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Textbook TP 301
Festo Didactic 093311 en
TP301 • Festo Didactic . Order No.B-II Authorised applications and liability The Learning System for Automation and Technology has been developed and prepared exclusively for training in the field of automation. distribution and utilization of this document as well as the communication of its contents to others without expressed authorization is prohibited. in particular the right to carry out patent.: Description: Designation: Edition: Layout: Graphics: Authors: 093311 SPS LB GS D. Bliesener. Plagemann. OCKER Ingenieurbüro R. A. D-73770 Denkendorf 2002 The copying. to the training organization and/or to third parties occurring as a result of the use or application of the station outside of a pure training situation.Regber. E.Löffler. C.08. Parts of this training documentation may be duplicated.Terzi. The training organization and/or trainee shall ensure that the safety precautions described in the accompanying Technical documentation are fully observed. Festo Didactic hereby excludes any liability for injury to trainees. by persons authorised in this sense. All rights reserved.2002. unless caused by premeditation or gross negligence on the part of Festo Didactic.v.LB-TP301–1-GB 08/2002 28. utility model or ornamental design registrations. Schwarzenberger. Offenders will be held liable for the payment of damages.Ebel. solely for training purposes. OCKER Ingenieurbüro D. H. B.. Winter © Copyright by Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. F.
B-III Preface The programmable logic controller represents a key factor in industrial automation. the EN 61131-3 (IEC-61131-3). all readers of this book are invited to make contributions by way suggestions. for which no standardised language elements existed hitherto. Its use permits flexible adaptation to varying processes as well as rapid fault finding and error elimination. The aim of this new standard is to standardise the design. One of the main focal points of the textbook deals with the new international standard for PLC programming. In the interest of continual further improvement. August 2002 The authors TP301 • Festo Didactic . This textbook explains the design of a programmable logic controller and its interaction with peripherals. functionality and the programming of a PLC in such a way as to enable the user to easily operate with different systems. ideas and constructive criticism. This standard takes into account expansions and developments.
B-IV TP301 • Festo Didactic .
6 2.4 3.3 3.7 The decimal number system The binary number system The BCD code The hexadecimal number system Signed binary numbers Real numbers Generation of binary and digital signals Chapter 3 Boolean operations 3.2 3.B-V Table of Contents Chapter 1 Automating with a PLC 1.3 2.2 2.4 Introduction Areas of application of a PLC Basic design of a PLC The new PLC standard EN 61131 (IEC 61131) B-1 B-1 B-2 B-5 B-8 B-11 B-11 B-11 B-13 B-13 B-14 B-14 B-15 B-19 B-19 B-23 B-25 B-28 B-30 Chapter 2 Fundamentals 2.2 1.1 1.1 2.3 1.1 3.4 2.5 Basic logic functions Further logic operations Establishing switching functions Simplification of logic functions Karnaugh-Veitch diagram TP301 • Festo Didactic .5 2.
2 5.2 4.1 7.1 8.6 4.5 4.3 Resources of a PLC Variables and data types Program Chapter 7 Function block diagram 7.3 Elements of function block diagram Evaluation of networks Loop structures Chapter 8 Ladder diagram 8.1 4.2 7.1 6.3 4.7 Structure of a PLC Central control unit of a PLC Function mode of a PLC Application program memory Input module Output module Programming device/Personal computer B-33 B-33 B-35 B-37 B-39 B-41 B-43 B-45 B-47 B-47 B-50 B-54 B-57 B-57 B-60 B-70 B-85 B-85 B-85 B-87 B-89 B-89 B-92 B-93 Chapter 5 Programming of a PLC 5.2 6.1 5.2 8.3 Systematic solution finding EN 61131-3 (IEC 61131-3) structuring resources Programming languages Chapter 6 Common elements of programming languages 6.4 4.B-VI Chapter 4 Design and mode of operation of a PLC 4.3 Elements of ladder diagram Functions and function blocks Evaluation of current rungs TP301 • Festo Didactic .
4 What is a logic control system Logic control systems without latching properties Logic control systems with memory function Edge evaluation Chapter 13 Timers 13.3 13.5 Introduction Elements of sequential function chart Transitions Steps Example Chapter 12 Logic control systems 12.3 12.1 12.1 10.1 11.3 11.3 10.2 11.3 Instructions Operators Functions and function blocks B-95 B-95 B-96 B-97 B-99 B-99 B-101 B-103 B-106 B-111 B-111 B-111 B-120 B-123 B-135 B-139 B-139 B-139 B-145 B-148 B-153 B-153 B-154 B-156 B-158 Chapter 10 Structured text 10.1 13.2 12.4 11.1 9.2 13.4 Expressions Statements Selection statements Iteration statements Chapter 11 Sequential function chart 11.2 9.2 10.4 Introduction Pulse timer Switch-on signal delay Switch-off signal delay TP301 • Festo Didactic .B-VII Chapter 9 Instruction list 9.
1 17.2 Commissioning Operational safety of a PLC B-175 B-175 B-177 B-183 B-183 B-183 B-184 B-185 Chapter 17 Communication 17.2 What is a sequence control system Function chart to IEC 60848 Chapter 16 Commissioning and operational safety of a PLC 16.3 17.1 16.B-VIII Chapter 14 Counter 14.2 17.1 14.4 Appendix A B C D E Bibliography of illustrations Bibliography of literature Guidelines and standards Glossary Index The need for communication Data transmission Interfaces Communication in the field area B-187 B-189 B-191 B-193 B-199 TP301 • Festo Didactic .4 Counter functions Incremental counter Decremental counter Incremental/decremental counter B-161 B-161 B-161 B-165 B-167 B-169 B-169 B-169 Chapter 15 Sequence control systems 15.3 14.1 15.2 14.
The new control system had to meet the following requirements: Simple programming Program changes without system intervention (no internal rewiring) Smaller. three decades have passed. Nowadays. during which the enormous progress made in the development of microelectronics did not stop short of programmable logic controllers. Moreover.B-1 Chapter 1 The PLC in automation technology 1. TP301 • Festo Didactic . Since then. the range of functions has grown considerably. low cost maintenance Subsequent development resulted in a system. The requirements as to how these signals were to be connected were specified in the control program. which enabled the simple connection of binary signals. The following pages in this introductory chapter outline the basic design of a PLC together with the currently most important tasks and applications. when the company were looking for an alternative to replace complex relay control systems. even if program optimisation and thus a reduction of required memory capacity initially still represented an important key task for the programmer. the support of these functions forms an integral part of many PLCs. 15 years ago. were considered as Utopian. With the new systems it became possible for the first time to plot signals on a screen and to file these in electronic memories. For instance. process visualisation.1 Introduction The first Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) was developed by a group of engineers at General Motors in 1968. nowadays this is hardly of any significance. cheaper and more reliable than corresponding relay control systems Simple. analogue processing or even the use of a PLC as a controller.
Frequently. Depending on the type of technology used. However. is the preferred option. where the program is written to an electronic memory. provides the user with a simple means of changing. Furthermore.B-2 Chapter 1 1. extending and optimising control processes. differentiation is made between hard-wired programmable (e. The first is used primarily in cases. where any reprogramming by the user is out of the question and the job size warrants the development of a special controller. It can be used for different applications and. if the job size does not warrant the development of a special controller or if the user is to have the facility of making simple or independent program changes. video cameras. a combination of different technologies is used. then the use of a universal controller. or of setting timers and counters. and cars. The PLC represents such a universal controller.2 Areas of application of a PLC Every system or machine has a controller. hydraulic. TP301 • Festo Didactic . wiring of electro-mechanical or electronic components) and programmable logic controllers. electrical and electronic controllers.g. via the program installed in its memory. Typical applications for such controllers can be found in automatic washing machines. controllers can be divided into pneumatic.
e. mathematical computing operations all represent functions. Boolean algebra forms the mathematical basis for this operation. which can be executed by practically any of today’s PLCs.1: Example of a PLC application The original task of a PLC involved the interconnection of input signals according to a specified program and. TP301 • Festo Didactic . to switch the corresponding output. This function has coined the name PLC: Programmable logic controller. i. controlled. the program is stored in an electronic memory.e. memory setting and resetting. if "true".B-3 Chapter 1 Fig. B1. the tasks of a PLC have rapidly multiplied: Timer and counter functions. an output can only assume these two statuses. the input/output behaviour is similar to that of an electromagnetic relay or pneumatic switching valve controller. which recognises precisely two defined statuses of one variable: "0" and "1" (see also chapter 3). For instance. However. Accordingly. a connected motor could therefore be either switched on or off. i.
PLCs are coupled with other automation components. to make such intervention by unauthorised persons impossible. Many PLCs can be expanded by means of additional input/output. i. Finally. At the same time. it also became necessary to interconnect and harmonise individual systems controlled via PLC by means of automation technology. binary inputs and outputs were finally expanded with the addition of analogue inputs and outputs. alternatively. Yet further PLCs are able to process several programs simultaneously – (multitasking). As such. analogue. Very soon. a task. the facility to intervene in control processes or. servo-pneumatic positioning systems). Also controlling. Special PLCs are available for safety technology. To this effect. positioning and communication modules. i. the representation of machine statuses such as the control program being executed. Also available are larger PLCs with 28 or 256 inputs/outputs. thus creating considerably wider areas of application. At the end of the seventies.e. The PLCs currently on offer in the market place have been adapted to customer requirements to such an extent that it has become possible to purchase an eminently suitable PLC for virtually any application. which widely exceeds the scope suggested by the name (programmable logic controller). via display or monitor. Hence a master computer facilitates the means to issue higher-level commands for program processing to several PLC systems The networking of several PLCs as well as that of a PLC and master computer is effected via special communication interfaces. the acquisition or output of analogue signals permits an actual/setpoint value comparison and as a result the realisation of automatic control engineering functions. miniature PLCs are now available with a minimum number of inputs/outputs starting from just a few hundred Pounds. these can even directly assume the function of a master computer. since many of today’s technical applications require analogue processing (force measurement. shipping or mining tasks. such as Profibus to EN 50170. TP301 • Festo Didactic . Visualisation.B-4 Chapter 1 The demands to be met by PLC’s continued to grow in line with their rapidly spreading usage and the development in automation technology. standardised bus systems. many of the more recent PLCs are compatible with open. Thanks to the enormously increased performance capacity of advanced PLCs.e. speed setting.
various types of machines or processes. Both the PC and its associated peripherals are designed so that they can be easily integrated into an industrial control system and easily used in all their intended functions. to control. designed for use in an industrial environment.2: Example of a PLC: Festo IPC PS1 Professional 1.B-5 Chapter 1 Fig." A programmable logic controller is therefore nothing more than a computer. which uses a programmable memory for the internal storage of user-oriented instructions for implementing specific functions such as logic. TP301 • Festo Didactic .3 Basic design of a PLC The term ’programmable logic controller’ is defined as follows by EN 61131-1 (IEC 61131-1): “ A digitally operating electronic system. tailored specifically for certain control tasks. through digital or analogue inputs and outputs. sequencing. timing. B1. counting and arithmetic.
In America. central control unit and output module in one housing) or modular PLCs. In Europe. problem-oriented languages such as structured text or in the form of a flow chart such as represented by a sequential function chart.B-6 Chapter 1 Fig. the ’ladder diagram’ is the preferred language by users. B1.3: System components of a PLC PLC-program Input module Central control unit Output module Sensors Actuators The function of an input module is to convert incoming signals into signals. in higher-level.3 illustrates the system components of a PLC. The program of a PLC can be created in various ways: via assemblertype commands in ’statement list’. which can be processed by the PLC. the use of function block diagrams based on function charts with graphic symbols for logic gates is widely used. TP301 • Festo Didactic . B1. Depending on how the central control unit is connected to the input and output modules. and to pass these to the central control unit. The reverse task is performed by an output module. This converts the PLC signal into signals suitable for the actuators. The actual processing of the signals is effected in the central control unit in accordance with the program stored in the memory. differentiation can be made between compact PLCs (input module. Fig.
4. TP301 • Festo Didactic . The modules required for the practical application – apart from digital input/output modules.2 and B1.B-7 Chapter 1 Fig.4 shows the FX0 controller by Mitsubishi and the IPC FEC Standard controller by Festo as an Example Fig. for instance. B1. This type of design is also known as series technology. positioning and communication modules – are inserted in a rack. Two examples of modular PLCs are shown in figs. Festo IPC FEC Standard). include analogue. B1. B1. where individual modules are linked via a bus system. These represent the modular system IPC PS1 Professional by Festo and the new S7-300 series by Siemens.4: Compact-PLC (Mitsubishi FX0. modular PLC (Siemens S7-300) Modular PLCs may be configured individually. which can.
a device configured by the user and consisting of the above components is known as a PLC system. These include both modular as well as compact characteristics and important features such as spacing saving.B-8 Chapter 1 A wide range of variants exists. interconnection of intelligent modules. and fluctuations in current supply and mechanical impact. Consequently. In this context. The card format PLC is a special type of modular PLC. an international standard now exists for programmable logic controllers and associated peripheral devices (programming and diagnostic tools. humidity. standardised language elements existed for the PLC developments and system expansions made in the eighties. individual or a number of printed circuit board modules are in a standardised housing. no equivalent. Since 1992. 1. With this type. PLC systems by different manufacturers required entirely different programming. testing equipment. TP301 • Festo Didactic . Previously.4 The new PLC standard EN 61131 (IEC 61131) Previously valid PLC standards focussing mainly on PLC programming were generally geared to current state of the art technology in Europe at the end of the seventies. heat. developed during the last few years. The hardware design for a programmable logic controller is such that it is able to withstand typical industrial environments as regard signal levels.). networked PLC systems etc. which primarily execute logic operations on binary signals. man-to-machine interfaces etc. flexibility and scope for expansion. particularly in the case of more recent PLCs. such as processing of analogue signals. This took into account non-networked PLC systems.
The next chapters will be dealing with this standard in greater detail. a large group of interested people (PLCopen) has been formed to support this standard. languages in accordance with IEC 61131 will not only dominate PLC programming. ABB. A large number of major PLC suppliers are members of the association. TP301 • Festo Didactic . The purpose of the new standard was to define and standardise the design and functionality of a PLC and the languages required for programming to the extent where users were able to operate using different PLC systems without any particular difficulties.B-9 Chapter 1 The new EN 61131 (IEC 61131) standard consists of five parts: Part 1: General information Part 2: Equipment requirements and tests Part 3: Programming languages Part 4: User guidelines (in preparation with IEC) Part 5: Messaging service specification (in preparation with IEC) Parts 1 to 3 of this standard were adopted unamended as European Standard EN 61 131. However. After initial reservations. for the moment the following information should suffice: The new standard takes into account as many aspects as possible regarding the design. Schneider Electric. i. but rather industrial automation in its entirety. Mitsubishi Electric. Moeller. GE Fanuc. Any variations must be fully documented for the user. standardised PLC systems. Siemens.e. A large number of the members of the association offer control and programming systems conforming to EN 61131 (IEC 61131). In the future. The extensive specifications serve to define open. Manufacturers must conform to the specifications of this standard both with regard to purely technical requirements for the PLC as well as the programming of controllers. OMRON. Parts 1 to 3. application and use of PLC systems.
B-10 Chapter 1 TP301 • Festo Didactic .
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