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NRI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
(III B Tech Mechanical Engineer ing)
M Ra j esh
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
Sl.No. Name of the Exper iment
Measurement of Length, Height & Diameter by
Vernier caliper and Micrometer
Measurement of bores by using Micrometer and
Dial bore indicator
Measurement of Gear tooth thickness by using
Gear tooth Vernier.
Angular measurement by Bevel protractor and
Measurement of Flatness of surface plate by
using spirit levels.
Surface roughness measurement by using Taly
Alignment test of Lathe machine
8. Alignment test of Milling Machine
MEASUREMENT OF LENGTH, HEIGHT & DIAMETER BY VERNIER
1. AIM: To measure Length, Height and Diameter of given objects by using
Vernier Calipers & Micrometer.
2. APPARATUS: Vernier Calipers, Outside Micrometer & Objects
Pierre Vernier, a Frenchman, devised principle of Vernier for precise measurements in
1631. The Vernier Caliper consists of two scale one is fixed mad the other is movable.
The movable scale, called Vernier Scale. The fixed scale is calibrated on L-shape frame
and caries a fixed jaw. The Vernier scale slides over the main scale and carries over the
movable jaw. Also an arrangement is provided to lock the sliding scale on fixed main
Pr inciple of Ver nier Caliper :
The principle of Vernier is based on the difference between two scales or divisions,
which are nearly, but not quite alike for obtaining small difference. It enables to enhance
the accuracy of measurement.
Least count is the minimum distance which can be measured accurately by the
Least Count of Vernier Caliper is the difference between the value of main scale division
and Vernier Scale Division.
Thus Least Count = (Value of Smallest Division on Main Scale)-
(Value of Smallest Division on Vernier Scale)
= 0.02 mm.
(or) Least Count = (Value of Minimum Division on the Main Scale)/ (Number of
Division on Vernier Scale ) = 1/50 = 0.02 mm.
The given component is fixed between the jaws firmly, i.e.. in between fixed jaw and
The reading is to be noted down.
Pr ocedur e for taking the Reading:
1. After closing the jaws on the work surface, take the readings from the main as well as
Vernier Scale. To obtain the reading , the number of divisions on the main scale is first
read off. ‘Ihe Vernier Scale is then examined to determined which of its division coincide
or most coincident with a division on the main scale.
2. Before using the instrument should be checked by zero error. The zero line on Vernier
Scale should coincide with zero on the main scale.
3. Then take the reading in mm on main scale to the left of zero on sliding scale.
4. Now Count the no. of divisions on Vernier Scale from zero to a line which
exactly Coincides with any line on the main scale.
Thus total reading = [ Main scale reading ] + [No. of divisions with a division on Main Scale
] X Least Count.
( OR ) TR = MSR + VC X LC
5. Take the reading for 4 times.
Sample Reading :
TABULAR FORM :
SLNO. MSR VC TR
The length / dia / height = Average of the readings
= ( Trial 1+2+3+4+5) / 5 = ------------------ mm
Length / Diameter / Height = ----------------------- mm
Components to be measured outside micrometer.
Micrometers are designated according to screw and nut principle where a calibrated
screw thread and a circular scale divisions are used to indicate the principle practical
part of main scale divisions.
The semi circular frame caries a fixed anvil at one extremely and cylindrical barrel at
the other end. A fine accurately cut screw of uniform pitch is machined on a spindle.
The spindle passes through the barrel and its left hand side constitutes the movable
anvil. A sleeve fits on the screw and caries on its inner edge a circular scale divided -
into desired no. of divisions. The spindle with its screw and thimble are in one piece
and sleeve forms the nut. The thimble scale serves to measure the friction of its
circular rotations. The number of complete rotations is read from main scale, which is
graduated in ‘mm’ on nut parallel to axis of screw.
The work piece is held between the 2 anvils without undue pressure. This is
Accomplished by having a retched drive to turn the thimble when the anvils contact
each other directly or indirectly through work piece placed in between the ratchet tips
over the screw cap without moving the screw forwards and thus avoids undue
Least Count = Pitch of the screw/ No. of Divisions on Circular Scale. If Pitch of
screw is 0.5 mm and Circular Scale has 50 divisions on it, then
Least Count = 0.5 / 50 ~ 0.01 mm
In measuring, the dimension of work piece the main scale upto the leveled edge of
thimble and no. of divisions of thimble scale to axial line on barrel are observed
addition of two given result.
8. OBSERVATIONS :
Measuring the below given component with 0-25 , 0.01 mm Micrometer.
SAMPLE CALCULATIONS :
TR = SR + (CSR X LC )
TR = TOTAL READING ; SR = SLEVE READING ; CSR = CIRCULAR SCALE
READING ; LC = LEAST COUNT
TABLE FORMAT :
SLNO. MSR VC TR
------------------------------------------------------------------------- The average diameter of the component is
------------------------------------------------------------------------- ......... mm.
9. PRECAUTIONS :
The thimble should be turned with ratchet only and to have standard condition and to prevent excess
deformation of work piece.
The required outer diameter of the given components using outside micrometer is obtained.
REVIEW QUESTIONS .
1. What are Vernier Calipers?
2. What is Micrometer ?
3. What is the Least Count of Vernier & Outside Micrometer ?
4. What are applications of Vernier & Outside Micrometer ?
5. What are the errors in Vernier & Outside Micrometer ?
6. Compare Vernier & Outside Micrometer .
1. AIM :
To measure bores of a given specimen by using Inside Micrometer and Dial Bore
2. APPARATUS AND ACCESORIES REQUIRED :
a ) Inside micrometer
b ) Dial bore indicator
c ) Dial indicator
d ) Specimen
3. SPECIFICATION :
a) Inside micrometer : Range 5-30 mm, Least count = 0.01 mm.
b) Dial bore indicator : Range 18-34 mm, Least count = 0.01 mm.
c) Dial Indicator : Range 0-10 mm, Least count = 0.01 mm.
4. THEORY AND DESCRIPTION :
A) INSIDE MICROMETER :
This micrometer caliper has ‘U’ shape frame and spindle. The measuring tips are
constituted by the jaws with contact surfaces which are hardened and ground to a radius.
One of the Jaws is held stationary at the end and second one moves by the movement of
thimble. A lock nut is provided to arrest the moment of movable right jaw.
5. PRINCIPLE : Inside
micrometer work on screw and nut principle.
6. PROCEDURE :
1. Keep the inside micrometer Jaws in the work piece.
2. When two anvils touches the sides of bore , apply pressure with ratchet.
3. See the reading & note down.
CD Left jaw
(2) Right jaw
(3) Contact point
(4) Clamping knob
(7) Ratchet stop
7. TABULAR FORM :
SLNO. MSR VC TR
LC = LEAST COUNT
SR = SLEEVE READING
CR = CIRCULAR SCALE READING
TR = TOTAL READING = SR + CSR X L.C
8. IDEAL CONDITION/BEHAVIOUR :
a) When the fixed anvil and movable spindle are near during operation apply
final pressure with ratchet in that position sleeve reading is zero and
circular scale zero coincides with center.
b) The dial bore gauge reading checked the standard bore it give the
B) DIAL BORE INDICATIOR
THEORY AND DESCRIPTION:
Dial bore indicator consists of measuring head and guide is attached with extension rod &
collars for specific dimension chosen from the table in the instrument box, holder is
assembled to the measuring head and dial indicator is fixed inside the holder during
tightening. The condition is initially 1 kgf is applied to the dial indicator for getting exact
PRINCIPLE : Dial bore indicator is works on comparator principle.
1) Once approximate bore is finding out by using inside micrometer.
2) Chose the same little more size extension rod & collar if necessary select and fit.
3) Keep the dial bore indicator into the specimen bore.
TABULAR FORM :
r od + Spacing
Dial gauge r eading Total reading
------------------------------------------------- Average bore on right side is mm.
a) Thimble should be turned with ratchet only and to have standard condition and to
prevent excess deformation of work piece.
b) Only after checking the reading with inside micrometer, then use the dial bore gauge.
c) The specimen measured surface should be smooth.
d) See the reading without parallax error.
e) Initially set the brezel of dial gauge to zero.
VIVA QUESTIONS :
1) What are the precautions required during use of inside micrometer & dial Bore
2) Which one is more precise when compared to inside micrometer & dial bore
3) What are the applications of inside micrometer & dial bore indicator ?
4) How do you find the least count of inside micrometer ?
5) What are the other instruments for measuring bores ?
INFERENCE : The size of bor e is minimum 18 mm & maximum 30 mm.
TROUBLE SHOTING :
a) Calibration is done by using standards
b) Err or adjust
c) Recheck after er r or adjustment
a) Internal diameter of engineering components, slot width and length.
MEASUREMENT OF GEAR TOOTH THICKNESS
To measure spur gear tooth thickness by using Gear tooth vernier.
2 INSTRUMENTS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED :
a) Gear tooth vernier caliper
b) Spur gear
a) Gear Tooth vernier calipers – range 0-150 mm , LC = 0.02mm
b) Spur gear size = Standard size
c) Vernier calipers - range 0-150 mm, LC = 0.02mm
4. TERMINLOGY OF GEAR TOOTH : Fig (3.1)
Pitch cir cle diameter (P.C.D): It is the diameter of a circle which by pure rolling action
would produce the same motion as the toothed gear wheel.
Module (m) : It is defined as the length of the pitch circle diameter per tooth. Thus if
P.C.D of gear be ‘D’ and number of teeth ‘N’, then module (m) = D/N. it is generally expressed
Diametr ic pitch : It is expressed as the number of teeth per inch of the P.C.D.
Cir cular pitch : It is the arc distance measured around the pitch circle from the flank of
one tooth to a similar flank in the next tooth. C.P = П D/N = П m
Addendum : This is the radial distance from the pitch circle to the tip of the tooth. Its value is
equal to one module.
Clearance : This is the radial distance from the tip of a tooth to the bottom of a mating tooth
space when the teeth are symmetrically engaged. Its standard value is 0.157 m
Dedendum : This is the radial distance from the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth space.
Dedendum = Addendum + clearance = m + 0.157 m = 1.157 m.
Blank diameter : This is the diameter of the blank from which gear is cut. It is equal to P.C.D
plus twice the addendum.
Blank diameter = P.C.D + 2m = mN + 2m = m (N+2)
Tooth thickness : This is the arc distance measured along the pitch circle from its intercept with
on flank to its-intercept with the other flank of the same tooth.
Normally tooth thickness = 1/2 (C.P) = 1/2 (Π M)
But thickness is usually reduced by certain amount to allow for some amount of backlash and
also owing to addendum correction.
Face of tooth : It is that part of the tooth surface which is above the pitch surface.
Flank of tooth: It is that part of the tooth surface which is lying below the pitch surface.
5. PRINCIPLE :
MEASUREMENT OF TOOTH THICKNESS :
The permissible error or the tolerance on thickness of tooth is the variation of actual thickness of tooth
from its theoretical value. The tooth thickness is generally measured at pitch circle and is therefore, the
pitch line thickness of tooth i.e., length of an arc, which is difficult to measure directly. In most of the
cases, it is sufficient to measure the chordal thickness i.e, the chord joining the intersection of the tooth
profile with the pitch circle. Also the difference between chordal tooth thickness and circular tooth
thickness is very small for gear of small pitch. The thickness measurement is the most important
measurement because most of the gears manufactured may not undergo checking of all other parameters,
but thickness measurement is a must for all gears.
The tooth thickness can be very conveniently measured by a gear tooth vernier. Since the gear tooth
thickness varies from the tip to the base circle of the tooth, the instrument must be capable of measuring
the tooth thickness at a specified position on the tooth. Further this is possible only when there is some
arrangement to fix that position where the measurement is to be taken. The gear tooth vernier has two
vernier scales and they are set for the width (w) of the tooth and the depth (d) from the top, at which ‘w’
Considering one gear tooth, the theoretical values of ‘w’ and ‘d’ can be found which may be verified by
the instrument. From fig .3.2) Chordal thickness = w = AB = 2AD
<AOD = θ = 360°/4N, where ‘N’ is the number of teeth.
W = 2AD = 2 x AO. Sin θ = 2R. Sin 360°/4N ( R = Pitch circle radius)
Module (m) = P.C.D/Number of teeth = 2R/ N ∴R =
Chordal thickness (w) = 2.
Sin m N
Also from fig (3.2) d = OC – OD.
But OC = OE + Addendum = R+m = [N.m/2]+m and
But OD = R Cos θ = N.m/2 Cos90
∴ Chordal addendum (d) =
i) Count the number of teeth (N) on the gear,
ii) Measure the outside diameter (D
) of the gear.
iii) Calculate the module from the relation, m =
) 2 (
iv) Calculate the value of chordal addendum (d) from equation (3.1)
v) Set the gear tooth vernier caliper for depth ‘d’ and measure ‘w’ i.e., chordal thickness of
vi) Repeat the measurement on other teeth and determine an average value.
a) Number of teeth on gear, N = -------
b) Outside diameter of gear (Do) = -----------
S.No. Chordal tooth thickness, w mm
i) Chordal addendum (d) = − − − − − − ·
ii) Chordal thickness (w) = N.m Sin − − − − − ·
9. IDEAL CONDITIONS / BEHAVIOUR :
The instrument should be error free, Repeatability is required.
i) Don’t press the jaws to tight.
ii) See the reading without parallax error.
The theoretical value of gear tooth thickness may differ from the measured value due to the
12. VIVA QUESTIONS:
i. Define various elements of a gear?
ii) What is Chordal addendum?
iii) What is chordal thickness of gear tooth
iv) What are the various parts of gear tooth Vernier?
v) Differentiate gear tooth Vernier from ordinary Vernier?
vi) What are the different types of gears?
vii) What are the various tests conducted on gears?
viii) What is the other parameter to be measured in gear by using other testing equipment?
ix) What is rolling gear test?
x) What are the various quantitative test on gears?
14. TROUBLE SHOOTING:
i) Any worn out parts are there replace with new one.
ii) Calibrate the instrument with standard slip gauges.
It is used for measuring gear tooth thickness & depth
12. REVIEW QUESTIONS :
i) Define various elements of a gear.
ii) What is Chordal addendum ?
iii) What is Chordal thickness of gear tooth ?
iv) What are various parts of gear tooth vernier ?
ANGULAR MEASUREMENT BY BEVEL PROTRACTOR AND SINE BAR
a) To measure the angle between two faces of a given component using Bevel protractor.
b) To measure the taper angle of a given component using sine bar.
2. EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES REQUIRED :
i) Bevel protractor with vernier and acute angle attachment (150/300 mm blades),
ii) Sine bar (100 mm size)
iii) Surface plate
iv) Slip gauges
v) Dial gauge (0.01 mm least count),
vi) Slotted angle plate,
vii) Bolts for locking sine bar to angle plate
ix) clamps for locking component to sine bar.
3 THEORY AND DESCRIPTION :
3.1 Bevel Protractor :
It is the simplest instrument for measuring angle between two faces of component. It
consists of a base plate attached to the main body and an adjustable blade which is attached to a
circular plate called turret containing vernier scale. The adjustable blade is capable of rotating
freely about the centre of the main scale ( graduated around a complete circle from 0° to 90°, 90°
to 0° and 0° to 90
90° to 0° ) engraved on the body of the instrument and can be locked in any
position. An acute angle attachment is provided at the top as shown in fig (4.1) to measure acute
angles. The base of the base plate is made flat so that it could be laid flat upon the work and any
type of angle measured. It is capable of measuring from 0° to 360°.
The vernier scale has 24 divisions coinciding with 46 main scale divisions (23 on either
side ) as shown in fig (4.2) The vernier scale is graduated to the right and left of zero upto 60
minutes, each of the 12 graduations representing 5 minutes. Since both the protractor dial and
vernier scale have graduations in both directions from zero, any angle can be measured, but it
should be remembered that the vernier must be read in the same direction from zero as the
protractor either left or right. If the zero graduation on the vernier scale coincides with a
graduation on the protractor dial, the reading is in exact degrees, but if some other graduation on
the vernier scale coincides with a protractor graduation, the number of vernier graduations
multiplied by 5 minutes, must be added to the number of degrees read between the zeros on the
protractor dial and vernier scale. Magnified view of main scale is shown in fig (4.2a)
3.2 Sine Pr inciple and Sine bar :
The Sine principle uses the ratio of the length of two sides of a right angle triangle
in deriving a given angle. The measurement is usually limited to 45° from loss of
accuracy point of view. The accuracy with which the sine principle can be put to
use is dependent in practice, on some form of linear measurement. The sine bar in
itself is not a complete measuring instrument. Another datum such as a surface plate
is needed, as well as other auxiliary equipment, notably slip gauges, and indicating
device to make measurements. Sine bars used in conjunction with slip gauges
constitute a very good device for the precise measurement of angles. Sine bars are
used either to measure angles very accurately or for locating any work to a given
angle within very close limits.
Sine bars are made from high carbon, high chromium, corrosion resistant steel,
hardened, ground and stabilized. Two cylinders of equal diameter are attached at the
ends. The axes of these two cylinders are mutually parallel to each other and also
parallel to and at equal distance from the upper surface of the sine bar. The distance
between the axes of the two cylinders is exactly 5 inches or 10 inches in British
System and 100, 200 and 300 mm in metric system.
The Various parts are hardened and stabilized before grinding and lapping. All the
working surfaces and the cylindrical surfaces of the rollers are finished to surface
finish of 0.2 μ Ra value or better. Depending upon the accuracy of the centre
distance, sine bars are graded as of A grade or B grade. B grade of sine bars are
guaranteed accurate upto 0.02 mm/m of length and A grade sine bars are more
accurate and guaranteed upto 0.01 mm/m of length. There are several forms of sine
bars, but the one shown in fig (4.3) is most commonly used. Some holes are drilled
in the body of the bar to reduce the weight and to facilitate handling.
The accuracy of sine bar depends on its constructional features :
i) The two rollers must have equal diameter and be true cylinders
ii) The rollers must be set parallel to each other and to the upper face,
iii) The precise centre distance between the rollers must be known
iv) The upper face must have a high degree of flatness.
3.2.1 Use of Sine bar:
a) Measuring known angles or locating any wor k to a given angle :
For this purpose the surface plate is assumed to be having a perfectly flat surface, so
that its surface could be treated as horizontal. One of the cylinders or rollers of sine
bar is placed on the surface plate and other roller is placed on the slip gauges of
height ‘h’ as shown in fig (4.4) . Let the sine bar be set at angle θ . Then
Sin θ = h/L
Where, L = Distance between the centre of rollers.
Thus knowing θ , h can be found out and any work could be set at this angle as the
top face of sine bar is inclined at angle θ to the surface plate. The use of angle
plates and clamps could also be made in case of heavy components. For better
results, both the rollers could also be placed on slip gauges of height h1 and h2
respectively. Then Sin θ = (h
Fig 4.3 Sine Bar
Fig 4.4 Use of Sine Bar Sin θ =
Fig (4.5) Checking of unknown angles.
b) Checking of unknown angles :
Many a times, angle of a component to be checked is unknown. In such a case, it is
necessary to first find the angle approximately with the help of a bevel protractor. Let
the angle be θ . Then the sine bar is set at an angle θ and clamped to an angle plate.
Next, the work is placed on sine bar and clamped to angle plate as shown in fig (4.5)
and dial indicator is set at one end of the work and moved to the other, and deviation
is noted. Again slip gauges are so adjusted that dial indicator reads zero across work
If deviation noted down by the dial indicator is δ h over a length of L of work, then
height of slip gauges by which it should be adjusted is equal to δ h x L/L
4 PROCEDURE :
4.4.1 Angle measur ement by Bevel pr otr actor :
i) The base plate of the Bevel protractor is placed on the top horizontal surface
of the component,
ii) Blade locking nut is loosened and by rotating the blade about the centre of
the main scale, the working edge of the blade is made to coincide with the inclined
surface of the component,
iii) Blade is locked in that position by tightening the nut.
iv) Vernier scale division coinciding with main scale division is noted.
Inclination of the surface with respect to horizontal is calculated as follows : Angular
reading = (Vernier scale division x 5minutes) + Main scale division in degrees.
4.4.2 Angular measur ement by sine bar :
i) The sine bar is made to rest on surface plate with rollers contacting the datum
ii) Place the component on sine bar and lock it in position.
iii) Lift one end (roller) of the ‘sine bar and place a pack of slip gauges,
underneath the roller. The height of the slip gauges (h) should be selected such that
the top surface of component is parallel to the datum plate (surface plate). The
parallelism can be assessed by making the stylus of a dial indicator mounted on a dial
gauge stand in contact with the upper surface of component and sliding the stylus
along the component surface. If both the surfaces are perfectly parallel, the pointer
on the dial gauge shows the same reading throughout the travel of the dial gauge
stylus. If the surfaces are not parallel, then the height of the slip gauge pack (h) can
be altered and procedure for checking parallelism can be repeated.)
Record the final height of slip gauge pack used for achieving parallelism
Calculate inclination θ = Sin
5 PRECAUTIONS :
i) The sine bar should not be used for angle greater than 60° because any possible error
in construction is accentuated at this limit.
ii) Accuracy of sine bar should be ensured.
iii) As far as possible longer sine bar should be used since many errors are reduced by
using longer sine bars.
EXPERIMENT - 5
1. AIM: To find the flatness of a given surface plate.
2. API’ARATUS: Surface plate and precision spirit level.
3. THEORY AND DESCR’.PTION:
The simplest form of flatness testing is possible by comparing the surface with an accurate
Spirit level is used in special cases and called Clinometers, precision micro-optic clinometers
utilizes bubble unit with a prismatic coincidence reader which presents both ends of the
bubble an adjacent images in a spirit field.
Leveling helps in the coincidence of the 2 images, making it very easy to sec when the
bubble is exactly centered without reference to any graduations. The special features to
precision micro-optic clinometers arc direct reading over range 0-360°, optically reading
system, main coarse setting, slow motion screw to fine setting. The least count of precision
spirit level is 0.01 mm.
1. Place the spirit level on the surface plate and adjust its into suitable reference point.
2. Divide the plate (surface) into no. of sections and note the reading.
3. Thus a number of readings w.r.t to surface plate reference is found.
4. A plot is done on the performance.
1’ 2’ 3’ 4’ 5’
Dividing the surface plate into sections.
5. RESULT: The Flatness of a surface plate is determined.
SURFACE ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENT
i) To measure the surface roughness of the given specimens using surface roughness
ii) To show the variation of surface roughness as a function of cutting conditions i.e.,
speed, feed, depth of cut and tool geometry etc.,
2. MEASURING INSTRUMENTS AND MATERIAL REQUIRED :
a) Surface roughness tester ( SJ - 201)
b) Precision roughness specimen, Test specimens, Calibration stage
c) Height gauge, Adapter for the height gauge, support feet
d) Nose pieces, Digimatic data processor ( DP- 1 HS)
3 TERMINOLOGY AS PER INDIAN STANDARDS : Fig (6.1)
Surface roughness : It concerns all those irregularities which form surface relief and which are
conventionally defined within the area where deviations of form and waviness are eliminated.
Primary texture (Roughness) : It is caused due to the irregularities in the surface roughness
which result from the inherent action of the production process. These are deemed to include
transverse feed marks and the irregularities within them.
Secondary textur e (Waviness) : It results from the factors such as machine or work
deflections, vibrations, chatter, heat treatment or warping strains, waviness is the component of
surface roughness upon which roughness is superimposed.
Centre line: The line about which roughness is measured.
Lay : It is the direction of the “ predominant surface pattern: ordinarily determined by the
method of production used.
Traversing length : It is the length of the profile necessary for the evaluation of the surface
roughness parameters. The traversing length may include one or more sampling lengths.
Sampling length (l) : Is the length of profile necessary for the evaluation of irregularities to be
taken into account. This is also known as the cut - off length as regard to the measuring
instruments. It is measured in a direction parallel to the general direction of profile.
Surface texture is deemed to include all those irregularities which, recurring many times across
the surface, tend to form on it a pattern or texture. The irregularities in the surface texture which
result from the inherent action of the production process is called roughness or primary texture.
That component of surface texture upon which roughness is super imposed is called waviness or
secondary texture. This may result from such factors as machine or work deflections, vibrations,
chatter, heat treatment or warping strains. The direction of the predominant surface pattern,
ordinarily determined by the production method used is called lay. The parameters of the
surface are conveniently defined with respect to a straight reference line. The most widely
used parameter is the arithmetic average departure of the filtered profile from the mean
line. This is known as the CLA (Centre - Line - Average) or R
Arithmetic mean deviation of the Pr ofile, R
is the arithmetic mean of the absolute values of the profile deviations (Y
) from the mean line.
Root-mean-square deviation of the Pr ofile, R
Rq is the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squares of profile deviations (Yi) from the
Maximum height of the Pr ofile, R
is the sum of height Y
of the highest peak from the mean line and depth Y
of the deepest
valley from the mean line.
5. OUTLINE OF SURF TEST SJ -201 :
The surftest - 201 is a shop-floor type surface roughness measuring instrument, which traces the
surfaces of various machines parts, calculates their surface roughness based on roughness
standards, and displays the results.
5.1. Sur f Test SJ -201 Sur face r oughness measur ement pr inciple :
A pick-up which is usually called as the ‘‘Stylus” attached to the detector unit of the surf test
SJ-201 will trace the minute irregularities of the work piece surface. The vertical stylus
displacement during the trace is processed and digitally displayed on the liquid crystal display
of the surf test SJ-201. The measurement principle of surf test SJ-201 is shown in fig (6.2). The
instrument consists of the display unit and drive/detector unit. The drive/detector unit is
designed to be removable from the display unit. Depending on the shape of the work-piece, it
may be easier to perform measurement without mounting the drive/detector unit to the display
unit. Name of each part on the display unit is shown in fig (6.3). The detector inturn can be
detached from the drive unit. Each time a measurement task has been completed with the surf
test SJ-201, it is recommended that the detector be detached from the drive unit and stored in a
5.2. List of Sur f Test SJ -201 Oper ation mode :
The surf test SJ-201 has various operation modes including the measurement mode,
calibration mode, condition setting mode, RS-232 C communication mode, and detector
Measur ement mode :
Starts and stops measurement, calculates and selects measurements parameters to be displayed,
and performs SPC output.
Calibr ation mode:
Sets the calibration value prior to measurement and performs calibration measurement.
Condition Setting mode:
Sets and modifies measurement conditions. This mode has 11 sub-modes as shown in chart
RS-232C Communication mode:
Used for communication with a personal computer.
Detector retr action mode:
Retracts the detector as required.
Relationship between the operation modes and available keys is shown in
6 MEASUREMENT OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS :
Surface roughness measurement with the surf test SJ-201 includes
i) Mounting/dismounting the drive unit/detector, and cable connection, etc.
according to he feature of the work piece to be measured,
ii) Selection of power supply i.e., either the AC adapter or built-in battery,
iii) Modifying the measurement conditions as necessary,
iv) Calibrating surf test SJ-201 to adjust the detector gain for correct
v) Measuring the roughness specimen and display the result,
vi) outputting the measurement data or perform communication with a personal
computer via the RS-232C interface.
7. PROCEDURE :
8. Modifying measurement conditions :
Table (6.C) shows the measurement conditions that can be modified by the user. If they are not
modified, then measurement will be performed according to the default values, measurement
conditions are modified according to the surface roughness parameters, the amplitude of
roughness, the conditions of the objective area of measurement, etc.
Table – (6.A)
Table – (6.B)
Table – (6.C)
The surf test SJ-201 can obtain each roughness parameter based on the new JIS, old JIS,
DIN ISO and ANSI standards. Evaluation according to any one of the standards may be
obtained from Reference information (User’s manual)
8.1. Calibr ation of measuring instr ument:
The process of calibration involves the measurement of a reference work piece (precision
roughness specimen) and the adjustment of the difference ( gain adjustment), if there is any
between the measured value and the reference value (precision roughness specimen). With
out properly calibrating the instrument, correct measurements cannot be obtained. Calibration
of surf test SJ-201 with the supplied precision roughness specimen must be performed with
the default values mentioned in Table (6.D).
i) Precision roughness specimen and calibration stage are placed on a level table.
ii) Surf Test SJ-201 is mounted on the calibration stage.
iii) Surf Test SJ-201 is set so that the detector traversing direction is perpendicular to the
cutter mark of the precision roughness specimen. It should be confirmed that the detector is
parallel to the measured .surface as shown in fig (6.3).
iv) If [CAL/STD/RANGE] key is pressed in the measurement mode, the calibration
mode is entered and current calibration value is displayed. In this state the calibration value
can be modified, if the displayed value is different from that marked on the precision
roughness specimen. .
v) [n/Ent] key is pressed after confirming the displayed value, so that the entered
calibration value is set.
vi) [START/STOP] key is pressed to begin the calibration measurement. The symbol “--
”is displayed while the detector is traversing and the measured value will be displayed when
the measurement has been completed.
vii) [n/Ent] key is pressed so that the calibration factor is updated, completing the entire
viii) [MODE/ESC] key is pressed. This restores the measurement mode and retains the
calibration factor obtained in the previous operation.
8.2. Actual measur ement of r oughness specimen :
Surf Test SJ-201 is placed on the work piece, if the work piece surface is large enough. For
measurement to be successful, it should be performed on a firm base that is insulated as well
as possible from all sources of vibration. If measurement is performed being subject to
significant vibrations, results may be un reliable.
i) Work piece is positioned so that the measured surface is level.
ii) Surf Test SJ-201 is placed on the work piece, In this operation SJ-201 is supported by
two reference surfaces at the bottom of driving unit. It must be confirmed that the stylus is in
proper contact with the measured surface and the detector is parallel to the measured surface.
Relation ship between the operation modes and available keys.
Oper ation mode Symbol (on
Key for mode switching
Calibration mode CAL [CAL/STD/RANGE]
Surface roughness standard
Measurement range setup
Filter setup mode FIL [FILTER/TOL/CUST]
GO/NG judgment function
condition setup mode
Traversing speed setup mode TSP [MODE/ECE]
Pre-travel/post travel length
RS-232 C baud rate setup
Calibrating condition setup
Default value restoration
Press [POWER/DATA] while
simultaneously holding down
[PARAMETER] and [STAR/STOP]
during auto sleep.
Rs-232 C communication
Press [POWER/DATA] While holding
down [REMOTE] during auto sleep
Detector retraction mode
Retraction: Press [POWER/DATA] while
holding down[START/STOP] during auto
sleep. Cancelling retraction:
Press [STAR/STOP] if the detector is
retracted and the power is on.
iii) [START/STOP] key is pressed in the measurement mode, the detector starts
traversing to perform measurement,
iv) After the measurement has been completed, the measured value is displayed
on the LCD.
v) [PARAMETER] key is pressed until the desired parameter value is displayed
on the LCD.
8.3. Outputting measur ement result:
i) The Surf Test SJ-201 is connected to a Digimatic data processor (DP - IHS)
to output the measurement results ( including the unit of measurement ) as
ii) DP-IHS is turned to ‘ON’ position,
iii) [PARAMETER] key is pressed until the objective parameter for output is
iv) [POWER/DATAJ key is pressed so that the measurement result will be
outputted from the Surf Test SJ-201 to the DP-1HS.
9. PRECAUTIONS :
i) Never touch the stylus, otherwise it may be damaged.
ii) Do not hold the detector when detaching the drive/detector unit. Otherwise,
the detector may be damaged,
iv) Confirm that the detector is parallel to the measured surface,
v) Confirm that the stylus is in proper contact with the measured surface,
vi) Calibration of SJ - 201 with the precision roughness specimen must be
performed with the default values that have been used for calibrating the
10. REVIEW QUESTIONS :
i) What is primary texture ?
ii) What is secondary texture ?
iii) What is Lay?
iv) What do you mean by traversing length and sampling length ?
v) Define R
vi) What is calibration ? and why is it necessary for roughness measurement ?
vii) How will you output the SPC data from surf test SJ-201 to DP-IHS printer ?
viii) What is the measurement principle of surf test SJ-201 ?
ix) What are the various operation modes in surf test SJ-201 ?
x) How will you modify the measurement conditions ?
EXPERIMENT - 7
ALIGNMENT TEST OF LATHE
1. AIM :
To perform various alignment tests on Lathe.
2. INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED:
i) Dial gauges
ii) Test mandrels
iii) Straight edges and squares
iv) Spirit levels etc.
v) Angle brackets
3. MACHINE TOOL TESTS :
In most cases the production or machining of a given geometric surface is achieved through
combination of work-tool movements. In other words, the machined surface is generated, and
the accuracy of the surface depends on the accuracy of the mating elements present in the
The various tests applied to any machine tool could be grouped as below.
a) Tests for the level of installation of machine in horizontal and vertical planes.
b) Tests for flatness of machine bed and for straightness and parallelism of bed ways
or bearing surfaces.
c) Tests for perpendicularity of guide ways to other guide ways or bearing surfaces.
d) Tests for the true running of the main spindle and its axial movements.
e) Tests for parallelism of spindle axis to guide ways or bearing surfaces.
f) Tests for the line of movement of various members, i.e. saddle and table cross-
slides etc. along their ways.
4. ALIGNMENT TESTS ON LATHE :
4.1 Leveling of the machine : The level of the machine bed in longitudinal and transverse
directions is tested by a sensitive spirit level. The saddle is kept approximately in the centre of
the bed support feet. The spirit level is then placed at a-a (Fig 7.1), to ensure the level in the
longitudinal direction. It is then traversed along the length of bed and readings at various
places noted down.
For tests in transverse direction the level is placed on a bridge piece to span the front and rear
guide ways and their reading is noted. It is preferable to take two readings in longitudinal and
transverse directions simultaneously so that the effect of adjustments in one direction may also
be observed on the other. The readings in transverse direction can reveal any twist in the bed. It
may be noted hat the two guide ways may be perfectly leveled in longitudinal direction, but
might not be parallel to each other. This is revealed by the test in transverse direction.
4.2 : Tr ue Running of Locating Cylinder of Main Spindle:
Locating cylinder is provided to locate the chuck or face plate and the true running of which
depends on true running of the locating cylinder.
The dial indicator is fixed to the carriage (or any other fixed member) and the feeler of the
indicator touches the locating surface as shown in fig (7.2). The surface is then rotated on its axis
and indicator should not show any movement of needle. If there is any change in the indicator
reading, it must be recorded and be verified with the limiting values.
4.3 Axial Slip of Main Spindle and True Running of Shoulder Face of Spindle
Axil slip is the movement of the spindle in axial direction and is due to the manufacturing error.
To test this, the feeler of the dial gauge rests on the face of the locating spindle shoulder and the
dial gauge holder is clamped to the bed as shown in fig (7.3). The locating cylinder is then
rotated and the change in reading noted down. The readings are taken at two diametrically
opposite points. The total error indicated by the movement of the pointer includes three main
sources of errors.
i) Axial slip due to error in bearings supporting the locating shoulder, i.e. the bearings are
not perpendicular to the axis of rotation and due to it a point on the shoulder will move axially in
& out at diametrically opposite points,
ii) Face of the locating shoulder not in a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation
iii) Irregularities of front face. Due to axial slip, in screw cutting, the pitch will not
be uniform due to periodic movement of the spindle.
4.4: Tr ue r unning of Live centr e:
Work piece is rotated along with the Live centre. If it is not true with the axis of movement of
the spindle, eccentricity will be caused while turning a work, as the job axis would not coincide
with the axis of rotation of the main spindle.
For testing this error, the feeler of the dial indicator is pressed perpendicular to the taper surface
of the centre as shown in fig (7.4), and the spindle is rotated. The deviation indicated by the dial
gauge gives the trueness of the centre.
4.5: Parallelism of the main spindle to Saddle movement:
If the axis of the spindle is not parallel to bed in horizontal direction, a tapered surface is
produced. Any deviation from parallelism of spindle axis from bed in vertical axis will produce
a hyperboloid surface. For this test, a mandrel is fitted in the taper socket of the spindle.
Mandrel has a concentric taper shank which is close fit to the spindle nose taper. The feeler of
the dail-indicator is pressed on the mandrel and the carriage is moved. The indication in the
horizontal plane is given by dial (b) and in vertical plane by dial (a) as shown in fig (7.5).
4.6: r unning of taper socket in main spindle:
If the tapered hole of the socket is not concentric with the main spindle axis, eccentric and
tapered jobs will be produced. To test it, a mandrel is fitted into the tapered hole and readings at
two extremes of the mandrel are taken by means of a dial indicator as shown in fig (7.6).
4.7: Parallelism of tail stock guide ways with the movement of car r iage:
Sometimes the job is held between head stock and tail stock for turning. In that case, they axis must
coincide with the tail stock centre. If the tail stock guile ways are not parallel wit the carriage
movement there will be some offset of the tail stock centre results in taper turning To check the
parallelism of tail stock guide ways in horizontal and vertical planes, a block placed on the guide
was as shown in fig (7.7) and the feeler of the indicator is touched on tl horizontal and vertical
surfaces of the block. The dial indicate:’ is held in the carriage ai carriage is moved. Any error is
indicated by the pointer of dial indicator.
4.8 : Movement of upper slide parallel with main spindle in ver tical plane: Fig (7.8)
The dial indicator is fixed in the tool post. A mandrel is fitted in the spindle. The feeler of the dial
gauge is pressed against the mandrel in vertical plane and the upper slide is moving longitudinally.
This error is not tested in horizontal plane because there is swiveled arrangement for taper running.
4.9 : Parallelism of tail stock sleeve to saddle movement:
If the tail stock sleeve is not parallel to the saddle movement, the height of dead centre would vary
as varying lengths of sleeve are taken out. For the jobs held between two centers, it necessary that
the central axis of the dead centre be coaxial with the job axis in both the plane If it is not so, the job
may be ti lt ed up or down or in sideways due to the support of the de; centre. The test is carried out
by fixing the dial indicator on the tool post and pressing tl plunger against the sleeves first in vertical
and then in horizontal plane as shown in fig (7.S The carriage is moved along the full length of the
sleeve and the deviations as indicated by di indicator are noted down.
4.10 : Par allelism of tail stock sleeve taper socket to saddle movement:
A mandrel is put in the sleeve socket. The dial gauge is on the tool post and plunger is press* against
the mandrel and saddle is moved from fixed one side to the other. This test is came out in both the
horizontal and vertical planes as shown in fig (7.10).
4.11 : Alignment of both the center s in vertical plane :
Besides testing the parallelism of the axes individually (main spindle axis and tail stock axi it is
necessary to check the relative position of the axes also. Both the axes may be parallel carriage
movement but they may not be coinciding. So when a job is fitted between the centre the axis of the
job will not be parallel to the carriage movement. This test is to be carried out i vertical plane only. A
mandrel is fitted between the two centres and dial gauge on the carriag The feeler of the dial gauge
is pressed against he mandrel in vertical plane as shown in fi (7.11) and the carriage is moved and
error noted down.
5. PRECAUTIONS :
i) The mandrel must be so proportioned that its overhang does not produce appreciable sag,
else the sag must be calculated and accounted for. ii) The indicator set up must be rigid,
otherwise variations in readings as recorded by point may be solely due to deflection of the
6 REVIEW QUESTIONS
a) What is the necessity of conducting various alignment tests on lathe?
b) What are the various alignment tests to be conducted on the lathe?
c) What is straightness?
d) What is flatness?
e) What is square ness?
f) What is parallelism?
g) What do you mean by axial slip of main spindle?
h) It is necessary to conduct alignment tests on other machine tools? If so why? Not,
EXPERIMENT - 8
ALIGNMENT TEST OF VERTICAL MILLING MACHINE
1 AIM :
To perform various alignment tests on vertical knee type milling machine.
2. MEASURING INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED :
i) Test mandrels
ii) Straight edges and squares
iii) Spirit levels
iv) Slip gauges
3 ALIGNMENT TESTS ON MILLING MACHINE :
Machine tools are very sensitive to impact or shock, even heavy cast iron standards are
not always solid and rigid enough to withstand stresses due to falling during
transportation, and deformations may be set up. Although the machine is always carefully
adjusted and aligned in the assembly department of the manufacturer, it is well known from
experience that erection in the work shop of the user is not always done with sufficient care
and thus inaccuracies of the work may result from the faulty erection of the machine. So
the machine should be carefully leveled up by means of a spirit level before starting with
the actual trial tests. Each trial measurement is based on the correct erection of the
machine. No upright, base etc. can be made so rigid that it will be thoroughly free from
deformation resulting from faulty erection.
Machine tools in the workshop must be able to produce work pieces of given accuracy
within prescribed limits consistently and without requiring artistic skill on the part of the
For acceptance test of a machine, its alignment test is performed and to see its dynamic
stability, which may be poor though alignment tests are right, certain specific jobs are
prepared and their accuracy checked.
The relative alignment of all parts of machine and the accuracy of the control devices and
driving mechanisms are measured under no load condition. The results of these
measurements must lie within the prescribed limits given by the manufacturer depending
upon the grade of the machine tool.
The various tests performed on the milling machine are as described below.
3.1 Straightness of the vertical movement of the knee :
Straightness of the vertical movement of the knee is checked in two planes
a) In the vertical plane of symmetry of the machine as shown in fig ( 8.1a)
b) In the plane perpendicular to the vertical plane of symmetry of the machine as
shown in fig (8.1b)
Fig 3 1(a)
Straightness of the Vertical movement of the knee
^9 8.2(a) p,-g 8.2(b)
Straightness of the table surface to column ways for knee
Square ness of the table surface to the spindle head slide vertical movement
This test is conducted by arranging the table in its central position, locking table,
cross - slide and unlocking the knee. A square with an arm about 300 mm long is
fixed on the table surface and the dial gauge is mounted on he fixed part of the
machine in such a way that the feeler rests on the arm (vertical face)of the square
near the bottom edge. The dial gauge can also be mounted directly on the spindle, if
there is a provision of locking the spindle. Then the dial gauge reading is observed
by moving the table upwards about 300mm. The difference in readings is the direct
indication of the error of straightness of the vertical movement of the knee. The
same procedure is adopted for the measurement in two planes. The permissible
deviation for measurement in both the planes is 0.025 mm for a measuring length of
3.2. Squar eness of the table sur face to the column ways :
This test is also conducted by the similar arrangements of the table, cross - slide and
knee. This test also uses the same square with an arm about 300 mm fixed on the
table surface. The dial gauge is either mounted on the fixed part of the machine or
directly mounted on the spindle, if there is a provision of locking the spindle in
position. The feeler of the dial gauge is made to touch the arm (vertical face) of the
square approximately at the middle as shown in fig (8.2a & 8.2 b) The dial gauge
reading is observed in three positions i.e., middle and near the extremities of the
horizontal travel of the table. The difference in readings is* the direct indication of
the squareness of the table surface to the column ways for the knee. The permissible
deviation for the measurement in both the planes is 0.025 mm for a measuring length
3.3 Squar eness of the table sur face to the vertical movement of the spindle
head slide :
This test is conducted by arranging the table in its central position, and locking knee
and table. A square with an arm is fixed on the table surface and the dial gauge is
mounted on the spindle head slide of the machine in such a way that the feeler rests
on the vertical face of the square near the bottom edge as shown in fig ( 8.3a & 8.3b
). Then the dial gauge reading is observed by moving the spindle head slide upwards
about 300 mm. The difference in reading is the direct indication of the error of
squareness of the table surface to the vertical movement of the spindle head slide.
The permissible deviation for measurement in both the planes is 0.025mm for a
measuring length of 300mm.
3.4. Flatness of the table surface : Fig (8.4)
Flatness of the table surface is checked by precision level or straight edge and slip
gauges. This test is conducted by arranging table and cross-slide in its central
position, locking knee and cross - slide and unlocking the table. Maximum
permissible deviation is 0.05 mm.
3.5 Parallelism of the table surface to its movement:
Parallelism of the table surface to its movement in transverse direction and
longitudinal direction is checked by straight edge and dial gauge. The dial gauge is
mounted on a fixed part of the machine in such a way that the stylus or the feeler is
placed approximately at the working position of the tool as shown in fig ( 8.5a & 8.5b
) parallelism of the table surface to its transverse movement is tested by locking
table and spindle head slide and parallelism to its longitudinal movement is tested by
locking cross slide and spindle head slide. The deviations from parallelism between
the table surface and its movement in both directions are noted down. If the table" is
uneven, a straight edge may be placed on the surface.
3.6 Run-out of the inter nal taper of the spindle :
This test is conducted by setting the table in its main position longitudinally and the
mandrel of 300 mm long is fixed in the spindle taper. A dial gauge is set on the
machine table and the feeler is adjusted to touch the surface of the mandrel as shown
in fig( 8.6) The mandrel is then turned and the dial gauge readings at two points are
noted i.e., one at the place nearest to spindle nose and other at about 300 mm from
it. There can be two errors. i) Axis of the spindle and the axis of taper may not be
parallel, ii) Eccentricity of the taper hole which,’ if present, should indicate same error
at both the places. The permissible deviation is 0.01-0.02 mm.
3.7. Squareness of the spindle axis to the table surface :
Squareness of the spindle axis to the table surface is checked in two planes by locking
spindle head slide, table, cross slide and knee. The dial gauge is set on the machine
table. A mandrel 300 mm long is fitted in the spindle taper. The feeler of dial
gauges made to touch the surface of the mandrel as shown in fig(8.7 a and 8.7 b).
With mandrel in position, the readings at the maximum vertical travel of the table
surface is observed at two positions. The permissible error for measurement in two
planes is 0.025 mm for 300mm length.
3.8 Squareness of the movement of the table transversely to its
This test is conducted by setting the straight edge parallel to the table longitudinal
movement, then the square shall be placed against the straight edge. The table is
locked in central position and dial gauge reading is observed. The dial gauge may be
placed on a fixed part of the machine as shown in fig (8.8a & 8.8 b) the permissible
deviation is 0.02 mm for 300 mm length.
3.9 Pr actical Test
Alignment test is performed to see its. dynamic stability, which maybe poor though
alignment tests are right, certain specific jobs are prepared and their accuracy is
The test piece with dimensions shown in fig (8.9) is prepared on the milling machine as
i) Milling of surface B by automatic longitudinal movement of the table and
manual vertical movement of the knee, in two cuts overlapping by about 5 to
ii) Milling of strips of surfaces A, B, C and D by automatic longitudinal movement of the
table, automatic vertical movement of the knee and manual transverse movement of the cross -
All surfaces A, B, C and D are checked for its flatness and perpendicularity with respect to
i) All moving parts of the machine must be locked while reading the dial gauge,
ii) If the table surface is uneven, straight edges must be used.
5 REVIEW QUESTIONS:
i) Distinguish between geometric tests and practical tests.
ii) How will you measure the flatness of the table surface ?
iii) What are the various alignment tests conducted on vertical milling machine ?
iv) What are the various measuring instruments used in alignment test of a milling machine
v) What are the dimensions of a test piece used in practical test ?
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