= 1.rrd desigr formula for angular twist of open sec_ tions. 157.led sections of a steel handbooli. the property of the section varies as the cubes of these two dimensions. the section modulus (S) is determioedj ". and.s momenL of inertil! / 23'15 . TOR5ONAt RESSTANCE (R) .4.ate this out by longhand or by using logarithms rather than use the usual si. The polar moment of ineriia ts *ken about an a.68 Io. PROPERTIE5 OF THIN SECTIONS Because of welding.4 because depth of section was made d = 15" instead of 14.8 = 75.8 in. These are given in the la. properties of thin sectaons customarily are found by the stxndard lo rmult s for sections FIGURE I5 a.ide rule.dbe necessary to calcul. This meaos dealine with the dilference between two very large numbers.r <l I" = o . [t should be employed where formulas have been developed for the type of section. or labriclted by rvelding.s .D ln_' This value is slightly higher than the required _ 700 in.xis which is perpeodicular to the Plane of the other two a\es. rolled by small specialty steel producers.5. use is being found for structural shtpes havingthincrosssections.l loadin$ of round soiid b:rrs tnd closeci tubular shairs. itwoul. butthey are not ordin[trily listed among the standafd rol.6 on Torsion. It is found by taking the squarL root of the moment of inertia divided by the area of the section and is expressed in inches.3 With a thin section.87 + 84.ter Section 3.22 + 421. 8.1s to each other. Torsional resistance (R) has largely repiacecl the less accura. 6.9lr. l. Fig.ine. increasingl3r gl'eater.8tr)rI5. + 208. using the elcmenbs method (Figucc l5): NcKt. F= t 'l Polar moment of inertil is used in determinins the polar section modulus (J/c) which is e mclsure ot strength under torsionil. This property is used primarily in solving column problems.t:" lt) . I 7.9".te polar moment of inertia in stand_ .l.Properlies of 5ections is cletor. 3. Finaliy. . TJ l5r + {t. th(' section.
316 / Lood ond 5tress Anolysis TABLE 6 Where thickness (t) is smoll  PROPERTIES OF THIN SECTIONS . ond d = meon depth of section Section I" b+ lri5fit rd3 (4 d) !{(ou+a) f. b+d  6'(6 b + d) V 1r(rb+d) T. b+d { o*zar $ tu*ar 2ttt3 6"(4b+d) max.J 6 r /l r: ?{3b+d) !4 rru * ar td3(2b+d) 3(b + 2d) rd3(4b+d) t. As indicated. b = meqn width. E tb3 tb3  * (b + 3al !I 15 a 661 bottom tb3(b+4d) 12(b+d) + d) ' tbt 6 rbz ..l (b+a) o tr.a by this Line Method versus the conventional formula is represented by the curve in Figure 16. 4(b+d) R { V o*ar I 3 eu*a. d. In this table: I = mean depth.13 td. rbr(b +.(4b+d) 6(2b+d) s.(2b+d) 3(b+d) bottom r top Iop trz12 I.n d! ot min. . . the error increases with the ratio of sectionthickness (t) to depth (d).7071r O + rd) d.rbnb + d) V12(b+2d) f . the section may be "treated as a line".T ness of the section to give the approximate value of the section propertywithin a very narrow tolerance. 'l NA 2(b+d) dorrt from top d. b+2d dosm from top 2(b + d) down from top b? 2(b+d) ry + + min._.(4b+d) 6 (2b lt4D+d) toP td. which follows. having no thicl$ess. Table 6 gives simplified formulas for nine properties of six different crosssections. To simplify the problem. bottom Io. and t = thickness. _tzb+d) 3 (4b+d) td.td) 6(b+2d) fo*oar 0 fo*oar 0 i:(b + 4d) left side r}\ right side ' 0 Iy 0 0 tbrd.2. Problem 10. Other excellent examples ofthe savings in \ '. illustrates theuse of Table 6.3 y'i (2b + d) 0. is then multiplied by the thick_ The error in calculating the moment of inerti. or max.t. The propefty of the (Iine". 2tb. using a square tubular section as anexample. b = nean width of the section. /6ift+3d) V rro+d) (* = add t/2 to c for S) .
b = meon wid th. + 3k.T **l rrT r $l b+d . Figure 1?.= f rr. * kb+d iFi+* t. _ ra"ltr.P R OP ER TIES OF TYP ICAL IRR EGULAR THIN SECTION 5 Where thickness (r) is smoll .erts a force (F) on this support and must be held within an allowable defle ction (l.. res pect ively.r but common configurations. * t d(b+d) b(k+l)+2d toln o' *. During its operation.7 at the back bending moments (and other forces) on Thin Curvei RinES Under rb = y._ a:+2cd+dr 2(a+b+c+d) F_b___l T I.. 2.l ' tilever beam 6 ft.6. Table ? gives the most important properties of additional thin sections of irreguLr. A small machine is supported at the end of a FIGURE 17 . 7. and.alt*.5. = liu'+:ca'+ 3 d") . =!311r'  sr.u c. Thin Circular Rings. Problem 10 Reference Sections 2.* .4(a+b+c+d) t(a?+2cd+d:)! design time offered by use of the Line Method exist as (column) Probl. and Thin lnternal Pressure.' * rr. of this book provide formulas for quickly finding Bars.6. ond d = meon depth oF section / 2.r l) + !!g d lL+ I o s.b and as (tor_ sional) Problem 3 in Sect.Properties ol Sections TABLE 7 .._ b(k + l) +:ld * r.em 4 in Sect. .._. + rr + u... ak! + ak + r) + tbd .7.317 . long.3. b(kil)i:d T *fl d(kb+d) b t d lI c1 cr..).
5 in.489r' or use 1il2'. ii Figure 1?: ing prope rties ot Thin Sections (Tlbte Ii=::(3b+d) = 6.) ./4..4 rA2 a distr.02083 .5 in.{ beam. and must operate under the same conditions and allowables.05d ^ FL' 3EI or r = .5 in. Since the required moment of inertia oI the lengthened it is desirable to havel Therefore (f igure 18).nce of 18.05 d)(d.02083 da b Ir or \L'l d{ = 190./ = /Er\ \rJ /1./  ^ = "'\ /r8..S ft.02083 ' r. ' The increased length will requrre an lncrease in moment of inertia (I).?8r' or use 9 g. 44 FIGURE I9 .^ d _ (. us A no lysis . of the section'shown 6). For a cantilever beam with concentrated load at its e!rd__ new model of this machine must extend out to A FIGURE I8 b=.\ = Thus: .89" or use 4 ?/8!r t = .2.318 / [oqd ond Slress Then. = r.5dandt=./93 \L. ft ls OeclJeO ihe new beam will have a width equat to half its depth and e wall thickness equal to'S% of its aepth.o_ +ot JtjA ""d E) \Irl lLz\3 \r. find the moment of inertis.a oo < da= '""'" = 9140 .60 = 190. b = 4. r dl I:=:i_lrU+at b jii ___6__ . d = 9.5\j and: 6/ dr = 95.
._ ber. Sheor I oxls i+ I . belOjlg f9.'..o thar tt rorms an external torsional moment which is equal and opposite to the internal torsional momelt of the transverse shear forces.( I { ) This force also has an equal component in the transverse direction. This is because the torsional moment of the I Y I I Verticql _. on the m. A transverse force applied to a b_eam sets up_ transverse (and hori.. twist under load. S€e figure0.. B.1 sheor oxis FIGURE 2I ..  1 .''3r D. See Figure 21.Ptopertier of 5e(tions / 2. utt .. If this precaution is not taken. the lorce (P) must be applied eccentrically at a pro_per distance (e) along the shexr a_\is. I 1. there will be a twisting action applied to the member which wiu. in the case of an unsvm_ metrical section.3lg P l'*" Shecrr loxls I i ti. . Therefore... . dilference (fr _ fr) is transferred ioward toward the web by the longitudinal strearforce 1i" ySee Figure 19. On the other hand.. and th_is.5HEAR AXIS AND SHEAR CENTER _ Since the bending moment decreases as the distance of the load from the support increases.. A. a force internal transverse shear forces (>) is equal to zero. Any axis of symmetry will also be a shear a_xis.... ' In the case of a symmetrical section.9e fr is sligh y teslthan ror"e r].t3l) shear forces within the sectioo.. (P) applied in line with the principal a\is (y_y) does not result in any twisting actio.l FIGURE 20 9. the internal transverse shear forces {>r form a twisting moment. in addition to bending. f"=f. @ The resisting sheor [orce fiow in the section i ( ".r.
= e. Beyond the yield point. E 13.E 5TR E55 of Tension These must be combined with the original tensile stresses. where: € = unit elongation (tensile strain) = unit tensile stress E = modulus of elasticity (tension) d. Find (1) the unit tensile stress on the reduced section.L = 0.000 1b is reached.14 in. a load of 10. {1. but with some eclentricity. will introduce some bending stresses.. and has two punch marks 2" apart with which to later measure elongation.0004. A tensile load applied (&xially) inline with the center of gravity of the section will result in tensil.e stresses distributed uniformly across the plane of the crosssection lying at right angles to the line of loading.L Problem 1 1L. at the reduced Section. The formulaforthe stresi is _ 2. IENSII. The simplest type of loading on a member is tension.sEcTtoN 2. and (2) the total elongation as measured within the two marks.000444 2 = 0.F tl u L.00089" in 2" P dr==A = 10. = a.333 psi In any calculation for strain or elongation it is understood that the stresses are held below the yield point.000. Just after the test is started.000 V2./in. the relationship of stress to strain is no longer proportional and the forrnula does not apply.lV2 13. The total elongation or displacement is equal to this unit strain (e) multiplied by the length (L) of the member.on or strain of the member under tension is found bythe followi.4 Anolysis I. Elongation=c.000 = 0. .330 30. c t4.ng relationship: ll =El I El where P = the tensile force applied to the member A = area of crosssection at right angles to line of force q = unit tensile stress A tensile load that is not applied in line with the center of gravity of the section.l A welded tensile coupon (test specimen) measures /r " x Ly2. TENSITE STRAIN The unit elongati. An example of this condition would be a curyed beam such as a large sC' clamp. and elon.
just transverse shear and bending. As stated previously.. Any axis of symmetry will be one of the snear axes. may be at any angle in the plane of the crosssection and Just as the areas of individual. rcL^. The stress from the twisting moment (T) is computed separately and then superimposed upon the stresses of the two rectangular components of force P'. there will be no twisting moment on the member. This means that the shear center must be located....1 ilNtr { \\l\l ReFerence fx N\\N. P' is then resolved into the two comoonents at right angles to each other and parallei to the principal &res of the section. (t5) Locatins Other Shear Centers l. determine I* for each member section (about its own neutral a. this beam should be considered as follows: 1... now the moments of ineltia of individual areas are used to find the shear a. 2."i. I .\is of a compcsite section._r LCommon neutrol FIG URE 22 F.. The applied force P should be resolved into a force P' of the same value passing through the shear center (Q) and paraUel to the original applied force P.+. . Here:  I*r Xr + I.l .. oxrs yy There will be two shear tu\es and their i.or open sections lying on one common neutral axis (xx). I'r Xl I*r+I. Figure 22. I t I . the location of the other shear axis is as follows: T It* >IX following: q Notice the similarity between rhis and the FIGURE 23 =or :Ad :A lvhich is used to find the neutral &\is of a built Here: >IX >I.re used to find the neutral a{is. The resuLtant (e) from the formula will then be the distance from the chosen reference a..32O / Lood qnd 5tress Anolysis e \)>rl l I fl' N'.\is (yy) to the parallel shear axis of the builtup section.2 X2 + I*r Xr .. force. unless forces which are applied transverse to a member also pass through the shear a{is..q..\is xx) and the distance X this member section lies from the reference &\is (yy).. = "  . select a reference axis (yy). A twisting moment (T) is produced by the applied force (P) about the shear center (Q)..' ". As a result... The procedure is the same.ntersectioo forms the shear center (Q). if applied at the shear center. parts ..2. the member wiLl be subjected to a twisting moment as well as bending.2+I*3+I*a t. 24I_ tfb3 ^ dt*3 itxu+lrx (tf + d) 2 _d t*3(if +d) .
at point M: .l:r h ::. or. I" l FIGURE 25 t = Y2I3D vbrdtr 47* Here: :M"=0= +FdVe=0 Fd Vb2d2tr e =v = v4Ib2 d2 >I'X I"r0+ IxrXr >I.321 Normally Q might be assumed to be at the intersection of the centerlines of the web and the nge. tf 4I_  Figure 26 suggests an approach to locating shear axes of some other typical sections. I./212 = to11 T :IX :I" 4I* 122  l tr b. iFT "illllll ill>dlr t I I t 1 Yf I I /11 =r= t I I 1I I I t =:tFIGUR E 26 . tr v " t NI tl f FIGURE 24 Here. since areas have a common (xx) neutral axis: f. d.Vav V(btr)(d/2) Ir= F x.Properties of Sections / 2.x 0 + 2 x (btt\ld. Ixr *Lz Xr I'r T.
highcopocityscropers feoiureweldments designed Diogonol brocing ofsidewollsonwelded locomotive shell lowers pqnel thickness ond soves weight. moferiol cost ond welding cost.2.32? / Lood ond Srress Anolysis a)ir i 3{pI on bqsis of stress onolysis to ensure long service life without costly breokdowns. . Modern highspeed.
42 / Lood ond Slress Anolysis ploie ond cqstings into one integrol unii. This econornicol weldmenf combines steel .2.
This deflection increases the eccentricity and thus the bending moment. although the rendency for buckling will increase. The unil .5TENDERNE55 RATIO If the member is made longer. using the same crosssection and the same compressive 1oad.l carry its share ofthe 1oid.5 Anolysis of Compression I. = Jt7{ used as columns.lh" column. 3. This compressive unit stress rs _ Co. It is found by the expression . results in comprissive stresses distributed uniformly across the section. It is important to hold the compressive stress within the material's compressive sIength. Many pads. ultimate failure :. column . it will be necessary to compute this least . short compression members present little noblem. the yield and ultimate strensths are considered lo be the same in compression as in tension.Any ot rorce translation will weaken the member. holes or openings in the section in the path . causing the column to deflect or buckli slightly. As coE!ressive toadini oI a long co. it eventuallv causea some eccentricity.u"i to where the bending moment is rncreaslng at a rate grea[er than the increase in load. This may p. permanentde_ formation of such members may ca"use misalign_ ment of critical working members of the machilne. lor the not give the actual unit stress developed in the column bv the load. to is more of a tendency fo.as (Tables g and 4) allowable average FlI". the resulLing compressive stress will remain the same. CO'VIPRESSIVE sTRE55 (axlally) concentric wjth the center olgravityofthe member's crosssection.mpressive Ioading of a member when applied is equal to L indicate thi s tendency is the slenderness ratio which r trT1 where L = unsupported length of member r = the least radius of gyration ofthe section pornr. RADIUS OF GYRATION .SECTTON 2.lting from these formulas may be multiplied by the crosssectional area of the column to give the allowable load which may be supported."t1":: resu. unless such. openings are completely filled by another member that wil. by buckling. feet.The radius of gyration (r) is the distance from the neutral axis of a section to an imaginary point at which the whole area ofthe section could be con_ centrated and still have the same amount ofinertia. The allowable coir_ pressive load which may be applied to the member oecreases as the slenderness ratio increases. the least radius of gyration(r_r. and bearing supports are srrort complession members and must not be stressed beyond their elastic limit.aaused oe 1s the member becomes longer or more slender. and thl column soon fails by buckiing. Excessive compression of long columns mav cause failur€ by buckling.. 2. ) of the section must be known in ordeilo make use of the slenderness ratio (L/ r) in the column In the design of uns1mmetrical sections to be formulas. They do compressive stress (d.lumo is increased. rne slenderness ratio increases as the radius of gyration of the section is reduced or as the length of the member is increased. The various column formul. The most common wav to If the section in question is not a standard rolled section the properties of which are listed in steel handbooks. From a design stand_ aoour unr[y For steel. This in tur! sers up jbending moment. A s_lglt or tess) (slenderness ratio L/r equal to that is overloaded in comDres_ sion mal fail by crushing.og.
0 0 it will be possible to find I.. ln finAlng ihe ""n_ signs product of inertia..0 l" x. FIG URE 2 ... However. the sides of which are parallel to the i_x and yy axes of the entire larger section is __ . 6" 1li Total I . and dy because tire proOuct "oiitre".. *frici i. it is not necessary about to sider the of d.ilj ul* these.ertia"trai..0 distance from center of gravity of element area to parallel axis (here: xixr) lnd. inertia of the section must Minimum Moment of Inertia on pnDclpal axes.s the sum of the values of the individual .). M 0 The maximum moment of inertia (I. be either positive or negative and this will determin! resulting :l: .0 21.7."p"ld "ppl: :J1e^!]u3dr?nts wi have products of .0  r.a #1 from Section 2.It yill be necessary to find the product of inertia {rr.".0 0 + 9.0 0 21. thedis_ tance of neutral axis x_x from its parjllel axis xrxl is FIGURE I 21.inertia of product of inertia..".t.) or rne section."rgn 01 the.Tl:_ol"jl:t:f inertia ofan individual rectansurar area.to each other. ordr. The rotal product of the whole section.) of a crosssectron are found 6" x 1'l 6..7 tM r\n. I. applytng formul..0 6. Since the least radius of gyra_ tion is  Problem 1 .i.moment of inertia (I. This is the area (A) times the product of distances d" and a.(3) the fninimum moment of LocSte the (neutral) x_x and y_y a\es of the ^ offset T section shown in Figure 2..3. Product of Inertia l*' 5" 3.. = jA = +9.^.0 12.i.. as sho*n iir Figure ii In finding the moment of inertia ofan area grven axis (I* or I.+ + 9. I t I Ir .. To locate neutral axis x_x: d be determined.0 = +.52 / Lood ond Srress Anolysis radius of gyration..0 6. it is necessaryto know the s"icns of d.5" I lx I I .ing rne same sign.2. 90. Areas indiagonaily l.signs. t*" . and Ly 6.r. a. .0 L2..75" To locate neutral axis vv: M 1"x6" Knowing I...) and the minimum._ .0 Total > where d = 12.
2nd Quodront t.55S) + (r.ll lsf Quodront I.=o'"o.+ J.. d.y ll d = +A d. 4th Quodront FIG URE 3 Problem 2 Determine the product of inertia of this offset _ section t about the x_x and y_y axes: FIG URE 4 '.r = FIGURE 5 )A (d.) 2 =2. determine sign by inspecrron..5 (+ 1) (+ .25) ( ..l 'T F+O.LZ O ln_i .y = A d.5 _3 'l ly Moment of inertio =Adj Moment of inertio obout yy oxis Product of jnertio '.6e5) rlere.388 + 1.rhere a and b =dimensions of rectangle ( = A) d and c = distance of area's center ofgiavity t T .y oxes +d "Fl ! .eas" FIGURE 6 I I.737 . 3rd Quodront dy l'. = +A d.Anolysis of Compre:sion / 2. oboul xx ond y.25" _r_ to the xx and y_yares (= d.t.) s The product of inertia of a T or angle section I lt. =+ 1. d. and a.)(d.
0 I.75 = 25.0 0 .7b) ''"= .7 5l = _ 55.0 12. I.  _M2 1" =.tvfs I. )*'"'" / . V\ .n 1.t 4 (a+ d) (+) (5\ (%\ (5 .75 = 55.75) ( + ..2.4 \aili*Il rfrtn "9!E.8' NA.a A 4(4+5) in.3.a +h\ Product of inertia: = + 3.____.0 2(r5.50 in.5 21.+L\.2.24 " As a matter of interest.2s + 2s.0 6.. %:*f.00 .o r.0 0 l'J.0 0 6" Total 6.0 + 92. = and =.6" d: +66.2s fliit.0 2r.50 18.25 25.2 ) + = = 40."'tr FIGURE 7 Moment of inertia about axis xx: d M 0 Y = .j::.75 in.so rz.= 32.5) G = = adt (d  2c) (a+t) . = l.25 =  _1.i.(ts'is)" 2 V \. = Es. is about axis x'x'.54 / Load ond Stress Anqlvsis Now use formula given previously for product of inertia of such a section: )M :A and + 9.t  = 92.50 1" Total + 9.00 and 2B= 46.006.L\ .0 r2. I+Iy /I.fis.4" or +133.25 Moment of inertia about axis vv: d M + Is 1" 6" 6.125 peated here: offset T section shown previously (Fig. ly  2L" 6" 1" 1" 6.D 0 18.lgy13jt9t.75 18.25  2r.0036.i Minimum moment of inertia: +(tx6)(t.0 in.05 ) 12.00 r I9UKE 6 . this the angle (0) of which is  I 0 Is tan z0 = .0 0 9.25 in.a Any ultimate buckling could be expected to occur about this axis (x' x'). i = 91 1:. i = v l F:rm. 2) and re Determine the minimum radius ofgyration ofthe I*" = )A (d_) (dy) = (1x 6) ( + 1.75) = * 15.0 .0 + 32.7sl(.
when using these conventlonal formulas.764" Moment of inerqa: The value obtained by using the con_ ventional.) and (I") about theie same a)(es in the following formula: = Iy Lcos2f. :r The channel section.2gg. To do this requires about 30 minutes.2d:t+brtx 2db2b.Assuming a possible error of + one part in 1000 lor every operation of the sliderule.5) \2 / 5.. trea.875t /3 (3.(9) L.a Radius of gyration: '=VA =V ar?s ttQr" h trsse 'l FIGURE IO If a slide rule had been used. Section 2.197r'.. i.2g 1". is to be used as about using the properties of thin sections. + I"sin.. formula is 1.2?9'.5) (.75 + 2 (3..25)+ (5.3. _. d ....Area of the section: Using the conventional formulas for the proper _ 13.....I 9?O" n=d.8'i5l =3..55 Problem 4 column. The exact value obtained from this formula for .. For this reason it is necessary.:.3?5 (4 _ 2. Thils may be found by using the product of inertia (L"t of thl section about the conventional axes (xx and y_y) with the moments of inertia (I.25) r 2 (4) (6\ ."l where rr = '''Lt  . = Lsinzd 1 Lcos2d + I. it would be 2 (4)3 (. . This represents an error of about yi of the error using the conventional formulas with slide rule.2?5". _ ld3t+brtr . .375in.896'r and as low as 1..25)3 3 \ = 5. and as 1ow as 1.. assuming a possible error of+ one part in 1000 for everyoperation..::_:: A =bdbrdr = (6) (4)(5...l = 2.25)+ (5. Distance of neutral axis: .5) (3.3.I*ysinrd .2 (5.. Mean dimensions b and d are used.. to make use oI logarithms or else do the work longhand. ./ 2... drl3 (2b + d) b+2d ties of the section .670. this answer c6uld be as high as 1.rmine its radius of gyration its xx axis. Figure 8. This represents an error of + 4.. 3 possible to get an answer as high as 1.870 and 6. Figure 9..87i 5..539 in.tinsthem as e line. Dete. The radius ofgyration will now be found directlv Moment of Inertia About Anv Axis Sometimes (as in Problem g) the moment of inertia of a section is needed about an axis lying at an angle (0) with the conventional xx axis.75 + J.764)' .dr .5) (. The time for this last calculation was 2 minutes. CRITICAT COMPRESSIVE The critical load on a column as given by the Euler formula is  T:=:r f I FIGURE 9 r. = effective length of column (See next page).I . 2 (4)' (. See Table 6.Ano lysis of Compression.75) /.sinrt STR E55 (8) 4. r is 1.7 i.
TANGENT MODULUS Use ofthe Tangent Modulus formula necessitates a.i mooulus ot elasticity (E). until the stress_strain curve is in_ tersected at one point only.zrr._. corresponding to the modulus of elasticity when streised to'o. corresponding ?e to the length of a pinned column thai would have the same critical load.. = effective Iength of the column.. I2 ror tI steel in compression. ) at which a given E.L/').tn I  '''''''' ' '(r1) . by means of parallel rule or other sultabte device.. r = least radius of gyration of the crosssection L. The line is tangent at this Doint. Whereas the usual FIG UR E The compressive sttess_srrarn curve tbr anv . the broken lines reore_ senting the slope for valious values of tangent modulus of elasticity (E.2..56 / loqd qnd Stress Anotysis prnned \T \\t ll'"..I where E. E ngesser modified it.sectional area of the columl. p9 = tangent modulus of elasticity.b" changed into rerms of average crirical The modified formula then becomes l. See Figure 12.ituting :l".i values. in this case from I x"106 psi up to 30x106. value applies is determined by moving out parallel from that reference modulus line (dott€d). in Figure 12. stressstrain c^urve (preferably in compression) or lhe material. The compressive stress level {d. Thh.= lI _T I L t fixed I I 2l  I I t/. .r " lo*= I rL"tr1r1 I rru' 1""=.i.). by subsr. Since A = I.t.. stress_strain curve 45678 young's modulus of elasticity represents a fixed value for steel (30x106) according to the ratio of stress to strain below the proportional limit. Because this formula gives excessively high values ror short col u mns. the tangent modulus of elasticity takes into considera_ tion the changing effect of plastic strainbevond this point corresponding to the actual stress involved.:11. See Figure 11.:itC"it modulus tEr) in place of the usual young.. L FIGURE I1 srress Dy dtvldtng by the cross. 5. _ The Engesser formula is also called the Tansent Modulus formula and checks well witb e*p". this becomes _ .. Notice.
read from Figure 12.Below the material s proporrional limit.2x I 06 30.. 6. vddl lr I r_____:.(r2) and the critical slenderness ratio (L..000 16.2 30.000 r t0..2 82. voto. .n.706 TABLE 2 9..l ourl D.000 I2.000 128. ) nr p re ssio n / 2.applies here.2 30. srE3. oppti.0 20..000 124. 40 50 60 70 80 90 sr. this portion of the curve is often called the Euler curve.Q 17.000 46.g criticot co6pr. This is shown in Figure 13.9 16. PLOTTING ATTOWABIE sTRESs CURV€ These values from Tables 1 and 2 are now plotted to form the curve in Figure 14.2 30. tod.500 .000 18. 3.l st.200 of curve Euler portion of curve r.) T.nd.c€n be superimposed on this graph and the values ot./) FIGUR E 13 FIGURE'I4 .2 30. are now plotted against the corresponorng compressive stress (d.) read by the same tecbnique.. Table 2 for Tl gives the slendeiness ratio {L"/r)_tor stress levels (o") within rhe proponional portion of the stressstrain curve. ...00O 30.0 47 30. T1 only.600 36. 9.er formula bevond the R.. The values of tangent modulus (Er) for Tl steel. 27 . The Engesser or tangent modulus formula for critical stress (d*) is then put into the followins form _ tangenr modulus (E.r ot sot. 100 r5.d t6 rhc.8 !ngesser portion I40 30.4 J8.ty portional limit of Tt. l:='rl1.he use material.2 30.000 r 20..i! 'orio roo tL. L/l L/r 50 60 70 75 10.850 . Youngs moduluslE) or of lL /E. resulting in Tables 1 and 2 " . .0 43. tor Tt tA sldobt.) provide the same value./r) is determined for various values of stress ( o").. 80 90 r00 i0 125 TAELE 1 26.900 60.) above the proToiq.lr( at a given stress level (o./r) for given values of stress (d.t ..nr Modu6 ror sr.2 30. The Euler portion of the curve is extended upward bya broken line to indicate the variance that would bL obhined by continuing to use the Eul.. as .9 22.900 53..$rr'.000 r 22.2 30.)..Table I gives corresponding values of slenderness ratio (L.Ano lysis of Co SLENDERNESS E.5 7 RATIOS: Tl STE EL E.2 xI 06 I 19.0 32.000 r 4.2 30.800 29 27 t .r3ie.. Since tie o"iginal nlier IormulaJor a.
000 i P "*(3 = zs. Vo lues = P/A I = 15.2. (. .?38 135200 {: zo. Foctor of Sofety = l.roo .*_+(iJ i r16200 ! = .500 0135 {=zo.000 i = r?.5g / Loqd ond Stress Anolysis TABLE 3  ALLOWABLE COMPRESSIVE sTRE5S for Vorious Stee ls Yield Strength Psi Ronge of L/r Yolues 0140 PINNED ENDS A"eroge Al lowoble Uni s. (:l 110200 {= 0.6i"_ 120200 l_l 0102 60.800 ou.. 0120 45.uoo  r.o.! r .soo 125200 {= 0.T "Desisn Monuot for High SrrensrhComm (p.000 0726 40./ /r \! 33.soo (!) 0125 i = rr.283 fl). United Stotes Steel lumn Reseorc h.32s l:l \r/ \.?02 {:l \r/ \r r05200 _ 25.aoo . = 25.000 '_ P .u .Sopprox.4? [!I \r/ 0143 {..\.' iz*Eo (il 0110 50..os (lf 01r6 P :A = 26.24) rorpororron.3? 1!)' \r/ 126200 143200 '=#o().r.tt.86b ""  P_ a "" " ^ll.oos /!f '_ \r/ P u_ 20..soo o.. ITI:L.soz (rf /Lf 0120 .ooo  ./ 10:5?0 15.l:. \r/ 140200 iP = ''*" ^^^ 1r 1T.500 SreetJ.soonl(+)' r20200 '. r+o(*) 26.ooo  ..000 !o= zz.000 { " r55200 = tt.500 .000 '_ P "#(:l /r .. ir+iu(il . OOO I w.bosedonsuggestionsofASCE Speciol ttee o n Co by priesr ond Gittison. .u.) /t \! 102200 ' P _ 26.= rz.. = ?/A r38!i Ronge of L/r A"eroge Allowoble Unil s.500 .000 i = .5 + zz' soo 0105 55.\.000 i = .5 + zz.too .
has recommended the Secant Formula.\il J 8C. OO0 to 60. Fi[r:re 15 in_ di.000 psi. Whenthe . comp. United States Steel Corp.?tes the allowable compressive stress talfrom t. d. and short columns (feet and legs) are illustrated in the same section ro'obr.t. the value of Lsnoulo be substituted for L in lhe aboveformulas: .l 1rr'u or lable 3 are based on a uniform 1. representing the allowable stress (')after applying a factor of safety of 1. A The column. This must be kept in mind in designing compression members having a low '.11 f:. is known.g factor of safetv.5_g proportional limit. the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE).ierness ratio (L". Gilligan.. SECANT FOR/IAUTA Note that a corresponding curve has been plotted Unif Stress (f) .s.f Vo.iopuJ ioiiuii! 2.grhs drops off as the column becomes more slender] If the allowable stress curve of T_1 (Fig.8. and as a result it is usuall. it can only be used by a series of successlve approxrma_ tions. ::.Anolysis of Compression / 2. For very shorl columns this provides a factor of safetv Ionger tt is g"aauaify incr.hn A. /L\ /L\" Practical examples of long columns built for 3TiT1T resistance ro compiessive loading are rncluded in the later Section 4. columns 1l%_Tf. The table covers steels having a yield strength of g3. r.€. formulas in ^ ''= V l2t:F.Iol t]r" structural field. e that the advantage of the higher strer. In its original form..ei3iv! 516! {zl r./r) t. In order to visualize relative savinss in metal by the use of higherstrength steels. Table 3 have been adapted from cDesign Manual for HiEh Strensth Steels" (1954. No. as a result ofextensivL research on full scale columns.b.s FIGUR E I5 . 14) were now superimposed on this graph. up to 1..e2..y put into a more workable form. Malcom prieit and J. the even greater strength advantage of T1 at lower slender_ ness ratios would be readily apparent. A few test results are also shownto indicate the close relationship between the Tangent Modulus formula and actual values TABLE 4  ALLOWABLE coMPRESSvE sTREsS (At5C) Averoge Allowoble Compressive below the main curve. 8 C. bove formulas for four different yield stringths.iou3 St.=!+ " \i/ .".196r) by H.3 1. Z.S has been used. A factor of safetyofl..effecrive length.) """ri""a.
" oro*o. including the use of the new highstrength steels.t l I  8.are more cumber_ where the specially prepared tables (Tables 6_ .qual to or less than (=) acertainvalue divided b! the squirre rootofthe material'syicld strength.while giving more accurate results .as based on the (thenr recent Column Research Council Report.t".9 I ond 1. For most machine columns.s Ufde.ooo r rt.TO TH CKNESS I eije"rs ol MeDbe. Th! related Table 5 permits direct readins of a prcssion clemont's b/t rttjo for vaiious com_ vield st rensths of steel. Table 4. The column formulas. AISC COLU^AN FORr\ utAs The 1961 AISC (American Institute of Stee1 Con_ struction) specifications for structural buildinss conlain new column formul. there is t limitjngratioof elcment width to thickness (b/t).es. the basic formules _.". . the Ta.. uKt i6 The obove ror'os o{ b I hoy be ex. For various conditjons of column cross_section.000 I .r. l0) 3re not applicrble..9 ? _9 .slenqsrness ratio.f.. This r3tio is cxpressed as being e.o'""a . A greai amount of new information on the behavior of siruc_ tural columns was developed.t" . *. Atio Comp.2. rhe conpre$ ve ske$ vot!e oO. Figure 16.r. by ujtng Ln rhe cotcltonons o w drh equo io the nox m!m o{ rhese Lh rs. 2 40A b 3.ble 3 foimulas or Figure 15 curves lvi]l be sufficicn vaccurateto justify the simplicity of their use. t. 8.of o. resulting from Lhjs rese3rch may be oI vtiue in designing certrin crfsses ol mtch inc ry whc re thc m ost p recise val ues arc^ required: ior safety on long slender columns.. Sec.eeded . or Iof mgximum economy on columns of lor."r.5 lO / Lood ond Stress Anolysis MAX]MUM W DTH. some to work with than those ofTable 3 which were developed from the earlier ASCE investigation. CompresLof D!e ro RAT OS Eend]ns Adopied hom t96t ASC.
and a somewhat more conservative value when the slenderness ratio is high.Anolysis of Compression At times it may be desirable to exceed the limitb/t ratio of an element..p in visualizing the variance in using these newer formul. use Table ? for the more economical steel of 36.wable coi. The allowable compressive unit stress (d) fora given slenderness ratio (L/r).d on l96l AISC S.OOO pli FIGURE I7 ro 20 3o 40 60 70 g0 90 .pressive stress (g) . calculations. the higherstrength steels offer no advantage as to aU.000 psi yield strengtlL TABLE 5 . t6 limits) woul.d give a compressive unit stress value within the allowable stress. it wilI be seenthat the new formulas offer considerable possible economy of material whenthe slenderness ratio is low. substituting the shorter maximum width allowed (by the Fig. from unity furough 200. in r*. Above L. cohpr. When compared to corresponding curves of Figure lb.LtMtTtNG b/r RATTOS OF SECTTON ELEMENTS UNDER COMPRESSION Limits of rotio of width to thickness of compression elements for differenr yield strengths of steel '33. Figure 17 indicates the ailowable compressive stress (g) obtained from the above formulas for five different yield strengths.rriw Sk.5. Above this point.3 / 2.c 1.as. To bel.1./r of 130. is quickly read from Tables 6 throuEh 10 for steels of various yield strengths. Allorobl.5_ll .* (!) aoe. This can be done if.
o . JO . I 'l o o o o N <x FI tll.512 / Lood ond 5tress Anolysis q) _lt 9.: o =>i o'.R I ri.OY o 'i ! .o J I F _P:€o A.. .. d {o .2. _ o N_! .:3 t19RBg i8 .g!6 oJ o o F a<... g i !'.9 o ! 'a O a o O ID o.J B J J I o. u ^F o o t. isgFS:sis. lRi . O J tJ. O <: >a o. .
in. and are aisumed to in_ crease lineally to a maximum at the outer fiber of the section. lo contrast. The fibers stressed in tension elongate. 3EI Free epd PLT center 16 : = =ell*'_ ' Fixed end 2 16 _ The cantilever beam shown in Figure 1is in tension along the top and in compression along the bottom. 1n. . Thes6 in turn srress the crosssections in bending. PLJ 't _.. the bending stresses are zero at the neutral axis.24ET guided end '=53aEi i"* .  SEAEI .IZETguided end V=P .ly supported member sets up bendinj moments (M) alongthe len#h of the member.a = distance from neutral axis to the point at which stress is desired. The cumulative effect of this movdment is an over_all deflection (or bending) of the member. ihis causes each section so stressed to rotate..e.E . below the propor_ tional elastic limit or the yield point).E .SECTON 2. FIGURE I Fixed end . = bending stress.*. in. P 2 ' . Any force applied transversely to the structural axis of apartial.l."' . Within the elastic range (i. and the member is in tension along the bottom and in compression along the top. BENDING sTRE55 where: the fibers stressed in compression contract.EFixed encl r_ P I_3 Fixed end both etrds \ PLr . may be tension or com_ pression.]oZET cenler & ends 2 Fixed end 8Et Free end is ' . PL' . psi TABLE'I  BEAM DIAGRAMS Maximum deflection M&Yimurn T.?e of Bearn Maximum Ihoment shear M=PL _filil:.P 2 l l''=ll MJ (r) ".bs I c db = moment of inertia of the section. As shown in Figure 1.6 Anolysis of Bending I. the relationship of the apilied force and the points of support on the member lhown in Figure 2 is sucb that the curve of deflection is inverted. the beniing srress (db) at any point in the cross_section of i beam both ends ' ..l 1" FIGURE 2 e{F rvr I wbole beam = He = i'ii' !ight angles .. M = bending moment at the section in question.
l_ L I +l figure 3 shows the crosssection of this beam. Amore complete presentation is included in the Reference Section on Beam Diagrams.000 P lbs at the middle.6) = 21. It depends on vertical shear and only occurl if the bending moment varies along thebeam. the formula for the bending moment of this type of beam is found to bePL . HORTZONTAL SHEAR STREss FIG URE 5 In addition to pure bending stresses. in tension.. 100" long.000)(5. Mc I _ = (250. From the beam diagrams. together with its load diagram.000) (1. as desired. that has uniform bending moment has no vertical shear and therefore no horizontal shear). Table 1. Find the maximum tensile maximum compressive bending stresses. Problem 1  Problem  A standard rolled " T" section (5T6" wide flange.6 in' FIGUR E 3 P= 6. Ordinarily onlythe maximum stress is needed and this is the stress at the outer fiber under tension.47) (62. Referring to Table 1.47) 62. . Fizure S. Table l lists several of these. which rests at the greater distance c from the neutral axis.2.000) _ 'SET (100)3 48 (30 x 106) 16t 6) \ lvone"t t 2. _ (250. and deflection. supported on each end and bearing a concentrated load of 10.5r5"____A" Here:6"7 n=1. shear stress is often present in beams. = = 250. horizontal.000 tbs The bending moment (M) may be determined from standard beam diasrams.000 tbs 5. 80.= :.6 L!f!lg!_ ("o*pression) 2 I. In an unsymmetrical section.9 10. (Anybeam.5 lbs) is used as abeam. the appropriate formula is foundto be .62 / Lood ond Stress Anolysis F__r2.rtionofthe section which is in tension or that portion which is in compression. a]ong with the formulas for bending moment. the distance c must be taken in the correct direction across that p. or portion of the beam's length.". lbs Aortzonlol Shecv tn A Eeovn DT3 ano rnererore (10.ano tnerelore lvl FIGURE 4 beam under the same f ind the maximum deflection of the previous loading. Usually the bending stress at the outer fiber is needed because it is of maximum value.47" l" = 62. shear. substituting appropriate known values into the formula: Mc I Since the bottom portion of the beam is stressed Normally there is no interest in knowing what the bending stresses are somewhere inside a beam. and ti t<_ ________.000 in.845 psi (tension) The top portion ofthe beam being in compression.000 tbs 5.
Necessary rigidity to hold deflectjon within certain allowable Limits.Anolysis of Bending lause one part of the beam to slide past the other. and its Ieg size would be: 540 9600 (a) Find the horizontal shearstress in the plane where the web joins the flange.727" = 0..a a = 1. one on each side of the "T" joiningthe flange to the web. the minimum size lill.et weld for the thicker 1.2 = distance of center of gravity of area to neutral axis of entire section. the percenrage of the lengrh ofrhe joint to be welJJ would be: .515 = 18.6 in. r_12.6) (6 ( 0.000 lbs The fol.. The horizontal shear stress at any point in the crosssection of a beam.T" beam in our previous ex_ ample (Problem 1) is fabricated by welding. Sufficient strength to carry given loads.903 = 1080 lbs/in.so are known or deter_ mined to beI = 62. fillet weld..beam diagrams. FIGURE 7 IJ manual intermittent fillet welds are to be used.6) (0. the horizontal fo.63 I l'= t. theappropri_ ate formula for vertical shear (V) is found to be v=zandthus = 10. vuvl l FIGURE 6 wherei V = external vertical shear on beam.a t = thickness of section at plane where stress is desired. 3. f=rtandthus = 1196 x 0.94" This would be an extremely small continuous Based upon the AWS. = area of section beyond plane where stress is desired.Y FOR BENDING I. joining the web to the flanse.4?" plate woutd be S/ 16. in. . in.% = ''r. Figure 6. 'b) Then find tbe size of continuous filletwelds o roth sides. in. e03) = 1196 psi (b) Since the shear force is borne entirely by the web of the q'1". EFFICIENTI.486 x 12. Under the same load conditions. It tends / 2. ?. the horizontal shear stress is zero at theouterfibersofthe beam and is ximum at the neutral a\is of the beam..51s"____ = .OAD5 '= 0. From the. z = 5. _ There are two fillet welds.056" 6.903" Every structural member must have 1. the horizontal shear stress (r) is found: It _ (5 000)(18.lowing values al.000 calculated leg size of continuous fillet weld actual leg size of inTeim itGifFilefTdidiEEd x 100 =. lbs I = moment of inertia of whole section."J 1ii j"_ pends on the thickness of the web in the plane "t"a" of rnlerest: Assume that the . Each wilt have to suppon half of the shear force or 540 lbs/in. A E/76 Vz_tz\ fillet weld would this requirement because it results in 25qasatisfy of the length of joint the being welded. in.6 in. Problem 3 (a) substituting the above values into the formula. is__ Unlilie bending stress. ? 27) 2. Table 1. HOW TO UsE sTEEI.
2.64 / Loqd ond
Stress Anolysis
THE FOLLO1VING 4 RULES WILL RESULT IN THE MOST EFFECTIVE USE OF STEEL FOR
BENDING LOADS
1. Place flange material as far as possible
web section.
The moment of inertic (I) of a section determines to bending. Togetthemost from each pound of steel it is important to know what sections of the area are most effective structurallv to resist bending.
its resistance
from the neutral axis. Connect flanges with
beLow
2. Avoid reductions in sectional area
3,
requirements for horizontal stiffness. Weld ends of beams rigidly to supporting members for maximum strensth and stiffness.
Pl.ace
4.
joints in low stress areas.
f'or efficient designs, material must be placed where it does the most work per pound of metal. The section of amember, therefore, mustbe selected within practical limits to provide the required strength and rigidity. For example, abeamsection obviously should not be so deep to withstand vertical Ioads with minimum sectional area, yetbetooweak and flexible for horizontal transverse forces. Secondly, a structural section must notbesothin as to be impractical to fabricate, It is important, therefore, to know the limits to which a desigrer can go in theory and where to stop for practical reasons.
RULE 1. Place Flanges as Far as possible from
For example, a rectangular section, Figure 8, is divided into 10 areas. Each area as shown has the same resistance to bending since it has the same moment of inertia about the neutral axis. Actuallv. the extreme areas at the top and bottom account for 10% of the bending resistance of the entire section. On the other hand, the center area, which has 14 times the area of the top and bottom outer areas, does not offer any more bending resistance. The net effect of placing material as far as possible from the neutral axis is shown in Figure 9. Its simil.arity to increasingly deeper !I" sections
is
evident.
Each of the areas has equal bending resistance, Flange area becomes Iess as the section depth .is increased. At first this indicates that a deep, thin section is best for maximum resistance to bending per pound of metaI.
if the web is disregarded.
However, the practical limitation Rule 2, which says:
is given in
RULE 2. Avoid Reductions in Sectional Area Below Requirements for Horizontal Stiffness
Each of the sections shown in Figure l0has the same resistance to bending about the xx axls. As
tbe depth of the section increases, the area (A)
decreases. As a result, the strength ofthe section is decreasiIIg also, since S = I/c and c is increasing as depth increases, but I remains constant.
These 2 oreos = 107o siiffness of whole se ction
This qreo = 10% of stiffness of whole section, yet l4 times qs much oreq qs the two ouler qreos
"l
I
NN Nr
N*l
Nt
Eoch qreq hos sqme FIGURE 8
I
lI
FIGURE 9
oboui xx
,All hqve sqme moment of inertio
Anolysis of Bending
These Sections ,Are Equol
/ 2.65
in Stiffness in the Verticql Directiorr
$n
Y+i x r r
rl
t1
Depth of Section
FIGURE IO
Depth o{ Saction
FIGURE I I
(to withtimes stronger than necessary to prevent failure, the area o] a section can generally be reduced without exceedinq allowable stresses as illustrated in the graphsl Figures 10 and 11.
5
Since a member designed stand deflection) is generally
for rigidity
to
10
h Figure 10, if the depth of the section is made twice the depth of the initial square section (A), the resulting area (B) is only 2570 of the initial square area (A) but is still 5070 as strong...which is more than adequate.
The objection to a modified section such as the area (B) is that bending resistance or stiffness in the horizontal direction is nearly zero as indicated on the graph. To avoid this, good design practice assumes a horizontal force along with a given vertical load...which leads to the us e of flanged sections. The flanged sections shown in Figure 11 have equal bending resistance. As the depth of the section increases, the fls.nge area drops off and the strength decreases. The essential difference, how'ver, between the sections in Figure 12 and those in _igure 10 is the fact that the area drops off at a laster rate with the use of flanses.
For a 5070 reduction in strength, the depth of section F is twice the depth of section E. In these respects, section F and section B are the same, However, the resulting area of section F is onty 970 of the original secrion area compared to the 2b% in the case of section B. Horizontal bendins resistance of F is 9Zo ofthe original compared tonear zero in the case of B. Thus, choosing a flanged section instead of a simple vertical. web member achieves the same principal bending resistance and strength with less material but with rhe added benefit oGreater resistance to horizontal bending. RULE 3. Weld Endsof Beams RiEidIvto Suooortins
at midspan can be reduced to r/ZiISliat:TGithe ends are rigidly fixed. This is easilv seen in any beam table, see ligure 12. Defleciion of a uniformly loaded beam can be reduced to 1/5.
>rrengtn ot the beam iS grea y increased. In the demonstration setup, Figur€ 13, beam A is simply supported at the ends, The backsround
The deflection of a beam with concentrated Ioad
2.66 / Lood ond 5fress Anolysis
Simply supported beom (Al
Fixed ends beom (B)
Lood
Diogrom
M^,(or
{l= l!
48E1
Morflenl
M.o.(
{
pl
FIGU RE
I2
ond ends) Pll
=d
'*
Deflection
. f,."'=;;*
sketch shows the bending moment when loaded at midspan. There is no bending moment at the end. Maximum bending moment is at midspan. Beam B is a rigid frame since the ends of the beam are rigidly connected to the supporting columns. As a result. some of the moment is carried through the end connection into the suppofiing column. Although some bending moment is introduced in the column, the rigid connection reduces the maximum bending moment in the central. portion of the beam, reducing in turn the bending stress and
deflection in the beamCrephic illustration of what happens when both beams are loaded is shown in Figure 14. The simply supported beam (A) is stressed be_ yond its yield point and fails by buckling. Ii it had not failed the beam would have been strelsed to 49,150 psi.
The rigidly supported beam (B) is stressed to only 28,000 psi and is far from failing, RULE 4. Place Joints in Low Stress Area In a rigid beam, the bending moment passes through zero twice along the length of the beam. These two points are called points of inflection. Because bending stresses at these points are almost zero, a joint at this position does not require much welding. usually just enough to take the ihearload. It frequenily is practical to fabricate beams of this type in three sections so that the amount of welding for the joint can be drastically reduced. In the background of Figure 15 is just such
a
FIGUR E
I3
FIGU
R
E 14
FIG URE ] 5
Anofysis ol Bending beam, made of three sections with the joint at the )oints of inJlection. The greatest moment occurs at idspan of the beam and at the ends where ':,ects to the columns. This beam when it conloaded identically with a rigid beam having no joint, as illustrated in the foreground of Figure 15, exhibits the same strength and stiffness, The mechanical joints at the inflection points, even though not welded for purposes of this demonstration, have no effect on the properties of the beam. Its deflection curve is identical with that of the solid beam. Figure 16 illustrates the application of these principles in machine design, This cross supporting Deam must be removable for functional reasons. vet when in place must be very rigid. By fixing the eids of the beam into the side members, the beam will be 4 to 5 times as rigid as it woutd be if simply sup_ ported; yet this means a very rigid end connection. A mechanical joint at this point of high bending moment would be very cumbersome, By welding the ends directly to the sides of the frame, as in Figure 1?, and making a service joint at each point of inflection, only a single bolt at each point is required to hold this section in place. The main shear load is taken by the small ;lip welded to the bottom of the cantilever section ofthe beam. This type of construction gives the same results as a continuous beam welded directly to the sides of *he base without any remoyable feature. Another practical application ofthis principle is 'm the design of a rectangular steam chest, Figure 18. hstead of using four flat plates joined at the corners by welding, it was decided to form the corners on the two end plates in a press brake and thereby eliminate welding at the corners. This places the welds farther back from the corner and they become groove butt welds. Perhaps the simplest design would have been to make the entire frame from just two plates, each with two bends. This woul.d have necessitated just two groove butt welds. The rectangular section with uniform pressure applied inside becomes a frame, uniformly loaded. The moment diagram ofthis frame is shown. Notice in this case that the maximum bendins moment is at the corners. This means any corner wetd would be subjected to the maximum bending stress which would vary from zero to maximum every time the unit was operated and pressure applied. Corner wel.ds would be flexed (tending to open up) as the pressure varied. The final location of the welds is at the Doint of inflection. i.e. where the bendirlg moment is ze ro (see the moment diagram) and at which point there is no flexing; even though the pressure fluctuates, the .'eld remains perfectly straight. This would be the al point to locate the weld in this type of struc*e. especially since it is a type olfatigue loading Decause the pressure varies as the unit is operated.
/ 2.67
FIGURE I6
FIGURE I7
Prqcticol Applicotion of Bosic Design principles to Typicol Mochine Frome problem
Welding This Steqm Chesi ot Poinfs of Inflection And Not ot Corners Eliminotes Flexino problem
No bending
stress on welds
Point
of infleclion: no bending
moment
FIGURE I8
$wtgs$ . !t$lo ijg$ R 0 8 8 d E s r(l . El' g.. e^ ^ suri s esY$ eei$ o tll $l{lilr. itE " sl$l 81".. rl $l sl...0 LCL $I$lN o I tllr : 3 t 3i 33 1z_o zL =F U o v$ Nl$l RIRI W ir rOO 9. itH$t$l qfl$lil 3ilsIl qqH{l tr o UJ 5 I o\ g tr \r sl '$lit '.69 / Lood ond Slress Anolysis Nlr 'Nl$ o J NI ^ .a o3 I \' I g f a o '7 s \. h r/.2.
The length of the beam is shown both in inches and in feet. lx both nomographs several tlG)es of beams are included for co[centrated loads as well as uniform loads. he may use any of the methods for buildins up a steel section having the required values ofsecilon modulus or moment of inertia discussed in prop_ erties of Sections. 20) an allowable unit deflection (1. In the lirst nomograph (Fig. If he wishes to fabricate the section from welded steel. By using these nomographs the designer can Steel Weldments speed up ihedelivery cycle on speciolpurpose mochines. This is the resultins deflection of the beam divided by rhe length of the beam. the following two nomographs have been constructed. while ensuring moximum rigidity ond dimensionql stobil ity. !x the second / 2. . 19) an allowable bending stress {ob) is shown and the strength propertyofthe beam is read as section modulus (S).69 4. The first nomograph determines the required strength of a straight beam./L) is shown. The stiffness property of the beam is read as moment of quickly find the required section modulus (strength) or moment ofinertia (stiffness) of thebeam. the load in pounds. inertia (I). OUICK nomograph (Fig. He can then refer to a steei handbook to choose a steel section that will meet these requrrements.Anolysis ol Bending METHOD FOR FINDING REOUIRED SECnON n ODULUS (STRENGTH) OR MOTTAENT OF INERTIA (SIIFFN ESs) To aid in designing members for bending loads. The second nomograph determines the required stiffness of the beam.
l. a ii I Bl sIKL N $l ql $t^c] $l E Nl\l tNt (y..{l qq \ z NllNl spl/ / .610 / Lood ond Stress Anolysis l. /G. .r) ) !l o.2. E Jl uJ o = \. ixl R lr Iilil !lsl ill 'jj \l{r rl $l il 6 o[l$l \r.JJ <q' L_ . * E Nu'$Nl$ " i E $ts $ $$$ s $ti.'  a Bltr xt al Pl \l NIG $ $ .tL{.i.H $l s oill o tl \1./ o r. l"' !E a iilNl {l E i" s{l n.1 ^. l'E '7 v1 v : .3i xt Y Sl e R o g 0 \q ol 0 N$ x{ I s I $e s I o $ $a i g 8 $ rt ?.i 2 : o sl{$$$*$.'r \l {. .r rul r rp.il E$ .
Srress in Member osp and orp since Mohr's Circle of Stress compressrve stresses combined together. d2 lies at + 180' from oa in Mohr's circle of stress. such as axial tension and transverse bending.anes may be determined.s EcTto N 2. the analvsis of stresses at a critical point is the key to analysis of the member's resistance to combined external 'ces. Notice in Figure 3. rr) and (d:.7 Anolysis of Combined Stresses I. These are the greatest and smallest of all the normal stresses in the element.'hese stresses may be represented graphical. there may be combined stress at points within the member. Figure 2. rr. Even without combined loading. Principal planes are planes of no shear stress. the other 2 In this case. Shear stresses act parallel to their refer_ ence planes. Normal stresses. The total forces in play against these planes result in proportionate forces of the same nature acting against faces of the cube. os and or are principal stresses they act on planes of zero shear siress. and the plane (b) on which a: acts in the member lies at 1 90' from the plane (a) on whicho'r acts. CONCEPT OF CUBICAI UNIT Machine members are often subjected to combined loading.s circle of stress. For any angle of rotation on Mohr. and draw_ ing a circle through these two points. act normal or at right angles to their ieference planes. Since any member is made up of a multitude of such cubes. 2:CO'VlBINING sTR ESs E5 stresses at various pl.ly on Mohr's circle of stress. By locating the points FIGURE 3 . These externaL forces induce internal stresses as forces of resistance. it is forud that (di. on a graph. Biaxial and triaxial stresses are tensile and FIGUR E 2 Principal stresses are normal stresses (tensile or compressive) acting on these principal planes. By observation of Mohr's circle of stress. either tensile or compressive. tending to hold it in equilibrium. the corresponding planes on which these stresses act in the member rotate through just half this angle and in the same direction. The analysis of combined stresses is based on the concept of a cubic unit taken at anv point of intersection of three planes perpendicular to each other. r lll rlilt' Sheor stress FIGURE I _ . Combined stresses are tensile and compressive stresses combined with shear stresses.
and the third normal stress (rr) will be caf a^rr. (oz).000 = 8. 6."*) is true for the flat plane considered.000 psi rt=O = 12. ]ocate tbe two stress points (+dr. r. +rr) and (+os."' lies at 4 90' fromor and the plane (b) on which r.ffi  ti...000 Here. however. Figure 6.(2) On graph. right: Locate stress points (or).l t:'' =IrJ t" '/... t r.ar^ (maxl = !7J!1 4 lat  \ 2) .000 cz=4 dl =0 8.= 2.zp* l:ib**"' .000 psi o. always let the third normal stress be zero instead of ignoring it.ies at + 45' from the plane (a) on which or acts. The example in Figure 2 will now be reworked. each equal to half of the differeDce between two principal (normal) stresses. left: t. Now determine the three maximum shear stresses. when dealing with biaxial stresses. On tbe graph./V FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 Notice in Figure 4. r.000 z.2.. see Figure 5.Rf..= 4.72 / Lood qnd Stress A no lysis .5\1'' lrr   l" B I . This is arrery common mistake among engineers. how stresses through these points. there are really two other planes not yet considered and their maximum shear stress could possibly be greater than this value.."* acts in the member r. it is oz\2 stress (r. By observation of Mohr's found thatcsc This is a simple method to graphically show witiin a member combine. Now determine maximum normal and shear stresses.. and treat tle problem as a triaxial stress problem.. To be absolutely sure.l f^ .= o.000 t3 = +12.000 FIGURE 6 t i { 't * . = 12.1) and draw a circle circle of stress. right.. The plane ofmaximum shear stress (shaded in the following sketches) is always at 45" to tbe planes of principat stress. In this case oz and ar are principal stresses because there is no applied shear on these plares. (os) and draw three circles through these points.. The above formula for the maximum shear There are three values for the maximum shear stress.
0000 6ttrz r 62122 6t6t rr2 r22 .FK and compute the o'p roota 3 = flllr + .VJ'.ot at2 .tz2 .r'2rrr:r. /a\lr .ab \5/ 6 2 _ 8.'? l using the )a ol *Solution of Cubic Equation from uPractical Solution of Cubic Equations".rt2 . \T +o. in this example.) are given bv the three roots (or.'r.t . FIGURE 7 Feb. b. stress. use the two principal = 2. and not the 2. \". 195?. but very accurate). N'r ^=Al*alesiratro.r:t2 r o.r't!\ ct.000 psi. Q For either Case 1or Case 2 The additional two roots (o!0.000 psi . = 9l:i]2 *Since a. L.000 psi 3. .0000 2 Then calculate = 4.) whose algebraic difference is the greatest.000 psi r.eu'r=!11\' 3 \3i and Q =9 '2 ..) of this cubic equatioD: 1 fr'.cttt2 .000 psi stresses (qr..(dr + 02 + 6tl6p2 _ 12.r  = Circle 3 6. 21.Anof ysis of Combined Stresses / 27 3  le The three principal stresses (orr. N^a  Case 2 When (1 + K) equal roots) calculate r=. 1 Case vaI({e that would usually be found from the conventional formulas for biaxial stress.(6tozot 4 2rtrtr:t .. two of which are equal) calculate SHEAR s= yQ[l +(1 = E__D 5 is negative (three real and un and compute the root or'. .otr. orr. G. Sullivan. MACHINE DESION.t . 't is seen that. TRIAXIAL STRE55 COMBINED WITH 5TRES5 When (1+ K) is positive (one real root) or when (1+ K) is zero (three real roots.O! 2 d'r.. and c are coefficients of this equation: a=(ar+dr+dr) b= c= 6tO2 +OrO3+ _ 12. The maximum shear stress (r..t * 6r'J.'\ = 6.aeo\ Or / 73 The ambiguous sign is opposite to the sign of (approximate."*) is equal to half of this Circle 2 t.rrJ2 616:0.0008. o:rp) of the general cubic equation are calculated by solving for o1.. the maximum s r stress is 6. drr.000 2 + \6t oa + olc.il = 0 l4) For maximum shear difference.
. I 14.p) r + y'(a 2 * orp)2 4 19 6p2 [(13. Here each t]?e of load is expressed as a ratio of the actual load (P.M.O75 psi  3.500 psi ond r. Figure 8: dlp=0 otp = orp = 25.000 psi Mohr's Circle of oz Stress q3= .92b.7 4 / Lood qnd Stress Anolysis exact quadratic: op2+(a+orp)oua=0 olp equation: Substituting these values into the general cubic (13.2.= 1 1.=o I ozp =  25.rJuJ PJI r.650 psi p P. M.075 and taking onehalf of the greatest difference of zThese various values are shown diagramed Mohr's Circle of Stress.075 psi two principal stresses: 25.650) (14..T") which would cause failure if acting alone.9.000 psi r.150 6p dy'  (a + o. \o.500 psi  r.650 psi ond I 1.14.000)!] = 0 or..500) 14. =11. STRENGTH UNDER CO'\ABINED TOADING A very convenient method of treating combined 'l Axial load  13.500) d. rr = 11.075 psi {mox) . nor =13. T) to the ulti. = 0 + Problem 1 the three principal normal stresses are  Determine the maximum normal and shear stress in this web section.mate load (p.650 psi FIGUR E 9  14.r ?6. FIGURE 8 where: 0 loadings is the interaction method.650 28.000 psi a2=0 t3 = 0 o.orr/.000 psi or=r. Figure.500 psi o3 I = .000 + _ (r1.= =  13.  0 on 4.
vorioble R./R. The value of R. is illustrated. The value R.: Interoction curve Morgin of Sofety R. Torsional load P. This increase can easily be taken care of by an amplification factor (k). A suitable factoi of safetv is then applied to these values.7 S . Ttrese values are determined by experiment.Anolysis of Combined Stresses s=!4*C_&39 / 2.ng of members under vaiious combinedl load conditions. vorioble T. =l at iire extreme rigbt end of the horizontal axis is the ultimate value for this type of load onthe member. See Figures 13 and 14. Combined axial loadins and torsion _ nbined bending and torsion Rr torsion Pure lorsion FIGUR E I I FIGURE I2 .De of load on the member. the effect of two types of loads (x) and (y) upon Morgin of Sofety proportionol looding = 666516n1 Morgin of Sofety / Ry = = conslont R. FIGURE IO Combined axial compression and bending In this case.. = I at the upper end of the vertical axis is the ultimate value for this tl. the axial compression will cause additional deflection. = R. or when this data is Dot available.oduced by the actual loa?s. tions may be made to estimate them. pont c represents the combination of these conditionsl and the margin of safety is indlcated by how close point c lies to the interaction curve. The interaction curve is usuallv determined bv actual testi. = constonl R. which in turn increases the moment of the bending load. suitable calculaeach other In the general example shown in Figure lO. and from this a simple formula is derived to express this relationship.M M. If points a and b are the ratlos pu.
FIGURE I3 For constont bending moment FJ iFP *'+lw e Here: R.0 . +\[p/p" 2.4 1. M.8 1.8 l *.dol bendins homeni oxiol compression.r = z'2 E I FIGURE I5 The bending moment applied to the member (chosen at the crosssection where it is Daximura) The chart in Figure 16 is used to detersine the amplilication factor (k) for the bendilg moment applied to a beam when it is also subject to axial Som€ rr.6 1.7 6 / Lood ond Stress Anolysis For sinusoidol initiol bendinq moment curve is P:+P k= I moment (M) in the ratio: then multiplied by this amplification factor (k). l6 Amplifico Con3tont bending momenl Sinuso.0 1.1 2. and this value is then used as the applied .M .2.+kRr=l FIGURE I4 Pure bending r. 1P/P.6 2.2 1.2 2. k= 2..pe oJ ironsverse lood rion fo c to r (k) fo r bending momenton beom olso subieci to Fig.
so the following are used.000 2l 11.000 272. For ggggglgi9!_alone *Since assume i'= Pu 150 (where r = radius of g'yration) = 6200 in.dYYinr"aeei^h 6y/. L/r ratio of lS0ishighenoughso we can assume the ulttdate load catyiDg capacity of the column (P.600 in.J I7 P=r26.lbs = P.lbs The resulting combined stress formula beingn11.7 7 w= 185 lbs/in *ia* Tronsverse lood thickness u =sa" t= %" w = 185 lbs/in l=L=r FIGURE . Figure K=1.800 psi (16 = 272p00 lbs Then the ratio (b) and the tensile stress below the neutral axis of the top panel beingo.87) (62 00) = 11. I= ..dt P kMc o=l{.600 (%e) 24? _ x 106) (.4 First the critical load P".600 (/ro) rrrt=+ r26. 800 psi = .464 The bending moment wL2 8 (  185) (167e).= IProblem 2 A loading platform is made of a 3/8" top plate and a logage bottom sheet.  = :''2El L2 ?r. the critical value (P) could be quite a bit higherthan tbe actual ultimate . 8 Determination of factor of safety: The ultimate load values for this member in compression alone and in bending alone are unknown. J rmination of combined stress (axial compr iion and bending) in top compression panel: With L = A= 16Ys'. The actual applied moment due to extra deflection is found to bek M = (1. (30 0c=_l_ 126. If this had been an ex value ( P. = 272.000 lbs . .) trerrely short column (verylow L/rratio).Anof ysis of Combined Stresses / 2. The whole structure is in the form of a truss.) is about equal to the critical value (P).247) )2 = 14.000tbs oxiol compressive lood the following formula: The resulting combined stress is found from Obtaining the amplification factor (k) for the sinusoidal beDding moment from the curve.000 = 2. =  126400 2l _ 11. Figure 1?.kMc I of which there are two components: (a) the compressive stress above the neutral axis of the top panel being 21 ir.24'1 in.
600 in. = 64. M.000 lbs = t1.2J 8 / Lood ond Slress Anolysis For bending alone The plastic r'1. or ultimate bending moment is__ bt'?oY 4 =/u'"1)9 \ 2/2 _ = 4 i Elostic or F (56) (%)' (33. Applied bending momenr.lbs o This exomple {o) con be ossumed to hove on opprox.These ultimate values are represented on the following interaction curve.900 in_lbs = 272.tlEl* be_ FIGURE I8 Ultimote lood volues only bending only compresslon P p. pIlottfi the. . l9 Inieroction curve for problem 2.000 l6s Aciuol lood volues opplied simultoneously M = 126. present load values ai a against the curve] indicates there is about a 2:ifa. 2:l foctor of sofety Unsofe Looding Ronge .000) 64.900 in.900 Fig.l ''M M.ior of safetv rore rne rop compression pai6[TiTl6u.Jbs Plostic . x i000 inlbs = 64. Figure 19.
Aflar this value has been found.y increases the stress on the inner face.dividuai where: Center o grovriy Rodius of curvolu re neutral axis from center of curvature = distance outer fiber to neutral axis = r.e easily determined. section of the curved beam into indlvidual. the gTeater is the erroT in the straight beam formulas. the radius of the center of gravity: from the center of curvature of the beam.re. U the radius ofcuryature is more than 10 times the depth of the beam.) equals the total area divided by the sum of the i. this error not serious. I . For each ofthese elements it is neces_ sary to know the following: cross_sectional area c. . This shift of the axis grea .. _ r. = rx _ r. curved is beam formulas must be used.. width of area (b) timestheloqto the base e (log. the bendinJ streis (A). Thus. Th6 smailer the ra_ dius of curvatu. The radius of the neutral a_\is (r.SECTON 2.). See Figure 1. See Figure 2. The moment of each area about the center of gravity equals the product of crosssectional area (A)and' the mean radius {r). AXIS As a beam becomes curved. All measurements of radius are taken . rectan_ gular areas and treat each area or element sepa_ rately. . the neutral axis shifts in toward the inner face of the beam.8 Strength of Curved Beoms I.>_ r Shift of neurrol oxis increqses stress on inner foce.G. and radius to the outer face (r.) to the inner radius (ri). _ ri = co ri = radius A = area of crosssection e = shift of neutral axis from C.meanradius (r). ci = djstance inner fiber to neutral axis r. BEHAVIOR OF NEUTRAI.). radius of inner face (r. but below this ratio. Neuirol o rr = radius center of gravity from center of curvature d = distance line of force to neutral axis of seclton xls '\ =ig. The major step in determining the strength of a curved beam is determining the shift (e) of the neutral axis away from the center of gravity.) of the ratio of the outer radius (r. width (b).he simplest method is to divide the cross_ products. The radius of the center of gravity (rs) equals the sum of all the moments takeri aboui the center of gravity divided by the tota] area.
r") Mc. A (rg r')ri .1 I iN i . {mot6br"ceJ Log.2. of Formula 2 is '= dri== M (r.82 / Lood ond Stress AnolYsis Thus. Tbere is still a uniform tensile stress. They give the internal stress on both tbe inner face of th! bea* (t') and the outer face of ttre beam (o") due to bending' The stress at either face is tension or compression according to the sign of the bending moment. The moment arm is measured from the shifted neutral axis. use log. (3) Bending stress on outside face Axial M (r. Aeri . the beom crosssection commonlY is divided i nto opproximote L rectongulor oreos. force (F) is multiplied by the moment arm (d). Cenler of curvolure l.!") ro Aero Etress on section r4\ 2.t'*l I h I L I Fig. or compressive stress' (d') E (5) In order to get the moment applied to this crosssection. l r . x = 2. A (rs . the radius of the neutral axis: > l/u to"" ri t ! (2\ acting across the same sectioD of the beam due only to the external load. of the section to the application of the force (F). If this is tensile.3026 logro x. CURVCD BEAM FORAAULAS The formulas shown below are for curved beams. it musl be added to the tensile stress due to bending and subtracted from the compressive stress due to bending. Bending stress on inside face not the familiar log to the bise 10 but is the Natura] or Naperian Log' If a table of the Natural or Naperian Log is not available. . and not the center of gravity. th. 2 In solvi ng curved beom prob lems.ri) Mc.
this as the is for two leasons. it is not as deep (right) Secondly. First.rJU psl I r /2" I +4 t o. Bv adding a small flange on the outer compression side. The next section in lhe form of a rectangle is better because i1 is deeper (relative to tbe center of curvature) and therefore stronger. The tensile stress on the inner face is much greater than the compressive stress on the outer face.390 psi Fig.800 psi 9. The round section has tbe higbest stress. the alepth of the section is less and this will increase the stresses somewnar' However.000 Pst 17.i lt ll It nsion Ouier foce Inner foce Problem 1 figure 3 shows the outer fiber stress on tne outside and inside faces of five types of sections used for curved beams' All have the same crossncoment 13.Strength ol Curved Beoms Compression Te / 2.ame radius of curvature (3I from lection): the center of gravitj'). since the area is held constant rn these elamples.t zo p'l The fifth seclion in rhe form of a trapezoid could be just as efficient as the third section using only a flange on the inner face' However.tU" acting 10" irom the neutral and the . the bending moment apptied is tending to enLarge this radius of curva ture. the lrapezoid would be difficult to fabricate' The ideal section for fabrication would be the third section using a web with a flange welded on the inner face. the inner face other sections. d. the compressive stress and the teDsile stress are almost equal. The center of curvaiure can be assumei as l.83 '.6"1 r 1t2" I I 34" 5. oll of sqme oreo' . 3 Typicol beom sections. the same bending axis of the lzoo in.. and the outer face (left) have very little surface to take this maximum fiber stress. giving a good dislribution of stress. Even thoxgh this is an improvement over the round section' it does not proportion its stress equally between the high teniile stress on the inner face and the lower compressive stress on the outer tace' In the third section a flange is added on the 'rnner face to lower this high tensile stress by spreading it out along more surface' Of course in doing this. rhis section is very elliclenr as far as weight is concerned.900 psi sectional area (1 sq in.). ln the fourth section the efficient distribution of stress is upset. ln many cases.cated somewhere to the right of the section view' A1so. two webs and a singie flange on the inner {ace are used' If there i s Jome concern about buckling under the compressive stresses at the outer face. a thin flange may be added across ihe open ends of the webs' 1. This design should be discouraged. Further.
5) t F = 40.rick plate.5 T_ b = 2Vz" 17" a built up Proposed hook section to be t from flomecutplotes welded together. ''r 42. is similar to >A. Fro=r. The design can be easily verified. is to be designed for picking up 20ton coils of steel strip. It is reinforced with two 17r" thick sections. It is to be made of 1020 mild steel and desigrled within an allowable stress of 20. t6"_________+ I . as shown in figure 5. The resultant section.20ton sfeel coi ls. welded together.2. 4 Crone hook to be designed for lifting.'l l\th"JvJ "= 51h"212 3" 3" =6 +l of force I I Fig.000 Psi' The main portion of the curved hook is flamecut from 2Vt" t}.000 tbs Counterweighi Fig. From Figure 5: ri = 10" r" = 24" (and for reinforcement 16") 1.5) A curved hook Figure 4.54 / Lood ond Stress Anolysis the third section of Figure 3 and can be expected to simiiarly result in a good distribution of stresses about the neutral axis.=2(6 x + (14 x 2.
+ q" L4.T66.e2) (24) (9.6 Finished welded sfeel crone hook reody for the rugged iob of moving 20ton coi ls of strip steel.85 The uniform axial stress P is A :  .'7 =( 14.100 + 755 + 18. lll Iu I (2.000 psi.64 Mc" x 46.855 pbi total tension i The bending stress at tbe outer face Then: s e=rgrn = 15. Furtber.09!_z 46. tTtt\ = 14 (!!.72 6.\r/l  toe.100 psi tension >(A r.28) _ (53) 14. 35 + 18 829 + da = = 18.r0 Thus.5x741+(3x6) 24 10 oo = + 755 psi tension r0 16 The bending stress at the inrler face ari= is = + ro c.ruTo =3:53E Mci Aer.?2) .72 = = .q5 The combined bending and axial stress at the inner face isai "11Ll1!119.000(. The finished crane hook is shown in Figure 6._$1l]_ The radius of section's center of gravity from center of curvature rs (53) (.\ Strength of Curved Beoms The radius of the shifted neutral axis from center of curvature isIn= / 2.820\ + 755  14.92n face 2 psi compression Tbe combined bending and axial stress at the outer = 74.) = ::= . Fig.e2) (10) is = 18.065 psi total comp?ession 9.820 is= Co=rofh = 24 Ci=!nli = 14.28rr ._ Aero _ (40.1l. . the stresses at the two faces are in fairly good balance.t 2. the stress at neither the inner nor the outer face under a working load exceeds the allowable stress of 20.
tresses peniits design for minimum totol deflect ion. Assemb ly ufocfuring Cfrome t ir li.i . Ano lysis of .. essenfiol io smooth rom oction ond long die life.' .7.86 / !ood qnd Stress Anolysis i floor of ploni monpresses of modern we lded p lote des ion.
(o) across where al l I (l) fuo of the components .p (b) FIG Srro.l some point on the neutral axis alone a 111:""nt :{ patb parallel to the jjne of applied foree. lr rs the ma)iimum deflection that isolvalue Usu"jl. .. This goal is unrealistic rnere must be strain where tbere is srress.31.rfif.I A tl * c Tension F n { 16. 2.*h"lu oeslgn for a certain allowable deflection. . qtscussed previously jn il'l this formu]a have been detajl.diry design formulas fo. will."y" y^establi shed on rt e r:"sis Li emlii_ from perrormance or similar pre_ l.\=Xl "rr   .SECTON 2. See Figure la.. this has the verv high ol 30. J ne dellection of interest is the linear dis_ " ". colnputations. . This is especially true rn machrnetoolsvery and tion_.. The criljcal Droo_ rnaLerial isirsmodulus of elasricity .of and Lh" peam span (L) js one variable which willlnfluence the deflection. The constant (k) is afunction of the type of loading and also the manner in whi ch the load rs supported.000 psi. and then applvinedia_ the appropriate _standard simplifjed beam for. Desr hand. Tiere are several methods for finding the flection of a beam. the load (P) is a specified value. ."t:{ ot th" 1Ej.ble and attainable. These Denolng.r use when bendins are based on the maxjrnurfi axis of a beari becomes rrIle.Frl 4 Controction nrr Neulrol T ox is c I t.leC by constructing abendingmoment i ::?i""J:: .il.9 Def lection by Bending I. In the past many machjne designers wereunder rne rmpression that zero deflectjon was bothdesir_ a. ..r"n"u"r"" bending load. rn the case ofall steels. Virtual work method 3. I DI3I ou.is its moment of inertia (I). Jr wou.e aYailable inlhe Refel ence Sec_ tion on Beam Diagrams included at the ena otihis DOOK. Such l:]1r". and thus is subject to the desisner.riula. although occasionally the deflection at a specific point is needed. neutr^al .Machinery members must. on " s1_raight..n .. Lhe normallv . whichis dependent on dimensions of the beam cross_section. Lln$er .yguld affect the qualiry of rbe enOproOucis.. The related properti.. sinle rigjdity i s important.r the life of a cuttjng tool. Bending Stress Exlension 1.gvllal components of the bas ic formula are gram lrom the actual beam.". _. RIGIDITY DESIGN orner equipment where the usual amount of deflecll9"..""_ Compressron la o any gjven seciion: o' = Y'" rl: T. the engineer should . Area moment method 4. Four ofthesewill be shown:de_ 1.lue . Rjg."l'i:JJl]""d .momeDLs set upbending stresses a sections of the beam. TIre s. IJ the values for E and I are held constant. rnese lormulas ar."_:"". .000. A transverse load placed on a beart causes bend_ rng moments along the length of the beam. frequen y be rjgid. Conjugate beam method FUNDA/VIENTALS OF BEAAA DEFIECTION .u va. Successjve integration method 2.I" alsois sublectb tt. Inpractice..s will.ld lowe. the fenstl.:1"?:"""0' lilm.
c E EI" Considering a segment of thebeamhavingonlya very small increment in length (Ax). t I I Rodius o{ curvoiu '"4.2.hile the other surface is under tension. ald since  rrr)" = Y:!{Il EI. Correspondinglv.92 / Loqd ond Sfress Anolysis early to a maximum at the outer fibers.\ /t \x(1  r ) l Under' .). Also. One surface is under cornpression. u. i(. tbe distribution of bending stress can be converted. '=J'j' =Jt* It is also Ax \jor\ = . observed from Figure 2b that_ M./\ fI Under com pressron t'tr. is further illustrated by Figure The angllar rotation relative to stress and strain 2. It catr be seen that sections a and b are no longer par_ allel but would converge ar some point 10) in space. in a stress_free condition. lormlng a radius of curvature (R.Figure 2a represents bending moment. In ih"and b) represent of Figure 2b. the beam is subjected to a bendins moment and this small segment 11x) will compresi on one side and will elongate on the other side where the outer fiber is in tension. _ os M.r rajghtline relationsh ip between stress and srraln. Within the elastic limit.). At Figure 2b.lo)" = Il9IlEI. This can be expressed ase(Ax) = c (Ad) . the elcngation within this small increment would be e(Ax). It is usually assumed that the bending stress (o) is zero at the neutral axis and then increases lin_ . dotted unes (a the initial incremental segment (Ax) with zero moment. there would be no strain (r) along the neutral iis and the strain would increase lineirlvto a mariimum at th€ outer fiber. {Ax) = R' EI.=b . f*l ) Beom With No Lood (no moment) FIG UR E 2 (b) Beom Under lood (wrth momenr) . here it can be seen that the small angular rotation (Ad) would be the elongation at the outer fiber divided by the distance (c)1o the outer fiber from the neutral axis. See F)gure lbwheie at any given sectl on: . ilo =_ very small increment in length (jx). would then have a radius of curyatut:e {R') equal to infinity(o.. The total angular change (d) between anv two points (a and b) of the beam equals the sum of th. sketch to the right .ension  l.' incremental changes.=b In other words. or: a straight beam under zero Here an]' two given sections (a and b) would parallel each other and.' 3.l1^'. Thiscan be related to a small angular movement withinthis increment. the infinitesimal angle change in any section of the beam is equal to the area under the moment diagram (M. assuminsa s. while the solid lines reflect tbe effect of applied load: Ax(I _ €) at rhe surface under compression.L_ t'I I' 'J tl. Thesetwosections (a and b) can be_set closetogethertodefinethe segment of €(Ax) Mc(1)i) c EIc or': (. (o . Figure tc. over into a djstributjon ofstrain. Ax) divided by the (E L) of the section.
93 fv=+15003 Sheor (V) v=  1000+ M tv=5oo# = i5.000":* M =+ 30. thcnl (1) = lV. tax XI r (6) rt) . For any given bcam with any given load' iI the load (\'. moment 3. (3) The next logical step would seem to be application of the Successive Integratjon Method to determine the beam deflection. SUCCEsSIVE INTEGRATION'VIETHOD trl.000" Slope (0) I FIGURE 3 the reciprocal of the radius of curvature (1/R) any given point (x) of the beam is at and by successive integrations shear  .Defleclion by Bending I000= lood / 2.) at anv point (x) can be expressed mathematjcallv as a functjon oi (x) and iI such load condition is known for the entire bearn.
=. for example. the problem was previously worked out by longhand so it is known exactly what it looks Like. Then several methods will be used in finding the deflection (y or A ) under the conditions illustrated. A virtual load of one pound (or one kip) is placed on the beam at the point where the amount of deflection is desired and in the same direction. Most of the methods in actual use for computing deflection are based on a graphical solution of the problem. especially if various loads are applied. The method is cumbersome. U possible. In this case. . there is a constant ofin:gration (C) which must be solved. it is usually difficult to get a mathematical expression for the load in terns of x for the entire length of the beam for any but thE simplest of beam loadings. if there are various types of support.I = lood 1.o. etc. with considerable time expended and wirh the possibility of compounded error. The internal energy of the beam after deflecting is determined by integration. in several ways.l ihd r . integrate graphically rather than mathematically. For every integration. to show that ineachcase the answer comes out the same: 13. caused by the beam 1oad. This is done bv sett ing up known conditions of the beam.5: FIGURE 4 (o ) Reol Bending Moment (M) (b) Virtuol Bending Moment (m) deflection x1 xl xr x2 . the deflection of a beam over a support is zero.xlI W dx (o FIGURE 5 ) $ t"u" (b) m curve . This method means several equations must be used and integrated within certain limits of x.l han. this process takes on greater importance. 4. VIRTUAL WORK METHOD This is used frequently for finding the deflection of a point on a bea"m in any direction. 500. Virtual bending moments (m) caused bythe 1Ib load are determined along the entire length of the beam. 000 . or if there are various changes in section. the slope of a beam at a fixed end is zero.p#s where: m = wirfrr.=J 5PJJryP Unfoftunately.noment at any point caused by the L1b load The example in Figure 3 will be worked through M = real bending moment at the same point I = moment of inertia a_t this same point lr r. This is then set equal to the external energ"y of the llb virtual load moving a distance (y) equal to the deflection.
Thus.The volume of any element of this solid equals the area of the element's base surface multiplied by the vertical distance from the center of Eraviiv of the base surface ro rhe upper.ram is then divided into simple geo_ metric shapes (in this case. however. Fig.isisknown as the virtual bending moment (m).fl3t suriice. . The solid thus defined is aseries of small. The M/ EI diag. compute the bendingdiagramthe realbendinsmo_ ment (M) on the beam. for example. Figure 4a. and to ing moment lies flat in the ho ri zontal plane.000"'t30"1 z_El_ A__ r5 000". The next step is to rJmove 'he real load and replace it with a 1lb load at the cint where the deflection is desired and also in the same direction. The m curve for [he vi].f igure 5 separates the two moment diagrams that must be combined in the basic equation 19.ion of Lhese moment dlagrams to obtain the internal energy may be re_ placed by working directly wjth thesi areas.r. it is necessa rv tJ know only the heighl of rhevirtualmomentdiagiemar the srme distance (x) as on the real momenl di3srtm. right tria_ngles). This will sreatlv simplify the work. and parabolas for uniformly disrribured Ioads. tf. withthe M/EIand m diasrams lined up one above the other. distance is shown by a dotted line. diagrams for both the real moment (M) divided bv EI and rhe virtual moment (m) have a common base line (the x a\is). tri_ angles and rectangles for concentrated loads. It is seen from the equation that M.tual bending momenl ii shown in the vertical plane established by the m axis and the x axis. its real value is that it lendi itself to a graphical approach./Et area's center of gravitv. The bendinsmoment of rhis psrticular load is Lhen computed. TheM/Elcurvefor the real bend_ 80"' ' 50"' FIGUR E 7 from which the volume is obtained: . !'igure 4b. The virtual moment diagram bv the very nature of the single 1Ib concentrated force is always triangular in shape. .?nzr ^ ^ = _t 30. The real moment diagram can be broken down into standard geometric areas. since tnerr properties are known. and the area of each is found and multiplied by the height of the m diagram along a line tllrough the partiiular M. This vertical. _ The first step istoapplyailofthe forces (prob_ lem 1.130") 2El _ This means that the integrat. Figure 6.Veri col distonce lo lmJ curve 0pper Rot surfoce of this section FIGURE 6 (x)cxrs \er/ oxrS d\ = length of small increment of the beam E = modulus of elasticity in tension of the material This equation can be worked out by calculus.er volumes with simple geometric faces. in Figure ?.m"dx is a segment of a volume. 3) to the member. In the triaxial representation. ?n nn6.
(t*)2EI (15.000 . However. where some segment of the real moment 1M1 dia Figure g shows application ofthis method to the original Problem 1.  'u'.000)(10) 50 _ (15.9 I /i\ I a .Reol lood momenl (M) drcArom ]z mo. if the b6am has a variable section. several values of I would have to be inserted earlier in the computation . Center of grovity of this oreo under moment curve (o fo b) FIGURE IO @ I I Defiecfion curve \.JtI \ t where Mrmz * Mzmr v_ 13. The value of I can now be inserted in this to give the deflection (y) in inches.zEI gram between points xr and x2 is at the top and a cor_ responding segment of the virtual moment (m) dia_ gram is below. 500.500.1 I Virtuol lood momenf {m) diogrom Gro"* L 2n" FIGURE 9 vorume = %Hcqeg 3 13.ss) _ (+ ) er++00 ) ( rs) €Lir'l ooo . This is more fully related to the basic integration equation by the following: Volume = 1"'y the deflection in inches is /. tiplying Mr by mr and Mr by mz and then ly'""o""_ The required volume can be found directly by rnul EI and since: multiplying Mr by nrr and Mr by m. From Figure g: y=( +xcgl#e!si f (+xcsI*i!s)+(#) ( ?s*+.."ooo. 000 ' ..t_ 0 . ) I L = the distance between points xr and xr.for thesection taken through the centei of gravity oI each geometrical area of the M/EI diagram. The general approach is illustrated by Figure g.1ry. using only % of the products of crossmultiplication. a method of crossmultiplying has been found to give the same results.30" .ent (ru) diogrorn + 30.000)(s0)(10) . (q: r.to* = := f Mrmr + M2m2 E! .000"= I r t+.30" .r 20" +10"+.robo$olco. To simplify this further.
He re p"o i nts r' r. Dellectton curve r o l ft Lzi 1 l/2 4 . / =::="/ @ FIGURE I I find the maximum deflection ofthe Ueam.10 by a gener.The conditions of problem l are here illustrated by Figure 13.000":i T.)(i)(H 48EI gettlng around this.nd tl represent any two points defining a simple geometric area of an actua. i i.See r tsure t_L_ Fiom Figure 1r: = ' .. between these two points (a and b). t2).J.symmetrically loaded.000"= M + =+ 30. or ma\imum is Lrnknown (Fig.to" r 000# FIGURE I3 M = 15. li*i:t"d co rrespond ing def Iect ilnd the on curve.For . Thereareways of :::l:".\:/ NI T 1V f'. dividea bv E I.2 Yl *_ ET 1(L.l moment dialgram.' .(#)H(3 F L.. under the moment diasram taken about point a. . lood 'l FIGURE I2 " g= i(f+. The moments of the area under the moment (from point zero to point 30) is taken _curve aDout point zero to give the vertical distance between polnt zero and the tangent to the deflection curve at 2000+ unsymmetrically loaded beam.OOO' */ r 30" . .Hoy9u"r: for an having rne_pornt ol the beam zero slope. Ueca.el momenr diagram 'Vl\JrYlEt\I lYlEtrtv!'/ a The two fundamental rules for use of this method re: Mamenl diogrom in slope (radians) between tw6 points (a and b) of a loaded beam equals the 3rea under rhe moment curve. divided by E I. simply supported oeams thrs is a convenien! method with which to r. AKEA . The change The distance of point a of the beam to the tangent at point b of the Eeam equals the mo_ ment of the are.rse in this case the slope of the beam is zero at the mid_ span (b) and the distance from a to the tansent at b equals the maximum deflectionwe are see'i<ins.'=. ' i This a vcry useful tool for engineers and is il_ in Figure.
2.000.000 EI .#+s!s 60Ei _ 150. Figure 14..500. 3. about point 90.000 EI CONJUGATE BEAM . multiplied by the horizontal distance from point zero to point 80. To find this distance (yso).00030 _ 9. 4.000 = Er = JlL 60" gives the total deflection at point zero of _ 9. in other words it is loaded with the M/EI of the real beam. I . This angle then. This is not the actual deflection. This becomesyr. and defines the vertical deflection (yr) at point zero.l. the bending moment dia_ gram of the real beam is constructed. talie the moments.2.E: (15. 2.000'(r0) / 100 i rE1.t point 30 is not level. the load on rhis is the moment ofthe real beam divideO by the E I of the real beam." _ (30. T*t2 *yl 90 and the tangent to the deflection curve at point 30. A substi_ tutional beam or conjugate beam is then setup. because the slope of the deflect ion curve . A hinge wiihout o) no moment support becouse  b) groduol chonge in sheor hence ot point of zero this is terminote or stoticol ly indeterminote o int of moximum moment ierminole woys stolico . Simply supported ends becouse  o) zero momeni b) moximum sheor Free ends becouse o) zero defleciion b) zero slope Free ends  o) zero moment b) zero sheor hence no supporf Fixed ends becouse o) o moximum deflection b) o moximum slope Interior supporls of o continuous beom o) no deflection b) groduol chonge in slope  o) o moximum moment b) o moximum sheor hence o supporl 4.ETThe angle of this tangent line to the horizon (dro) is then found by dividing this vertical distance (yeo) by the horizontal distance between point 30 and point OO. i!.' 6"n Adding this to the EI initial displacement_ _ 4. 3..000 y= 5.V\ETHOD This angle (dro) is the same to the left of point 30. 'ves the veftical displacement (yr).000. of the area of the moment diagram from point 30 to point gO. Simple supported ends o) zero deflection b) moximum slopes Fixed ends l. TABLE IIl using this method.000}(30)(20) vr = dro 30 _ 150.000) (30r (20) 9.000 'lEt .000.98 / Lood Stress Anolysis point 30.\3l.COMPARATIVE REAL BEAM CONDITIONS OF REAL AND CONJUGATE BEAMS CONJUGATE BEAM l. yeo = QgEglCE 2Er First find the vertical distance between point (x {x=0) = 30) f=30"J FIGURE I4 ir60\ \3/ {15. This slope is yet to be rund.
A F.=0 " ..99 TABLE 2  TYPICAL REAL BEAMS AND CORRESPONDING CONJUGATE BEAMS Reol Eeom €oniugote Beom a =oI.. /.=o I A R.*.Oeffection by Eendins / 2.=0X 4 e.\n V"'" M. 3. I A. I M.a.'.o 0."}{VL {} 't=ut "7 r.fi[IIITII1IIJM M.=e.=o R.^\. =d. .=0 P _A A i D _A P r. { rl P 0.li""Y" e. P n =0 U^. v Y p D 9 n Mr=0 v .=oFl4i'_^ I o'tr#e.
ro=0 { _TT_ r 50. The above statements of condition may be reversed. Some examples of real beams and their corresponding conjugate beams ale presented in Table 2. The real beam could have variable I. This is then divided by E I ofthe real beam for the load on the conjugate beam shown next. To find the right hand reaction (Rso) take moments. The last example in Table 2 is similar to the Problem 1 beam to which several methods of solvine deflection have already been applied. it will be possible to reasonthe nature ol the support of the conjugate beam.qgg_) (30)(40) _ :\ EI I .000 t/. and without this hinge the Conjugate Beam Method would not be workable.'?. The length of the conjugate beam equals the length of the real beam. Heretheconl jugate beam is hinged at the point ofsecond support of the real beam.2. where the real beam moment is first diaerimmed.l. o The sum of moments about any point of the conjugate beam equals zero. See Iigure 16.30.hence it is di rected downward. . The load at any point ofthe conjugate beam equals the moment of the real.0"+ 30" l Conjugote beom with its lood Tt. 4. The sum of forces acting in any one direction on the conjugate beam equals zero. Rgo=  Rgo(60) = o 150. about point 30. 5. Sjnce thc sum of vertical forces equals zero. onthe conjugate beam between points 30 and 90.Ibs EI FIGUR E ]6 This negative sign means the reaction is directed opposite to our original assumption. The comparative statements of Table 1 will help in setting up the conjugate beam. 2.000 in. The vertical shear at any point of the conjugate beam equals the slope ofthe real beam at the same point.000"i* FIGURE I5 Five conditions must be met: 1...^ /80\ :\ El / \3/ 2\ EI i \3/ f f :+. Since: SM. Notice that the support ofthe conjugate beam can be very unlike the support of the real beam./:o\ I /.'_ FMoment diogrom so" 1. The bending moment at any point of the conjugate beam equals the deflection of the real. There are two equations of equilibrium. By knowing some of the conditions of the real The same Problem 1 is illustrated in Figure 15.000\.000\ .000. Vrr mav be found. beam divided by the E I of the real beam at the same point.^.9lO / [ood ond Stress Anolysis r 5. beam.zo"l of reol beom l*. 30. 3. . The conjugate beam must be so supported that conditions 4 and 5 are satisfied. beam at the same point.
. l rnches 2. = 150.ooo .*) of the real beam. )r. 13.'"'\l7.Deflecrion by Bending / 2.. Jm!\=__Ellnches would be.o00 x' .000 in.5... anO tfte Ois_ between talce9f this point of manimum point g0 is set as xr. ." or A. . [hioo'1 . 24.r/x. xr..lls .15. rs0.'* l/ljlirrx)\.= ..'."^ lll: nowever.4?o. By observation this would r of occur somewhere points 60 anO gO.000.. aiin'.( +t H inge t fu. See Figure 1?. :\Er)'""'.E Ii l30 / xt 250 The left hand moment .000 in. . L This positive sign means original assumption was correct and shear is directed upward. the solution of rhis problem.3Jbs .5+l l* 65s" ____+_ 500 = =+ FIGURE I9 2.qo.(X)t) in. DEFTECTION OF BEAAAS WITH SECTIONS 'VIUTTIPLE _ Sometimes the beam under consideration for de_ flection does not have auniform cross_section.'\ .' The moment of the conjugate beam at this point rra."diioJiiru moment of the conjugate beam tfrroughout its lengthl The maximum deflection of the real beam on the Z.T"y be found by tanrng momenrs oI rhe rsorared element.000.450.500.. 30" tr .\. J' = 13.000 xrt = 600 and: *"a1ery5 na xr = 24.30. See Figure dellection from 18.lo=+___El rlght sidc occurs at thesamelrornraszero she c (.. FIGURE I8 Since: p _ ''"" 150.ooo /1 /x.2\ EI \30/'""\T/ + Elis =ll:!!94\.i.. Figure 19 .000 EI l.500.... The alea moment method for deflection is used as before.9_ll upw:rr{r) i. between points ze. = * t'o. :j_EI _ The deflection of the real beam ar pornt zero (y. ugi=1" 1 ".ssunrc l5O. hence: "itti" 2.(M") of the conjugate 9"1.':':g t' :T1@t.'v..000\/ xr\ r lsoono '':"" o = t \.000"= lTFIGURE I7 !v=0 l/.oo=t '"'''0.450.T .."."^.) alld therefore the maximum deflection (y. "'!\ :\ t:t / EI /''"'+Tl='j . to get the deflection at orher points ii would be necessary to continue thi" lvo"t.onJugsle beam.. or equals the moment of the conjugate b""_ point (M").3lbs _ _ .= J/rs.ro and g0.
10 (. Then: ( Vr =.0000245 (negative) The M/EI for the part of the shaft havinq a 2" dia has a maximum value of__ M ET (max. aIthough it is omitted in the following example: vertical shear is zero. but must be found.58 ina l= 3. Fig.000188  .785 in'  M (*) = (30.Yz (10. but the proper moment of inertia (I) for each section is used.000 042 5 A4\ dioo'.d6m:T0 = . _ 10 (.a X 0000a15)10 o = .000 002 65 674" Yr ^ llB=1:r . 000. These reaction values are then entered on the conjugate beam (first diagram.00000837 ) 614" 0 = I . and is the same point where vertical shear (V) ofthe conjugate beam (M/EI diagram) is zero.000 008 37 . = 0 .#Shrtr.0000425) Problem 2 = .000055 although it is not needed in this case.) (. (See third diagram. therefore it occurs somewhere between B and D. The weight of the shaft should be considered.0000425 ) 23.3. At point D. Fig.98 ina . ) The point of maximum deflection (X) will not be at midspan. 21)..41" .+=.912 / Lood ond 5tress Anolysis 4" Dta 3" dia his I mtximum value of EJ  = . (See second diagram.j = .00000265 Thus a : . See Table 1.2.00000265) 15" (10") (..0000425 a a 4" dia between the two concentrated loads.005636 30 =.000188 '{ FIGURE 20 similar manner. 000) (. To do this. uniform value of TheM/EI across the part of the shaft having = and .000188 .Y.) . thc bending moment on the real beam rt each of several points is divided by thecorrespondingEloftheshaft.00000837 1000 = 12. the vertical shear isVD = Rn the area ofconjugate beam section between BandD = 000188 Now find the point on the conjugate beam where  7:: . Fig. ?85 We have passed the point of zero shear. 2f). Thispoint is always where the slope of the real beam (d) is zero.600. ha. 10 00 = (30..000002125 _ The M/EI acoss the part of the shaft having X 9. First find end reactions of the conjugate beam. 20. R" is found to be . Let X = distance to point of zero shear from point B.000002125 x. take moments about C: This sum must equal zero: l/ )Mt:=0 = + Re (30'.o' \E In constructingthe coDjuglte beam.000188 .
n...e...41. on the con_ firese shown in the third view of Figure Zf. Eacb . .s€gment of bending momen! causes the oeam In^this segment to bend or rotate. = d. Mn .ue of shear at other pornts ire jugate beam can be found similirly..rertia. E I. B and X on the conjugate (M/EI) diagram. and also equals the moment about B ofthei.. is h.000 042 5 / 2.The resultant vertical movement (h. *l O_EFI"ECTION 5ECTION OF BEAM WITH VARIABTE . at the left end of the beam.9 _tg Shear' Slope Deflection I = maximum . The area moment method_may be used very nicely to find the deflection or oeams in which no beom olso of reol beom FIG URE 22 = of conjugote slope dioorom g The angle between the .0000425 = %.re" b". .000 188 Sheor diogrom portion ofthe beam has a constant moment of i. = .001178'...000 008 3Z The val. The angle ot bend ..) of the load.So. or de( lect r an . Thus.001178" x 8. The deflection of the real beam at point X equals the verticrl distance (h) of B from tangent of X.\: Defle<rion by Bending .frl"" lfr" dia8ram of the conjugare ieu. ). 4. .' s X. =rihil?Tlre tangenrs at A and B = moment diasram between Aand "r.4r (To =. "qu.  M.tro it 1]rear srope dragram of the real beam. = area ofmomentdiagram ofthis segmEnt divided by EI. FIGURE 23 x..r.whereX=9..oooo.. . i]t po int . * ...:HtLif}?f.t" " . i3i: o"' into 10 ormoresesments 100= bearvt Deflection curve of shoft FIGURE 2I Jiogrom M.
sM"X.25 4. Find the maximum deflection. 'I husj 12 b d.ZO lJt.b 10.000  . A_:M"X'S EI" (12 ) and similarly for other segments._ = (2Y. FIGURE 25 . and this sum is multiplied give the total deflection. having a constant width of 1" and a variable depth of 2" at the outer ends and increasing uniformly to 6" at 'idspan.r6 2.2..40 1l 15. t2 Restating the preceding. the vertical deflection of B is 1'r /a\3 = 11 = Z. M" 1y1" L r25 625 134 I 2 1.16 r3%" tt" r00# x l1ya"100#xr%"=1000 Total = = 83/r" = 875 1130 1080 r00+ x 13%"100+x3y4"=1000 882 4800 : ::::::l Problem 3 Total vertical deflection Now assume the beam to be a solid bar.11 = 624 950 found for each segmert. The formula components M". I" Note: MIis (13 ) Segment L.914 / lood ond 5tress Anolysis Each segment of the beam bends under its individual bending moment and its angle change causes '\e end of the beam to deflect. hv crrhctif'rfi^h.) 4800 30. using the ame loading as in previous problem. The greater the number of segments or divisions. t oial d9{lec+ion ol peof'l' FIGURE 27 ::2 de{lcction (v)rn€osured from le{+ end of bedrn(B) lhere lood (P) and The moment of inertia of each segment (I^) is taken at the sectional centroid ofthe segment.. del)ecl'on ol 9eovn FIGURE 26 ments. ^ Jhkr=E_l. These values 3 5 6 6Y{" 100" X 6V" 6. by. the more accurate will be the answer. The total deflection at the end ofthe beam equals the sum of the deflections at the end of the beam caused by the angle change of each segment of the beam. Normally 10 divisions would give a fairly accurate FIGURE 24 Divide the length of the beam into l2 equal seg result. and In are easier to handle in table form: x" i i%" 100* x 331" r00* x M^ X" M"X. Since the beam has a uniform width (b) of1'r and the depth (d") of each section is obtainedby simple geometry.78 are added together.000. X". Moment.00040" .
dividujl ioad can be used. First. then.etc. from this. e. Figure 31. membe. FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 Moximum deflection Deflectron ot m iddle .9ls 9. . This is justified. The follo*. itis found r. wiII requi re the member to have a certain section (Ir. taken one at a time. supported beam with a single concentrated load ai "i. each indi vidual load.nar each load. sincerhedeflectionat midpoint or centerline is almost as great as the .). complex. of.members subjected to bending loads is 'rl. Unless there are nomore than tlvo loads of equal value and equal distance from the ends.pi..l cause jt FIGUR E 3I FIGURE 32 . taken one al a time.deflection.o formulas may be used to find . 12.rust fifst be found. Any_torque or oase wrt. will cause a certain amount of deflection at the middle or center_ each load. This principle of adding deflections maybe used rn a leverse manner to find the required section of the. consider onty the deflection at the middle or centerline of the member.30). Most bases have more than two loads (Fig.r:i*1. a simple method of adding the required moments of ineftia required for each i. The moment of inertia (I) ofthe beam section re_ couple appljed horizonral to lhe to deflect vertically. FIGURE 30 ve rtical Ioads withir this allowable v€rtical deflecrion (A) will equal the suri ot the individual moments oI inertia (I.ing t\r. The total deflection at the centerline will . Secondly. For a given size member. This can be handled in the same manner. rather thanthe maxi_ mum deflecrion at some point which is difficuh to determine.r (I). the greatest devialion coming within 1or 270 ofthisvalue. the requiredmomeni of inertia of the member foreachtorque actins ") separately is found and added intothetotaf requirel ment for the property of the section (I). the maximum deflection is found. The ma\imum deflection usually does not oc"cur at the middle or centerline of the base (Fig. Two things can be done to simplify this pro'blem.to support alI of the "aosed'by .j sum of these individual deflections equal quired. Fora given allowable dellection (A) at the centerline. 2S).the. lne onequarter point has a deflection at centerline = 98. The point of m&\imum deflection .570 of the maximum deflection.base (Fig. For example.) iequired for the several loads. the c:tlculation of the mnKimum de_ flcction of . Ftgure 32.Oeffection by Bending / 2. DEsIGNING A BA5E TO REsIsT BENDING Nortnxllv. 29). existing bexm tables jn nandDootis do not cover this problem.
.$S .. .li \ t<lr t)i d <l rl !lP r.' NSo I.t € " ! \ \ $! I \T R$  i! \.lil d \/ 6)\ Y9t$r$i lr qr!\S(.l' l.i{ Pli 3 .gE \s/ " {. i:\ \r = E o UJ ('11 Q< ".916 / Lood Stress Anolysis $$$ I E d! z F \l : q 6 '$fl$ 5us o =\ \:_.. 833is3$i8i1ideitb f. i.2. \ l \ i o . 7 IJJ O ".r*. OV{ b ll'lrlrlrl'lrl.lil..i.rS * e...l.. rl \ I !l St ol RI PI I €1 Nl UJ il s \l IL tr trJ 7 .. t I \ I i IJJ I = C.9 H "..$. { it I &r lD .t \\r( P " I ilr Si "S "q ss$$ $ ii$$ { i I *! * ia oo@oooo . !L Ia$ \ Uil \s/d "' {$a ii tiit.
783 't .896 .476 .23 .41 . 6. use the constant B and substitute into the second formula.7500 6.9_ll  VALUES OF CONSIANTS (A ond B B) FOR SIMPLIFIED FORMULAS (16 ond lZ) B K K x I 5.898 2.003 .768 3.031 r .38 (n2 x l0.04 r .4700 . 1a K".6243 I .449 2.22 .045 r l0ro 3. Consider the continuous beam represented by the diagram at Figure B4a. When a force is applied to the member.rom the value oi K for anv given Ioad (P).40 .842 . 1.s theorem.83r2 .t some other point.444 6.942 .y *"8/ For each couple I./A L r1 where: .03 1.28 .45 .063 3.928 5.642 1.080 2.603 .0825 /56 . According to Maxwell.944 )1 I .43 .64) 2.2083 r l0rtr .4166 . IO.813 roa . t0t I .s Theorem of Reciprocal Deflections may be used to find the reactions of a continuous beam or frame.627 .30 4.38r I . f.983 . reactjons of the supports for various positions of the load (P.876 the individual properties For each force ^f tha ca^+i^n /I \ . use the constant A and substitute into the first formula.204 6.49 3.06 1 ..a7Q 5.10 2.880 6.076 2.801 2..63l 5. When a couple is applied to the member.36 .6133 .209 176 5. L is the span or ]ength of beam between supports.27 .215 .Dellecrion by Bending TABLE 3 / 2.928 6.774 1.053 . the deftection of a beam at any given point due to a load on the oeam o.079 5.33 5. and is especially adaptable to model analysrs.000 . A shorter method would be to make use of the nomograph in Figure 33.26 . equals the denection when tbe load was first appljed jf the load is shifted ro the po int where the deflection was fi rst met su red.063 2.47 .030 .000 . the substitute constant A or B ii obtained from Table B. 0 0 2.01 .0 .616 4. L The two formulas have been simplified into the formulas given below in which the expression K" now_produces a constant (A or B) which is found in Table 3For each force For each couple .0t6 .588 1 .120 x loj r 6. Theproblemhere is to find the.) .940 7. The value of K" is equal to the ratio a. '^n.a6". where an is the distance from thqpoint at which the specific force or couple is applied to the nearest point of support.333 ./L. 680 6.244 4.81 50 .520 1.692 6.34 .847 3.9425 .3221 1' .043 2.224 .430 6.46 .301 .07 1.453 4. INFTUENCE IINE FOR REACTIONS Maxwe1l.268 r .477 2.750 6.8900 .083 2.42 1.038 4. = c'L.48 .7 6.t18 4.392 6.963 1 I.152 2.070 x loj t8 3.=J:L136.
T (c) r FIGURE 34 Since P. 34c) is displaced in the same direction and at th? same point as the reaction inquestion. . = P"Ab Ad of Figures g4b and 34c.d (P) at point x will be proportional to the ratio of the two ordinates at points x and 1of the deflection curve_ Disploce wire o1 Rr 1.1b lnd l4c constitute a simple reversal . if P" = Pr..1 . then Ar = A" In other words the deflection at point 1 (Ar) due to the load (Pu) at point x. This concept supplies a very useful tool for findinq in_ lluence lines for reJ. This means that if the model beam (as in Fig.A.2. = Pr and Ar = A. There is a similar relationship between an applied load or moment and the resulting rotation of a real beam. point I is R.zAa. r'' . or shear. equals the deflection at Doint x and. Figure 34b and 34c. By observarion brrng. where: PrA" = P"Ar {A. When this state of equality is reachei. This is called an <influence curve".918 / Loqd ond Stress Anolysis of points at which the pressure is applied. in order to .cr '= ' . Considering the conditions of the real beam representedby Figl ure 34a. l.r at point (b) j supporred and the reaction at rhis Doint is: I of (c) equal to Ab at point 1 of (b). R.ctions. deflections.A. the interest is in reactions. the resultins deflection curve becomes the plot ofthe reaction aE the load is moved across the length of the beam.. Figures 3.rl rl\rUKf J) .P. =I yr" Smoll wire Drowing boord .) due to the same amount of load (p") applied to poinr t.. In this case. the reaction (Rr) at point 1 due to I lo.: 18) ( This relationship is illustrated by the diagrams.^ ^ a P. che load ( P") at poinr I of (c) must be reduced by the rario: Ar.A. mom6n[s.
5'r >'/ i. . tTt R. The influence curve for the central reaction (R:) may also be found in the same manner.' 3 . pz For continuous beams of constant cross_ section.r:r:l .wire P.o. =r.g_19 . A load diagram ofthe real beam is shown at the bottom..l beam "f End ploie to mouni cylinders el I l @l ^l G)r @l \?.hown immediately below the model. The final value for the reaction (Rr) is equal to he sum of actual applied forces multiplied by the he ratio of their ordinates of this curvl to th6 e.. Deflection curve of the wire rnoO"il" shown first and then the load diagram th". tor exemple .. mav be set up on a drswing board."./Y . This is ."* Slde View . : _ a2 original displacement at Rt . The point of the model beam at the reaction in truestion (Rr) is raised upward some convenient 'Ilsrance.ll I In othe r words: Delleclion by Bending / 2.i]l . See Figure 96. model. *'=+P'* FIGURE 36 + P. Yr" = ).ooo ros 2 i /7 '\ t4. Notice that the thumb taclis used for supports of the wire must be located ver_ ticallv so as to function in the opposite direction lo reections on the real beam...l FIGURE 37 Beoring Supporl Top View 3o. !vrrn rne wr re beam supported by thumb ttcks spaced so as to represent the supports on the real beam.i" or I"..{r9) . _{_1{oo rb' I r:zsoot. and the deflection :urve of the wire beam is tracedinpencil.. See Figure 35.
displace the end of the wire a grven amount as shown.. appears computed. SO.b00'Ibs.lh" start of the stroke (2) the force is BO.rot* '* wire ot R. find: .. ena ptate as a 4span continuous beam. . reactions R: and R:r. (4). rne orner two positions are in the exhaust stroke.920 / Lood ond Stress Anolysis appear on the (upper) load diagram. determine the each apptied toad (p) for rhe reaction at iltj"" "t dis1:lace the wire a given amount at . the thick_ ness of the web plates can then be found. See Figure 38. reactions Rr and Rr . prales. (5). OOO fU". where the criti&l di. The fatigue K factor is also Assuming the selection of T_1 steel. Problem 4  necessary to find the reactions oi tiis ubeam" since these resulting reactions are transferred into the 4 web plates and will determine their thj ckness_ The pumping cycle sequence is (1)..rr" Disploce wire ot R. and (3). . u. on the . (2). "*"ri"a Uy it" posirion (4) the force i. Usinc fatigue allowables for T1 butt weld in teo"io" i. From ine ordinates of this deflected wire.:nd.. The cylinder head plate ii attached to these crank bearing supports Uy eoo" of4 web plates. The portion of each appliEd toaa tpl io Uu transfemed.:. based on the loads at every % cf revolution. is i proportional to the ordinate of the deflection cirve under the load (p) and the given Oisptacemeni at Rr. it A housing_for a Spiston pump has 4 bearing ror the crank. Treating ttre cytlnder supporEs is .nj 1l the l""t ar . For the interior web plates. For the end web plates.. R. It is assumed thartheforce piston at the end of the stroke (1) is 1g?. 000 cycles. Thumb o..pEte are or rne deltection curve of a wire representine the beam.2. t'*"'l. 000.\ FIGURE 38 .0OO lbs.The reactionsfound web plates which support by comparing the ordinates ile. The complete computatjon of forces on the web in Table 4... loadedwitha combination of 5 concentrated loads from the pump cylinders.to the end web plaie lreaction n.i 2.
. 500) + (.Deflecrion by Bending TABLE4COMPUTATIONOF FORCES / 2. 02) (30.040 The ratio of minimum to maximum force is K = max min _ 14S.595 43.000) (+.97 0 + The ratio of minimum to maximum force is K Interior web plate.+ .000 137.000) + (.000 30.1r1)(rg?.352)(30.000 80.500) = + 24.000) (. 770 lbs 15.02)(80. 03) (80. 700 lbs (.695)(30.296)(80.. 500) D E  Ma\imum for"e is *lGJE6lG   (.060 19.500) (. by Gilligan and England.000 137.Fabricatiorj and Design of Structures of (14) (r9.02)(13?. E(+.695)(80.6t1 ^ _ I16. o0o) + (. i. 352) (r37.04)(30.500) (+.11) (30.000) 15. 569)(30.000)= + 31.569)(80.300) tWo Wo _ = Tl 145.950 (. 56) (r37.280 84. . s69)(13?.or use yri' plate fatigue allowcbles from . R.500) (.314.000) (+. 500) (r1. 000) (+. 500) (+1.280 1?.000) (+.171 allowable stress _ 16.r.04)(137.296)(13?.77 0 84.g_21 oN wE8 PLATES (Ftc. 03) (30. (1.1u)(80.000 80. 37) cylinder 1 2 3 4 137. u)(30.770 (14) (19.000) (r.11)(80.545 " or use %o . Rr A (+.000) (. 352) (80. ?50 (. 000) + (+03)(137.296)(30. s6)(30.04)(80. 11) 0. 695) (137.500 .3?.500 . 000) = + 100.500 Thickness of interior web plates allowable stress r .000 80.. 950 _ .000) = + 723. TS0 24.000) + (.750 = .520 (.000) = + 145. sinceP= . 100 psi tWo Wo and since .300 psi and.000 80 onn lJ c D E End web plate... Unite{ States Steel Corporation. plate Steel.P _ 84.500) + (.500 r37.500 one 30.8K _ = 19.100) ..  16.500 30.000 complete cycle 80.1?1) = P= 19.500 D E 0 30.50o) (. s6)(80. 000) rce is + (. 000) (+. 000) + (.000) (.
Assume a crosssection moment of inertia (I) of 2 x 11. the deflection of the free (rightl end is deiermined for a 1lb load placed at thal point: Aa = r00 3300 lbs 2.70 FIGURE 39 .36 + .36 .00 To determine the deflection of the overhung portion of this trailer.ion curve become the actual deflections at th.10 33! 37. Summing these incremental deflections gives the total defleetion: A _ = x rotfr (120).25 X tOr inches A wire model ofthis beam is held at the two suD_ ports (trailer hitch and the \a. free end as the 1lb load is moved across the length of the beam. Multiplying each of the loads on the leal beam bv the ordinate at that point gives the deftection at th6 Jree end caused by each loadonthereal beam.06 r.56 1.r.70 +2.650 . .06 rlao r 56 1.2.60 r.9 22 / Lood end Stress Anolysis INFLUENCE TABLE 5 POINT 0 tINE FOR DEFTECTION In like manner. This is called the influence line foi deflection at this Darticular point.262 . 401 150 + .  INCREMENTAL DEFLECTIONS OF REAL BEAM LOAD (LBS) 100 150 300 400 OTTDINATE x l0r 0 DCFLECTION AT FREE END 0 (IN.Using the standard beam formulaforthis type of beam.82 in. ) 3' 8l 15i  .60 1. The deflection curve is traced in pencil from this displaced wire beam.36" upward 1500* r500:J T1T . If a 1lb load is placed at a particular point on a beam. The outer end is displaced an amount equal to 3.60 r. Problem 5 II.Jtrl t# 5(30 thumb tacks on a drawing board. the useofawiremodel based on Maxwell's Theorem of Reciprocal Deflection is useful infindingthe deflections ofa beam under var_ ious loads or under a moving 1oad. the resulting deflection curve becomes the plot of the deflection (A) at this point as the 11b load ismoved acrossthe length of the beam. 1?0 r.heel assemblv) wiih = 2.1 ij= (L a a) . The ordinates ofthis resultins deflecl. ns2) (360  r2o) = 3. under the variou! loads.020 . See Table 5.360. Figure 39.030 .640 750 231 ?50 3?5  r.318 .2S on a suitable scale.
1 . right. whereas thl deflection due to bendi. vie. ..sEcTtoN 2. where c = # (bd. Normally deflection due to shear in the usual beam is igrxored because it represents a very small percentage of the entire deflection.3" .. I moment. ond by sheor. Deflection in beqm cousedbvbendino lefi. 2 Deflection coused bysheorincreoses lineorlyos length of beom.0z . which is shown in the Fig..ng increases very rapidly hand left of Figure 1. of Figure 1. This is unlike the deflection resulting from bending in a beam. but thotcqused bybending increoses qs ihe third power of beom length.iding action on a plane normalto the axis of the beam.) 100" Length of contilever beom (L) 120" 140" 160" Fig..+ rd.2" ' t. as shown in the rigbt hand view I.9" T 10" L I' ffi. Figure 2 shows that the deflection due to shear increases lineauv as the length of the beam increases.t" t.bd.1o Sheor Deflection in Beqms NATURE OF SHEAR DEFIECTION Shear stresses in a beam section cause a displacement or sl. _Ll tl T ii r'0"*1 = T l*ut 3 o PL] JEI PLa AE.
f I{\F \A _l\l . as a third power of the lensth of the beam. 30 X l0r kips/in. this particular area has negligible effect on the deflection due to shear (A").L= tL o = oreo beyond neutrol oxis y = distonce belween center of A grovity of this oreo ond neutrol oxis of entire crosssection totol oreo of section moment of inertio of section iotol thickness of web sheor modulus of elosticity sheor stroin = = Form foctoro = !g Jo. the shear strain (e.\AINING SHEAR DEFTECTION 0. = t = sheor siress Fis. 4 foctor for sheor deflection in builtup beoms. = 33. although the shear yield strength is much lower than the tensile yield strength of the same material. Nj r\\r\\  J.5 \ 10r kips.) increases rapidly and the shear strength inc!eases because of strainhardenrng.".zin'? = E= E.lO2 / Lood ond Slress Anolysis t40 ! 5 o . rr 0.).20 Sheor stroin (e.2. in. Fig.  PLa Sheor stress (t) r t _ N N __fl____+__ N il n il tl tl A=dL= e. DETER. /vov\ T/ \ ovA E.rin is rather simple. Since there is practically no shear stress in the flange area. After the shear yietd strength is reached.rn o. some kind of a form factor (a) must be determined. For this reason the deflection due to shear is not an important factor except for extremely short spans where deflection due to bending dropJ off to a very smalI value. The theory of deflection caused bv shear stress However. In all cases.' in: 0. l'y] Form ri i= : €._ c G' "Nsts\\. 3 Sheor stresssiroin diogrom. the actual determination d= A L = ar 5 (os s o=q Sheor deflection of contilever > 0) beom with concentroted lood _n t I ^ F Er = : or Pd .0 kips.30 2. .3 (Poisson s rotio) on the shear distribution across the cross_section of the member and also the value of the shear stress (r). The deflection due to shear is dependent entirelv of the shear stresses and their distribution across the beam section (which two factors cause the deflection) is more difficult. Figure 3 shows the shear stressstrain diagram which is similar to the usual stressstrain diagram. and this is simply a matter of expressing the distribution of shear stress throughout the web of the section. = I 1.
= modulus of elasticity in shear (steel = 12.t compute area (A) in this formula because it wlll cancel out when used in the formulas for shear deflection. unilbrm load (w) (1) . concentrated load (P) . 5opplies.nln.  bdr. lbs. Don. where Figure 5 applies. at each crosssection to the shearing strain i6.r _!he average shearing srress (i.000./linear in. ais a factor with whi:l.) at the centroid of the crosssectrons. (5) w = distributed load. (2) l.On this beam the form factor (q) for beam or box would be: o an I =! 166. The slope of the deflection curve (r) is equal.Simply Simply supported beam.*Tl I urn t 1 k\\\\\\\\\\:i NSSSST Fig.) must be muttiplied in order to obtain the shearing stress (7. lbs A = area of entire seciion E.. brokes. .1O3 The following formulas a.000 psi) basis. + tdrr) . Sheqr deflection must be computed overoll deflection on the moin slide. 5 BeomsectionsforwhichEq.. . .) at the centroid ofthis crosssection. i in* i.re valid for several supported beam.Sheor tvpes of beams and loadingl De f lectio n in Beoms / 2. . concentrated load (p) (4) where: P = total load. press Steel weldmenis ploy on importont porf in modern hightonnoge os pqrt of the .. Cantilever beam: uniform load (w) Cantilever beam.
Fresh opprooch to design resulted in nut topper being entirely orc welded struciurolly. perrormonce.21O4 / Lood ond 5tress Anolvsis Redesign c of eyeletiing mo hine permitted use of shortrun slomp ings ond q I lwe lded frome. . Driving 79 spindles. ihe mochine depends heov ily on hig h rio id ity for superior Reorview ofnuitopping mochine shows rib brocing on heod for increosed stiffness. Mqc hine hos improved oppeoron ce. long serv ice I ife ond monufociuring cost on ly 1/3 thot of previous design. Bose incorporofes thickplote members we lded up for needed rigidity.
o"= i n the same di rection as the desi red :1iil ". Thus..9. Figures22to25. This same method may Ue e? tended to a curved cantilever beam of i.rotate (4")..u"irbi" method was used to find the deflection ofa straight section. is comparable to two equal canti_ rever Deams connected end to end.^ 2. and (M') applied to  to the segment causes it . rs See Figure 1.:yl"d. the beam l:"::li.SECTION 2. same direction as the right angles to the line passing through lo..to to the segment. AREA FOR CURVED CANTITEVER BEA'VI 'YIO'\AENT 'IAETHOD In Sect.. and..i.d (p).h: "iqt" distance (y") trd" .(1) deflectioD (A.(2) .f"oT .pass: l:". of vqrioble section. at risht angies to the tin.the orstance ...19rnen1 . the area moment cantilever beam. 2.resultingdeflection is to be aetermineA the the ii :T.?ll:^_. Fig. the pre_ diction of deflection in a curved beam cai be approached in a manner similar to finding the de_ flection in a straight cantilever beam. I To find deflecfion of curved conii lever beom .) at the point of . is divided into 10 segments and the monent of ineriia (r") 3^f determined (s) lgrstl for each segment.Y:'=+# and placed . The moment applied to any segment ofthebeam apptied force (p) multiplied by the l:^.._Thewhere beam .) are determined for eachmoment 10 of the segments in table formIn most cases.l ?l rotation of murnpried by the to the l"e". for example."s"ot(d.. first divide it into segments of equol leng th. DESIGN APPROACH A syrnmetrical beam forming a single continuous arc. The distances (X" and y") and the of rnertia (I.. and in the This."_q_yl (X"). measured lrom and at  As before. Def f ection of Curved Beqms I.%i:.
l^"g _q"^uT of 100.^ \rti551.a .2. E4I.d EI" I*= A=315.28 1. From this the total deflection (A) is found: 2 3 4 5 I5 29 32 5'.000 The total vertical deflection (A) is needed on a that will carry a maxirnum load (p) "Y. 3 .000 lbs. _/100. 53 6 7 8 550 800 800 DAU .i Iro rtg. and ""g"ni I" . of pxil€I.uu 0. Z For deflection of simple curved beom.oe 2 {d= A_Ps\tX". Fig.zI" are found and totaled..3 69'r = Deflection Solving of Curved Beoms for def lection by using formulo A =E> D. complete the computation.. Given the lelgth (s) = 10" and the various values of i. 48 1.JO6 29 15 5 1. 4 or nomogroph.04 .2L 1.28 7. See Figure 2.2r u. w2 firsi colculoie votue of XfilIn by using stiffness nomogroph grophicolly find votue T.04 1.llZ / Lood ond Srress Anolysis the deflection to be determined is in line with the applied force so that these two distances are equal and the formula becomes llP. 48 I 10 1t9 7. 119 in. use Eq.6557 rr. x 10\ .rX"2 E4 L Problem 1 L ' (3) The values of X^r.
L l^ E eF €.l gi:l*' o. oii \"3 . I t I : 8B t.: 1./ 2. .. Lr_ oo X Q 3.> oi == .c _P <.6!i@ €ooq) s o tJ. . c ug e.tt.'7 ii. E * *<'1..t .E:_.l. oeggg lcqEEo t\ oo o9 6 ..ll_3 <t'.Deflection of Curved Beorns.qt \JE z.= e ^ I e E E i 8 i.' E. I I 6 8 b i _ i .I ..)< F>r u o Ltr :u sl ol I I I (. \_.. !se@ e= 6Eo 8 .
Figure 4.3 66r Total vertical deflection (bending + shear) Ar=A"+2(Ah+ A"+Ad) = . or a better method might be to break the frame down into its several striieht sections and compute the total deflection as inFigure 5.64)' (112.2.. compute the maximum vertical deflection..16r" 2(. and the same form of table.64) (2. the computation can be consideratly itrorteriea witn no significant loss of accuracy. (1. Deflection due to axial elongation of upright AgE 11 _ A 600ton press is essentially a (C" frame.08 66 = 0. a prictical problem in " C" frame deflection.400) .9)  y P={" . Complete the computation. s.multiplied by s to give the total vertical ___ Many "C. 4. The precedins method for curved beams may be used tj computE the deflection. X. need be computed for only the first five segment sections. = 10 x ..By using the stiffness nomograph.200. 3. are obtained from the nomograph for PX"2. DEFTECTION OF "C'' FRAAAES readily seen that in the case of a beam that is symmetrical above and below the center of curvature. Figure 3.0288 + . = . With the conditions ipecified in the Readi..000) (63.Ei r./EL for each seg'ment and entered ii tUi tast column of the table. below.3 I" 119 15 23 29 32 29 23 15 5 P X.' 0006 003 6 EI^ 3EIr 216 358 550 800 800 DbU 0048 0050 43 0043 00 _ = 3(30 (1.200.00732 " Deflection due to bending p T . the same values for p.64)3 x 106) (185. and I". s ! PX"' E I...100) 5 6 7 8 .114 / Lood q nd Stress Anolysis Continuation of Problem I .62) 2(30 x 106) (317. SIMPTIFICATION USING NOMOGRAPH It is .0392) .osoo (555)(12 X 106) A=.000) (63. These are then added and lh"jr :.200.ngs oellectton 9nonnnrrrroao"r (615) (30 x 106) = Problem 2 .0150 + . return to Problem 3. Segrnent 1 2 3 5 2EIz _ = (1.01503 " I 358 2L6 119 10 0050 0048 0036 0006 Deflection due to shear ^ _ PLrc Ar E. frames resemble a series ofstraisht sections rather than a curved beam. The remain_ ing five will be of same value in reverse order. Problem 3 drawing.. _ After review of the procedure given in Figure 5.000) (63.2 T " Use the same beam example as in problem 1.0288 " D T .u. The nomograph is based on the modified formuia: A=" J PX"t " EI.00?3 + =.r/L. the value of X.
= 317 .'C.31" I N.9 Fig.A._Jl rl {l I I { I 48" 6: + l. = 615 in? ina 48t' li = 185. .440 A.' frqme construction. See problem 2.t. T_ _T 6'l 20. ll 1".Deflection of Curved Beoms / 2.100 ina Form foctor for verticol sheor.ll5 . a = 2. 4 Press of essentiolly .
'=.){L. 1 \ ) Due to rototion of veriicol..ll6 / Loqd qnd Srress Anolysis FIG.l Deflection Due to Axiol Elon!otion of Uprighr PI A.L. ):s I t .E A.2. )1.member A5 = d L.?) N N _a _ P L..+ Ad) ._bd?+rd. oyA It lor box beom section TIT d tt ld. r'l "= 8il (bd. A _ _llf. N 'See preceding Section on Sheor Deflection Totol Verticol Deflection (Bending * Sheor) A.. a.. t0t Deflection Due to Bending ll llt=+ (P t. Dt 2l Due to octing os o contilever beom %(P . 5 FINDING DEFLECTION OF 'C" FRAME F.) ^ il De0ection Due to Sheor 'Form foctor for o r'o' To.X% r. = A" + 2 (Ab+ A.
""" lpr ::::1:: bl/.f by rhe portion in" 119i". Values indicated onthis typical :l^:. 425 k=4.000.1" tgt is abovein Fisure 2.).u strength yrerd _. the other free both . . oucRlrng is said to be inelastic. the "r ""rr"e'i" ii. When the ratio of plate width to leng1h (b/a) is .) must be used in some fo. usually = 0.mto repiace Young's or secant modulus (E) in the torrnuL]o.20 or less._ This 1: llrts stress: to is represented by the portion ::. Buckling of flat plates may be experienced wnen tne ptate is excessively stressed in compres_ sron along opposite edges. it can be ignored and the following values ofkapply: edge compression. 3) k usually more practical to assume the is (No.") can be found from is the or (No.=. Thii necessitates establishment of values for the crit_ ical buckling stress in compression (o_) and in shear (7*).be19w the proportional limit(op). For all practical purposes this problem i"ri:9 simplified by limiting can.g_*.rdi1C. inches v = Poisson's ratio (for steel.?."0. rf ihe reiulting :"1r".+#.42 k=6. BUCKTING STRESS CURVES collapse of the plate :lt:. CAUsEs OF BUCKLTNG . being a trial and erro. suoJect to compression (d.3) k = constant.sides simply supported one side simply supported.rn this case is difficult.".000 psi. depends upon plate shape b. buck_ rng rs said to be elastic and is confined to a port_ '. determining o* . t) k = 0.000 psi) = thickness of plate. Since the value of the tangent modulus (Er) l:l^ "_i lh" plate away from the "uppori"J'"i0".It sroes srmpty supported. Volues of k for Buckling Formulo (Compression) 2 2.9? followins: The critical compressive stress of a plate when .. simply supported. the orner lixed both sides fixed . inches varies wirh the stress (o). . or in shear uniformlv distributed around all edges of the plate. Ii Compression Jh".t and ciuisan. inches a = length of plate.00. resulting critical stress (d_) from this I9lmyra ':.to "Design__Manual for High Strength A? (mi]d) steel. Here.277 BUCKTING OF PTATES IN EDGE COMPRESSION k= 5.1::o. . hariing a "4lTM of 33.00 k = L.t 2 Buckling of Plotes I. to the yield strength (o.. the solution ofthe form_ ura. the k= 0. B D the proportional Ytll" limit (o. Pli:. that one srde other free one side fixed. Jhe horizontal line (A to B) is the limit of the . tangeni modulus (E. not mean complete b = width of plate.r . present day resting pattern of lldl"rl:.425 = 4./a and support of sides. be the maximum or tne critical buckling stress {oa) resultine value from rne rormula. FIGURE I 6J where: f t = mo^!ul1s of elasticity in compression (Steel = 30.SECTON 2.:. 3. that th€ buckling stress Figure 2 reprel sents the actual curve of hat plates in .
to All of this is expressed in terms of the factor The curve from B o".= additional steels having yield strengths irom 33. to C is b/t F see Table r' n?? The curve from C to D is ?570 of the critical buckling stress forDula.8". for steels of various yield strengths.) can be read directly from the curves of this ficure.6.8orn b/t for plotes in edge comression. OOO psi to 100.000 30.8o. Here o.. lig""9 3 is .is assumed equal Or. or: o.000 Llri /_l tu 20 30 torio $ \tk 40 50 = 60 Criticol buckling compressive stress {o. just an enlargement of Figure 2.000 psi yield strength(o").= 1. TABLE 2  Vk l TABLE I.000 psi. Figure 1. I'actors needed for the formulas of curves in Figure 2.^ L For any given ratio of plate width to thickness (b/t). 33. I. with .2122 / Lood ond Stress Anolysis dt' = dY 33. are given in Tab1e 2.  I qaeq1. l\ vk/l . *n*".) for AZ sreel hoving o.. o*=1. the critical buckling stress (oc. 5790 3890 I 5720 o.n!# yk .  FACTORS FOR BUCKLING FORMULAS BUCKLING STRESS FORMULAS (coMPRESstON) Criticol Buckling Compressive Yield Shengih of Steel d. = l. psi Porlion of Curve Foclor b/r Stress (d) Deterrnined by AtoB o ro !!?g \. o".000 '12 r  4434 lrutLr  I o 10.75E:x_ /r )' 12 (1 yr)\b/ Ir*r1.000 Fig.=@ 4770 CroD @ and over ll uznl ". 2 Buckling stress curves 20.
000 or:90.5r. = 60.s 3 40. .l23 00.nzs) ..000 r0 Both Supported 5 20 30 40 ttll\lllli\* 50 zo 8b eb rdo Rotio b/i ito.000 20. = 70.000 o.000 o.000 = 100. "ol$ r 0.9 p00 55p00 50 p00 [5poo ^ uoPo" .000 = 80. 3 Buckling stress curves (plotes in edge compression) for vorious steels.Buckling ol Plotes oy r / Z. (u=ol (r =.000 60 .000 \oo poo 90 p00 . lsupporfed&lfree Fig.
0 and thus exceeds tE: the value of 31.000 13.) =33.b/t.8 7.0 h?n 80 40 At this stress.fo.ted sides could still be loaded up to thetield point io.000 33. is subjecied to a com_ pressive load.4 8.124 / Lood ond Stress Anolysis TABLE 4 .7 I ll 36.6 & r3 M 36 40 34 40 '10. simply suppoded along both sides. .000 r 00. A7 steel )rnce rne ratio b/t is 40..5 for point C. somewhat more Iiberal values ol b/t are recognized.? maximurn value (point B) at which tbe crrrrcal buckting stress (oc. Pq so stress. the following formula must be used o.. the Other Edge Free oF b/I ly TAELE 3  LtMtTtNG VALUES OF by' (CODE) Yield ie ld 5h engih Both Edges 5 imp Psi Supported ide Conditions S Strength oY 33.= 12. = 33.0 32. 12. USUAL LIMITING VALUES One Edge Simply Supported.The overaII plate should not collapse since theportion of the plate along the suppo. ./r 80 _ \4 _ k=4. values of b/t. I 3l . ::T:f.280 = 61.0 Psi Atsc AAS HO 12 AREA 12 35.. The compressive load at this stage of 1oading would be__ p = Ao = (20t' x I/4n]. .280 psi This value may also be found from the formulas in Table 1..Americon Roilwoy Engineers Associotion .OOO psi) in Figure g is o.) is equal to the yield doing.to.2.400 lbs FIG URE 4 .In geaeral practice.000  .000 40. Iists these limiting 5.\_SHO .000 10.Iapse. the middle portion of the plate would be expected to buckle.6 60. as specified by several codes. .2 4.000 50.0 24./t slnce they represent ultimate stress values for buckling. to_ higher yield strengths.=+= !k b.y b. it is not necessaiy to These Iimiting values ::r:Ylrt" the buckling or. Figure S.000 40.000 tl . extended Simply supported sides Under these conditions. .Americon Associotion of Srore Highwoy Officiols AREA . Table 4.e uttrmate col. are [iven in Table 3.9 . 80.8 One simply supported.2 27 AISC i. the oiher free Eoth simply supported 33.nx psi .Americon In5titute of 5teel Construction 9. the cfitical bucklinE compressive stress (o*) as found from the curvi {o. P" structural specifications limit the ratio o/l .000 50. FACTOR OF SAFETY . EFFECIIVE WIDTH OF PLATES IN corllPRESStON The 20" x L/4n pLate shown in Figure 4.t !g'1.A suitable factor of safety must be used with these values of b.7 42.
) B.:+!ffi FIGURE 5 i i.i. in The total compressive loa.i'.280) = 115. the umate co.i'. "i"""Crh irrlii From Figure .0 P=Aror+Azor = (r0% x y4) (39.d here would be _ _ Since the piate thickness t = y. (!)' E = mgqulus of elasticity in compression (Steel = 30. The total be as shown load at this state of roaorng would ..uapse of the entire plate.Since k = 4.i:r.This portion of the plate. inches a = Iength ofplate. FIGURE 6 B we find__ t b/t vK ''" _ or from Table 2 we find__ .5" This is the effective width of the plate which may..000. and also accounts for the modulus of elasticity in shear (E.i+'.. usually = 0.0 torb = 10. b = 42. depends upon plate shape b.i i ji'.0 (both sides simply supported).compressive Figure 6. width. called the (effective wrdrn" can be determined by finding the ratio b/t wh31 is set equat to yietO point ]o".be stressed to the yield point (oy) before ul_ :h= 21.8) k = constant. x Va) (12.0 Vk I = 42. Locol buckling Plote is still o lood corrying member .s dimensiins) / = Poisson.000) +(gy.800 lbs Sheor FIGURE 7 where: L= dTi.Buckfing ol ?lotes / 2./a and eoge restraint. inches (a is always the larger of the plate. inches b = width of plate... .125 ffi/r'''+ ae 000 9s\ i:iffi "i:.000 psi) t = thickness of plate.i.) ..s ratio (for steel..
A suitable factor of safety must be used with these val.)and for shear ( 7.r)._) Ue critical buckling shear stress (7*) can be read directlv from the curves of this figure. or .Iowance for the central buckled portion as a load carrying member. U. in edge compression). the required b/t value is obtained from Tabie ? for steels of various yield strengths.000 psi to 100. Hence the 6t.000 psi.isrn of critical buckling stress for compression(o". .tate when subject to shear forces (rt) may a be expressed by the formula in Figure ? (similir to that used for the critical bucklinf stresJ fo..g cr) ln ono lrEr L\.lTi I l E Ro.a t"llfJ*irt Another method makes no al.6/l .).2. Shear yield strength of steel ered Portion of Cu Criticol Euckling rve vl Sheor Stress (2. This specific curve is that of A_z (mild) steel.B4 + 4(b/ a\2 2..6 g.^ v.p. S. 8 Buckling stress curves for flot ploies in sheor..60(b/3): point B.). (r) is usually consid as* v3 of the tensile yield strength (d"). AIoB ^. o. The curve is expressed in terms of I usal' V'! '.000) 86. Fig. BUCKLING OF PLATES UNDER SHEAR .600 lbs 6.critical buckling shearing stress (r*) of p. y2 (the Iength twice the width of panel) and zero (or infinitt length).I compressive load would be__ P= Ar or = = (L0Y2 just an enlargement of Figure g.000 psi .170  nj_!l! =E .4434   \vki o r ra .4 5720 and over _ '". the value of k = 5. ihe actual buckling shear stress (7*) of flat plites in shear may be represented by the curve pattern in Figure 8._Figure 9 is withadditional steels having yield strength.. r( = r.. . For any value of /!le. Table 5. The plate thickness is then adjusted as necessarv to meet the requirement. 4'. it being assumed that the load is carGd ontv bv tbe supported portion of the plate.q.. k=8. simply supported edges. and it will Dot be necessarv to compute the critical shear stress(r.98+5.58 q. k = B. Steel Corp.") Dslgr'n.The .8. Vqlues of k for Buckling Forrnulo (Sheor) 1. fixed edges.ues since they represent ultimate stress values for buckling. By holding the ratio ot (!la. See s . Factors needed for the formulas of curves in Figure 9 are given in Table 6.. Then using just the three values oj b/a as 1(a square pa\el)..126 TABLE / 5 Lood ond Stress Anolysis  BUCKLING STRESS FORMULAS (sHEAR) It is usual practice to assume the edges simply supported. 12 . from 33. 3820 9.ccording to (Design Manual for Hish Strencth Steels" by Priest & ciuigan. = 33. = *o""1 1.34 + 4(b/ a)2 ..=lb^ vk L I I Figure I and Table 2 reveals the paralleJ.. Comparison of Figure /hf \.io jO: for A7 steel hoving F/t Criticol buckling sheor stress lr._J to the value at \ykl x %) (33. Assuming the edges are simply supported...
o.0 17 28.1 r r r 030 200 360 3r.:^ *".60(b/o).900 34.4 32.4 26..000 Fo_l 40.9 2500 2920 00.800 40.7 I9.bP^oa 5oj ssa = 33.000 15.2 b/a=0 wirh lensrh (ponel with inrin. Four edges fixed 30.100 29.Buckfing ol Plotes / 2)27 o.34+4{b.000 60.7 .600 46.98+5.Fb/l 30 TABLE 6  FACIORS FOR BUCKLING FORMULAS (s HEAR) TABLEZMAXIMUMVALUES OF 6/t IO AVOID FORMULAS Moximum Volues of b/t to Hold ro '(Ponels with simply srrpporred edses)'./o).so /" .4 2l .000 . .000 20.000 52. Yield Strensth of Steel cy psi Correspondins Sheanns Yield b/r 3820 Strength r 6720 "= 4770 610 740 880 iCF v 9.si \ +!lso Buck li ng siress curves (p lo tes in sheor) for vorious 10.000 D^.000 55.mply supported 90 k=5.200 26.re lengrh) 35. = 90.200 58. I00 27 ln' 41.6 25 .000 45.000 k=8.400 .300 23.400 30. '.000 il +t \oo poo Four edges p00 p00 ll lrr tl b  s.4 40.000 s0 lspoo ^$s bo: ^"'$ 20.000 40.000 psi l"gY .000 70.000 50.6 22.1 t680 2100 .
Welding ploys o v i to role in design flexibiliiy ond short delivery cycles. essentiol io con_ I froctors'schedules.rrotely designed to withsiond such loods.2. Both power shovels ond trucks ore exposed fo high irnpoct Ioods.12g / Lood ond Siress Anotysis Truck design is in constont stote of evolution. plote wetdments con be occr.. while nrgherstrengf h sieels ore widely used for low weight_tostrength rotios. .
= (a) (b) The suddeD creati.1 Designing . From this. at moment when motion of the body is no longer considered truck wheel moves rapidly over the floor ^ 3.il: lerm "energy load" should be substituted for (impact load'. .I. accelerating or decelerating a member produces a resistinf . lbs . and the acceleration is di rectly propo rt ional to the force. e.. '. In the appl. when an external force c & where W = weight of member."I". at moment when motion of the body is first considered t = elapsed time between moments when vel_ ocities V and V. velocity. engrne. and are then summarized in Table 1. The inertia of a member resislins hish rccelerations or decelerations such as r"a. here there is absolutely of one body against the other.s first law: A body remains at rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force. Inertia is the property of a body which tends lo resist a change in its state of rest or motiol is applied. Sudden being invol..w (V) is . NATURE OF IiIAPACT LOADING for lmpoct Loods where: d = distance through which the body moves dur_ lmpact loading results not orl].ication ofthis to impact forces on a member. .on of a force on a mem_ be r.4"7se"r. but is any sudden application of the load. ing unit of time 1. t ... are determined body is_ ..reviewed briefly trere. Velocity of a falling v where: g = acceleration of h = height of fall re. This is easily demonstrated: a bar resting on a weighing scale is lifted just clear of it andthen. The same resuii is experienced when a lift truck rolls onto a weiEh_ ing platform.SECTTON 3. force (F) on that member. it will be observed that impact loading does not necessarily inrrolve moueme. p.: showing that the force generated is momentariiv greater than the static load.. F=. in both linear and angllar terms. in tineu teim!. Newton. yeti no striljn. th" I"Jl. =trzvxgravity (3g6. as in a pile driver or a punch press. It may occur in any of the fou.. phenomena are essentially the same.changes positionthe rate at which a physicai oooy Yglo"ity in space: d f. BASTC PHYSCAT [Aws The analysis and solution of impact problems develop from a few basic laws and prirliol"li These are. without a blow as during the explosive stroke in an a t where: V= V. at ured (usually one second) o Acceleration (a) and deceleration is the rate which the velocity changes relative to time: V_V..time interval during which distance is meas_ 2. the reverse is used.v from actual impacr (or blow) of a moving body against the machine member. application of forces. In other words.owing methods: A direct lmpact. 2. ber. i._.y loaded train or of a bridge. The sudden moving of a force onto mem final velocity. o Newton's second law: Anexternalforce actins on a body accelerates the body in the di rection of thE Iorce.. or when the machine is iubl jected to earthquake shocks or explosions in war_ fa original. as when a heavil. usually by another member or an external body moving with considerable vel_ ocity. force produces acceleratiofl (a)..ved.iiJi a mass through a considerable distance.pia'iv reciprocating levers.
Rprl = a rcdiu3 or poinr for which o o @.y cr = ..:rtrtu the energy (kinetic energ. \l/ /:\ @ @ Ir .. This method is preferred f"".. Kinetic energy (Er) is the amount of work which Axiol lension  !v. 4.pendicutor disro.Weight (W) is the force due to gravltyexerted on a body toward the center of the e. tod cenier or oldtion o v=f a. Ametal may have eood tensile strength and good ductility u"Oer stati c tSrJ_ yet fracture if sublected to ahigtr_vetoJy l?^*1. ." (M) is w the ofits inertiato o. G) (iil d = pe..ct forces quantitatively. = wh = . /.) is the anrount of work which do by virtue of irs posrrron (h height ol = talling body): _ @ .= ._""0 DIOW. o Impulse is the product of a force interval of its action: o Inpulse equals change in momenlum: and the time Ft=j:(Vr_Vr) a body can do by virtue of its morron: rl FIGURE I Eending . There are two general methods to select from in designing members to withstand impact toaJs. Nlomentum is the productofmass and velocity: YeIocity.tt e anafvi..ationship. and from this value determine the stresses or deformation by formulas for impact 1o. A body striking a member produces a force on rne member because of its deceleration to zero w_.(wirhin elastic Iimic) r' J..dl i @ l{ v. iJresistance to an energy load. o __..ty of matter in a body change in velocity.ximum force exerted bv the moving body on rhe res isting .. . Mu. ' 1.1..tati. nr..". .ql E.) rhar is absorbed by the resisting mem_ ber.. Estimate the ma.s oitfrJ problem is generally more of a qualitaiive neture and requires recognition of aU of ttre tactors in_ volved and their interrel..\ ! =: r= = i.'".= *.rth.\ ]:V I .1 and rs a measule (9 =quanti.be. Consider thisforcetobe "ppiying a.member UV an impact factor. The dimensions of the resisting member and the properties of the material in the member that. E( = _ V: . accurate results. .. load and use in standard design formulas .i.12 / 5peciol Design TABLE C o nd itio ns I 8A5IC LAWS USED IN ANALYSIS OF IMPACT a body can (t 9 o Potential energy (Er. appnoncHlo DEstGN pRoBrE/\ .i..ce or state of strain: ^ oa 6: u'. are o"uite maximum different from those that give the me..y difficult to evaluate impa. members... In many cases it is extremel.3..il\ g. IMPACT FORCES . reststance to a static load.
the above formula cannot be used directly to find the force (F). thereby reducing this impact force (F). E* = ltyro. E Ep = wr h FIGURE 2 energy (U) absorbed by the member within a given stress ( o ). 5. Thus: f:'r '=**  '" .(I) I The two most important properties ofa material The modulus ofresilience represents the capacto absorb energy within its el. see This energy (Er. INERTIA FORCES When a member is accelerated or decelerated..Oe:igning for lmpoct Ioqds Force ccrl then be expressed as  / 3. Since this time interval (t) is not known. the resulting inertia force (F) may be found from the above firmula. lbs = deceleration of the body g = acceleration of gravity (386_4 in/secr) Member Fortunately the member will deflect slightly and allow a certain time (t) for the velocity (V) of the body(Wr) to come to rest.I . 3)."1 I Unii stroin (E) . ! = where a W.. 6.e.stic r€nge. are obtained from the stressstrain diagram (fig. Since the absorption of energy is actually a volumetric ity ofthe material FIGURE 3 srress u". This is reDre_ sented on the tensile stressstrain diagran by the area under the curve defined by the triangle OAB.) or (Ep) is then set equal to the Table 3.13 r =a I where: Wr. limit.. \ a = weight of the body. However. See Figure 2. a force (F) must be applied to it. = weight of the member Since the weight of the member (W. without permanent deformation. The modulus of resilience_ (u) of a material is the eneffTfEiZEE6i5per unit volume when stressed to the proportional. it is possible to solve for this force by finding the amount of kinetic energy (Ek) or potential energy (Ep) that must be absorbed by the member. I'IAPACT PROPERTIES OF MATERIAT that indicate its resistance to impact loading. Foi practi_ cality Iet tbe yield strength (or)be the altitude of the right triangle and the resultant strain(e) be the base. i. having its apex A at the elastic limit.) and the acceleration (a) may be known.
000 50.:D=o'. .ther than resilienceThe ultimate elergy resistaflce (u_) of a mat_ erixl indicates its l.  IMPACT PROPERTIES OF COMMON DEsIGN MATERIALS E Moteriol le Proportionol Tensi u U Tensile Tensi lirnit lbs/in.0OO x r0./in.800 *Bosed on inlegrolormeosured oreq under sfressslroin curve.re. Z.r 20.rr = u in psi. Hence.000 230.000 46.000 20.4 3.l energv that crn be absorbed elastically (wilhout deformltion) bv the member is givcn c.ll)s. 0.000 50.!At. in (in./in.r .3. but l/c.r end point C ai rrs.! J0 Unit Elongotion Tensile Modulus of Resilience Toughness  Ullimote Enerov Resistonce inlbs/in. This is"verv important because as mom'ent of inertia (I) increas'_ es with deeper sections.000 l 63.000 100. lt is possible that this increase in impact strength vcri wili not be as great as was expected. Scc lcftttrnd slietch in Figurc 3.000 lo 30 105 135./in.35 in. l2 0.000 20. the urrrmare energy resistance is approxi miltely_ _ thc mcmbcr is affcctcd by the momber's climon_ sions.. 18 . l0 667 . .600 Low AIloy ( under 3/i".000 r 30 x 30 x 30 x 30 30 l8 l9 l9 o. A material's ultimate energy ilsistance is represented on the stress_strain diigram bythe total area OACD under the curve.000 45.te strenglh ro. 3nd it increilses as the squc.0* 16..000 20.. Impact properties of common materials are charted in Table 2. the ultimate energy loacl is essentially pq..o'.jbs/.0 200.d strengrh 1r.r 106 106 106 16. inisi.4O0 Alloy Stee I 200.000 75.000 70.marerial's yiel.Vhen impact loading exceecls tlre elastic limiL (or yield strength) ofthe mrterial. . For ductile steeI.0 22.14 / 5peciol Design Condirions pri)pcrtv. O'+0" tt v.08 0.yimum enerqv that can be absorbed by TAELE 2 ln other words we are looking not only for high momert of inertia (I).000 .3 in.3.. where: impact loads or to absorb energy is the following: I c: A glance at Table 3 wil. Here point A is at the.7 94.05 0.ity to resist fftcture under impc. ulrrms. lta to ltt"J {over lh to 4") 42.s U by the vxrious formules of Table 3.: M Ultimote Streng th le Modulus of ltimote lbs.100 oboul 19 r 5.r)= u. This is I measure or now well the material absorbs energy without fracture.000 67 .=_€. . The ma. vol./in.l show that the prop_ erty of the section which is needed to wltnstanO rr = ultimate unit elongation.A. the distance from the neutrcl axis ro the outer fiber (c) increilses alone with it.4 33.300 Medium corbon steel High corbon steel x 106 x x x 106 5. in. (J) .OOO 60.25 0. the u in {in. \.000 30 r05 106 0. The tota.oughness or abil.). .6 29. u. Elosticity lbs/in. it calls for tough_ ness in the material ro. PROPERTIES OF SECTION uu=A.lbs/in.000 70 Groy Cost lron Molleob le Cosi lron 6.000 85.000 15 23 x t.4 41 ild 5tee 3s.ct loading.umetric property. Since the absorption of energy is actually a .2 17 x tof .
u = .250) (Coefticieni = .J @ lrrrr tta*...r?ll oEc' simply supported concentrqted lood uniform section d2 Ll .ll l0 E c'? d L I t\2 concentroted lood uniform seclion 6E (€oefticienr . \!/ = L .OE (Coefficienr o"?A L /rY ll.\2 l0 E \c/ = ...\2 'v "'t'\ . u = ../. u= .. ' t?l= round shoft E.t9tf+t rrrr.1000) .500) ..Designing for lmpocr Ioods IABLE 3 / 3. I .t 662) uniform loqd uniform section {Coefticient n2 at t. .rJ U =+= c't) E = hl tl srmpty supporied uniforri lood (Coeftlcienr T5T\t = ..t662) uniform section (Coefficient or?  L . moy be sel equol to kinetic energy Bendi ng . uniform lood uniform section "= (Coefficient or'?A L lo'E = /r1'? \e/ = .2 tt\c'/ / ^.2667) 4 o.t.l. v= ov'z ..1_5  IMPACT FORMULAS FOR COMMON MEMBERLOAD CONDIIIONS Energy stored in member. concentroted loqd uniform seciion ....'2ll u = i.1000) vorioble section so o Torsion = constont votue (Coeffic:ent . R L where R = torsionol resistonce (Coeffcient 5eclron = ..166/) ... = sheqr modulus of elosticity O...3333) = . A L1r\z = .
beam No. _ z 2096. a menrber subjected to . ///  : E: est. 4) has g times the energy absorption capacity as the simple beam with i concentrated load (No.^^P++49_ (see sketch).i as against y6 This is because the tensile member (No. 24" WF ?6# Bear[ 2096. the bending stress decreasing away from the centerline.{ 6.ume of the member subjectect to the maximum all. doubling rhe tenEth ofthe beern will double the resulting bendin! stress. doubling the length of the beam will. 06 533..9d):  Under a steady load. yet.area of the section inthe higher stressed portion at the outer fibers_ stressed to the maximum all.7V0 of the original.06)1 14.ace the great As an illustration. Figure 6: . a variable depth beam oesrgned lor constant bending stress ilong entire length..' 2096. pl. For eKample.96 in.1 ___ 'n. irl Sleady load strength I I c JlT6= 4 ^^ uo. Notice in Table 3. notice in Table 3 that the member in tension (No.. Ior a steady load.. Choose sections so the member will.1 in. tbe maximum bending stresa being at the outer fibers. reduce the resulting impa"ct stress to 70.'.For (2) . 9 versus /o for beam No. . I c 4 in. qxlmpl.3. 1). For any given crosssection. beam B has no increase in strength. the rmiform iar on the right has much more energy absorbing ability and can withstand a greater impact loadl Consider two beams of equal sectioD. Impact load strengtb &= (6.L"i been doubled.ximum as well as for its full length.\imum vc. 4) has its entire cross_section uniformly stressed to ma.. = l4.. shown in Ficure 5: (1) . the outer fiber is stressed to the ma.owable stress. suppose there is achoicebetween tnese cwo beams: Bean A Section Property Bearn B point is not uniformly stressed to the m&\imum yalue. 8. have the maximum amount of the area stressed to the maximum allowable. r. being zero at the two ends. This is a coefficient of Lr for bearn No. this is a coefficient of . IMPROVING ENERGY ABSORPTION CAPACIIY The basic rule for the design of members for maxrmum energ'y absorption is to have the ma\_ imum voi.. it is the same as beam A.17 times greater. 1 is not uni_ formly stressed throughout its crosssection. and there would be no advantage in changing. In contrast. 5 in. 2.16 / 5peciol DesiEn Condirions Problem 1 . Consider two beams made from identical bars.lue for the entire leo#h of the member. The entire cross_section is uni_ formly _stressed to the maximum value and the entire length of the member is subjected to the maximum stress.t of beam A with a weight of only 1. 9) so as to have the samJma. ti ln.ximum b€nding stress along the entire length of the beam.{ 11. This means_ 1. be : : (see sketch). Although the cross_section at its any an impact load.owable stress alongthe entire length of the member. beam B has a section modulus (S) twice tha. that by decreasing the depth ot the beam (No. In the case of beams.e axial tension. the energy absorbing capaciry oi tt" O"r. 1.4 _. not is it stressed to ma_\imum for its entire Iength. Under an impact load. +' t I Stress diogrom FIGURE 4 + F Stress diogrom The two tensile bars in Figure 4 have equal strength under steady loads. 12" WF 65# Beam s33.
diagrams e and f represent the energy absorbed per unit length of member.:. the average stress in the rest of the member wil. assume the notch produces a stress concentration of twice the average stress (diagram d). and this is constant for a Eiven rectangular area regardless of its positi6n. increasing the length (1) will not alter the static stress yet it willdecrease the stress due to impact.y and are just as strong under impact loading. 9. _ . The property of the section whicb will reduce the impact stress in a simple beam is. Summary 1.x'. {o) ./ 1"" or 4. NOTCH EFFECT ON ENERGY ABSORBING CAPACITY lf f Y C.Designing for lmpoct Loods / 3l7 tr. but wiII increase the stress due to impact. = .ume IAL). FIGURE 6 (2) The property of the section which determines this is I/c. The total energ'y absorbed is measured by the area under this diagram.Tensile . 2.t f . L l [w... F) +l r .n.I 3.. uniform section Tensile member with Stress notch ot notch in member {b) TSiress Stress diogrom Stress diogrom {d) \J Energy diogrom Energy diogrom ..__:_z /L'"'l. a decrease iu length (L) will decrease the static stress.L stress. bx a simple tensile bar of a given uniform crosssection. i A L CV  I In Figure 7. For example. both beams can theoreticall.". increased ." l_) \J member. In a simple beam. r1 FIGURE 7 .. Then for the saEe maximu.il.y absorb the same amount of energ. The property of the section whichwill reduce the impact stress in tension is increased vol.l + T" FIGURE 5 (1) For the same rectangular bar.
mass of the some energy is lost due to tte l"ertia of tt! member and less energy is ieft to stress ihJ heavy iembers this .r.. etc. SUPPORT OF RESISTING MEMBER u"".. a load con_ (d). it is important to decrease the possible acceleration andlor decelerari"" tfrj" member through some iorm of nexiUte'. REDUCTION tN ENERGY 5TRE55 DUE TO NERTA OF RESSTNG. have orea s"Uiuct"J m&ximum allowable stress. of energy absorbing devices such as __I1"_ sprrngs.place material so that the direction of hot rotling (of sheer or bar in steei . In the Jormulas. the Gt"i"fi" member (M.Y..fT. For the ma.(c). The material should have high fatigue although tl general wjth _steel.n proper rigiO"ity oi f9r its particular service. . .."ff." . Table 3. itriiiig Tlcu. we ll _ s tifuse ormem bers f eneO *t:f "u navrog sufficient moment of inertia (I) sho. ln any area of duc_ high stress concentration.. iffOJ. TrLe.. if i_ilii oi risht ansles with the oirectioi used. Reduce stress concentrations to mum and ayoid abrupt changes in section.shape "t velocity.. 2.#.ess tfre io iie eotiri 1." . .iai'6...The test does not grve quantitative val_ tO" resistance ot ttre raie. "t.th l. to*u. the yield fr"" noticeable increase.m.3.... GUIDE5 TO OESTGNING FOR INAPACT ef.) has been negiected. r_1ne with impact force._ earthquaf.. ..r flg" zrs alr aclual design of th" .. any given cross_section of the mem_ .J :: i: The results can be altered over a wide changing size.J ch .). 3.r..igu_cJr_oN tN ENERGy sTREsS By spRtNG '1.1. ffiil. i._ roading is increased.tion _.. Nlaterial strould have a hi. I i ght _ wei ght. a mini_ U"g . It is important to: can at times be misleading: eve . l mole i:mportalt because it is squared. 8.. The material shou]. . This is the en'ergt.fi .i. therewith higher yield ]?^T: :t""1.ey 6. ui_ protection . 10. IO. rubber.ears to 6e hetpfut"mir.u_b....pads. ^nembel._" thethe impact formulas (Table g) as a prope.ffii rl'""""'i jo"ff reduce the "fl" """..r:: mem?er and yet maintai.. .". ing system. i T :.e". or hydrailic aosorb some of the kinetii ""G.... "t""ogtrr" are U&ier for impact.of per unit yolurne. " .."": (a) s n :i: ..T!e test does not simulate dition likely to be found in service....*I::"1_:g !i" impacr test resutts are of verv in rrmrred value to the design engineer.1rii:Xl "'# oI I2.18 / 5peciol Design Conditions be reduced to L.bv and temperature. 9.:i. Design the member as an energy absorb_ 3i':. 1r.i: . as the speed of .lliii h ilt#:.. anO dition..\imum ber.yIEMBER length of the member to this maxrmum." notch were present (diagram :"::_"3^lf ^ii a stress concentro. ?. iJr .tilju. ""t"L.id :1:ll "f the member due to prostons. loragrarn ii ..^_^?. .:" "i agarnst ^_^1]: required I&"1: forces to build in caused by thu . so rmportant as high yield strength. .nii. and this l"fi"'r.r 1n6 g1r" '... L'4rr determination of the impact stress or impact deformation. values of modulus of resilience anO luu" UiiiJ. . i:".d have sufficient tility to relieve the srress.. FIGURE 8 ^inertia "u.:#3: f# Under impact loading the .. (b) re not The test is hishlv .gh eodulus resilience q = o. absorb a certain amount member is required to of kinetic or p"tir"iirf energ'y. " T*H::tt this is not considered to"be ll"9ngth. because the impact strength in this direcrion is higher tl". is important to restrict the weight of . "_oAufu"'ri ...r."]T^rl":? (E) app.Til.t/ZE..t lrJ generauy have correspondingly lower l:u"r ol yield strength(o:. _ . ."ogtf. ft. fi5[rlir.. ruwe. St.. that is to have the maximim volume of materi3l stressed to the highest workins sirJsi this increeses the energy abiorbed... Although ."....
Here. At a given high stress value. without ful. The endurance limit is the maximum stress to which the material can be subjected for a Eiven service life.ly considering what this value represents and how it was obtained. and the fatigue cycle and frequency should be the same as would be encountered in actual service.2 Designing I. and further plastic movement causes the crack to progress. or constitutes a complete reversal of stresses with e&ch operating cycle. Although the average unit stresses across the entire crosssection may be below the yield point.i^). Once this has oc_ 3. load: 1. the subsequent time to uLtimate failure is fairly well confined and proceeds in a rather uniform The designer when first encountering a fatigue Ioading problem will often use the material's endufance limit or: fatigue strength value given in his engineering handbook. The sample used should preferably be identical to the machire member. The localized plastic movement further acgravales the noouniform stress distribution. the testing machine should reproduce the actual service load. There are many types of fatigue tests. NATURE OF FATIGUE TOADING Fatigue fail. This eventually produces a minute crack. As a stress varying from a maximum val.s endurance limit must be substituted for the ultimate curred.sEcTroN 3. with the same range of stress.*) to a minimum (o. tlrpes of loading.owable fatigue strength used in the design must come from data obtained fron loadinE a butt weld in axial tension on a pulsating type of fitigue testing machine. ). As a mean or average stress (d) with a superimposed variable stress (d. and types of specimens. This results from the wide range of time required before the initial crack develops in the specimen.'s effective uItimate strength as the number of cycles increases. For example. the material has a definite service or fatigue life. ANALYZING THE FATIGUE LOAD Figure 1 ill. expressed as N cycles of operations. the curve representing the applied stress at any given moment of time. 2. the variable or fatigue mode of loading reduces the material. Loods strength where called for by the design formulas. if the actual problem is a butt weld in tension. the cycle can be represented There are two ways to represent this fatigue by the ratio K _  d'nin Om!x FIGURE I L f . or is repeated at relatively trigh triquency. the material.ustrates a typical fatigue load pattern. When the load on a member is constantlv varving in velue.ure is a progressive failure over a period of time which is started by a plastic movement within a localized region. Any fatigue test usually shows considerable scatter in the results obtained. The stress is important only in that it causes the plastic movement.IMIT for Fotigue manner. the all. This procedure could lead to serious trouble. ENDURANCE I. Under high load values. at a given number ofservice cycles the material has a definite allowable fatigue strength. Theo ret i cally the fatigue r/alue used by the designer should be determined in a test that exactly duplicates the actual service conditions.ue (o. Conversely. a nonunifo rm distribution of these stresses may cause them to exceed the yield point within a small area and cause plastic movement.
A Goodman diagram.) is zero. relationship holds:similar triangles that the same ""1 GI ol l 9rl i T I FIGURE 4 I  lnln slaess mrn stress .r variacion in stress.l to the yield strength. and becomes pornt o rn lhe dlagram.f th{. wiII indicate the relationship between the variableltress (o.. B.erd .movins plirt e ll?T. FIGURE 2 where: FIGURE 3 o.rach I he the ordinate an<l the.roy or (. om = ultimate strength under steady = (Some sei du equa. see Figure 2.e..r J complece reversal of stress {o. is constfucted " 2 by. a steady application of s[ress. vltrijrl.. in other words..equal to nergnr lic"T9 o.oe determlned by erperimentcl testilg.l( t + o.. Oesig n Conditions rs ro Orre rrppr.22 / Speciol s . = fatigue strength for a complete reversal of stress o.3.t) be the abscissa. to chrs problem k.q*irnurn ]fd uttmate stress resulting mean srress io. = variable stress which is superimposed upon steady stress From similar triangles it is found that__ Ov..o. becomes Lhe value li.the variable srress {r. i. lVhen the meun stress melln scress {o".is straigni tine'tviii ]fr. rs equrl ro rne !l1g for a steady load {o.) mean stress (average stress) load conservative values. almost all ofihe test data wrrl tre Just outside of this line.. Figure it be shown by . A Jin: connecting points b and z. .y anj ll: T":t st:9:s {o. This value would have r.}. yr. When chere is n. o. this beccrmes polnt a.ess {d. line"_" """ii""Iui""I noiu ti"" at a 45" angle.Om o. ).) for any type ot ratigue cyJel 16.re. a siven fatigue life (N). d". becomes zero.
. Required fatigue life or number of cvcles will vary but usually staits at several hundred thousand cycles. but a maximum value must be indicated so that it is not carried too far lowabl. The fouowing f"li*" . wirh corresponding K values to be used" in tne latrgue strength formulas.000 o. A factor of applied to obtain al_ allowable maximum stress for a given service life of N cycles. would not produce failure.k/2 . Nofice ?he :"]u:: Ii.tr""..500 ". tt can be p.lii""" ror.". for determiniog AXl/vlU/Yl STRESS the .) jla ." o1. is constructed with lhe values lor complete.e . see Figlre 4. +40 +50 +60 FIGURE 5 +7A stress (ohd) and the abscissa becomes the minimum stress (dni. Figure E. quenched and tempered high yield strength steel..Designing for Fotigue Loods / 3. are presented in Table 1 for A_? miid steel and in Table 2 for T1. It is assumed that by the time the value of several mi[lion cycles is reached.Tll" orlled so that the ordinate becomes the maximum presents the slanting line.*) lies on Iine a_b. spec_ imen and stress cycle there is a relationship be_ tween the fatigue streogth {ol and f3tigue lifea\) in number ot cycles before failure. AttowABLE K= o"+o.o" where Cg3d*1n diag.000 cycles Butt Welds Allowoble vclues13.'Jffi Jl:ilnmriJ:safety is j?il: :H:tt""T i: test.000 d '" .ram of Figure A may be mo_ .o.ycles.) .K(o.) and the ultimxte strength (d") for butt welds in tension. This_ is expressed as a formula al. these are shown by dotted lines.2_3 '6 o = Niq'P !. The next diagram.9r slish v above rhese "t"ui!i.ou"a tn"t . If th€ maximum stress (o.e values. 4..ong with a value which should not be exceeded. = 18. Fo r any particular "r"1". The Am_ errcan welding Society (Bridg€ Specification) uses :1:: l':l type.zr ol J!4!q I . the fatizue strength has leveled off and further .ion cvclesthe f.J l. The faticue data from test results are also plotteO. This formula re_ Figure 6 illustrates several types of fatigue c.000 cycles and that of 2 mill.000. ^ strength formulas.reversal{d.A7 (373) Sreel Dependoble volues: O O 100. fn *ris case. this value is found to be2o.".of diagrini to iilustrate ttreir riigue data test results.ii rnree dragrams yield the same results.000 cycles 2. = but not io exceed 16. the ma\imum allowable is 18.000 psi.servrce tile (N) of 100.
000 cycles 100. Pst R Metal Compressi....000 cyc les .y be used to convert srrengrns trom one fJ. ooo Y= . i i Jl' "T:#j i. 000. = Leg Size (10) r = 91!90 hd rr..i. A373. r 8800 (.. "./max . lblin.:" Tfi"" . = Atlowable unit compressive stress for member."". o= ? _=. DSt Butt Wetd In Tensio[ l9.tigue life to xnother: fat igue " ='u\t'rJ wh?re: o...1t" t."1'. P. (.on Connected e) P" psi By Fi.llet Welds "=fffi0". 2 Adapted from AWS Bridge Specifications.24 / 5peciol Design Condirion :Ipirlgal ^formula mc.+ 2 psi 13. t nine times.i o= 1R OOn 1' '2 psi Butt Weld Compression @. / Nr.i..or*."I"HI. = fatigue strength for fatigue life Nu N. a) 7= 0". As an r ea uc i ng.rue wul rn generaI incresse e he iail the fatigue lifei]bout for A7. n ax ar aa g il"li*' " i!:i#*il *il: ln:'lTi:":?i. 6tr osi 18. R = Allowabte unit tensile stress for member K = mi[. = fatigue life for fatigue strength db :: :+i::: stress is reduced. r. = fatigue life for fatigue strengtn o.Xi ii vd.:: i i to in tt e n Jiin = fatigue strength for fatigue life N.: . z psi 7= t0  nnn s9 Dsi 7= . or. . i !gps.ALLOWABLE FATIGUE STRESS 600.v o= _ '"' trCI ost K .000 psi Fillet welds .= 51q."*yl:iriti ji::."iili:i:""'. j = JJ!9o 2 6A rr.And 436 Steels And rheir Welds 2.g$ 1ri g. TABLE I ."Jil.r) ^. (f.ost " D psi Butt Weld In Shear 5:+.000 cycles But Not to Exceed Base Metal Teus ion Connected In 7 500 By Fillet Welds But not to exceed Bas e 3E R U 2 P. d= #.3. \k l'#ii. . Nr..10.!:lJ.. r.
Desig ning for Fotigue Ioods / 32s 6l gI l J (steody) T m.5sK n" r d = 54. '= flan* 7) ^ d= "'.160 "r tbs/in.000 @ '= I nsi fff6e6 n"i nnn a) _ "= 39.000 psi * Y= P'ggo f 26.000 But Not to Exceed cycles In TeosionAdjacent to welds Butt Wetd In Tension FiUet Weld (J = leg size rt\ _  29.:/.'' = Desim of Stmctures Above values adapted from "The Fabriqation and of T1 Steel'i by Gilligan and England. '0".000. United States SEel Corporation.ALLOWABLE FATIGUE STRESS for Quenched & Iempered Steels of High yield Shength And their Welds 2. . 500 1:.000 cycles Base Metal 600. psi 9= t*r.000 psi 4\ \.000 cyc les 100.n 9rl I ql Time = + /2mox K= +Y2 * min=0 K=0 K= l {complete reversol) FIGURE 6 TAELE 2 .u* n"' o = 54.
7 .26 / Speciol Design Condirions Problem 1 Tho ltlrtikrg ol this is 0.S50..13(9. finally at the extreme lefthand The extreme righthand vertical. axi s (K = l) 100% 95% n = *t.. ve RETATIVE SEVERITY OF FATIGUE PROBTEM In Figure 9.9) R q.e (K=min/may) is the horizontal axis (abscissa).5i0. the al.life is known and that the constant k val. Figure 8.000. k = : .0 could be used to find the value of 5. \k d" \ Nb/ and: (For butt rveLds. * A logIog slide rule 0. /N. * ror'gue lrre lor whrch oo rs known Increose. 30.. the severity of the fatigue cycle increases.3.lowable fatigue stress is the rti ca1 axi s (o rdinate) and the type o f fatigue st ress cycl. = t).? to left side and sub+ 8.g6i to = i]0.: dlj N. further faciliti.000\.96740 = :9.775) = 0./^ o ..rr .000/ = dr.r):o psi {at Nr.n fotig I ll 56 Increose in fotigue life .{)0{) X 0. such conversion and permits quickly finding the rel_ ative allowable stress for any required faiigue life The nomograph. = 1. = 30.r8560r:10.775 raised to the 0. line (K = rl) represents a stec.ji .^r.. _ Conversely.? from right side) .  N.I3) / 1.000.tive fatigue life can be reedily found for any given stress and anv constant (k).13(log 0.000 psi. hence: Test dat.3 (add 8. 000 cycles when the member is stressed to o. k = 0. or' \ N"/ or' /N. As we proceed to the Lefi.2 tract 8.(X)0 (ycres/ o. =:.000.8. provided the fatigue strength at some onelatigue . the reLr.I indicrtes a fatigue life of N.000 \:.\r. Whrt would be the fctigue strength at a life of 2. ' N.88930 10) = 1.000 cycles? Since: nt' :J0.. lq\i \ \%/ For butt welds.1A power..\k FIGURE 7 90% ^. .J /N.91i74r).tes =tl Using logarithms* for the right hand side: = 0. . required fotique liie = .1.000 ot.285609 ..dy stress.ue has bEen established.
o6 .to' _.000.ooo='" ond since the butt weld s k focfor is .80 88 86 9l 90 84 FIGURE 8 FATIGUE NOMOGRAP H a2 80 70 "h Given: Test doto indicotes o butfweld fotioue life of N" = 1.20 95 l.\) has is a complete reversal of stress.8 . 2. In the case of 100. 3. The stress ycle must extend into a wider range of fluctu 1.13.8% = 29. In the case of 2 million cycles. And it generally requires aII three of these situations occuring simultaneously to produce a critical fatigue condition worthy of consideration. and it is believed they will. the nomogroph indicotes _z b 2.Designing lor Fotigue Loods / 3. Even at these levels. the minimum stress must drop down to /! of the maximum stress before there is any reduction of allowabLe strength.000 psi there just one method of illustrating fatigue stress conditions. fatigue strength or allowable fatigue ation before it becomes necessarv to use lower fatigue allowables.o4 .000. the member and welds would be designed as though ey were subjected to a steady load.000 psi N Find' The weld s fotigue strengih (oo) ot 2.550. Stress is very high.000 cycles.55o.o . In other words.8?.000 X 96. Anticipated service extends for a great number of cycles.000 cycles when lhe member is slressed to o" = 30.a? 2 1.ues are not reduced below the steady stress condition until the type of cycle (K = min/ma. a fatigue problem occurs only if progressed weII into the fatigue type of loading. or ob = 30. Stress fluctuates over a wide range. This is that actual.000 cycles (Nr) \=r. result in a conserv4tive design. the minimum stress can drop to zero before any reduction of allowable strength takes place.000 = 96.r \k 99 .27  rr. The important thing to be noticed here is val.? 94 93 92 t.4 .o8 1. . The allowable fatigue strength values obtained from the formulas in Table ltakeaLlthree of these into consideration.
:'f t". 17 16 l4 t3 12 ll l0 9 100 7 Srrers cycte.: j:' g:l. of fluciuorion.9 .5 49.7 17..000 00.. = 3l_1 + .000 4..a Reinforcement Mochined Not Slresi Relieved Mochined 48..4 31 ==.Y. Re.8 50.3 Mill Mill Scole On 27 .000 36."n. TABLE 3..28 / 5peciol Design Condirions K= 33tA% IB .000 2. .5 26.ned Off ond Surfoce polished 53.'j r. Jummory or Kesults.1 100 os well qs service life.3.8 16.hforcedenr ond Mill Scote Moch. g: I lii.Reinforceoenr S trernrorcement On Srre$ Relieved r5.0 Scole Mochined Off ond 5urfoce pot.000.000 2.6 6url Wetd.shed 59.000.y.9 .. K Severity of fotigue depends on srress volue.5 tlerntorcemenr Ground OFf Not 5 ress Relieved 26.I Off Off 28.000.000 ' r 00.4 42.9 28.9 r 00..4 27.6 43. Corbon_Steel plotes Fotigue Strength in 1000's oF psi Descripiion Specimen Equcl Compression 0 fo Tension I //2 or cteot .FATGUE STRENGTH OF BUTT WELDS Usin77/g_ln.1 49.A 44.7 rress Relieved 24.
. COMBINED FATIGU E STRESSES Seve. wecanseethat removing the reinforcement of a butt weld increases its fatigue strength to that of unwelded plate.". 1.ooo cl<Les 4 25600 pst 21 8oO pe i ON FA IIGU E STRENGIH ?5. Shearstressinvarian t theory ot= 2+ % .ong the path of stress flow will reduce the fatigue strength. 3. '.__._ j here oblr is the ratio of fatigue strength in pure bendto that in pure tension. Maximum shearstress theory = 1.F + 4. 2. Combined tensile stresses. = Vo' + gt*.t' . also that stress relieving the weld has no appreciable effect on its fatigue strength. It is not welding that effects a reducing of the fatigue strength but the resultant shape or geometry ofthe section. Principalstre*s theory io avoid  o. +:_1 '/' 5he)t? Table 4 illustrates the effect of transverse ./i. Findley corrected shearstress theory for anistrophy 1G. = fatigue strength in {x) direction = fatigue strength in (y) direction dr and oy = applied stresses d"" Z. :..Oot' where:  o". 5. = r Oox. By means of Table 3./oo psi TrLl 6.29 TABLE 4  EFFECI OF TRANSVERSE ATTACHMENTS x'#o^.# ". 1. Gough suggests ot2 o. In many cases there is not very good agreement between the actual test and the formulas. It is for this reason that filtet welds have lower fatigue strength.4oo pst l8. INFIUENCE OF JOINT DESIGN Any abrupt change of section al. Combined bending and torsion.ral formulas are available for this consid_ eration but very little actual testing has been done on this. 4. simply because they are used in Lap joints and all Iap joints i.ncludinE riveted joints have lower fatigue strength.1 a".t toqooo crcLEs z.*l "f  . this is %" plate.Designing for Foiigue Loods / 3.1..9oo pst t.ooo.et welds upon the fatigue strength of plate. / s'^ett u A ti tfll 5hel I :::Z ll frl 11 FIGURE IO .9oo p6i Reco/hrherded 22.
the stiffeners may do more harm than good. Stress relieving the weld has no appreciable effect upon fatigue strength.y mrrchininij rhese joinls out of sotid plete. it stress. Recoraended methad i{ foltque or rmpact looding q' re.7ani Fig. Difficulties are sometimes caused by the welds being too small. and hence prevent the resulting flexial movement.+t o^ ol hol rotl.nc at Sheel S vi 5+eel wtlls' *aFff iTi[l#":'r". urri ooi :: noc l"lt_.21O 'l hc / Speciol Design Conditions "'l::. Grinding..he machineis stressed to a much lo*u. See Figure 11.. A rigid frame type of structure or staticalj. Where possible.chments and openings at locations of high stress. place material so that the direction of rol.. This weld wil. ll Groin direction ofsheetorplote should be in line with force. StiffenerS decrease flexibility of member and result in better fatigue strength. Il is believed thesc results couldbe Aupli_ l.tigue loading requires ca.:l:g:apaciry. unless it causesa more abrupt change of section. Perhaps consider prestressing a ber. 2. as severe rs as it may first appear.. anA thiJ woulj . then another.reful fabrication.or cycles. il"1ti"T rre. GUIDE5 TO DE5IGNING FOR LOADING FATIGUE 1. 7. a machine is stressed to the full value for onty a portion of its fatigu. hence. hence. mosr fatisue loadin€. or the members too thin. the structure is less likelv to col.)n. Undercritical Loading.3. If the latter should happen. because the fatigue strength mav be higher in this direction than if placed at right angles with the direction of rolling.1""1#i:?A. 9.^. This will resultina more gradual failure of one part. form member into shaDe that it tends to assume under load. Reduce iI possible the rtnge o[ stress without lncreasing the maximum or average stress. 3. since it does add to the final unit cost. over_ Lap. Grinding the reinforcement off ofbutt welds wilL increase the fatigue strength. 6.nforcement.i !vltnour rrltlchmenl cituses irn irbrupt chtnge in sec_ ti. :. 4. however.m in axial cdmpression. Figure l0 presents some general recommendit_ joint design when fr. Use simple butt weld instead of Lap or T fillet weld. 8. Coosidor actu:rl stress rather lhiltl tveraltc ny welding.lapse immediately if a fatigue failure starti rn one member. ur"tu. This will reduce the tensile bending stress and Lessen chance for fatlque failure even though the compressive bending stress is in_ creased to some extent.ch may cause additional flexing with each application of 104(l. for greoter fotigue strength 8. lack of peneiration. For most of its fatigue Life.il:. Avoid sharp corners. Avoid eccentric application of loads whi. roughness of weld. llI(l ris reduccs the fatigue strength of the plutc.. should not be specified rrnless essential.rigue Loading is il 1':T. 9" pfo0lem.exes. Avoid excessive rei. In general. urdercut.v indeterminate type of structure may be better than a simple structure since the load is shared by other members. Avoid placing weld in an area which fl. Avoid attr.ling (of sheet in steel mill) is ir line with force.l$. 5.l have about the same fatigue strength as unwelded plate. Avoid operating in the critlcal or resonant frequeney of individual member or whole structure to avoid excessive amplitude.. smoolh t rSns ition of sect ion s. Fr.lil.
0"t = e. A7 (mild steel) would be selected because it has about the same fatigue allowable as T1 steel./ 3. formul.200 psi (but not to exceed 18.1g45. tu . formulas for butt welds in tension: A7 Steel T1 Ste€l After three years service a tank trailer is developing fatigue cracks in its 12ga bottom shell.l .2ll Fotigue crock FIGURE .29 times the allowable fatique stress as A? (mild steel)..r" logu.1{70 of cause the plate thickness and weisht. This reduction in stress could be obtained with a sheet thickness 1.Designing for Fotigue Loods. adjacent to an internal baffle plate.i !o. and would require 1ust .' /Nb\. would be selected be_ it has 2.782 and t" = _!l_ = . . See Figure 12... the bottom shell is mainly in tension.000.min N = 2. 10.es 1 and 2. .rhickness t s.28 times the originaL.'3 6b \N. and under the worse eondi_ tions drops to about 75Vo of the mfiimum tension.as for butt welds To avoid using the above fatigue formuLa.i!\'''= l/th \ 20yrs/ r. The curve indicates this can be obtained by reducing the fatigue stress to about TBE of the original.6oo psi o = ffit"i = 41.782 eea. Case B d. min ma\ N= 2. 000 cycles in tension: From Tables 1 and 2. Avoid bia{ial and tria_\ial stresses. subjected to a complete re_ The flange plates are subject to alternating tension and compressioo.1046") . Problem 2 A. Her" o = hence: The web plates of a pump crankcase are con_ nected to the face plate supporting the cylinders and bearings of the crankshaft. or 1ogage. be used. A builtup beam ':ersal of a stress.eronsi 1 #!r. tbrce.) o". \20/ .i o= Steel Tl Steel J99!l p"i = 2s.I2 provide a better opportunity to notice that a fatiEue failure is in progress. o= jffiunsi =ro.. An extension in life of about 6h times is desired. 000. g! = /q4') ''o. avoid restrained internal sections... Although the tank trailer is subject to bending.l7o psi  In thls case. Itis necessary to improve this so it will last for the expected life of the unit which is 20 years.t""l (t = . '_ . . the curve in Figure 7 could be used..782 r (12 Oa = . T1 steel. Compression is on the forward stroke only.000 psi  AWSBridge Sp€c) Which type of steel should be selected for the following fatigue loads for minimum weight of material? Case A In this case.lbs'/in ! A . Each web is subiected to axial tension only.000 cycles '_ max Problem 3 From Tabl. Fatigue data for butt welds in tension will.
.695)7'6I 16.3.1th6.)J Bending Action relotion of fotigue life to fotigue stress FIGURE I3 Problem 4 Since: A bracket (Fig.4 yrc l vear I I .. If we shoul. by substituting the bending moments into the left side of the above fatigue formula From the above analysis of loading.695 then./ j / Nt'\'r . For lack_of fatigue data for plate ir bending we shall use fatigue data for butt welds in tension: a" 6M .. \ N. = (. = tand: /1 vear\r3  \N"/ or. 13) on a farm implement machine is failing in fatigue after about 1 year in service. it is apparent that fatigue failure is the result of the tensile stresses from both bending moments.695.)ze" .d increase the thickness of the bracket from %0" to.br2 =._ 3"(%6")' /%0"\: 3"(%")r" 6M =t_t \%"/ bY.061 .212 / Speciol Design Conditioni Direct Pr.rll PL =lPL F F N]NI >N 3" NI \)r l . ':T 3.'z''r (. what extension in fatigue Iife can we expect? 6 = Mc 6 M I =.
CONTRIBUTING FOR CES All members have a certain n"tural frequencv.at fraquzn.ve been concerned. In recent years.ity to ebso rEIhEGicT!!5TTFe vibrering force. if there were no damping. New ideas about vibration and its control through the use of welded steel have come out of this recerlt research. The drmping _property of a mate rial is irs r.mplitude of vibration at this point would be infinirely high. Vibriltion becomes a problem only when the ampplitude or height of vibration becomes excessive. where the ratio of forced frdquencv to natural frequency is equal to 1. to internal friction of the material. Whenever forced frequency equals natural frequency.y . the amplitude of vibration in the resonant frequency range is lower. Figure 1 shows the relative amplitude ofvibration for a simple member when subjected to in_ creased frequency of vibration. A mctlber. efficiently designed welded steel is known to have superior properties for coping with vibra.n advilntage in controlling vibration.ral is greatly increased. Domping redu ces omp li tude i n resononi Fig.bi. I Effect oFdomping copoci ty on omplitude of frequency ronge.A LO L2 fa.sEcTtoN 3.y with disastrous results. the damping capacity of cast iron was considered to be . This is due. when struck once with an ob j ectliEEffitTfli6ffi naturally at a given frequenly. in par_ ticular.. the rmptit.cad freatranct . At resonant fre_ quency. the r. hc. For mare riels with gieater damping capacity.tion problems found in many types of machine tools and other equipment.  2. The damping clpacity of crtst iron is seldom used in the operating range in which it would be effective.ts in increased operating speeds. the member becomes resonant and the amplitude of the vibration quick[Iiiid's up to a very high velue_ usuall.EM The control of vibration is a design problem in machinery of mtny different types. Grinding mcchine manufecturers. Now. for the most ptrt. vibrotion.atu. Theoretically. t n .l.3 Designing for lmproved Vibrotion Control I. Inthepast. VIBRAIION CONTROT A5 DESIGN PROBI. itlso cln bc lbrced to vibrate at anv flequency by striking it repeatedty. This is callei fo rced flgggggX. since improved control of vibration resul.6 . there has been considerable re_ search among machinery builders on the subiect of vibration.
VIBRATION PROBLE. Usua.e adjusting other components of the equation. frequency of the member is to be changed. it woul. Whenever a steel wel. if the natural. Increasing the damping capacity through efficient steel design. since irs higher modulus oi elostiJiry mlons higher noturol frequency. 2.mochine. hin'.3. Reducing the unsupported length (L) of the member.IAs Vibration problems may be summtfized with the following facts: . Figure 2.=h/_l l  I I vAL'. toal Wslded 5taal 3 I !o increasing frd!)anc! Fig. the value of k is dropped from corsideration whil..mplitude in the fesonrnt range.rea of cross section of member L = unsupported length of the member 2... 1. Resonant or critical frequencv is reached when the forced vibration eouati the natural frequency of the member. 3. 3 Steel increoses the efficient operoiing ronge of o.tion oi a simole blam. in the case of wel.Ily. Using a material having a higher modulus of 3.I !vhere: a lolver frequency. The amplitude of vibration becomes exj cessive in the resonant or critical frequency range.d be well to studv the factors involyed in the vibm. elasticity (E). This usually means in motor or operating speed. Changing the forced frequency. frequency of the mem 3. Changing the natural.Increasing the moment of inertia (I) of the member.dment is designed from an . ber. it would be better to move it up to a still higher value. Reducing the crosssectional area (A) ofthe member (similar to weight). it is seen that the natural frequency ca. 4. NATURAT FREQUENCY OF /v\EtvlBER is a constant whichdepends on how the member is supported. and where h be increased by: From this basic equation for a simple vibrating member.J *3 a iz t 'P/ € rdnge of ma< Normal operatinq \ cast ( 4?1. 1. This means that the solution to a vibrationproblem would rest in either: I FTGURE 2 The nltural frequency can be expressed by this rmula: t" iEI lr. 2. preferably to a change E = modulus of elasticity of the member I = moment of inertia of the section A = :r.ted members.3 2 / Speciol Desig n Cond irions 3.. speed or frequency. In order to make any change in the natural frequency of a member. it is be eraif the machine does not have to pass through its critical. What is Iearned fromthiscan be aoplied to l3rger and more complicc. I . Damping capacity limits a. 4.n 1. Excessive amplitude ofvibrttion is the cause of the problem.. This means. preferably to a higher frequency. In starting up a machine from zero speed.ded steel.4_\ 4fo 1.
U the weight is to be reduced. Steel. The results of these three changes upon the natural frequency (f") of the member is: ness. In general.il 2.y iron.d indicate that gray iron has about three times the damping capacity of steel.ss Fig. 4) in which ihe depth remains unchanged. has a lower section modulus. Therefore. this will indicate a damping capacity 5. the natural frequency has been increased 5870. The natural frequency of the equivalent steel rz/a tive €trq. its relative damping capacity will increase. then the moment of inertia (I) of this section will vary as the thiclmess. wi II i ncrease the natural frequency of the panel four times. These are not difficult steel sections to make nor unusual conditions. such as the side of a base (see A. this is usually accomplished by means of thinner sections.sting.3 3 . EFFECT OF WEIGHT ON VIBRATION  It can be shown inthe case ofa vertical member. slressed higher thqn cqstiron sections. in other words. that the steel is stressed 2t4 times that ofthe corresponding cr. this woul.40) s \' s  member shoul.5) (0. the steel member is al remains constant (see C. Simply changing from grayiron castings to steel weldments has given a 5870 greater operating range.' (2. 4). or as the weight of the member. ond thus hove greoter domping cqpqciiy. 'fhe 3. Because ofits higher stress. for the same load. casting. A reduction in weight would. Although the natural frequency of the member would remain unchanged. 4070 3. Fig.ffeoers to steel weldments.58 times the natural frequency of the grayiron member.d be 1. When both materials are stressed the same amount (see vertical line D). Fig. Requires Iess moment of inertia (t) for the same stiffness. thrcc things happcn. which cuts the unsupported Length to half. having a higher modulus ofelasticity. 40qo of that for gr3. 4 Equivolentdesigns insieel ore olwoys for the some lood. so that the unsupported length (L) of panel or member is greatly reduced. 4). they represent everyday. ways stressed more than the corresponding casting. This is a very easy method to move the natura). frequency far away from the operating frequency.0 times that of the corresponding casting and indicates a damping capacity 2. DAI\APING CAPACITY It has been argued that gray iron has superior damping capacity over steel. Fig.? times that of the casting. the steel membe r will have a corresponding higher stress. of the casting. mean a corresponding reduction in the moment of inertia of the section. as a result. Even in the case of a top flat panel of a base in which the width 6. therefore.2h times as much as gray iron. the stress in the steel is 1. the resulting . must remain The effect of reducing theweightofamember is shown in Figure 5. it is very simple to add sti. where the redesign is based upon equal stiffness. In the case ofa similar type of section (see B. normal steel redesigns from cast construction having equal stiffness.3 times that Normally the overal] dimensions of a member unchanged in any redesign. the same stiffof that for gray iron.84 times that of the cr. Requires Less area (A) for \ g d q \j3 Ur f..Vibrqtion Control / existing grlyiron steel weldment1.40) (0. in an efficient redesign of a casting to a steel weldment. This is il. requires Iess moment of inertia for the same stiffness and.=k EI A L. the stress is 2. In addition. This is shown in Figure 4.y if both are stressed the same amount. Has a higher modulus of elasticity (E). Notice that the addition of a single stiffener. However.lustrated in Figure 3. 5.sting and indicates a damping capacity two times that of the casting. This is true onl. if the shape and outside dimensions remain unchanged.
a different material with a greater modulus of elasticity(Ec. machilled and 8. tested.000 psi). in other words. have a much narrower range irt which to operate and there will be a greater possibility ofit being operated at resonant frequency. The natural frequency is lowered and the amplitude is greatly increased. This is shown in Figure 5. =30. U the redesign from the casting to welded steel is made for equivalent stiffness or rigidity. tt I I la 2t 24 27 E l6an. the increased modulus of elasticity (E) would allow a corresponding decrease in the required moment of inertia (I). The reduced section of the steel equivalent design has a greater modulus of elasticity. Merely reducing the weight of a flat panel would cause a still greater vibration pri6Fem (Fig. left). 2.a.csl \5M4 maiqi4l . Reduced natural frequency means that the member will. more 5 Curves illustrote whot hoppens to vibrotion in o steel weldment os fhe weighf is reduced to where the design becomes efficient.000. It is possible to change Irom a heavy cast member to a Iighter weldedsteel member andhave Less amDlitude ofvibration and higher natural frequency. hence.z Waight of pan. ouHdc dih.d increase with decreased weight because of the loss of moment of inertia 0). then. even after the machine has beenfabricated. a..r 'ar. . right. (and moment of inertia) without changing the material. and the vol. 000. 3. the natural frequency wil. At resonant frequency. Steel can have a damping capacity equal to or greater than cast iron because an equivalent steel desigr under the same Load is stressed higher.L= 12. amplitude of vibration woul. would result in double the amplitude of vibration (Fig. This means agreater operiting range. a simple reduction in weight of 50%. See Figure 6.3 4 / Speciol Design Conditions t@L 9.ar. This would reduce the weight to 4070 without any increase in amplitude of vibration over that ofthe casting. ADVANTAGES OF STEEL Experience has proved that efficient steelweldments weigh less than corresponding castings and thiS reduced weight should not create vibration problems. 5.l Waight ol ncDb. center).3. If welded steel were used in pl. forthe same section.tion / Fig. Sprayedon coatings or cemented fiber materials will increase damping of very thin sections.l be higher (1.ume depends on the amplitude. A noise problem is solved as a vibration problem: chadging the frequency through stiffeners or stamping or breaking into smaller panels to reduce unsupported length. the amplitude of vibration would be abnormally high and would prevent the machine from having any usefulpurpose.asing thi(/rn. NOISE CONTROL The pitch of noise resulting from yibration depends on the frequency. On the contrary. as is usually done in machine tools. therefore.l / l ftaa4 ui4th \ I dct. higher natural frequency./ tlofulus at €lastic.ntiods\ ldecftasidg uictna \r6mc mdtz.. .ace of the gray iron casting.t er.$ .S8 times) and the amplitude of vibration wilL be lower (407c).riat \sanz sa. The design flexibility of welded steel makes easy io shorten unsupported lengths by means of stiffeners and to make other changes that increase it lt is important to emphasize that this is caused bv the reduction in moment of inertia and not direct Iy by the reduction in weiqht. For example. reduced amplitude of vibrationand. natural frequency and decrease amplitude. 5.t! I I (diffeftnt nat. steel has superiorproperties for designing where vibration is an important consideration: 1. 7. 000 psi to Es.
increases its stiffness and its n3. EXAMPtE5 OF STEET DESIGN V[rious (lcsign iclcls for minimizing rre ill.3 5 9. punchinq holes in a stiffening plnel.tion qqency and. Small tacklvelded stiffeners."es ""u* the panc['s natural frequency.ni in. 8 is The welded printing press illustrated in Figure used in color printing for a popular magaiine Fig.. 7 A few design ideqs for confrol of vibrqtion. D. incielses torsional. lvelding the ends of ir vibra. E. Fla. C. 6 Methods of ochieving noise control. which increases the frequency and reduces the angle of vibration. as sholvn at Figures 8. reduces the .u. Fig. 9. B. inc^rease natural fre member rigid. Closed sections or diagonal bracing. resistance (R). add resistance to twi st. .V ib rotion Co ntro  / 3..nging a long panel.ustratcd in Figure 7. reduces the amplitude by B0% over a s i mplysuppo rted member.tural frequencv. and 10 illustrate machines that have been designed to improve operating character_ i sti cs by m ini mi zing vibratior. when placed at 45". A io Figure 7.
Color registry llpr:"..00040" to 0..I roltrv surllce grindcr u.d srze variation from 0. How_ ever..rd in_ spectlon pattern with a vibration r.uct s ion ind inr Initchin(. while m3lirngr wejght reduction. xl)t'ri( rl( o .of 3i:ll"1. The original fabricatcd_base grinder after nine years of continuous service had iequired no rnaintenance of anv of the wearins surfices.s.lIr udI Lhc vlurtlges of stcel in vibration contro. exacllv !^here they are requlred. This instrument enables the engineers to detect vibra_ rron rn any part of the machine and also to detect and correct any source of vibration in the machine. The machine . Figure 10 ( In the design of a welded_steel. or 2670 savrng. which are part of the fabri cation.1.se bectuse of resulting blind pocliets which can cause blow_holes o. without any damage whatever to the sLructure of lhe metal. Figurc g.a.h has a'rvelded st(. It isdesignodlor m3_\jmLUn rigiditv rvith minimum weight. mode by predecessor design.00015".. Comparative vibration tests on the old and new versjons.of the grinder were made bv running pro_ t"r: ..fo: rxrge besring oa weighs tssemblies. Colorcgistr:r ure importftnt. together.ro^m 9 to 12".*LL. bed for a new lntenxl grinding machine. in view of lhe higher capacit]. in its 10_vear sho\rs. .glopecl a high degree offunctional rigiditi.l.3. IIrs rlcmonslratcct convincingll. Rjbs cln be placed q. so. Every machine built by this manu_facturer is analvzed thoroughly eccording to a stxndc. the engineers der. t.i l'egrstLrf :tt llt gher.viLlt wc ldcd dcsign of pt.nalyzer. After . anO from whtiir drrt can never be cleaned properly. 8.ct biLSc ltnd column.. lpoogy material becr. Weldedsreel prinring press mokes neorly 3 times the per hour.. Fig.::o signi[ictnr grinding of inner rings for inreroal i: . the swing of the new machine was increased I."sonance asiny crstiron base. hen"". The new d'esign reduced time from 13 to g sec.lmerous c\periments.ri! ttiStt. and improved surface finish from 21 to 1O micro_ inches rms.use of trapped gas.rt x fubriclted base can be rniO" j'u"t ls rigid and just as free from .t1:T is beiter becouse rigidity hos reduced uibroiion. a fairer. compari son is on a unit weight basls. comptnv engi_ necrs found thi. speeds. it was sometimes difficult to rib a castiron bs.hi(. Also.0994 substtntiill trlrs resultod in rcductions in opeilting cost through its improved rigiclity:rnd. tlie figures being t{9 lbs against 203 lbs. . The nerv welded_ steel bed only 1?S8 lbs. lower.36 / Speciol Design Condirions !vith a circ'ulttion over one rnillion. leading grinder company.. The cost of the welded bed was alsor sub_ stantially less than the former cast_iron design. grindingbexrjng rings. No such diffi culties were encounrered in labri catins the base oI relded steel. rhc welAecr ]rress . rgainst 1329 lbs lor il cxstiron bed on rhe previoui design.
o . 9 The weldedsieel bed design of this internol grinder ht. . deve lops hig h fun ctiono I rigidi ty whi le redu ci ng weig Fig..!. weldedsteel bqses on this line of precision grinders hove provided beiier vibrqtion control.1a'.. .. f.t Fig.i.Vibrqtion Co ntrol / 3.c. l0 For over l0 yeors.37 o..i. i f Sa\.
.3B / 5peciol Design Conditions 'fT' It. t.:l Ji. *."::'i. requ iremen ts ror .3. .ll jti j.Tn::::'eosi ns I v his her q uo iil.il*t1 Ii rv il: . The influence of vibrofion control on grinderperformqnce i iil *i::l.::."::.
After sufficient movement (dis_ has taken place to cause this 2./in. 405 r = cE = (.s yiefO strength. 5lh Edirion./hr for a stress of about d = 10. the resulting creep strain would be_= (r/ro x 108) (50. tortion) of the member .d be relieved slightly. unless acted upon by iome type of applied force. .000 work_ lng hrs). it would be negligible.00005 in.) (30 x ta6) = 1500 psi .4 Dimensionol Srobiliry I.00005 in. Fig.t (time) € (strair) . rt rs necessary to stress the memberto a rather high v€lue (of the order ofthe yield strength) and also at elevated temperatures (several hundred ') to achieve this effect.od of time. ause of its high stress and high temperature re_ sr. I lnfluenceof temperotureondstressoncreeprote.This is indicated by the curves shown in Figure 1.Even though this is for a high temperature of 500F. there will always be some areas stressed rn compression. for lowcarbon steel. p. This is caIIEiniiEEFn However. would not be a factor in the dimensional stability of a steel weldmentrvt"" op"ruti"g standard conditions.creep' as such. willhave a contin_ uous increase in movement (strain) when stressed g. ./in. In order to balance out these teisile stresses. R ESIDUAI. To get a better idea of this indicated strain. it would be equivalent to the elastic strain resulting from a stress of 6 Bo*d upon Morir i Hondbook. It is possible to have tensile residual stresses in the weld area of the order of the steef.000 hrs) = .* {dr. The above data indicates that .ver a pgli.SECTON 3. STABIIITY OF STEET weldment whether a properly stressrelieyed weldment will stay put after being machined and placed in service. s. resulting in subsequent movement of the OccasionaLly there has been some concern as to qurrement. THE NATURE OF CREEP Some metals.. the creep rate at 50OoF would be somewhere below ylo x 10:s in.If these curves could be projected further down the _t€mperature scale./in.sTR ES5E5 Every bit of engineering data indicates that welded steel will remain (dead" to any movement throughout time. 3.. "nJL. including steel. Apparently the thought was that in time some of the residual or lockedin stresses woul. For a time period of 25 years (t = SO.000 psi This creep rate  . .
. suosequen y machined out. the inner diameter of the hub will this movement and. to j"g..sston .essbn and pr.n\ing. Altloueh this is. Fig. therefore.. Afler welding.. small.. it can also U" ed by mechanical methods.. Th: two large circumferential fillet shrink and assume a for a bearing support is shown The hub ts welded into the siae *rft oi A.sion. rs stressed resist pres.. 3 Confroction of hub during mochining con be ovoided by stresl rel ieving the weldment.ontra. .:: in Fisure diameter. Fig. /hside diomctlr af hub is in comp. it will U" n"".2 stressrelieved balance. smaller circumference welOs iena and .. See r rgure z.d in . untess thls "gr. there shoutd be no furthermovement ofthe member.r.. end over end. Here.Pv L# tl RH lt Weldment shou ld be prior to ony subsequent mochining. tfris riovemenl as graduauy decreases with lighler machine cuts.hub il" . To avojd this difficulty.R machine out the hub with many light ETIEVING . cttah.t.. across the floor of tle iaUrtciting silp. the weldment should stressrelieved before mlchining. shr. ana This willallow the weld area to sh. Stres s . Undoubtedly this could be just as effective"as the conventional method by heating.tt . The usual method is to carefullyplace the weld_ ment in a special furnace.vancs hub frm fu. either tensile area in is the L"1l "I' .]il"tl are in fact (stressrelieved" bytumblingthem.t to o. ls slress_ relieved before machining..d oot this fiatol 6trass.:. and heitto a tempera_ . U""o_ing"I smaller diameter.: ment becoming less and le"ss with each cut4.tha. STR ESs.usually done by heat.rink. As the machining t the hub will become smaller. oer mustthen take place to rebalance these stresses. the hub is UoreO in com_ oui .d add hob .r lockedup stresses are reduced.reli eving is a process whereby residual o."rrvio cil.3.4Z / 5peciol Design Condilions ta it. Some steel weldments """o.r". lf a considerable amount ofstressed material . = . A corresponding movement of the mem_ .omp.. be _ 3.. r ne result in this case is that the member graduallv mov€s machining progresses.or compressive area in some other part or tne sec on.3 rcmov.?. whan hub is bo. there will be a new uabalance of the stresses..a.ygh 9_f the compressiie area rs removed.
l.ue below the residual stress. of thickness.Dimensionol 5ro biliry / 3. because of their higher temperature and.43 45 40 35 Yield strength of mild steel Fig.y machined and in service. The weldment must be heated up slowly and uniformly. p I 15 t0 5 200 400 600 800 I 200 I400 Temperoture. In general. See the curve. as compared to the thinner sections. after which it is furnace cooled. and a slower rate of cooling. may also beused to give the maximum value of any residual stresses resulting from a given st ress reli eving treatment. Thicker sections. Consider the section in Figure 5.q_<p^ti^n nr l^^^ weldment. BOWING PROBTEIV\ is the lengthwise bowing of a member due to a nonuniform temperature distribution throughout its crosssecIlon. . because of their greater mass. HoIes should be provided (flame cut or drill) to allow air in a totally enclosed section to escape during heating. Itisheldat thts temperature for a period approxjmately equal to t hr/in. Figure 4. 3488 in. On heating.'F ture of about 1100oF. 1ower When the yield strength is reduced to a val. thinner sections in compression. When thcre is quite a difference in thicliness ol parts of a weldment. which could represent a long weldment. Figure 4. otherwise it is possible to blow the weldment open. if restrained around their edges by thicker sections. 4 Stresses in q weldment ore relieved by lostic yielding o f the metq when heoted to sufficient remPero iure.riy support the weldment in the fu. thinner sections will expand more. It is necessary to prope.rnace during st. 5. it becomes more nccess{rry to use a slower rale of beatins. thicker sections will cool last. Heating the weldment to a given temperature /il1 lower the yield strength of the steel to a much value. r'ill lag in temperature change. Assume that the ambienttemperature has increased slishtlv and at one instant the A problem sometimes encountered lly engineers Whole section: Lower "T  : seclion. and just as carefully cooled. the temporarily swe3"kened" weldment will yield plastically and thus relieve most of the stresses. and shrink last.ressrelieving. On cool1ng. this usuallv places them in iension and the l.' = 934 in' rT: 5" F i"t*l Fi^ 4 a"^. The above curve.hese stresses cannot be relieved much lower than the value of the yield point of the steel at the temperature to which it was heated. complete].This is in rddition to any residual stresses resulting from welding. mav buckle until the thicker sections catch up to lem during the holding or soaking time.
/ Top flonge IT = ill [l ll o f 16."4  Compression fi tr= rl\rUKE. being loF cooler thon remoini ng cross5eclion.'X Z X lO{ X t"F =../ NIA NIEl NI11 trl'Fcooler. e =240.3.up member Resultont Compression Axiol \I } ompression fi F I l TI9UKE O A F F llensron I it Effect Tension in of top 0onge conirocting Bending AX rol I I flonge / VV77v Resultont 'fN N NI  NIE tt\ NIE NIE I /'! I \rl Compression E /: . ond opplies on r 6:96" neulrol oxis of T section . Fig. In this cose the top flonge.0016g.04.e6. 4I 11 ll co = 8. resu lting in deflection. 8 Nonuniform iemperqture distribution in lbeqm couses bowing of the beom. conirocts L = 934 in' = 240" initiol oxiol force.44 / 5periol Design Conditions Compressive force opplied to flonge Eending P of burlt.
.4_5 top flange is one degree cooler than the rest of the section because of its greater thickness.y any resisting action. Figure ?. tending to "lrce the member to bow lengthwise.and€=g PL PL SinceP=aAr .75. 5) tile moment of inertia of the entire section is I = 8488 in.00168) (30 _240_(240_4070\_4070 Ir x 106) 934 R/ R Contraction due to axial compression (p) 18 14 = 455 lbs .M= P x moment arm = P (16. In this case it is an axir. E=30x106 18 ArE esisting "T" section where Ar in.T" section can now be found  """.002.. This of course Notice (Fig.46 P the defiection of beam q'ith constant bending moment is_ _ PL ATE ' ^ _ 75. so that itdoes not supp].I3OP = 3.. section. In our problem.PL.' = Ar= 14 in.400 in. By applying an axial tensile force (p) to the top flange.. pulling it out.a" \ \RJR 1!l! .e6\_ zao_  and e=240L.l =240" L'isiJ.' .00168 """ 1r )= .00169. oL E then contFction or extension in the top flange is  PL.Dimensionql Sfo bility / 3. In the conventional problem. 240 . in summary er + er = .to section to push it in so borh meet asln the lower view of Figure 8.96 L = 240" Ir= 934 in. Here the resisting moment of inertia (I) comes from the crosssection of the remaining &T' section on]y.P= L L Ar Ar 240 (.t30P MLl SEIr (8400) (240)' 8 EIr recalling the extension of the top flange r pulled by "T" section is (30 x 106) (034)  = .h"iok"s" if6iliiFPL eT= _+_ Since the mornent ol the resisting .' as shown in the upper view of Figure 8. Here the moment of inertia (I) of the entire crosssection will resist this bowing or bending reaction. the force (P) is applied by the contracting top flange.ion T M= 18.rdo= I and ArE Therefore.46 (455) = 8.lbs Since= then = 18.b) = 18. has a much smaller value and as a result the lTn will tend to bow or bend easier than if the force (P) is applied externally.a while that of the &T' section is only Ir = 934 in.4 The top ftange. an external force (P) is applied to the member. . x 6.00168" or E=9 . FIGURE Top flange 8 .. Figure 6. while applying an equal compressive force (P) to the inside edee olthe .oo.l force applied at the ends of the top flange. = LN 4l /Rc'\ R = mdius of curr'atule to neutral axis of substituting Rewriting the preceding formula and then t5 E 75.130 PL ArE Total contractiolr (axial and bending) of inner face of "T" du" to .75. where the resulting stress from this eccentric force is shown.46 P 4070 ATE K = l::bi lr l\rl R and M = 18. would contract .uo" P) _24orR_ r6.l + 1. if separated from the *T.130 t=30 \R/  "T" section { /l *' ! E \Ar Ar . it is possible to solve for tbe force^ (P) and the resulting bowing or deflection (5) OI a member_ COMPUTATION FOR SOLVING FOR BOWING (A)..46 P Contnction due to Dure bending LN^ = Liri. This will cause the top flange to contract.
it would be necesiary to either ({ tempe. _ To g.. This was because any uneven expansion was balanced on both sides of the neutral a_ris.0003".46 / Speciol Design Conditions within. becouse plote is symmetricol oboul neuiroi oxis FIG URE IO shoul. even when heated 10"F.: Arrer turning ir over and checking.d coincide with the center of gravity of the thin areas.0001'.ldments requi ring extreme srability l3n9_ ". A_similar surface plate made of welded steel rnd of box construction.ce plote does nol bow wrth temperoture cnonge... illustrate this. heatedupquicker and thus e. bowing the surface plate in the opposite direction and correcting for the error. being. Cosi. a cast iron surface plate. Late^r when the ambient temperirture had increased g"F. or (2) provide a desis.thinner than the top portion.. rt/ t. It wxs found that the ribs. . coustng o reverse bow.'. thinner ribs exponded nrsl.iL___iL _ _ __) When turned over ond checked.0005" L__ _iL . if . weldment. expansion or conlraction of these sections is balancei about the. One houi later thls error had increased to ." .rpanded... the error had dropped bacli to .:i. .. 9 Temperoture chonge moy bow costing due to nonuniform stress.000050.s massive sections are concerned.0001. castings. 1 tt r. h4d an eccuracv or wi )in .rature.1. Li:.)l I <. ond correcled some of the error_ Fig.le would indicate that on we._ JL ___JL ttI __ ) .iron surfoce plote origrnotty scroped within . the center of gravity of the thick areas o. or with any tlpe of material.1i"* rn operation. {n and rhin sreas rhere is e combination of in the cross_sccrion of r :L':I welded steel surfo.neutfal axis and the member will iemaln straight and unaffected by temperature changes.000S".000r" Ambient temperolure increosed 8"F. on error of . Fjgure lO. This problem is not limited to steel weld_ ments but could occur with rolled shapes. it was found to have an error of.00005" . words. The preceding extmp."^"i:11* wnicn ls symmetrical as f3r g.1".000'050. L___ jL _ _ _ _. .3. With the latter provision. Figure had been hand scrapedtowithin.
This will produce wear and shorter bearing life. Figure 5. In rddition to the weight of the roll itself. center of the bearing.It is desired to dcsign the bcaring supports so they wiII tilt slightly under loird rnd linc uD Derfectlv with the end oI thc roller sililft. ^f The end of the roller will tilt with any loading and the bearing will iemain horizontal. Its ftrcc is 100" long. Figure 2. and theil lifc' is rather short. Figure 3. Becftusc the roll dcflecLSsliShtIy. It is supported on each end by bearings r. This results in a bending moment. The main portion of the roll is 24" diameter. Problem 1 FIGURE 2 COMPENSATING FOR ANGUTAR DEFTECTION By shifting the bearing support slightly off the Consider the steel roll. there is a uniform oll pressure of 10 lbs. and the stub ends are 8" diameter.V\ EIV\ B ER 5 Elastic matching is a term used when two connecting members are desigrled so that their angular deflections are equal. This roller will always deflect somewhat.me angle as the ends of the roller under any loading. along the face ofthe roll. the stub ends arc not in alignment with the bearings. Figure4. and it has two stub cnds erch 1J" long. the bearingforce is applied to the suppo v. regardless of how large and rigid it is.5 Elostic Motching I. which causes the bearing to tilt slightly. ANGUTAR DEFIECTION OF CONNECTING . the berrings ovcrheat. Bothwill always be in perfect alignment..'ith a slight eccentricity. *o I FIGURE I It is then possible to calculate the proper moment of inertia (I) of the bearing support so that the bearing wiil tilt }t the s:r. Figure 1..hh^ rt FIGUR E 4 will not tilt.SECTtON 3. Consider the following roller.vhich rle not selfaligning./in. The bearing support bec ause the uniform bearing pressure is centered about the center of gravity tha c. This means they will remain aligned regardless ofthe value ofthe loading applied. supported by two fixed bearings (not selfaligning bearings ). . FIGURE 3 Lood .
. regardless of the valu'e of the . A = 7. shaft.. consjdcring clrcl.280 in. divided by their co.7(14) . Here a certain value is assumed i> t It is now possible to solve for the required Tomelt to inertia (r) which will cause trrsuJarlii support 9f tilt the same angle as th" u.000.08 e = 1.310 ) (23) 2E(2550) lr" w in yltt .4 = ).r o[ thc two l)earing sup_ ports..upporl.lbs M. Figurc 6: .? Ibs h = 30.000. The eccentricity tel is tfre aGaice of bearingpress qre or bea.0001027radiaru.lbs The total angle (in radi ans) between the tansents at Pornts I and 11 is equattothe sums of the a'reas . rlE :5 27.5) = + 43. A support height or t0.200 in.').86" A= 9.t 0 for the eccen_ ..000 psi.7(18) _ 256(13) _st2(2) _40(2) = 34.1. Feh EO ( 1748.ppli"l . .1 in.. with ." nlo_l9nt diagram.tuni(arn L.310 in.. nas been assumed.oad :^t rne center ro *^" "^_"1!::oI gravity oI the support. x31#WF 8r' std pipe Ir = 37. the required eccen!.' = .  . +27.744 in.310 + 8.4+ + toao.oroneend d = ._1":. having a given momentof for the inertia . 11"^ :lrf. Feh EI where: ina "55o e61.5) 480.?(64) 256(36) _ 512(25) _ !70(13.rres91 ponding EI (E = 30.730 43.000x.9 can suggest a certain section s.fI=i+.52 / 5periol Design €onditions l'hcn. d Load d ioq rom *i rJ : I = 1743.1ll.7(41) M5 Me = = _  240.::rr.8 sq in E(201. loading.12 sq in.7(5) = + 8.0000513 radians b s dI t o I ff Jlb ! }. ttu (eJ wrrr proouce a bearing support which will """"iiri"iiv allow rne rrearing to tilt at the same angle as the end of for any.ricity (e) wnrcn wrll altow the bearing support to tilr at tle same angle as the shaft: TF4 20" x .0 e = 1.. Figure2.066 + 22.38' d =.! x 8.lbs O.il.7) (1" ) (30) (30.7 aa:} l9) A = 24. .256(9) = + 22.0000513) ovnenl y't5qyay4 FIGURE 5 Here the moments about point L are: Mr = 1748. = 1748.066) (23) 2E(2550) 2(48.= 47 2 ' Vr(22.5) 2(43..401.r.7(28) _ 256(59) _ 512(48) _500(25) = + 48.0 85#I 2' lt(8744J 15) E( I..a Tlle bearing support is then dimensioned so as to provide the required moment of in""ti"..27 sq in.200 lEal6Jbot 20r.200\ (4) + 8.066 in.lbs 1i48.ring j.i rn.0000b13 radians ta tu IU ^ FIGUR E 7 FIGUR E 6 Any of the three rolled sections in Figure ?.3.: tor.5) 2(2i. tricity (e=1.t: 1748.its corresponding value io.lbs Mr=1748.
5 l6s/tt t6" @ Welded steel Other steps. When a cast iron beam (A. it may be experi Torsional loading is the application of a force that tends to cause the member to twist about its structural axis. 1) is replaced with a steel beam (B). which is basically the product of the externally apptied force and the moment arm or force arm.. the resulting shear stress in the shaft is ?xample).a =L +L=2I tion. A motor drive mounted on the base tends to twist the base. but not always. 3. IMPROVING TORSIONAt RESISTANCE A machine tool base.9 lbs. As a result. is very efficient in resisting torsion. . therefore. for example.Jbs J = polar moment of inertia of section. 3.r /. weight per foot can be reduced. Torsion is usually referred to in terms of torsional moment or torque (T). after it is made. to achieve the same torsional resistance. Casrings. on the other hand. Usins a steel closed box section (C).SECTTON 3. it contributes little inpreventingthe base from twisting. NATURE OF TORSIONAL IOADING enced merelv as the result of an eccentric static load. The principal deflection caused by torsion is measured by the angle of twist. is generally designed by assuming the base to be supported at each end. This type of loading is associated with axles. And.5 lbs/ft. aa overall reduction in ht of approximately 8070. 2. 2.__ _1_ F3'. for example. or by the vertical movement of one corner of the frame or base. on which are bers. in.9 l6s/tl Steel. bending stresses anddeflections are low. mounted rotatine mem developed by the use of stiffeners.5 lbs/ft N'zt4 l_NJ/ n "'a"a + sleel FIGURE I .\ 5Y1" T_ $ fr 25. torsionally rigid sections areeasily Here are the three basic rules for designing machinery members to make the best use of steel where torsional loads are a problem: 1. it is usuallv supported along its entire length on a good founda where: r = shear stress. weight can be lurther r^iuced to 25. Use diagonaL bracing. must be taken to desisn against twisting or torsional loads. in rolled structural shapes or builtup sections. etc.5 to 96. in this example from 122. in Fig.6 Designing for Torsionol Looding I. 96. in. It is less recognizable in wellsupported bases. POTAR MO'V\ENT OF INERTIA When a round shaft is subjected to a twisting or torsional momenL (torque. need for draft. T 10" 122.s center of gravity to its outer fiber (radius of a round shaft. With sreel. psi c = distance from center of section to outer fiber T = torque. This distance often equals the distance from the member. While a good foundation supports bending loads. Use closed sections where possible. are restricted because ofdifficulties in coring. spindles and other rotating members. However. Make rigid end connectrons. The moment arm is the distance of the centerlindif rotation from the line of force and perpendicular to it.
e.3.t"..267 lrlrl l4.rrr l.0b0 psi) of steel is assumed to be inthe order the material. the polar section moOuluscan j7c.8 R = .3.25i  .00 .000.gth tal<e wrthour failure)..rrr I.2es Lw l. ::t sa4   i ..28r I .t)? if all plares midleng* Iong side R_ b+d2r same rhickness T 2t. of ?S7ool PROPERTIES where.t .{ c = 12. is and the allowable torque is thus__ T= .rl t.. /0.stic limit.246 I ttttl .282  .z+g   .a z 32" ft tb 7 _ 16T ds r d'l R=.tn most cases. the ultimate shear strength (i") TABLE I . = overall round shaft is required (i._ J. in inches E.r)r (d . R. the designer is interestecl in holding the torsional momentwithin tfr" . the stress it "t".6? / Speciol Design Condirions The angular twist of a round shaft is _ l'=rl  "'" where: I rnr I ' I angular twist of shaft.= J Use t2/s midlength short side "= R_2tt.(bt)r(dt.0479 trd 4. in radians = 52.098! (d:r V .torsional Resistance &ction Sbea! Stress *." elo.a .rrr .Z:e .i.) = J 3T ndt! T R= 1."tt"osraph 4 1.) R = t (b  t)J if square Qzqbgozpt Sinq/e brace R._lacking test data.6 r .1406 dr T a bdr 2. approx.m 3.oe82d{ = J=$dA / z a( l6Td: z(d:r  dri ) R = .ml6l8lrol.107 l.c 3rl .)i T bt +drr tjtr1 2t(b . '4 v: jj i.d.t) {d .3.239 . {b  t) (d _ t.t.C4 J d/agona/ h*.s ultimate tensile streneth.zee  . = modulus of elasticity in shear (1 radian (steel E" . rectangula! sections 2.) 2 t (b .TORSIONAL OF VARIOUS SECTIONS (for steel) R.50 R= B bdr b for solid d. Where the torsional .6 doub/e brace VlllEi ll''lsl.i"f. ".) L = length of shaft.
This means that the torsional resislance of a fl. The sameliece of steel formed into a channel (b) twists 9rz:u. the best section for resisting torsion is a closed square or rectangular tubular sect ion.{ t?en{i' / T t.Designing for Torsionol Iooding / 3. For noncircular sections the shear stresses are not uniform.007" ato R 72" FIGURE 3 9. open tube section. Next to a tubuLar section. Forexample.ffi^t .060 {t g io' It" o n ^.f all theindividual rectangular areas.osed section is best for torsional loading since the shear stresses are uniform around the circumference of the member. it twists 11u.41 .n twists 9". and . When the tube becomes a cl.s no loneer 4.oqt l. as shown in the table.. the torsional resistance increases several hundred times. nearly equals the sum of the torsional resistances o.at plate is approximately the same whether it is used as such or is formed into an angle. + R +R: FIGURE 2 Figure 3 shows the results oftwistinsanl beam made of three equal plates. Notice the error in using polarmoment of ineItia (J) for the angle of twist of open sections.. channel. all identcbl T t.%r.. The flat seciti. This i s illustrated in Fisure 4. thus permitting a greater load.esis_ tances of the two flanges and web (Fig. The formulas for solid rectangular sections call for values. Actual tests show that the torsional resistance (R) oJ an open section made up ofrectangular areas.06" t. tne torsronal resistance of an I beam is app.5 9' FIGURE 4 T R eoual to ptu s olqs ! a = n R. _o55 t. Angle of tuJist The solid or tubular round cl. which are derived from the ratio of section width (b) to depth (d)..osed seciion. the torsional stresses are distributed more evenly over the total area.erefore the standard torsional formul. etc.0t" . When the same section is made into a closed section (d) by pla"cing a single tack weld in the middle of the open seam.o55 Ioedhgs il ir 7.li JI GOOD FIGURE 5 'W/ . BEST Ir. Samples of different sections made of 16[age steel ar^e subjected to torsion.3' 065 .o@ t . and the good agreement by usingtorsional resistance (R).s' v/ . a . Values of R are expressed in inches to the fourth power. Table 1 shows the formulas for shear stress and torsional resistance ofvalious sections. This shows erealer accuracy by using torsional resistance (R).ll Ud.2). When ro^I1ed into a tube with an open seam (c).4.Ac' .roxi_ mately equal to the sum of the torsional .. Angle of turist a. resistance (R)stifiness factorhave been established for various standard sections and provide more reliable solutions to torsionaL rigidity problems.UUO R v.63 The rbove three formulits are true for solid round or tubular round shafts... of a and B . TORSIONAI R ESISTANCE Values of torsional. Calculated values of twist by using the conventional polar moment of inertia (J) and the torsional resistance (R) are com_ pared wjth the actual results.
O8o/flr: .""o .(3) ^".45.3. "r ".. After 1i:"..T"gs.Iolqu" or rhe lormulas (T) in in.04'72 (Yr'13 3Y2 = 0.018 radiars. the torsional resistance ofthe is found to be__ * 2 _ FORMULA5 FoR DETERMNTNc ^.tosed round tube Table 1. r oo".) 3a) = 0. (d.it.. urju J< HP Based on strength of shaft: E"R (1000) (r00) (12 x 106)r7.0278.:?rt." line o{ force) ""otu" Problem V I n As O rl \.la their sum is or a modificaxlon of it: hll" .totted round tube R = I.0982 (dra  dr.". _ '=..000 x Hp FIGURE 7 ' FM Case 1 or T = Pe ^. B* iJi*l Cose I an example. HP = horsepower RPM = speed of revolution P = apptied force. Thus..19635S.T= 137 (dra Based on safe twist ol shaft (. is many times r ..) ""ffif":ijll"1. where: l? il* ** ::fH:' stii.420 dr r werd les size around +d)rdal 'l r Based on butt weld size arould hub: :++r'l =4tu . the tube withoflhe stot more rigid than the slotted tube. rnserted into the followine f6rmu..i: i:1'"*'3H:ii??"no 'i'ui l' "roii"i.al 0. .r  = and the angular twist is _ loltanceutial = road: ^TL _ = Case 2 Based on^horsepower transmitted: T oJ..0982 (41 17.i. the torsional resistance of the is found to be__  d.000 d. where S.lf.F and = L.64 / Speciol Design Conditions The poorest sections for :::ffi": sections.3. iuch as__ T _ 63.0472 t3 d Table 1.19 T _ .lbs may be obtained from one in Table Z.l{d T= 20. .00048b radians.04.459 in.TjB_L! SAFE TORQUE UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS Basf R = 0. and tubular sections which irave a Trl":: ffi l :.R (1000) (100) (lrTlo").UKE the R values of all areas in a builtup been added together. 0.a the angular twjst is _ ^TL _ = E.l.19 in. or 1.a _ . consider the torsional resist_ o"u .1":c."":l9n . or 0.Jl"l'i. 3781 '= f.. = 15.. lbs e = moment arm of force (the perpendicular disrance from the or^roirtioiiJif.4  T _ 3945 (dr.
. the value of R for a box section is found to be 0= (I2 x = Case 2 1000 106) x  100 (4x.a the top and bottom flanges are considered solid. H.ront support of an earth_moving scraper.' (ti) (%) r (4) (%5) . .he rotal angular twist is _ 0= 1000 (12 x 106) (2 x 100 x . was much better than Case 1.(b_t)r(d_t.'6).u.:: = 30. = 6. b = d = 2r. box section to thls hold it within the sameangular twist.94 in. From Tabte 1..=N t?a"'6') r. = 0.: slJ p or movemenr due to horizontal the two webs are considered as one solid web.4b9 in. When these two channels are securely fastened back to back.. the torsional resistance toe to " would be greatly increased.8f which is much less than in Casc I Case 3 resistance. Irs marn requirement is to resist the torsional load within an allowable angular twrst. or 0. 12) having the same over_all dimensions.v\ (\\\g N \\lf UA N \\\ .1p. Assume bending resistance is sufficient.0306+2x.l. A 6" srandard pipe has been used for the main FIGUR E 9 From Table 1.01b" $ N =.1tr. ..0586 in. the value of R for each of the two c.0348 radians. 4e/a" x 2') (77vt n zLm v777) u 77777t A a n toe to rorm a box section.00027 radians.r  .long frame. whieh in turn 0.Designing for Torsionql Looding 3.lbs.459) These two channels when separated but fastened together by end plates do not have much torsional = 0.tl4!ttG . . or 0. = which is far less than in Case 2. there is suitable resista.345 in. tn _ 9. and "t. or 2..M 4> Na'.. In what relarionshio ro ea. If these two channels were welded a 2(s4a' x 6") FIGURE 8 FIGUR E IO _ From Table 1. _i: with a fabricated square box seclion {Fig...a and that of the composite web is _ Rr = 0.posite flanges is found to be__ In the box section.066 in.)r bt+dtrt2tr2 _ 2(: .0306 in. channels are to be used making a 100.(\).i. . be subjected R.94 s. which wil.a "l thar of each web is of R for each of the and thus the toral angular twist is  Rr = 0.. the value flanges is found to beRr = 0. ryz M r* z(t/6"x+') rzr=z>.0" o_2tt.05861 0.ch other will these channels offer the ereetesi ? Two 6" x 2" x tor._... .066 + .ft 11) desjred to replace thjs pipe section (!rg."" . Determine the required thickness of plate for .6_5 / Problem 2 resrstance to twist Case 1 m a torque of 1000 in. and the angular twist is d_ 1000x (12  100 x 106) 30.a and thus r.0141 radians.
a = torslonal. the unit angular t ll = thickness of rectangular section . 2.. Meon rodir.18 in.345 Rpip.345)3 (6. not necessarily just this one flat element _ This formula can be used for aflatplate.i t = 56.=2tzr.22" or use %'. 0 = unit angular twist of whole section (each element member also twists this amount).2)2 = 56. resistance of entire member.1g in.28 in. 1L = 28.345)3 = 59.a The torsional resistance of the box section.625'.345 =t (6.14 treated as a line. of the long side. Tabte 6). MAXIMU'VI SHEAR STRESS IN SECTtONS a answer obtained will be nearly the same: Rrip.345)' 6. T_ or Ibeamsection).18 in.14 + 28.345)3 . (see Sect.39 _ 1353.18 (6. = . channel. L BUITTUP I2 5.0982 (1926.1725" lD OD l= 28.  = = 56. angle.rs \t^l = 3. + 6. the FIGURE I3 The maximum shear stress of a rectanEular section in torsion lies on the surface at the ..14 ina FIGURE I I ''.6 6 / 5pecrot Design Condition5 I '.=J=I.1725)3 = 56.90 in. = 6. and t (6.. treated as _ line. or the flat plate of a builtup section not forming a closea section (i.4 .l.3.280) z (3.e.345)3 = 56..r1. In such a builtup open section.065.3 = 2(.. in radians/linear inch of  b+d _ = 2 t (6. is .3.a If the appropriate formula from Table I is used. LOOO I Lood ^' I Suppori i I tl = 6.08) For the ma_\imum shear stress on a narrow rectangular section or section element_ The actual value from a steel handbook is _ r=dtE"=Tt 'R where: Rpr1. is__ Rptp.tFIGURE .0982 (d:a dra) The torsional resistance of the pipe.
to form a short box section.3?5 = 2410 lbs/l.67 1777?'777777i'7777777777771 auu FIGURE I5 T.1208 = 2.t)(d .t t 2410 = 13. R=2Rr*Rr =2(.000 in. Shear stresses tend to concentrate at reentrant corners.r* T "= T 2t (b . This would then necessitate a deeper throat for the butt weld.inear inch Since weld metal is good for 13.!lb channels are welded toe to toe.0306)+.Ibs. See Figure 15.0306 in. Find the FIGURE I4 . t \ = 7lI +4all \ where a = inside corner radius.000 941l) '_ t in. the throat or depth of the continuous butt weld must Problem 4 A 6tr x 2" x107:1b channel is subjected to a :que.= 6420 x . In this case. the shear stress at mid_iencth of the short side is found to be Two 6" x 2" x l{)1.Designing for Torsionol looding / 3.tr) = 6420 psi The horizontal shear force is then . Applying the formula for rectangular sections from Table find the torsional resistance of each of the two identical 2" X %" flanges (Rr) and of the 6" X yl0" web (Rz): 1. This is sub_ jected to a torque of T = 100.'.580 Fsi FIGURE I6 lwo 6" x 2" x l0/rlj chonnets .1208 in.0b86 = R: = .of T = 1000 in.lbs. 185" or L_ The groove \veld connecting the channels must have a throat depth of at least qr6 Of course. From Table 1. 7nJ\ horizontal shear stress at the toes and the amount of groove welding required to hold these channels together for this torsional load.j = Thenr . the maximum Stress value should be used and is /.000 psi in shear. See Figure 16. if the torsional ioad is applied suddenly as an impact load. it would be good practice to add a safety factor to the computed load. Find the shear stress dlong the web.000 orf = 13. be Rr .0586 f = r""t.a ._nn Problem 5 twist (O) of the whole member 'L c is first found: and then the maximum shear stress in the specific rectangular element. .4 tT R %s X 1000 = .
so is the torsional resistance ofa frame approximately equal to the total resistance of its individual parts.D.625"andI. BUII. 24" between centers.Just as the torsiotral resistance of the section is equal to the totalofthe resistances of its individual areas.625r  6. . the tor_ sional resistance of this frame could be greatly increased by making the chamels into rectangulai box sections through the addition of plate. the torsional resistance ofeach tube:  drr) = = 56.0982 (dr. Figure 1?.TUP FRA/IAES The principles of torsion which determine the best sectio_ns for resistjng twist apply to built_up rrames.pump. and having a length 04 60".0982 (6. The torsional resistance of the frame whose longitudinal members are two channels would be approximately equal to twice the torsional resis_ tance of each channel section.0654) Support Supporf FIGURE I9 Action of Pr tronsverse members Aclion of longitudinol members .68 / Speciol Design Condirions Problem 6 of the frame under the load.r The 6'r standard pipe has O. Since the closed section is best for resisting twist. The dis_ tance between tbese members for purpose of tbis example is considered to have no effect.065r'. In finding R= . Find the approximalte twist A frame is made of two 6" standard pipes. This frame supports c' 10hp motor runninsat 1g0O rpm and drivingr.30 in. spaced "**3ul FIGURE ru m I7 6.D. \\ FIGURE I8 = 6.a . = 6.3.
 0 . iongitudinal as well as transverse.0000156 x 24" = 0.00037" (1) dr =A TlL nL L Using the common formula for angular twist = E.R 350 x 60 X 106) (2 X 56.nrRr  3.t.00089" Maximum deflection in the frame is the vertical displacemert (A). .n.. or 0. Seciions 'F1A LU . TORSIONAL RESISTANCE OF FRAME AND VARIOUS SECTIONS of Frome Under Torsionol Lood Defleclion Torsionol Resistonce of Commo.:i^ h 13 3 I lNFt l 3 " 2blr3+ dr23 l E. adding together the R of each tube. . RL TrW . the frame will deflect vertically the given distance (1) and each longitudinal member will twist (rr.69 is easily found: HP these same forces apply a torque transverse to the frame as well as longitudinal to it. = i 63. force (Pr. lbs Then. ] " . The longitudinal members are now considered to make up a frame oftheirown. By observation we findA Then: = dr W= drL a = rw = 0.l W E. The same separate analysis is also made of the transverse me'mbers.0000156 radians. analyzing the resistance and strength of a builtup frame against twisting. the angular twist is ^ TL (12 E.nrRl L TrW E.Designing for Torsionol Looding The torque / 3. DEFIECTION OF BUILT. [* Lw + ".30) = 0. When the vertical.l .tr2 . consider the torque appLied as two forces in the form of a couple at each end of the frame.) applied at the corner reaches the proper value. it is seen that TABLE In t.). rb'1 Fb'1 .030 Boo x 10 = 350 in.rr). nT RT ==and combining this with Formula (1) above itl=anqdT 7.UP FRA'Y\ES . In this manner.:1il^= Fbn rlt_l I 2 br +  r)r (d d rr. A TtL . It is usually more convenient to express the resulting angular twist in terms of vertical deflection of the frame corner which receives the vertical load. which is the product of angular twist (d) and frame width (W) between centers: This helps to show that the overall resistance tgainst twisting is the sum of the resistances of aLl the members.5+f r (b 7tt2a2 [t.
Figure 20. = width of whole frame.030. lbs E.3125)3 nl Rr nr Rr ':. BRACING OF FRAMES The two main stresses on a member under tor_ sional Iosding are (1) transverse shear stresses and .id 30'.a torsional resistance of transverse member.3. consider a frame 1S. . Fo. this has been neglected in this analvsis.dr23 2brr3 4 33 61":r _ 2 (L375) (. the torque applied to a member equals the end moment of the cross member at_ tach€d toit. = . .. .6lO / Speciol Design Condirions tt'"1 %e.tl FIGUR E 20 (2) rl = A EiE&'una r.L wjl . tl (12 x Substituting actual values into formula ::4: 1 I I = lwl Lt 106) lnrRr . in.0346) l Rr = nL = nr = numb€r of transverse members P = load applied at corner.tred by the cross members attached to them.in. Vsing the appropriate formula from Table 3. and this would sltgh y incre.'wide .. torsional resisrance of longitudinal member. psi iJctual A on a given member by the transverse forces sup_ T. Sincethe external force (pl applied ar the corner is lne sum ot these two forces: P = Pr + t. nr Rr rL = and IrT = _ _ ^.1875)3 l = .itmplicitl.0346 in. Find th"e vertical deflection of the unsupported corner when under a load of 5 lbs.' I Then: T   31. /nr_Rr nrRr\ wL\w*L) DT IXI p _ 2btr3 . in.s3 the orerall deflection of theframe. torsional resistance of the U channel cross_section _JE. Rr_ :::::vv. 2(. Problem 7 In other words.a where: ! = le"gth W RL of whole frame. _ Since the applied torque is . rn.  8. Tl = PIW and Tr = prL Pr= 3u'apr=I of ali the members. nrRr 2(. nr_ A E.. lons. in. There is some deflection due to bendins wL and combining this with Formula (2) above A E. Theie same forces subject the cross members to bending.i:tytliy p.l number of longitudinal members ^ PLwf E.= modulus ofelasticity in shear (steel: 12 a (5) (30) (15) . made o{ standard 3. = It can be seen that the to rque produced A vertical deflection.0346) 15 t:ddeflecfion when tested was 106).+ =WL r  3(.' channel.AE'nrRr* W'L A E'nrRr WL' To illustrate the use of the preceding deflection formula.
. ll I )  .. In a frame made up of flat members.m. See Figure 21. greauy srlttens the entire frame against twisting../ \. Since these two shear stresses cancel out. the trans_ verse shear stresses cause the longitudinal mem_ bers to twist./ mzmbe. The two steel bases in Figure 22Iook alike when is .1 / .+ . Therefoie. the trr.. but beinq very resistant to bending.^'to twistinq action ar tne shaa'iig strassas :7:l' /)l \ .ffi Z /') comprzsston are formad. On a diagonal member at 45o to axis of twist. broking ond ossembly vs flomecutti ng ond ossembly) And. l' watcn placa member in bandinq:\. *z)\ Lengthwise. FIGURE 2I Diogonol Erocing Conventionol Brocing k%\ @ otl " plore FIGUR E 22 @ Mode of %" plore Moteriols (352 lbs vs 877 lbs..ars and CrOSS members 'ra <.0#*.s1 '1\.r is  I very rigid.compressive stresses which are maxi'rm xt 45. These two stresses combine to produce diaEonal tensile and.. 1a.nsverse and lonsitudinxl / 3. o Toiol Cost Soving of 600/0 780/o 42o/o 5F/o . At 45.'' ::.. the transverse and longitudinal shear stress comDo_ nents are opposite in direction to eaeh other ind cancel out. the diagonal membei . there is no tendency for a diagonal member placed in this direction to twistThe diagonal tensile and compressive stresses try to cause this diagonal member to bend. llllILl aV \\./' Only diqgspal tans/an a. but in line with this member they combine to produce diagonal tensile and compiessive stresses which tend to cause bending rather than twisting.mae.'1 Thare.. '"11 an 45'dicao.\\4a 2x \\o tit / ). there no twisting stress or action on a diagonal member placed at 45o to the frame. . o... t...6 _ll \ \ ear stresses cancel eachother. me. is no twis=ina \ 'r f \. ^. sreel) Welding (247" vs 552") Preporotion (sheoring.a\ "... The longitudinal shear stresses cause the cross braces and end members to twist.Designing for Torsionol Looding (2) longitudina. Stnca Shzclr '))ut4uur stnca snaaT camponantr cancel orLt \ QctDn \.nd'yAY. mQ.l shear stresses..
s much. The top and.^Al FIGURE 23 FIGUR E 26 . use a simple flat bar. The reason for this is diaeonai bracins. top panel. As the unsupF.orted length of the diagonal brace becomes longer.l be no failure from local buckling. This i! done by flanging one edge of the brace or usins an angle bar or T section. buttheoneonthe right weighs only 4090 as much as the other and costs oolu 15./or bottom pt nel of N N N r.24).ction.3. it may become necessary to add a flange (Fig.81a a. Since the diagonal brace is not subjected to any Previous experience in designing longitudinal side members for bending is now used to design For short diagonal braces. Design Rule No. under severe torsional loads. it is not necessary to use a closed box section. They have approximately the same resrstlnce to twisting. 25).612 / 5peciol Design Condirions covered by a. For open frames with no flat panel. it is better to use a channel or I beam section havins two flanges (Fig. 2: USE DIAGONAL BRACING Stiffening the Braces these diagonal members. twisting a. The flange of the brace iray also be stiffened to keep it from bucklinE. It is important that the diagonal members have a high moment of inertia to provide suJficient stiffDess so there wil. 23). theframewill sriffen this to some extent (Fig.
The bottom base has diagonal braces at 45o with side members./i t t 3EI _\ :a+ FIGURE 27 . It twisted o. It is 36 times as resistant to twisting as the first base.oximate indi cation of the angular twi st of a frame using double diagonal bracing (in the form of an X) may be made by the following procedure. It twisted 9' the. I FIGURE 28 T% T .Designing for Torsionol Looding / 3. DIAGONAI BRACING (Double) (See Figure 2?) An appr. [[N A___ A .613 NN ___ItNN __al__ FIGURE 24 rN \w 9. yet uses 6% less bracing material. ( mm NN simply supported ) FIGURE 25 Relative Effectiveness of Bracing Tests were made on scale models of typical machine bases to illustrate increase in resistance to twist as a result of the diagonal bracing.r! 1/3 bracinc at 90" to side members./n in the middle. as si. %r: 2A FY3 al: r: ItElf.. The plain sheet twisted 10". Here each brace is treated as a beam.aUove base is little better in resistance to than a flat sheet of the same thickness. The top bale in Figure 26 has conventional c^ross oLll )rnce r: vz rr ^ 't ( \/r\" 6EILX  L" .Iy 74 o.
END CONNECTIONS OF TORSION MEAABERS 3 = . If the ends of the flanges can be lock_ . Here the torsional res i stance is .2 ^ _ = TL E.known. the Table formula for this type of frame ls usea__ .9t 21. in Fig.R 1000) (40) (12 x 106)(221) . iiuen bending load.R ( For ffxed ends.a 20. """t"njt".How to Design Machine Bases. bt3 3 ( (. are sribletted to a torque .n The total angular twist is then _ \t0 1? 5..fft( 11. 30) if ends of the member arc free. d = the section dEFII and r . The third sives the resulting angular twist ofthi memUer orir?me II.3.""lst . tUl nange"s of . to be__ .3 on Deligning B. = then substituting into the formuta for R__ R = 10. from Table 3.6 I First find the moment of inertia for the cross_ section of a brace. the cross_section warps (see b. the following is suggested: ." The first of these gives the momentof inertia required to .104 in. Find the relaiive angular twist on th€ frame.a Cose l Cose 2 The angular twist on the frame is " _ = 'lL ( then__ E.. 40" Iong. appear in Section 4. .6 I which appeared in Table 1.s angular twist (radians). spaced 2O'r apart to. .:5)3 r\.25 (10)3 12 Two %'rx 10" plates.makg frame 40.' long. bdt t2 where b = the section width (plate thiclmess). .00082" FIGURE 29 Case 1 (Conventional bracing) of the plate sect ion . allowing the memLer to twist more.a of T = 1000 in. R I E :30 t lQo E"12X106 1000) (40) (l2 x 10.00001b2 radians or .IE andR: ""' also d = Hence Y y'z T L 3E I TL I.these.83 in.104) For the usual frame. TL E. M:n a member having an open section is rwrsled. Practical.=l ^ I0) IO. when using conventional arid diagonal 'racrng. . TORSIONAT RESISTANCE NOMOGRAPHS Several nomographs helpful to the solution of torsional problems. but they aiso swtng outward (see c).. which is a simple assuming the brace also is %r x 1O'.6 I and substitute this valuJ into the standard formula: Case 2 (Diagonal bracing) Since this is (double" bracing.614 / Speciol De:ign €onditions .R to get the frame. The second provides the torslonal resistance of a proposed design.r (both sides) .examples of various t5pes of bracing are jncluded in Section 4.Ibs.members not only twist.B and Stiffeners.)(. Problem 8 R = 10.1.. Therefore: For a double diagonalbrace use R = 10.0321 radians or lj9{ 1 R = 10.6 (20.83) = 221 in.
varlous . a thin. The simplest is to weld th. f:il:: rne supporting member is then neither thick enouEh nor_ rigid enough. the flanges There are several methods of locking pressure applied to each membrene. ::d lollowing wiIl.s surface at any . To make use of this method.Melnbrale analogy is a very useful method to unoerstand the behavior of open sections when sub_ 1. The slope of the membrane.mber (e). together.Designing for To rsion q I Iooding / 3.f?.at foimui^s :?1.. ro the supporting member as in (d). A membrane material such as soap film is spread over the open surface ano. 2.tl: "T" jected to torsion. this swinging will be prevented. The mathematical expressions for the slope and volume of this membrane or film covering thj openingi representing different cross_sections a. MEMBRANE ANATOGY .are cut into a thin plate making the outline ot various shaped sections.arr pressure is applied to the film. square ptate may Ue weiE_ anges :i^:?::" method is to at rhe end of the m. Ir is from this tlpe of analysis tf. rf ""J.e the s"lme as the expressions for the shear stresses and tor_ sional resistance of the actual member leinjsiua_ ied. Anorher !*: use diagonal braces between rne rwo anges at the two ends of the member (f).6ts FIGURE 30 ed in place in relation to each other.types of open sections subjected to torslon have been developed and confirmei. Ifseveral ou ines are cut into the thin plate I2. The volumes under the membranes be proportional to the torsional resistances willthe of corresponding sections. twist by about t!. be true: tne . holes . Either of these methods reduce the angular .
spon between . .losed rube (e). rhe vorume under the membrane remains the same re_ garoless 01 the shape of the section. to that o[ the membrane of lhe c.J.. (c) rn It is possible to determine the torsional resist_ ton press incorporotes diogonol brocing for torsiono I sf iffness. when it is remembereA that tfre vof ume uniei the is proportional b th.standard cirele on this sam e test plrtu them with iufro iol_ sional resistance can readily Ue calcu..lateOl'"' "" the^membrane of the slotred open .:lfTi"g ruoe.^jt. is readjly seen why the c.trgure jrJ1. Notice a. and c in Figure gl.^ same torsional l. l..ion.'. Welded sreel slide for 500_ ..:"oy section (thin plate) has practicaly tne resistance regardGss of the shape of the section it is formed into. b. Foragiven area of sect. ance of these open sections b]/ comparing a.3616 / 5peciol Design Conditions FIGURE 3I point is proportional to the shear stress ofthe sec_ tion at this point.housings is 240..membrane l:esrstance_ .losed tube is several hundred times more resistant to twist. t:^1..
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