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J6l3b Bolitho JInnah
92 J6l3b Bolitho Jinnah
MISS FATIMA JINNAH .MOHAMMED ALI JINNAH AND HIS SISTER.
ALBEMARLE STREET. . ALI JINNAH. * LONDON JOHN MURRAY.JINNAH Creator of Pakistan BY HECTOR BOLITHQ Failure is a word unknown MOHAMMED to me.
First Edition Printed in Great Britain by Butler & Tanner Ltd. . Frome and London and Published by John Murray (Publiahen) Ltd..
- Part 2. .. GANDHI. ' THE I92I-I928 PARTING OF THE WAYS * : 78 86 . BOYHOOD IN KARACHI A STUDENT IN LONDON THE YOUNG ADVOCATE THE YOUNG POLITICIAN TALK OF ALEXANDER BACKGROUND FOR PAKISTAN 1906-1910 1910-1913 AN ESSAY IN FRIENDSHIP A GENTLEMAN OF RECOGNIZED POSITION * 3 8 I4 22 31 . . AND THE DOCTORS LIAQUAT All . 59 6l THE LUCKNOW PACT GANDHI.92 96 EXILE 1930-1934 Part 4.109 II5 I2 5 Part 5. AND EDWIN SAMUEL 67 73 JINNAH'S SECOND MARRIAGE: 1918 THE YEARS OF DISILLUSIONMENT . . ANNIE MONTAGU Part 3.. RETURN TO INDIA: 1937-1939 * PAKISTAN 1940 : * i935-*937 - * . .CONTENTS PAGE Part 1. AND KHAN 148 12560 ... 141 JINNAH.. A BIRTHDAY PRESENT 1940-1942 *33 I36 1942-1944 1944 : : AN ASSASSIN.BESANT. 36 44 49 54 * .
. 214 219 228 Bibliography . THE GARDEN 199 210 ZIARAT...CONTENTS PAGE Part 6. .. 157 167 177 7... ... . .. ... FLIGHT INTO KARACHI 193 THE BRITONS IN WHO STAYED LAST TASK ... . . . - Index 229 VI . . .. . 1947 : PARTITION Part 8. AND THE THE LAST DAYS . 1945-1946 1946-1947 Part ..
. IN 1947 . . 198 THE DAY OF MOHAMMED ALI JINNAH*$ BURIAL 226 Vll . AT SIMLA. A. JINNAH M. A. A. JINNAH. ABOUT THE TIME OF HIS SECOND MARRIAGE PANDIT JAWAHARLAL NEHRU AND M. IN 1946 A. . A. KINGS- WAY HALL. 1947 . . 15 1 MISS FATIMA JINNAHt. JINNAH. JINNAH AND MAHATMA GANDHI. JINNAH ADDRESSING MUSLIM LEAGUE MEETING.. IN 1944 . 4 6 73 M. .. AND LIAQUAT KHAN ALI KHAN. KARACHI .151 . MISS FATIMA JINNAH Frontispiece THE HOUSE IN NEWNHAM ROAD JINNAH's BIRTHPLACE THE SIND MADRASAH SCHOOL... A.. M.ILLUSTRATIONS FACING PAGE MOHAMMED ALI JINNAH AND HIS SISTER. DECEMBER 1946 l66 LORD MOUNTBATTEN LISTENING TO MR JINNAH*S INAUGURAL SPEECH AS THE FIRST GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF PAKISTAN AUGUST KARACHI : 14.. 114 M. LIAQUAT ALI KHAN AND l66 BEGUM LIAQUAT ALI M. JINNAH.
. My and achievement will. prove my gratitude A full list of their names would serve no purpose. Mr Kanji Dwarkadas. and M. former editor Gazette (Karachi). Mr Fareed S. Jafri. also Diwan giving me reminiscences and and Mr M. who attended Mr Jinnah .C. doctors. I am grateful to die R. author of Mohammed Ali Jinnah (A Chaman Lall. and some of ix . especially Ilahi and Lieut-Colonel also to Sister Bakhsh. former Advocate- G. who nursed him when he was dying.D. Rajah Sir Maharaj Singh. his secretary. have talked to me. Mr Rafiq M. former Governor me with the years of Jinnah's political struggle Those who helped General of Bombay. I hope. Saiyid. teaching Britons who served in the sub-continent. H. Military Mr Mohammed Noman. who allowed me the use of his own researches. Their accounts of his growing malady. of The Civil and Mr S. as a lawyer in Bombay. Rabbani. Mr Motilal Setalvad. and the circumstances of his narrative. since the transfer of power in 1947. Ikram. death. H. Political Study]. have greatly strengthened The younger men who served Jinnah in his later years include my Mr K.. Patel. Mazhar Ahmed. but I to them. Mr Begum Liaquat Ali Khan. Jinnah's early years. wish to mention some who have helped me with particular problems in my Sir work. and have spoken to some Ali Jinnah. master and in his air his Captain S. who has been especially generous in in reading my manuscript. naval As. M.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS the DURING people who knew Mohammed two hundred record of his life have visited two years I have spent in writing this book. before and A.C. Phyllis Dunham. Mr Altaf Husain. Joshi. and Surgeon-Commander Jal Mr Nasim Ahmed. and of Bombay. Khan. Ahsan and Lieutenant Wing-Commander Ata Some fifty who were helpful with stories about their me to appreciate the lively hopes of Pakistan. N. include valuable material include editor of Dawn. were described to me by Cowasjee Jehangir. when Other Pakistani writers who provided me with I was in Karachi. Khurshid. I both Pakistan and India.D.
I wish also to thank Mr research from the beginning Derek Ped. but any shade of opinion that may have crept into the narrative is my own. former editor of The Pioneer and Mr Majeed Malik. Jefford. and by Mr Ian Stephens. SALISBURY.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS am especially these. Colonel Geoffrey Knowles. brought my errors down to a minimum. St J. General Sir Frank Messervy. 1954 . by Sir Francis Low. and Sir Francis them have loaned me letters and diaries. who were with Admiral Earl Mountbatten during his term as Viceroy . Mr Edwin Haward. former editor of The Statesman. been read by Sir The entire manuscript has Hawthorne Lewis. * Mudie* My chapter on * Partition presented many problems* The facts have been checked by General Lord Ismay. Of I W. Principal Information Officer to the Government of Pakistan. who has helped to the end of my task me with tt B. for many years editor of The Times of India. and afterwards Governor of Orissa. Sir Eric Miiville. Their vigilance has.Admiral J. WILTS. Birnie. and Mr Alan Campbell-Johnson. They have made corrections and suggestions. I hope. to Vice. obliged Colonel E. former Reforms Commissioner to the Government of India.
PART ONE .
the day is recorded uncertain but Jinnah always said that he had been as October 20. tossing Baltic. the desert into blocks of Ancient bunder boats ports. 1875 the house since restored . as a boy. It was then a small port town of some 50. of the youngest navy : mellow houses look in the new city is old Karachi . The dust from the desert came down on them in hot clouds it invaded their food. overnight. west was the sea. officials. the Some of the streets are that Jinnah knew. and dwellings. their huge sails but there are also still come into the harbour from coastal bowing amiably over the smooth blue water the big ships of international commerce. born on Christmas Daya Sunday 3 in 1876. and the houses so low. from . his parents migrated to the fishing of Karachi. who fought for. A I gulfs like a great challenging i 1 I before Jinnah was born. the Today. the Muslim state of Pakistan. busy. of Cutch and Cambay. The date is in the register of his school. from dawn to dark. thrust into the fist. : and ornamented with balconies where Mohammed Ali Jinnah was born. If the 1876 date is . so that. that the camels ambling past can In the heart of the bustling first-floor is town of windows.000 people. Tokyo and the as they steam in from torpedo practice the foam from their bows in the world. from which they made their living. from the air. die edge of the city seems to increase. In one of these narrow streets. Liverpool. in Karachi. on the edge of the Sind desert. Karachi is the throbbing capital of the biggest Muslim refugees. ^HE map of the between the Arabian Sea. and created. their clothes and their On one side was the parched earth. pleading for water to lungs. Thousands of masons toil. so narrow. and business men have country in the world swelled the population to a million and a quarter. proud ships. This was the native land of the parents of Mohammed Ali Jinnah.BOYHOOD ^ I IN KARACHI west coast of India shows Kathiawar Peninsula. turning more and more acres of Long : : : offices. And there are destroyers. like grey lava flowing into the sand. Newnham Road.
BOYHOOD correct. to Amai Bai. Jinnah was then seven years old. where they settled. and prospered in a modest school in Karachi. an immense rocking-chair. When Jinnah was six years old. and then gave me the bones of the early story. Mohammed Ali Ganji spread the papers on the bed. a one of the tenement houses in old Karachi there lives Fatima handsome old woman. also in Karachi. he went on a ship to Bombay. Soon afterwards. long ago. when she arrived in the family home in Karachi. he was sent to When he was ten. From Kathiawar. High School. like so many Muslim families in India. Fatima Bai lives with her son. while he was there. to the Sind Madrasah High School and he was fifteen when he went to the Christian Missionary Society . for its partition and deliverance from British rule. with Queen Imperial India Victoria's great-grandson. Mohammed " he went to England to study law and. Mohammed Ali Ganji said that the family migrated to the Kathiawar Peninsula from the Multan Mohammed stairs. He was eleven when he was returned to Karachi. The year was 1884 In . in rooms went there one evening flight and she received me in her own room. beside his mother. for one year. where he attended the Gokul Das Tej Primary School.. one of the few persons alive who can remember Mohammed Ali Jinnah when he was a boy." 4 . was created. married to one of Jimxah's cousins. In the same year that he was at the Mission School. Bai. they moved way. the few existing documents the family archives were kept. his young wife died. in which there were her bed. on the Plain of Delhi. . at the Ali Ganji. IN KARACHI he was seven days old when Queen Victoria was proclaimed He was born in the year that Kaisar-i-Hind. and he lived to negotiate. he was married by his parents. to Karachi. Although Jinnah's immediate ancestors were Muslims followers of the Khoja sect of the Aga Khan they came. aged eighty-six . and a wardrobe where. a Khoja girl from Kathiawar. north of the Sind desert. as was the custom of the country. among the bundles of clothes. his mother died. She was a bride of sixteen. and his father became very poor. In 1892 Ali Ganji said. top of a of bare stone I area.. of old Hindu stock.
THE HOUSE IN NEWNHAM ROAD JINNAH S BIRTHPLACE .
sat in the rocking-chair and said that. him in the street.' As Fatima Bai a smiling old finished her story.' and he answered. Nanji Jafar was playing in the street. At night. marbles in the dust . snow-white hair. spurious anecdotes that are already confusing The 5 . he gave Nanji Jafar his bat and said. to shield the eyes of the children from the light. in two rooms lived. he would stand a sheet of cardboard against the oil lamp.' chief peril in writing about Mohammed Ali Jinnah lies in the the facts of his story. came up to him and said.THE GAME OF CRICKET " Fatima Bai raised her hand and interrupted her son she said." I asked him to close his eyes and to see. You will make yourself ill from so much study. We on the first floor of the house in Newnham Road. I played marbles with When I asked. One night I went to him and said. eight : ." : they gave up playing marbles and allowed Jinnah to lead them from the dusty street to a use. I played marbles with him in the street. One morning. into his memory . * school with Jinnah. as far as he knew. once more. Muslim with tousled. Can you remember anything that he said to you " " ? he looked from beneath his thick white brows and repeated. Jinnah. it spoils your clothes and dirties your hands. bright field where he brought his bat and stumps for them to The boys Newnham Road were obedient When he sailed for England " at the age of sixteen. when We must stand up and play in cricket." " all he could " recall was. Nanji Jafar closed his eyes and dug deeper then he told his only anecdote ofJinnah's boyhood. of us. He came in. he was in his Though he had been at eighties '. His name was Nanji Jafar. You will go on teaching the boys to play * cricket while I am away. " Don't play then aged about fourteen. Then he would read. the coloured glass marbles in the dust. an old man appeared at the door . when the children were sleeping." Stand up from the All Jinnah's story is in the boyhood dictum dust so that your clothes are unspoiled and your hands clean for the tasks that fall to them. Bai. and read. you know I cannot achieve anything in life unless I work * ' " hard. He was a good boy a clever boy.
he referred to only advocates* There is no proof of this one boyhood visit to a law court. 1945)* pp. written in 1917. Fatima. Shireen. she became the first woman Governor of an Indian Province Uttar Pradesh where she died in March. * certain that he was neither Mrs Naidu's eldest son of a rich known of these Mohomed Jtnnah. (Ganesh AU & Madras. the boy who grew up and made a forlorn. and who. during 185x5-97. She was a remarkable and talented woman. with his father. the bedlam of rickshaws and camel-carts. Her eldest child was Mohammed Ali. were astrologer practised a little abracadabra and * signs* that he would grow up to be a is told of Jinnah being so poor that he sat under the of a lamp-post to study his books and that he spent aU his leisure light from school in the police courts. When he saw " I want to be a his first advocate. except Fatima. . listening to the wrangling of the in later life. . : king Another story barrister.. 1912-1917. Then came Rahmat. . reared in careless affluence/ This picture son of a rich merchant . Maryam. Jinnah's father was a hide merchant his wife. scattered multitude into a nation. but she found the English dimate too trying and returned to India. is never more than Poonja a vague shadow in the story. . ' s Immortal Yearst Sir Evelyn Wrench 6 (Hutchinson. and they are already weaving legends about Jinnah's name. An Airibassador of Unity. later years. 1949. There is astrologer still a schoolboy. in became her brother's' dose and devoted companion.BOYHOOD IN KARACHI In her appreciation 1 is not easy. when he was The told * him J that there . a lean man named Jinnah him seven children. in gown and bands. Co. His Speeches and Writings. Cambridge. She had been a student at Girton * College. who a tale. After Partition. nor . who * as a dentist. who bore and Bande qualified Ali." Little is * writer nor a diarist But 1 it is early years* Jinnah was neither a letterdid he care to reminisce about the past. with a biographical appreciation by Sarojini Naidu. said. Ahmed Ali. Sorting these facts from the legends * Mrs Naidu described him as the eldest of Jinnah. repeated in the Pakistani magazines. of an stopped Jinnah one day in the street. all of whom remained obscure. Pakistanis sometimes enjoy the delights of gossip more than the science of history. is false : as Fatima Bai set among : the family lived in two rooms of a house. he said.) Mrs Naidu became one of Mohammed Ali Jinnah's few devoted friends.
THE SIND MADRASAH SCHOOL. KARACHI .
Mohammed Ali Jinnah was not yet sixteen when he sailed across the Arabian Sea. B . words. recalls Jinnah's early years he At the time when in thin boy. towards the western his world which was to influence mind. . in a funny long yellow coat/ Jinnah finished his schooling. In his earliest photograph he appears as a lean boy. slim hands. beneath a street lamp reared in careless affluence/ nor a poor the truth lies in between. to make the sixteen more real. to learn the practice of the law. Frederick to Leigh Croft ultimately persuaded Jinnah Poonja to send his son London. with high cheekbones. a recluse and a wit. eyes with more power than warmth. and only one remembered phrase. and heavy lips that suggest a sensuousness his character belied . : boy reading the gateway of the Sind Madrasah School in Karachi are the ENTER TO LEARN GO FORTH TO SERVE. and his determination to stand up from the dust. The one. He was heir to a baronetcy a thirty-two- year-old bachelor. even when they were bony and old. described by a kinswoman who remembers him * as something of a dandy. There are no boy of almost letters. . working as an exchange broker Bombay and Karachi. carved in the stone. which was to imbue him with an Englishness of manner and behaviour that endured to his death. there was an Englishman. whom he did not like/ But he liked Mohammed Ali Jinnah. and his tastes . The time came when Mohammed Ali Jinnah had to go forth into the world armed only with his matriculation from the Bombay ' Over ' University. gained at the Mission School. his ambition. which he used with an actor's skill. uncomfortable in the presence of children. and beautiful. curious phrase persists : in almost every piece * that is described as of writing that tall. Frederick Leigh Croft.VOYAGE TO ENGLAND merchant . with a freshly picked carnation in his buttonhole each morning . and was impressed by his talents. j.
without any pausing in the National Gallery on the way. he did not dissipate his energies with hobbies. I salvage during the 1939-45 JL lists no longer Only and it bis reader's ticket for the British Museum has been saved. of his arrival ' in England. I did not know a soul. is Road. records during a bombing raid* There seems to be no way of finding out when or how he came to England. Kensington. University education/ of literature. one of a modest row that face the : immense of Olympia glass arch the view from the windows is over a busy suburban railway line. study that brought about this feat of scholarship . and art. and the fogs and winter in London upset me * a great deal. Dr Mohammed Ashraf was 1921. 132. 'IHE ledgers kept at Lincoln's Inn in the 1890*5 were given for war the contemporary shipping and Jinnah's English bankers lost their exist. to yet eighteen * complete the formalities required by Lincoln's Inn. to debates House of Commons. Dr Ashraf recalls Jinnah telling him that he was the youngest Indian student ever to * \ be called to die Bar/ But there are no details of the hours of diligent of the habits. except that the year was 1892. and projected ' law libraries. Vice-President of the Union of the Univernty of AHgarh in 8 . but I soon settled down and was quite happy/ Jinnah's achievement as a student was remarkable : he passed his examinations in two years.he was not : but he had to remain in England two more years. I found a strange country and unfamiliar surroundings. Jinnah once said. gives his London still address as 35 Russell The house. and he was to create a nation. Jinnah apparently withstood the temptations His mind seldom doted on the past. He was to do two things brilliantly in his life : he was to become a great advocate. down in the From 1 * the beginning. and it would seem that his habits in London were narrowed that his way was from lectures in Lincoln's Inn. p. and even of history. It seems a pity that so fine an intelligence should have denied itself the hall-mark of a Mrs Naidu wrote of Jinnah some years later. and the British Museum. beside an oil-lamp in the house in Newnham to the reading-rooms of the formed Road. If the 1876 birth-date is to be believed the date also given in the records of the Law Society. which stands.A STUDENT IN ^ LONDON . Immortal Yearst Sir Evelyn Wrench.
his utilized for further independent studies for the political time was " " " he already had in mind ". must have been intensified on June 21. Mohammed Ali Jinnah had used his boyhood name. while he was in England. On April 14. Jinnah also said. with dalliaiice. during the " last two years in London. 1892. and his personality. 1894. which was his mother tongue. when he was he used for the rest ' . * being carried into his capital on a stretcher a dying warrior. It must have been an important moment in the development of his courage. ' Amendment to the Indian Councils Act." He spoke of Muhammad as and a great sovereign. on the main entrance. of the world." This awakening in politics coincided with significant personal changes. which became part of my life and thrilled me very much. he adopted the English fashion in names and became Mr Jinnah. Jinnah recalled. Fortune smiled career on me. . the form of his life. when he went to an optician's shop in London and bought the first of the many monocles. He had also abandoned his funny and perhaps and adopted English clothes coat long yellow the sight of Mr Joseph Chamberlain in the House encouraged by he had bought his first monocle. I grasped that Liberalism. His chief passions were mind. The thrill when he read of the Royal Assent to the Lord Morley thrilled him. Jinnah had said that * the Liberalism of very much. Jinnah told Dr Ashraf that. The Liberalism of Lord Mofley was then in full sway. Jinnahbhai bhai being a suffix used in the Gujrati language. as a Muslim. the I name of the Prophet was included in the list of the great law-givers " a great statesman. Up to April 1894. in 1947." His appreciation of the Prophet was realistic perhaps his political conscience. " In an address to the Karachi Bar Association. joined Lincoln's Inn because there. which he wore during the next fifty years even at die end.LINCOLN nor his S INN in his strength. holding the circle of glass between his almost transparent fingers. empowering the Viceroy to increase the numbers in the Legislative and Provincial Councils an amendment that gave 9 . had already begun to : stir. and I happened to meet several important English Liberals with whose help I came to understand the doctrine of Liberalism.
When Dadabhai Naoroji announced his intention to stand as Liberal candidate for Central Hnsbury. In 1893. and * with agitation and reform. doubt if yet got to the point of view where a British constituency elect a black man/' The Scottish electors shouted " Shame ! " as far as and the indignation spread south Victoria. where Queen and engrossed in her study o Mr displeased. Dadabhai Naoroji was a Parsee. May 28. the clumsy folly. His humorous : ' old eyes. Balfour to the Queen.A the people STUDENT IN LONDON * of India. he returned to India. Dadabhai Naoroji. in later life. a potential voice in the government of their country. attended by Indian servants Hindustani. reveal some of the reasons why he came to be known as the Graad Old Man of India *. in a speech at Lord Salisbury committed " I we have would Edinburgh. of saying. when Jinnah must have recovered from his loneliness and settled down '. and to develop his sympathy with the of : . naturally in love political women emancipation a reform that became a fixed part of his stirring political creed when heart. member for Central Knsbury. The novice in early iSpo's offered refreshing opportunities for any young politics.perhaps to help the of the first Indian. to the British Parliament. nearer his own Jinnah arrived in London in time to watch. when the Liberals came into power after six years of Tory rule under Lord * ' * Salisbury. aged sixty-seven at the time of his return for many years he had been a business man in London. Photographs of him. he was able to listen to some of the lively debates over Mr Gladstone's Irish Home Rule Bill he was able also to study English reactions to affairs in India. to learnbather than the furious agitator in love with change for its own sake. Mr Gladstone spoke with a vigour and animation most remarkable in a man of eighty-two/ 1 This * vigour and animation was rewarded in the following August. and Egypt to watch the growing power of Labour. proclaim the teacher. The beginning ofJinnah's partiality for Liberalism was well-timed. anxious to learn. and relaxed hands. newly arrived from India. There was another election as innovation. was much 1 Windsor. At the end of May 1892. about whom young Indians gathered. long wlu'te beard. for the first time. 10 . 1892.
with a majority of three. when Parliament seriously took the matter of Indian policy into its hands. that the only Liberal candidate for Central Finsbury/ Dadabhai Naoroji was elected. Mr Narrow-Majority/ Mohammed Ali Jinnah was caught the Throne. speeches The nature and quality of these ideas are revealed in the first speech which Dadabhai Naoroji made in the House of Commons on August 9. a I may say ntw life was infused great movement of political life into a land which had been decaying for centuries. from the very commencement. British justice . 1939)- . ful phenomenon. in which the youth of that country began to be educated. one from Florence Nightingale : * Among the letters sent to him was I rejoice beyond measure/ she wrote.. describing the con by the election in Finsbury. civilization. English constituency. the instinct of and generosity. during more than a century of settled British rule. fourteen years later. For the first time.DADABHAI NAOROJI addedly unfortunate because Dadabhai Naoroji had a paler skin than Lord Salisbury soon made the Parsee Liberal The unhappy insult into a hero. and he was therefore overwhelmed by women helpers. Masani (George Allen & Unwin Ltd. He said : My election for an English constituency is a unique event. whom he was to serve. It is reasonable to suppose that Jinnah learned much from Naoroji's that he absorbed some ideas from the Grand Old Man. aided by a noble and grand language. R. as secretary. P. The spirit of British rule. 1892. . The troversy story. awakened 1 chapters in his biography. and the you are now name quick-tongued Cockneys * into who had voted for him turned his difficult up in the excitement of the and he prospered under the influence of Dadabhai Finsbury Naoroji. make an exciting Women's Suffrage was one * of his aims. an Indian is admitted into this House as a Member for an . during the No Confidence debate following the Speech from election. a few words in analysis of this great and wonder I desire to say . and political institutions in that country and the result was that. decided that India was to be governed on the fines of British freedom and justice. . hesitation to introduce Western Steps were taken without any education. about the beginning of this century. 1 Dadabhai Naoroji: The Grand Old Man of II India.
as ' Times reporter wrote. and the other speakers during the debate. : Dadabhai Naoroji continued The glory and thrilled credit from one end of this great event by which India is to the other of the new life. though he stand alone. the joy. with the con viction that. including and shed their blood. and concluded without '. you demanded from the Throne the privileges which belong to the freedom of speech.A STUDENT IN LONDON of the country endowed it with all their important privileges. with only one vote. P. Mr Gladstone. is aU your own : it is the spirit of British institutions and the love ofjustice and freedom in British instincts which has produced this extraordinary result. as an ardent Gladstonian The splendour saying one to support his leader in the debate : but. Mr Mr T. whenever he just able to bring forward any aspiration. This is the conviction which permeates the whole thinking and educated classes of India. * 12 . he will mid a large number of other Members from both sides of the House ready to support him and give him the justice he asks. and he no doubt absorbed Gallery its lessons. A few days ago. for which they have fought people. he dilated with radiant n&lvttl on the * of his victory in Central Finsbury '. made it at all possible for to thank the British people an Indian to occupy and to speak freely in the English language of any grievance which India may be suffering under. Balfour. and I stand here in the name of India that they have this position. you have prepared for this of an Indian standing before you in this House. the ecstasy of India at the present moment. final result becoming a Member of the great Imperial Parliament of the British Empire. from the Visitors* of the House of Commons. is . might have him next. and it enables Indians to stand before you and represent in clear and open language any desire they have felt. By conferring those privileges. Mohammed Ali Jinnah heard this speech. Sir. and is supported by and proper reasons. Naoroji's passions would lead wondered where Dadabhai * He was expected. That freedom of speech you have given to us. O'Connor. word ' on die matter in hand. and being able to express his views openly and The British rulers own most fearlessly before you.
as a human being. There was but one episode. without There are but two stories of these student some time or other. when he toured recalled England with a Shakespearean company. In 1946." Jinnah answered. What is a prefix after all ? 'A rose by any " other name would smell as sweet/ his the charm of words Jinnah was never to become excited by written or spoken. or humour. from this nodding acquaintance with Shakespeare. when Gandhi asked Jinnah how he " I thank you for your wished to be addressed. a friend said to Jinnah. There is little trace of influence on his vocabulary. matter of the prefix you should anxiety to respect my wishes in the use with my name. with the help of Liaquat Ali Khan : and one of his fine sentences. when and the Gallery Mahatrna Gandhi and Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru were in prison in " All the leaders have been arrested at India. in the far future. was bald and factual. unproven. when he was drafting a statement. Many years later. when I was a student in London. Jinnah 1 he described this incongruous adventure to Mr Nasim Ahmed his experiences as a prompter. Oh." Also. he became impatient with their search after I don't care for beautiful language : I only wish to see my idea come through." 1 London correspondent of Dawn newspaper. depth. I was with bridge Boat Race night. No more is that for a time known. 13 . that show him of the House of Commons. sketch for a portrait. Many years kter. : " let off with a caution. I also It was on Oxford and Cam have had my friction with the police. so we pushed each other up and down the roadway.EXPERIENCE AS AN ACTOR These fragments of he is fact about Jinnah do not yet make him real : only half-clear. and the occasion when he played Romeo. or in his speeches. except you. there was a spell away from his studies. Jinnah answered. until we were arrested and taken off to the But I am afraid we were not imprisoned we were police station. prose. although there is a legend. away from his reading-lamp days. and " said. he was with Miss Horniman's famous repertory company. secretaries. as in a first pencil colour. two friends and we were caught up with We found a hand cart in a side street. a crowd of undergraduates.
. Mr M. for he never mastered Urdu even when he was leading the Muslims into freedom. was offered work in a law office. Jinnah had been absorbed into the life of London : he had talked with scholars and he had heard the great voices in Westminster. often told but never verified. who was Jinnah's secretary in 14 . When he arrived back in Karachi. but he was to endure three more years of penury. And his father had lost whatever little fortune he had saved. also his child wife. and it remained so. He had listened also to the young as been alarmed he reformers. on the understanding that he married : the lawyer's daughter. His mother was dead . aged almost^ twenty. a&d all the sweets of opportunity to an ambitious young man.until the last years of his life.THE YOUNG ADVOCATE ALI JINNAH returned to India in the autumn of 1896. During four years. he had to define MOHAMMED : of their emancipation in an alien tongue. and disappointment. Jinnah was perhaps ill at of the two rooms in Newnham Road : ease within the nor was there much help or encouragement for him as a young barrister seeking clients. and small talk. before he began to climb. He might have tried to resume his old habits in Karachi . Mohammed Ali Jinnah sailed for Bombay in 1897. lively with new ideas. K Saiyid. and devoted to the Liberalism he had absorbed from Gladstone." and saying. Jinnah must have felt like a stranger among his own people. English had become his chief language. with its High Court. the terms also of address was English : he had already assumed the habit. and Dadabhai Naoroji. busy with the riddles of government. which listener he never gave up. Morley. His hands spread so eagerly towards Ufe in London were now tied for lack of oppor There is one story. of shaking his finger at his " My dear fellow. that he tunity. a town devoted to trade and shipping. He was then a qualified barrister. when he adopted And his manner the sherwani and shalwar of the Muslim gentleman. you do not understand. He was aloof from such shabby bargaining he left the depressing sands of Karachi for Bombay. who could not have contributed much to his experience of human confines relationships. attract its tradition in the law. His clothes remained English.
within a few weeks. and . September 15 10. and. Jinnah's fortunes changed. Fatima. Mohammed Muhammad 8 An Ambassador of Unity. has written x * of this lean time. a young pedestrian pacing them every if could only speak. .7Ashraf. The material struggle was over now he earned enough money to buy a carriage. office that required was hopeful and he was . was a maze of caste and religious distinctions. The long and crowded a every day. from Karachi. ' window . * Illustratta Weekly of Pakistan. 1911. bear testimony to morning from his new abode . 1 4. he became a temporary Presidency Magistrate. to his office in the Fort a weary. . gazing through also enterprising. a magazine article. and it was : Bombay therefore a brave innovation to send a young Muslim girl to a Catholic convent. p. M. there was a vacancy *ji Bombay a an . ' Jinnahj office of Sir Charles Ollivant. to move to a better apartment. a cigarette/ wondering what he could do : smoking he jumped into the cab and an idea struck him ' : generous recommendation. An anonymous of Jinnah to ' author recalled the circumstances his sister.' day spent the century. Mrs Naidu wrote cession the first of its kind ever extended to an Indian/ which At the turn of the kindness * * as Jinnah remembered a beacon of hope in the dark distress of his for a Presidency Magistrate in early struggles/ Early in 1900. * Created Sir John Molesworth MacPherson. he wandered without single they foot-paths of Bombay may. 1945). Jinnah went in and asked for the appointment. -Saiyid (Sk Lahore. toilsome his apartments after every evening back again to in anxious expectation. a humble locality in the city. who invited the young lawyer to work 3 of this as a courteous con in his chambers. P.. in of this early gesture. The first three years were of great hardship and although he attended his office regularly brief. . a cab passed by and drove straight to the * He sat. John 2 Molesworth MacPherson. through of the acting Advocate-General of Bombay. and to bring his sister. written fifty years 1 later. the then Member in charge of the Judicial Department '. and send her to the Bandra Convent school. He obtained the necessary recom mendation from Mr MacPherson.TEMPORARY PRESIDENCY MAGISTRATE later years.. . H. 4 In those days the people of her community Alt Jinnah (A Political Study). 1950.
." She alone kept a place in his cautious affections. are told. The wagging tongues/" young Fatima became of words. from the childhood days in Newnham Road. travelling horse-back/ all ' the way from Bombay to Sandra on between brother and sister endured through the of half a century . he used to visit her every Sunday. when he said. It was in this room that Jinnah began his career as an advocate. whenever I came back home and met her. 16 He . largely through Mohammed Ali Jitrnah's imagination and persistence. in gold and blue turbans. my sister was like a bright ray of light and hope. he went with her on an inspection round of the school premises *. The health much worse. Anxieties would have been much greater and my relationship vicissitudes . stand before an iron cage in which the prisoners are kept office. that Miss Jinnah's brother to give all the courage that she needed to stand up to the opposition that had come from the torch bearers of orthodoxy. but for the restraint imposed by her. Many efforts were made to dissuade her from doing so. fifty-four years ago* In another room along the passage sits an old man who can remember Jinnah's first arrival at his chambers. to the day of Jinnah's public tribute ** to her. when she had settled down to her studies. in this flourish * We was at her side. soon after his term as building temporary Presidency Magistrate ended. to the yean of his triumph* Although Pakistan and India were irrevocably divided. In the heart of the city is the lofty Victorian-Gothic where Jinnah began to practise. which he filled with fiirniture " more splendid than anyone else would afford/' The old advocate was very willing to talk of these early days.THE YOUNG ADVOCATB could not be reconciled to the idea of her joining the Convent as a boarder. Beyond them is a big dark in of their which some twenty lawyer's dkrks tap out the wisdom masters on twenty typewriters. innocent The dovecots of orthodoxy the target for went up in flutters. after the creation of Pakistan.* Jinnah drove to the convent to arrange for his sister to be admitted . * and. There was a regular hue and cry. in November 1900* Two splendid policemen. he is still remembered with respect among the older Hindu lawyers of Bombay.
or a shady act. Mr Jinnah. It was not in ! his nature. the President the Municipal Corporation was a Scotsman James MacDonald. When Jinnah arrived he was quite unknown then there was nowhere for him to sit. I expect you . The Clerk was reluctant. 'My are not addressing a Lord. He was even he said. he refused. Inside the Court was an enclosure reserved for the lawyers. you know the story of in Jinnah's fortunes ? In 1903. warn you And are not addressing a third-class pleader/ ." The second advocate incredible. He saw that James MacDonald was occupying one of the chairs reserved for the lawyers and he asked him to move. " Of the real turn came He was a very important man manager of all the affairs of Bombay Corporation. know his career of his answer when the story of Jinnah. appointed him to act for the Corporation for a fee of 1. he gave up his chair. have read the story of his reply to the judge who " said to him. Once he was established. But he was right. BOMBAY " said. Naturally. allow me to . so Jinnah went to the Clerk of the Court and demanded that MacDonald be removed. he had a lot of brass and dash. more independent in those lean years than he was later on." The how of course. Difficult Oh. friends from a neighbouring and all three. You must * Jinnah's faith in himself was interrupted. asked Jinnah' s name. soon after." The advocate then summoned two 'office. The second " " of them had known him when he was still rather poor/' But.500 rupees a month. Jinnah refused and said he expected to make that sum every day. There was a big case being tried in the the High Court and the place was so full that the doors had to be closed. yes. in turn. told their stories of Jinnah. at the beginning of Sir Charles Ollivant offered him a permanent appointment. third advocate then said. Oh yes. he probably earned more than any other lawyer in Bombay. me of the nice story of a rich Hindu landowner that reminds that 17 . you remember that you third-class magistrate." " his clothes were always his great distinction.000 rupees a month. . and. Although I have never heard of his doing an injustice. Instead Jinnah. MacDonald must have of being furious. at 1. Clerk simply had to go and ask MacDonald to yield up his place to been an unusual sort of man.THE HIGH COURT.' Jinnah answered. But he was so scrupulously honest. Then the wretched until Jinnah threatened to appeal to the judge.
handed it back to me and : ' u said. Some of us used to resent his insolent manna: his over ' My bearing ways and what seemed to be lack of kindness. When he stood no " but. he provided Jinnah would agree. The solicitor then appealed to the judge. It was all pure. as opposed counsel in a case which was suddenly called on for hearing. placing his monocle in his eye with the sense of timing you would expect from an actor he became omnipotent Yes. He replied. said. Mr the polish that a university education Soinjee was in another court at the time and the solicitor instructing him asked Jinnah to agree to a short adjournment Jinnah refused. But one could deny his power of argument. They were appearing. that is the word omnipotent. not what he made himself. word by word. learned friend should have anticipated this and he should have asked me personally for an adjournment/ " Jinnah's arrogance would have destroyed a man of less will and talent. Once when a client was referred to him. who became a High Court Judge. but. I went up to him in once the Bar Library and handed him the subscription list. with Jinnah. But Jinnah would not agree : stood up and said. One of the younger men practising at that time younger than Jinnah was ML A. slowly looking towards the judge. Somjee. That is you realize where his talents lay. When you examine what he that he was a very clear thinker. placed his monocle in his eye. I remember him when I was collecting for a relief fund. I'm not interested/ " The second advocate resumed realize that his story : he ** said. God made him a great pleader* He had a sixth sense he could see around : corners. You must Jinnah was a great pleader. He took it. once he had grasped the facts of a case." " man had limited money 18 . He was what God made Mm. one comes back to his honesty. though he lacked would have given him. there was no one to touch him in legal argument. always. read the list. Maybe/' said the third advocate.THE YOUNG ADVOCATE protested at the amount of Jinnah's fee. the solicitor mentioned that the up in Court. But he drove his points home points chosen with exquisite selection slow delivery. He had to be briefed with care. " can't travel in a Pullman on a third-class ticket/ who * You The third old gentleman spoke again Oh. cold logic/* " The first advocate then told another story. although not equally gifted as a lawyer. who saw no objection.
Nevertheless. for his virtues. Perhaps they were over-critical of a Muslim who came : : from business stock setting up such a standard of industry. : Two a Parsee. There was never a whisper of gossip about his private habits." said the second advocate. and promised to fight the taken to the Appeal Court. political life. Jinnah refused arguing that he had accepted the case on the condition that there was no fee. he won ." he said. the Here is the balance amount you paid me " . day and night. "Did you "merely admire or did any of you become fond of him ? one of them Jinnah. because of his sense of And because. impression of Jinnah's work at " " One must realize.' ." " I'll tell you another story along that line. This time." of the advocates who spoke of Jinnah were Hindus one was Some time kter. with all the differences and bitterness of justice. I was genuinely fond of him. attract friends. he was the solitary Muslim barrister of the time there have been one or two others. . " answered.'THE SOLITARY MUSLIM BARRISTER' with which to fight the suit. a veteran Muslim barrister gave his different. Yes. always in a hurry. and not very gracious young man. but when the offered him a fee. but they did not amount to a row may of pins. I believe When he was a man without malice : hard. maybe. Jinnah took it up. especially in the find it easier to forgive a man for his faults than 19 . practise. the three lawyers were asked. that * There was a client who was so pleased with Jinnah's services in a he sent him an additional fee. He laboured at his briefs. perhaps more penetrating. Much too serious to celibate. where we figure like that invites criticism. I can see him now slim as a reed. He but he still had faith in the case and he said that it should be lost The solicitor again mentioned that his had no money. He was a hard-working. client case solicitor without any fee for himself. with This is a note. that when he began to the Bar. This was the fee . A lazy East. always frowning. This was in a profession made up mostly of Hindus and Parsees. " case. There was no pleasure in Jinnah's life there were no interests beyond his work. but without malice. Jinnah pressed him to defray certain of the appeal expenses out of his own pocket. Jinnah returned it.
Jinnah. petitioners to act for them in securing case was lost. a man who was wise enough to see past the defence of arrogance for I am sure it was only a defence into the source of Jinnah*s very real talents. but a poor time* also. Mr judge once asked him to speak up *.THE YOUNG ADVOCATE can just remember Jinnah's first big chance. is ai* explanation for think his apparent rudeness This may be difficult to believe. Haji Abdul Karim. not an actor. * Corporation elections had been rigged by a caucus of Europeans. remove that pile of books in front of you. *I am a barrister. you might be what I have to say/ * * Mr Jinnah. Sir * alleging that the Municipal * * Pherozeshah Mehta's respected and with great influence that time. an elder statesman of the Congress. he made * the headlines for the was a great compliment to his talents that he had been chosen to state the case of Sir Pherozeshah. who to appear in Court on a serious charge. you will If able to hear " I can tell you other such stories. in the local administration. He was appointed by the much At The first annulment of the elections. with the object of defeating Sir Pherozeshah Mehtarof keeping him out of the Council. of having scant knowledge of the kw. I would put that down to human nature Jinnah knew his kw And lawyer the ! : right " I admit that Jinnah's methods were sometimes extraordinary* * * cannot hear you. in what came to be known as The Caucus Case* This arose out of a petition. Jinnah was working in chambers. ** As to the accusation that he was a brilliant advocate. but Jinnah gained great prestige for the way he * handled it : as the Americans say. in Jinuah's strange character* was linked with his deep honesty* but you must rekte Jinnah's integrity to the wholly different ethics of the life surrounding himr-~in a land where private ethics are rather shaky. himself a distinguished barrister* This was the first of many instances when Jinnah was trusted by an older man .* all A We The judge was patient. but he had to interrupt again I must ask you to speak louder/ Jinnah answered. in 1907. I " filed by certain citizens in Bombay. but there I " had There was a well-known businessman.* he said* Jinnah replied. Sir Pherozeshah Mehta was a Parsee. He went to Jinnah and 20 . to accuse men they are obliged to brief. them. it It is easy for lawyers who lack the talent to plead.
languid and luxurious of habit. How long will the case go on ? I have five thousand rupees with me. good " grace. he met Mrs to first sophisticated. intelligent Sarojini Naidu. you are/ Jinnah's answer was typical Your son can come and work in my chambers. and Jinnah won the case. : but he must make his own brilliance." concluded the barrister. observe his talents . to see beyond the arrogance of the young woman She wrote of him : Never was there a nature whose outer inner worth. "Jinnah answered. I father 'was rekted to Jinnah's family and. and a little aloof and imperious of manner. make him he said to as brilliant as ' my father. and acceptance of life.MRS SAROJINI NAIDTJ asked him how much it would cost to take up the case. a humour gay and winning as a child's. qualities provided so Tall and stately. Here is my son at his chambers. the calm hauteur of his accustomed reserve but masks for those of its who know himand tender as a a naive and eager humanity. the obvious sanity and serenity his estimate 21 . Jinnah appeared before me. discreet and dispassionate^in Pre-eminently rational and practical. Jinnah * answered bluntly. " another story. but complete an antithesis thin to the point of emaciation. Mohomed Ali Jinnah's attenuated form is the deceptive sheath of a spirit of exceptional vitality and endurance. concerning Although I once or twice acted as magistrate in cases where is was actually his junior in years. Five hundred rupees a day/ " The businessman was cautious and he asked. an intuition quick woman's. and you must engage me on these terms or find another lawyer/ " Abdul Karim accepted the terms. Five hundred rupees a day is my fee. Somewhat formal and fastidious. in He accepted his fee of fifteen hundred rupees with three * ' days. There myself. at the beginning of my father career when I returned to Bombay from Gray's ' He said. the advocate. me to took My Innmy Jinnah. by himself/ " During these years of Jinnah's early success as a lawyer. Will you fees ? accept this to cover the whole of your *I am not prepared to accept this amount.
. or even arrogance. After he had listened to boy students who came to him with their eager plans for improving u the world. still living on Malabar Hill. with company whom he would chuckle and joke." ' ' THE YOUNG POLITICIAN full of authority.. the most highly educated of the nation. I am sure he was aware of his charm he looking. who remembers Jinnah at the age of twenty-eight. with patience that he seldom offered his contemporaries.THE YOUNG POLITICIAN of his idealism worldly wisdom effectually disguise a shy and splendid which is the very essence of the man. as pride. he would usually shake his finger at them and Don't say. But when he came into a room. yes. a Secretary of the Indian Government. affairs of India. Mrs Naidu's warm regard for Jinnah was shared by many other young women who saw.' and a larger share in the management of said that it ' ' ' ' Mahatma Gandhi once * ' ' * their own country/ i. he would : bother to pay a compliment to say. His was a matter of the greatest to him. his fortune.* could meet each year to secure greater freedom . Among them was an old Parsee lady. And he was so goodMind you. what his lawyer friends called arrogance. before he began any active work in the political aim was the Indian National Congress. On March 1883 when Mohammed Ali Jinnah was still at school 22 . Oh. What a beautiful sari I Women will forgive pride. who realized the need for a national forum in which the picked men. that the Congress was first conceived in an pleasure English brain." had obeyed this dictum himself: he waited Jinnah when he was thirty years old and safe in his career and enter politics until first until 1906.' The brain was that of Allan Octavian Hume. " She has said of him. knew his own strength. of young people. he had charm. a more im partial administration. Mohammed Ali Jinnah was to relax in the old and WHEN he liked " you have made your pile. in a man like that.
During the early sessions. spoke of the " " darkness of Asiatic despotism. Bonnerjee. and they there seemed no reason to suppose that salved the British conscience : J. said." These compliments were printed in English newspapers. safe tempo of British reforms. they showed no impatience with the slow. " much He was . not of the Indians them rulers and task-masters/ selves. or by English teachers in India. if you lack that public spirit. grateful for the order." and the rule. then rightly are these preferred to you." of die light English of Western education. rightly and inevitably altruistic devotion that leads men have they become your rulers. c 33 . has been done by Great Britain for the benefit of India/' " " " . " C. Gopal Krishna Gokhale afterwards a patron and friend of Jinnah between India and England " admitted that the " was W. And rulers and task-masters they must continue. that highest form of to subordinate private ease to the public weal. present contract a providential arrangement." . . that patriotism that has made Englishmen what they arc. let the yoke gall your shoulders ever so sorely. but of one of the English The founder members of Congress were mostly men who had been * taught in English universities... He was no sentimentalist ' : Hume lenged the people of India to produce the fifty wise men 4 ' renounce personal ease and pleasure for India's cause. ' It was nevertheless true that this noble hope for India's * freedom and happiness was the image." the railways. who would * Let there be no more complaining of Englishmen being preferred to you/ * he wrote.INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS in Karachi men had written a letter in which he said that if fifty and true can be found to join as founders '." of free English civilization. the first President of Congress. returned from blessings " benefits of his political enterprises in Westminster. in 1885. an Indian good he chal Congress could be established. with this lofty purpose." and the inestimable Dadabhai Naoroji. until you realize and stand prepared to act upon the eternal truth that selfsacrifice and unselfishness are the only unfailing guides to freedom and happiness/ and the The Indian National Congress was formed. first session was opened in Bombay. and the public weal ' : * ' second. The character of Congress did not continue in Hume's terms of altruistic devotion/ and it soon yielded to the vagaries of human nature the members sometimes allowed their egos to come first.
and antagonism that was never subduced. so mild in its policy up to then. months The whispers became loud. character One of to Eold their own as a political force. There outrages in East India. partition brought the promise of social and economic emanci pation : for the Hindus. but nothing had been done to develop the indigenous ego of the Indian people/ begun at the top : This higher education had bred a number of young political mal who spoke against their " white overlords " and of freedom from the "shackles of British rule. the alarming effects of the Bengal episode was on the of Congress. and an organized boycott of from Britain. The contents. white * * people by coloured Asiatics. startled all India. to cancel any selfish wish among the few who sought the rewards of profit. reverberated through the whispering * * * galleries of the East* later. missionaries. liberal-minded men like G. The intellectual But of their own emancipation had rural and primary schools. against the British. could be administered more efficiently . 24 . with two governors. The division of the province led to riots. reasons for dividing the over-populated province of Bengal : first. the English had repeated. technical and industrial * were neglected. it was hoped that two provinces. Viceroy reported that the news of this major conquest of a. travelled out and spent die best years of their lives in the Indian hospitals and schools : there was much benevolence. nurses. The dramatic appeal of the extremists. Gokhale and Dadabhai Naoroji had to assume a more belligerent look. 50. and defiant. even when the Act of Partition was annulled. K. 1 depressed under the inquisitions and moneylenders of Calcutta and West Bengal. suffer living mostly in East Bengal of the wealthy Hindu landlords would no longer ." In May 1905. For the Muslims. and. or power. An Indian scholar wrote that a British teaching. a threat to both their prosperity. and that the Muslims secondly. The rulers goods imported were forced into stem punishments and reprisals. the errors educational reforms at home. and independence. See p. Doctors. five when Bengal was partitioned * a measure that gave were terrible the bolder agitators the signal they needed. pattern of character and education had been imposed on the upper classes. they were encouraged by the victory of the Japanese over the Russians. social workers and teachers. in India. There were two main.THE YOXJNG POUTICIAN more could be done for India.
when Jinnah decided to as a student in * " This February 26.general . again in power in England. . ' On and it is a new feature. . ." Gokhale first recalled the inauguration of Congress. "Above all. there perception now of the goal towards which we have to is a ." story of the political currents that flowed in this time : is hundred books of reference it is necessary only to describe those immediate events that must have influenced Jinnah at this or the important period of his life. 1906. and that in course of time a form The goal of of government should be exists in attained in this country similar to what told The in a the self-governing colonies of the British Empire. in 1885. I think a debate of this kind can do nothing but also to our interests in India. strive. . Parliament presents a considerable number already of new features . with Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman as Prime Minister. he announced a lively change of policy : he said. he arrived . In victory enter politics '. ' ' with London in the year of Mr Gladstone's last great Liberal the year of Dadabhai Naoroji's election to Parliament. the Congress is that India should be governed in the interests of the Indians themselves. and one. the Liberals were 1906. when. pledged to the cause of freedom in the country they knew so well. He had been born only a few days before Queen Victoria was proclaimed Kaisar-i-Hind . and six members of Parliament who were Anglo-Indians '." At the end ofhis speech. ." good to this country and The debate. . on the partition of Bengal and the unrest in India. gratulate ourselves." He said that the measure " arose from a decision to suit everything to the interests and con venience of the Civil Service. Mr John Morley as Secretary for India.' It might seem that the old astrologer in Karachi was still busy ' ' ' his prophetic scratchings in the dust busy arranging the pattern of coincidences in Jinnah's Hfe. under the influence of" a remarkable outburst of enthusiasm for British rule. I think.PARTITION OF BENGAL At the next meeting of Congress the first attended by Jinnah " Gokhale denounced the Government of India for its determina tion to dismember Bengal at all costs. that this afternoon on which we ought to con we have had six maiden speeches in succession from Gentlemen who have shown themselves possessors of a competent knowledge of Indian subjects. John Morley said in the Commons. having made his pile foundations of it he decided to enter politics.
Our RMJ was writ on the new banner of Congress. : " All our sufferings of the past centuries demand before God and men an unnatural system of govern ment as the one which has been imposed upon India for nearly a do not ask favours. in Westminster. only want Instead of going into any further divisions or details of our justice. . the whole matter can be comprised ' in one word ' Self-government." So the Grand Old Man the once-gentle mediator of the Finsbury electorate now in his eighty-j&rst His year. . fourteen ^bar^ brfore^. Hai-hai. became a warrior. that Sympathy " is the keynote of successful administration in India ." This disturbing debate in the British Parliament coincided with Jinnah's first active move in the politics of his own country : during the important 1906 session of the Indian Congress. . Mrs Naidu. at the age of thirty. a desire for adventure. a powerful persuasiveness. The British people to be subjected for a single day to such would not allow themselves We We right as British citizens. Swaraj Behind the banner marched Jinnah. what has happened to this beautiful boy ? Why * has he meddled in politics ? attributes * of the described as * . and Sir John the natives of die country should be Jardine's plea. His advent into public lifc^-with this small r61e at Dadabhai Naoroji's heels was welcomed by all except his admirer. * . he was private secretary to Dadabhai ^Jaoroji. Those attributes have been immense enthusiasm. with most slogan. and a certain mysticism/ Jinmh had all these.THE YOUNG POUTICIAN had inspired each of these six new members and needs. . held in Calcutta. . The text had never been of the speeches must have been heartening to readers of The Times of India next morning. except mysticism. explaining India's misfortunes as they presented to the Commons before. " He may have read Sir Henry Cotton's statement. to make a long speech. century and a half. and Mohammed Ali Jinnah must have noted all this with satisfaction. that in the administration of the country as much as possible as " employed and as far was consistent with good government. . . He his hadyfceard old master. a keen sense of the spirit and the requirements of the day.^^aking of " *' British justice and generosity now he listened to him declaring. ' ' of great reformers. who wrote. reparation.* or Swaraj '.
The Nightingale of Bombay '. secure and strong. his face was that of a zealot a puritan. everywhere. : his life. she sang in vain. Always. still living in Bombay. I am afraid that. An On my . He had them sent from all over the world he cut pieces out of them. . But was Jinnah " " he answered. annotated them. when ecstasy of starry silence sleeps the still mountains and the soundless deeps." she has said. he loved newspapers. And soul hungers for thy voice. " When another old friend of this time was asked. relaxed figure. They used to call Mrs Naidu. but he was never in love with her. Except for the heavy lips. but he love : ' concerned. no words are recorded to let us know what was in the mind of the who made no There is who was so curiously free from those extremes of emotion usually found in his race. was in love with Jinnah. recalls both Jinnah and Mrs Naidu during this year. as far as Jinnah was cold and aloof . He would do this for hours all through calm.THE NIGHTINGALE OF BOMBAY The old Parsec lady. He was : all that mattered to him. and he spent his evenings with his law court briefs. O Love. he 27 . his career was to him. . need thee not. but one laws for others that he did not already keep himself. It may sound ridiculous. cold depths lean." The extravagance of Mrs Naidu's devotion must have been embar rassing to a man of Jinnah s 1 nature : she wrote. absolutely without passion ? but I believe his only passion was for newspapers. which he washed almost every hour. pale hands. when the advocate became the young " " I remember Sarojini Naidu she Yes. But there is no proof of this . coloured Mrs Naidu's conception of Mohammed Ah* Jinnah was overthe true portrait of him at this time has an El Greco look. ." The habit endured forty years later. But in the desolate hour of midnight. She wrote was not the man to be enticed by romantic poems verses he was fastidious and virtuous. and eyes that searched into a man's conscience. . a vague story that Jinnah made a speech in Congress on the opening day of the 1906 session. politician. : with grey. even when he was dying the eager interest in what was happening. I In the noon-tide hours. . and stuck them into books.
with treasures rather than with him late into the night. All he sought was a sofa. a corner. to peer ahead he went one of the great Parsee aristocrats of Bombay. exciting.THE YOUNG POLITICIAN was to see the past had no allure for him. where he could ensnare his host and talk politics at him. Jkmah would hurry through the galleries thronged ancient bronzes brought from southern India. in delicate Moghul paintings. 28 . in his fabulous : Whe& palace by the sea. and .
PART TWO .
piled high. emancipated Pakistan. The thousands of rush huts seem to float in the mud and slime : one overturned oil- stove could transform them into a terrible forest of flame. Then comes the night. they do not seem to belong to lively. and there are new hotels. hiding behind ' this the herds of refugees. who sometimes dance when their vigil is slabs over. fa$ade of progress '. covered from head to toes in their tawdry white burkas. expressionless office white villas buildings buzz with the extravagant fuss of government in the gleaming sun. On the of the city are the hovels of the poor the survivors of the edges biggest migration of human beings in all the history of the world . Among the shining the men in Western clothes and the women in saris. At sunset. for this is most of the fortune.TALK OF ALEXANDER IT the is refreshing to leave Karachi and. the sea is a flood of burgundy. waving their big swords as they stamp on the earth. The city grows immense. Later in the day it becomes fierce gold. stately tombs of Lahore. In the city are the stacks of cotton bales. like gigantic of stone trying to form pyramids. covering all . There is . enlivening the tatterdemalion of the streets. once arid fishing village. and clean. and the security. but the ever-changing light that comes over the sea is splendid. also another world. In the morning it is watery turquoise. like English light. motor-cars. clutching the bright star of an ideal in one hand and the poor man's ration of rice in the other. of West Pakistan.) The most delightful sounds in Karachi are the camel and donkey bells. walk the dwindling number of wives : in purdah. seems bewildered by : its own size and prosperity. They look like bell-tents on the march peering at this new world that Mohammed All Jinnah made. The colours of the earth in Karachi are dun and feeble. the gardens and the Karachi. brash as multiply the saxophones that split the silence of their courtyards. They are watched night and day by stalwart Pathans. (The cotton must be guarded against fire. come to the trees. through the eyeholes of their curious shrouds. after a long journey. for a brief moment.
the one.TALK OP ALEXANDER the harshness with tassels stars. who their slow. after the barren desert the stingy dryness evening. or ofJinnah. the decision was to be made that Muslim people of India would sever themselves from the Hindus their own nation. The trees of Lahore have deep. hypnotizing a multitude with the promise that they would be free. still One hundred flows miles north of Lahore. solemn Jhelum by : it is possible to stand river-bank. an alert listener might hear their similar voices . they exchanged. and Alexander. the on the riverbank and think of Alexander's flotilla making its way down. and strong. at the head of his army. "As one treats king another. in Lahore. Alexander the Great of passed near Lahore. after he defeated Porus. moving the sense of depth. within a bowl of the earth called the Wrestling Ring. hanging so low that they look like trembling of The is is silver. Jinnah. where a lonely man might listen for the chanting of Alexander's oarsmen. the Wrestling flooded. and children play there. At the vast meeting of Muslims. in 1940. in the rainy season. Porus answered. from more than two thousand years ago. also deep. Today.C. " It is sweet to live with 32 . ruler of the land between the Chenab and the With Jhelum rivers. comes a sense the depth of its history. train from Karachi arrives in Lahore in the contrast. the monumental Pakistan Resolution was to be passed. might have comprehended. dead land on the strong. There and form is are no signs. to the wild meeting with the waters of the Chenab. saying. in the earth of the Punjab. They seem to be immense as oaks park: in the half-darkness they are like herds against the sky. astride the valiant Bucephalus. and the sea. Mohammed Ali Jinnah remained unaware of these voices of history otherwise he might have been inspired by the figure of Porus. and then on to tie Indus. How shall I treat you ? " Alexander asked the vanquished warrior. Yet. in an English of elephants. rather than fixed points of light. fat roots. for the earth and well watered. The of the sand surprising." Within a few miles of where Alexander rode. unchanged in this new Muslim state. making : journey home. in 326 B. perilous rode into battle on an elephant. of Alexander upon his charger. and enjoyed the " words. There are great stretches of quiet. laughing and splashing in Ring the water some of them riding on the backs of buffaloes.
the gun to celebrate the visit the British came. intervening There is one or Kim's object. During the Sikh conquest of the Zam-Zamma was captured. to account for the centuries. which is set within a merry-go-round of traffic. to the advent of Mohammed All Jinnah. the fortresses and the tombs. who In began to rule in 1556 to Jinnah Gardens. always first of Beyond Kim's Gun. astride the gun Zamon her brick platform opposite the old Ajaib-Gher Wonder holds House. painted on walls and street-ends. between are die Sikh and British names. names that survive which the first English voices from Moghul times. named in our time. and Punjab. during were heard in the Punjab. to the present regime ofthe free Muslims . set up as a monument. as a monument to peace. for the great green-bronze piece the conqueror's loot. Shish Mahal Park. '. Today. cast in 1757. its When : was placed on a platform and declared open '. from Akbari Mandithe market named after Akbar the Great. Who Zam-Zamma. and bazaars. in 1870. saying. The name Zam-Zainma was the soldiers' onomatopoeic description of the splendid booming sound. and known Gun which has watched preserved as a trophy. The gardens. that fire-breathing dragon is holds the Punjab . Malik-i-MaidanThe King of the Battlefield. these changes of power. it presents a benign look to the passing traffic idlers lean against it. when the gun was fired.STREET-NAMES IN LAHORE courage. such as Aurangzeb Street. are the great names. and Kochai Chabuk Sawaran (the street of the horse-trainers) . Zamma in defiance of municipal order." * * * names of its monuments The and streets history of Lahore is recorded in the from the age of the Moghul Emperors. to " Failure is a word unknown me. and boys climb over its barrel. all : in Lahore Zam-Zamma. William 33 . The it was first gun is beautifully engraved by its Afghan name. reveal the four ages of from the Punjab history heyday of the Moghul kings. ." and Jinnah's voice. they decided that of the Duke of ' ' ' : He the sat. Kim was perhaps the first of these : fighting days were over Edinburgh. as the natives call the * Lahore Museum.
. and burnt alive. wrapped in little sheets of pure silver. following him. and. Solomon. Within the old. in a fine big house Moghul Empire. generation alive in England who could remember the excesses of the Civil War . strangled. through the wall. Mosques and tombs were razed to the the * . Mian Amiruddin will " then say. when the time came. shot down. there was a. The wars and terrors of three hundred Barood Khana lives * another Moghul name. goods years have not banished all the ghosts of these splendid times. They butchered. before the Sikhs ravaged the Punjab. the wpmen outraged and the Muslims slaughtered . the whole country was ravaged. who served Mohammed Ali Jinnah. beaten until it is gossamer thin. what seems like the muffled beat of a drum : will explain that the noise comes from the silver work. walled city of Lahore. and. in 1615.TALK OP ALEXANDER Hawkins came. shocked by such tales of devilry in India. Sir Thomas Roe. with out regard to age or sex. might recall that. * Punjab in the early eighteenth century. in the as emissary from the Court ofJames to encourage the sale I. . the Sikhs emerged from their mountain retreats and laid waste the Punjab from Ambala to Lahore. Latif writes. The Moghul rulers of India also ate their sweetmeats in silver. hacked to pieces. in his history of Lahore. of the evils that followed the last of the Moghul mien. when the Sikhs kid their f ruthless hands on the land. a few minutes later. * . the houses burnt. Guests at his table may hear. Hie mosques were defiled. that little more than 34 . she took him sweets wrapped in sheets of pure gold and so fine that he was able to eat them. While his beaters at Mian Amiruddin guests are eating the fragments of silver. he will tell them that it is " " good for the heart . bayoneted. * Britons. every Mahomedan in . meaning the arsenal opposite * there Mian Amiruddin.. his servant will bring in a dish of rich almond paste and other delicacies.' Then. and that when the Queen of Sheba went to silver. the place. about the same time. and who fought hard for Pakistan. ground they slaughtered the inhabitants indiscriminately." wrapped The next group of street-names records the terrible history of the During commotions that followed the death of Bahadur Shah. of English.. .
the Saviour of India Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab from 1846 to 1859. in 1864. followed by the universal outcry and curses of ' the people. There is also Maharaj Ranjit Singh Road. names street and other good English Cooper Road. in 1849. named after the great There is The Mall. eager to memorials on the land. Set among these native street-names are memorials to British India the names planted there after the Punjab was annexed. who was But there plant its own are signs. Sikh.' Of Sikh names that survive in Lahore. and Chawk Jhanda Singh a chawk being a square or market pkce. real makers of Pakistan. and then Viceroy. that this is part of a new state. a sweep of grass aflame with poppies. already. in big. and Lawrence Road. Between the is artificial hills. : and carnations. after Lord Elgin. named after the originator of the Sikh sect Guru Arjun Nagar. in 1872 : there are Aitchison Park. the main shopping like Egerton Road. and the sunken rose-garden within the park is named after Miss Fatima Jinnah. in memory of the famous one-eyed Sikh ruler who made a treaty with the British. cinerarias. Chawk Phula Singh.MEMORIALS TO BRITISH INDIA fifty years had passed since Cromwell's body was dragged through London on a sledge. nor Briton. and Nichobon Road. pausing then to enjoy the sight of their own muscles. the young Punjabis wrestle and lift weights. early in the morning. here. The memories in the gardens are of neither Moghul. Viceroy (later who was assassinated in the Andaman ' Islands. memory of Sir John in his time. 35 . and kept it. The Lawrence Gardens have been changed to Jinnah Gardens. The pattern of British rule in the last half of the nineteenth century comes alive in these streets : there is Mayo Road. * ' Guru Nanak Street. They are the looking-glasses erected for this purpose on robust now and had every hop& young generation in which Mohammed Ali Jinnah excited by tomorrow rather than yesterday. incongruous the lawn. there are . in ' Lord) Lawrence. who are to be the men.
serene as it is. Thenceforth the Great Mogul became a mere name. Wilson Hunter and James Sutherland Cotton. who three sons the hereditary succession continued unbroken down to the time of the Mutiny. a small cloud may arise. the sixth and last of the great Mahommedan conquerors of India. Shah. may at last threaten to burst and overwhdjoa us with ruin. In 1856 also. Sir "William edition. 1 India (History). to the rc-awakcning of the Muslims. I under Jinnah's will. no larger than a man's hand. and sacked the imperial city of Delhi. Vol. Ten emperors after empire Aurangzeb are enumerated in the cnronides.BACKGROUND FOR PAKISTAN > I 1HERE is a span of history to be comprehended before Moham: med All Jinnah is brought back into the story from the wane JL of the Moghul rulers. but which. themselves* The first part of the story is told. but none of them has left any mark on history. supreme over ' until at last British authority placed itself all. p. In between were the years of increasing humiliation for the Muslims. 404. nth 36 . having declared. the decline of the Mogul with extraordinary rapidity. swept like a whirlwind over Hindustan. In 1739 Nadir Sh&h of Persia. authority Clive. Then followed in order of Bahadur Shah. almost two and a half centuries later. His son and successor was Bahadur the death set in On reigned only five years. Lord Canning arrived in India as Governor-General. and the annexation of Oudh in 1856. But I cannot forget that in the sky of India. Real power had passed into the hands though of Mahommedan courtiers and Mahratta generals. This and became * before he sailed I : wish for a peaceful term of office. both of whom were then carving for themselves kingdoms out of the dis membered empire. the destruction of Sikh authority over the Punjab in 1849. 14. and without. concisely. ' of the British began with the valiant exploits of f supreme over all a century later. in one paragraph the Encyclopedia Britannica l : of of Aurangzeb in 1707. from causes within. with Napier's conquest of Sind in 1843. growing larger and larger. whose united reigns occupy only five years more.
The third statement Canning to Lord was part of a letter written from India. As long as I policy than that 37 . the Greeks under Alexander. At Balmoral. the Hiungnu.000 native troops deserted from the army in northern India. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert opened a map of India. unheard-of murders . reveal the British reaction to the horrors that spread. there is hardly a family * who has not lost a relation or ' not in anxiety about them/ ' . The Queen thought no punishment perpetrators severe enough for the * of these awful horrors '. but without absorbed them . Arabians. President of the Council. . 30. with informed detachment. Three statements. to say nothing of maintaining it. She ' added. from the many made before the transfer of the government of India to the Crown. Since the days of Bacchus and Nimrod. should not be made to sufler/ ' Prince Albert wrote. . and * studied the reports of the massacre at Cawnpore . but have neither rooted them out nor thus they remain intermingled. the hideous. . at the mercy of a million rebel Indians.THE INDIAN MUTINY The c ' small cloud of the Bengal army mutinied arose in the following year. to the Prince of Prussia : The Indians are not a people capable of conquering indepen dence for themselves. by Lord have breath in my body. is . . I will pursue no other I have been following : I will not govern in and might anger. can make it. besieged. India has constantly been over run and conquered by new races the Assyrians and Persians. . hungry and in terror/ within the walls of Lucknow . Justice. when the sepoys * and all the valley of the Ganges from Patna to Delhi rose in open rebellion.' In one month. and of the terrible dangers of the twenty-four thousand Britons. and endured. and children/ ' The unspeakable cruelties done to poor ladies Queen wrote to the Empress Augusta of the . brought under the yoke and oppressed the races whom they found in possession. down to the most recent times. national coherence. and The conquerors have others. one thousand Europeans. Granville. but she agreed that the innocent ones/ whatever their race or religion. Tartars. for a year and a half. and that as stern and inflexible as law But I will never allow an angry and I will deal out.
He was the father of all that was to happen. He had the splendid eyes. his aristocratic grandfather noted his unusually " A burly rustic has been born in our large hands and feet. the first to realize that. ultimately. and revenue offices. 1 but without national coherence/ were the fifty-odd million Muslims who. yet benevolent. in tragic circumstances * The Mohammed AK There is Jinnah's mind. and power. tic Hindus and Muslims must part.' Tht Making of Pakistan. magistracy. Syed Ahmed Khan might therefore Syed Ahmed Khan was have embraced the traditions and conventions of his forbears. Beneath are printed his name and ultimate titles : The Hon'ble Dr. IX.' and said. a photograph of Syed Ahmed Khan.C. born in 1817. His name * India who dared to speak of partition . Sir Syed Ahmed Khan Bahadur. had lost pride. these features are given a patriarchal air because of his immense white beard. mutual absorption being impossible. Hxey had lost their traditional positions in the police. Of 240 Indian pleaders 1 admitted to the Calcutta bar between 1852 and 1868 only one was a Muslim. taken when he was a very old man. There were no Muslim covenanted officers or High Court judges. But he was marked for lonely and independent flight * when he was a baby.D. K. In the photograph. look associated with wise leadership. property. In all the government-gazetted appointments of the province. without : question. family/' 'Sir William Hunter. his mother. 26.L. 1 from all where they lived but humble posts in of the Muslims at last bred the leader they was Syed Ahmed Khan the first Muslim in needed. a daughter of the Prime Minister at the Moghul Court. with the decline of the Moghul Empire. Richard Symonds (Faber. p. 38 .338. army.S. they filled only 92 places out of 1. 1950). in a remarkable book [ The Indian Mussatmatts] published shortly after the Mutiny t gives a striking picture of the decaying Muslim middle class in Bengal.BACKGROUND FOR PAKISTAN indiscriminating act or word of India. in degradation and misery. as long as I am to proceed from the responsible for it Government Among die races described by Prince Albert as 'intermingled. of a family that claimed because of their descent from the Prophet* His spiritual sanctity father was a religious recluse . courts of law. the especially in Hindu-dominated areas. the noble brow and the strong. excluded the British administration.
when he watched the Muslims wilting in their fight for survival. which was to influence and help to change the fortunes of India. growing in experience. In addition. From 1846 the age to 1854 he worked in the kw courts in Delhi. His language was mild. only to British officials but they heeded its warnings. or to be sentimental about the maladies of his people. he believed that the only hope for his people was in co-operation with the British. The book was distributed some of them thought it highly seditious '. mind and character. compared startling * : with the fiery charges made by Burke. but mellow with experience. are under the influence of false and meaningless pre and do not understand their own welfare. Syed Ahmed Khan found himself surrounded by young voices chanting the virtues of Reform. years old years and he had been in the judicial service for almost twenty a young man. Syed poverty in his 'teens . unarmed. he proved his partiality for the British by shielding some of them in his bungalow when a mob of fanatics came to his door. or sub-judge. In 1857. and for these reasons I fear that they may not be able to do much for themselves.SYED Like Mohammed Ali Jinnah. out of the shabbiness and rubble.be obsessed with the past. During these early years. They something of a changeling in the Muslim and too cautious to be trapped into frenzy. Syed Ahmed Khan was forty Syed brood Ahmed Khan was a realist. but. They are also poorer. against the astute Hindus. born almost Ahmed Khan was plunged from security to still sixty years later. when he was He began work and energies that at of twenty-four he was a Munsif. they are more jealous of each other and more vindictive than the Hindus and suffer more from a sense of false pride. During the Mutiny. J- D 39 . He had been bred on the basic theology of Islam. The once-important Moghul city had lost much of its princely glamour. at the time of the Mutiny. still : he went out. and turned them away. he studied the law. Syed Ahmed Khan wrote an honest and book. Some years later he wrote of the Muslims as a clerk but such were his scholarly habits : judices. new Muslim thought was springing. : like Jinnah. and he soon became their leader. in the British Parliament. When the Mutiny ended. The Causes of the Indian Revolt. but he was too lively in mind to .
it will increase Thus was born Mohammed immensely in future. 1 Mr Alexander Shakespcar. and added. for the people/ makes sound and reading now. Syed Ahmed Khan*s plea. by the people. the English Government Now has been in existence upwards of a century. He who lives will see/* of the parting of the peoples. it : * polite * . It was after Ahmed Khan's book on the causes of the Indian Mutiny reading Syed that I first felt the need for having a forum of public opinion of India and eventually the Indian National Congress came into eristence/ these criticisins : was Allan Octavian Hume * as secretary to Before describing the arrival in Congress of Mohammed AKjinnah. to which Ali Jinnah became the heir. as has always been the custom of the Mohammadans. early as 1867. and up to the present hour it has not secured the affections of the people/ Among the many British officials whose consciences were stirred by he wrote. other events and thoughts in the story of Syed Ahmed Khan must be observed . in 1906. is He wrote conducive to the welfare essential to Most men agree that it is highly and prosperity of Government indeed. events and thoughts that influenced the formation ofJinnah's mind and ambitions. 40 .BACKCROXJK0 FOR PAKISTAN seventy-five years before. or of giving public expression to wishes/ Then this bitter comment on the cause of so * There is no real communication between the governors and the governed. councils/ ment their * : its that the people should have a voice in its stability Other sentences confirmed the reasonableness of his argu The people have no means of protesting against what they might feel to own be a foolish measure. not for the subjects to try and win " that of the Government \ He added. * the two communities. no living together or near one another. although many years were the thought. Dadabhai Naoroji. for government * of the people. Hindu leaders in Benares began a movement to replace Urdu the chief language of the Muslims by Hindi. This As Ahmed Khan that the two communities " Muslim and Hinduwould never join wholeheartedly in anything/* He made this statement to the British Divisional Commissioner * at '* At present there is no open hostility between Benares. but on account of the so-called educated episode convinced Syed ' people. in countries which they have subjected to their rule/ : much mischief in the British conduct of India Syed Ahmed Khan * stated that it was for the Government to try and win the friendship of its subjects.
English professors and lecturers. served on the staff of the College and during the next fifty years.ALIGARH acknowledged that it was his destiny to fulfil Syed Khan's disturbing prophecy. Also. and they were encouraged to revive their own literature. and Sir Thomas Arnold. and they became alive to the spread of Liberalism in England. emancipation. were able to wave a lamp of hope before their co-religionists hope of dignity. Syed Ahmed Khan also founded the Mohammedan Educational * Conference. nor could they read what other men were Their this cloud of ignorance. in 1906. as a language of scholar ship and not merely an untidy means of speech. Urdu. its Muslim students to think for themselves. modern Until the education. reformers. Among the Aligarh helped to disperse own language. many evils corrected by Aligarh was the sad state into which the Muslim language had deteriorated. an entirely new class of Muslims was bred in India scholars. The foundation-stone of the College was laid in 1877 by the Viceroy. Lord Lytton but the vision. the Mohammedan Educational Conference was the first and only parliament for the Muslims in India. . towards humanism and intelligent government. including Sir Walter Raleigh. was Syed Ahmed Khan's. English and European literature was made available to the students. to engender enthusiasm for social reforms. and general economic and intellectual progress/ Muslim League was founded. The next great achievement which was to influence Jinnah. for the first time. and the will that made a reality of the vision. was the founding of Aligarh University first called the Mohammedan to pass before he Ahmed Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh. their language had been reduced to a minority tongue. in both English writing. and . teachers and politicians who. Aligarh taught. They were no longer aware of the trends of contemporary thought. for they produced little literature of their own. regained its self-respect. He aimed to produce through * the College an educated upper class of Muslims who might lead their people out of despair and ignorance. who had learned to organize and : ' ' 41 . * . During the birth of these lofty intentions. the great orientalist. in the United Provinces. When the Muslims had been degraded and excluded from public office. the enmity between the Hindus and Muslims increased it became all the more savage because of the so-called educated people. and Urdu.
he wrote of the state of the Muslims during the last decade of the nineteenth century : The average Indian Moslem looked upon himself as a member of a universal religious brotherhood. he had said. . the Aga Khan. ten years before the Bombay fete of die Muslims. . The fact that the British Govern ment was the mainstay and support in the diplomatic arena of the independent Mahommedan States was naturally a source of and order and justice. the of affairs intensified This state effect of these riots is described Ahmed's fears. leave India . his political self-respect was satisfied by the existence of the Sultans at Constantinople and Fez. and of the Shah and Khedive at Teheran and Cairo. for himJ England.) In Makers cf Pakistan and Modern Muslim India. . if under the British Syed normal rule. H. . " * were to Now suppose that all the English riots. 42 . 1950)." There was another Muslim leader. 46. p. what would be the state of affairs if the British left India and the reins of government passed into the hands of the In 1893 : * : ^ majority community/ * * Syed Ahmed Khan was full of grave apprehensions about the In a speech in 1883. Mohammed Ali Jinnah was still was creating. To hope that both that under these circumstances. who was also aware of the importance of British rule to the safety of his people* In his book. continued gratification to him* During most of this time. unaware that Sir Syed Ahmed Khan X A.BACKGROUND direct their rancour. with a neutral ouuook. - possible medan and Hindu in power ? Most two nations the Moham on the same throne and remain equal that one of them certainly not It is necessary should conquer the other and thrust it down. India in Transition. then who would be the rulers of India ? Is it Sir . POfc re PAKISTAN wcre "vicious anti-Muslim riots Ahmed Khan was then seventy-seven years in Bombay. Albiruni (Ashraf. Hindus wished to exercise so much pressure against civic rights of Muslims. sojourning in a land in which a neutral Government. . (Sir Sycd he had been knighted in 1877 and he was the undisputed leader old 1 of his people. He began to wonder that. kept kw While his allegiance was to Queen Victoria. could sit could remain equal is to desire the impossible and the inconceivable.
lies two or three short sheets of Legislative on May 30. was tenderness. in 1948. the beliefs that : two When the first generation of Aligarh students was already helping the Muslims towards a larger life and freedom of heart. Jinnah was tramping between Lincoln's Inn. of wisdom he liked to in the scatter Proof of this devption to Aligarh pages of his will. over any immense issue. the price of a the : in his heart. this emotion when he was older Aligarh was krgely the focus for : there he could find the young thinkers when he was who would listen to the phrases in a mood for moralizing. and the Sind Madrasah in Karachi. But. peace and reason. where he had been a schoolboy. talking to the students usually in the still role of stern disciplinarian. his after Partition. eight years before the Partition Assembly of India. Jinnah never revised his Aligarh was then will. there was no rancour or pettiness mind. Islamia College at Peshawar. ordered the Subject to family bequests and gifts to certain institutions. * * 43 * . concerned with their responsibilities rather than their ambitions or grievances. Through tea to his in alien territory. "Do not criticize others when you yourselves have not yet learned to respect the sanctity of the law. One evening. the long months. elders. Although he did not withdraw his gesture. some students of another college called on him. When some of them were " question. Jinnah interrupted them with the " of you have lamps on your bicycles ? Only one could say "Yes. Jinnah rest of his fortune to be shared between Aligarh University. he could be exasperatingly penny-wise such as this endowment of Aligarh. when he knew that he was dying. behind the critical of their How many brusque words. he spent many days at Aligarh." Jinnah quickly answered. Later." This was his outward method with the young. when he was a middle-aged man. 1939. to seek his guidance. written on some paper. and that only separation through education might the Muslims find the way to freedom. the British Museum. even he did not change Over small things the rationing of amount of petrol used in his car tie. staff.JINNAH AND ALIGARH were to dominate the latter half of his life that of the two chief races in India was inevitable. and his lodgings in Russell Road.
44 . the Muslims numbered seventeen. It was with the same concep and aims. and many of the ex-students had become an politics. immdlately~~~w act that would have robbed the Muslims of the only encouraging piece of legislation in their favour since the Mutiny. its England. and articles published in English this time. The six new members. Lord Minto. in the unwillingness of the British * many in discord. his political awakening had come House of Commons. on the side of such Moderates as Dadabhai Naoroji and G. about to realize that that. reveal newspapers. much By was twenty-eight yean effective force in old. 1906. K. " " " the Indians referred to and the natives of the country "not to the diverging interests of Hindus and Muslims.including even the new Liberal Government in lesson. cancelling die partition of Bengal. in the British of the Muslims and Hindus might have As it was. in the prophecies this Khan. that he joined the Indian Congress.1906-1910 IF belief revival tion. his in the parting developed much earlier. the Viceroy. thirty-five leading Indian Muslims at Viceregal Lodge. (At that time. Mohammed All Jinnah had gone to Aligarh. received a deputation in Simla. the 75<5 members of the Indian Congress. and Lincoln's Inn. instead of venturing across the seas to England. of jpcxS.) Ttue speeches * of only made in Westminster. 1906. in 1892. The vehemence of the Hindu protest in Congress. outside world. he might have joined the early Muslim believed. Aligarh College he might have of Sir Syed Ahmed enlightmment until he was a intellectuals . Hindus and Muslims were opposed and living * There was taJJk of appeasing the Indians by parts. political force and their own Out of these circumstances the Muslim League was formed* if they created their own On October i. while still in his 'teens. * the natives of the country Muslims that they could be redeemed only leadership. convinced educated were not all of one mind . when he was thrilled by the * * of Liberalism under Gkdstone. They had learned an important The following the partition of Bengal. against the partition. with pro-Indian sympathies had interpreted the outcry of Congress against the partition as the voice of all India. who spoke fa the Commons on February 26. Gokhale. But Jinnah did not admit older man. At Aligarh.
the All-India Muslim League was formed. To prevent the rise among the Mussalmans of India of (c) any feeling of hostility towards other communities without prejudice to the other aforesaid objects of the League. and that no fusion of the two communities was possible. Whatever of the foundation of the Muslim may League.FORMATION OF MUSLIM LEAGUE The Aga Khan.. and that you and the people of India may rely upon entirely in accord with you. the reli beliefs and the national traditions of the gious myriads composing the population of His Majesty's Indian Empire. amongst the Mussalmans of India. then twenty-nine years old. described the plight of " his co-religionists he pressed upon the Government of India the Muslim view of the political situation created by the partition of : Bengal. Sir Percival Griffiths states in The * have been the other effects ' political history. (6) To protect and advance the political rights of the Mussal mans of India and respectfully represent their needs and aspira tions to the Government. that the Mohammedan .' He added.." and asked that " " and which would political concessions " people should be guarded against" any " hastily made to the Hindus. the Viceroy said I : am you community may rest assured that their political rights and interests as a community will be safe guarded in any. feelings British Government and to remove any mis conception that may arise as to the intentions of Government. 45 . administrative reorganization with which I am concerned. The philosopher might deplore the fact that Hindus and Muslims thought of themselves as separate peoples." pave the way for the ascendancy of a Hindu his that might be majority. as it has been its pride to do. it set the seal upon die Muslim belief that their interests must be regarded as completely separate from those of the Hindus. 1906. but the statesman had to accept it/ The Muslims of India had at last begun to re-create their own British Impact on Indict. : To of loyalty to the promote. at Dacca. I can only say to the British Raj to respect. The Muslims nevertheless with three main objectives (a) relied on their own strength : on Decem ber 30. with regard to Indian measures." At the close of a long reply.
as Prince of Wales. observing the a quizzical eye. suggesting that the phrasing himself. He was at the Congress meeting in Surat in December 1907. from thirty-three years before. After this untoward incident. during these first years in politics. may have urged him to add. is of a dispassionate lawyer. and a greater share in legislation and govern ment. increasing his reputation and fortune as an advocate. 1908 the fiftieth anniversary of the assumption the Crown of the Government of India Jinnah was able to read by On the promise of the King-Emperor. the session broke up in disorder. but not with brutality or contempt' Natives of all classes in this to us if they are treated The memory of 1 this young experience. he gave it just and due sympathy but the impression of him. The politic satisfaction of such a claim will strengthen.' * continued. that one of them took off a shoe and flung it at Sir Pherozeshah Mehta. when the extremists became so violent in their anti-British opinions. when these extreme Nationalists were expelled and Congress declared its aim to be independence and self-government for fodk. Important classes among you. representing been fostered and encouraged by British rule. not ideas that have impair. I am sure. secure pattern of the British Empire* November 2. and in their criticism of the moderate Congress leaders. be more attached with kindness and with firmness at the same time. Jinnah was also present. within the : AH Jinnah . in * King Edward VII might have worked on ' When he visited India. that the time had * * come when * the principle The Address of representative institutions might be prudently extended. When any cause ajffecting the Muslims came up. and prejudices of his fellow-countrymen with waiting for the right moment in which to raise his own voice. * he had been shocked by the rude and rough manner of some of the officials in a letter to tub mother he had written.1906-1910 This brief outline leads to the next chapter in the story of Mohammed but it is history in which he had no active part. and ignoring both the extremists in Congress and the sectarian aims of the League. claim equality of citizenship. in April 1908. : country will. 1 875-6. He went his way. the distinguished Parsee veteran statesman. existing authority and power/ There was one sentence that gave heart to the cold and formal Address. at the close of his Address Administration will be aU the more efficient if the officers who 46 .
the Raja Partab Bahadur Singh of Partabgarh. an extraordinary member and this body enjoyed almost arbitrary rule over some three hundred million Indian subjects. as of six members. which was made up of ten to fifteen members. was led by the Viceroy. the Secretary of State for was assisted by the Council of India. handkerchief on his head and kissed the Old Testament. appointed in 1907. assisted by an executive * council. by the addition of 3 5 nominated members and 25 elected members. in India. was composed in 1908. 372. or cabinet.' Before coming to the reforms that followed the King-Emperor's Address and which gave Mohammed AH Jinnah his first lively opportunity in the direct government of his country helpful to consider as it what is meant by the * it would be Government of India *. Mohammed AH Jinnah's ascent to power began with this reform at the age of thirty-three he became one of the elected members of ' : * ' the MusHms of Bombay. the Legislative Secretary. The descrip . a Jew. the government of their country. representatives of the people had the right to criticize. 47 . made . In November 1909 a year after the King-Emperor's Address the Indian Councils Act enlarged the Viceroy's executive council into the Imperial Legislative Council. 1905-1910. In England. his the Hon. Maharajadiraj of Burdwan kissed a pledge on the Bible the holy book of Krishna which he produced from his Gita another pocket . at least nine of whom must have lived or India served in India for ten years or more. by choice of The first languages. on January 25.) The Government of Muslim. and India'. . p. of the Imperial Legislative Council was held at meeting Calcutta. 1910. in which. with the Commander-in-Chief . tion of the ceremony 1 * does not mention how Mohammed AH Jinnah Speeches of the Earl of Minto. . Sir David Sassoon.IMPERIAL LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL conduct it have greater opportunities of regular contact with those . for the first time. ' * Mr Macpherson. whom it affects. the elected and promote. placed a took his oath in Urdu Hindu. (At that time they included a a Hindu. with special representation for Moham medans and landowners/ The new Imperial Legislative Council thus became a debating body. The new members belonged to a of ways and variety of rehgions and they took their oaths in a variety the Council.
and. Jinnah was treated as * news '. it is a most painful question a question which has roused the feelings of all classes in this country to die highest pitch of indignation and horror at the harsh and cruel treatment that is meted out to Indians in South Africa. but one presumes that he observed : this duty in the Muslim way. I should fed inclined to use much stronger but I am fully aware of the constitution of this Council. although his manner with reporters was as brusque as with other men. and I do not wish to trespass for one single moment . In both r61es. I tfcmk that * too strong a word. cruelty *.1906-1910 took his oath. the Indian newspapers made much of the story. during a debate regard ing the plight of Indians in South Africa. Lord Minto. 48 . The Honourable the mover placed put the question before the Council so clearly and concisely that there is very little left for anyone else to say. But the importance of this question requires that at least some of us should say a few My words and express our feelings on this Resolution* If I may say at the outset. on the Koran and in English. he made no effort to court popularity or to appease the press. and he really must adapt his language to the rather circumstances. as I said before. from then on. I beg to support the Resolution that has been before the Council. almost immediately he Jinnah was not an intimidated novice crossed swords with the Viceroy. that the treatment that is meted out to Indians is the harshest which can possibly be imagined. language. Jinnah replied : Lord. The Viceroy I interrupted : is must caU the Honourable gentleman to order. of advocate and councillor. but I do say this. and. Jinnah said : Lord. This was his first essay in political duelling : he treated the incident with the aggressive self- confidence he had always displayed in the Law Courts of Bombay. Next morning. Well. The Honourable Member must remember that he is talking of a friendly part of the Empire. my the feeling in this country is unanimous. his manner was similar. To the end of his life.
which became the root of his policy after he returned to India. the future Earl Mountbatten of Burma who was to be the mediator and judge in the final conflict was a boy of nine and a half years. a great Indian. . and the Inner Temple. Mr Gokhale. I saw in the throng an old fiiend of mine. Barrister- at-Law (Inner Temple. as Prince of Wales. he welcomed King George V and Queen Mary to India. Trinity.. and he had talked with many of the leaders. . and to the fabulous Durbar at Delhi. a veteran in Indian affairs. Prince Louis of Battenberg.. the more scholarly of the thrfee reformers who later became ' Gandhi's most devoted disciple and successor-had by that time come down from Cambridge and was studying law at the Inner Temple. 49 . and Nehru was completing the saga of Harrow.. . jyEHRU AND GANDHI The fact that Jinnah's first speech in the Council concerned the Indians in South Africa. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. . who were to become die in India's great protagonists were graduates of English Inns of Court. I have been KING later ' : . The King had already visited India. Sir Walter Lawrence. At the close of 1911. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. . I took him into the alcove and introduced him to the Prince of " Wales. in 1905. preparatory school. 1910. After a few words the Prince said. when Jinnah had already learned how to argue with a Viceroy when Gandhi was fighting the cause of the Indians in the Transvaal. 1889) almost forty-one years old was leader of the many thousands of Indians settled in South Africa he had : already evolved the theory of Passive Resistance '. In February 1910. 1910-1913 EDWARD VII died on May 6.JINNAH. All three men. among them Gopal Krishna Gokhale.. not yet at his deliverance. draws attention to the other men who were to be his opponents in the ultimate conflict between the Muslims and Hindus. the Prince had retired to an alcove for five minutes' rest. wrote of their meeting At one of the large receptions . and six months Lord Hardinge was appointed Viceroy. . . In the same month.
Would " the ? Mr Gokhale replied. and * I have never seen a happier-looking people* . in which you said that it would be better for India if the Indians had a much larger part in the adminis I have now been travelling for some months in India . whom and that he could not help European towards the Native This impression must have endured in his incredible memory : in when plans were being made for his second visit and for the * " all classes should have a chance of Durbar. / Gokhale. and thus he missed the chief cause of friction in India. The Muslims could no longer hope that the British would protect them against the superior forces of the Hindus and the Muslim League could no longer be justified in a policy described by Mrs Naidu as too narrow and too nebulous/ At their next session. 171. 168. His Life md Rtlgn." At the end of the Durbar. That the temple was 1 " Yes.reading your speech at Benares. * * * when all.. tration. the revision himself rose. the * revision . I but they would have more self-respect. . . Ibid. 50 . p. p. * 1 8 King George V. which Jinnah attended. The Prince had continued his journey. to the surprise of proclaimed . in December 1912. he admitted that he could not help being struck by the Hindu and : * way in which all salutations by the Natives * were disregarded by the * they were given . persons to that the general bearing of the noticing was to say the least unsympathetic/ 1910. and a sorrow for the Muslim League. enjoying the sight of an ornate temple here there a lovely mosque." ** " but That may be." . No. * cannot see can be real self-respect while the Indians treat their how there women as they do now. and in a dear voice of the partition of Bengal and the transference of the capital to Delhi/ * There is no record of Mohammed Jinnah's feelings over the M '. peoples of India be happier if you ran the country ** . But he echoed in some notes that he wrote when the journey his father's humanism was over. . Harold Nicolson (Constable). Sir. ." " that is a great blot." said Mr the mosque Mohammedan did not seem to disturb him.. he laid it down that seeing him close at hand. the King. which was a victory for the Hindu-controlled Congress. I do not say they would be happier." said the Prince . the Viceroy had finished his speech.
in April. so that it would them with Congress in a common demand for Swaraj '. in a speech presented with the skill of a seasoned advocate. very old story got the money or not. Sir. the Bill : future. Now. Ahmed Khan had had relied Gokhale's Elementary Education Bill. and all I can say is this Find money! Find money Find money " I ask.ELEMENTARY EDUCATION BILL League proposed to amend their constitution. ! Educate ! Educate ". Half a century Educate ! before. . They asked for elementary education through Government grants. was on the subject of 1912. will get teachers . One passage. you . . on his own vision and will. you will get school buildings. if you have money. and answered them. one by one. that there is nothing in that argument. before the Council Police Administration the second. Gokhale and Jinnah were pleading for the great sea of illiterates the masses. the policy of the ' national welfare to which he was pledged. reveals his method the direct. of almost four thousand words. was in support of Legislative Council. this is a very. you have no money. since it would reconcile * ' Mohammed Ali Jinnah the League with the policy of Congress . ' ally spoke at this meeting of the Muslim League from which he had so far kept apart. educated upper class of scholars who could share in the administration of the country. and the Imperial There are records of two speeches he made in the first. Jinnah's argument against those who opposed was characteristic he examined the protests. . " If you have money. " cried. patronized his Englishmen who But Syed Ahmed Khan and on a few rich Muslims and and he had produced an scheme . in March. . to be controlled and paid for by the State. The real point is whether you have . gigantic feat to be performed for a country like India. Sir. In 1912. millions of people ? I say. It was a long speech. persistent attack with which he was to wear down so many opponents in the not private patronage. . is it such an insurmountable difficulty to get three crores of rupees from the Imperial Exchequer ? Is it such a great. dealing with finance. with its three hundred that ! ! . Syed and Aligarh University had been the answer. because of its exclusively sectarian aims. Jinnah's chief * greater work remained with : the Congress. for whom they wanted schools and compulsory education. But he no doubt felt justified in supporting the proposed changes in the League's constitution.
in March. and to disturb law and order. you have no better friends in this country let me tell you that I mean the friends of the Government than the educated classes of this country . a long address on the Criminal Law Amendment Bill. . tax the . I My My . that it is the of every educated man to support and duty help the Govern ment when the Government is ri$bt" . the neglect of against elementary education. "I . : face a ." is that you must remove the reproach that is justly levelled British rule.. but also as a stem of the law. face it boldly in the name of duty. They we Some encouragement. the Raja of Mahmudabad said that Mohammed " Ali Jinnah was no apostle of frenzy. attempt on the part of my countrymen Amendment Bill. and in April. During his speech on the Criminal Law Jinnah said. pp. ." time at die beginning of 1913. . Jinnah was not ungenerous he admitted India's debt to Britain. ** - for existing educational benefits. answer is that it is the duty of every civilized Government to educate answer masses. I say find the money if necessary. He seemed to flourish immediately for Jinnah's talents : have learnt that from the British They have been the first to open our eyes to it. certain and if you have to face unpopularity. for a second term. the biggest enemies of his country and his "people". . unpopularity. namely. the Viceroy proved his regard by nominating him. "I believe in the criticizing Government freely and frankly. He continued. if you have to amount of danger. . but.. Jinnah spoke then of those of his countrymen * who were responsible The full text of the speech is reprinted in Mohomd MJltwah : of Unity. we know the blessings of education Government. wish to express that every to undermine the authority of the Government. 1 He still spoke with the technique of the lawer. deserves the Such mal strongest condemnation and the highest punishment/' " n M " contents were. 226-43. have brought us up to this level when we can stand in the Council and deliberate upon the affairs of our nation and of our country. people/ shall But I shall be told that we be told that the people are already taxed shall be facing great . he said. to the Imperial Legislative Council... he made a number of speeches on the Indian Extradition Bill. at the same time. keeper Some years later. . and said.'* a fact that was already appa with this rent in these early debates.* I ask the Government.
sullenly grown-up and daughters. . till the neighbouring Hindu money-lender fixes a quarrel with them. Created Sir 53 . which received the Viceroy's Assent on 1913* was of cardinal importance to the Muslims of India. with grandchildren and nephews and nieces. in perpetuity. " Let those still ideas let those men who : India " Early in 1913. They drag on a listless existence in patched-up verandahs or leaky outhouses. and are not likely to succeed in for political crimes. and then. into the kw of British India. sinking deeper and deeper into a hapless abyss of debt.. and not one of the hungry crowd has a chance of doing anything for himself in life.' and of the sad fate of the once rich and educated Muslim aristocracy the poor heirs of the princes who had long ago enjoyed the roses and fountains of Delhi and Lahore. 1887. Jinnah achieved another success. Sir Syed Ahmed Elian had tried to introduce Wakfs for Muslims some years before. Bill. by which the beneficiaries would be safe against the folly of any one member of the family and which would provide feckless . the Statistical Department of India. As early William Hunter l had prepared a report on the subject. which he had This measure. Indian Mussalmans are they bound in conscience to rebel He wrote of the chrome sense of wrong ' which against the Queen. but he had failed.' . with his gift for argument. by dastardly crimes. Mr Our : ' ' * . * March 7. . the right of a Muslim to make a Wakfz form of trust known in Mohammedan law. by anarchism. and the ancient Mussalman family is suddenly" swallowed up and sons disappears forever.WAKF VALIDATING ' BILL men who still have these misguided have these hallucinations. with the Mussalman Wakf Validating first introduced in March 1911. in a moment a host of mortgages fore close.' and in every district the descendant of some little line of princes and proudly eats his heart out among the roofless palaces weed-choked tanks. was by introducing..' the Muslims suffered under British rule. Mohammed Ali Jinnah took 1 Then Director-General of William Hunter. they cannot bring about good government let them realize that these methods have not succeeded in any country in the world. security and an income to succeeding generations. Their houses swarm with The only way of saving the property of these bewildered and Muslim landlords. realize that. . as 1871.
but the force of his words is apparent all the way through. rather than a Muslim protesting on arguing behalf of his own people* There was not a phrase that betrayed " he said* Hie one objection which has been religious prejudice up the cause as : of public policy. and to Islamic jurisprudence. he could liked laying | I HHERE of the disciple in Mohammed AH JinnaL bow and make extravagant compliments to ladies and he down the law to the young. : cate His admirable skiU and tact in and controversial measure piloting. who while still their political affairs. to introduce the question of public policy. He liked to relax in the drawing-rooms of the rich Parsees in Bombay . When the Bill had been passed and received the Viceroy's Assent. when he wa$ thirty-six years old. Bill is the question . . . which is foreign urged against this answer to that. pattern I therefore give that simple answer the to that point" The legal ofJinnah's speech makes some of it obscure to lay mind. . he had never J.attached himself to any human being. a dispassionate lawyer. his first private and personal success as a legislator. the first through such an intri instance of a Bill passing into legislation on the morion of a private member won him not only the appreciation of his colleagues but also his from his co-religionists all over regarding him a little outside the orthodox pale of Islam were so soon to seek his advice and guidance in first meed of general recognition India. one of the first to congratulate him was Mrs Sarojini Naidu she wrote of this. when they came to him for .AN ESSAY IN FRIENDSHIP : he pleaded for the rights of the oppressed minority. to there is no such thing as public policy of any kind so far as Muhammadan jurisprudence is concerned to which the provisions of this my Bill arc in any way opposed. mind is outside the question . 54 . AN ESSAY ^ IN FRIENDSHIP was Httle Up to 1913. in love or friendship.Now the is a what we have got to do very simple one is to administer the Muhammadan Law to the Mussalmans and therefore. Sir.
" " And Jinnah said that it was his one ambition to become the MuslnfT : co-operation. for a term of twenty years. powerful grasp of and great industry. and two years later Lord Curzon honoured the C.I. in his devotion to Gopal Krishna Gokhale. in : ship carried them towards England : Mrs Naidu vaguely estimated ' that the Arabian stars and Egyptian waters kept record. in both ethics and virtue. p. He must have Gokhale had been born in 1866. as well as a strong character he : graduated from Elphinstone College..' Jinnah the Muslim. J- E 55 . they sailed for England. mon-sense. the Hindu leader : a man who was as faultless as Jinnali. timid of human relationships. been a fascinating. for the first time. and their labours." a holiday from their ideals. Gokhale. Gokhale was then almost There are neither Jinnali was thirty-six. appreciates has an eye for the tactics of practical com no secret of his ultimate hope and design The article * on the footing of a self-governing colony/ ' : on Gokhale. India to be He made He has a politician's head . and in 1884 he dedi cated his talents to a long venture he agreed to become professor of history and political economy at nominal salary. forty-seven years old letters nor diaries to tell what these two men talked about as their They both needed so. In 1913 he seemed to emerge from this chill armour. But he discouraged intimacy. doubtless. 1 fortifies these judgments of his character Gokhale's intense patriotism. of a humble Brahmin family. Gokhale said of Jinnah. and was still a celibate intro vert. he began his him with splendid political career . raised him head and shoulders above his contemporaries . 1 Supplementary Volumes to the I3th ed. Ferguson College. and that freedom from all sectarian prejudice which will make him the best ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity. in the Encyclopedia Britannica. " He has true stuflfin him. at a After 1902. invariable courtesy and lofty personal character marked him out as one of the last and greatest of the old school of Congress politicians before the age of nonfacts had liked each other from the beginning there was no conflict between their minds and they were not held apart by suspicion. Bombay.JINNAH AND GOKHALE advice. and Gokhale the Hindu. In 1906 John Morley wrote of him. 240.E. Poona. April 1913. and his moderation. II.. Vol. in recognition of his selfless patriotism. executive responsibility .
on June 28. and they were beginning to use English education to sharpen These cryptic subjects of the Kingtheir temper against British rule. there was but a small Indian colony-mostly sons of noble. Their aim was to remove restrictions imposed upon also to acquire a central club-house in for debates and social pleasures. During : the to London. By big numbers. to an audience of several hundred Indian students. There were grievances on both sides. But the failure of the plan does not lessen the interest of Jinnah's speech his first* in England at The Caxton Hall. coldly honest He told them that one of " the first tasts of the proposed association should be to get rid of the exdusiveness " that was spoiling their chances of learning the best 56 . Being few. and. With they brought instead of meeting socially and enjoying their adventure in scholarship. In tie i8jx>'s. Association lasted only a few years . The problems of the Indian students in England. 1913. and the intrusion was resented also their caste-system . each with its own hobby-horse. to avert folly. He was. he added helped to surprising two important chapters to his story he create the London Indian Association. and their English friends. some Indian leaders. Emperor brought places. as ever. Indians wishing to enter the universities and Inns of Court . which the students could meet. their politics into the silence of England's ancient their politics. it perished for want of support from the Indians themselves. they were an innovation. on the eve of his return to India. was to blame for the lack of friendliness among the students them selves. rich or privileged fami and it had been easy to admit them to the English universities lies and Inns of Court. twenty years before. and he made a decision by agreeing to join the Muslim League. met and formed the London Indian Association. were more complicated than they had been when Jinnah was studying law at Lincoln's Inn. in 1913. He recalled his own years of study at Lincoln's inn and then ** reminded his listeners that the caste system the bane of India ". but not a Indians were migrating to England in problem.AN ESSAY IK FRIENDSHIP of their mutual hopes and dreams for the country of ' their devoted service/ The word holiday was visit * alien to Jinnah's busy mind. they divided themselves into many little groups.
. " who England returned home to serve their country. India Muslim League. Typical of his exquisite. to join the Muslim regretted that Jinnah had always refused called on him and reminded him of the decision. " they hope to go back home as great missionaries in the cause : of the progress. were among the many who League. p.LONDON INDIAN ASSOCIATION from England. or they may have wandered through may England." Some of them had " " " " in political and resorted to strong language strong action issues." But he warned them that and were dangerous fireworks in the hands of the young politics " " could that only by avoiding strong language and hysterical ideas in politics Jinnah reminded the students " that. they must have continued to enjoy each other's company. to bring the policy of the League into line with the and national aims of Congress. Instead of behaving as " of the civilization which the students and learning all they could British people had taken centuries to build up. the men most " active were those who had been educated in and " ." Gokhale and Jinnah rest of the summer was spent in leisure have travelled to Europe. He agreed. in the autumn. The conciliatory tone of their political conversations is with suggested in Jinnah's last action before he sailed home to India." he said. n. Two Muslim Hassan. leaders. 57 . in India. Maulana Mohamed AH and Syed Wazir who were in England at the same time. except that. injure The : Gokhale. made They 22. if somewhat exigent sense of honour. and his belief that scholarship should come first " " To take part in politics." The moral of the Speech was conventional enough for phrases did not shine. except a short half-page by Mrs Naidu. Little is known of these months. who wrote on March : Jinnah formally enrolled himself as a member of the Allto whose expanded outlook he had already contributed so signally by his example. is it to find that even so 1 Mohomed AH Jinnah : An Ambassador of Unity. . They argued that Con progressive the same voice and they gress and the League now spoke with with Jinnah to join. since they remained together. will simply and politics after. There is no record of the pleaded x scene. your position as students. he upbraided them for meddling in politics. . but they confirmed Jinnah's regard what England could teach. After scolding the students for their isolationism ".
as a king . . whom I played in my boyhood. as a boy. But the astro no longer scratched prophetic patterns in the dust with a stick he was not able to stop Jinnah again and make the alarming prophecy " Your pledges of harmony will be of no avail : loger : from now you will come back to Karachi. the astrologer was said to * have told him that he would grow up to be a king '. to which his life w^s at Muslin/ -^ Tke year ended in a unique victory for Mohammed Ali Jinnah. . Gokhale had said that Jinnah would become the " ambassador of 58 . with Gokhale. The members on ' At the age of thirty-seven he * ' placed record of the adoption by the All-India Muslim League of the ideal of Self-Go vernment for India. His sponsors were required to make a solemn preliminary/ covenant that loyalty to the Muslim League and the interest would in no way and larger of disloyalty to the dedicated. with the of success . He returned to India. no time imply even the shadow national cause. . His decision glow in London. within the British Empire ." Neither Gokhale nor Jinnah could envisage any of this : they returned to their hotel in perfect accord of heart and mind. . . Jinnah allowed himself to be " sentimental at the beginning of his You do not speech : he said. thirty-four years but. I am my Sindhi friends who are here/' was back in his home-town. hundreds of thousands of Muslims and Hindus must perish. was justified in one of the resolutions of Congress during the session. In the process. and in December they went to Karachi for a meeting of Congress." The members interrupted him ** with cheers : then he went on. know what pleasure it gives me to stand on this platform in the city of Karachi where I was born. to join the Muslim League. . where I have found by me personal friends with delighted to see so many of . your countrymen will divide themselves against each other. . .AN ESSAY two IN FRIENDSHIP simple an incident partook of something like a sacrament." its last " session that the On his way from the meeting Mohammed AH Jinnah may have walked along the street where. and of the belief which the League had so emphatic their warm appreciation ally declared at political future of the country depends upon the harmonious working and co-operation of the two ' great communities. but also with the rewards of wisdom. to achieve this.
whatever faults he had. a member of Congress. Sir 1 members of both Houses of 1 by Sir William Wedderburn. of their own ? . or brilliant political planning. of being trusted by the leaders of both communities. Bombay. according to their temper. 1 after the session : of Congress.COUNCIL OP INDIA BILL Muslim unity. Formerly a judge of the High Court. He repeated and explained its terms to Parliament. Sir Cowasjee Jehangir. whether good fortune. when he was successful. to whose expanded outlook he had contributed : * ' * by his example/ of the future may argue. I can assure you that he was sincere about Hindu-Muslim unity it was no political trick. had brought Jirmah to this happy state. in Karachi. and of the Imperial Legislative Muslim League. to lay before the Secretary of State the views of Congress on the Council of India Bill. and twice President of Congress. due for its reading in the House of Lords on May 25. : William's speech of welcome was consoling and hopeful he 1838-1918." : : : A GENTLEMAN months 'OF RECOGNIZED POSITION in the meantime. political trickery was not one of them. arrived in Bombay he was more of a peacock then than in later years. who had known Jinnah when he was twenty-five years old. together. which had been adopted by Congress during the Karachi session. and acting Chief Secretary to the Government of Bombay . at a breakfast-party given at the Westminster Palace Hotel. Had he designed a safe political career. he was a member of the Jinnah's position was now trebly secure Council. so signally "Writers One of his oldest friends in Bombay. that the Hindus and Muslims. Indeed. 59 . Jinnah had already prepared a resolution regarding the Bill. the first EIGHT delegation led a first World War began Mohammed Ali Jinnah to England. I can say that. might still make a united and free India." and this day in December 1913 made the phrase seem almost true. over the years or was he really sincere in his belief. has " I knew him when he first answered this question he has said.
as he of argument on the fingers of his left hand. and. home. nominated by the Secretary of State." Jinnah. as before by the Secretary of State the Council of India nominated elected by Of Jinnah demanded that half their number (Le. John Morley had appointed a Hindu and a Muslim to his Council. The fortunes relegated to second place. British. in Karachi. the Council (which should have a minimum of nine members) should be Indians. * At the time of Jinnah's visit to London. spoke. he counted his points His first demand was that the salary of the Secretary of State for assured his guests that if there " proceeded from misunderstanding " : India " and that he was responsible to nobody/' This would be remedied if his salary were paid by Britain : then his decisions and actions would be controlled by the British Parliament. the public men concerned with the terrible affairs in Ireland. as news of India were from Ireland 60 . Jinnah wished to change this nor the support of their countrymen at he proposed that one-third of . in Westminster. unrest in India. nominated bring to bear Anglo-Indians upon the deliberations of the Council that independent judgment which was so characteristic of public men in England. Another important demand concerned the composition of the Council of India. In his earlier said that the existing constitution of the speech. " he liked." was " more factual he ignored the atmosphere of sympathy ". but this had been little more than a gesture : these Indians. " who once described himself as a man of cold-blooded logic. one-third of the total " men of merit unconnected with Indian adminis Council) should be " ** " The men of merit would thus be able to hold the tration. elected by those Indians who themselves had been their peoples to serve on the Imperial and Provincial the remaining. * " ' were Curragh Camp. conclusion " should be pkced on the English estimates ". In 1907." " balance between the two othef sections the elected Indians and the " " " and would.A " GENTLEMAN *OF RECOGNIZED POSITION* had been " . he said. enjoyed neither an effective voice in the Council. members of Legislative Councils in India. ' following the incident at where fifty-seven British officers had refused to take part in active operations in Ulster." it had and he claimed that the to establish an atmosphere of sympathy and brotherly British desired kindness between the two great branches of the Aryan race. he had " a greater Moghul Council of India made the Secretary of State " " that he could come to any than any Moghul that ruled in India .
and the only civilized country in the world that has no system of representative government/ Then he repeated his arguments. and it would be far better for all concerned to better make a fresh start in a better way and at a and more convenient time." and on June 3. in the columns of The Times. still threatening civil war. of the time " . His compensations for failure were he had been listened to by officials in Westminster. While was attracting the attention of British leaders to the west. He wrote India is perhaps the only member of the British Empire without any real representation. Jinnah thought " " " concessions the defined in the Bill were most disappointing. and his objections to the tame concessions. horrible shape. while the assumed personal first gentlemen of recognized position in the public life of India. in June. The Bill was rejected or rather. at good and. Jinnah had perhaps chosen an unfortunate hour in which to plead for India. for the he had been described by Sir William Wedderburn as one THE LUCKNOW PACT of nobleness comes into the story of Indian affairs with the beginning of the 1914 war. 'postponed* after its second Against India Bill : * reading not because the Lords considered the proposed reforms too revolutionary. in the east an assassin was 'busy with the morbid plan that culminated Ireland in the revolver shot. Lord " Amp thill said. but because several of them believed that the Bill was . and war in Europe quickly So Mohammed its : the reforms he advocated had to wait. he stated his views in the better part of a column in The Times. his opinions had been recorded. the Council of was read a first time in the House of Lords." for history's sake. length. at Sarajevo. inopportune and unsuited to the needs of the Indian people. this background of alarms and danger." Ali Jinnah returned to India. A bad mistake has been made. The opening sentence was emphatic.FIRST WORLD WAR arrived each day. empty-handed . Leaders of both Con and gress and the Muslim League rested their differences promised to help the Government. Rulers of Native States pledged AGLOW 6l .
in the full co-operation : in December 1914 the in view of the profound and avowed this and enjoyment of the rights belonging to that status/ Jinnah no doubt agreed to these demands. Jinnah recalled his were unusual in Prom this history. No. The " But there are no educated Muslims whom representative of Tatas answered. to the various theatres of war. and forceful to an extent 1 The degree of this honesty is revealed in the story of Jinnah.Jinnah complained that Tatas gave opportunities to young men of every faith except Muslims. of and the facts of his political life." Jinnah scoffed at this and said that there were many " Then choose me six worthy of the opportunity. He remained what he are told in newspapers and many boob. " between the Mohammedans and other com and goodwill unity 4I do away with munities of the country/* He appealed to them to Bombay Muslim Students Union." broad-minded statesmanship. Jinnah's story can be told without mere conjecture. talking one day to an important member of the firm of Tata. " had he named six of their sons. he confessed his sorrow and grief" words cold vocabulary. time." and spoke of him as " and as a tower of intellect/* When he referred to Gokhale. arms and money and within a month of war being declared. 1915.200. we can take into the firm. and without having to hunt for elusive clues* He was now a maker that his Six days later. Gopal Krishna Gokhale died Jinnah's only dose ** liberal and and dear friend* In later years. but the war did not When he spoke to divert him in his quest for Hindu-Muslim unity* free the on February 13. and answered. in LUCKNOW PACT . from 1915 to the end. Before hostilities ended. Congress put a price on * members resolved that loyalty * the people of India have manifested in this present crisis the Govern * ment should take such measures as may be necessary for the recogni tion of India as a component part of a Federated Empire. " a great Hindu." 62 . The representative said.THE their support.000 combatant and non-com batant men were to sail from India. among the leading Muslims. three ** months after his death. and I will take them.000 Indian troops embarked." It would hare been a feather in Jinnah's cap. 1. in 1918. He refused. * had always been logical and honest . to serve overseas. directed the boys to the virtues of" discipline he deplored racial discrimination and urged : " dissensions with " all their might ". I won't select ' them just to catch their favour. You choose them yourself. he ** " " and self-reliance them to co-operation. 70.
and he was supported in this by a number of moderate ." He wished neither to absorb the League going to give up. At this juncture 1915. which was anti-British at heart . from extremists in both Congress and the League . His only faults : were in all else he parsimony and the sharpness of his tongue belonged to the great tradition of political leadership. my heart and soul . leaders in both communities true. . they should not pledged marry with Congress. in Bombay. hope sprang eternally in . enough for him to hope that the dream might come Jinnah had to endure cynical and violent opposition. he recalled his aims at this time : he said. He wished only for unity. because Turkey the home of the Caliphate was now allied to Germany. sent a members of the All-India Muslim League to hold annual session in the same place and at the same time. un was not " into the . April 1943written appeal. Jinnah. n. I daunted. discipline..DEATH OF GOKHAIE that intimidated people when they came near him. 3 A In a speech at Delhi. Congress was due to hold its annual session.' his * She believed that the time was ' ' ' ripe for a more direct and definite rapprochement between the two great communities/ In December 1915. nor to weaken Congress by exposing it to the sectarian character of the League. with the approval of leading local Muslims. others argued might have made him League should disband. from the big issue of unity. Mrs Naidu wrote that the death of Gokhale had brought Hindus and Mussalmans close together in a bond of common loss and sorrow. 1 constitution. Twentyletter inviting the their 1 eight years after. that the 2 Jinnah appealed to them * We are bound by our and constitution. who thought that Britain's strength in India depended greatly on the political differences between the two communities.. Divide and Rule . Now Jinnah had to turn aside. are absolutely necessary qualities to enable us to say that we are fit for freedom and self-government. Hindu-dominated Congress. Reverence for and obedience to that real political franchise. and try to reconcile the antagonized elements within the League. issued on November 63 . Their load of prejudices despair : some believed that as the League was to self-government within the Empire. momentarily. This brave move was in line with his own liberal political creed. in the war against England. also from those few Britons who * ' still believed in the motto.
the " " very nose of the police . and their people. in Jinnah's words. On the second day there was uproar. Jinnah and his supporters had to make their way from the bedlam within the hall. that it was with their began. He remained loyal to the British cause. and outside there was disorder. . Can we not bury our differences show a . sat with him on the platform. 1915. of his proud and splendid indifference to all personal suffering and She referred sacrifice. Mrs Sarojini Naidu. heedless alike of official dissuasion or favour. * * Tins first attempt at showing a united front might have been dis before the meeting began* fifty police in case officers took up their places within the hall. It will make our Hindu friends value us all the united front ? are .' also to the aggressive machinations of his opponents/ The enthusiasm with which the Indian leaden had committed them The selves. after these disappointments. He meeting was broken up under the ** " connivance that the trouble believed. ofJinnah as the daunt less soldier of unity/ risen to die heights of an invincible patriotism . and the arguments presented by Jinnah when he was in London had been ignored. * Council of India Bill for which Jinnah had visited postponed England in 1914 had emerged the following year as the Govern ment of India Act of 1915. and. gready satisfied by his success as a reformer having removed injustices against the Indian colony in Natal. had now begun to wane. that * we are worthy In / 30. The Muslim League met in Bombay on December that differences should support of Jinnah's appeal. and Mr Gandhi. to the war. of standing shoulder to shoulder with them. he said. Mrs Naidu wrote a record of the incident . more than ever. of which we *aspire to be an independent. Tlbere were a few hooligan outbursts at the couraging for Jinnah. we more and will make them feel. but. Dr Annie Besant. but the audience settled down and listened.THE LUCKNOW PACT watched not only by India but by the whole of the British Empire. Gandhi had lately returned in from South Africa. three Congress leaders. free and equal member/ He asked. . Almost every reform that had been hoped for was omitted from the Act. be buried. and conclude the meeting in a room in the Taj Mahal Hotel. his plan for unity and reform became more lively than ever. * * ' * * ' ' 64 .' to which the Royal Assent had been given on July 29. Long beginning of the session.
and he spoke of the demand for separate Hindu and Muslim electorates. which revealed more as ' ' : In April 1916 the month when Lord Chelmsford ' ' statesmanlike ways of argument. no resistance should be shown to their separate a matter demands. . perhaps the greatest of boons. and in October he made a long speech at Ahmedabad. their pride in what they should be thoroughly ashamed o their quarrels and misunderstandings. who are. Then Jinnah returned " to put it to his chief crusade is A new spirit abroad. but all those evil things they cling to blindly their hates and their divisions. the demand for separate electorates is not of policy but a matter of necessity to the Muslims. all petty and small things She is now India irredenta. He summed up India's part in the war. after all. he repeated his views on reform. . I He said : As far as understand. united India. He continued to grow in stature and power in the autumn he was again elected to the Imperial Legislative Council. an indirect one. and. . to be re deemed. These are a must be given up.AMBASSADOR OF UNITY replaced Lord had the satisfaction of seeing a joint Hardinge Viceroy Jinnah Congress and Muslim League committee formed to discuss the irre ducible minimum of reforms they should demand from the Govern ment. in the minority in the country. sacrifice that God would love. who require to be roused from the coma and torpor into which they have fallen. I would therefore appeal to my Hindu brethren that in the present state of position they should try to win the confidence and trust of the Muslims. New India to arise. But for a real. which was another hurdle in the path of unity between the two communities. for so long. has been the birth of a genuine spirit of patriotism." he self-government for a " It is said. ' young India. albeit. who in the words of Lord Morley leave our universities intoxicated with the ideas of freedom.* and have to be satisfied. all Indians must offer to sacrifice not only their good things. nationalism and self-govern ment. If they are determined to have electorates." Then he said : Among the many benefits that have by been conferred upon India British rule. 65 . which India has received at the hands of the English people.
. on to die of separate : ' ' ' ' 66 . be achieved by a true understanding and harmonious relations between . was also overcome. The chief domestic problem. Jinnah said. for no partial treatment. India's real progress can only goodwill and brotherly feelings. with Jinnah presiding over * and achieving his first great victory as the Ambassador the of Mrs League of Hindu-Muslim unity/ amid the clash of warring During his long speech. and the League. for the Indians/' Of the want no favours. and. no cool-headed student on Indian affairs can lose sight of the great obvious truism. at the same time. his name was proudly associated with ' what came to be known as the Lucknow Pact/ He had reached tibe first peak of his ambitions : Dadabhai Naoroji's disciple had t>ecome a leader of united India. and crave cause of the Muslims. compliments Jinnah yielded to * nor the machinations of his opponents/ In December 1916. closed in warm assent both agreed as to the irreducible minimum of reforms. he said." " separate We Then" . The sessions of Congress. interests and the noise of foolish catchwords. and the Muslim League. in the first and the last resort. firom this time. electorates. and this decision was : * ' passed Government of India. " . that India . first discussed by the joint committee in April. That is demoralizing to the community and injurious to the State. they should be guaranteed a proportion of seats in the fixture Legislative Councils in excess of the number they could other wise hope to win/ Mohammed All Jinnah was given credit for these harmonious decisions. They met at Lucknow. to hold their annual sessions in the same place. Congress heeded Jinnah's won the confidence and trust of the Muslims by appeal they * agreeing that in certain provinces in which the Muslims were a minority. the two great sister communities/' There was no reason for Jinnah to suppose that this was a pipedream. is. . The Mussalmans must learn to have selfTowards the Hindus our attitude should be of respect. he succeeded once more in prevailing upon both Congress.THE LUCKNOW PACT the heroic neither Naidu.
In June 1917. out of sympathy for her. when Jinnah considered that Gandhi had broken a promise. The first of the rivals was Gandhi. influence was such that they had been brought back again." but also because it was she ' ' Home 67 .' destroyed Jinnah's larger national There was another formidable and persistent fighter who shared the At the beginning of 1916. and sentimentality yet. were gaining strength. and." was a humanist of the Indians in South Africa. in a few years' time. which soon spread throughout India. who had established his influence in India within two years of returning from South Africa. with and between them was revealed on an occasion. He protested against the " an internment. Gandhi's It was this unity among * the Hindus. inner Hght why can't he be honest and ^dmit that he made a " The difference * ' : mistake ? : In 1907. with different aims. Gandhi led his disciples. in the far future. as passionately as his intuition. so that was able to enlist considerable forces to embarrass the Government and hasten.GANDHI. : rights Red War he had organized a plague hospital he had been a stretcher-bearer in Natal. under Gandhi. with what Jinnah later described as his he had fought vague philosophical absurdities. Dr Besant was interned. that ultimately cause. tempera Gandhi. but he had also served in a for the ment and method. Rule League '. Swaraj '. Jinnah turned to his secretary and said. Dr Annie Besant had begun her scene. during the revolt of and ' soul-force usually governed his actions 1908. His heart and his and his reason. in the end. * : his will his zeal and his logic. conflicting. : awakening MOHAMMED so that they in this of India during the 1914-18 war other. the extremists in Congress had been expelled by 1916. temporarily. he was to hasten his own death in a cause to which he gave Cross unit in the Boer . "not only on principle. " " had ordered his change of inner light Gandhi claimed that his " To hell with his mind. Jinnah shunned emotion. streams of political theory would overwhelm him. AND EDWIN SAMUEL ALI MONTAGU JINNAH had rivals. These men " could not have been less alike : they clashed in mind. Jinnah joined the Bombay branch of the Home Rule League and became its President. ANNIE BESANT.
Samuel Montagu was appointed in his place. On August 20. . ANNIE BESANT. and. in a Declaration of the Indian policy to be adopted by the Government. to die 1917. and said of India "great satisfaction." " that the selec Jinnah welcomed the new appointment. He said The policy of His Majesty's Government is that of increasing the association of Indians in every branch of the administration and the gradual development of self-governing institutions with a view to the progressive realization of responsible government in India as an integral part of the British Empire. July u. ." India from carrying people of In Westminsterstill engaged in the striiggle of war these events or self-government scheme framed the Indian National Congress and the All- On issues of deeper significance. 1917." He resented ^ the methods " " " " to silence the that were being made the attempts adopted and on their constitutional agitation. and following the report of the Mesopotamia Commission." But he tion" gave "the people" before Mr Montagu sets to work at bis added a condition" there should be. EDWIN SAMUEL the attempt to intern India MONTAGU Home Rule and adopted conjointly by Muslim League at Lucknow. ." Edwin Samuel Montagu had inherited from his predecessor in a document of great importance. tige '. on the whom and advancement of the Indian |eof>les. in India were overshadowed by Mr resigned.. The British Government and the Government of India. . in my opinion. The new of State was already informed. and aware of India's problems.GANDHI. He and declared his opinions on the subject of British pres " We do not hold India by invoking this wellhad said : : * mouthed word we must hold it by just institutions. zxtfast be tie judges of the time and measure of each acfemee. . Mr Montagu revealed the terms of this document : House of Commons. al those interned office as political prisoners released. on which Mr Chamberlain had been working for some time. Mr Edwin visited India. and they must be guided by the co-operation received ficm those upon whom new opportunities of service will thus responsibility lies for the welfare 68 . Progress in this policy can only be achieved by successive stages. more and more as time goes on. Secretary of State for India. . with the help of Lord Curzon. Secretary In 191 1 he had for he had been Under-Secretary from 1910 to 1914. by the consent of the governed. Austen Chamberlain. a general amnesty declared and task.
He thought him cold ' anyone. no record of Jinnah having made any public comment on these proposals for gradual administration by Indian Ministers. the previous Viceroy. at the time. which became the In basis of the Government of India Act. 1918. and gold embroidered Indian clothes. 69 . whom ' Annie Besant before 1 leaders of the various political he ultimately extolled in his diary. of course. 503. There is but he did not like Lord Chelmsford. passed in travelled to India to November 1917. He was. 95% of whom are inimical and I venture to assert that every student in every Univer These are. His Life and Reign. and said that he hoped his words would " " penetrate the rarefied atmosphere of Simla (the Viceroy's summer " a studied silence. potentialities for mischief are infinite. in July 1917. He wrote of Dr who had been released from internment two months in her white 4. and it may well be imagined that their to us. Before a big audience in Bombay. This was the view of the Viceroy. he chided Lord Chelmsford for his apparent apathy. but each year sees present the numbers augmented. and to parties.A LETTER TO THE KING be conferred and by the extent to wliich it is found that confi dence can be reposed on their sense of responsibility. We over to our side. I If we can win these men am convinced that we can only do it by inviting and enlisting their co-operation. who had succeeded in April ' a fault he could scarcely damn in 1916. Harold Nicolson. This dislike influenced his conduct and his speeches. as he worked in the rarefied atmosphere of Simla. at sity is growing up with a hatred of us. concerned with a personal equation.' Little more than a year after Jinnah had com 1 plained of his studied silence." at a where he was maintaining headquarters). He had been on amiable terms with Lord Hardinge. a mere fraction of the population. p." Lord Chelmsford was observing the awakening of young India with conscientious and sympathetic concern. who collaborated with the Secretary of State in drawing up the Montagu-Chelmsford Report. India was stirred to its very depths. Mr Montagu meet the make his own observations. with her October King George V.' he wrote to the King time when " ' ' : have here an educated class.
It is her activity and her [Home Rule] League which has really stirred the short. 1950). 57. 58. of course. EDWIN SAMUEL * MONTAGU and the most beautiful voice he had ever heard.' ' that political interest confined to the educated also 1 * He wrote with ' of the renowned Gandhi. . for swears personal advancement. Chelmsford tried to argue with him. All its shortcomings. all its drawbacks. ' country up into a condition in is * which it is no longer true to say classes. and is a . pp. Indian Diary. armed to the teeth with dialectics. but to fellow and to cure them. and he wrote. He wrote : They were followed by Jinnah. I was rather tired and I funked him. impressive-looking. ' added. His description of Mohammed Ali Jinnah was the most penetrating of the three. as a social reformer ' a real desire to find grievances reasons of self-advertisement. lives practically on the air. Edwin S.GANDHI. edited by Venetia Montagu (Hememann. perfectly mannered. and it is. Montagu. white hair. an outrage that such a man should 3 have no chance of running the affairs of his own responsible They would country.' pure visionary. rather have nothing if they could not get the whole lot. Nothing else would satisfy them. the elected members of the Executive Council. the all complete matters of finance these were defended the best makeshifts they could devise short of government. ANNIE BESANT. and was tied up into knots. and insistent upon the whole of his scheme. young. the control power of the minority of the Executive in as to hold all up legislation. * He thought her very impressive '. Jinnah is a very clever man. He dresses like a coolie. not for any improve the conditions of his men/ all Mr Montagu 2 . 70 .
PART THREE .
M. ABOUT THE TIME OF HIS SECOND MARRIAGE [73 . JINNAH. A.
the Hindus either the Christians or the he Mohammedans to abandon cow-slaughter. could influence his mind. planned to awaken India to the virtues and his declaration that had to contend with Gandhi's different view." meeting of the All-India Muslim the British were blamed and con Jinnah was present at the Calcutta League in December 1917. when * demned for their failure . in politics and the law live simply. and the noise of the city. and to dress faultlessly. to obtain timely information of the 73 .JINNAH'S SECOND MARRIAGE f I : 1 91 8 1WENTY-SIX YEARS had passed since Mohammed Ali Jinnah's boyhood marriage. which was to the religious scruples of the Hindus. alone. World "War was not yet over battles were still being in all the areas of conflict. but comfortably. In a small office within the bungalow he he was able to wrestled with his problems. framed between big. : Jinnah does not seem to have been aware of these terrible alarms his energies and his speeches to his one absorbing plan for Hindu-Muslim unity. in purdah. or his affections. even at the point of the sword. by Muslims and Christians. for he had : made a considerable fortune at the Bar. rich trees that sheltered him from the brazen light. and he had lived for some time. While Jinnah was writing of unity. in the modest house in Karachi. " would not mind forcing. From his terrace he could see the ocean.. hopeful speeches. despite frequent signs that might have dis he devoted couraged him. there were anti-Muslim riots and acts of many parts of India. terrible cruelty in In 1918. in a bungalow in Mount Pleasant Road. German troops had penetrated the fought already The first : Caucasus. from the gkl wife. and the Turks were invading Persia : the weakening defences of the Russians were opening up a way for the enemy into come to Afghanistan the way by which so many conquerors had India. who had died before she Jinnah was forty-one years old.. inspired by the old problem of so deeply offensive cow-killing. on the cooler heights above Bombay. celebrated advocate and politician of 1918 seemed remote A this I The from episode .
who was a clairvoyant. or to Sir Dinshaw Petit Jinnah liked to escape from his and then. he was furious he would not tolerate marriage between his seventeen-year-old Parsee daughter and a : 74 . sitting on the Dinshaw Petit's only daughter running his briefs aside. She was so lively. father was ultimately told.." I know also that this man will some day create a state much comfort from this prophecy in Jinnah could not have plucked as he contemplated Gandhi's growing power over the Hindus. at this time. . I do have pain in my arm There : sometimes. his life." Mrs Naidu went back and I told the Irishwoman. he paused and put and only time in Poona. the first terrace in in : ^ When her jfinnah and Ruttenbai Petit were betrothed. Why do you wish to know ? Who told you ? Yes. mosques set on foot by a large section of the Hindu popula to plunder the houses of the Mussalmans. And of his own. had a daughter named Ruttenbai. watched and out of the house His heart was awakened. Also. 1918. in secret. Mahal Hotel when an Irishwoman. today a quarter of a century after her death there are gallant old gentlemen " in Bombay who recall her. (It was true that he had sought cures for an ailment." Sir The staid bachelor advocate. twenty-four now She was an enchanting girl years younger than Jinnah. . defile and destroy and the holy Quran. to dine with the Petits in their stay at their country place in Poona. his duties. in varying forms. and die riots between the races he sought to unite. which he had kept secret.. of a day in the is a story told in Bombay. Among Mohammed one of the proud. who " said. Ah. so witty. who had make Bombay desk. into a prosperous city.) " Mrs Naidu went over and asked him he answered. and elegant house. knew. he was engrossed in the startling episodes of his courtship and second marriage. Ruttie Petit ! She was " the flower of Bombay. so full : of ideas and jokes." Then.JINNAH'S SECOND MARRIAGE huge organization tion . . Ali Jinnah's friends self-confident Parsees was Sir Dinshaw helped to Petit. and say. asked Taj Mrs Naidu if Jinnah ever suffered any pain in his arm. Yes.
1918. The Governor of Bombay at this time was Lord Willingdon. M." One alleged episode.' The lovely young bride moved into the sombre bachelor house. table. and her multitude of pretty dresses. with her books. that 'Miss Ruttenbai. soon to change this view. so he took out an injunction. But old cronies called that did not amuse her : she had to listen to their long stories politics when she wished to be out. only daughter of Sir Dinshaw Petit. to dine at Govern after Jinnah' s marriage. Mohammed Ali Jinnah succumbed to his wife's eager charm he enjoyed her spontaneity and allowed her to influence his behaviour as a politician.D. her father had to reconcile himself in The Statesman. When Mrs herself. The story that that." Then he led his wife she will say so. to bring a wrap for Mrs Lady Willingdon in case she felt cold. Jinnah feels cold. and flowers. to the delegates at the Bombay Provincial " all kindness and courtesy. forbidding Jinnah waited.JINNAH AND LORD WILLINGDON Muslim almost twice her Jinnah to see her. The first the husband of exciting weeks passed in pleasure and harmony : forty-one came home the wife of had bought that it in the evening. eager for him to see the jade figure she during her idle day. At first. Jinnah is said to have risen. Mr.C. with his talk of the law courts : eighteen waited. " while they were seated at the diningasked an A. may have helped He was invited. ment House. A. yesterday underwent conversion to Islam. Mrs Jinnah wore a low-cut dress that did not please her hostess Jinnah. with talk of garden. and said. her ornaments. : In October 1916 he had said. for whom Jinnah began with a good opinion. singing and dancing. and placed on a window-sill so caught and multiplied the isunlight coming in from the and interrupted them. and. refused to go to Government House 75 . When she was to the cold announcement eighteen. and Ruttenbai remained devoted. with his wife. and ask for a from the dining-room . and is to-day to be married to the Hon. wrap from that time. again. age. elegant furniture. She went to her husband's musty rooms in the Law Courts and enlivened them with bright paint. Jinnah. is ." Conference. that Lord Willingdon was " " " in full that the Governor was and that he knew personally " " sympathy with their ideals and aspirations. on April 19.
Trust the popular enthusiasm will rise to fighting point.. Britain should give There was a political ' ' India the signatories responsible government described the promise as she had been promised.' and they asked by We will triumph go down with her in world ruin . . Lord Willingdon presided over a meeting of the Bombay June 10." Lord Willingdon con tinued : men . . but he was ruled out of order. . the position of these gentle ' seems to be this. we shall a forlorn hope whereas. Let England pledge herself definitely to redeem the promise here. many of them members of the political to which Jinnah organization called the Home Rule League" influence " belonged feel sure had been such of kter years sincerity " that he could not " honestly of the of their support. . quite realize the gravity of the situation. on manifesto. where Jinnah personally repeated for India's service. some of whom have considerable : " " with the public . that which our leaders have we will work heart we will . Jinnah attended. But let us fight under the us and we will not fail you. based on the Bombay Some six weeks later. the demand that. in return for this war service.. . banner of liberty. plea for rewards and benefits in return He moved a jesolution. .. Jinnah the Bombay Chronicle. . the Viceroy's this War Conference sat in Delhi. if Britain welcomes us try as leading as a nation whose freedom depends upon the issue of the war. Five had put his name to a manifesto in days after his marriage. Provincial War Conference. if Britain refuses us our place in the Empire. and and soul to save Britain. But. * The : indefinite. but unless Home Rule is . Prom reading their speeches. to fight and our women to sacrifice. 76 we do not think . Six days later. we are all anxious to help. We promised within a given number of years . we cannot forget the ties of many years. . as in Ireland. for nothing less than that will nerve our men . answering an appeal from the Viceroy for The manifesto repeated increased recruiting and war effort in India. with her or accepting asked for in the Congress and League Pact. India and the Empire. . and he had to endure a stem reprimand the Governor complained that the activities of" a certain number of gentlemen.JINNAH'S SECOND MARRIAGE background to this alleged incident..
" recriminations. Then began a battle for seats. Jinnah arrived. Their protests had been anticipated and there was already a strong force of police." A Parsee Sir Jamsetjee Jijibhoy uproar. to facilitate and you must make educated people feel that Empire and the King's equal subjects. and they began to gather on the steps of the Town Hall at ten o'clock on the evening before the meeting. If stimulate the recruiting. .GLAMOUR IN THE TOWN HALL hope we can stir the imagination of the people. to take places held during the night by their supporters. they are citizens of the you wish to enable us to help you. At ten o'clock next morning. . and bis colleagues. It was claimed afterwards that a resolution of loyalty and apprecia tion of Lord Willingdon had been passed. hurling challenges and epithets' at the anti-Willingdon ! * ! the evening. There were many people who shared Jinnah's anger against Lord Willingdon. with his colleagues. standing near by. and Jinnah returned to Mount Pleasant Road with the feeling that he. a meeting was called to arrange the custom ary farewell to a retiring Governor. and we cannot for a successful issue to the recruiting campaign/ . but this formality was drowned in cries of" No No ". On December n. been His resentment did not fade during the remaining six : months of Lord Willingdon's term as Governor. and cries of was elected chairman. ' ' " Ali Jinnah's sincerity was to question the In the argument that followed. and they immediately moved to the head of the queue. when the hall was to open. they pressed forward into the The when Shame. who had always preached to the young about order and discipline '. but it was lost in the clamour. 1918. ' ' ' Outside the hall stood Mrs Jinnah her husband's followers as a pretty young rebel marshalling hall. To doubt Mohammed law of his life. struggle apparently lasted until five o'clock in the Sheriff arrived and stood up to speak. Jinnah said to Lord Willingdon. while the supporters of the platform shrieked and yelled in derision. and a scene wholly alien to Jinnah. The Commissioner of Police ended 77 the farce by ordering his men to . Mrs Jinnah' s young have helped to keep her husband's anger alive she was spirit may certainly beside him as an ally in the dramatic scenes that preceded Lord Willingdon's departure from Bombay. had The meeting ended with insulted. There was further " faction.
Your triumph has made of bureaucracy and auto it clear that even the combined forces not overawe you.THE YEARS OF DISILLUSIONMENT was among those who were was cold no longer. wise and right. rejoice Jinnah lonely His admirers contributed thirty thousand rupees to build a Memorial Hall in his honour and. and in his honour. after this incident. Jinnah once a hero/ Public addresses were presented to him. Mohammed Alijmna. and of the meeting in the Town Hall. Mr ' was at On the wall is a marble plaque recalling the * historic brilliant triumph of the Citizens of Bombay. He stood up Gentlemen. especially Gandhi. 1918. You have today scored a great victory for democracy. under the brave and leadership of Mohamed AH Jinnah/ THE YEARS OF DISILLUSIONMENT Ali Jinnah DURING the second and third years of his marriage. as his story unfolded. 194-217). but. in spite of the ravages of Partition. it is still called Jinnah Hall. career showed a downward trend . overshadowed by other and was The graph of On July 8. you are the citizens of Bombay. of and to his book. where with his wife beside him. Jrnnah's the three decisions were proved to be honourable. * ' Matlub Saiyid l has written that. for 78 . *Tbe author is indebted to Mr APoMcd Study (pp. For the first time in his garden parties were given was a popular figure a leader of the people. assaulted during the confusion. go and letter Day in the history of Bombay. For some time after this he leaders. over the day that has secured us the triumph of democracy. The 'cold logician' crowd to Apollo Street. most of the facts in this report of the conflict between Lord WiHingdori and Jinnah . December the nth is a Redcracy could Gentlemen. made three remarkable decisions : he Mohammed from resigned the Imperial Legislative Council. Mohammed All Jinnah he became a tub-thumper for the only time in above the crowd and said : his life. the Indian National Congress. the joint recommendations of the Secretary Saiyid. the Home Rule League. he led a noisy dear the hall. career.
which Jinnah kcked. In January.ar fellow. 'Jinnah wanted her to tone down her criticism of the proposals. that was later 1 Gandhiji. early in 1919. with certain qualifications. in his idealistic policy of Hindu-Muslim unity. his version of the meeting between Jinnah and Dr Besant. . with his gift for emotional leadership. raise the was to catch the eye and Gandhi in prison or out fervour of the people. as the Montagu-Chelmsford in a statement to the Report. never argue with a woman/' The next move was during Council. and he had a two hours tete-a-tete conference with Dr Besant. when a committee of non-official ' the September session of the Legislative members approved the suggested Montagu-Chelmsford reforms. Through my Diary Leaves. Any sympathy for British policy that had been awakened in India by the Montagu-Chelmsford Report was killed by two alarming events. " " I ' asked. 14. Jinnah was among the outnumbered. Within a few weeks of the happy news of the armistice. December 1918. ' Well. Jinnah. but not to Indian 1 politics. the Extremists since described as Nationalists dominated the debates and wholly condemned the proposed * * Montagu-Chelmsford reforms. who had said of the Report that it was unworthy of England to offer 5 Mr Kanji Dwarkadas has recorded and unworthy of India to accept.' He tried to influence other leaders respect towards this serious consideration among them Dr Annie Besant. what " My de. 1 happened ? With his hand on his head he answered. the annual sessions of both Congress and the Muslim League met in Delhi. 79 . p. As he came out of her room almost half dead at about 8 in the evening. who came advising his countrymen to . in had been no deep differences of policy within Congress. but they were now outnumbered : by the Nationalists. Kanji Dwarkadas.* In November the war ended and a semblance of peace came to Europe. They had applauded all his peaceful intentions. with their demand for immediate self-government. since the split at Surat in 1907. . ' ' * ' down to Bombay to see him. there but.THE MONTAGU-CHELMSFORD REPORT and the Viceroy were published. for many Jinnah had to look close at his political chess-board the increasing support of the Moderates in years he had enjoyed Congress. During eleven years. the draft of a biU. Jinnah was cautiously favourable * he suggested vital changes/ but he ended his criticisms by press State : ' ' * treat the Report with due and serious consideration.
he further bewildered them by announcing the beginning of fe campaign for March 30. Although these powers were safe abuse/ and although they guarded by elaborate protection against were never enforced. remembering the success of his policy in Africa. superstitious people. less Gandhi's protest was personal : he commanded a day of South humility and prayer and. thoughtful Indians became anxious as to the possible. on he enumerated his objections. he . two . and it will have. : Jinnah shared this anxiety his fingers. OH April 7. the repugnant Rowlatt Act became on March 28.THE YEARS OF DISILLUSIONMENT passed Rowlatt Act. in Amritsar.socGeeded only in awakening the passions he dreaded most. believe relations that disastrous effect upon the good have existed between the Government and the people. came before the Legislative Council. he ordered a similar campaign of non-violent civil disobedience in India. one end to the other a dis you will create in this country from content and agitation the like of which you have not witnessed . . ' without a jury. and the ' ' police escorted him back to Bombay. The bill the outcome of recommendations of a committee presided over by Mr Justice Rowlatt sought to curb seditious crime by giving to detain and try insurgents and active enemies the Government as the power of its policy. and then changing it to April 6. if these measures me. Jinnah wrote to the Viceroy. Government of India of having ruthlessly trampled upon the prin Great Britain avowedly fought the war/ He ciples for which the passing of the Act clearly demonstrated that considered that -the Imperial Legislative Council was *a legislature but in name a machine propelled by a foreign Executive/ As a protest he tended his resignation. Also. and said. Gandhi was forbidden entry into the Punjab. a most are passed. accusing the law. and. But Gandhi did not sense the peril in releasing a thoughtful policy among millions of untutored. week of March. it is my duty to tell you that. 80 On the pth. at the end : . in the Legislative Council. . dangerous effects of such a new shackle on the freedom of the people. In many parts of India the day of humility and prayer became one of riots and blood-lust : when Gandhi made a tour of the big cities. and ended his letter with the hope that this In the third ' * ' ' ' ' Black Act * * would be ' annulled.
and enforced with humiliating ruthlessness. from which there were only two narrow ways of escape. who had been making rebellious speeches. Gandhi acted quickly and assumed the role their rights. was ordered to quell the disturbances. watching Hindus. The punishment 10. the Sultan's empire was to be divided and made by Mr powers as Caliph ignominiously lims in India were indignant against Britain for this ofience to their and they formed a Caliphate Movement to defend spiritual overlord. on August scene widens. were arrested for deportation. the British commander of the Jullundur Brigade. Dyer. only when he chose to espouse a cause of particular In this matter. The concern to the Muslims. and there were no religious implica in their regard for Gandhi's leadership. but.THE CALIPHATE MOVEMENT Hindu leaders. events served him well. Then followed an act of terrible folly General Dyer ordered his troops to fire on the Almost four hundred were killed. The Mus religious 81 . Three European bank managers were murdered. Then Gandhi realized the savage con : sequences of his civil disobedience movement. or succeeded reason. for a different They were monotheists. hundred wounded. and twelve defenceless throng. H. and his power over them went deeper than politics into subconscious instincts that were Jinnah had no part in these ' fused with their mysticism and their worship of many deities. to include Britain and her relationship with the Turks. But he also came to enjoy influence over the Muslims. or Great Soul '. His appeal to them tions when it was purely national and non-sectarian. their safes were On looted. several thousand Indians gathered within the Jallianwala Bagh a walled area. long after calm was restored to the Punjab. E. 1920 : Lloyd George to loyal Indian contrary to all assurances Muslims during the war. and the memory of Amritsar soured Indian for many years to come. Public meetings were declared unlawful. BrigadierGeneral R. Gandhi use his dangerous talent for influencing the aloof. on April 13. the nth. his and reduced. and a crowd of insurgents tried to fire the railway station. But sullen resentment remained. vanquished of Turkey was defined in the Treaty of Sevres. He was their Mahatma. at the end of the 1914-18 war. politics He remained terrible acts and decisions. and he called off the campaign. Martial law was declared throughout the Punjab. shared. These two acts led to cruel rioting in the city.
some of whom even agreed to form societies for the protection of cows/ as a reciprocal gesture to : in premonition of what was to happen. when the Ottoman Caliphate was abolished people. Despite his indignation. This was not his way and observed Mahatma Gandhi. Jinnah at " he again rebuked the self-satisfied who sat in Olympian Simla. In September. When he of Gandhi's campaign of non-co-operation. the Punjab atrocities. a * ' Sevres Treaty. sj*d$3e patiently. Jinnah remained reasonable. he said : Muslim League in Calcutta. can lead to only one e&i It led Russia to Bolshevism. It has led Ireland to Sinn Ifeinism. immoral and unjust treatment of the Caliphate. and the of the spoliation Caliphate. and injury upon injury. he wrote to the Viceroy * ' ' ' . He wrote also that he had neither respect nor affection for the Government that had failed to punish the officials guilty of the wanton cruelty and and he announced his decision to begin inhumanity in the Punjab of their champion. when the : * those Hindus who had agreed to be indignant over the British last stated his treat ment of the Caliphate. and the boycott of all he sat back British goods and enterprises. May it lead India to freedom. at the same Muslim session in Calcutta. (Was he being wise humbling : was deposed by his own and in March 1924. of the British Government " He denounced view. a campaign of complete non-co-operation. he made his protest against the Jinnah waited a month before had he any of the Caliphate. as if they It is its he was not dictatorial were students at : he advised : his Aligarh now for principle. disappointment upon disappointment. referring to the Viceroy " " Rowlatt Act. Sultan' the Shadow of God on Earth November * 1922. he had not joined the Caliphate tor ever ?) Jinnah was cautious Movement a crusade that demanded the renunciation of tides. In August. office and appointments in Government service. whether or not you 82 you to consider . approving of its principle. at a meeting of the the post-war reforms " : One degrading measure upon another.THE YEARS OF DISILLUSIONMENT few days after the signing of the and deplored the unscrupulous. seducing into his fold a number of powerful Muslim religious leaders." and then. whether or not you approve of and.
for I am fully convinced that I * ' * 83 . The liis stubborn devotion to episode demonstrated not only Jinnah's independence.JINNAH AND GANDHI OPPOSED approve of its operations of this scheme will strike one of you. He also extended the aim of the League. But once you have decided to march. the Chairman answered that it was open " if he could not abide to any member . Self-government within the British Empire. . speaking few. He thus enlarged its appeal beyond the EnglishIn October 1920. to the Hindi-speaking many. ' refused." It was then that Jinnah.. instinctive dislike ' ' of the Mahatma's mind. Under Dr Besant with Jinnah as a member the slogan had been. with nineteen other members. and therefore it rests with you alone to measure your strength and to weigh the pros and cons of the question before you arrive at a decision. in a letter that states. his thoughts at the time. Jinnah resigned Besant.' ' Gandhi appealed for complete Swaraj Britain. I am afraid I cannot accept them. The at the individual in each circumstances. she said. from the Home Rule League.* Jinnah deep. to resign his membership " by the altered constitution. He wrote : thank you for your kind suggestion offering me to take share in the new life that has opened up before the country.. let there be no retreat in any details. . most cleverly.' my If by new life you mean your methods and your programme. he had suggested that the the Hindi equivalent of Home title be changed to Swaraj Sabha Rule League. clearly. but there was no ambiguity The advice seemed ambiguous within himself. the " become so intertwined with Religion/' Gandhi had League had been elected in her place and. and ' it finally revealed constitutional methods ' : Gandhi wrote and asked him to return to the Home Rule League to take his share in the new life that had opened up before the country. decided to leave. freedom from all ties with Jinnah's reaction to this change was typical : the lawyer in him the absolute tidiness of his mind urged him to speak again of " " " and of" responsible government. had already departed because. When constitutional methods he protested that the meeting was not competent to change the " constitution of the League. its Dr creator. and Jinnah soon showed that he approved of neither the principle nor the details of Gandhi's plan.
' This was the described as wedge driven between himself and Gandhi whom he that Hindu revivalist at this time and for ever. You " have mesmerized the Muslims. people generally are desperate all over approached hitherto the country and your extreme programme has for the moment struck the imagination mostly of the inexperienced youth and the ignorant and the illiterate. Jinnah said to me. ' In future years. Gandhi said to Jinnah." you do. One day I went to see Jinnah. He was sitting up in bed. reading this and trying to find out exactly what is in his mind/ " Mohammed Noman. and agreed. in December 1920. " Not as much as tized the Hindus. You have hypno Another day. You know. .THE YEARS OF DISILLUSIONMENT it must lead to disaster your methods have already caused and division in almost every institution that you have split . and he stir the masses by way of their emotions was a sin. He said. there is a January c February 1940. One day Gandhi said to Jinnah. when they appeared together before an attack of reporters and press photographers. tion and chaos. What the consequences of this may be. Jinnah was to share many talks with Gandhi. . l the first secretary of the story told by " All-India Muslim Students Federation. don't you ? " Jinnah answered. Jinnah's thoughts and words grew out of his proved experience he helieved that emancipation could come only through the education of the people a conviction that had not wavered since he fought for : believed that to Gokhale's Elementary Education Bill. a speech that Gandhi had made it was some time in or Mr Home Rule League Jinnah's disillusionment became complete during the session of Congress at Nagpur. Fourteen thousand delegates met. . I have not slept a wink. I shudder to contemplate. . All this means complete disorganiza . Author of Muslim 84 . eight years before . and revealed itself in facetious exchanges of " mockery and sharp answers. to support the decision of the to 1 abandon all compromise and demand absolute India (1942). reading early in the morning." Jinnah answered. but the cleavage remained. under Gandhi's spell." In support of this amusing petulance between them. " You like this.
You talk too much of the consti way. that adds. but little." right way At this. How long have you been preaching ' Twenty ' said the Salvationist. 'Jinnah strongly of violent opposed this change and boldly stood his ground in spite opposition Recollections from a large part of the audience. whatever may be Diwan Chaman And he was unpurchasable. even prophesying an actual day September 1921 for India's deliverance. Come this ' Army meeting in progress. There regarded gazing no verbatim report of Jinnah' s political anarchy. and 30." said to the contrary. with on his face. where there was a Salvation * speaker was saying. Well/ was the don't think a hurt look answer.THE EDGE OP THE WILDERNESS freedom for to Almost to a man Jinnah excepted they agreed India. if it's much of it. to this picture of Jinnah on the edge of the wilderness. It reminds me of a story of a young Tory who came out of the Carlton Club one evening and walked up to Piccadilly tutional Circus. employ Gandhi's weapons of non-co-operation and boycott to is achieve this freedom. the delegates at Nagpur was Diwan Chaman Lall. he met antagonism from tke many members who were swerving towards Gandhi's opinions. He just lapsed into silence. unsophisticated man. I There is one paragraph. 85 . 1 To the author. in Sir Chimanlal Setalvad's and Refections. He has said of Jinnah Among whom knew in 1918 " He was a lovable. into his crystal." " only got you as far as Piccadilly Circus. the constitutional way is the right way. Jinnah parted with Congress. Jinnah said. leapt up and said. Lall has recalled * the scene during the Congress meeting at Nagpur when Jinnah protested against Gandhi's extreme " Your way is the wrong way : mine is the measures.' Diwan Chaman Lall then said. as The focus protest against what he was on the Mahatma. one of the leaders of the Caliphate Movement. The way it is God's way/ The young Tory this ? interrupted * * him and years. Sir Chimanlal wrote.' Thus he abandoned all public office except for his membership of the Muslim League and even there. "Jinnah sat down. Many years were to pass before any observer could decide whether .' said. the he first distinguished Indian barrister. Maulana " Mohamed Ali. After this.
' ' ' There are records of these years.' and he remained so. who seemed more in love with the t A | I 1HE How Dr Annie with any solution that might be bred of it ? that Gandhi believed in suffering. 1919. in 1931. and Congress and his ultimate decision. where the student who had trudged from /"These were die I years of his brief marriage.1921-1928 Mohammed Ali Jinnah's stubbornness goblin of a little his consistency -was the hob was mind. 1921-1928 of the 1920'$ are important tangled political arguments in so far as they help to clarify the picture of Mohamhere only ' was he influenced by med Ali Jinnah. to the end. between his resignation from. What part did he enact in the interplay between ? these arguments Gandhi and the other leaders. the Home Rule politics for ever. these years of lative the Imperial Legis League. but they are prejudiced. Jinnah had opportunity beeo a recluse for many years. married life was a solemn duty his young wife. and few letters from which to trace the progress ofJinnah's mind no painted portrait into which one might search for the look on his face. it was also an for pleasure. he was always was born on I for August 15. Council. holidays in London. for he was ary methods/ devoted to 'normal evolutionary methods. or the mark of a great strategist who content to bide his time. in many books published There are in India. p. Now he had to There ada|>t himself to a social life that was too merry for his nature. of which reluctant to speak. Dina Jinnah. 22. It is therefore difficult to keep the light on -him during . 1921-28. to his staid bachelor habits. and seldom detached. Hi only child. coming home from the law courts. Kanji Dwarkadas. 86 . For Jinnah.' and that he Besant's view was conflict than ' * was not happy if he achieved his object through normal evolution 1 In this also Jinnah was his opposite. or his political meetings. to settle in England and abandon Indian lull. no diaries. : 1 Gandhlji. The question is.
in almost greater degree of responsibility had been given to of local government. He continued to believe star watch another enjoying the heavens." Always. and you then act accordingly. if " Congress had " really boycotted foreign goods up to like would accept " their principle only He now ? when they built their own mills and men. The details of these reforms every department a glance at are explained in many political histories of this period : them shows G that. and in January 1921 the Duke of Connaught arrived to inaugurate the new constitution. Jinnah " It is a pity there are so few men like spoke in memory of his friend him to be with us in such a critical time as the present.GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT. now Jinnah learned to reconcile these holidays and excitements with his work as a brilliant advocate. receiving the highest fees paid in India. of the major provinces. I first decide what is right and the opposition vanishes. while * ' land revenue. jr. In politics." during these years. in later years. Gokhalc's death." Gandhi had talked of with from Government-aided schools and sending them into drawing boys he had even tried to induce the the villages to teach the illiterate students to leave Aligarh still the chief stronghold of young Muslim the people into a : " scholarship. will please people " You try to find out what My way of action is I quite different. in the legislatures such departments as finance. A the Indians. he had to do it. and police. he had retired to a second place from which he watched Mahatma Gandhi's overwhelming success. but. achieved by ways that Jinnah despised. 1919 Lincoln's Inn to one gas-lit room on the drab edge of Kensington had to endure the frivolities of the Berkeley and the Savoy. he dragged conces competed with the foreigners Gandhi's dreams back to earth and reality. The people come around me and this true. He said to a rival politician. The Government of India Act of 1919 had introduced many sions to the Indian people." He was " " " " in his mind that Gandhi's programme was convinced taking : On the sixth anniversary of Gopal Krishna wrong channel. " that. he must then build national schools in their place. Of Gandhi's campaign of non-cooperation and boycott of British goods. in the King's name. Jinnah " How many of the twenty thousand delegates at the National asked. Jinnah answered these extravagant ideas with the practical argument Gandhi boycotted the schools founded on the British pattern. were reserved 87 .
Jinnah still waited he took little part in political affairs until November 1923. that the great bulk of the Parsee community and all their responsible leaders have definitely recognized that their interest as a community les in opposition to the forces of disorder and non-cooperation. It is social life at this clothes. unopposed. the Prince of Wales arrived in Bombay : he said. after ' In Bombay.' * Jinnah no doubt shared this belief. loyalty of the Parsee community.1921-1928 the care of education. Lord Reading succeeded Lord Chelmsford as Viceroy. as a protest against the Prince's visit. whilst giving to care for their own social and nation-building services. The first polls under the new constitution had been held in November 1920. Thus. the British were trying to keep the Indians the the internal security in their hands. by tbe Muslims of Bombay. at Gandhi's behest. . ise was arrested for sedition and sent to prison. I want to grasp " I feel Then your difficulties and to understand your aspirations. led to lust for plunder and rapine . patiently wliea he was elected to the Central Legislative Assembly. I 9' " part ' ' public burning of foreign Jinnah's friends." the difficulty which I may experience in getting to know some awe at of Bombay. by ' ' ' of dyarchy or dual-government. the elected members formed the majority. as a measure against further disaster. with his wife's Parsee time was mostly written by therefore interesting to read. My sole 88 object is to serve the cause of . but Jinnah had not sought election. On November 17. His plea. chosen from public health. ' was transferred to Indian ministers. to tie Governor and his executive council. was ' ' ' * ' : moderate tide : Ke " said..' as he called it. in the confidential report the Political Secretary to the Government of India. the Mahatma's mass awakening. opportunity The change that * ' Assembly. that his interests also lay in Meanopposition to the forces of disorder and non-cooperation/ whle. want you to know me and I want to know you. a system the elected leaders of the Provincial Legislatures. perhaps the principal political the Prince had departed : result of the visit has been indirectly to strengthen the traditional The general effect has been . and the introduction of a two-house old Imperial Legislative with a Council of State and a Central Legislative parliamentary system. . In April 1921. was the abolition of the might have affected Jinnah Council. I have no desire to seek any post or position or from the Government. etc. In both houses. before the elections. and. there was a In another India.
. He said. But the promises made by Congress in the Lucknow Pact." In February 1925. with a fixed number of seats in the legislatures." His faith in Hindu-Muslim unity did not weaken." He said. Jinnah later recalled * that from onwards efforts were made for the adjustment of 1925 many " Hindu-Muslim differences. Jinnah pleaded for adequate representa tion of the Muslims and of other minorities in all the legislatures of the country he called on the Hindus to realize that. . in spite of the terrible evidence that the differences between the two communities were so deep-rooted that no politician could ever hope to dispel them. * ' . The officer was Captain Gracey " chosen to organize the deputation at Sandhurst now General Sir Douglas Gracey who has : 2 said. at a meeting of the the advent of foreign rule and its continuance in India is primarily due to the fact that the people of India. I am almost inclined to say that India will get Dominion Responsible Government the day the Hindus and Muslims are united.INDIANIZATION OF ARMY the country as best I can. " were ignored and never kept. "." He added. in 1916. 89 . In May 1924 three months after Gandhi had been released from prison Jinnah again stated his enduring belief. . on the pattern of Sandhurst. . April 1943. are not united and do Muslim League in Lahore. This involved a journey. during the visits to Sandhurst. One episode. unless Muslims were guaranteed separate electorates. not sufficiently trust each other. Jinnah was appointed to the committee which was ' to advise on the Indianization of the army and the establishment of a military training college. Jinnah's behaviour with the officers who gave evidence before it was as if he were the deputation was so arrogant dealing with 1 2 In his speech before the Muslim League. with our proposals formulated. "For some reason or other the reply was always No '. his people would be in constant fear of being dominated and outvoted in every province where they were in a minority. to Europe and England. . the Congress. Every time we were the the supplicants standing at the doors of Mr Gandhi and petitioners." But these conciliatory words became lost in the widening rift be tween the two communities. particularly the Hindus and Muslims. In a conversation with the author. spirit... proved that Jinnah was still overbearing in his manner that experience was not bringing mellowness to his lively : .
a touching insight into Jinnah's have remembered the episode at Sandhurst with bitterness. I deputation character.' In May. But these local affairs were make to overshadowed. and point out that with the object of the officers were giving evidence voluntarily. He and. The outcome of the was the establishment of the military college -at Dehra I had to protest : Dun. Johh government ' 192$ : two months kter.1921-1928 hostile witnesses before a judge. He remembered me quite well. Simon and his colleagues arrived in Bombay on February 3. In November 1926. and continued his Jinnah returned to India for unity.' Their good faith towards the any future scheme of Hindus was shown by should their proposals be accepted to give to their willingness * Hindu minorities in the predominantly Muslim Provinces the same concessions that Hindu majorities in other Provinces are prepared to Muslim minorities. he General Sir Douglas Gracey added. he became reasonable. That was something I always liked about him in kter years once he was challenged. showed resentment. for ! might When my name had stood up to him in no mean fashion." with the deputation. and to advise on further reforms and measures of self/ There was an immediate outcry. consideration. at elected to the Central Legislative Assembly." calmed down immediately. him. and that they had a right to be treated with courtesy and helping " Of course. when the Committee of Congress agreed. in the main. by the announcement that Sir John Simon and six other members of the British Parliament would proceed to India. to review the progress made under the constitution of 1919. to his proposals for Muslim representation. there was a glimmer of hope that Jinnah might have his way. and he would never bear malice afterwards. for me. against the all-white membership of the Commission. alone. and other Muslim leaders set down their proposals for Delhi. in November 1927. in which Jinnah ' Sir jdined. Jinnah * in the various legislatures in representation Constitution. but never me. he was again weakening campaign . Jinnah sailed for England. and welcomed [to follow with good grace. . But no came up before him as Commander-in-Chief of the Army in Pakistan General Sir Frank Messervy] he accepted me. In March 1927.
an old Parsee friend tried to reconcile them : Jinnah said " we both need some sort of understanding we It is my fault to him. and their habits. 91 . loneliest is men who frankly in a despondent mood. "I went to the hospital immediately. Once. . : cannot give. mounted mounted a donkey. Diwan Chaman Lall induced Jinnah to go ashore. . the united voice of the nation would be Hindu-Muslim irresistible. ." . . frankly disgusted. He said problem to solve and settle is the problem of . with her parents. Jinnah was also staying.." Mrs Jinnah had already sailed for Europe. when her husband left Bombay in April 1928 . Diwan . England. Jinnah advance. was creeping through the Canal.. I had always admired 1 To the author. I say that. the voyage into his unfortunate heart. and his one experiment in private happiness apparently wrecked for ever. He has 1 described the sad story of what followed. where Mrs. then.. While the ship in his immaculate clothes. crete proposition. And yet he is the of men. unity. When they came to Suez. And suppose we did settle the problem. Mrs Jinnah had left the house in Mount Pleasant Road and had gone to live in the Taj Mahal Hotel. and they went to : Diwan Chaman Lall see the Sphinx. Husband and wife had come to a crisis in their relationship where the difference in their ages. Soon alone. One of Jinnah's companions on his voyage was Chaman Lall. his political career in dark confusion. It is a con . This is not a mere phrase. Jinnah went to Ireland. Jinnah. made harmony impossible. a camel." The Today he is. who wrote of him : his friend..THE LONELIEST OF MEN Early in 1928. after the ship arrived in and Diwan Chaman learned that Lall to Paris. after they parted. Chaman Lall had been in his hotel only a few minutes when he Mrs Jinnah was in an hospital. first unfortunately. Diwan Chaman Lall had observed Jinnah's political problems during a few weeks' later he was to see past these concerns. dangerously ill. He is one of the few have no personal motives to nurse or personal aims to His integrity is beyond question.
And down the long and silent street. Where is Ruttie ? quarrelled : she has gone back to Bombay/ finality that I ' ' He He with such dared not ask any more.' When I came to the closing lines. ' answered. can save her he came out of her bedroom. and I left Paris soon afterwards. for Canada. I think we we'll change the doctor and take her to another hospital. She repeated. in 1924. he said. " I took the book it was a volume of Oscar Wilde's poems. silver-sandalled feet. A few days When : the hospital while he went Jinnah arrived from Ireland. to hold a candle : and Jinnah was inherently incapable of understanding her. but she held a book in her hand and she gave it to Read it to me. opened spoiled child. girl. Cham. wondering why he was said alone. in a whisper. Like Lord Birkenhead had never been intimidated Jinnah.THE 'PARTING OF THE WAYS' there is not a woman in the world today Ruttie Jionah so much She was a lovely. it We In the evening. I said to him.' Ruttie Jinnah recovered. Cham/ she said. with a temperature of 106 degrees. in the : SOME had 92 . by authority he also had scored many victories over judges in the law courts. During four years as Secretary of State. The dawn. with looked up. I spent a day with Jinnah. She was lying in bed. to her for beauty and charm. believing they were reconciled. Crept like a frightened I Ruttie was in a coma. me. She could barely move. ' : ' at The Harlot's House. Secretary of State for India. Some weeks passed and I was in Paris again. I hurried out and brought the doctor. Please read it to me. am " sure she will pull through. Lord Irwin [now the Earl of Halifax] Lord Birkenhead had become Baldwin government." THE 'PARTING OF THE WAYS' of the chief players in the drama of Indian affairs had changed: in April 1926. later. I waited in in to see her two and a half hours he was * with I her. he had become impatient arrived as Viceroy .
especially with their boycott of the Simon Commission. was published in August while Jinnah was still in Paris and it was then pkced before the members of a Unity Conference at Lucknow. destructive criticism The challenge led. he spoke before another in Calcutta. : ' ' three days after his fifty-second birthday All-Parties Conference. first. 'All the conferences in the world cannot bridge the unbridgeable/ Neverthe early in 1928 he challenged the Indians to produce their own scheme for a Constitution. in Calcutta. under any future Con in stitution. the presentation at the conference of the Nehru Report.NEHRU REPORT with the long dekys and arguments of the partisans in India. on over the future of India : ' December ever be written. a committee was appointed. under Pandit Motilal Nehru. The main proposals were that. to an All-Parties Conference in Bombay. the Nehru Report and the decisions of typical proviso the Lucknow Conference are not like the laws of the Medes and Persians the kst word in the matter. On December : : . on his way home. . He was a pessimist he had written to Lord Reading.' He believed also that the Hindus and Muslims were irreconcilable. was cautious he said that he had not yet " " " had time enough to digest the report he supposed the signa " and various prominent men who met at Lucknow had tories " " made an effort towards Hindu-Muslim unity/' and added. and its Muslim League had drawn up a series of amendments which had been sent to the Nehru Committee. and not ' ' menaced by a Hindu-majority Centre. that fit ' 4. a minimum of one-third of the elected representatives both houses of the Central Legiskture should be Muslims ." 28 Jinnah kept his kst word for two months. one " " this their cannot help appreciating great endeavour/' Then " However. To me it is frankly inconceivable that India will for Dominion self-government/ A month later he had we In ultimate analysis. also that Between the time of the drafting in the Provinces thus ensuring residuary powers should be vested that the Muslim-majority Provinces should be autonomous. less. and he wrote. From this. instead of always indulging in mere of the Government. the strength of the British position is are in India for the good of India. 1924. 93 . on landing at Bombay. . The report of the committee father of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. ' ' ' * A His comment copy reached Jinnah at Aden.
with great spirit cold printed record of his speech. and that all communities should live in a friendly and harmonious in this vast country of ours. "jroit Mr Jionah stood up bads from England wearing the fashionable clothes he had brought and he pleaded for his people. Jinnah expressed of the Nehru Committee's recommenda over the policy proportion to. unity. person : he was reserved." " and of minorities. political of the Committee is neither helpful nor fruitful in any way whatsoever.8 and it is a fine thing that I can tell you. and disgust. winch would oust the Muslims from any " I fair part in India's am exceedingly sorry that the Report future. 1 Yes. above he repeated his demands justice He warned the Conference of the dangers of a Constitu all. did not impress his listeners. wherever such mittee. But I wish to tell about the day in 192. of This fine old gentleman. . dignified and lonely." . it must be in reservation has ' ' strict population. skill. child. The first speaker to follow him. which is tion under which minorities felt insecure " revolution and civil war." him what he " as he talked of him a spoilt Among tie those Nwserwanjee. that a Hindu-Muslim settlement should be reached. who listened to Jinnah's speech was a Earsee. who had instead adopted to be made for the Muslim minority. and a friend of Jinnah.. was an admirer.. Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru. Muslims. apparent even in the for the Muslim minority. apt to be oppressive and tyrannical. Jinnah said. Ms memory is very beautiful to me. died. during which he repeated the demands of the his grief. 94 . with their dread and fear that their interests and " " their rights might suffer and be prejudiced/' Then.' In a long speech. who has since " He has said. dragged Jinnah's appeal and warning into the dust of personalities : and be finished with wanted. I think it will be recognized that it is absolutely essential to our progress." " although he was for giving it. which came true nineteen years kter." " He then spoke of majorities. . and. He was never a demonstrative new city of Karachi. a naughty child. of the inevitable result This formidable prophecy. with fine emphasis. and the mayor. I knew the 1 To the author. Jamshed who was to become the builder.THE 'PARTING OF THE WAYS' These moderate proposals had been ignored ' by the Nehru Com the principle that. its short-sighted tions.
thing that he did pleading. His demands were rejected. Two months later.DEATH OF RUTTENBAI JINNAH of his heart he believed that the Hindus and Muslims could greatness be brought together. 95 . He was sadly humbled. 'Jamshed. he began to talk. Some years kter. Jinnah abandoned his / I ' 5 jdefences he bowed his head and sobbed. There was no hate in him. Jinnah was away from Bombay. increasing the solitariness from which : . and he went back to his " About and train. went back to his house on Malabar Hill to the chill comfort Jinnah of being alone. mained in his bachelor house. He re 1929. I Jinnah left Calcutta by half-past eight next morning. fMrs Jinnah was dangerously ill at the Taj Mahal Hotel in Bombay. twice. the tears on his cheek. He was Mr took is standing at the door of his first-class coupe compartment. she died not yet twenty-nine years old. he wept. he was to ascend to greatness there was no light to encourage him in such a hope. after his The first time I saw him weep was meeting It is a fine rejected at the Calcutta to consider the amendments had been Nehru Report. in man. He had tears in his eyes as he said. as a great people. after Partition. After a tense silence. One man said that Mr Jinnah had no right to speak on behalf of the Muslims that he did not represent them. and his marriage had ended in and power but. and he hand. he told me how much he wished the Muslims to be tolerant of the minorities in Pakistan. no but I $aw him weep. went to see him off at the railway station. but he hurried back for the long burial service in the Muslim cemetery. in tragedy. In time. He was never generous with tears oh. in January 1948. Kanji When the body was lowered into the earth. " When he saw their misery. I saw His cheeks were very noble. I beg you to believe that Mr : Jinnah was a humanitarian. hotel. with / Kanji Dwarkadas beside him. for his 1928. Once was after Partition. hurriedly. of his political worries. Dwarkadas did not answer. : . this my the parting of the ways. He had to endure two griefs at once his belief in Hindu-Muslim unity was shattered.' " During the days of struggle that led to this parting of the ways. when I went with him to see an encampment of Hindus who had stayed on in Pakistan. and he sat behind the mourners.
" clothes . When an old friend called. He is a great personality. I had Mr Jinnah to talk to.. on the 29th. the actor. & his English on Burke's Speeches.. ". at the British Commonwealth Labour Conference. he saw a cold. The pretty objects Mrs Jinnah had every photograph. B. & the big gold bowls were filled with bright scarlet sweet peas. 75 covers were laid. All the gold plate was out.. . a touching letter was written by the wife * of a British officer who met Jinnah at a dinner-party at Viceregal Lodge in Simla. & now I have had my wish. Mr Ramsay MacDonald as Prime Minister. with Mr Wedg wood Benn * as Secretary of State for India. EXILE: 1930-1934 morning of June 5. . I have always wanted to meet him. . After dinner. wife of the kte Major-General G. . 96 in London. 1928. to describe his wife's last hours. Freeth. . every bought for the house were packed away : mourning was the souvenir of the desperate years correct black was removed. Deputy A^tant-GeiieraL * Afterwards Viscount Stansgate. He is a future Vice Roy. H.. Thus King George V received his second Labour Government. He models his manners & on Du Maurier. towards the end of May 1929. The only sign of band on the sleeve of Jinnah's coat. if the present system of gradually Indianizing all the services continues. Mr MacDonald had said. . * July 2. Indian nationalists were greatly encouraged eleven months before. She wrote to her mother. 1929. At a time when public failure and private grief might have over whelmed him. He talks the most beautiful English. . discouraging look in Jinnah's eye and did not dare broach the subject. 3 the ON I kissed hands : hope that within a period of months to the jnay be a 1 new Dominion added rather than years there Commonwealth of our Mrs Freeth.EXILE : 1930-1934 he was never to escape.
Mohammed Ali Jinnah was one of the fiftyeight delegates from British India.FIRST nations . 97 . damning the Simon Commission and informing him that India had He then suggested a lost her faith in the word of Great Britain/ which would most probably be acceptable that His solution Majesty's Government should invite representatives of India. to sit in conference with them. The Mahatma had refused to attend the first 1 Conference. These representations led to the first Round Table Conference. men at this time : Jinnah.. ROUND TABLE CONFERENCE race.' coming directly ' ' from the Prime Minister. Sir John Simon." Jinnah claimed that such an invitation. full responsibility for government was to ' * be in Indian hands/ In the later Conferences. I Mohammed Ali Jinnah wrote to Mr MacDonald on June 19. It is interesting to compare the two 1 He was subsequently imprisoned. He wrote It seems to us that what would be required would be the setting up of some sort of conference . to " use the words of the Viceroy. [in which] His Majesty's Government would meet both representatives of British India and representatives of the States . but... made a similar suggestion to the Prime Minister. Dominion that will Commonwealth. Jinnah was to be overshadowed by the Aga Khan. with a view to reaching a solution which might carry. . still in the throes of preparing his : report.. but he became a dominant figure when the delegates met again. ' would be in a position to deliver the goods .. and were encouraging. the willing assent of the political ' India.. otherwise. a a Dominion of another find self-respect as an equal within this refer to India. who ' ' ' ' ' . * certain safeguards defence and financial stability were still to be controlled by regarding ' ' the British. in London. The first sessions lasted through into January. . . as leader of the Muslim delegation. 1930. in September 1931. which was opened by the King in St James's Palace on November 12. from April 1930 to January 1931.' would be * irresistible/ On October 16. and the conclusions Future development was to be on a Federal basis : December. for the purpose of seeking the greatest measure of agreement for the final proposals which it would later be the duty of His Majesty's Government to submit to Parliament. and by Gandhi.
with their angers. we want x British help in many know perfectly things for a long time I this interview. as the fury of Indian politics . The rival leaders merely transplanted their fierce domestic squabbles from India to London. .. retired from " seditious fakir ". His Life and 98 . ' One of the delegates to the Iqbal. March 13. as an English gentleman. In that event. 1931. King George V. " I want to see India established in her own self-respect and in the respect of the world.. and their common contempt for Britain. to the King. His shall We Majesty's Government would be compelled to apply a provisional scheme. in search of a house in which he could live. : I believe to be definitely untrue to suggest 2 . The closing sessions met in an the suspicion of the Indians atmosphere of suspicion and contempt : for each other. I therefore want to see India able to discuss with Great Britain on terms of equality. Harold Nicolson. p. 508. assuming the language of a Sir Winston Churchill once disillusioned and silent.EXILE: 1930-1934 walking over Hampstead Heath. . The delegates went home. : he wrote of the that King he is out to break the unity of Your Majesty's Empire/ Sir. well that yet. . He said : plans are held soon find that our endeavours to proceed with our up indeed they have been held up already if you cannot present us with a settlement acceptable to all parties as the foundations upon which to build. Lord Irwin was succeeded by Lord Willingdon. and they stirred up unreasonable scenes whenever the communal problem was discussed. for they are determined that even this disability shall not he permitted to be a bar to progress. Viceroy. . . and Gandhi the called him. in March 1931. The Con ference ended with a rebuke from Mr Ramsay MacDonald. later included in the Government of India Act of 193 5. the greatest Muhammad 1 In April. Round Table Conferences was Sir Muslim philosopher and poet of his as Viceroy. to . the harmony in The second Round Table Conference failed which the delegates had met in 1930 was shattered in 193 r. leaving the British Government to apply their own provisional scheme for communal representation. constitutional politician and saying to the Viceroy." Lord Irwin * : was impressed it.
the North-West Frontier Province. Jinnah had retired into a of stubbornness and eclipse. the forma Sind and Baluchistan. 99 . at least of North-West India. haunted by the memory of his unfortunate marriage." he even demanded. He " 1 To base a constitution on the conception of a homo said. But. is unwittingly to prepare her for a civil war. lieved would be : " I would like to see the Punjab. of a consolidated North-West Indian Muslim State appears to me to be the final destiny of the Muslims. by the end of the second state Round Table Conference. amalgamated into a single state . had been educated in Lahore." It seems that. All that remained to him out of this disorder was his talent as an advocate." He said. and he was not included in the third Conference because he was not thought to represent any considerable school of opinion in India." Jinnah met Sir Muhammad Iqbal many times in London. and discouraged as a politician. Almost a decade was to pass before he " admitted that he had finally been led to IqbaFs conclusions. in 1930. and on Mohammed Ali Jinnah. He stayed in England. he decided to make his home in London and to practise at the Privy Council Bar. which. Jinnah did not yield to IqbaTs arguments. He was a philosopher never a fanatic and his influence over the fortunes of the Muslim people. as a result of careful examinations and study of the constitutional problems tion facing India. claims. and they were good friends. Abandoning all other interests. who was born in 1876. he be frontiers of a proposed " in the best interests of India and Islam. He had made no important speeches during either of the first two sessions.SIR MUHAMMAD : IQBAL time. Iqbal had already studied the miserable dilemma of the Muslims in India. and he had dismissed as impossible the unity that Jinnah had believed in. despite his disillusionment. and argued for. . Iqbal. and in contemporary At the Muslim League session in Allahabad. or to apply to India the principles dictated by British democratic sentiments. Cambridge and Munich Bis politics had grown out of scholarship and a deep sense of history. and defined the Iqbal advocated partition " consolidated Muslim State ". geneous India. . There are vague 1 in newspapers. was profound and enduring. during more than twenty years.
and to a golden illusion. the Sunday before. and the traitors in I efforts. : ' India. thirty-nine years the Selec Chronicle (Manchester) recalled that Jinnah had addressed but was tions Committee of the Yorkshire divisional Labour party. The Mussalmans were like dwellers in No Man's Land they were led by either the flunkeys of the British Government or the camp: followers of the Congress.. nor could I make the Mussalmans realize the precarious position. so that he could fight India's battles Dadabhai Naoroji had fought them. The position was most unfortunate. We ' ! don't want a toff like that. but It so utterly helpless. ' in Westminster. the Hindu sentiment. the Congress camp on the other. toadies and flunkeys on the one hand. 1932.EXILE : I930~ I 934 reminiscences published in India. Whenever attempts were made to organize the Muslims. I felt so disappointed and so depressed that I decided to settle down in London. its best policy would be to introduce at once a bill giving India leave out the idea of a federation of all India self-government. of April 18." one of the Labour men remarked the Trades no proof in any letters. the Hindu attitude led me to the conclusion that there was no hope of unity. as ' " turned down is because of his immaculate dress. that Jinnah wished to become a ' Labour member of the House of Commons. nor any record in the archives of Union Congress. when to the students of Aligarh in 1938 He said : I received the shock of my life at the meetings of the Round Table Conference. nor change Hindu mentality . the federation is in England. 100 .. Not that I did not I felt love India. At the time of his death in 1948. the Hindu mind. In the face of danger. to my mind/ . to whom he said If the British Government wishes to bring peace and good-will in There . I felt very pessimistic about my country. * was in this state of mind that Jinnah began his exile in England. to support this story nor did Jinnah There is only a refer to such a wish in his subsequent speeches. frustrated the began to feel that neither could I help India. in a speech Jinnah gave his own reasons for remaining he had again settled in India. a mirage. of a speech which he report. ever in The Yorkshire Post. made to the members of the Leeds Luncheon Club.
" Graham Wood's terms with grace : he asked Jinnah accepted Lady her to recommend a school to which he could send his daughter. a drive. once-pretty Victorian pleasance. he paused before West Heath House. he was able to enjoy the precise. ' : the judgement with which he conducted his cases before the Privy Council/ was now dignified and secure his fortune was growing and he could enjoy the pleasant luxuries he had learned to accept Carlton Grill. and talks with calm. Lord Jowitt Bar he wrote. ordained habits of a London He breakfasted punctually and. to his care. the chauffeur. this time. to drive him to his chambers in King's Bench Walk. a great gentleman. when Jinnah was walking in Hampstead. intelligent lawyers. she England and be with her brother. and calmer address. Also. with many rooms and gables. the inn before which 101 On . From abandoned all other interest. to travel to resigned from her work in Bombay. In pkce of Bombay. It was a three-storied villa. In kter was to recall this period of Jinnah's practice at the years. as most courteous. All that he begged was that he might be allowed to move into the house as soon as possible.PEACE IN HAMPSTEAD June 1931. and eight of garden and pasture. and a tall tower which gave a splendid view One day in over the surrounding country. and twelve smaller. Jinnah Heath to Kenwood past Jack Straw's Castle. and she remembers him. to his death. and his career. in West Heath Road. with the angers of his inheritance for ever pressing upon him. than during the early days in Bombay. and he agreed to take over Bradbury. built in the confused style of the i88o's. We all had a great admiration for his legal skill and house. In September 1931 Jinnah took possession of West Heath House. the day when he first called. at nine o'clock. on " most charming. carefully chosen dinners at the still security of their London clubs. Nearby whom Jinnah bought the house . modern houses occupy the from lives Lady Graham Wood. Bradbury was at the door with the car. There he built up his new career. in the of his sister. and he assumed the pattern of life that suited him. with less fire of words. acres There was a lodge. who had liked to walk across Hampstead Saturdays and Sundays. All are gone now. leading down to Childs Hill. Miss Fatima he enjoyed the constant companionship Jinnah's life : Jinn ah.
One morning in November 1932. my . with the plea. Mohammed AH Jinnah read a review of H. in character perplexed were as different as any two libertine. An Intimate in the Literary Supplement of The Times. and their com panionship had become a delight to both of them.' He might also have comprehended the protest Mustafa Kemal made to his companions ' Jinnah might have recognized himself in the descrip ' 102 . into putting a brief aside.' tion of Mustafa Kemal as an abnormally self-sufficient boy who 'rarely made friends with other children. my holidays. These were Jinnah's years of order and contemplation. mind. dear. Jinnah seemed to enjoy leisure. so he was more or cwtside world. purdah 4 ' quite uneducated '. it is good. less Jinnah's His mother also had lived in and had been contemporary. daughter then aged thirteen and " said. framed the distant and the final storm of conquest. and ignorant of all the ordinary affairs of the Mustafa Kemal was born in 1881. wedged in between the time of early struggle. and the other a puritan they Like . for the first time in his life : the harmony of this high landscape. and Keats's nightingales still sang. After breakfast he walked and bought a copy For two days Jinnah was absorbed in the story of Kemal Ataturk: when he had finished. Armstrong's Grey Wolf. the hill at Hampstead past the pond and down Study of a Dictator. drinking ginger beer with his children. he handed the book to his of the book. * men could be. C.EXILE: 1930-1934 Karl Marx used to sit during his exile. Jinnah was to create a nation out of a multitude of Muslim people one a but. Read this." so much For many days afterwards he talked of Kemal Ataturk * that his daughter chaffed him and nicknamed him Grey Wolf'. where Constable's trees still view of St Paul's. I am on It is " cajole him Come Grey Wolf. within earshot of The Spaniards. after all. She was then on holidays from her English school. slim all his life : she alone could extend her hand and expressive as his and on. take me to a pantomime ." interesting to read the story of Kemal Ataturk again and imagine the influence the book must have had on Ali Jinnah's Mohammed Grey Wolf'. She alone could tease her father a fond treatment he had kcked.
" nant under the iniquities ment of Mohammed Ali Jinnah. the leader. There are passages in Grey Wolf that must have recalled Jinnah from the safe habits of his exile. and with dreams and shadows They have cost ! J. at twenty. equally indignant under the apparent harshness of British rule in India. the personal parallels end. ' ' himself always the centre. and free from all foreign interference/ Then the broader vision I am neither a believer in a league of all the nations of Islam. * . within its own frontiers. . ence our policy. and of Mustafa Kemal seeing ' Other be like the rest of you I mean to he from the rebellious young Turk. back to the passions of Indian politics . had played a game of forfeits with some English friends and refused to pay his forfeit a kiss for one of the because he thought it wrong to kiss a woman girls in the party unless he was in love with her. but the Government must be stable. over a conference table. . high up alone on a pinnacle of greatness/ * have occurred to him that he was to enjoy similar prestige and emin ence. * whom ' Jinnah read of Mustafa Kemal in the full flood-light of his great It would not prestige. difficult youth with ' to be intimate/ it was impossible But there. . We read. at the same age. somebody. the ruler obeyed and respected ' by all/ Jinnah also had been a brilliant.GREY WOLF at school " : I don't mean cries. find echoes in the develop to . plunging wildly into the unclean life of the great metropolis of Constantinople/ and the immaculate Jinnah who. and achieve them. with a fixed policy grounded on facts. indig of Abdul Hamid. ! us dear in the past/ Jinnah might have read " repeated aloud. . He read of Mustafa Kemal Now he repeated * ' own : Turkey must be an independent sovereign state. not by ordering two thousand of his cavalry to advance towards the English lines/ but with the lone sword of his ' argument. publicly the terms on which Turkey would make peace. There could be no recognition between Mustafa Kemal. Away with dreams and shadows They have cost . and with one view and one view alone to safeguard the life and the independence of the nation within its Neither sentiment nor illusion must influ national frontiers.~H 103 . nor even in a league of the Turkish peoples. back to his cause '. Each of us has the right to hold to his ideals. All the young men cried out for reform . Away this important statement a second time. in Grey Wolf.
He took part in and was secretary of the Indian Majlis. It was part of Ali Khan's talent that he could charm vast. to the end. in July 1933. because they formed one mind. But he did not practise the law Oxford. Liaquat Ali his nature that Khan did not mind trator : indeed. He was called to the Bar in the Inner Temple in 1922. Liaquat and that he was not "over-ambitious. or his ideas. but he had never his ' speeches. and of their meeting at Hampstead. and in 1926 he was elected to the Legislative Council of the United Provinces. Jinnah enjoyed his it own omnipotence." : 1930-1934 : He was himself coming to the end of a dream the illusion One evening of peace. immediately. You will remember how he was cried 1 down 104 as not being in any sense an To the author. was part of he enjoyed the subtle the brilliant adminis rewards of second place. In the years that followed. graduated : began to stir.EXILE us dear in the past. known to the masses. illiterate audiences. to talk to his exiled leader. born in 1896. in always He described himself as a proletarian. He was to become the builder of Jinnah's architectural design. : a politician. when made himself. where his political ideas undergraduate debates. they were : to become inviolable. was Jinnah's junior by he had been broader. and the trust between them remained absolute. "They had known each other from 1928 at the Calcutta Conference where Jinnah was so humiliated. great part of the fortunes of Pakistan were decided on the day. and had then gone to Exeter College. in July 1933. had Liaquat Ali Khan was the ally Jinnah needed. Liaquat Ali Khan and his wife arrived at to return to India. was not to last much longer. West Heath House and begged Jinnah Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan. Jinnah's appeal ' been to the educated Indians the phrase occurs often. Jinnah was to . in Hampstead. and returned to he became India in the same year. and richer twenty years. * Begum Liaquat Ah Khan has spoken of the friendship between Mohammed Ali Jinnah and her husband. . find in him the complement to his own talents together. when A Liaquat Ali Khan crossed Hampstead Heath. His education had from Aligarh in 1918.
But Jinnah was in England it was believed that he would never come back and that he was disgusted with his own people. 'Well. 105 You know. I felt that nothing could move him out of " that security. They need someone who is unpurchasable. Liaquat had the belief that Jinnah was the one man who could save the League. come to dinner on Friday. I seem to remember. niy husband liked. remember It him ' saying. he was . " Liaquat and I arrived in London and we met Jinnah at a reception. and believed in him as much then as he did at the end.* But he listened to Liaquat. test judgment. : by him Muslim state . ' situation . You must come back. It was a lovely evening. He said. ' I chirped in. with trees apple trees. Jinnah. .LIAQUAT ALI KHAN Liaquat was one of those who stood he had always admired Jinnah. The Muslim League was in a degraded the finances were being misused and the League had neither dignity nor power. my husband devoted every day to his Liaquat was a very happy man as we drove back to London. and the Muslims. women work for you I'll bring them back into the fold/ He smiled at me and said. attending to all his comforts. After dinner. politics at that time. the most journeys and his enquiries.' "Jinnah suddenly said. But Liaquat * was not to be denied. and in the end he said. for some months. " We were married early in 1933 and we decided to go to Europe for our honeymoon. The cause had gone downhill seemingly beyond : recall. And it was true Jinnah was unpurchas He listened." I'll give up I trust life your my here and " We sailed for India and. return.' " So we drove to Hampstead. And Miss big life in England.' : was a word.' If the feelings of all parts of the country. You must remember the circumstances of accepted leader of the Muslims. " I had hero-worshipped * Mr Jinnah for a long time. : and of his contentment at Hampstead. You alone can put new life into the League and save it. The people need you. Liaquat repeated his plea. . You are young you do not know the women you do not know the world. that the Muslims wanted Jinnah and needed him. " you say Come back. You go back and survey the Til And make the . And his house. I Liaquat immediately began his appeal to Jinnah to return. but he did not answer at first he talked of his able.
He amassed his evidence talked thorough man I have ever to a hundred people and only when he was convinced. began. who still practises at 10 King's Bench Walk. Politics ! I am finished/' Then" But if you could only get six people like yourself would come back. I don't had been Jinnah' s neighbour in Chambers during the years in London. One of my colleagues said to were some lovely mahogany pieces. Jinnah that he would buy it all." Lall has told the story. Jinnah returned At first.' He already had the all replied Jinnah if he returned." To 106 . They whole-hearted devotion of Liaquat All Khan. to strengthen these As you know. I Diwan Chaman 1 " I sent telegrams to six of the honest and stalwart ones. I remember the day when he came and said he was returning home. ' care about these chattels. but he answered. It is yours. at the Willingdon Club." Mr T.EXILE: I930-I934 known. asking them if they would support Yes. Jinnah returned to England again signs. Ramsay. '. he was reluctant one evening. Pleasant Road was opened again and the re-awakening of the Muslims encouraging . he wrote to Come Jinnah and said * V to India. " : in Bombay. W. to prove to himself that he was needed. I am 1 going on a grand mission to India the author. ' to support me. he said to Diwan Chaman Lall. " He has described their farewell. Several other lawyers had their in There eye on his beautiful office furniture and they wished to buy it. and gave up his practice before the Privy Council he sold his house The house in Mount at Hampstead and he came home. to Bombay.
PART FOUR .
In April 1934 he was back in India. first session In January -1935 he sailed for India once of the new Assembly. the King gave his Royal Assent to the Government of India Act of 1935. In the Provinces. reached him within the untroubled comfort of a London more. and it went considerably beyond mendations of the Simon Commission. to 1946. PP- 49~5- 109 . who was Governor of Bengal from 1944 wrote ' of this : The Government of India Act of 1935 was a big step towards the recom self-government. 1947. which remained unaltered. In was bound to act on the advice nearly all matters the Governor of his Ministers. At a meeting of the Muslim League Council. the Muslims of Bombay elected him an Independent member to the Central Legislature. while he was in England. An Australian in India (194?). still caught up in the strange conflict between He In October. Jinnah was a restless traveller. In a few matters he could legally act against advice.RETURN TO ' INDIA: 1935-1937 ' grand mission ' did not begin immediately. G. ' During 1934 and 1935. but. he ' " said. Liaquat THE to act Khan had written Come/ but there was still some torment some reluctance to return in Mohammed Ali Jinnah's mind of conflict he would have to endure. Mr He Act are described x by the Australian R. respon sible government was established over virtually the entire field of subjects ordinarily falling to a province in a federation." complete co-operation and friendship returned to London. The news. While Jinnah was in London. in its ' ' principles. denying his own belief that there was no hope of unity. where he remained until October. 1 In his book. He did not the open seas Ali . The ' benefits statesman. in until the transfer of power to India and Pakistan. Nothing will give me greater happiness than to bring about between Hindus and Muslims. with his usual quick determination. In still fewer matters he could act even without advice. his old ideal and his reason. in April. in April. he returned to England. to attend the hotel. Casey. without seeking his consent. that he was needed by his own people.
significant for two reasons. federation. with all the portfolios in the hands of Ministers elected by the the leader of the majority party.RETURN TO INDIA: 1935-1937 These 'safeguards' were very few. there was one more cruel explosion between the Muslims and Sikhs of the Punjab. after The Sikhs had usurped it. La the structure people and chosen by of such elections. * as an attempt to ' satisfy the minorities the Muslims in particular. or Hindu were to be safe Classes Parsee. But. Christian. the exclusively Provincial field. leaders. Depressed of seats. each Provincial Ministry should include Ministers selected from the minority parties. European. he said that he it. because having done everything . Mohammed Ali Jinnah was in a speech not satisfied with the Award. The pattern of representation. wrangling. It was implicit in the new Constitution that. once the property of the Muslims. But it has never come into force. Provinces were given almost com and were made secure from central interference in plete autonomy. and. Each was to have its own elected The now increased to eleven Ministry. and the Governors were to exercise their powers so as to relieve enjoined not particularly Ministers of proper responsibility. the several minorities whether Muslim. Jinnah played his part in an act of conciliation that In the city of Lahore was a mosque. had been devised by Mr Ramsay MacDonald's government after the Round Table Conferences. made in the was prepared come to accept ' to a settlement Assembly.. Jinnah went to Lahore to cool the belligerents Here was an opportunity to prove that unity between no . In fact the over-ruling powers were very little used. so far as possible. in February 1935. described as the Communal Award. and to designed introduce responsible government at the Centre. to ' no scheme of Constitution would otherwise ' ' be 'possible/ was Early in 1936. ending in riots and the imprison much ment of the with reason. The second part of the Government of India Act 1935 was to secure the federation of the whole of India. because the Princes refused to join a So the Centre carried on as before.. voted for in separate guarded by the just apportioning com munal electorates.
RE-AWAKENING OF MUSLIM LEAGUE communities was possible. : . and his new Constitution. in the next decade. bringing the Muslim agitation to strictly consti it possible for Govern legal lines. to interpret Jinnah's orders and wishes. Labour's Transport House. The his theories to it had obliged Jinnah to apply episode was important because a specific incident important also because it revealed . namely. he The Governor of the Punjab recorded his official thanks : : wrote. induced them to accept legal arbitration. Early in decided to form their 1936. of Jinnah for this greatly indebted to the efforts and I wish to pay an unqualified tribute to the improvement work he has done and is doing. and he used the words. or the Conservative Central Office. Jinnah was who were to decide the shape own destiny. and has thus made ment to take action for which they had been awaiting an tutional and opportunity. ." like a bludgeon. the Muslim League met in Bombay and own Central Election Board. . The elections were ' to be held ' in the first weeks of 1937. with Jinnah as President. to mingle with the people in their troubles : he had usually theorized over them. the their preparations : had begun high command of the Congress party their own Parliamentary Board comparable to selected candidates. the League in . were almost two years late in beginning their campaign. Jinnah Liaquat Ali Khan's influence on had never stepped down. within twelve months of the learning to first elections under the come closer to the voters of India's political affairs. your sofas of Muslims Western ! . . But. from afar. I shed tears of blood at the indolence Your carpets are Persian. Up to this time. The Muslim League was indolent no longer with Liaquat Ali : Khan at hand. As early as 1934. in England ' The was formulating policy and briefing the 5 of whom Iqbal wrote opposition. Jinnah succeeded in his first I am Mr Mr task. his leader. He brought the contestants together " constitutional methods.
The Hindus and Muslims must be organized separately. and young. In this part of the country the home of the stalwart Pathan highlanders not a single Muslim League candidate had been returned to the Legislative Assemblies. multitude of people. Not all the Hindus belonged to the Congress Party many of them were Liberals and Independents. he said We respect must think of the interests of our community. Republican and Demo Behind the fronts of League and Congress were spread a crat '.. Organize yourselves and play your part. to join the revived League. one clearly ' * the standard of the League and the other the standard of bearing * Congress '. there were popular parties of Muslims. . Unless you make the best efforts. led by Muslims. The Muslims in the dis province of Sind had simple devices as : * ' ' ' * * * : * owned * openly they allied themselves with Congress. you will fail and will command no and nobody will bother to consult you. and then we will not have to wait for years for an understand ing. Nor did the eighty million Muslims march as one man. and if they are more organized they will be all the more useful for the national struggle. It is folly to think of the Muslims and Hindus as if their differences were defined as those of two armies OB a battlefield . : In March. and once they are organized they will understand each other better. Some groups of the Muslims were ardent supporters of Congress the North-West Frontier Province. In the Punjab. in Delhi. and in no danger of Hindu domination. The error comes easily to those who are used to such as * Tory and Labour '. where they were in a majority. especially. Jinnah was therefore attempting 112 : the League . that had flourished long before Jinnah awakened the moribund League to contest the 1937 elections. was a Congress stronghold. which was still weak.. I am helping eighty million people. strangely divided and opposed.RETURN TO INDIA: I935-*937 came alive again. where the Muslims were ninety per cent of the population. who disliked the revolutionary policy of the Mahatma and his disciples. Jinnah spoke to some of the members. They were not likely to leave their proven parties. and opposed any suggestion of partition.
.PANDIT JAWAHARLAL NEHRU a prodigious task. of a progressive willing to co-operate with any group We We are and inde and policy corre pendent character. The great majority of us. the Mr Nehru said. 30 held tie vote : of these. were cast. Gandhi. who had made boycott and mass civil disobedience into a sullen and terrible force. and if we reject the way of violence it is because it promises no substantial results. : man." British." Jinnah replied. By 1937. he said that victory early in March 1937. but of the value of constitutional was to say of him. in a speech opposing the Round Table Conference. called Mahatma ' Bapu. judge the issue not on moral but on practical grounds. or unlearn any Nevertheless. The League candidates recorded less than five per cent of the Muslim votes that millions Nehru was naturally confident after this heartening after the elections. aged forty-seven. in asking these Muslim communities unaware of ' ' each other and scattered over thousands of square miles to organize and regard themselves as one undivided army. I take that methods of violence will rid us of slavery. and individual or sporadic violence is a confession of despair. shortly " " " two parties in the country there were Congress and the only " There is a third party . We are not going to be camp-followers of spond 113 . less challenging during the campaign for the 1937 he did not talk of violence. victory at the polk. from within the Congress. but slavery is far worse. The cast of leaders in India had changed during the years ofJinnah's absence in England. Violence is bad. Nehru had We have not the material or the train ing for organized violence. provided its programme to our own. was sixtyhe was now something of an oracle. the Muslims. are not going to be dictated to by anybody. or father '. Eight years before. opposition. then I have no doubt that it will adopt them.. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. Nehru led the army of Congress workers to . Jinnah : Nehru was elections " He is a Peter Pan thing. Out of 295 millions in British India. or the nation at any future time. : and he added. But if this Con comes to the conclusion gress. clothed in seven years old and he left the laborious tasks of Congress to a younger mysticism." he will never learn anything. 30 per cent were Muslims. it.
Pleasant Road. a ' former Leader of the European Group in the Indian Central Legis * x of this grave tactical blunder lature. that it made a grave tactical blunder. 340. to which he could turn for consolation they had been written to him by Sir : with no personal and keep his papers Muhammad Iqbal. 'Don't * think that the time for such a demand has already arrived ? 1 you The British Impact on India (Macdonald. Jinnah returned to his desk in the house in discouraged. Sir Percival Griffiths. to make it possible ' solve her problems. 1952). 1 exclusive policy and may even have felt that it was following normal parliamentary practice. On May 28. welfare of We India. staff and not even a secretary to tidy. There can be little doubt. has written ' : The Congress High Command refused to sanction CongressHindu majority provinces ministries League coalitions and in the were formed. and the Muslims therefore. He worked copy his letters But there was one bundle of letters. after their meeting in England in 1932. 1937. In the United consisting only of Congressmen Provinces. felt. that they were excluded from office merely because the Congress was essentially a Hindu body. but only bers of the Party and that the Muslim League ceased mem Congress In other provinces. 114 .RETURN TO INDIA: I935~I937 * any party. Muslim representatives were invited to on condition that they became join the ministry. to redistribute the country and to provide for Muslim ' India to it would be necesary one or more Muslim ' states with absolute majorities/ And he had asked. rightly or wrongly. how There was no dif ever. Mount alone. similar conditions were imposed. in a drawer. ference in social or economic policy serious enough to make Congress-League coalitions unnatural or unworkable. Iqbal had recorded his belief that. and with one exception members of the Muslim League were from office. for example. p. are ready to work as equal partners for the Pandit ' to Nehru and Congress remained scornful and Jinnah's offer work as equal partners was ignored. rigorously excluded The Congress party was fully within its rights in adopting this to exist. but not in despair.
AT SIMLA.M. PANDIT JAWAHARLAL NEHRU AND A. JINNAH. IN 1946 .
ASCENT TO POWER
is no record of On June 21, Jinnah's reply to this letter. wrote again, I know you are a busy man, but I do hope you Iqbal won't mind my writing to you so often, as you are the only Muslim
in India today to
has a right to look
guidance through the storm which
Jinnah heeded this letter in a speech at Lucknow, on October 15, he said, "... the majority community have clearly shown their hand that Hindustan is for the Hindus." He warned his listeners
and communal war/ Mahatma Gandhi considered Jinnah's words carefully,' and wrote to him, As I read it, the whole of your speech is a declaration of war. This ... is written in all good faith and out of an anguished heart/
present Congress Party policy '
the speech at Lucknow, Mohammed Ali Jinnah had begun his ascent towards final power. There was no
longer any confusion in his mind as to the aims of Congress, or the possible fate of the Muslims in India. He referred to the * ' programme of mass contact among the Muslims, and the stupen
had been to contest the elections in the provinces,' numerically in a minority and weak, among backward, and economically nowhere/ He talked of educationally the suffering and sacrifice and the fire of persecution through which deliverance would come ofthe nation that would emerge *, * ' and of the eighty millions of Mussalmans who had nothing to fear '. " Then the characteristic sentence, Think one hundred times before you take a decision, but once a decision is taken, stand by it as one man." On November 5, Jinnah answered Gandhi's letter of protest and anguish over the Lucknow speech. He wrote that he was sorry if Gandhi considered he had made a declaration of war,' and pleaded
read it again purely in self-defence/ He asked, Kindly * ' and try to understand it ; and added, Evidently you have not been / following the course of events of the last twelve months. . .
Gandhi waited three months before he replied
deny that your speech was a declaration of war, pronouncements too confirm the first impres
In your speeches, I miss the old nationalist. When in 1915 returned from the self-imposed exile in South Africa,
spoke of you as one of the staunchest of nationalists and the hope of both Hindus and Muslims. Are you still the same Mr Jinnah ?
If you say
are, in spite
Jinnah was more prompt, and abrupt, with his answer twelve days later,
say that in speeches you miss the old nationalist. think that you are justified in saying that ? I would not like to think what people spoke of you in 1915 and what
they speak and think of
monopoly of any
Nationalism is not the and in these days it is very do not wish to pursue this line of
has been said that Jinnah
was not alone in
study of Burke's
speeches ; that volumes of them, in the libraries, were so tattered with use by young political aspirants, that new copies had to be sent out to India each year. But the example of Burke's address was
perhaps neglected by the leaders of Congress and the League, during the season of argument in 1937 and 1938. About the time when
Jinnah and Gandhi were engaged in their recriminations, Pandit Nehru and Jinnah were exchanging equally acrimonious
February 25, 1938, Nehru wrote to Jinnah
do not yet
fundamental points of dispute are. have been asking you to them.
for this reason that I
have not received
any help in
... I am only amazed at your ignorance. This matter has been tackled since 1925 right up to 1935 by the most prominent 116
leaders in the country,
would beg of you
no solution has been found. I not take up a selfand
if you are in earnest I don't think
dispute are, in the press
main points in because they have been constantly mentioned both and public platform, even very recently.
difficulty in realizing
name of Congress
Obviously, the Muslim League
an important communal
we deal with it as such. But we have to deal organization and with all organizations and individuals that come* within our ken. We do not determine the measure of importance or distinction
the organiza Inevitably, the more important more the attention paid to it, but this importance does not come from outside recognition but from inherent strength.
And the other
organizations, even smaller, cannot be ignored.
though they might be younger
Six days later, Jinnah replied to
you cannot even
-and language again display the same arrogance
and militant spirit, as if the Congress is the sovereign power so often, I may add that, in my opinion, as I have publicly stated the Muslim League on a that unless the Congress recognizes and is prepared as such to negotiate footing of complete equality for a Hindu-Muslim settlement, we shall have to wait and depend ' * our inherent strength which will determine the measure
upon of importance or
.Having regard to
for really difficult
make you under
stand the position any further. . Chamberlain and Adolf Hitler con September 30, Mr Neville and the Prime Minister returned to Downing Street ferred in
Munich, with the piece of paper which he believed to be a guarantee of peace The threats of world upheaval drew the attention of in our time/ from their personal conflict, and their game the Indian leaders
of taunts had to stop. On October 8, in his speech to the Muslim League Conference in of the British to the Arabs Karachi, Jinnah referred to the behaviour that Great Britain had thrown her friends He claimed in Palestine.
broken her solemn promises.' He then who possess force Only those succeed with the British people to bully them/' He then and who are in a position
referred to the
with that of
of the Congress High Command- and ask them to mark, learn, and inwardly digest the recent upheaval and its consequent world war. It was be which threatened
developments, cause the Sudeten Germans were forced under the heels of the
. . .
majority of Czechoslovakia, who oppressed them, suppressed them, maltreated them and showed a brutal and callous disregard hence the inevitable for their rights and interests for two decades
result that the
Republic of Czechoslovakia is now broken up and be drawn. the Sudeten Germans were not defenceless, and sur
will have to
vived the oppression and persecution for two decades, so also the Mussalmans are not defenceless, and cannot give up their
this great continent. aspirations in
the leader of these aspirations.
During the eleven
months preceding September power over the Muslims was
when war was
with Liaquat All
the adept organizer behind him. Iqbal had died on April 21, 1938, ' having sent a final warning to Jinnah : he had written, I believe that
a political organization which gives no promise of improving the lot of the average Muslim cannot attract our masses.' At last, Jinnah learned the difference between aloof, academic leadership, and popular with a multitude. In the month that Iqbal died, Jinnah was able ity
the League has been growing stronger and stronger Before the Lucknow session, the membership . . . ran
into several thousands, but today there are hundreds of thousands of Mussalmans who are under the banner of the League."
hundreds of thousands
been attracted to the
banner of the League
Jinnah was also
drawn from the adult masses becoming a considerable force among Muslims in the
JINNAH AND THE YOUNG
This awakening of political interest among the Muslim students, their willingness to follow him, came at a time of almost wistful
had made she was ultimately to marry a Christian, and become estranged from her father for many years. Jinnah had endured all he wished of emotional relationships, and he permitted no one to disturb his
in Jinnah's private life. He was then fifty-eight years still lived quietly with his devoted sister. His daughter her home with her mother's Parsee relatives in Bombay
But he was slowly learning to disciplined, celibate, recluse habits. unbend with the young, in a way that psychiatrists might describe as a manifestation of the frustrated father instinct in a solitary, ageing man. One summer, the son of a friend came, with a school companion, On the last night of their visit, they to stay with Jinnah in his house. went to bed and were almost asleep when the door was opened. The boy, who became one of Jinnah's ardent followers in later years, has described what followed. The light was switched on and we saw Mr Jinnah in his pyjamas and dressing-gown. He apologized for " I could not disturbing us ; then he said, sleep because you are going tomorrow." He sat down and talked to us for a long time away not about politics, but about his life in England, and of the earlier years when he was a boy in Karachi. When he got up to return to As he turned his room, he said he was sorry he had kept us awake. " I wish that I had a son." out the light, he said, One of the first young men to break past Jinnah's defences was Ibrahim Habibullah, who had just come down from Oxford when he went to hear both Jinnah and Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru speak at a meeting. Ibrahim Habibullah walked away from the hall with " Don't you think that Nehru was talking Jinnah, who said to him,
"No," answered Ibrahim
" The Jinnah then said, referring to some point in Nehru's speech, laws of the jungle must always prevail. Unless you understand that,
are a madcap." " call ourselves human beings because we Habibullah replied, have emancipated ourselves from the jungle. If you do not appreciate
that, then, sir,
Yet Mr Jinnah had the courage. Jinnah spoke splendidly. but there could not have been more than half audience of students Mr Jinnah. Mohammed Noman wrote Two Aligarh Students on a card and Within a few minutes they were with Jinnah gave it to the servant. 1 To the author.1937-1939 with Jinnah was delighted " half his age : this challenge from someone like less than he said. saw and felt that he was so disgusted by the fact that there were so few Muslims present. Mr Jinjiah I went to him and suggested the formation of a student He agreed and gave me his for the Muslims. " I was attending the session I was very young and enthusiastic few days later I asked if I might see A as delegate from AHgarh. in his study. Mohammed Noman went back to his studies at Aligarh. and because of this I saw Mr Jinnah two He was no or three times a : week during more than two years. Mohammed Noman was walking was with another student when they came to the house where Jinnah staying young army about ham among who was ultimately secretary of the them. in February 1935. and almost : ' * described the a year passed before he saw Jinnah again. fanatic his as students. of before that almost entirely Hindu gathering. Jinnah on a board by the gate was the name. ceaselessly to attain " I became secretary of the Federation. over by time they ever appeared to a big on a platform together. to accuse Congress There were some protesting voices. I think it was the last Mr a dozen Muslims amongst them. was approach to our problems. I : organization entirely bUssiag. and he talked to them. He was still a student at All-India Muslim Students Federation. Mr M. I need young men you. Come and . Mohammed Noman. He has " 1 was at the first session of the All-India Students Con It meeting. in Lucknow inaugurated by Pandit Nehru and presided ference. Jinnah silenced them. Jinnah. for an hour." Aligarh University. A. but Mr being a Hindu body. At the end of the day. grew the All-India Muslim Students with more than fifty thousand members all working that impulse Pakistan. in the Assembly and became his devoted and lively Jinnah speak Mower. when he went to Delhi to hear was gathering his Slowly. Oh. I2O . and enthralled them. join me. Out of Federation.
it ' cheered him he said. he represented the spear-head of the Muslim renaissance. described Jinnah's * was during 1937-1938 that For us Muslim students. Jinnah took off his astrakhan " will make it Take these they monocle. and said. Well. I remember him saying. His ' " . 121 . in 1937. had "In grant. One . which I did. increased their self-respect. Mr Jinnah presided over our first There were three hundred delegates. At that time. You must He good I for them. Show had to stand before him me how you do and do his best. power over the students saw Mr Jinnah. many Jinnahs will arise And when they from among you I spent the students . 1938. Muslim Student formed in one city after another. For the Hindu students. I wished to go to England to complete my much of my time travelling from one college to another. I told trying to stimulate that I had applied to the Hyderabad Government for a Mr Jinnah so that I could travel to London. you must * have no fear of the future in your hands/ education. Then you can educate yourself on the royalties from the book/ He worked with me he gave me all the papers that I needed. He said. that day Jinnah you mimic me with Mohammed Noman great skill. they It wrote. and he told them that they were a wonderful generation.ALL INDIA MUSLIM STUDENTS FEDERATION never sentimental. more authentic in future/' 1930'*. at Calcutta. he was an incorruptible fighter for freedom. all over India. But the talent which emphasis he perfected when still at college once led him into alarming " I am told sent for him and said. and the solemn look. it. session. Associations realize were what this means that the younger generation of educated Muslims became his 'followers. patience of Jinnah was delightful the raised finger. That was liked reality and reason." At hat and the end of the impersonation. . but I had much to learn. Very good. Hour after hour he sat with me. it No out of your own strength/ He suggested that I should write do the history of the Muslim League. His imitation embarrassment. Captain : Another young Muslim League member of the kte Saied Abbas. 1 To the author. until the book was finished. slicing the air with the voice. me was incredible/ Among Mohammed Noman's talents with 5 is mimicry. when he visited I first he 1 Allahabad.
gentle . Mohammed Ali Jinnah seems to emerge as a happier Baan as much as it is possible to someone who wrote and said judge so little that was For twenty-five days self-revealing. economic India. in We had all heard stories of his Western clothes English. We after that it left everlasting imprints on our minds. I I of the great speech that he made to " and political standards I of the Mussalmans of Gentlemen. c when some Hindu students cried out. crowded about man. Then he " a quiet voice. None of us the Muslim students had ever seen Mr Jinnah. in Jinnah paused and there was a pin-drop silence. rushed to receive and garland him. 122 . between die vigorous tours and speeches among the tribesmen of Baluchistan. which took him all over the country. Yes. He was met with the biggest reception ever given to a political figure including Gandhi. assure you. You We Suddenly we heard shouts of had chosen the wrong man : " I am not protested. we We " We him with our Jinnah * ! garlands. he stayed at Quetta. Gandhi is a great Hindu After that. by all means." There was thunderous applause. opened the door of a carriage and saw a smartly dressed a blue serge suit and stiff white collar. Zindabad/' we were just about to carry the baffled Mr Jinnah frame ' turned and saw the real gentleman on our shoulders.I937-I9S9 seemed to think that he might still be won over there was still some uncertainty about his so-called communalism. ' that he was very . in a house and garden where he could rest. Only once "was " ! Gandhiji-ki-Jai Mr said. Gentlemen if for bettering the conditions of the teeming millions of this country . As the train steamed in. if for uplifting the social. am * proud to be a communalist. had to wait two hours while the platform and the tracks were being cleared of the crowds. at I remember two parts Allahabad University. elegant. He said. during 1939. that there an inter am branded as a communalist. by which he arrived. ruption. there was no mistake about the thin. I but The gentleman " shouted. the students leader/* Muslims and Hindus listened to him. us. The Delhi-bound Calcutta mail train. without interruption/ During these years of political campaigning. are trying to be modest/' " Mr : Mohammed Ali Jinnah.
" Mr On September 3.' Jinnah was have to start breaking down their prejudices he said to me. did not observe You I. Why not purdah. four years of the tribesmen. sit on his take my he would run into Jinnah's want Dada Jinnah. who had been Viceroy since 1936. You are trying to ruin four years of quite angry work among these people.' You. of course. Making story ' and said.' He : calling. he spoke to me alone he was most tender." When Gandhi saw the Viceroy on September 5. of course. we did not know what for. heard the and people gathered wherever he went. and neither some time. Jinnah very Only once was he at all angry it was before a meeting of the tribal There was a strong prejudice chiefs at which he was to preside. Mr Neville Chamberlain declared to the British people. leave him. He was always sympathetic and courteous to me. I want a rocking-horse. Jinnah would say.' He meant. and my surprise when he Jinnah walked into the house and gave it to my son. over the air. 1939. with a replica of his an ivory ring with three little silver dogs that hand-writing on it One day he drove into Quetta. * he broke down as he pictured the destruction of the Houses of I am not thinking just now Parliament and Westminster Abbey.' Then he would knee and they would gossip together. It will come. women in Baluchistan purdah was strictly observed. Lord Linlithgow. Whenever I tried to little boy away.. against unveiled My husband suggested that. great figure his way through a crowd. alone with the chauffeurrattled. building up sympathy for the Muslim League. and said His hostess during this time has said " : : ' ! ' : : he was " sorry.. consequently this country is at war with Germany. Miss Jinnah should not sit on the platform with her brother. he walked into afterwards. No. because of this. may imagine a We toy shop the surprise of the man in his humble little shop when the celebrated asked for a rocking-horse .THE SECOND WORLD WAR I loved and respected much. I did protested and said. She. but of India's deliverance. ". announced that India also was "at war with Germany. * ' ' 123 . My little son was then two years old ' room in the morning." Almost immediately. I ' showered him with presents a silver mug.' wrote the Mahatma. You must realize that he was then a . among Next morning.
December 22 became not merely a Muslim celebration Hindus opposed to Congress. phrase. the Congress Ministries. at the behest of the Congress High Command '. of British difficulties what will it be worth if England * ' : and freedom on the one hand. * Untouchables '. had resigned. in the seven provinces which they had won in the 1937 elections. with no right to speak on had now come. This was a day of private retribution for Jinnah. : Parsees. In 1928. the Congress leaders re affirmed their policy of non-co-operation and refused to assist in the ' war effort unless India was declared independent . and Fascism and aggression on the other. and hundreds of thousands Christians. adding a new meaning to the right the parting of the ways/ The 124 . I should like India to play the full part.1937-1939 and France fall. the All-India Congress Committee resolved that India must be declared an independent nation/ and that present application must be given ' ' to this status to the largest possible extent/ * By November 15. a$ a mark of relief that the Congress at last ceased to function.. . at Allahabad. at once. ruined and humbled ? victorious over Germany. behalf of the Muslim '. or if they come out ' On September 8. Four days later." On October 10. when he had spoken before the All-Parties Conference in Calcutta. joined in the demonstration. ." " regime has To the surprise of Congress. He : on his followers to observe the coming December 22 as a Day of Deliverance and Thanksgiving. that Congress did not aim to take advantage Pandit Nehru promised " In a conflict between democracy he said.. These sympathetic views did not endure. . . our sympathies must inevitably lie on the side of democracy . .' This was the Muslims were called Mohammed Ali Jinnah's great chance the majority of now his supporters and his hand was strong. he had been ' of the called a * spoilt child people.
leading to the absolute decision of the Muslim League to demand their own nation Pakistan were anticipated in two articles published in English journals one an interview with Mr Jinnah in an English newspaper. Sindh (including Kutch and Kathiawar). by Jinnah himself.* Jinnah reminded English readers that Muslims would Then this not be the only victims of such absolute government by Hindus there " were also sixty millions of Untouchables. the bulk of whom are totally ignorant. remarkable events of 1940. .' Australia. . Iran. Panjab. . Choudhury Rahmat All. spiritually pure ethnical stocks of our people stituents It . Kashmir. the Englisli should from their minds the examples of federal government in Canada and where British democracy had planted natural and thriving roots and he quoted Lord Morley's dictum that the fur coat of * ' Canada would not do for the extremely tropical climate of India. Tukharistan. H. it has been established Jinnah said to the English correspondent. in en : * * dismiss visaging the political future of India. living in centuries-old superstitions . * a democratic parliamentary Government in India. symbolizes the religious it beliefs and and stands for all the territorial con of our original Fatherland. and the domiciled British/ He also asked that. Asian '.' ' This is a position to which Muslims will challenge never submit." six million Christians. It means the land of the Paks the and clean. * and of the impossibility thoroughly antagonistic to each other . Jews. Parsees. . It is * composed of ' letters ' taken from the names of all our homelands and Indian That is. and untutored. 663-7. M.' democracy can only mean Hindu Raj all over India. Afghania (North West Frontier Province].1940: 'PAKISTAN* Pakistan is loth a Persian and Urdu word. . They reveal what was in his March 9. * of working He * said. . . doubt that the sole aim of the Congress is to annihilate beyond . Saiyid.. written at this time* ' . mind 1940. of voters. 125 . and to set and authoritarian organization of the worst type/ thirty-five millions illiterate itself up as a Fascist * He spoke of the . . every other organization in the country. 1 the other THE : an article in Time and Tide. From Pakistan. * 1 Mohammed Ali Jinnah (A Political Stndy). pp. Afghanistan and Balochistan.
Mr Jinnah mittee then quoted from the Report of the Joint Select Constitutional Reforms. often as distinct from one another in origin. it is even yet not realized that this form of Government is totally unsuited to India. very naturally. in spite of all the experience of the past. . to represent two distinct and separate civilizations. on the other hand. They may be said. Democratic systems based on the concept of a homogeneous nation such as England are very definitely not applicable to heterogeneous countries such as India. Hinduism is distinguished by the phenomenon of its caste. . and the difference between the two is not only of religion in the stricter sense but also of law and culture. and.' * Then : British people. over 77 millions are followers of Islam. In order the British Government. is the ignorance about Indian conditions among even the members of the British Parliament that. practicable time. ' Jinnah added. and this simple fact is the root cause of India's constitutional ills. remains unaffected by contact with the philosophies of the West the religion of Islam. save in a very restricted field. would like to see in India the form of democratic constitution it knows best and thinks best. Two-thirds of its inhabitants profess Hin duism in one form or another as their religion. is based upon the conception of the equality of man. This .1940: PAKISTAN : In his article in Time and Tide. being Christians. however. sometimes forget the wars of their own history and today consider religion religious as a private The and personal matter between 126 man and God. which is the basis of its religious and social system. under which the Government of the country is entrusted to one or other political Party in accordance with the turn of the elections. indeed. tradition and manner of life as are the nations of Europe. : Com on Indian which had been conducted by the British Parliament in 1933-34 India is inhabited by many races . Perhaps no truer description of India has been compressed into a paragraph. Such. . Jinnah wrote What is the political future of India British ? The declared aim of the that India should enjoy Dominion Status in accordance with the Statute of Westminster in the shortest is Government that this end should be brought about.
military and administrative difficulties. the 'Pakistan Resolution' was passed. Jinnah declared that at the stage of imperial rule later. . he either who had for set his face steadfastly long been the apostle of the unity of India towards partition and would not be deflected by blandishments or by threats/ 1 In Lahore. and such religions. ." application at all to Indian Sir Percival Griffiths wrote that Jinnah completely refused to discuss details. they completely failed to understand the " " You talk. ' where self-government was not administrators feeling in sight. during these days. 127 . You go on to talk of parliamentary democracy and you fail to realize that the assumptions on which it depends have no ' 'went on to develop. two a constitution must* be evolved that . ' . but you ought to know that it is a chimera. were the finest but when politics and national .' This was possibly ' the last time that he spoke of a common motherland '. where. This capacity for adhering to a dearcut idea and ignoring all difficulties of detail and procedure was perhaps Mr Jinnah's greatest source of strength. of the unity of races. as man's relation with his neighbour. Sir Percival Griffiths dined with Mr Jinnah. During dinner. completely preclude that merging of identity and unity of thought on which Western democracy is based. existing nowhere cottnt. nations : he wrote. Jinnah used the significant phrase. . . on March 23. for both these religions are definite social codes which govern not so much man's relation with his God.TWO NATIONS can never be the case in Hinduism and Islam. the obvious objections economic dangers. the earth wrestling-ring 1 on the edge The British Impact on India. . At the end of his ' article. his two-nation theory and to expound the The writer and others present raised all full Pakistan demand. the British known to history. essentially exclusive. Mr Jinnah brushed them all aside and conditions. * recognizes that there are in India two nations. They govern not only his law and culture. From this time onwards. India. Two weeks he presided over the All-India Muslim League session at Lahore. 342-3. who must both share the governance of their common motherland." he said. had begun to mentality of subject except in your minds and in the external unity which you wisely forced on the country. cogently and impressively. A few days before. . pp. . but every aspect of his social life. frontier problems.
that it is the considered view of this session of the AllMuslim League that no constitutional plan would be work128 . Thirty persons were killed Cambridge during the episode." described. and he . but when the Muslim League session opened.. remember. even under purdah . at Lahore. but In his Presidential Address. I believe that it is Women can do a great deal within their homes. Jinnah repeated the arguments already he also introduced one new theme he recalled that : " a committee of ladies said : " had been appointed at the previous session. anti-Muslim League. Its chief provision Next moved was : the India . there were disturb of protest from a few of the crowd. your children will not have much to worry about. that no nation can rise to the height of . One man who word... if political consciousness is awakened among our women.1940*- PAKISTAN of the city was being prepared for the Muslim League session.. on March 22. but he stood calmly crowd settled into silence.. This tactful act of charity calmed some of the bewildered people. was present has described the scene and while the There were some murmurs. where the ' * but he believed. crime Jinnah waited some years before he spoke frankly of the against humanity \ that Muslim women should be shut up within the four walls of houses as prisoners/ In 1940. : . they listened and did not utter a his compelling eye. he lit a cigarette and looked over them with From then. Jinnah arrived in Lahore and he : immediately visited the wounded Khaksars in hospital. . glory unless its women are side by side with the men. Three days kter." day. March 23. a Muslim group founded on Nazi lines antiriot and led by a malcontent educated at Jinnah. he was cautious " as lie said many times kter. . the Muslim Premier of Bengal resolution that was to divide India. An immense tented enclosure was to shield the delegates from the sun. and shouts " Mr Jinnah stood up to speak.. women absolutely essential for us to give every to participate in our great struggle . and from their opponents. were fired on by the police. majority of Muslims kept purdah. and many were wounded. on the same day. ances. Within the city was the nucleus of a the Khaksars. opportunity to our of life and death.
" The * * Indian newspapers coined the phrase. that geographically con tiguous units are demarcated into regions which should be so constituted. should * ' Some time after this meeting. and in a speech " that he made later in the year. sary. namely. Iqbal is no but had he been alive he would have been happy to more amongst us. with such territorial readjustments as may be neces [and] that the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in a majority. know that we did exactly what he wanted us to do. and said. India.THE LAHORE RESOLUTION able in this country or acceptable to Muslims unless it is designed on the following basic principle. he said. as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of be grouped to constitute Independent States in which the constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign. power on earth can prevent No Pakistan/' 129 ." who had Jinnah turned to Matlub Saiyid. Jinnah adopted it . Pakistan Resolution for their headlines next morning. been present at the Lahore session.
PART FIVE .
Reddy. another Hindu. to correct die wrong I Mr Jinnah man who has been operative criticism towards the British Government.. wrote. K. wrote. a Hindu.. Mohammed ON ments as four years old. 133 But it took a wrong . and critical ways into which the people of India have been led by the Congress. Shanmukhan Chitty.. His heart might have his birthday : warmed a little at the reception given him on to Mm. Rajah. a Parsee. erect. paid tributes C. as laid down by Dadabhai Naoroji and Gokhale. when he was young. C. fearless and incorruptible/ ' Sir R. Dr eighty-three eminent men. illiterate masses. Congress did a great service to the country so long as it followed the lines of critical co-operation and co called upon regard junctures. A startling All Jinnah was sixtywhite lock showed in his grey hair.. the Great Leader. recalled Jinnah's sturdy independence/ and 'courage and tenacity/ He added. but he was still as slim. 1940. James. he yields to none in his enthusiasm to obtain the political emancipation Sir of his country/ * who had known him in the first days of his briefless struggle in the Law Courts. also the His name was now : and quick in his move the one light of hope for most of the Muslims in India dasses. ' the Untouchables 'contributed a thoughtful message that should : be read at length the All religions hold the belief that world to work out His plans God sends suitable men into at from time as the to time. R. Mr Jinnah is a realistic patriot . possession * wrote of Jinnah's unique parliamentary gifts/ and then 'He is a powerful debater and a first class strategist .A BIRTHDAY PRESENT December 25. Vice-Chancellor of the Andhra * University. not merely the educated but wide-eyed. "He has never put self or his own interests before those of Hs country/' Rao Bahadar M. He is the pride of India and not the private - / Sir Frederick of the Muslims. a Christian. a Hindu. called him Quaid-i- Azam. a leader of men. and a leader of the Depressed 'Classes Cowasjee Jehangir. of all religions. The. under the leadership of Mr Gandhi. . .
and the noise of the waves beating on the rocks below . : view from the eminence was one for a conqueror to enjoy the Arabian Sea. splendid house that had been designed and The old house in Mount Pleasant Road. . and above for. it divided the people into Hindu and non-Hindu sections. first as a bachelor and then during the years of his marriage. it appealed to the idolatrous super stitions of the Hindus. In the meantime. however powerful numerically and financially. thus converting the religious adherence of the Hindu section of the population to the Mahatma into political While this strategy support of his non-cooperation programme. . its dust he built a mansion. he had ordered that it should be pulled down . had been a Goanese bungalow. like fabulous butterflies. and there were few signs that anyone had ever lived there only twelve cracked white bathroom tiles. . where he had built for him.A BIRTHDAY PRESENT turn when it adopted wholesale the non-cooperation programme of Mr Gandhi and assumed an attitude of open hostility towards Britain. by Mahatmafying Mr Gandhi. and tried to infuse in the minds of the people a spirit of defiance of law and civil disobedience. a block of apartments was rising from the rubble. In these circumstances. On the day in May 1952 there were three Parsee ladies on the lawn. acting under the inspiration and orders of Mr Gandhi. he is championing the claims of ing all classes who stand the danger of being crushed under the steam roller of a [caste-] Hindu majority. Next to the rubble and new bricks is a big house with a lawn and garden. I admire Mr Jinnah and feel grateful to him because. framed between the golden mohur trees. in 1939. These birthday tributes to the Quaid-i-Azam came about the time he moved into a new. he had made his home : in little Gibbs Road. higher up on Malabar Hill. more or less thinly veiled under a formula of truth and non-violence. a man was needed to stand up to Congress and tell its leaders that their organization. taking the 134 . in advocat the cause of the Muslims. was of some avail in hustling the British Government to yield more and more to the demands of Congress. leaning against a pile of new red bricks. Moreover. Perhaps its ghosts had become oppressive. that lived. does not represent the whole of India. in their lovely saris. Nothing remains of the temporary house in Little Gibbs Road in May 1952. the waves that beat But the on the shores of India and Pakistan alike.
a big verandah.' well. experience " I was tantalized by the Quaid's aloofness and silence." (f in his ideas. and he was furious. You mean the Jinnah house. He has recalled that Quaid-i" Azam asked for a big reception room. His standard was a building that Unfortunately. there alone in his study." added Mr Badey. It was up there. he had to build up a little court. " He him almost every day. into which Jinnah moved about the time of his sixty-fourth birthday. Oh. Do you know in which " " house Mohammed AH Jinnah lived ? she answered quickly. When one of them was asked." when the traveller asks to be taken there. Mr Claude Badey. has described this influence. I used to see and such charm. " who designed the new house for Jinnah. taxi-drivers. with neither secretary nor clerk to help him. I suppose that I was piqued because their character of them. scorning the prejudice . and was fertilized by the example of his integrity." The leak was mended and Quaid-i-Azam and Miss Jinnah moved in. in an incident from his own he has said. of Jinnah's unbridled success and a marble portico leading on to a marble terrace.JINNAH AND HIS STAFF " evening air. was a leak. and big lawns. when the advocate. still say. a Hindu plumber. sat standing by when the pieces of stone were fitted. so necessary for a man who was about to create a natioru that Now Jinnah's relations with his staff were revealing : he was an exacting master. he had become The Great Leader. I was never able to make him relax with me. So erect ' Good always took off his hat and said house. and Italian stonemasons. high rooms. but the young men who worked for him were devoted. as so often happens with a new house. is now the residence of the British Deputy High Commissioner. Jinnah " insisted on choosing the colours of the marble for the terrace and " He was most correct ance of the Italian who was doing the work. much to the annoy did not leak. One who worked with Quaid-i-Azam in later years. The pattern of life they assumed was very different from the old days. at the timid beginning of his political career. I knew him morning. I remember him . and his name is on the gate. they have pulled it down. : J- K 135 . At the end of a short drive stands the mansion that celebrated the first year an edifice of wide balconies. for garden parties. But the Hindu The grand of partisans. an English builder. In another part of Bombay lives the architect. broad." and that he appointed a Muslim clerk of works.
but there was a little book in which he made occasional He kept it locked in a drawer. I turned over the pages.1940-1942 wished very much to know what was in his mind. in upon him the advantages that " might come if only he and Gandhi could meet/ He asked Jinnah. May I tell " " Gandhi that you wish to see him ? No. their Unfor pride made this co-operation impossible. Diwan tunately. He kept no diary. and I ' * stole the Then took it to my room. Diwan Chaman Lall and other non-partisan friends believed that India's cause would be strengthened if the two leaders met and talked the League to amiably together. eating from a silver bowl. " Chaman Lall has said. but I ani not willing that you should " Diwan Chaman Lall went back to the Mahatma and * To the author. book I of man one would ever wish to deceive. asked Jinnah and Gandhi to visit him in Simla he hoped that they might inspire both Congress and more lively support of Britain's war. : PERCIVAL GRIFFITHS ' ' SIR when the Viceroy. and I kept it for two hours. 1 I went to Gandhi and proposed that Jinnah should meet him. are the innermost thoughts none of us are allowed to know. " ' Adversity makes strange bed went to Jinnah. fellows/ and gave me the surprising answer. Lord Linlithgow. Here/ I thought. The first of these came in June 1940. One day I found it on his entries. because he was not the sort . and tried to impress "wiling to see him. and put it on the desk where I found it. desk. Lall then Diwan Chaman * Simla. He looked up when I made the proposal. being alone. I am Jinnah answered. So I took the book back again." 1940-1942 wrote of the blandishments that the Quaid-i-Azam had to resist after he decided to fight for the partition of India. and. I found the Mahatma sitting upon a white sheet. my conscience began to talk to me. at the Cecil Hotel. before they were received by the Viceroy. if he wishes say that I wish to see him/' . Do .' I of this. 136 asked.
Nor could they be coercion of such elements into submission to such a parties to the government. Quaid-i-Azam was old and tired. (In a private letter to a friend. as was revealed later.') ' We ' : Tentative Proposals with a pledge * that His Majesty's Government could not contemplate the transfer of their present responsibilities for the peace and welfare of India to replied to the The Viceroy any system of government whose authority is directly denied by large and powerful elements in India's national life. was lost. . Jinnah gave his Tentative Proposals '. in which he repeated the demands of the Muslims for the division of India. " but once the decision : 137 . Lord Linlithgow proceeded with his plan. before seeing the Viceroy. Jinnah wrote. and. and over them blows the cold wind of failure." his own precept he allowed no argument and none of the tricks of arrow flight of his intentions. political expediency to interrupt the dear as leader of the Muslim League was tested and proved Jinnah's power in 1941. The Mahatma and the Quaid-i-Azam did not meet. The acres of words the confusion of good motives and expediency. the task is less complicated. already fatally ill. and the terms under which his you wish to see Jinnah ? Mm * followers would support * the war. have not put any difficulty in the way of war our position is that of benevolent neutrality. Knowing the end of the drama that half a million people were to when India was parted and three times their number mutilated the pages of political argument during these years make sad reading. his will. On July i. conference and disillusionment for the biographer ofJinnah. it would be a lie." me.THE VICEROY " S PLEDGE " Gandhi answered. cautious phrases of the Viceroy's pledge meant. . the words seem like a rubble of dead bones. suffered no deviation during the coming years.* The long. He obeyed is taken. : : Think one hundred times before you take a decision. when the Viceroy appointed the Muslim Provincial Premiers at Lucknow. die and spite lead toward the ultimate phoenix of Pakistan in the light of this achievement. simply. The political historian will be obliged to consider all these episodes of crisis. and the fragile hope of amity. But the way of his mind. stand by it as one man. If I were to say that But if Jinnah wishes to meet I wish to see Jinnah. I will walk on bare feet from here to the Cecil Hotel. efforts . that Britain would not withdraw from India and leave the Muslims to the mercy of the Hindus. and He had said.
I must say that it was Gardiner. *A Fabian. one week of your [Fabian] later.. immediately upon the cessation of hostilities. in no way subordinate in any aspect of its domestic or external affairs. in 1940. but I thought he occupied an important in the public.. I had a frank talk with Sir Stafford Cripps Jinnah had already to India." All this. I feel but even had he disagreed there was no justification for the views. associated with the United Kingdom he declared that " and the other Dominions by a common allegiance to the Crown. but equal to them in every respect." Without mentioning Pakistan. who 1942.' * 2 ." which in India/' The object was to create " would constitute a Dominion. party channels. to improper on the part have canvassed the Muslim League Premiers and other Muslim 1 that the Viceroy's conduct in approaching them Leaguers. . I feel behind the back of the leader and the Executive was most deplorable/ arrived in India with his Mission.. Richard Symonds. on December 26. " " His Majesty's Government had decided to lay down in precise and clear terms the steps which they propose shall be taken for the earliest possible realization of self-government " a new Indian Union. His expression of agreement with me appeared genuine. highly of the Viceroy.I94O-I94 2 members of his National Defence Council.. 138 . Britain to retain willing. and in his profession/ position Sir Stafford Cripps landed in Delhi on March 22. on July 26. in a private letter to Major W. He wrote ' to Major Gardiner. its present constitutional was 'With such non-acceding this The Making of Pakistan. talked to Sir Stafford during his previous visit he had been disappointed by the results of the meeting. and. or the Muslims. .. H. and on his recent visit to India. 64. amounting to nothing less than deliberate falsehood. with whom Jinnah exchanged a long correspondence about time. Jinnah obtained their immediate resignations because the invitations had not come through as * He wrote.. 1941. I complete misrepresentation of my am aware that he was not at the time a member own party. which he published in a newspaper on his return to England. p. the Draft Declara ' tion conceded the right of any Province that was not prepared to ' ' " accept the position/ * new And Constitution. holding the position he does. explaining the Muslim point of view. in The next lamp of hope was waved by March Sir Stafford Cripps.
/ full status tion. Nehru has come out in a fine statement for total war against the Japanese. . Vol. from the day when Sir Stafford. received long letter from Congress President stating that tonight to accept proposals. the Japanese had entered Rangoon : in the East. Roosevelt had written to Mr Churchill. . 192. of the . 52. when he telegraphed from India. one month later. theatres of conflict. Vol. Winston 17% 2 3 An ^Australian in India. should they so desire . giving them the same The time chosen for this offer was perhaps inopportune. which was allegedly described by Gandhi dated cheque on a bank that was obviously crashing/ Mr Casey. to the simplicity of Sir Winston Churchill's describing ' with great record of the events.THE CRIPPS MISSION a new Constitu Provinces. might have thought more of the Mission if Sir Stafford had arrived at a time when the But the leaders of both parties Allies were marching to victory. Muslims and Mr The Second World War. that India's chief danger lay. p. Churchill. that the S. March Mr 1 In March. The Japanese On * may land on the sea-coast of Burma. IV.' to public spirit.. * I have the day.. 18. p. * we must get on with the job of defending India. wrote that he had undisputed and conclu * ' in 1943 and sive evidence that the rejection was gready regretted that we were going to win the war/ 1944. . 139 . to agree upon as the Indian Union. Britain and the fortunes of battle were uncertain in most at was it still war. Even Sir Winston Churchill's account of the failure of the Mission We Jinnah has pledged me unwavering are not depressed. . support of the Moslems. They might bombard Calcutta/ The leaders of Congress. and of the League. who 2 records this episode. . though sad at Now reveals little awareness of the Roosevelt's letters at the 1 time show. The Second World War.' the result.. . was with them. Sir Stafford sent a further telegram to the Prime Later * Minister My own view is that despite failure the atmosphere has : improved quite definitely. p. There is clearly no Congress is unable ' I shall start home on Sunday/ hope of agreement and the same day. volunteered for this thankless and hazardous task. they declined seemed to believe that Britain would be defeated : * as a post the Cripps offer.. when it was clear books and documents It is refreshing to turn from the piles of the Mission. separate plight as Sir Winston admits. IV.
" and finally British. acceptable to all. p.. India will not be satisfied unless the right of national is unequivocally recognized. . ' Free India would be better able to cope with invasion/ 2 (At this time. 140 . His Majesty's Government. In spite of all that has happened. The presence of the British in India is an invitation to Japan to invade India. in April. Ac League. Jinnah did"not relate the failure of the Mission to the of the war he said. and Sir self-determination " I trust that and Muslim on Stafford Cripps. statesmen and soldiers who had been in India for many were aggrieved over the continuous failure to bring Congress. and Westminster together with one mind. in place of the Indians who had Pandit fled. 196. finished their tasks by day and worked in the British soldiers' canteen at night. We are not going to surrender to the invader. were naturally confused by the more terrible threat of danger from the advancing forces of the Japanese. including the military secretary to the Governor. I think I am echoing your feelings when perils I say that the Mussalmans feel deeply disappointed that the entity and : integrity . 194. British officers. we are not going to embarrass the British war effort in India. Mahatma Gandhi mind was ' ' wrote. Muslim of the Muslim nation has not been expressly recognized.) Nehru said. . on the day " after Sir Stafford's departure. 2 Ibid.' of the Indian problem in terms of the thirteen and that he thought colonies fighting George III at the end of the eighteenth century/ x The thoughts of the Congress leaders.1940-1942 President's back at the American War of Independence. . They believed in their own good intentions. Their withdrawal would remove the bait. years. p. will not hesitate to make the necessary adjustments Let us hope that there will emerge out of these their behalf." In his Presidential Address to the Allahabad session of the Muslim League. in order to give real effect to the principles of Pakistan self-determination. IV. on this offer from their British overlords. in view of the Elder : 1 The Second World War. and that their service in India was not all for their own selfish sake they believed also that the Indians had been allowed as many reforms as they could absorb. honourable. . Vol. fear of the Japanese was such in Calcutta that Indian servants deserted their posts and escaped inland. . negotiations a settlement that will be just.
whipped into some milk. ' ' Alma Mater. another land that had English under the yoke of Britain. if one is to comprehend the circumstances he does. As * : Next. lots of fresh fruit Jinnah answered. BIOGRAPHERS a powerful influence on behind all judgments and his medical history should therefore be considered chronologically. of great AND THE DOCTORS A man's ailments are his acts : men seldom refer to the medical reports both his of the doctors who have attended them. finally. and because he was impatient with ill-health his own or anyone else's : that Mohammed also. This view was shared by Mr Casey his was not a prejudiced view he had been born in Australia. raw if you can bear them. Jinnah was reported in the newspapers to be unwell. but according to their capacity to administer them. early as 1941.* Major Gardiner wrote to him. p. have pressed on with all the speed that was wise and practicable indeed we have pressed on probably in advance of the ability of the ' Mr ( ' * We country to take advantage of the progressive steps towards self- government that we have made l possible. They knew that concessions towards country freedom should be granted.' 1942-1944: AN ASSASSIN. and. We have not been dilatory in India by way of constitutional reforms. proposing a diet that would * he suggested. This study is sometimes impossible with Ali Jinnah. 57. Australian in India. with justice and cool reason. but it must be unpasteurized and unboiled. There is An 141 . a story of Casey wrote of the melancholy story of India hope and sincere endeavour frustrated by fear and suspicion/ Then. : . but still devoted to hi from racial bitterness. It is very kind of you. because of the kck of early records. and emerged like any boy suffered a good school proud and independent. Milk is the have been more acceptable to Gandhi best food in the world. on 1 and vegetables/ ' May 3. along side the record of his work. not as demanded by the Indians. eggs. he seemed reluctant to confide in his doctors.JINNAH AND HIS DOCTORS class antagonism and illiteracy that manacled the and held it back.
tried to cajole us. : he was fastidious : 142 .I94 2 . . He had even created his own it newspaper and named it Dawn : it was printed in English. bald notes to his workers." is such that it never Jinnah worked in the small : office. He was the most difficult of all politicians to deal with to his house. into wonder. When Bombay. He worked out the intricate plans to increase the power of the Muslim League. in 1942. shut off from his private rooms. even if they could not understand all the the provinces. and he wrote brief. in memory had begun fifty years before. where hirn to pleasure. discipline that Russell to pass his Bar examinations in less time than any Indian student before him : the industrious habits endured in the man of sixty-six. The edges of his callers desk were his horizon. time for recreation. profession . of popularity . The office was accessible to on the floor were his papers. he would return to his desk. Evelyn Wrench talked to him " in Quaid about worries/ allows his chief recreations and he worked on. near the front door of his new house. in the lodging in the bright lights of Olympia had failed to tempt Road. When the tours were ended. in tidy piles. The journalists He never respected QuaicU-Azam. was above even such trivial bribery as this. he asked the what he did to forget his office * me Jinnah answered. or accentuating a : and the thoughtful use of his monocle. It is entirely due to over-work. AND THE DOCTORS nothing serious the matter with me. as one of them recalled. to his oratory Liaquat Ali Khan induced him to go out on great The force of his convictions gave words he of the used.I 944-' AN ASSASSIN. which is the only pre scription for my case. As a boy of sixteen he had bent over his books. all over India. for most of the day and night except when speaking tours in a peculiar power his raised finger. and his scofn of pressmen had loosened many crisp anecdotes among the newspaper offices in Bombay. Jinnah had always been indifferent to the value. Kke a general giving orders in the field.' But Sir it was not in Jinnah's nature to rest. and agreement. My . admonishing. but " He and proud with us he would summon us he would never ofier us a cup of tea or a cigarette. but. and peace. compelled big audiences point. I intend to have a complete rest. or the pleasure. who owned ninety-five per cent of the newspapers in India. and helped to fight the propaganda of the British and Hindus..
Gandhi warned the British that there was no promise of one more chance. Back came the reprimand. when Mr Jinnah was about to leave the room. on ' movement : the two crisp many walls in English by his followers. does not seem to believe in the Congress programme and in the Congress demand. on top of the newspapers he had been reading. Might one imagine that the The book was open at the lines For what can war but endless war Till truth still breed ? and right from violence be freed. and die High Command *. should own. The conference is over you're only * . Mahatma Gandhi. at the end of a conference.' and he threatened open rebellion/ question It who : . constitutional methods. and found his master bent over the desk with his head in his hands. had been imAll except Gandhi as a seditious danger to the country. consummation of India's freedom. The Quaid reaped the .' alien to Jinnah's the failure of the Cripps Mission. " wasting time. the Congress leaders would despite not embarrass the British war effort/ They did not keep thenin July. Pandit Nehru. for the immediate Mahatma spoke " before But I cannot wait till Mr Jinnah is converted. Before him was a small volume of Milton." * . open increasing.' was strange that a man who had never employed a press agent and spurned the favours of journalists. In the same month the Mr Jinnah the All-India Congress Committee at Bombay : he said. prisoned By other members of the Congress arrest until the * remained under war was 143 over. late at night. one of my colleagues asked a question. The year 1942 was horrible with the lawlessness and infamies so * Nehru had said that. mid-August 1942. and direct the but it was significant that Dawn prospered policy of a newspaper and that. into the office. ruthless sabotage that followed Gandhi's ' One evening his secretary went rebellion caused Jinnah deep grief. where it became the most authentic and impor tant journal in the capital of the new country. when Pakistan was created. Quaid-i-Azam took his newspaper with him to Karachi.GANPHI " S OPEN REBELLION One day in Bombay. ' c : * ' In August he inaugurated his Quit India words were sprawled in white paint.
128. My whole mind was on my correspondence and.15 p. slim and well build z with shaggy black hair and a pointed beard. condemning him and threatening his life. by * * A Bairister- at-Law Co. At that moment. letters and postcards. for God's sake arrive at a . ' He was Rafiq Sabir Mazangavi. from the him from the beginning.\ he walked into die room. one of the leading Khaksars * had written. just as I was about to leave the room. Rafiq Sabir walked up to Malabar HillJ about 1. 1943. a young man. . . * The facts in this story are taken from Jinnah Faces an Assassin. On July 24. 1 See p. In Bis evidence at the trial of Rafiq Sabir.I94 2 . who explained that Jinnah was very busy. The assassin salaamed the watchman at the gate and said he wished to see Quaid-i-Azam. & 144 . Jinnali was working alone in his : room. he did not ' find the ' blade sharp enough to his liking/ so he went to and had 'the knife sharpened/ a knife grinding shop On Monday. . who was present soon after the attack was made on Quaid-i-Azam and who is now serving in Pakistan.I 944" AN ASSASSIN. July 26... in the twinkling of an eye the accused sprang at me and gave me a blow with his clenched fist on my left jaw. We request you to see immediately of us. A new menace to his plans had arisen during June and early Khaksars 1 the group of Muslims who had opposed July. / few days later. the assassin had been chosen. otherwise [some] you A the target of our bullets. Jinnah described the next " moments. risking our lives. Sheik Abdul Qadir. compromise with Gandhiji. . and from the account of a police (Thacker officer. for not aligning the Muslim League with accusing him of treachery the British. Congress. On June 27. when Jinnah had finished his lunch and was already back at his desk. Bombay). about thirty. On the afternoon ofJuly 26. shall make^ Gandhiji in jail. in a united front against Some days there had been as many as fifty telegrams. AND THE DOCTORS benefits of his lawful and constitutional ways he remained at his desk and increased the forces of the Muslim League. ' having bought a knife. He was taken to thf secretary.' Rafiq Sabir arrived in'^ ' on July 6 : he got into a tramcar with his sparse bedding Bombay under his arm/ and went to a hostel where he registered under a false name.. throughout the country.m. then in order to bring the stage of attainment nearer. Ltd. If your ultimate goal its is Pakistan. There had been many letters from them.
in his book on India. I am all right. ' He wrote to a friend in Quetta." The English newspapers and reviews few articles for these war years contain about Quaid-i-Azam. 1 Verdict on India. I was subjected to a murderous attack. with a monocle on a grey silk cord. who snatched the knife from Rafiq Sabir. The only damage was a wound on his chin. taken to gaol. and writers who brusque reception of pressmen. one used to see his like sitting in the window of the St. but thahk God that I have escaped with minor injuries/ He also telephoned his daughter. 1 He called prophetic account of their meeting. The Khaksar was ultimately over powered. tried. a diplomat of the old school . after the Dialogue with a Giant/ 1943. suggests a He gentleman of Spain.DIALOGUE WITH A GIANT I naturally reeled back a bit. months He wrote : The most important man in Asia is sixty-seven." intent/ Rafiq Sabir had raised his huge open knife/ but Jinnah caught the man's hand in his and softened the blow. 145 . 188-97. James's Club. sipping Contrexville while he read Le Temps. thin. and some cuts on his hand. attempted assassination. During the struggle that followed. which he propped against a Queen Anne toast-rack stacked with toast Melba. and a stiff white elegant. and " said. and collar which he wears in the hottest weather. ' the chapter. then he returned to his desk. and sentenced by the British judge * to five years' rigorous imprisonment/ ' pathos of the assassin's act was revealed when he pleaded that he believed it to be his duty to kill Jinnah because he was a tool in The the hands of British Imperialism/ Jinnah was attended by a doctor. his Perhaps his indifference to pub * licity. Beverley Nichols (Jonathan Cape). when he pulled out a knife ' from his waist. One of the first to enjoy the Quaid's confidence was Mr Beverley Nichols. who wrote a lively. tall. among them Jinnah's chauffeur. still estranged from him and living in another part of Bombay. discouraged visiting might have sought him out and made him into a very ' important person to English readers. With murderous ' which were bandaged by his sister. many people appeared. five Mr Nichols met Quaid-i-Azam on December 18. pp.
1942-1944 AN ASSASSIN. had not changed during his two years' detention he still hoped to convert Jirmah to his idea of a United India and on July 17 he wrote to him. holding his monocle between Ms busy fingers and said. will meet whenever choose. Jinnah referred several times to Mahatma Gandhi he said. There is " nothing in life which links us to is gether. The Muslims are a Nation. heart says that I should write to you. "Are the Muslims " Pakistan ? and Jinnah answered. The one thing which keeps the British in India of a United India. . likely to be richer or poorer under " What conceivable reason is there to suppose that the gift of national ? How any European ity is going to be an economic liability . can get up and say that Pakistan ' * is economically impossible after the Treaty of Versailles is really beyond comprehension. the Government released him.." Mr Nichols then asked him. . AND THE DOCTORS Jinnah leaned over" the table. even though his was harsh/ During the talk. 146 Do of not not disappoint .. . a surgeon you could trust." At this time. I have not written to you since my release. If you grant that. addressing him as Brother Jinnah '. . . in May 1944. Gandhi was still a prisoner. ' . as preached by Gandhi. have to be a little tougher. and ill so. and if you are an honest man. in one of the Aga Khan's palaces. lean and hardy. in comfort and peace. The great brains who cut Europe into a ridiculous patchwork of conflict my ing and to us artificial " boundaries are hardly the people to talk economics Nichols described 'the difference between Jirmah and the ' * as the difference between a typical Hindu politician surgeon and a Mr witch doctor verdict . I am the friend and servant only yourself but of lie whole world." the false idea Then. our outlook is not only funda and his followers : mentally different but often radically antagonistic to the Hindus. where he was able to enjoy all the refreshments of a contem plative man. this country.. you must grant the principle of Pakis " tan. We are different beings. ". : * ' . they will not complain.." Then. The Muslims are a If Pakistan means that they will tough people. Don't regard me as the enemy of Islam or of the you my We But today Muslims of me. But he was seventy-four years His aim old.
The meeting between On 22. from Srinagar. Quaid-i-Azam was being treated for an ailment in The first of them his lungs. in Kashmir. the leaders was delayed. by illness and an exhausting tour. and I hope that you will soon be all right. but with great force behind it.." The doctor said that Jinnah was potentially kind/ but that he * * * had been deeply hurt in his life. to receive you at my house in Bombay would By will probably be about the middle of that time I hope that you will have recuperated your health like to say fully and will be returning to Bombay. enjoyed a unique experience the same time. I nothing more till we meet. and he sought the advice of two doctors. that was the was clothed before his disciples his disciples Jinnah Gandhi was an instrument of power difference between them. : he treated both Jinnah and Gandhi ' at This " first doctor recalls Jinnah as a good patient. after ' penalty for having satisfied them to the utmost of my capacity.. He was scrupulously dean it is Godliness. made and by the failure of his marriage/ it also made him himself from his potential kindness Jinnah guard put up defences against dose personal relationships. yet he would perform dirty work and soil his hands> in doing some kindness for the poor. That was the fundamental difference between them.' he said. where he was trying to rest : . was not like As a : : : ' : * : 147 . But I am glad to tell you that I am almost all right and will soon be able to resume my work/ In September.* He has said. He said. a man with a one-track mind. from the day I started from Srinagar. gushing affection of friend. I am very pleased to read in the Press that you are making very good progress. he kept his distance. Cleanliness is personal cleanliness. Jinnah was power. which August.' not next to Godliness in all his physical habits. Gandhi was unclothed before politician. I shall be glad on my return. the people. I had to pay the doctors." The doctor then spoke of Gandhi and Jinnah in terms of their " Gandhi used to say. Jinnah wrote to a August I broke down because of the crushing. by the years of poverty in Bombay 1 " " All this. He was a cold rationalist in politics .A DOCTOR S OPINION Jinnah answered. Jinnah.
Surgeon-Commander Jal Patel.. when the two veteran leaders tried In conversations with the author. during May 1952. He was very frail and weak and I told him that he needed both rest and a tonic . a little these talks. November 1944. he told me that he had had attacks of dysentery in the past. 148 .1944 that : : JINNAH. He has provided his own. The fact got into the newspapers. There were signs in the base of his lungs of unresolved pneumonia. I want an appointment/ I examined him and found that his blood pressure was about 90. hands and change not wish to touch people his underclothes several times a it But he did was as if he wished to be immaculate and alone. some pain in his chest. having increased his weight by eighteen pounds. GANDHI. I am Mr Jinnah. He came back. now a consulting physician in Bombay and Honorary Physician to the President of the Indian Union. He showed me an X-ray picture of his chest it confirmed my : * diagnosis.' He answered. that tells the story of difficult Mahatma Gandhi There is * Jinnah's house on September 9. I think he was conducting his difficult meetings with Mahatjna^ Gandhi at that time. AND UAQUAT ALI KHAN his his cleanliness was a personal mania.. * GANDHI. during eighteen days. I gave him calcium injections. tonics. working at full pressure. *Jmnak-Gandhi Talks. I went to Mr Jinnah and said. more 1 realistic account of Jinnah's illness at this time. AND LIAQUAT ALI KHAN meetings with THE 1 had begun in 2 book. published by the Central Office. with an introduction by Liaquat Ali Khan. in Bombay. The cough subsided. and also short-wave dia thermy treatment. coupled with my name. Some fool has done this." Jinnah's second doctor was a Parsee. 1 was the fool why shouldn't I express my gratitude to the man ' : " who served me ' so well ? " 1944: JINNAH. and he went off to the hills for a rest. " One day Mr Jinnah rang me up some time in September 1944 and said. and a cough. : He would wash day. All-India Muslim League.
we history and traditions.' on the ance of the claim for separation contained in the Muslim League * following terms '. customs and calendar. You do not claim to be a separate nation by right of conquest. If India was one nation before the advent of Islam. I find no parallel in history for a body of converts and their descendants claiming to be a nation apart from the parent stock. when the hour of partition came. The more your argument It progresses. it must remain one in spite of the change of faith of a very large body of their true. legal laws and moral codes. . insisted They were cautious : both that these conversations should be confirmed after each meeting. in an exchange of letters. Gandhi returned to his humble abode. we are a nation with our We by any We and civilization. would be alluring if it wholly unreal. Hindus and Muslims. are a nation of a hundred million. sense of values and proportion. : The talks on September 24 and 25 became more realistic they concerned the actual slicing of the sub-continent. the more alarming your picture appears to me. they were already at variance : that evening Gandhi wrote to Jinnah : .THE JINNAH-GANDHI TALKS to reconcile their irreconcilable aims. aptitudes and ambitions have our own distinctive outlook on life and of life. In the course of our discussions you have passionately pleaded that India contains two nations. saying that he was ' willing to recommend to the Congress and the country the accept Resolution of 1940. By September 15. we are a nation. 149 . two days . but by reason of acceptance of Islam. from which he wrote Jinnah a long letter. : On the evening of September 24. and that the latter have their homelands in India as the former have theirs. .e. i. language and literature. were But my fear is that it is children.. and what is more. By all the canons of international Law. names and nomenclature. nations maintain that Muslims and Hindus are two major definition or test as a nation. Will the two nations become one if the whole of India accepted Islam later : ? Jinnah replied. in short.. distinctive culture art own and architecture.
150 . . whatever principle of separation * Gandhi was willing to concede to the Muslims. Sindh. after the British ' * ' i *> 3 Author's italics. Baluchistan. the right of self-determination will not be exercised by the Muslims. desire to live in separation from the rest of India. 1 Jinnah replied that If this term were accepted and given effect to. and by their * united front and efforts do everything in their power to secure the freedom and independence of the peoples of India on the basis of Jinnah would not agree * : * ' ' Pakistan and Hindustan* s Hie fourth point revealed that. the present boundaries of these provinces would be maimed and mutilated beyond redemption/ and the Muslims with the husk/ ' would be * left only The Mahatma's second condition was The areas should : be demarcated by a Commission approved by the Congress and the League. . and in parts of Bengal and Assam where they are in absolute majority.JINNAH. of whom the Muslims living in the North-West zones. but by the inhabitants of those areas so demarcated. and all that part of Punjab where they are in absolute majority over other elements. as two i. immediately '.e. it shall be agreed that a separate state as soon as possible after India isfree from foreign domination. The wishes of the inhabitants of the areas demarcated should be ascertained through the votes of the adult population of the areas. or through some equivalent method. GANDHI. of separation. and can therefore be constituted into two sovereign Independent States. 2 in favour these areas shall form he proposed that they should come to * a complete settlement of their own.1944. / his third Gandhi presented If the vote is point : he wrote. North-West Frontier Province. AND LIAQUAT All KHAN Gandhi began I : proceed on the assumption that India is not to be regarded or more nations but as one family consisting of many members. Jinnah complained that Gandhi's proposal would mean That even ' in these mutilated areas so defined.
A. IN 1947 [151 . JINNAH AND LIAQUAT ALI KHAN. A. IN 1944 M. JINNAH AND MAHATMA GANDHI.M.
This is to divide India into two sovereign parts.. Jinnah made his com with a representative of the London The offer made to us is an insult to intelli fell * x and he explained. and for each of us to trust the other to give equitable treatment to Hindu minorities in Pakistan and Muslim minorities in Hindustan. of Pakistan and Hindustan. 1 2 October 4. The matter of security of the two states. Sind. . .PAKISTAN AND HINDUSTAN departed. will be for the constitution-making body of Pakistan and that of Hindustan . Baluchistan. I had an hour's talk with Jinnah. diary. He went on " Why did Gandhi come to see me if he had nothing whispering. From News gence this time. commerce and the like.' Thirteen days after this interview. to deal with on the footing of their being two independent states. ' . Through my Diary 151 Leaves. There is only one practical. He said. Sitting about two feet away from him I could only hear and follow with difficulty what he was saying. which must necessarily continue to be the matters of There common To this. the Hindus want some kind of agreement which will give them some form of control. in an interview Chronicle. the talks plaint. ' ' . by the recognition of the whole of the North-West Frontier Province. Gandhiji. L . customs. . as they now stand. weak. p. We are prepared to trust twenty-five million Muslims to them if they will trust us. . Punjab. cannot be ment. these matters. They will not reconcile themselves to our complete independence. realistic way of resolving Muslim-Hindu differences.. Jinnah replied .. briefly. defence. J. any state. Bengal and Assam as sovereign Muslim territories. ' . depressed. . 62. 1944. According to the Lahore Resolution. Kanji Dwarkadas wrote in his 2 I found him ill. he was not prepared to grant to Pakistan the full sovereignty ' implied in the phrase. which are the hfeblood of delegated to any central authority or govern all . . internal communications. sovereign Independent States/ He wrote : shall also be a treaty of separation which should also for the efficient and satisfactory administration of provide foreign afiairs. and the natural and mutual obligations that may arise out of physical continguity. ' to pieces.. interest between the contracting : parties. The fact is. it as I have already explained to you.
1944. My heart is with you both/ usually had now worked with the Quaid for almost ten Lia<juat Ali Khan the affairs and finances of the Muslim League were managed years * and success. Yes. Quaid-i-Azam enjoyed his growing friendship with Liaquat Ali Khan and his beautiful. and Jinnah trusted his colleague absolutely. no. Raana. Jinnah with a nervous rash. " I shall send it I know what will heal you. they ended their of their daily arguments and talked. in his hands and said. The with skill between them were perhaps part of this bond there was raised out perfect amity between the self-made. AND LIAQUAT ALI KHAN he thought Gandhi came to put him in the wrong and to create public opinion against him. tomorrow morning. them for an evening at the Jinnah and his sister would sometimes join or for a game of cards.JINNAH. intelligent wife. when manners and graciousOne day when ness prevailed. already relieved the pain. Gandhi was very frank with me and we had very better to offer ? " I asked him if : good talks. Their friendship. simply. but he thanked Gandhi when he came that evening. and Gandhi. Mahatma Gandhi went to see the Quaid-i-Azam. They were weary a little like expended boxers. even between such opponents as these. among his ills. had survived all the ethical hazards of public life in the East. finding relief in their parting handshake. for one more talk. and their mutual good humour. Jinnah did not use it. one of his feet was troubled The Mahatma sank to the floor and insisted on removing Jinnah' s shoe and sock. differences : 152 . Liaquat Ali Khan dared " smiled at Begum Liaquat and said. GHANDI. life. robed in bare simplicity is at first The Mahatma held the troubled foot amusing.'" There was an episode during the talks. Once. mentioned that. and told him that the medicine had During these years. if I could them he : have found another Raana." When he wrote to ended his letters. a little box of clay mixture arrived. Jinnah " said No. to speak to his leader. astringent advocate. and then touching." Next day. The scene of Jinnah in his immaculate clothes. I might have married Jinnah : again. at the end of a rubber of cinema. their integrity. of his loneliness bridge.
'No. He answered. he could relax. and London. x Begum Liaquat AH Khan has recalled these years when the friend ship between Quaid-i-Azam and her husband was being confirmed. and for that there is no time/ But it was not rudeness that made him act like that : it was because he existed in a physical world of his own. without private ambition. Yet. I remem ber the time when the Muslim League wished to dispense with : . in a sudden mood of * If I shake hands with you. as Gandhi did.' Jinnah's eyes were twin lamps of truth/ Only the honest could look him straight in the eye. But his defences were too high for this to happen with strangers. when some members of the Muslim League told him he should travel third-class on the railway. I " and admiration his com seem to remember someone writing about twin lamps of truth.' " It was his Liaquat Ali Khan has said of Quaid-i-Azam. His physical aloofness was honesty as a virtue shown in the way he would sometimes avoid shaking hands with people. I was told a story of his visit to Baluchistan. ' 1 In conversations with the author. He said. devout son of the landed gentry. when heattended a garden party where he had to meet hundreds of people. annual elections for the Presidency and make Jinnah's appointment permanent. and his incredible honesty. Among them was an old chieftain a Muslim Sirdar who advanced towards Jinnah and held out his hand. especially with my husband and myself and he liked jokes of the schoolboy kind. 153 .' " People sometimes complained of his brusque manner : this too from his honesty and lack of pretence. " Of his integrity every step he took was on this basis. I must come before you each year. You will find clearness that stirred one's astonishment plete lack of humbug. hands with all the people here. and the warm-hearted. Once. in Karachi. said. Do not It is not your dictate to me what I should do or should not do. to seek your vote of confidence. Annual elections are important. and I shall live and act as I choose. " My chief memories of Mr Jinnah are of his immaculate. I would have to shake aloofness. aloof physical existence. It was because of this that my husband remained his trusted friend. who had inherited a gift for leader ship. It was not merely it was an obsession.BEGUM LIAQUAT ALI KHAN of obscurity by his character and talents. arose * money I am Begum ' spending. independent of human contacts. he was furious. Jinnah.
You must remember that Jinnah. . Begum Liaquat Ali " Khan said. an individual or a multitude. Jinnah Except for one codicil.' They always sided into silence. one fact without the allegiance of my husband. But his real power was over a great audience. remove and then speak." right hand this. AND LIAQUAT ALI KHAN people who like dividing the indivisible . which was dominate powerful frightening. anyone * was a man when he I decided to have seen him shake his finger at someone and say. after Partition. Bombay. He spoke to them in English Even with them he would it. use his monocle put it to his eye. All this power over a vast crowd was asserted in spite of the barrier of language.but they listened. You are talking nonsense : sub you do not know what you are talking about. He once described my husband as his Liaquat remained so. who will suggest that. Jinnah Liaquat of this trust in him. This is nonsense : proves wrote 1939. never changed his mind. but he never told appointed my husband In all the years till his death. GANDHI. Back in when he was still in his will." 154 .1944" JINNAH. Jinnah would have liked to go his own lonely way. he never changed it. He as one of his executors. apart from his integrity. to the end. . bewitched. 4 ' : In her final estimate of the Quaid-i-Azam.
PART SIX .
the Congress were immediately freed from prison. presented one more plan. This was discussed at the the European WHEN The leaders first Simla Conference. British opened their hands a little wider : the Viceroy's Executive Council 2 should be wholly Ihdianized '. and ' that the Council should legislate as an Interim Government until the Japanese War ended and a Constitution could be framed. 2 Up to 1941. with the hope of solving the political impasse long history between the Muslims and the Hindus. in June. with only the Viceroy and the Commander-in-Chief as British * they proposed that * members . 157 . there was a majority of British members in the Council : in that year it had been expanded to give an Indian majority of three. was increased to eight. but neither Lord Wavell. having achieved nothing. and the 1 Viceroy. and the delegates withdrew. in the of plans. which. The negotiations broke new down once more : it was accepted that Muslims and Caste Hindus should have equal representation. nor the Congress. Jinnah had not yet brought all the Muslims within the corral of the the Prime Minister of the North-West Frontier Province League and most of his Ministers were still Congressmen in politics . He led a Unionist Coalition which included Muslims. The Quaid was adamant. would agree to Jinnah's demand that the League should be allowed to nominate all the Muslim members. immediately. Liaquat Ah* I still Khan am almost but need fteld-Marshal Viscount Wavell had succeeded the Marquess of Linlithgow Viceroy in October 1943.1945-1946 War ended in May 1945. and the Muslim Prime Minister of the Punjab Sir Khizr Hayat Khan Tiwana was opposed to both Jinnah and the League. Hindus and Sikhs. The Quaid had to wait some more months before he could induce responsible : Muslim leaders in these areas to join in the cry for Pakistan. He rest returned to his home in became sad badly/ : he wrote. Lord Wavell. Bombay and * I his letters to all right. in as 1 1942.
Jinnah's affairs were suddenly influenced by massive events from the bigger world. In July, the Socialists, under Mr Attlee, were returned to power in Britain ; and in August came the unconditional
surrender of the Japanese. of invasion by a new
For the Muslims and Hindus in
they were able
to devote their energies to their own domestic, conflicts, and their indignations against the conqueror already on the field.
The Labour Government in Britain, with many members who were tried friends of India and ardent for reform, hastened the pace of deliverance one of the early decisions was that general elections should be held in India in January 1946. The victory of the Muslim League at the polls was overwhelming, both in the Provinces and in the Central Assembly. This was Jinnah's his arduous political campaigns, his robust beliefs and glorious hour claims, were at last justified. Only the Muslims of the North-West but even here, the power of the Muslim Frontier remained unwilling League was established. The votaries of Pakistan were now spread
Three and a half years before, Nehru had said to an American reporter, There is now a demand on the part of some Muslims for
partition of India.
had become a multitude, and Jinnah was
able to repeat,
power on earth can prevent Pakistan.' On March I, 1946, Quaid-i-Azam was
League workers in Calcutta.
given turn my
meeting of Muslim
to live comfortably at this age. blood into water run about and take so
you the poor people." He then of the people in Bengal, when he saw abject poverty " Some of them did not get food even once a day. them in 1936. I have not seen them recently, but my heart goes out to them. I feel and in Pakistan we shall do all in our power to see that everybody it,
for the capitalists, but for
can get a decent living." When Mr S. N. Bakar asked him, "What of the economic situation in Pakistan? There is no kon, no coal, no hydro-electric power, " no industries," Jinnah answered, I am fully aware of this. Our people have had no opportunity to develop these things. I have every
York Times Magazine, July 19, 1942,
THE CABINET MISSION
and so should you, that, given the opportunity, they will achieve Remember one thing I am going on, even if it kills me."
might be said that the body politic in India almost died of a of conferences. In March 1946, at the behest of the British Cabinet, three of its members sailed for India : they were Lord
Sir Stafford Cripps.
Secretary of State for India Mr A. V. Alexander, * Their task was to promote, in conjunction
with the leaders of public opinion, the early realization of selfgovernment in India/ The Viceroy once more summoned the
Congress and League
and they met the Cabinet Mission
once more failed to achieve harmony, but the of the next few months must be described, briefly, as they episodes led to the sudden and absolute decision of the British to quit India/ When the conference failed, the Cabinet Mission framed and announced a central Constituent Assembly was to be formed, their own plan
with members chosen through communal electorates, on the basis of one member for each million of the population. This Constituent
Assembly would frame the new Constitution for the Union of India/ Muslim interests, in this reassembling of political power, were to be safeguarded by a new system of grouping of the provinces in
Madras, Bombay, United Provinces, Bihar, Central Provinces, and Orissa the Hindu-majority group. Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, and Sind
the Western, Muslim-majority group. Bengal and Assam the Eastern, Muslim-majority
Each of these groups would also have its own constitution, and each would be autonomous in all departments, except Defence, Foreign Affairs, and Communications, which would be controlled by the Union of India at the centre. Also, the Cabinet Mission proposed the revival of the Viceroy's plan of an rejected at the first Simla Conference for the formation
Interim Government, to be in
command until the inauguration of the
Here also, Muslim interests were Lord Wavell recognized the League's
in the elections
in the Interim Government.
five seats each
them equal representation, with Congress, The League and Congress would have would also be one member representing the
and one the
On June 6,
the Council of the
Muslim League met
many arguments the members agreed, under Jinnah's direction, ' ' inasmuch as the basis and the foundation of Pakistan were that
inherent in the Mission plan,
by virtue of the compulsory grouping Muslim provinces/ they would accept the plan in the it would ultimately result in the establishment of complete,
I sovereign Pakistan.' The League claimed that their support and decision was prompted an earnest desire for a peaceful solution ... of the Indian
constitutional problem/ But Jinnah insisted that the Mission plan was and he warned the no more than a half-way house to Pakistan the quickest way to British Government and the Congress that to agree to Pakistan/ He raised the independence of India was
his inevitable finger,
shook it, and of you/'
Quaid-i-Azam was constantly ill. Soon after the close of the second Simla Conference he was so exhausted that his sister telephoned the doctor in Bombay and asked him to be ready to see her brother when he arrived home. Dr Jal Patel has described the circumstances of Jinnah's health at " 2 You must consider the weakness of }iis body when he this time. wait to the second Simla Conference in May. "While he was there he fell ill again. When he was coming back to Bombay from Simla, some thirty thousand of his followers had prepared to greet him at Central Station. I arranged for him to be taken off at Dadar, a few
1 The grouping plan was acceptable to the Muslims because it recognized the Punjab, and Bengal, as Muslim-majority entities. They achieved less than this in the ultimate when the frontiers partition : both provinces were divided
of Pakistan were defined in 1947.
miles before the railway terminus in Bombay. When he arrived I saw that he was exhausted, so I induced the stationmaster, who was
a Hindu, to allow "
gate to save climbing the
was always bronchitis. He had a Again for ten days. It is possible that he had always had lung temperature he was completely exhausted, weak and tired." trouble was
Patel then related
Quaid-i-Azam's medical history to " he said, Let us see what happened to
when he was
came back from
that they in a sulky
Simla, not only
but in a
shabbily,' and were so discourteous to him that he had left the conference mood and gone home. Mr A. V. Alexander had telephoned him next morning and said, I am sorry, but this climate is not good for our tempers. Lord Pethick-Lawrence says he is sorry ; also that he would like to see you.' Jinnah's answer was, Then he can come and see me/ "There," said Dr Patel, "is the petulance that goes with such illness as Jinnah was suffering from." There is a story told of Quaid-i-Azam's anger, about this time, when he was called to the telephone by the secretary to the -Governor " of Bombay. He protested, If His Excellency is too big to come to the telephone, so am I." Then he rang off. " Dr Patel said of this incident, One must remember how ill he in his heart he was a was. The flashes of temper were superficial free of pettiness and small prejudices man extraordinarily especially over racial differences. I went to him once, at the height of the enmity between the Muslims and the Hindus. Jinnah had a Hindu butler, and I said, rather as a joke, Aren't you afraid he may do you He answered, Oh, no. I like him and an injury or something ?
Cripps had treated
These days, he seems to be taking an " but he's a very good fellow really.*
Lord Wavell of vacillation and of having broken faith with the Muslims during his last year as Viceroy. Per haps he made some of his decisions hastily, before he had considered all that they implied perhaps the maelstrom of changing circumstances
Pakistani writers accuse
no man could have reconciled such opposed factions. Lord Wavell had offered the League and the Congress the Interim Government, with the addition equal representation in * of two members, one representing the Sikhs and one the Untouch ables/ Jinnah had agreed to this, but, a few days later, the Viceroy decided to add representatives of the Parsees and the Anglo-Indian
community. On June 16 the Viceroy declared Mission that he hoped all parties,
with the Cabinet
two major parties,' would co-operate for the successful carrying on of the Interim Then he promised that, In the event of the two Government. or either of them, proving unwilling to join, he would major parties, * an Interim Government which proceed with the formation of
as representative as possible
Mission. plan of the Cabinet The Muslims read into this an assurance
that, if the
Congress were unwilling to co-operate, the Viceroy would still form his government without them. Jinnah had been encouraged in this view by a private letter from Lord Wavell, written on June 4, in which he said that he would go ahead with the plan,' so far as
circumstances permitted, if either party accepted/ On June 24, Jinnah learned that Congress had refused to appoint members to the Interim Government. On the 26th, the Cabinet
Mission announced that the plan had been shelved ; and the Viceroy a Caretaker Govern putting his ten-day-old promise aside formed without reference to the Muslim League, ment of permanent officials,
he had promised representation. With characteristic directness, Jinnah wrote to the Viceroy, You /' have chosen to go back on your pledged word.
or to the minorities to
' . .
The League nevertheless contested the elections for the Constituent Assembly, early in July. Their success at the polls increased Jinnah's
but three of the 79 Muslim seats. But the elections had been planned on the reformed basis of one member
for each million
the Hindus, and of die various communities Congress, were therefore predominant, with 292 seats. Pandit Nehru made it clear that he would exploit this advantage : on July 10, he ' * c ' said there was a big probability that there would be no grouping
The Making of Pakistan Richard Symonds, 162
Thus he threatened to deny
Union of India was formed.
the Muslims the chief benefits promised to them in the Mission plan ; * the promises Jinnah had accepted, because they offered the basis and
the foundation of Pakistan.'
The Quaid protested, in a statement to His Majesty's Government, 1 Nehru had made it quite clear that Congress was not going
honour any of the terms of the long-term plan, and that they were * entering the Constituent Assembly only to use it as a platform for * their propaganda,' in utter disregard of the rights and obligations of the other communities who had agreed to the Cabinet Mission plan. These arguments, between Jinnah and Nehru, and the Viceroy, were the academic expression of more terrible conflicts that were spreading over most of India. While their masters dallied with law and reason, agitators were already preparing the mass of people for the riots and slaughter that were to come horror and passions that no form of government could prevent. During this time, the Viceroy was trying to persuade Nehru to withdraw the Congress decision to boycott the Interim Government. Once more Lord Wavell changed his mind, and he wrote to Jinnah, on July 22, implying that Congress would be appeased if the Muslim League would agree to a revised distribution of seats six for Congress, five for the League, and three for members representing other
. . this is the fourth basis that you are suggest Jinrfah replied, for the formation of your Interim Government. . . . Every ing
time the Congress turned down the previous three proposals, as you were unable to appease them, or propitiate them ; and every
time, the departure the Congress. . . .
prejudicial to the
League and in ^favour of
present proposal clearly destroys the prin
and gives a dear majority to the Congress as ciple of parity the League/ against * was Jinnah's resentment over the efforts to propitiate Congress
increased when he read the speeches made by Lord Pethick-Lawrence and Sir Stafford Cripps in the British Parliament, on July 18, during
on the Mission
Commons, that although the Muslim League was certainly to be regarded as the major representative of Muslim interests," the Cabinet
And So To
Pakistan, Altaf Husain, p. 24.
to Jinnah that they could perfectly clear " not accept his claim to a monopoly of Muslim appointments to the Interim Government. In the Lords, the Secretary of State had used
no monopoly of same phrase, that the Quaid-i-Azam had Muslim appointments." Thus, not only was Jinnah deprived of the equal representation which the League had been promised he was also to be denied his proven right, as President of the League, to leadership of the entire Muslim community in British India a right which the Viceroy had and which had been confirmed by the officially recognized, on June 3,
League's success in the elections for the new Constituent Assembly. In recording these events, Muslim journalists used the words, British
During the debates, the Secretary of State had remarked on Jinnah's courage and statesmanship', and said that, "in advance of any pronouncement by Congress," he had induced the League to accept " differed substantially from the views held and vigor proposals that
Cripps had also spoken ofJinnah's courage and determina
in accepting the Mission's proposals.
The Quaid was not consoled by these phrases. On July 28 when the Council of the Muslim League met in Bombay, he reviewed the
arguments of the Cabinet Mission, and then
no use looking to any other source for or assistance. There is no tribunal to which we can go. The help only tribunal is the Muslim Nation."
he said, and Sir
..Then, of the compliment to his "
own to me
courage and statesmanship,' Lord Pethick-Lawrence
have acknowledged that we made very and vital concessions, whereas the Congress has not budged I wish I could honestly pay a tribute to their courage and
which they have so sadly lacked in handling
negotiations." Late in the evening, after the meeting, a friend called at the house in Mount Pleasant Road. He found Quaid-i-Azam writing the last
words of the speech he was to make before the Muslim League " Council next day. He has recalled, My old leader seemed old indeed he moved away from his desk and we had a drink together.
glass shook in his hand, and, for the first rime in all the years had known him, he seemed subdued, as if, at last, his burdens were too much." Next morning Jinnah was refreshed, and he made his startling " I do not think that any responsible man will disagree with speech me, that we were moved by a desire not to allow the situation to develop into bloodshed and civil war. ..." He went on to explain that anxiety to try to come to a peaceful with Congress, had induced the League to accept a settlement
leaving the control of Defence, Foreign Affairs, " He said, to the central Union of India.
of Congress," but unequivocal " with defiance and contempt." the compromise had been treated Jinnah paused and framed his monocle within his curved fingers then he lowered his voice and said, "... are we alone to be guided
at the altar
reason, justice, honesty
pky, when, on the other hand, "
there are perfidious dealings
say that, today,
never before, and has never
felt so bitterly.
learned a bitter lesson
the bitterest, I think, so far.
compromise. meeting the Muslim League withdrew* their acceptance of ' to the Cabinet Mission proposals, and sanctioned Direct Action force the cause of Pakistan. August 16 was chosen as the day on which,
Let us march on/*
throughout India, the League would explain to the people exactly why its acceptance was cancelled and its policy changed. The conflict was no longer limited to educated leaders at conference
was already a whisper of distant drums the rising dust the League, desperate hordes of refugees in the decision of and to get rid of the present slavery under to achieve Pakistan the British, and the contemplated future of Centre Hindu domination/ At the end of Quaid-i~Azam's speech, eminent Muslims climbed on to the platform and dramatically renounced the tides and honours they
had once accepted from
their British rulers.
Miss Fatima Jinnah has since spoken of her brother's state of mind * at this time. 1 He expected to be arrested at any moment. The cold
Told to the author by Mr Farced Jafri, former editor of the
Civil and Military
' are not questioned lightly by his colleagues. at the memory of human enjoyment. . We must form a regiment ofmujahadeen [holy warriors]. carries his years well.. . Jinnah is credited with ruling the working committee . . However. tall and . but that to live for it called for massive and constant courage did not answer.. Jinnah*s ability and personality are such that it is not much of an exaggeration to say that he is the Muslim League. He appears to have the He is legal mind : he holds his cards very close to his chest. though he has a look of frailty. and he has denied himself the qualities luxury of any which might loosen his concentration purpose. An old man. deeper down.. . on the next move in his campaign. . Casey. G. If he says the watchword is to be Pakistan'. I would believe that it does not ever occur to him that he might be upon his wrong." Jinnah one of the few men in India who knew that to die for a cause was easy. . on my bare chest. . . . 166" .1945-1946 logician the lover of orderliness and law revealed the emotions he had always held in check with such exquisite care before he left the Muslim League meeting. he stood up and declared his willingness : ' go to gaol. . He is dogmatic and sure of himself . met Quaid-i-Azam and appreciated his character and his valour. aged seventy-five. a man of iron discipline. We shall offer our lives first. Mr of the of Muslim League with a rod of iron. . to " It was about this time that Mr R. rose and cried. not a warm man. He drove home and worked late into the night. what. He wrote x : It is not too is much to say that Mr Jinnah is the only outstanding He Muslim of He all-India stature in Indian politics today. Quaidi-Azam shall not go to gaol. . pp. there is something in his eye that hints at a sense of * ' . and I offer myself to be the first to be fired on by the police.. tell them what's signs fall At any An Australian in India. Governor of Bengal. 63-6. the watch word 15 Pakistan. He is a man whose judgment and authority . humour But he is and. . very thin. Mr. and that they invariably 1 He is said to into line.
(See pp. 172-3) 166] . A. KINGSWAY HALL. DECEMBER 1946. JINNAH ADDRESSING MUSLIM LEAGUE MEETING. A. JINNAH. M.1 MISS FATIMA JINNAH. LIAQUAT ALI AND BEGUM LIAQUAT ALI KHAN KHAN M.
If I hadn't been a fanatic there Jinnah said. in several references. : in a speech at Bombay. Lord "Wavell broadcast an For Jinnah this appeal to the Muslims. Pandit Nehru loved words Quaid-i-Azam loved the law behind them. would never have been Pakistan. Mr Casey personal diary. A vast responsibility rests a on the shoulders of Mr Jinnah. asking for their co-operation. in March 1948. following the League's rejection of the Cabinet Mission plan. On August 24. and Nehru accepted. frail. M 167 . A very great deal depends on his handling of over the next year or so the biggest case he has had. . l In a letter * recalling his meetings wrote.. 1946. the Viceroy invited Congress to form an Interim Government. with out reference to Jinnah or the League. 1953. and there was no level on which they could meet in harmony. I have looked up my with the Quaid in 1946. with Nehru as his Vice-President. blunt and direct and no one has any doubt what he means when he affairs speaks. . To die author. the Viceroy announced the names of his Congress-nominated Interim Government. At this same dinner my " wife made some comment about someone or other being a fanatic. after which the argument ceases." " Don't decry fanatics.A DOUBLE BETRAYAL intransigence on what he considers a major point he threaten resignation. on August 29. was a naive and extraordinary request he answered. . and I find that I empha " sized. the fact that he looked very . has committed a double betrayal in going back 1 The Viceroy j. 'My wife and I dined with him and his sister at Government House in Karachi .. He ." However. said to . is . That evening. but each of them kept to his ON lair of stubbornness and : their talk came to nothing. July 23. ' 1946-1947 August 8. There was a meeting between Nehru and Jinnari. . he could sustain long periods of active discussion without any sign of tiring a couple of hours at a time. is man is He well accustomed to authority and responsibility." .
made by the British Government. . it is one more stituent Assembly on December 9. and not for the purpose of party gains/ " Nowhere in the world does a Government It is a novel like the present Interim Government of India exist. the smallest : and most frightened little man in his hut. . p. But I on his League. in silent contempt for the Hindu Government/ The millions of bkck pennants. all over India. in the street. was asked to fly a bkck flag from his housetop. when the Congress Interim Government came Muslim League copied Mahatma Gandhi's old tactics of non-violent protest every Muslim. Jinnah : at the first appointed Liaquat Ali Khan as leader of these five. Early in October. 137. I deeply regret that the Viceroy and His Majesty's Government have decided to summon the Con In my opinion. November 21. While the members were Liaquat AH Khan said. only emphasized the differences between Hindu and Muslim neighbours. The Viceroy's action today is nothing but a wicked breach of the declaration of August 1940. 1 It is that quite obvious See Chapter 1940-1^42. Jinnah had further discussions with the Viceroy and received better satisfaction/ The result of these talks was com * * believed the Interim Government promise. 1 . of the repeating their arguments. and the Interim Government achieved nothing of enduring value. to which the Labour Party was committed. 2. and excited the enmity that was so soon to lead to slaughter. and we have come into the Government with the inten experiment. tion of working in harmony with our other colleagues but you cannot clap with one hand/' The two hands did not clap together. Jinnah ordered that no member of the Muslim On League was to take his seat he said. from Quaid-i-Azam to the On September into power.1946-1947 solemn word and in ignoring and by-passing the Muslim I do not know whether the British Government or the Labour Party are really in possession of the true facts. * he charged his colleagues to work for the good of the man meeting. in which the Quaid never was reconstituted to admit five Muslim League members. : " blunder of a very grave and serious character. a move to black out the true facts from the suspect that there is British public and press. the opening new Constituent Assembly was being arranged. and. 168 . to so little purpose. for December 9.
is is . three chapters. In the vast spaces of British India the three hundred millions of Muslims and Hindus were already yielding to their deep..' when big numbers of Muslims congregated to listen to the explanations of their leaders. familiar day in the monsoon. appeasing them. . contained fifteen corpses and another twelve live children.BLOODSHED AND CIVIL entirely playing into the hands of Congress and . ing or this why/ Four thousand Muslims and Hindus were killed during * episode in Calcutta.. . reveal the full British relinquished control and the law into their * own hands.. in amity and trust all their lives. upon the few Muslims who had lived and whose forefathers had lived. August 16. among these very Hindu The number of Muslim dead. Eastern Command 169 1950). . . .. During October and November.C. one room city. General Sir Francis Tuker has described these last tragic months 1 * of British rule in ' India. . a warm. women. . in complete disregard of the Muslim League.* . former G. great mobs of Hindus turned suddenly. ancient hatred the bloodshed and civil war that Jinnah had dreaded. . and (November 1946). rescued two both wounded and one already gangrenous. I want to make it quite clear that no representative of the League . Most of the dead in the Market had not had the remotest idea of what was happen .-in-C. The underworld of Calcutta was taking charge of the . but with every preparation for the deed. the Viceroy . sticky. men. * The Great Calcutta Killing * (August 1946). General Sir Francis Tuker describes the * unbridled savagery. in Bihar. in India. and neighbours. 1 While Memory Serves (Cassell. . . The The Butchery of Muslims in Bihar The Garhmukteswar Massacre horror of what happened as the Indians took the ' (October-November 1946). * The Great ' Calcutta Killing began on Direct Action Day *. The Market itself was strewn with bodies . While Memory f ' Serves. with homicidal maniacs let loose to kill and kill and to maim and burn. . Lieut-General Sir Brands Tuker. Hindus and Muslims soon turned on each other with their vicious knives. ." should attend. in his book. be expected.O. . they were dazed and half-witted. . As might . we . had * ' : already begun.
savage killing was about seven thousand ' to even pregnant women were ripped up. where each went his met again. A crisp details l mixed company. London on December 3. "Well. and women eight thousand/ In the United Provinces and children were seized by the legs by burly fiends and torn apart not one This is from the records of a responsible senior officer : ' who lived in a cloud of political unreality. Jinnah they made the first amiable move he went up to Nehru and asked. 32. ' * ' ' ' 9 While 'wearing Western-style clothes for the to Malta. Rosamond Lehmann's The Balder Singh. they were a yard apart in space. flying from Karachi first time in eight years/ 'Nehru breezed through and Sinclair Lewis' friend. 1946. now. and Sardar Baldev Singh represent Khan. their unborn babies torn out and the infants' brains bashed out on walls and on the ground.1946-1947 children. Majesty's the Cabinet Mission plan. with the peace of India hanging by a thread. saw these The scene moves to Whitehall : the reports of the massacres and of the impasse within the Interim Government inspired the British Cabinet to one last effort at reconciliation. for the last time. chatted with his [sic] good Sikh leader Sardar In the plane's third row sat Viscount Wavell. what have you been doing all day?" Nehru answered. The Viceroy and the Indian leaders all flew to London in the from Time magazine searched out some reporter of the journey and of the behaviour of the strangely same aircraft. There was rape. p. The Prime Minister Mohammed Ali Jinnah. 170 . and wrote an article entitled Flight to Nowhere ? ' * In a front-row seat sat Jinnah. in this short. a book pointedly tided A Nation Betrayed. Ballad and the Source Cass Timberlaine. The party had to wait own way. politically as remote as ever/ some hours in Malta. December 16. For three years he had been trying to bring Nehru Viceroy and Jinnah into agreement. to confer ing the Sikhs were to arrive in with His Government. of India. to take off for London. with his hawk's head buried in Behind him sat Nehru. but one who horrors and whose task it was to try to assuage them. Liaquat Ali Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. When : 1 Time magazine. in an effort to save announced that Lord Wavell.
a delightful change from the tin service he had known as a nine-year guest in H. 'Nehru moved superficial. . and the meeting fell apart.' The arguments of the conference tables at Simla were reawakened neither the Congress nor the League leaders were willing in London to make any concessions. with the Sikh delegate. where the leaders were met at the airport by ' * Britain's aging. We have now We cannot . But we have not entered the Constituent Assembly in our decisions on a silver plate and dance attendance order to on place the British Government for their acceptance. . partly sleeping. he shook hands with the Dowager Marchioness of Willingdon. altogether stopped looking and will not tolerate any outside interference. able Lord Pethick-Lawrence '. he ate from . of problems * ' ' months. was with this the British prepared. was the smiling Nehru who proved most stubborn. Nehru was in Benares. It . American view of this last effort at conciliation. remarking that it was silly to expect a solution.'s prisons. . On December : Whatever form of Constitution we may decide in the Consti tuent Assembly will become the Constitution of free India whether Britain accepts it or not. and local Indians * who were out before dawn in coal trucks. The writer continued. in three days. bicycles and buses/ The detached. is but astringent. Mr Attlee insisted that His Majesty's Government would not withdraw : from India quit if this unless the .NEHRU " S DEFIANT SPEECH Then the aircraft Partly reading." * took off for London. however. Pandit Nehru flew back to India. it deeply aggrieved. about at receptions with high good humour and grace. The British Government are decisions are not binding thinking that the Constituent Assembly's on her. Constitution insisted that the British officials Muslims were represented in framing the new and forces would not meant leaving all power in the hands of the Congress Party. towards London. whose husband had jailed him at Buckingham Palace. giving of a man When the travellers got down to cases.' of Caste15. at the end of ' the three days. His Majesty's gold plate. where he made a defiant speech Hinduism. Jinnah was the impression socially crusty.M. . * been under discussion for that had in this time. At India House. partly walking. through force prospect that 171 . the holy capital he said.
The hall * British Press photographers filled the front row with their cameras loaded and resting on their knees. among the great law world. Leaguers from . had won his seat in the British Parliament. sadly romantic where he had looked up arrived as a student. all over Britain crowded the Hall of the Head Methodist Church to hear their leader. accusing the Cabinet Mission and the Viceroy of betrayal. pp. where he had for him. Jinnah entered. The setting must have been Kingsway Near by was Lincoln's Inn. 172 . the . and a Muslim audience shouting iJamil-ud-Din Ahmad. all ' of the As Mr. . . seemed that he In eleven days Quaid-i-Azam would be seventy years old ' the fogs and winter of London/ for still feared : it he buttoned about him during the kept his English overcoat closely meeting. A Muslim x journalist described the scene : the Hall were bannered with Pipes of the great organs in crescent flags of the Muslim green silken-flagged slogans League. to withdraw into the India to settle her own affairs. fifty-four years before On December 14. hero. 497~&. Quaid-i-Azam Zindabad/ It was some of the reasonableness of the British that no one : protested against lettered this demonstration. Muslims living in Britain crowded into the Hall to hear Jinnah speak. and seen the name of the Prophet over the gate. where Jinnah's first givers of the Dadabhai Naoroji. or a mingling of both.1946-1947 or choice. West and leave The new Constituent Assembly had met Jinnah and Liaquat All in Delhi on December : 9. in 1892. ' Pakistan Zindabad and sign the League leaders began to shout. Near also was Finsbury. quarters of London's Outside the hall [stamping] their feet to keep out the cold of and plain clothed foggy December were squads of uniformed police. in Some Recent Speedies and Writings of Mr Jinnah Uhore). in the heart of London a banner hanging in a Methodist church. but not one of the Muslim League members was present both Khan had remained in England.
There is no other way but to divide India. " I am glad that the British people have awakened a bit. What would the Hindus lose ? Look at the map would have three-quarters of India." . . lost ... Very often when I go to a mosque. so much so that some of the members withdrew and joined the official London branch. . " Among Jinnah's followers in London was a Muslim student. I give you an example. within hearing of the posse of policemen outside the hall symbols of tolerance as well as order. . Give Muslims their homeland and give Hindus Hindustan. you will have .' We * want Pakistan I Jinnah Zindabad I His pale face worked with emotion and he spoke slowly and haltingly at first/ He said. It is a tradition of the British nation that they only wake up when there is ' ' ' something dangerous. my chauffeur stands side by side with me. ! . The story has since been ornamented. There we can live according to our own notions of life. Democracy is the blood of Mussalmans. he secured special passes from the British police and went to the : aerodrome. They would They have the best parts. we want a separate state of our own. he was an ardent Partitionist. . This young man had arrived in England to study law . is Britain going to stand with its bayonets and hand over He repeated the arguments ofhis cause What are our utmost demands ? The " : then. but this much seems true : 173 . for the December conference. every cent of honour. " What is the objection to these proposals of ours ? We should be free .A SEPARATE NATION OF OUR OWN thek claim for Pakistan. ". integrity and fair play. which was correctly affiliated with the when he read parent League in India. Jinnah stood up to speak and the Muslims roared at him. ." There were more shouts of" Zindabad. Mussalmans believe in fraternity. and an echo ofJinnah himself for audacity and enterprise. The youth was undaunted thatJinnah was arriving by air from India. authority to the Hindu majority ? If that happens.. ." then Jinnah continued. He had formed a Muslim League branch of his own. in which he was the self-assured despot . equality and liberty.. What is it we want ? answer is ." Pakistan.. . . who had a remarkable experience with his master..
from which he recovered early in March 1947. residences of the Nawab of Bahawalpur. The fearless young man then saw the Muslim League approaching delegates of the authentic confident. or in such other way as may seem most reasonable and in the best interests of the Indian people. not later than June 1948. Next summoned by Jinnah the youth was day. you are too young to in politics. Mr Attlee announced in the House of Commons that the British London : Government would grant complete independence to India. only advice the leader and the student sat together " over coffee. Now go along and pass those examinations. either for British India or in some areas to the existing pro government vincial governments." Quaid-i-A2am was ill and exhausted at the close of his visit to he returned home by air. when he returned to Bombay. The Prime Minister said that the British would " as a whole to some form of central transfer their power. but without passes. on February 20. one of the his doctors advised him to rest. There : was no anger. and when he landed at Karachi He went to Malir. Rear-Admiral Viscount Mountbatten." Mr Attlee announced also that the King had approved the Appoint ment of his cousin. and the Quaid said. where he was not allowed even to listen to the news on the radio. the authentic delegates complained and to his sitting-room in Claridge's Hotel. My son." 174 . During this time. For one month he endured a nervous breakdown. having presented him. to be the " last Viceroy. The official reception was therefore held back until the young Muslim had shaken party police ' those fellows his leader's hand. entrusted with the task of transferring to Indian hands the responsibility for the government of British India in a manner that will best ensure the future happiness and prosperity of India. indulge and don't hinder others who can do good work for Pakistan. already waiting for Quaid-i-Azam landed to find the unofficial delegation. He whispered his suspicions to the * might be impostors.1946-1947 their passes.
.PART SEVEN " Xv.
I don't care what is about my work in India. The new Viceroy arrived in Delhi on March 22. and he might have been pleased by the prospect of his new of being entrusted with political power beyond that appointment of his cousin on the throne. himself. . South-East cavalier. while ruling India. The wish to rule dies slowly in royal persons. his real task would be to divide it and Asia. and valiant sailor * ' : he had enjoyed victory over the Japanese and he had become one of the heroic figures of the war." This thought perhaps absolves contemporary chroniclers from deciding. I want Mountbatten received Pandit Nehru. sheltered five hundred Muslims in his garden . in mind Jinnah and character. But Lord Mountbatten's ambitions are with the navy : he was reluctant to become Viceroy. whether the partition of India was a tragedy or a salvation. with his staff and advisers among them. when the killing began. were younger. these men. General Lord Ismay." Nehru answered. his last case his last battle of wits Mohammed All dealt with adversaries sharply different from. In this. 1947. to a new India. a humanitarian who knew and loved India. 177 . . he said. Now I know what they mean when they speak of your charm being Mohammed : so dangerous. too readily. to regard you but " me not as the last as the first to lead the way Viceroy winding up the British Raj. and who. and a wise mediator. Lord Mountbatten was forty-six Ali Jinnah pany his cold advocate's . and any princely sensations he might have felt must have been tarnished by lie know ledge that. and Sir Eric Mieville. give it away. Lord Mountbatten was an amalgam of minor royalty. when Lord " Mr Nehru." would be at a disadvantage in such com manner would not encourage such gallant exchanges.1947: PARTITION THERE said my is a story that when Lord Mountbatten's task as Viceroy ended when he had shared out the sub-continent between the " Hindus and the Muslims he remarked. Three days later. during my lifetime : I care only what grand-children may say and think. with whom he was to do battle for and Pakistan. Also. as Supreme Commander. also an authority on India.
But his singlealready an seventy mindedness and persistent integrity still sustained him. As the story of these last months of grinding argument unfolds. it must be remembered that even before Lord Mountbatten left England. Lord Mountbatten asked of Jinnah. little His initial instructions hope of reconciling Hindus and Muslims within a united from the Cabinet. but the Viceroy arrived at New Congress Delhi akeady aware that the Quaid would fight all attempts to deprive him of Pakistan." * : . During his first talk with Pandit Nehru. especially good one.1947 Pandit Nehru. he he had India. He was The Before that he had not been a major a successful lawyer. enter into discussion on one condition only. The estimate the Congress leader for his personal ' ' Viceroy's Press Attache. 44-5- 178 . was that success came to Jinnah very late in life/ when he was ' ' ' over sixty/ Then he ' said. that Jinnah India. Jinnah was old man. to Lord Mountbatten. When Jmnah called on the Viceroy. . : PARTITION Mahatma who spoke for Congress in place of the aged of mysticism was fifty-seven. but there is no record of such a talk between them. pp. end. he began. recorded the ' 1 Pandit Nehru answered that the essential thing to realize episode. . if only for its emotional intensity was to take up a permanently negative attitude/ Nehru in his capacity said. in the secure in his refuge : was able to enjoy considerable victory over his adversaries. 1951). so that. but not an secret of his success and it had been tremendous. Mr Alan Campbell-Johnson. figure in Indian politics. .' This was a solemn hour in his case for Pakistan and he had prepared his arguments well " I will having shaken hands with Lord Mountbatten. 1 Mission wilh Momibatten. the first time. and his own aim. might have agreed to this. and slowly dying. that Jinnah ' 'with complete singleness of purpose since 1935 the year when he gave up the seclusion of Hampstead and returned to Pandit Nehru claimed. both British and Hindu. the journalists who inter cepted him thought him formal and reserved. was to establish something like the Cabinet Mission Plan. Alan Campbell-Johnson (Robert Hale.' had done this * Lord Mountbatten may have sought the Quaid's opinion of Pandit Nehru. . . * knew that Pakistan could never stand up to constructive criticism/ and that he had ensured that it should never be subjected to it.
THE QUAID AND LORD MOUNTBATTEN The Viceroy trod more softly : he interrupted. editor of The Statesman. / ' Perhaps these 1 one-sided verdicts were more political and less Horned Moon." Quaid-i-Azam returned home. to his secretary.' This was in October 1947. Ian Stephens (Chatto and Windus. I am hearing not prepared to discuss conditions or. indeed. he was cold. when the developing drama in Kashmir ' was moving towards the Maharaja's accession to India." The legend of antipathy Viceroy between the Viceroy and Mr Jinnah became dangerous in its effect. p. were Governors-General of the especially after Partition. * . the Mr Jinnah were the enemy. The atmosphere at Government House that Muslim League. was. Pakistan. Mr Jinnah tain another session " harped on Muslim massacres and described the horrors at length.' Lord Mountbatten answered have to be ' He ' * ' that an anaesthetic a last. 179 .' At the close of the talk." said the Viceroy. dined with the and was startled by their one-sided verdicts on battens ' ' Mr Mountaffairs.109. would be required. feeling that he had made little access to Lord he : said to the Viceroy. yourself. the present situation.' and that he did not Mr ' respond haughty and aloof/ In the end his mood softened and he duly succumbed to Mountbatten's desire to hear him recount the story of the ' ' ' Muslim League's rise to power in terms of his own career. Two months after the country was divided. My God. His only complaint. " Mountbatten's heart. as he was to return from so many meetings in the future. ' Ian Stephens. : Jinnah made The pathetic protest want to inherit everything would even accept they Congress Dominion Status to deprive me of Pakistan. Mr Stephens wrote * that Lord and Lady Mountbatten seemed to have become wholly pro-Hindu. " Mr Jinnah. Next evening." c Campbell-Johnson records that Jinnah was completely taken ' * but remained reserved. . and night was almost one of war.' ' spoke of the need for a quick decision and added that it would * a surgical operation." " It took most of the interview to unfreeze him. aback. 1953). when Quaid-i-Azam and his sister dined with the Viceroy. Lord Mountbatten felt he could not * ' sus with Jinnah that day. until I have had the chance of making your acquaintance and more about you. does not understand. when they "The new opposed states. the conversation was crisp rather than warm. Before he departed.
I like the old boy. 1 ' . really.. Richard Symonds. and in eruption. 70.' And there is the alleviating story of the Viceroy turning to his Press leadership '. " You know. the living hold their breath.* and he succeeded. and saying. The Making ofPakistm.. ' ' his Attache one day. of Jinnah's strong sense of often spoke to members single-mindedness of purpose '. While they were deliberating. like a group of islands from the sea. p.. Chief of the Viceroy's Staff. The civil service were bitterly divided by communalism and headed by dispirited Englishmen. in almost traveller cannot pass through every part of northern India. He Pakistan or India without being aware of the ghosts of this carnage before the story of so much death. of conferences and reports. 66. The British troops were already being repatri ated." * * * * Lord Mountbatten was not intimidated by Rudyard Kipling's warning that it is not good for the Christian's health to hustle the Aryan brown/ He tried to hustle the East.' Beyond these hurried scenes. anxious to retire.. and later 1 Indian known as p. . after a long session with the Quaid. old India. Bombay. ' Mr Wilfred the last Russell. wrote. Lord Mountbatten personal tlian contemporary * of his staff. the form of the new India was rising. had first as a soldier forty years before. could not be pre vented by these dividers of the qarth. attack . a business man in India. 180 . while private armies formed for the final struggle for power. : Richard Symonds has described 2 the desperate situation Lord Mountbatten had to endure. That the islands were volcanic. and of his standing head and shoulders above all other members of the Muslim League. Wilfred Russell (Tkacker.1947 : PARTITION observers realized. frantic and vicious. 2 Goieral Lard Ismay. and try to control : Mr * ' that in the Punjab a Unionist government tottering under the of the Muslim League in the North West Frontier a a Muslim League civil disobedience campaign . in Delhi Viceroy was working with a speed and determination which fascinated and to some extent terrified both the Indian leaders and the British officials. and all over the country fierce communal clashes. at their desks in Delhi. slaughter spread. and the morale of the Indian Army was uncertain. the Military Summer. 1951).
undermined. We had instead a Cabinet of nine Congress leaders and five Muslim League leaders who could agree on only one thought : that the British should quit India. to delay partition. with his simple. so tragically.' to be printed and broadcast. the riots and cruelties were so terrible that Lord Mountbatten induced the Quaid and the Mahatma to agree in the last concerted action of their Eves they signed a Peace Appeal." Lord Ismay has said 2 it was obvious that June 1948. would be too kte. during the five " The communal years of wrangling since the Cripps Mission. If you do not produce a plan. they would only increase. I just did not believe possible. Sikhs. had dis appeared. in Lord Willingdon's time. which had been composed of six or eight wise men. was to be divided. cinemas throughout India. and many millions of people intent on killing each other." On the other hand was the Quaid.THE PEACE APPEAL l Secretary to the Viceroy. On the one hand was Pandit Nehru. The appeal was particularly aimed at the Punjab. and Muslims were attacking each * : other so violently that the Governor had been obliged to take over 1 To the author. inviolate demand Lord Ismay reminded him. where Hindus. feeling I found." By April 14. I shall resign. Bengal and the Punjab would also have to be split in two. 181 . on behalf of the Viceroy. all the There was slaughter everywhere. would be to increase There was another reason the disasters. that if India * at all. to a government that barely existed. " who said to the Viceroy. a civil service torn by internal strife. " This was one reason why. and of . They were blamed by both Nehru and Jinnah for everything that went wrong. This cannot go on. The perils were inevitable : with delay. the social hatred that had multiplied. the Viceroy's Executive Council. 2 In frequent lectures on the subject. according to the will of the people/ " answer was. Better a moth-eaten Pakistan that no Pakistan Jinnah's for Pakistan. It tore at you. instead of being too early for the transfer of power. time. We British had all the The police force was already responsibility and none of the power. and the civil service were frustrated and madly anxious. He has spoken the changes that had come of the awakening of nationalism. and shown in drawn up by the Viceroy. It would not be possible to achieve an orderly hand-over.
' Mr Campbell-Johnson wrote in his diary. or to hasten with drawal. 182 . where the rising had led to open revolt against the strength of the Muslim League 1 Congress Ministry where. p. staff. and weary. would be an impossible act Lord Mountbatten support realized the frightening necessity of immediate partition. as Mr Wilfred Russell wrote. 2 Mission with Mountbatten. as soon as possible. andcomplete withdrawal. has Jinnah's secretary. On April 23. I expect have just signed the Peace Appeal and I expect the Mussalmans to with officers. and approve the formation of a volunteer corps to fight the Sikhs. And the Indians themselves were for final To reinstate the old Raj in India. Master for peace appeals had passed Tara Singh. arms. solemn said. the vote fast melting before the catching power of Congress money was * ' ' fires of Islam. There were but two alternatives : and resume Imperial control of India.1947 the administration . His answer was in harmony " How can you he said. p. 2 of from Britain : ' ' * 1 Indian Summer. the hatred and cruelty that raged through out India forced the Viceroy to admit the folly of further acrimonious to send troops out negotiation. the Viceroy had a three-hour session with Jinnah/ who was friendly. the Sikh insurgent leader. With the help of his advisers he drafted the first form of what came to be known as the Plan/ which was to end British rule in India. The plan organized The time was reported to Jinnah.' : in the Punjab. most of die British officials and army officers were disillusioned and only wished to return home. with the settlement. ammunition and vehicles The Muslims begged him to release funds : : of the Appeal. at any price. He would work Towards the end of April. But he would not discuss what had happened during the observe the spirit day not with me. After more than five years of impotent conferences. PARTITION and at the North-West Frontier. with his long story of honest dealing me to approve of such a scheme I am not a hypocrite." Delhi at this time." . tense and silent. who worked with him in " He would return from his meetings with the Viceroy. 70. 77. was inciting his followers to destroy the Muslims and form their own state. of an army. or other members of the kte over his papers.
J. and Sikh leaders. Congress. He seemed to be resigned to the partition of the Punjab and Bengal. be. warmed by mutual cordiality. by these by observing Aircraft flew back and forth between last officials of the British Raj. at Jinnah's bungalow in neither of them would Delhi. was more picturesque than useful from his convictions and the hour passed with futile discussion. budge for the * : : days and events is intensified the time passed. and talk over their problems.N 183 . Lord Mountbatten decided that Lord Ismay and Mr George Abell l should with the first draft. The excitement and solemnity of these Delhi and London. covering in little more than a day the journey Clive had made in many months. They both had appointments with the Viceroy and by a freak of chance the interviews overlapped. the Hindus are impossible. want seventeen annas for the rupee.." * From this time. Jinnah and Gandhi met. He did not ask what the boundaries would He told Mountbatten. the Plan grew quickly. " Your Excellency. Lord Ismay had left Delhi on May 2 : two days later. the Plan was revised and approved by the and on May 10. During the first week of his visit. . This last conference between the old warriors. * . * ' ' for the transfer of power to Indian hands. first time in three years. the Viceroy and his staff succeeded in relinquishing the continent their forbears had and nurtured. and on April 26.' Lord Mountbatten used the brief encounter well he brought them together in amiable conversation which ended with the two leaders deciding to meet again.' The Viceroy 1 sent Sir Eric Mieville to Mr Jinnah with a copy of the Later Sir George AbelL Private Secretary to the Viceroy. privately.' During Lord Ismay' s absence. Within 145 days. and the representatives of the Indian States. They always Frankly. but today his mood was to be accommodating. for 200 years.. Mr Campbell-Johnson put British Government ' out the momentous communique announcing that the Viceroy had invited the League. to meet him on May 17. by accident. where he remained until the end of the month. and the distances travelled. he arrived in London.THE PLAN Sometimes he is deliberately rude. when he would present to them the Plan which His Majesty's Government had now made held. and Mountbatten did not tell him. and hammer it out clause by clause fly to London the ' Quaid : ' * ' with the Government.
as they independence. ended with a summons to the ' New but firm. From this date also. and Sylhet the Muslimarea of Assam^ by the general vote of the people themselves. in the case of West Punjab. and the momentous communique had accept some of to be withdrawn. 1947 almost a year earlier than Mr Atdee had planned when he entrusted the last Viceroy with his task. people Assemblies . when he would announce the absolute decision that India was to be divided. Pandit Nehru. There were to be no more conferences. Moham have most of the prize he had fought for and Pakistan and Hindustan would go their separate ways. with full Dominion status. he returned to New Delhi. chose. carrying die final.1947 Plan : : PARTITION ' ' lie also the time. Cabinet. approved Ismay. involving Whitehall and Delhi. The meeting on June 2 lasted two 184 hours. May 31. voting. was. Jinnah had to pay for his victory Partition : within the greater scheme of : the was to be the lesser slicing he had always feared of Bengal and the Punjab were also to be divided. and in die North-West Frontier Province. or flights of delegates the leaders to meet him on Monday morning. aircraft and telegraph. The day for the final cleavage was to be only three if med AH Jinnah would . 'courteous consultation/ : London 'for later. through their elected representatives in the Provincial in Baluchistan. : by the British no more acrid the Viceroy summoned to and fro exchanges. through the Shahi Jirga the council of chiefs . majbrity dhrougji their adult male population. Mr Campbell-Johnson . The provinces or reject. the new state of Pakistan. to be decided by the free will of the East Bengal.' that he should return to Viceroy. and the right to secede from the Commonwealth chose. and Sind. twelve days Lord Mountbatten arrived in England on May 19 on Saturday. Lord Mountbatten then sent a telegram to Lord that more changes would be necessary in the Ismay. with Lord irrevocable Plan. federation with right of the Muslim-majority areas to accept. This alarming pattern of negotiation. the princely Indian States would no longer owe they British Crown . months away August 15. who was his guest at gave a copy to Nehru vehemently refused to This led to an impasse : ' the terms. announcing Plan. they would be free to keep their allegiance to the or to accede to either of the new dominions.
and you will at the meeting in the morning . Mr Campbell-Johnson recorded 2 ' that ' ' sure ' ' the early days of argument before the judges in the Bombay law courts ' Jinnah insisted that he was not constitutionally authorized to make a decision without the concurrence of the full Muslim League Council/ If that is your attitude. I will take the risk of saying assurances you have given me. Nothing Mountbatten could say would move him/ With his peculiar care reminiscent of easy. pp. leaders of the Congress Party and Sikhs will refuse final acceptance chaos will follow. 99-IQ3- I8 5 .' ' He assured the Viceroy that he would do his best. should be declared to him by midnight . looked towards him.' for a final decision not with any intent of wrecking * the Plan." Mr Jinnah I do not intend The Viceroy made his last appeal to let you wreck all the work that has gone into this settlement. " : What must be. must be. at the " Mr Jinnah has given me next morning's session. ' tried to hustle the East. * his head in acquiescence/ Mission with Mountbatten. and the Sikhs. Since you will not accept for the Muslim League. the League." " The Quaid shrugged his shoulders and answered. assurances which I have accepted and which satisfy me. probably for good.' mood of the leaders after they had read their copies of Pandit Nehru said that 'while there could never be : complete approval' by Congress. I will speak for them ! that I am satisfied with the myself. when the Viceroy should in no circumstances contradict agreement. he should nod 2 !. but the way was not He No amount of pres from the Viceroy could make the Quaid agree to firm accept ance without the consent of the League. then the Lord Mountbatten then said.THE described 1 the 'the Plan. " lose your Pakistan.' reluctant to commit himself he said that he would need to go to the Working Committee of the Muslim League. and by midnight the leaders answered him. and if your Council fails to ratify the you can put the blame on me. 'on balance they accepted it. he would say.' ' Lord Mountbatten once more ceeded. : ' ' ." Lord Mountbatten made one condition he asked that when.' and suc asked that the reactions of Congress." the Quaid and that. and to The Quaid was ' the people.' but with the sincerest desire to persuade them to accept it. Jinnah came in person.
to observe ' ' the evening of the same day. before a slip of the tongue. pp. it He suggested that they it first. for justice above racial fears and the disease of creeds were dis it would be his closed as he declared stoutly that. deliberate phrases. fully fledged citizens/ * The old ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity had died hard in the advocate for Muslim freedom. June 3. and 1 complex political had to be translated Mission with Mountbatten.' Jinnah remonstrated. ' The Administrative Consequences of should consider ' Partition. something of that spoke. 104-5. The meeting next morning began with some bitter remarks from the leaders. before the discussion moved into calmer water/ Quaid' i-Azam revealed all the history of his mind in two episodes. the Viceroy announced the Plan in slow. in both English and Hindi. " A spade should be called a spade.. On We * serving great causes. He said." and remarked that his mind always worked on constitutional lines/ The second episode was towards the end. he said. ." Jinnah answered. Jinnah so meticulous in the use of words said. as Cabinet meeting * to say Interim Government. Mr Campbell-Johnson recalls Mountbatten presented the leaders with a formidable document entitled. greatness * but because the cause also." ' is great. Did Jinnah consider that the Viceroy would be justified in advising * Mr Atdee to go ahead and make his announcement in the British ' Parliament ? " Yes. Then Pandit Nehru " are little men spoke. * ' ' * intention in the State he created no communal differences/ All who lived would be. 186 . when the Quaid spoke of The vigour of his aspirations. and his passion his policy for Pakistan. and Lord Mountbatten asked his last question. in Pakistan. during this last talk at the oval table over which the grim decisions had been 1 the moment when Lord made. When the error was explained.. on All-India Radio. falls on us Then Quaid-i-Azam grave issues/ and the it of the momentous decisions/ the problem/ His speech was in English. thinking that was submitted to a the Viceroy had meant Mountbatten was referring to the British Cabinet. following a gramophone recording of a Chopin polonaise.1947 : PARTITION Quaid-i-Azam agreed.
by the Muslim League and Congress. where the Congress party proud. and their : belief in Islam. but not merely in two. Zindabad ".PAKISTAN ZINDABAD into Urdu. no doubt sincere but also mixed with diplomatic hope for the days to come : he said." Then he paid Lord Mountbatten a tribute. half the size of the United States. Jinnah " Pakistan was suddenly spontaneous he raised his voice and said. I must say that I feel that the Viceroy has battled against various forces very bravely.' He said also. but with two and a half times its population. . so that Muslims their nation. the other the west to be permitted no land communication were the Pakistan that Jinnah had won. that had been an ornament in English atlases for almost a century. On June 10 and 13. speaking different languages. ' all over India could ' know that ' he had * won them ' Jinnah besought his listeners to galvanize and concentrate all their energies to see that the transfer of power " was made in a peaceful and orderly manner. and the impression that he has left mind is that he was actuated by a high sense of fairness and on my impartiality . one facing the east. with an alien nation spread between. The world has no parallel for the most onerous and difficult task which we have to perform. the free will of the the Muslims in British India including the people was known Pathans of the north-west. The map of India was to be changed the massive red pear. was now to be sliced. was to be divided so that Hindu India would form a gigantic wedge one thousand miles wide between East and West Pakistan. and it is up to us now to make his task less our power. difficult and help him as far as lies in At the end of the speech. carefully written. . respectively. and rehearsed. whicL was not in the script. sturdy had been influential for so long had unanimously endorsed the plan : ! * ' : for Pakistan. A country. It was as if George Washington had united California and Massachusetts into one state. The two Muslim territories. The only bonds between the two great terri tories were a fierce wish to be rid of Hindu domination. the Plan was ratified. By July 20. The frontiers for this division were defined by a Boundary Com mission under Sir Cyril (now Lord) Radcliffe 187 a choice to which . .
were also to the navy. and the assets of British be divided. Sikh and Hindu troops." He reminded the Quaid. a barrel of fuel or oil left they had to lie and wait.1947 PARTITION : Quaid-i-Azam agreed. beside : the docks. but even over such a fearful dispute as this he was 'strictly constitutional/ He had accepted Sir Cyril Radcliffe as Chairman of the Boundary Commission . like cards in a game : those Royal ships that arrived in the port of Karachi had not. had been mostly Hindus. urged we must abide by that arbitration. You do not understand the psychology of these these opposed people. and the air force." verdict. The Muslims lacked these talents. If you with one heart. were dealt out. to protest. Scotland and Wales had to submit to their soldiers being distributed according to their religion. one soul. who had served in India for the better part of their lives proud of their Muslim. among them. You have probably the finest field. one brain. defenceless. and trivial objects as desks ' Such . with their guns and their ammuni The aircraft. his injustice ' an advocate before his judge. Sir Cyril Radcliffe's task was prodigious wherever he drew his timid lines on the map. and they became enemies. organs. as a general might be proud of a regiment drawn." people So the soldiers were shared out. you will kill it. army will in the world. Lord Ismay protested against this breaking up of the forces on " communal lines : he said to Quaid-i-Azam. with tremendous prestige in the battle tragic if you do not keep them as now. from England. who have an aptitude for busyness and petty authority. No. they found that 188 . and typewriters had also to be distri* and in this game of one for you and two for me the Muslims were at a disadvantage. and one set of perform a surgical operation." " Jinnah answered. the managers and clerks in India. bttted when they ultimately unpacked their share of the sad trophies of ^freedom. "An army is not just a collection of men with rifles and swords it is a It be : living entity. therefore he accepted. as When Jinnah's we associates agreed to arbitration The army. India. with their wonderful regimental tradition. The little officials. into one tradition. he answered. in the cities and towns of the new Pakistan. " him. The Quaid was shocked by the Award : he spoke of the grave * to Pakistan. Older British officers. Indian Navy. and the ships of the tion. he was sure to ofiend.
Fourteen million people were to move across the new frontiers. window in a certain city : street. un natural monsoon. the few harassed doctors found that vital parts of surgical apparatus had been removed. before Jinnah died. Fear. More serious than the ships. While Memory Serves. The killing was horrible to Mohammed Ali Jinnah. lay dark and heavy over all India.THE TRANSFER OB POWER they had been given little out of which to create the offices of govern ment. and ripped the body of a woman who happened to be standing near by. The multitudes moving east met the multitudes moving west they Sir Francis Tuker's book. and unable to lessen the agony his must pass through to achieve the land he had promised them. They were aliens. in a chaotic land : to the West. Those that remained did what they could to hold back the bloody stampede. and without pity . Then he repeated the horror on five others as he walked up the and July. In Karachi. always been repelled by frenzy and cruelty. He was still in his house but he in Delhi when the reports of slaughter were brought to him was helpless. or the typewriters. the technicians had to prepare the hospitals for thp throngs of refugees who poured into the capital. one way or the otber. the fear begat slaughter. and most of the men were armed. which had also to be shared. The British were quitting India at last. already by his stealthy disease. the terrors and illustrates some of them with photographs that are appalling. the aircraft. but they had become futile before such a halocaust. describes : were frenzied. these millions An Englishman standing at a saw a hefty dockhand. exhausted by the long struggle of words. The first of maimed and dying : * ' ' ' began to pack their dusty treasures into bundles within an hour of the Viceroy's broadcast. without all they could do was to pack and return authority. armed with his big The man realized his strength he rent the clothes steel cargo hook. thirteen months after Partition. In late June. was the equipment of hospitals. like some terrible. Quaid-i-Azam had mentioned the onerous and difficult task to he had also appealed for peace and order be performed words that were as ineffectual as feathers in a storm. With more zeal than skill or experi ence. people was the inevitable Perhaps he had envisaged the strange darkness that emaciated 189 . bewildered. who had .
190 . That is history. he had said of Pakistan. have killed millions of each other. at the Delhi price of what he session of the Muslim League. or not. and yet an nations a friend of tomorrow. It may come in my : lifetime. I You will remember these words of mine is Some enemy of today say this with no ill-will or offence.1947 : PARTITION had set out to create : four years earlier.
PART EIGHT .
1 His weak point. 193 Mission with Mounibatten. also Lieutenant S. though we thought for how could anyone. was his vanity disquieting. conflict of the mind. he had a Horned Moon. p. . while travelling in a train towards Delhi. however able. They assumed that Jinnah would be bound to prefer the status and 2 powers of Prime Minister. with Lord Mountbatten. Congress had asked him to remain as GovernorGeneral of the new India. Quaid-i-Azam made the flight to his new capital the town where he had been born. . Ahsan. 127. Mohammed the last first to Karachi.C. few days later. Some of the Viceroy's staff expected that the Pakistanis would invite him to be their Governor-General also. For Flight-Lieutenant Rabbani this was the fulfilment of a dream. and Flight-Lieutenant Ata Rabbani. the" naval A. A few days 1 before. yet. on his being their first Governor-General.C. some said. pp. 112-13. to become There had heen one after All Jinnah flew from Delhi Governor-General of Pakistan." followers insisted : * ' A he answered. The decision was mentioned at a press conference between the Viceroy and the journalists among them was Mr Ian Stephens.D.. who has recorded that certain items in Lord Mountbatten's conduct were He wrote. There is announced that his Quaid-i-Azam " ' ' ' ' . With him was his sister.* when Mr Jinnah's decision to become Pakistan's first GovernorGeneral was disclosed. : * ' ' * 9 Liaquat Ali Khan.. 194.FLIGHT INTO KARACHI ON August 7. function effectively needlessly as Governor-General of both the new Dominions ? Members of Lord Mountbatten's staff thought differently. the air AJD. seventy years before in the Viceroy's silver Dakota. They did not know of his increasing malady a possible and valid reason for his not wishing to bear the formidable tasks which he delegated to the younger and stronger none.7. but there was no gesture from the Muslim League. his pride had seemed hurt. M. . When Lord Ismay pressed Liaquat Ali Khan for a decision.
in white clothes a snowfield of the Muslims he had freed on the edge of the desert. said " When the Quaid looked down and saw all those people afterwards. Refugees were The Dakota came pouring into the city along all the roads. a new white sherwanL " Quaid-i-Azam All right. He said. he was summoned by Liaquat Ali Khan." As the aircraft taxied out he said. and said. and built up a pile on his right. full of documents : Flight-Lieutenant Rabbani carried a a servant carried a bundle of news As he stepped into the aircraft.D. Pakistan " That's the looking at Delhi.D. Quaid-i-Azam looked back towards the city in which he had fought " he said. Tell Liaquat that I approve of his choice. for him. ment the emotions did not show. who said. When he arrived in Delhi. offered him some news " " From then. The journey Jinnah turned to his newspapers." Mr Jinnah had stored away his perfect English clothes : he wore. to watch the Dakota circling over the aerodrome.D.C. I suppose this is the last time 111 be for. folded them again.C. his sister. had not After eating a basket luncheon. this ritual before. he suddenly became buoyant and quite young. thinking what great fortune it would be if he were chosen to fly his leader on this great day. If any emotions achieve what he read the long accounts of his were awakened by own spoke only once. to be read during : end of that. seen and they both remarked on the precise way in which their master lifted the papers from the pile on the left." waiting dried 194 . They washed their white shirts in any little pool they could find they : them in the sun. papers. when he leaned over to Flight-Lieutenant Rabbani. "How would you like to be A. One of the As.FLIGHT INTO KARACHI read in a newspaper of the arrangements for Jinnah's flight into Karachi. The new As. and their little court. the journey. man. you had go wants a chat with you/' After a brief Khan " Liaquat said. he Would you like to read these ? papers.C. and won. with instead. : the Quaid-i-Azam looked down near Karachi and saw thousands of people. He walked towards the aircraft." lasted four hours. He leaned back. and then joined the multitude. their noisy little carts piled high with the possession they had salvaged before they fled. read them. to the Quaid?" flight- Lieutenant Rabbani answered that he Ali would in ' love to/ see the old Well. cane basket. better and talk. He was silent.
and as he walked up up from the dust. The people cried. Many of them wept as he The white sea of people spread between the aerodrome and Karachi. after all. whose horizon had never spread beyond the sand dunes of Sind. " told. House. . close. resolute and solitary. followed " Pakistan Zindabad Pakistan by his sister. a way was cleared for him. passed by. Quaid drove towards the city. With an A. The thousands of excited Muslims moved 195 .C. night. and." Among the thousands who cheered the Quaid were old Fatima Bai.D. beside him. But the Quaid seemed unaware of what their adoration meant unaware of the emotions that his arrival had stirred. ing their hands so that they might be as near ! " hot and frenzied. This is no doubt a Hindu they have very little to be jubilant about. " " rose like a screeching wind The cries of Pakistan Zindabad from the close-packed throng. : in my lifetime. We have to be very grateful to God for what we have achieved. for reading his books so kte into the whom he had played marbles in the Jafar. and they had to watch his advent from afar. when the car came to a stretch of road where the men outside the houses were and. Only once was there a lull. I never expected to see Pakistan Lieutenant Ahsan. they covered the land about Government day.C.D. he climbed the staircase and examined the house which had recently been the home of the Governor of Sind. ! Zindabad They pressed forward." Then he shook hands with leaders of the Quaid-i-Azam was case Muslim League who were near him. He handed a despatch" of papers to the naval A. Mohammed Ali Jinnah had kept his promise he had stood scolded as : him were unspoiled and his hands clean for the tasks that fell to them.GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF PAKISTAN The aircraft landed and Mr Jinnah was the first to step out.. These two people. and Nanji a boy." in from the airport : all and late into the night. saying. Quaid-i-Azam arrived at Government House. as the ! grave and silent. were among those whom he had freed but they were lost in the impersonal white multitude. I want you to be sure to look after these. Mr Jinnah asked the reason and was section. so that his clothes : he said to the steps he made a statement that was remarkable " Do you know. Now. with who had street. extend as possible to their deliverer.
ill. Jinnah became wholly want a radio installed imme I diately. forming He was the inspirator of all. Mohammed new about the While the government of the biggest world was being built up about him. "Where are the books?" he asked. He went to the library and saw that the shelves were empty. in the dark. with all the paraphernalia. He said to one of his staff. paper or pencils. master very well. yet he remained capital. who was new are tired. : were inevitable. " The Governor of Sind took them with him. The workers ! hurried to their task Zindabad Pakistan Zindabad rails. saw order emerging from chaos. A Scottish businessman was beside a railway line two miles from Karachi when a locomotive was derailed. But these the offices were furnished. almost overnight. telephone wires first men were zealots were strung." before. know " " aide. " ! locomotive back on the The Scotsman " Pakistan they chanted and laboured until they got the " : said. aloof master. in rooms where there were few desks or chairs. examining every detail. so that his did not may hear the news. and they were amazed. " " Go and bring them back. he walked through the rooms of his new. Muslim state in the 196 . I do not wish to have governors of for very important people in these rooms only very important people. a private. or the King of England. there was much to do : had to be built. seeking no warm contact with the masses of his followers. a government In the days that followed. while shunting. and the Pakis Error and tanis created their own little Whitehall. I fade." saying." quickly. My Ali Jinnah was the focus of this new nation. and who remained to help. provinces or ministers like the Shall of Persia. *' As the glory of the day began to " practical. but those Europeans who knew the character of India. But you Quaid-i-Azam answered Why not" leave it until the morning ? Don't try any of those delaying tactics with me. immense home. A breakdown train arrived within half an folly hour. of bureaucracy. and sir. I have been in the sub-continent twenty-one years and have never seen such a sight faith in Pakistan dates from that hour. yet undaunted. weary." he answered. : He walked from room to room." he was told. He spent most of the time within Government House." They belong here. typewriters began their insistent cktter." The said.FLIGHT INTO KARACHI This wing will be occupied These two rooms will be only only by myself and Miss Jinnah.
where he worked. who had been so silent as he drove past. thirteen centuries before. Jinnah remembered when he went to Lahore some weeks he ordered that the mallets and hoops should be returned. and among the killers. be Muslims. because that is of time. Lord Ismay saw Pandit Nehru go out in English to Quaid-i-Azam's appeal for tolerance was made million people.YOU ARE FREE He then examined the inventory of the house and found that a He was told that the military secretary to croquet set was missing. nor needed : the throngs of refugees Hindu. In Delhi. He would leave these fault-finding expeditions to return to his desk. into his capital The Quaid's argument was neither comprehended. caste. But it proved his broad humanity. ." that he had not forgotten the group of Hindus beside the road. we are all citizens and equal citizens of one State. You are creed that I that has nothing to do with the fundamental principle . on the Presidential Address he was to give to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan. The words were Jinnah's the thought and belief were an inherit ance from the Prophet who had said. Nehru 197 . Sikh. not in the religious the personal faith of each individual. later. the Governor of the Punjab had taken the mallets and hoops to Lahore. You may belong to any religion or caste or . : On that day he said to his people to free you are free to go to your temples. he was also writing the greatest speech of his life. seventy even in their own language. Hindus would cease to be Hindus. but in cease to the political sense as citizens of the State. and Muslim still met in terrible clashes of cruelty that neither the Government of India. colour and Today I trample under my feet all distinctions of nationality. you are free to your mosques or to any other place of worship in this go State of Pakistan. with his bare hands. While Quaid-i-Azam was caught up in this exasperating care of : detail. of whom merely ten per cent were literate. on August n. nor of Pakistan. " All men are equal in the eyes of God. could subdue. Now. and you will find that in course and Muslims would sense. trying to quell them. And your lives and your are all sacred : in no case should you attack each other's : properties life and property. . for many hours. think we should keep that in front of us as our ideal.
where he could not be seen.D. clouds have No. It was the first time I had ever seen a look of beyond. : it might rain. it is becoming cloudy clouds well. The plea for forbearance was repeated when Mr Jinnah was in in the presence of the Viceroy. I said * to him. Liaquat Ali Khan reminded white. but only to himself/' 198 . the members of the Pakistan Cabinet were sworn in. no special rights It will be a State for any one particular community or individual. without showing any emotion." it * equally * * * On August 15. and when to be in we came to the first floor. said was ' Shall we move ? ' He walked down the stairs. We continued downstairs and the no water in went through the ceremony. he had to wait until these mass passions exhausted themselves and gave reason a chance.C.' He answered. it seemed. and the Quaid went on to the balcony. them/ know these Karachi he smiled again. citizen will have equal privileges and they will share where every all the obligations that lie on the citizens of Pakistan. When it was all over I escorted him back to his room. " The Quaid was standing The A. Quaid . FlightLieutenant Rabbani went up to escort Quaid-i-Azam to them. he paused. to look at the members of the Cabinet. eve of Independence.FLIGHT INTO KARACHI was equally appalled by the wilful butchery and. the State of Pakistan will community/ be a State where there will be no special privileges. for was his listeners that was not the flag of any one political party or " He said. and one-quarter three-quarters green. When they were assembled at Government House. on augurated as Governor-General. has described the episode. Over them flew the new flag August 14 the the Quaid and Liaquat Ali Khan for Pakistan : that had been chosen by it for the Muslim majority. in his room. As I visualize it. All he there. and ready. the minorities in their midst. and the crowds He smiled. The ceremony was the open. like the Quaid. ' happiness on his face. I Sir. more immaculate than ever. As I left L m.
1947 198] .iw^Srf. AUGUST 14. 5 i^L'Xi LORD MOUNTBATTEN LISTENING TO MR JINNAH^S INAUGURAL SPEECH AS THE FIRST GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF PAKISTAN.
E. whose love of India might interest some historian of the future.. what he required from each of these men. Jinnah knew exactly Governor of "West Punjab I want when they were said to . to be governors of and administrative officials in the government.BJE. .S. G. Sir Francis of the North-West 3 Frontier Province G. Sk George Cunningham had already retired.I.L. and the British Government that a number of their officers should remain in agreed. O .E.E. M.C. 1 Sir Archibald Rowlands.B. moving through the clamour of political history. . Ten years is the the British officers to stay.B.. August 17 was a Sunday.B.. giving. long. But." that this devotion Two days after Partition.I. I want Sk George Cunningham 3 to be I want Sk Francis Mudie of the North-West Frontier ." This limit I have fixed for asking decision involved the private inclinations of Britons said to General He Sk Douglas Gracey. " 1*11 come. Governor Mudie. in Holy Trinity Church. K. for him to return St Andrews University : and begin again. The navy." Mr. to become Rector of when the request arrived.THE BRITONS WHO STAYED QUAID-L-AZAM provinces. seeking for the cjuiet theme of the humanities. Quaid-i-Azam named them " Lord Ismay.. K. Pakistan. J.C.L. K. they stayed.. the Quaid proved of the British was not to be used without respect and appreciation. " peremptory who were already tired with the long wrangle of Indian affairs. he answered. requested.E. 2 Sk George Cunningham. Mr Jinnali had not been one of the long before hasty reformers who wrote Quit India on the wall Partition he had hoped to use British officials in making his Muslim he even knew which ones he wished to retain. to create the armed services. as far as he was concerned.S. O. had been from 1937 to 1946. and the air force were therefore all formed and magnified under British commanders. O. and for how State ' ' : . . the last British Finance Minister in India. Governor of Sind from 1946 199 until Partition.C.C.. the army. I want Sir Archibald Rowlands * to be my 2 to be Governor financial adviser . anticipating : he asked. and the courtesies of a small house in an English shire. and the Anglican Archdeacon had arranged for a special service of prayer and thanks-* the Anglican Cathedral in Karachi.C.
the establishment of the Pakistan navy interested him. when he had Very well. 127. to consider the part soldiery might play in forming an independent state. in State* In recording this solemn act.' graceful and moving gesture to the and Bismarck. When " he stood up to take the position." replied Jinnah. But. W- This is a more reasonable explanation of the lively he took in the task that fell to Rear-[later Vice-] Admiral He Jefibrd. One naval officer explained this by recalling that Jinnah had been concerned with ships and docks thirty years before. and moved up. sir.THE BRITONS The Archdeacon had also WHO STAYED a special prayer. 2 To the author. 200 . Mr Wilfred Russell wrote. here. Unlike the creators of other nations. When Jinnah heard of which the he asked that ' he might be allowed to attend the service. composed Quaid was mentioned. p. before Partition. in March 1948. Cavour Ah Jinnah had achieved his aim without He never seemed. Mohammed the support of an army. who knew only too well the orthodox fervour of many Muslims. might well have been taking a political risk in maknig this Christian community of Karachi. for as long as the Hindus remained hostile. and said to me. You must stand Why ? " "Because " this is asked Quaid-i-Azam. a military occasion. interest J. revealing Jinnah's attitude to military authority. when he attended a march past." salute he was some three feet out of " The Commander-in-Chief whispered. sea com munication between East and West Pakistan was vital if his nation was to survive." : been lawyer to a seamen's and firemen's union in Bombay. 1 have no army " I leave that entirely to you and Liaquat. for some reason. the first Commander-in-Chief of the "Jinnah was not really interested in the he had no ideas on the subject. aircraft Were merely a means of travelling quickly from one place to another. Perhaps he realized that. has said : : 2 * : There was a nice episode. in this. showed no more detailed interest in the formation Quaid-i-Azam of the air force than of the army to him. General Sir Frank Messervy. in Dacca. such as Washington. 1 Mr Jinnah. 1 Indian Summer. who took over Pakistan's navy on August 13.' military experience Pakistan army.
. and who has signed the Message that created Pajdstan. the of them ratings of the Pakistan Navy drew lots. There was an instance of this after the Inaugural Ceremony on August 14. so that one thousand could entertain him to dinner in a cinema in Karachi. and two more and four minesweepers still held in Bombay for refitting. one frigate at sea. but no administrative or repair There were only two Pakistani facilities.The was in Government Viceroy had taken off for Delhi and the Quaid Pakistani friends. imaginative sailor set about creating a navy out of nothing. for England. where a base was ultimately built. frigates There were two shore bases in Karachi. l He Admiral Jefford has written of Mohammed AH Jinnah was a very great man by the time that he got Pakistan for the Muslims he was a demi-god to the masses yet he was no demagogue. And he hated sycophants. with some of his with the Quaid. side by side. never courted popularity in any way. The Admiral remained in Pakistan five years.THE PAKISTAN NAVY began with one frigate. land communication between Admiral flew a complete wireless station and crew to Chittagong. The correct do so before would be an Governor-General. Before he departed. one of his followers suggested Pakistani soil. and he The lacked the man-to-man approach of Liaquat Ali Khan. with naval and ordnance East Pakistan one thousand miles away had no naval stores. stores or ammunition. This station. By nature he was cold Quaid : : . The Quaid " bis coldest fixed him with and glassiest : time for hauling insult to the King. . officers who had served in the navy for more than eight years. so both the Union Jack and the Govefcnorbeen staying GeneraTs flag were flying. . and reserved. but also the genesis of a tradition. two minesweepers and some coastal craft lying alongside the docks in Karachi. Lord Mountbatten had House. . Thinking to please Jinnah. but occasionally there would be an unexpected flicker of humanity. down flags is sunset who has just made me 1 to and said. so the was the spirit in which this robust. during which he achieved not only the establishment of a young naval power. that as the Viceroy was stare no longer on the Union Jack might be hauled down. In a memorandum 2OI to the author. 194?. Such a man * was likely to enjoy the trust of Quaid-i-Azam. A headquarters staff was created and a base built. The Hindus would permit no the two Pakistans.
The Admiralty were informed. Admiral Jefford quoted King's Regulations and explained the traditional procedure of Governors-General when Naval " . East Indies Station. to pay formal calls. usually so attached to his beloved to the service.~in-C. announced that he would pay his formal call on Quaid-i-Azam and the new State of Pakistan. ' constitutional methods. of returning the call to the would not he Admiral's flagship. C.' to explain the Naval point of view/ own my I Here was a legal argument after the Quaid's he answered. Late in 1947. Commanders-in-Chief came into port.' answered this doubt by drawing the Admiral " Go right ahead and make the one day after lunch and saying. Jefford I am in a very different position from." point Admiral Jefford arrived at Government House fully prepared/ * " as he has written. It was expected that Mr Jinnah would respect the regulation. and tradition. What about they Jinnah said. "Tell the Naval C. necessary plans : I shall see that you get your destroyers. and there was : among see the Governor-General. Now look here." aside 4 Only once was the Admiral : it there any grave difference between the Quaid and admitted no anger and ended. their Lordships in Whitehall. Admiral JefFord then asked to ' * as his Naval Advisor. to clarify the Naval of view. as Admiral JefFord. The Quaid approved all the plans but this return the call in person but would send his Military a hubbub Secretary. most remarkably.THE BRITONS * WHO STAYED The Admiral was encouraged because he knew that the Quaid always had a soft spot for the Navy/ and because his was the first service There was a time officially inspected by the Governor-General/ the Finance Ministry when Admiral JefFord was worried whether would produce funds for the two destroyers he thought essential The Quaid. say. but that heart : to see 'him. door Mr a whisky and soda ? This courtesy over. " The Quaid answered. that he is NOT Naval Advisor but that of the Government of Pakistan.-in-C. Admiral Sir Arthur Palliser. Off with his for a stormy session ending with would be pleased ' ' head/' But the Quaid was in a ' * cheerful mood and ' he met the Admiral at the As a gesture that shook all the other characters to the core/ " walked into the sitting-room. the Governor of a West Indian colony in : 202 . in a change to King's Regulations and Admiralty Instructions.
his action if. On July 21. he went to Admiral PaUiser in person. Birnie. with Nelson or someone like that calling on him. into the jungle.THE MILITARY SECRETARY the eighteenth century.700 feet. in his diary. he had been This first taste gave the tiger no pleasure he wrenched the Colonel's The rifle from his hands and walked off with it. but the Admiral Jefford was later able to inform startling. Governor-General of a sovereign. which has just been given its freedom by the British.' and that they * ' Admiral to bring his wife and family to stay at Government House. because of his protest. * Admiralty Instructions in-the-wool Naval inviolate as the New Testament to a dyed- officer 'had been changed accordingly. hunting in the Mandla Forest. I * was This morning 1947. told that I was to go at once to see liaquat All Khan. : tion and member of the 1933 Mount Everest Expedi had endured eight days and nights at 25. The Governor-General and Admiral PalBser met with mutual good effect of the episode on Whitehall was grace and pleasure." Mr Jinnah explained that his people knew ' nothing of protocol or might misunderstand. Here I am. self- governing state. He was therefore a man of unusual stamina. This surprised he would select a Pakistani. officers. the Military Secretaries to the GovernorThe first of these. as Head of the State. St J. But he asked that a purely Naval message be sent inviting the official calling. Colonel Birnie wrote. General were both British himself in Until Quaid-i-Azam died. as I was as military secretary to I being considered me a good deal Mr Jinnah. or condemn. and saying how pleased he would be to attend a social function on board the flagship. In 1927. had already proved two remarkable adventures. while big game bitten in the arm by a tiger. Colonel E. of the Guides Cavalry (Frontier Force). Govern and he was asked to immediately to Karachi and prepare : that fly ment House for the Quaid's arrival 203 . in 1947. the Quaid that. Governors-General would no that King's Regulations and longer return Admirals' calls in person . and any one's match in a test of Colonel had also been a will or endurance. My presumed interview with Liaquat Ali Khan went well and I like him very much/ Next day. and permanent. he saw Mr Jinnah in Delhi : his appointment was confirmed!.
on foot.. . Three brigades of British troops would be sufficient to hold the balance and keep the peace. . . held near the swimming pool. the greatest danger has existed in the fact that so many people on both sides have panicked and made things worse. as Five British that I knew I could not refuse to do my best for him. they were rescued by a relief train.. a pleasant afiair. I leaders who would come forward and soon realized 204 . He managed to get most of the passengers on to the roof of the station where. Harrington Hawes . WHO STAYED * ' impression of Jinnah so sincerely and nicely of the He spoke most favourable '. The perils and anxieties continued : during a * ' top level party given by Quaid-i-Azam on September 7. he wrote. Jinnah spoke most feelingly to us of all and his sincerity and honesty have in the house.. whose homes have been burnt to the ground have lost everything they possess. in the Quaid's company. On August 29. nearest railway station. chiefly organized by the had a very narrow escape when Sikhs. I never go unarmed now. his past. there was a demonstration at the Colonel Birnie had to leave the party. tried to persuade them to appoint one or two state their case. they will get him sooner or later. to the his train was derailed. unfortunately. both in India and Pakistan. in Karachi. The Colonel wrote * : ' I . 24 hours later. the Colonel recorded his * On July * first ' weeks later. It is this complete and who distrust of each other that is the most serious aspect of the whole situation.THE BRITONS.. Attacks on trains have increased. gates of Government House. . but. . the train was looted by 200 Sikhs who had previously killed the entire staff of the station. he wrote Atrocities on both sides have been terrible in the last fortnight .' completely captivated everyone Colonel Birnie's diary covers the important first : months of the history of Pakistan. this is no longer possible. .' to quell some three ' hundred employees of the secretariat who demanded to see the Quaid. Natur a certain group of terrorists have sent in their threats that ally. After making their way. At dinner tonight. There are thousands of refugees of both communities in camps.' 23. where some fifty people came to meet the Sheikh of Kuwait.
in his diary : To add to our troubles in forming a new Dominion. The Colonel continued. had been determined by 205 . . even to himself : each night. These countless thousands must now be wondering whether life under British rule. under which they had complete security. eventually. Colonel Birnie wrote. late The Quaid would not confess his weariness.. their families out. briefly. They declared they -would not leave until the Quaid came and Eventually he came out on to the back spoke to them. verandah of his rooms. are year of Mohammed Ali Jinnah's life was saddened by Ms over the fate of Kashmir. . there no houses for them. and addressed them. of Pakistan or Hindustan. with the quiet appeal of the written word. . also on September 7. where. The reports that came in each day were terrible.. . Sikhs. incidentally. upstairs saying that everything possible was being done to help in getting that they . of a very bad week in Delhi. He then instructed them to keep discipline ' and leave the grounds. to cool the passions of the refugees. Their choice.KASHMIR had no leaders and were merely all upset at the rumours of massacres of their families in East Punjab. somewhere between 1500 and 2000 Muslims ' ' ' ' ' : * * had been killed. we have now to organize mass distribution of food and medicines to thousands of destitute people and to move literally hundreds of thousands out of India into Pakistan. and I had already instructed the police to handle them with the utmost patience. trying. One could not sufficiently sympathize with them. Jinnah un doubtedly has great authority over these people and one wonders who can possibly. . there were cries of Quaid-i-Azam Zindabad/ The crowds then marched out without any fuss. he worked at his desk. was not better than their now desperate plight. Lord Mountbatten had advised the despair rulers of the five hundred and sixty-five Indian States to accede to This last one or other of the new Dominions. . take his place. Immediately. in organized bands/ had broken into Muslim shops and looted them they held up cars and murdered any Muslims they could lay their hands * on/ In Delhi alone. before the transfer of power.
Many of them had become important leaders in Indian politics. p. first considerable dilemma in of divided India. news men from readied Quaid-i-Azam in Karachi that five thousand guerrilla tribes the North-West Frontier had crossed into Kashmir to help their fellow Muslims. but who was naturally alarmed by the dangerous strength of his own people. in Kashmir. his Muslim subjects in Poonch people acted for him. both rich and powerful.THE BRITONS WHO STAYED frontiers. for his his own profit. Kashmir was herself tragically divided. Within fifteen days of Partition.' Tie Maharaja would not decide. the Maharaja declared his Mission with Mountbatten. The fortunes of beautiful Kashmir the source of three of the great rivers that succour West Pakistan were governed by the chief and most alarming was that this pre different factors Muslim State was ruled by a Hindu Maharaja. 1 Two days kter." Thus. In the same way that Calais was written on Mary's heart. There was also. . On October 24. 177. expediency by their geographical position in relation to the new or by the predominance of Hindus or Muslims in their All but the rulers of Junagadh. : afraid to declare his mind. at the time of Partition. Lord Mountbatten had become so alarmed at the prospect of conflict in "Kashmir that he asked Lord Ismay to do his best to get the Maharaja to make up his vacillating mind \ and induce him to accede without x further delay to whichever Dominion he and his people desire. . Hyderabad and Kashmir had agreed. At the end of August part of western Kashmir that bordered on Pakistan revolted and formed their own Azad [Free] Kashmir Government. whose emotions over his native land were described " when he said to a British army officer. A multitude of middle-class and poor Muslims who formed eighty per cent of Kashmir's population and who saw their only salvation in joining Pakistan were dominated by a powerful Hindu minority. and population. an insensi dominantly tive despot. Chief of them was Pandit Nehru. The Maharaja then ordered his troops to expel thousands of Muslims from the district of Jammu. and ruled by a Hindu who wanted to accede to India. and while he boggled and intrigued This confusion of loyalties led to the affairs the * ' . 206 . a ruling class of Hindus Kashmiri Brahmins whose loyalties drew them towards Hindustan. Kashmir is written on mine. and their voices were powerful in the councils of Delhi.
and able to watch the fate of the Muslims in Kashmir. they both thoroughly slightest distrust each Jinnah has is many high principles. . which very serious. long tragedy had begun. We must not forget that some of them. . sifted the question although broadcast to . Indian troops were being flown into Kashmir and the land was horrible with senseless revenge/ The Quaid wished to ' send in his half-formed army. : * described above. phrases from this entry in Colonel Birnie's diary apply grimly to the tasks that the Quaid had to face when he arrived in Lahore. and on that day. he had to sift a question of dreadful magnitude.SENSELESS REVENGE mind he acceded to India and asked for the support of Indian troops. Commander-in-Chief in India before Partition at the time of t&e episode was Supreme Commander administering partition of die 207 . The desperate move was abandoned. to be nearer. . Mountbatten is to join him in Lahore : to discuss the problem. have lost everything they possessed and are des perate. Colonel Birnie wrote in his diary : The Quaid and Miss Jinnah Quaid's are visit is left for Lahore on Sunday. and is many of his apparent indecisions are due to the fact that he in doubt as to what line the correct one to follow. . The whole situation is really shocking the root of the matter is that neither community has the confidence in the other other. becoming in connection with the troubles in Kashmir. in fact. : Mr Jinnah flew to Lahore. The terrible. since the Maharaja action by the Pakistan army would force him to withdraw all British officers. . Two The Colonel wrote ofJinnah' s refusal to decide the question from every point of view. Field-Marshal 1 flew to Lahore at an hour's notice and Sir Claude Auchinleck of Indian had Acceded any troops in Kashmir was justified. October 26. have little apparent effect on his people. His principles.' and of c * until * he had * sifted senseless revenge/ As Governor-General. He refuses to decide until he has from every point of view. he Indian Army. millions. including the Commanders-in-Chief of both India and reasoned with the Quaid : he explained that the presence : Pakistan. all and sundry. to protect the Muslims. and so easily led to senseless revenge. . immediately.
after this crisis,
to stay in bed.
the Quaid melancholy and Colonel Birnie wrote
is still in Lahore and is being kept there as he low temperature and it is not wise for him to make the
consequence, at a
at all (presumably with the remark that he cannot attend to
to the Private Secretary is either not shown on the doctor's advice) or else comes back
here, and, as that date is indefinite, nobody knows what to do. Even the Ministers are devastated as they can get no decisions on
During these weeks of illness in Lahore, the Quaid was the guest""] of the Governor of the West Punjab, Sir Francis Mudie, who had known him, through many hazards and arguments, since 1936. It ir
should have endured these terrible crises, perhaps touching that Jinnah as Governor-General of free Pakistan, while he was the guest of an
2 Englishman one who had stayed, and who wrote, Jinnah impressed me more, I think, than anyone else I have ever met, and I was very fond of Mm. ... It is difficult to say why. ... He was cold but I never found him harsh. at least, that was the impression he gave
Officially, until the end, when to reason, or at least to him
he could help it, compro he was obviously very
know that I could trust him absolutely. those who had supported him in the
must remember what he was up against. He had against him not only the wealth and brains of the Hindus, but also nearly the whole of British officialdom, and most of the Home
In judging Jinnah,
the great mistake of refusing to take Pakistan
Never was his position really examined/ Francis Mudie has recalled, He was in bed in
April 1948, when the increasing strength of Indian forces in Kashmir threatened to overwhelm the Azad Kashmir Government, Pakistan eventually
sent regular troops to help them.
of the troubled State
scope of Jmnah's story : four months after his death a cease-fire line, between die Indian and Pakistan forces, was fixed by the Kashmir Commission appointed
by the United Nations Security Council.
In letters to the author.
Lahore for three weeks he would not shortly be
and never, even by a
sign, indicated that
Quaid-i-Azam returned to Karachi from Lahore. wrote in his diary, I was quite definitely shocked to Colonel Birnie He left here five weeks ago, looking 60 years of age. Now see him. he looks well over 80. ... I drove from the airport with him and
Miss Jinnah and
getting away, anywhere,
He openly said that his felt most sorry for him. to mental strain and that he prayed for a chance of due could worry him, for at least where
stronger/ Colonel a ceremony' the Bodyguard posted and all the Birnie had arranged coats 'to receive Staff in Full Dress white, and civilians in morning and Special Representative of the King of the Envoy Extraordinary c the ceremony well/ went The
the Governor-General seemed
Afghanistan/ As Christmas
a refreshment of
he enjoyed Jinnah's last birthday occasion showed this more pleasantly
than the night
officers of the Royal Scots, was a grand dinner, with silver before they sailed for home. At the tables, pipers, and wines most carefully chosen. trophies on was toasted, as Colonel-in-Chief of the the end, the Princess Royal It is an old rule with the Royal Scots Regiment then the King. at dinner, but, on this occasion, no further toasts are
he dined with the
am going to break tradition. We consider ourselves good fighters and we consider you to be a good fighter also." The Quaid stood up, " break the tradition of your regiment said Gentlemen, may I further in who have I shall never forget the British and
at Quaid-i-Azam, commanding officer rose and said, looking " an honour to have you with us that I Your Excellency, it is such
stayed^ reply? this I shall never forget. Pakistan to help us begin our work On the way home in the car, Jinnah opened his heart to Colonel for her long years of devotion Birnie and spoke of his debt to his sister which she had helped to lead the women to him, and for tte way in also of his admiration of Pakistan towards emancipation. He spoke " * that is the thing you have got--** he said, Yes, for the British
traditions are the strength
of your country/'
There had been only one continuous disagreement between the the Colonel could not induce Quaid and his Military Secretary
Mr Jinnah to sanction arrangements for his own protection, which seemed necessary with so many wild assassins at large. He had
asked for authority to build a high wall that would shut off the part of Government House in which the Quaid lived. When the plan " was first proposed, Jinnah had answered, It is very nice of you to
I am not the sort of Governor-General you have been used to. I am one of the people. No harm will come to me." " But a Hindu might shoot you,'* Colonel Birnie had protested, " and Mr Jinnah had repeated, No, I am here with my people. No harm will come to me." He had added the characteristic remark,
take precautions, but
Anyhow, it is a waste of money." The Colonel's term as Military Secretary was almost ended and the Quaid had asked him to start looking for a suitable substitute.'
Colonel Birnie wrote,
I gather he again wants an Englishman.' But, seemed, he would have to depart having lost this one battle, over
the protecting wall.
victory. for England
Then, events suddenly helped him to final January 30, 1948 soon before Colonel Birnie sailed
Mahatma Gandhi was
Quad-i-Azam was staying at his litde beach house, a few miles from Karachi, when the news reached him. He drove back to Government House, and, while walking up the stairs with Colonel Birnie, he said, " About that wall you can start building it immediately."
Behold him in
the evening tide
unperceiv*d degrees he wears away ; Yet, like the Sun, seems larger at his setting
The Grave, ROBERT BLAIR.
sought him one day JAMSHED Government House and found him dozing on of garden The Quaid looked up and said, " I am so tired, Jamshed, so
so fond of
NUSSERWAl^JEE, Mohammed Ali Jinnah,
the old Parsee friend
See pp. 94-5-
THE TIRED LEADER
This was early in February 1948, six months after Jinnah had flown in to claim his realm.
always been too busy to
his first garden,
When he owned
his political career, early days of Like a the morning, complaining if the flowers were mixed. he would say. He liked phlox and petunias in nice straight jungle," lines, but he never paused to pick a flower, and seldom sat in idleness
sit out of doors and doze like this. on Malabar Hill in Bombay, in the he would hurry along the paths in "
to enjoy the view. The Quaid' s habits
changed during this last year of his life
in the garden of Government House and permit what a novelty to him moments of contemplation in the shade,
followed by a short nap.
Sometimes, while walking through the
and pick a carnation for his coat. garden, he would bend down One morning, also in February, Mr Ian Stephens went to see the * Quaid. He wrote afterwards, ... at that time, though no one realized it, the creator of Pakistan was dying, his lungs riddled with the unsuspected tuberculosis which a few months later killed him/ The Quaid had kept his secret the warning of the Bombay doctors,
three and a half years before.
Mr .Stephens wrote, Mr Jinnah looked better than when I had seen
During an unexpectedly minutes, which baffled his secretaries, he ranged long interview, 70 widely over the course of Indo-Pakistani affairs during the previous seven months a dramatic, fascinating story, as told by such a man/ " At the end, the Quaid said, Yes, Mr Stephens, thank you, I fed
shortly before Partition, and I said so.
am better. They say I have been ill.
the restrained, characteristic
natural that I should.
It is simple.
responsibilities. I tell
I get tired,
have them fussing
go away. I they might annoy
within himself, so that he presents a
different facet to almost every
The many who had
being he meets.
heart, his solitariness, Jinnah to the end, no one ever and his charm, but, from the beginning
disagreed as to his hardness
Sir Stafford Cripps,
knew him in the
'amanofthe highest probity and honour ; early I93o's, regarded him as difficult to negotiate with, for the very reason that he was so determined
in his purpose/
Field-Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck said of Jinnah,
had failed in friendship, " He was a very difficult man to deal with." and said, Those who worked near the Quaid the younger Pakistanis who One of served him after Partition were devoted, but intimidated. his secretaries has said, "Even Jinnah's warmth was calculated." " Another has said, Quaid-i-Azam was very old and tired when I went to him. All my feelings were subdued into awe of him. But Sometimes he would be sharpthere were many endearing qualities.
tempered and would wave me away when I spoke to him. After a few minutes he would ring and I would go into him. Then came I am old and weak and sometimes I am kindness, and his apology.
and tremendous personality his Lord Wavell, with whom Mr Jinnah sighed when he was asked for his opinion,
hope you will forgive my bad manners/ A member of Lord gentleness was seldom revealed.
reported to have described the Quaid as the When this story was told to Mrs Neville east of Suez/
Wadia, the Quaid' s daughter, she answered, My father was arrogant, but never rude. If you examine each incident in which he is accused of rudeness, you will find that the other person was clumsily rude first/* It was true that Quaid-i-Azam had always been quick with reproof.
Mr Ramsay MacDonald
saying to him,
Jinnah, you know that we are hoping to grant self-government to " and, India, and I shall need men to be Governors of Provinces ; " MacDonald, are you trying to bribe me? Jinnah's answer, And he could reprimand those who admired him most. Once, in
Mr Jinnah was
about to take off by
an old, devout Muslim appeared on the aerodrome with the one wish He had hurried all the way that he might shake the Quaid's hand.
from the east end of London in a taxi-cab, which had cost him several Someone led the disciple to Jinnah and told him the story
so he said to her. and said. She wrote : in A casual pen might surely find it easier to describe his limita tions than to define his virtues. Do you understand me ? Call : Ali Jinnah. to a small town where he was welcomed by a big procession " of peasants. No more became of that me Mr Jinnah. that she had fallen in love with Mr Jinnah's hands and used so effectively. introduced to him. but once you I still ofJinnah. The woman the hands he the Quaid. he found that he was sitting next to his cared for " young admirer." The Quaid rejected all adulation when it was emotional. made when he was Perhaps Mrs Naidu's estimate remains the wisest of all. later. they had thought to honour him. is ' ' Maulana a religious your political leader. Not Ms tie beyond or rich adventure or radiant gracious gifts of mellow scholarship. Lady Wavell said of him. He halted the procession." his thirties. They cried out. mischievously. Stop calling me Maulana. scolding voice.ONE OF THE HANDSOMEST MEN of the cab." Begum Liaquat Ali Khan has said. Jinnah bined the clear-cut. movement. features of the West. not his the burning passion of philanthropy 213 famed . He gave the impression came to know him he haughty and conceited. but he said. at Now. The Quaid shook the old man's hand. talents that His are none of the versatile make so many of his contemporaries justly the accepted circle of their daily labours. in drawing-rooms. some older a happy story told of a time before Partition. " I am I am not your religious leader. almost Grecian. He went. to repeated the story when he went to the races. The saw Jinnah he captured my heart. one of the handsomest men I have ever seen he com was . and he was amused. and the courtly manner " Mr he could affect. hands. young girl who was She confessed to an woman. They and and he drove on. with Oriental " grace and first don't keep looking my Older women liked his distinguished looks. one day. and this the Quaid resented. Next day. you Muslims are so extravagant. Women stirred qualities in the Quaid that give a different There is gentler view. or conversation . young kdy. Zindabad ! Maulana Mohammed Ali Jinnah tide. in a " Oh. The people were amazed silent. pointed his finger at the crowd." time of being was deeply human. or Mohammed " Maulana.
Roa-d. It would have been a proud sensation for any man. and to look up at the two first floor rooms and say. I have made a nation. in our work. seventy-one years before. he He never even returned to the little time for such pleasures. . but rather and the lasting charm of a character animated by a brave con and lovely code of private honour ception of duty and an austere and public integrity. Mohomed Indeed. AND THE LAST TASK February and March of 1948. but in the faultless variety of his knowledge refinement of his subtle mind and spirit perception and flawless not in a diversity of aims and the challenge of a towering per in a lofty singleness and sincerity of purpose sonality.ZIARAT.' in relation to history : even when he was spared at the age when most old men enjoy their memories. lightness or humour When Bills arrived for him to sign. to walk from the splendours of Government House the symbol of achievement back to his humble birthplace " There I began. Quaid-i-Azam still His secretary at this time at his desk." But. AND THE LAST TASK religious reform. ment. 214 . and out large political following but side the twin spheres of law and politics he has few resources and few intimate few accomplishments. " there was no His seriousness was contagious : DURING worked long hours has said. ZIARAT. where he house in Newnham had been born. Of what garden? purpose. for Jinnah. a dead thing. But the true criterion of his greatness lies not in the range and and experience. by ids sequestered tastes and tempera Ali Jinnah is essentially a solitary man with a friendships .' integrity/ did Mrs Ali Jinnah think as he dozed in the ' Naidu had written of his singleness and sincerity of lovely code of private honour and public she had also regretted his lack of the gracious gifts of It was true that he never seemed to see himself his * * Mohammed and of But mellow scholarship. yesterday was done with and .
' They can't hustle me. Split it ' ! up into more ' clauses * ! will be holding This should go back and be re-written When I pleaded. the quarrel over Kashmir had been the Security Council of the United Nations. He would ' say. the ever before taken to Quaid had to deal with a bigger world than 30. reviews and speeches. where it still : on December awaits solution. in 1942. Frontier. You will be making the mistake if you allow yourself to be exploited by one greatest political party or the other.' he would complain. He would lie on the sofa. reviews and speeches when he returned to Karachi he was too ill to work at his desk for " The Quaid spent most of the very long. His secretary has said. up his vigilance ' But say. : day upstairs. You a useful piece of legislation/ he would relent. me Mr Jinnah was on the North-West where there were more receptions. as has served you for ten years faithfully and loyally . the Quaid made one more gallant effort in drawing his he flew the thousand miles to East Pakistan. did not weaken. there a : : My young you one as one who give who are present here. But his passion for newspapers did not abate even the teleprinter tape had to be rolled up and taken to him. I Mudie. during several days.' ' : was no difference between Hindu and Muslim..APPEAL TO STUDENTS he would go through them sentence by sentence. let friends. as if I had been the Minister ' who ' drafted it. in his own room. From April 15. j. and people together endured a programme of receptions.let me tell has always had love and affection for you. Clumsy and badly worded. running the yards of news through his : fingers.** Sir Francis " recalled.' he would In these last months. His appeal to the students in Dacca showed that power had not changed his mind he said. ' The problem dismissed so casually by Pandit Nehru when he said that. for seven days. I had to prepare myself before hand for a cross-examination on the Bill.' was no longer dilemma in Westminster it was a tragedy for all the nations to decide. and beyond Mr Jinnah's control. In March. ' I won't do " it. one of Mr Jinnah's last guests in KaracR has in May. students who you this word of warning. except for a small handful of persons. He was stayed with him for a few days kte 215 P .
after the first wash. and.C. sometimes. story. But it was not in his nature. bought them from a shop in Quetta.AJ. threw them to the monkeys that dwell there. I said I would have them changed. and could not have been nicer. he would relax and tell us stories usually they were planned for our good. We had a rather violent of opinion over the Punjab Ministry yet. discipline. and he smiled. Quaid-d-Azam was not satisfied with this and thought that 216 . Ahmed. for their monkey climbed down from a tree and went towards the monkeys ceased they made way When Mr leader. You see. high in the rocky hills. fruit trees. with M. with his little bungalow ' at Ziarat. and was surprised to see that none of them moved there was no mad rush for the nuts.ZIARAT. in shake and begin. " I think that I was he could be so always intimidated by him formal. I tell you . where he went for a walk with some peanuts in his pockets. he got up and said goodbye to me at three in the afternoon. and a garden that smelled of " raised the Governorjuniper and wild lavender/ He has said." In May. AND THE LAST TASK very ill difference and spent most of the time in bed. to a to his staff he died. I pointed out to him that they must be women's I size. busy with papers. All the chattering of the this story. so the shop-keeper had the vests darned. fat old peanuts. within two hours. : ' Jinnah had finished 5 he said. seventy miles or so from Quetta. with a tennis court. But. arrived each day gold. as the days were cold. even monkeys have for him. : : despatch-boxes stamped on them. Lieutenant Ahmed has described the bungalow.' I remember one of his visit to the Jakko Hills in Simla. to serve him until court. " We could not look at his said that thin body without being sad One morning he he must have some woollen vests. He would raise his long finger. and would not eat until he had eaten. We General's dark blue flag over the quiet house and hoped that the would rest.. He it ' " at us. My clearest memory of him is of his slim hands. The bkck Quaid from Karachi. Then a big. They were full of work to be done. In Mr Jinnah moved. who was new naval A. but there were no more. there were holes in them. . the Quaid had appointed a Lieutenant Mazhar June.D. .
Directors of the State Bank. on July I." Towards the end. and I am very glad to be here today stead. The Western world. The voice is thin and harsh with age. On the contrary. in spite of its advantages. In the archives of the Karachi broadcasting station there is a gramo phone record of the speech that the Quaid made.can save it from the disaster that is now facing the world. fifty years before. but the inflections. the pauses. left Two : to perform the opening ceremony. : The Quaid did not answer the room. in his bank. imposing State Bank . last comment on the confusion He said : The economic system of the West has created almost insoluble problems for humanity.C. You must learn the value main streets of Karachi. the nation's In one of the its own currency as a -sign of its economic freedom. and to many of us it appears that only a miracle . the opening of the. "Mr Governor. near the Governor-General's the masons had recently finished a realistic monument to Mr house. of mechanization and industrial efficiency. but he gave them unusual distinction. prove that his experience as an actor. suggested self. State Bank of Pakistan symbolizes the sovereignty of our State in the financial sphere. the GovernorGeneral flew from Quetta to the Capital. his naval A.THE STATE BANK the price should be reduced. He said. has failed to do justice between man and man and to eradicate from the international field. is today in a worse mess than ever before in history. His timing of the first sentence was splendid the words were simple enough. to perform his last task.C. he waved his and the A. and the careful prolonging of words of particular importance. Ladies and Gentlemen. > /* > of money. had not been forgotten. and he said.D.D. the Quaid made his of the world. it was halflargely responsible for the two world wars in the last It friction 1 century. Jinnah's faith in Pakistan the big. The adoption of Western economic theory and practice will not help us in achieving our goal of 217 . days later. with hand in dismissal. could discourage the Quaid from opening the bank himNobody When his speech was written. that it might be sent to Karachi for the Prime Minister to read. the shop-keeper. I ' Good brought him back five rupees from boy.
General's House " who had arranged all these splendours. The Quaid drove to the State Bank in one of the old Viceregal coaches. but I did not dare go back to help him an intrusion he would never allow. towards Mr Jinnah's room. but the outriders made this impossible . Six horses drew the coach. so the near ones extended their hands towards the coach as if this would complete When we arrived back at Government House. Quaid-i-Azam The thousands of people pressed towards him. Colonel Knowles. At the top of the stairs I knew then how I turned and saw him staggering towards his door. to the destiny in our own way. After a few paces he dismissed me. and present must work our world an economic system based on the true Islamic concept of equality of mankind and social justice. For the first. and the escort wore the startling red uniforms of the bodygiiard that had accompanied the Viceroys. ill he was. was very weak and tired as he stepped into the coach.ZIARAT." : it would have been 1 Colonel Geoffrey Knowles had succeeded Colonel Birnie as Military Secre tary to the Governor-General in February 1948. we their ecstasy. with Miss Jinnah beside him. AND THE LAST TASK creating a happy and contented people. 1 : I hope of the day. with all the panoply of a ruler. the people of Karachi saw their deliverer driving among them. as if they wished to Lieutenant " these horses have been exercised sufficiently. 218 . happiness and prosperity of mankind. We will thereby be fulfilling our mission as Muslims and giving to humanity the message of peace which alone can save it and secure the welfare. from Delhi. and said. We Every possible splendour had been summoned for this day. There had been one amusing incident before the procession left the Governorthe Quaid had leaned over to his Military Secretary. in the grand old days before Partition." Mazhar Ahmed has described the last episodes touch him. and the last time. climbed the stairs together and turned right.
London. the Quaid had to yield." Back in the bungalow grace. knowing well the risk he was running. Colonel Geofey EnowK* attended him. Sister Phyllis Dunham. due to over-work and worry. his Military Secretary. I Whenever Miss Jinnah said to her " No.. not " his physical strength. both in frequency year or two. however. his naval AJD." * brother.C. at Ziarat. a graduate of Guy's Hospital. for doctors in He went My the last Bombay regarded have increased. who for Leicestershire. 219 ." Mr Jinnah protested. played cricket o'clock on the morning of July 24 at He first saw the Quaid eight and found him ' * shockingly weak and thin. and his eyes kept their fire. I have worked for fourteen hours a day. twenty-three days after the opening of the State Bank. can't waste my time. his nurse. and Lieutenant Mazhar Ahmed. they and they are much more exhausting. They hours of hard work.. that a man reveals all his This was true of Mohammed Ali Jinnah." and i severity. with more stubbornness to the constant care of a doctor. these attacks as bronchitis ." he would answer. I've a doctor. Lietit. life is based on the This description of the closing weeks of the Quaid's who and interviews with. IT near pounds him saw that his when he should die. got too You must see much to do. For stomach trouble and exhaustion.' " " I have There is nothing wrong with me. never knowing forty years what disease was. with the insistence of an advocate pleading the despair of a sick man. was deciding For several years before his death there was a constant tug-o-war between his physicians and the Quaid-iwarned him to take long intervals of rest and short Azam.THE LAST DAYS 1 must have been written many times. Lieutenant-Colonel than Ilahi had also Bakhsh. rather than with " For the last few years I have had annual attacks of fever and cough.-Colonel Ilahi Bakhsh." a case in on. those who were will. Miss Jinnah has recalled. Often his doctors complained to that full me he ignored " their advice. life in the way he dies. was chosen for the task. the doctor reports of. slim body which came to weigh only seventy Although his moved so vitally.' with an ashen grey complexion. which he did not believe. but he did exactly the opposite.
' How should like to tell me the whole The doctor told the whole truth/ but the Quaid remained stubborn. cotton will not do you must have without your permission I have ordered thirty wooHen ones . lips.THE LAST DAYS Dr Bakhsh talked. delighted him. he lost "breath after he noticed that." The doctor protested." Have you told Miss Jinnah? " shouldn't have done it. This constitutional methods. After all. the silk pyjamas you have been pyjamas. Sir. then " However. What is done is done. There is danger of your catching cold. for which the civil surgeon at Quetta ever since lozenges. : ' * : first simple task was to take his pulse and his * temperature." . At first he refused to engage a nurse he wished only his sister to A lady compounder was brought in to help her care for him. you said. the doctor wrote in He " remained quite calm. long will the treatment take ? know everything." wearing are too thin for you " to . and you must not hesitate to " ' truth. and Jinnah knew. Then came an argument over the simple matter of the Quaid's " Sir.' in a sphere different from his tell him without own. and if my is less. " very weak. Mr Jinnah answered. she is a woman. it does not matter. yards of Viyelk cloth from Karachi. prescribed penicillin cold is better. I watched When I answered. I have been taking them ." Dr Bakhsh did not accept this cheerful diagnosis other electors were summoned and tests were made. " Mm intently. The phlegm which I bring up is probably coming from my stomach. grave news '. and developed fever and a cough. No. " . and that he moistened his : nervously. while Mr Jinnah did not interrupt each sentence. Dr Bakhsh said to him. but I feel stomach can be put right I will recover soon. Yes. I don't my think that there is anything organically wrong with me. but I intend have some made of handloom cloth. he said. that he was dying of a disease of : the lungs. 220 . the fever Ahout three weeks ago I caught a chill Quaid-i-Azarn continued. she refused to glimpse of * the doctor's permission. * the Quaid asked the lady compounder what his temperature When was. They confirmed what Dr Bakhsh suspected. I have only got silk ones. After he had told the Quaid the ' * his diary. I Now tell me about it. .
was remote from the Capital. Sister Phyllis Dunham arrived to nurse him. All right." : twice whether it anything. Congratulations. my Whenever you spend money on necessary in fact. must be k . in Quetta an English Nursing Superintendent of the Civil Hospital On woman. The doctor believed that. take one. and county cricket." The bungalow at Ziarat. had given Dr Bakhsh a will of his own " he said. but added that he would not " disclose anything without the permission of his patient. waited hour by hour for news of the Quaid. was with Liaquat " It is your duty to tell the Prime Minister exactly said." " What do you suspect Liaquat Ali Khan then asked. Sir. old. I have ten diseases in my mind. where the Prime Minister. " I have not made it yet. will tell the nation about the nature and gravity of my illness when I think it The doctor answered " * that he x proper. certain.CONCERN " OF THE GOVERNMENT left : The Quaid had only Listen doctor. high in the rocky hills. in your case. " Minister ask you about me ? What did the Prime had told him nothing. spent Afterwards.' Liaquat Ali Khan arrived at Ziarat and ' * 5 half an hour with the Governor-General. whenever I make a decision. is he said." " The Quaid smiled and answered. Next morning. think Guy's." Mr Mahommed Ali Khan is : he Ali. Three days after Dr Bakhsh had declared his grave news." Dr Bakhsh agreed. he went to Dr Bakhsh and asked for his diagnosis. I have come to the conclusion that woollen pyjamas are absolutely essential for you. as he had been summoned by Miss Jinnah. I give in. what wrong with Quaid-i-Azam we * in the Government must * be ready for any consequences.' and Quaid-iAzam said. Secretary to the Cabinet. " Dr Bakhsh answered. as head of the State." ~ the damage to the QuaicTs July 29.. ? He " I said. essential or not. he was justified in refusing an answer. not by the State. X-ray photographs proved On the same day. I think many times before I put it to you. and the government. the Quaid said to him. the lungs to be more terrible than was supposed. familiar argument advice. 221 . I.
C. sir." Next time Sister Dunham came into the room." When he refused his medicine. her. Ahmed sat up all night to make arrangements for . began to adjust the Quaid's pillows. . and I'll get into yours. that her patient she suggested to Dr Bakhsh that a male nurse was too would be ' better in her place. to Quetta. Sister Dunham and difficult. after four days. A Lieutenant the car. I will ' ' not move until I am dressed his A new coat was brought never its I will not travel in my pyjamas. The doctor has requested " . The patient smiled. the Sister Dunham withdrew . When the Quaid was told that all was ready. . I won't have She must stay. . he answered. carried the Quaid's frail body on a stretcher. on of the pride that had thrilled him. All right if you don't wish to be helped. day. down the stairs." " The Sister answered.the journey next " But he said. fell back on his pillow as she brushed his patch. . When the doctor told the a male nurse. : I won't help you. fresh. I Ahmed has " said. Ah. lodgings in Kensington. When I lifted Quaid-i-Azam into had to hold him so close that his cheek was next to mine. word ' ordered and give orders." " said. grey cord in pump shoes then his monocle. and two Pathan servants." one that he had ordered in Karachi and : : worn silk before. Quaid. Mazhar Ahmed." I ' Mr Jinnah interrupted. and " said. when memory Then his he was a student trudging to before. the doctors decided that the Quaid must be moved from the perilous heights of Ziarat. I like " No. You'll soon get into my ways. you are trying to cover up my bald On August 9.THE LAST DAYS Their relationship opened with challenge : when Sister Dunham " Leave me alone he said. The doctor " I has ordered . fifty years : snowy handkerchief was brought and unfolded he held it between his fingers.D. Lieut. she was carrying a brush and comb." " The Quaid grumbled. the Sister tried to humour him. Then. Come on. I have no special ways it is just common : 5J sense. don't take orders. On the I2th.' decided. with the help of die military A. don't touch me." hair. and 222 .
Let us pause. " asked Mr Jinnah. Where my handkerchief? again. - The explana I tion he offered was that he had completed his his job. I placed him on a mattress. but found this weeks before ? job incomplete five Had he done something in the meantime" which had given him a sense of fulfilment ? I could not help feeling that something had happened enigmatic and evasive. . smiled.. and talked of his wish" " I Don't take me there on crutches. . I was still holding Hm ' he said. however. Was to undermine his will to live/ 5. Dr Bakhsh was patient that there was a forty per cent improvement in the condition of his lung. ? long will it take to be a hundred per cent " How Two to begin work again. I carried Quaid-ito his bed." he said. for days kter. but not when where he would be comfortable. but he did not Azam all up speak. I could not account for his dejection. I wanted to live. so sweetly. . and when Mr Mahommed Ali arrived again from * Karachi." * I noticed tears in his . he was able an hour a day . " "When we arrived at the Residency at Quetta.' mentally more alert and altogether Quaid-i-Azam got up and walked a little.. he said to Dr " first came to Ziarat. Are you comfortable is ? He ' then asked. eyes. On August 29." * * able to * tell his On August 16. you So I waited a moment. Bakhsh. and restless spels for three days what was in his dying mini Almost the during which he muttered he suddenly raised his words were about Kashmir last rambling : On the evening of September the : 223 . ' And I I am out of breath. I live or die." This was the last sign of his valour. Quaid developed pneiimxma he suffered increasing temperature. ' Mazhar. on government papers. and I found it for him then : moved him the others got into their cars and the journey began. peaches and grapes. a want to go when I can walk . return to Karachi. . He smiled as I tucked him in. it does not matter whether Dr Bakhsh wrote in his diary afterwards. in his to room he ate spaghetti. I would dislike being carried on stretcher from the car to my room.THE LAST SIGN OF VALOUR I quite could hear his soft breathing. he thought the Quaid more like his old self. : A few days you Now. You know. I asked him. and then 1 ' are out of breath. when later.
" ment with they?" me today. It was all the reward I needed. the stretcher being carried out of the aircraft and. and placed his hand on my arm. three aircraft Quetta hills. to which he was carried on a stretcher. and even the Prime Minister had been telephoned from Quetta and asked not : to come to the aerodrome. the ambulance broke down. but there was such a look of gratitude in his eyes. as it was turned towards the blazing sun. Dr Bakhsh had to tell Miss Jinnah that there was little hope of her brother living for more than a few days. the arrival had been kept as private and secret as possible. His soul was in his eyes at that moment. and the mud. including the Quaid's The beautiful Viking. until another ambulance was brought from Karachi. Jinnah raised his hand and saluted a few minutes the aircraft was flying at 7. were still near enough to the refugee camp. and." began there was no 224 : The last lap of the journey flag on the ambu- . British pilot and crew lined up and gave him a smart salute. thirteen months There was but a small group of people to meet him now before. I was alone with him for a few minutes and he made a gesture I shall never forget. He moved his arm free of the sheet. procession had passed by a crowded refugee slum. them in return.THE LAST DAYS voice in anger and said. over the rugged morning. I found a piece of cardboard and fanned Dunham has described the terrible " Mr Jinnah's face. where the thousands of Pakistanis had waited to welcome the Quaid on the great day of bis flight into Karachi. Within slowly. He did not speak. he saw the Quaid's hand move from the Near the covers. to keep the flies away. At 4.. Sister We hour of waiting. rising slowly to shield his eyes. for anything I had done. : outside the city.000 feet. The stretcher was placed within an army and Sister Dunham Soon after the little ambulance Miss Jinnah climbed in and the journey into Karachi began. The Kashmir Commission have an appoint Why haven't they turned up ? Where are September 10. the driver fiddled hopelessly with the engine. Next On were landed near by. For over an hour.15 that afternoon September n the aircraft landed at Mauripur. to be pestered by hundreds of flies. He watched aircraft stood Colonel Geoffrey Knowles.
I bear witness that Come to Prayer Muhammad . the news 'passed along the bazaars to the edges a mingling of shouts and whispers.DEATH lance.50. . and the excited hundreds that were nearest the wall touched it with their feigers and mumbled their prayers. Through die night was heavy and cruelly bet evening breeze had faded and : the sea of white garments spread far into the darkness." Thirty minutes later he died. in The closed in about the tall dark walls of Government House. .. At 9. you are going you. I am head and spoke for the last time not. but he was so weak that the potion dribbled from the corners of his mouth. and past the Quaid was carried up to his room. The doctors veins. * * * The bells of the Anglican Cathedral sounded seven o'clock : a few minutes later the Muslim muazzins began to climb to the minarets above the mosques. so it moved through the city first unnoticed by the crowds who had cool breeze of evening. bear witness that nothing deserves to be worshipped but God . . but the veins " Then they tried to inject a drug into his had collapsed." Quaid-i-Azam moved " said faintly. .. 225 . At ten minutes six o'clock die ambulance arrived at Government House. Come God God is to Prayer the Greatest . we have given you an injection to strengthen and it will soon have its effect. to hasten the flow of blood to his heart. Dr Bakhsh leaned over and whispered. : he of the the night. raised the end of Quaid-i-Azam's bed. God willing. The multitude city. to live. The doctors and Sister come out to enjoy the Dunham tried to stimulate him with a heart tonic. Sir. his No. is the Messenger of God . . to call the people to their sunset prayers is : God I is the Greatest God the Greatest . Greatest Nothing deserves to be worshipped but God. is the.
226 . and the attar was before he was buried in the heart of the city. when the man went sprinkled on the tomb Slowly. ^Quaid-i-Azam was wrapped in the shroud. came a man carrying a The shroud had been soaked in the holy water of ZemZem the spring that Ismail had released from the the bottle contained the remains of some attar that had been desert of the Prophet at Medina.in sprinkled on him.THE LAST DAYS the people. in valiant pride. weaving his way among shroud and a little bottle. when he was a boy. the dust from which he had stood up. : """ there as a pilgrim.
<! 2 226] .
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND INDEX .
Immortal Years. 1912with a biographical appreciation by Sarojini Naidu (Ganesh. 1905-1910. Hon. Winston S. 1950). Saiyid (Muhammad Ashraf. Gandhiji. Lieut. Recollections and Reflections. Vol. Albiruni (Muhammad Ashraf. A * While Memory Serves. 1947). Allahabad. 1945). Coleman & Co. (Muhammad Ashraf.-General Sir Francis Tuker (Cassell. Casey (Hollis The Second World War. 1942). Sir Percival Griffiths Speeches of the Earl of Minto. A. 228 . Sir Chimanlal Setalvad (Padma Publications. Sir Evelyn Wrench (Hutchinson. Madras). Verdict on India. Jinnah-Gandhi Talks (Central Office. H. 1950). His Life and Reign. Masani (George Allen & 1917> Mohomed All Jinnah. 1892). India in Transition. An Australian in India. Churchill * & Carter.H. 1953). Altaf Husain (Government of Pakistan. 1951). P. 1944). 1950). IV. King George V. R. History of the Indian National Congress. Harold Nicolson (Constable. Muslim India. Political Study). Makers of Pakistan and Modern Muslim India. Lahore). Bombay. (Bombay. Edited by Venetia Montagu (Heinemann.BIBLIOGRAPHY Of the many books : consulted. Grey Wolf. (Thacker. Diary Leaves. Alan Campbell-Johnson (Robert Hale. Bombay. An Indian Diary. 1954). 1918). Dadabhai Naoroji: The Grand Old Man of India. 1952). 1946). Mohammed Ali Jinnah (A Lahore. Mohammed Noman (Kitabistan.. H. 1950). Bom Through My Letters of Iqbal to Jinnah bay. P. G. Lahore. Architectural Remains and Antiquities. Richard Symonds (Faber. Indian Summer. the following have been the greatest help to the author Unity. All-India Muslim League. M. British Impact on India. Barrister-at-Law Jinnah Faces an Assassin. 1952). the Aga Khan (Bennett. C. 1947). The Making of Pakistan. H. R. H. Wilfred Russell (Thacker. 1930). And So to Pakistan. The (Macdonald. 1945). Armstrong (Arthur Barker. Edwin S. His Speeches and Writings. 1932). Syad Muhammad Latif (Lahore. Horned Moon y Ian Stephens (Chatto & Windus. An Ambassador of Unwin. Kanji Dwarkadas (Bombay. Montagu. (Cassell). 1939). Rt. 1951). Mission with Mountbatten. Sitaramayya Lahore : Its History. 1943). 1944). Beverley Nichols (Jonathan Cape.
League. tribute to Jinnah. 42. : : quoted.INDEX Abbas. Field-Marshal Sir Ckude : George (Sir). q. Govt. . naval A. 159. announces June ^948 for trans fer of power. The quoted.P. : mar Amiruddin. 64. 187 : 37 Alexander. 9% I pespover self-govt ibc India 229 . from 222-3 Ziarat to Quetta (Aug. 4 Jinnah's boyhood death. Prime Minister : E. Mian 34 (1929-31). 212 : (May Aga Khan. 172-3 Ahmed. 87 .D. Congress leader : Muslim League session attends (1915). outbreak of Indian Mutiny in . Pec. East : Muslim League : : see Muslim 184 Benn. : Jinnah's doctor during last illness and relationship between. 219-25 : Ahmed. 67. to Jinnah. Ashraf. 79 withdrawal firom Home Rufc opinion o . of State for India riage to. : Bakar. 50 . 9 C. Prince (The Prince Consort) : Baldev Singh. returns with Nehru. 65 Ahsan. 1947).N. 97 Ahmad. 36 Confs. Wedgwood : (Viscount League Amai Bai Stansgate) Sec. Lieut. V. Jamil-ud-Din quoted. 158-9 Bakhsh. R. 43. Aurangzeb. 1946)..-Col. unanimous acceptance. 184 . 1946). (1945). Mazhar. on ' The Indians quoted. naval A.N. Mootaga's ". (Viscount Alexander member of Cabi ofHillsborough) '. A. R. 135 net Mission to India (1946). Jinnah's interest in and bequest to. Earl of: succeeds : m of State for India mism (19*4). Home Rule 67. 37 partition annulled. Aligarh University (Mohammedan : (1857). Captain Saied Abell. 187 W. Nasim 13 Ahmedabad Jinnah's speech at : (1916). 170. 193.C. Captain Syed ML. 100 All-India proclamation (1911).D.N. 4 . partition of (i947) l8l l8 3> 184 to vote on Pakistan. 171 Baluchistan : Council of Chiefs to vote onPakistan (1947). Jinnah's speech to (1938). Dr Annie. 41 Dr Mohammed 8. Lt. 170i . 183 : persuades Jinnah against armed inter vention in Kashmir dispute (Oct. intoned S. vote for Pakistan. forms (1916). Private Secretary to the Viceroy accompanies Lord Ismay to London with draft Plan 1947). . 161 Alexander the Great : in the Punjab. Haiti 216-18 . 174 158 . Attlee. Sir Thomas: : at Aligarh University. on Ampthill. 2nd Baron : comments Council of India Bill (1914)* <$i ' * Amritsar Massacre (1919) : 80-1 Arnold. 121-2 Auchinleck. Viceroy and Indian leaders to London Pec. Claude. Sardar (Sikh leader) : flies to London for talks with ELM. S. architect : quoted.v. Birkenhead. by founded Anglo-Oriental College) 41 . 195 Albert. 24* 25. 207 . Bengal. Emperor death of (1707) and decline of Moghul Empire. Gandhi's attempted boycott. : conversation with : Jinnah. 32 Bengal 44-5 royal : partition of (1905). 83 Bihar massacre (1946) 169-70 Sec. invites League.P.C. Bandra Convent School: Fatima : Jinnah at. describes move of Jinnah 13). (1917). to Jinnah (May 1948). 96 Besant. 45 leads Muslim delegation to Round Table . R. 15-16 Batley. on MoB^gtt69-70 Chelmsford Report (1918).
91-2 . author of : Act. 204. Act (1908). 22-6. 62 C. St J. S. of India Act. quoted. arrives * in India plans for * Union of 169 . military 91. 63 Cali Treaty of Sevres (1920). Frontier Province (i93 7) r 112 . Lord Viceroy of India (1916-21). 78. his estimate of Jinnah. illness in Paris (1928). 139-40 Communal Award (Govt. Sir 8 1-2 CampbeU-Bannerman. 159 . refers to Congress rejection of Cripps offer (1942).. Montagu-Chelmsford Report Chitty. Prime Minister. (Sir) : ' Press At Campbell-Johnson. Lord : Governor-General (later Viceroy) of India (1855-62). 79 . 178. 203-5. 207-10 quotations from diary describing. E. ..-Gen. Jinnah's visit to Lahore during Kashmir crisis. 36 . 68 Bombay Muslim Students Union : Jinnah's address to (1915). 25 Henry : on Cripps Mission (1942). on Germany (1939). of : of partition of Bengal on. 123 : Indian Congress) RadclirTe : quoted. 111-13 strength in NW. no Congress. 69 see . of Pakistan (1947-48) relationship with Jinnah. S. Shanmukhan tribute to Jinnah (1940). . Sir R. R. 141 . K. Diwan : describes Jin 230 . 84-5 . Austen (Sir) succeeded by E. ' . challenge to Indians to first produce a constitution (1928). Jinnah elected to (1923). Calcutta Killing (1946) : : High Muslim sym Caliphate (Ottoman) pathy with during 1914-18 war. 1935) : Jinnah's comments on. accompanies Jinnah to England (1928). 185-6 Canning. extreme nationalists expelled from effect 24-6 . The : first conception and history. 37-8 Casey. 109-10. . 66 con ists readmitted (19/16). B. plight of . &8 . 84-5 . on self-government of India. 139 criti cizes F. School. 69 . 23 Boundary Commission (1947) : see Award : Chehnsford. Prime Minister : Munich (1938). quoted. contest 1937 elections. of India : . London 56-7 Jinnah's speech to London Indian Association (1913). The : * : 20 : Cawnpore massacre at (1857). 26. 183. 208. Roosevelt's views on Indian problem '. 139. G. India (1935). 93 . 159 et seq. 93 Birnie. Cabinet Mission (1946). Chamberlain. (first President of Bonnerjee. Montagu as Sec. 40 . 37 and Muslim League form Lucknow extreme national (1916). des cribes Jinnah's return to India (1934106 . 62 . Jin nah resigns from (1920). price for co operation. Col. 44 uproar at Surat meeting (1907). Jinnah's health. 209 Jinnah and Gandhi (1940). 81 . Neville. declares war W. (1913). treatment of Muslim * Central Legislative Assembly intro duced under 1919 Govt. 184. Mission with Mountbatten. account of Mrs Jinnah's Gov. Jinnah's speech at 1913 tribute to Muslim League 166-7 ' Caucus Case. Alan tack to the Viceroy. explains Govt. secretary to Jinnah as : nah's break with Congress (1920). 136-7 Chamberlain. 179. Indian National. W. of State for India (1917). 58 . phate Movement in India. 46 . 35). 85 . 205. 46 session. Jinnah joins (1906). : demns Montagu-Chelmsford Re port (1918). during 1914-18 war.INDEX (1924). 65 Jinnah's dislike of. CaxtonHall. D. Karachi 4 Churchill. letter to King George V on educated Indians (1918). 58 . adopts non-co operation and boycott to achieve absolute freedom (1920). 207. 8a. 67 Pact ' . quoted 36. attempt to reconcile : refugees. (1926) 90 Chaman Lall. 133 Christian Missionary Society also : India * '. 117.
leader . 157 . oppose Muslim League J Sir Stafford Jinnah recalls 1940 visit of. 79. : Connaught. : and ' Amritsar Massacre' (1919).. (1945). (Aug. 139 . 67. 140 : Cripps. quoted. 195 : ' Mrs G. Sister Phyllis : nurse to for transfer ofpower (June 1947). .. es . 1946). opens (Dec. Jinnah orders Muslim League members to abstain . protest against Rowktt Act (1919).v. ratifies Plan Govt. Home Role comments on proposals. 73 . 168-9 172 Constituent Jinnah's . 86* over influence 87. 138-9 . and Cripps Mission (1942). rejection by Congress. 33 Assembly of Pakistan Presidential Address to Edward VII. Brig. at funeral of Mrs Jinnah (1929). ments by R. 67. in vited by Viceroy to form Interim denies his authority. 97-8. attends . 147 . mem ber of Cabinet Mission to India (1946). 187 Jinnah during last illness. of India Act of 1919. Hindus. 5. 142. Jinnah's comments to. dur ing 1918 riots. 46 .-Gen. 64 compared with Jinnah. Duke of: visits 1911). and *i League. 59-61 . 81 Edinburgh. 1946). Jinnah's com Jinnah (1929). opinion o 70 73 . House : : 1875-76 recalled. Dwarkadas. leaders im offer 139 . H. Casey on 139 . Prince Alfred Duke of: visit to Lahore (1870). and Interim Govt. re-presented as Govt. Muslim League Dacca Jinnah's speech to students at (March 1948). leaders freed prisoned (1942). rebuked by Jinnah. 221-5 Durbar. introduced under Council of State Govt. 95 . Frederick Leigh : 7 tribute Cunningham. criticized ' policy by condemned by Jinnah Sir P. 67 . 165 . 52-3 * Cripps Mission (1942) : proposes a new Indian Union'.R. 46 Address (1908). B. Kanji : quoted* 79 . demand for exclusive Muslim nomi nation to Interim Govt. q. Royal Assent to. 9. 197 Cotton. read and postponed '. death (1910). 83 induces Congress to Q . 182 . : visit (Aug. Dunham. 6. called Mahatma. 87 Constituent Assembly : Cabinet Mis elections sion's plan for (1946). 168 . Griffiths. Montagu's and cow~slatighter. R. (1942). Freeth. 64 South Africa. H. 81 . 4. 64 . G. in Frontier Province. 159 for (1946).INDEX League 114 . 167 * ' . 157 . com withdraws Ministries (i937) I:[ 5 and demands immediate indepen dence (1939). 124 rejects Cripps . Mohandas Karamchand : on Indian National Congress. E. 162. Jinnah's com ment on. E. 49. : Dyer. 143 NW. 26 Council of India Bill Jinnah leads delegation to England (1914). 5961 . 159. 82 Criminal Law Amendment Bill (1913 ) : Jinnah's speech supporting. failing power of. Muslim cow: Muslim League session (1915). 50 India (1921). 215 Dawn newspaper created by Jinnah : (1938). 1946). S. 157. : Sir George : 199 black nag protest against (Sept. 1947). 81 . tribute to of Lords. 151-2 from. H. of India Act of 1915. 143 (1945). praises Jinnah but . King-Emperor . 88 Cow-slaughter : Gandhi's view. 49 Fatima Bai.H. 96 Gandhi. 138 . 60-1 Lord Ampthill's comments on. 212 Croft. in ments on. 160. to Lord Mountbatten. 163-4 to Jinnah. 84. 61 . Jinnah on. influence over Muslims. Gan dhi's J- pouses Caliphate Movement of (1920). 22 . 49. 162 . 83. after talks with Gandhi (1944). 161 . rejection. 179 . 11. The King George V at (Dec. 81 . 138-40 . protection societies (1920). 80 . Sir Henry quoted. 163 . 81-2.
97 . 114 . 45 . imprisoned (1930-31) to 97n. over cow- Gokhale. 148-52 representation in Interim Govt. 141-2 / x f Garhmukteswar massacre (1940) 109 : leader Punjab Ministry. talks 54-8 . 157 Hindus George V. 89-90 .INDEX absolute freedom (1920). 109-10 first Gracey. new -constitution by Duke of ConAct explained. 42 Syed Ahmed revision of parti Sir Gladstone. . George V and Queen Mary (1911). i4<5-7 medical 147 . 88 . opposed to Jinnah and Muslim League (1945) .. William I : emissary ofJames : criticizing Sir S. (in 1916) 67. King-Emperor '. 51 friendship with Jinnah and their voyage to England . in letter con King George V. . conversation with King George his Elementary V. boycotts visit Prince of Wales (1921). G. Dr prisoned (1922-4). (in 1919) 81 . K. death (1915) and tributes from Jinnah and Mrs Naidu. 89 refuses Gokul Das Tej Primary School. . 50 . 40. Gok- anger over partition of ascendancy Bengal (1905). (1892). com Jinnah's compliment to. 125". 37-8 Griffiths. : quoted. 157 . 49-50 ist . * 98 . (1942). 199 Earl : Lord Canning's Granville. Sir Khizr to Linlithgow (1941). ' ment on Cripps ' offer (1942). H. demnation of Jinnah's Lucknow speech (1937). 127 . Gopal Krishna . 98 . 30. Sir Percival (author of The British Impact on India) : quoted. and criticizing Moghul Court. Lord Viceroy welcomes King (1910-16). revision of partition (1911). E. im demand 84-5 . 33-4 Hayat Khan Tiwana. 88. Bom bay 4 Government of India Acts 1915 Royal Assent to. mentioned. 183 . : visits India (1911). . quoted. Casey. 49-50 Education Bill. Ibrahim : mentioned. naught (1921). 63 (1913). to attend ist Round Table Conf. offer froni Muslim League to guarantee repre sentation to Hindu minorities (i927) 90 . (1944). 86 . movement Hindi to replace Urdu by anti-Muslim hale recalled. with Jinnah (1944). HabibuHah. (1940). 64 (see also Council : : : of India Bill) 1919 : inauguration of . biographical note. . proclaims (1867). exchange of letters with Jinnah on health (1941). : letters from Lord Hawkins. Gandhi's influence on. W. (1930). Mohammed Ali : 4 146 . letter to. explained by 1935 R. 24-5 over Muslims' in government. 97 of Bengal Round Table riots (1893)* 41-2 Khan's fear of. 49 early visit (1905) and conversation with G. (1905). ' 139 inaugurates ment move Quit India 143. Jinnah's fear of Hindu Raj slaughter (1918). : 49 Gardiner. imprisoned (1942). 115* * I<5 J 122 . opens Conf. anti-Muslim riots . W. predominance in Constituent Assembly elections 232 . 50 . 181 . 73-4 (1940). 23. assassination (Jan. 38 : . signs Peace 52 meets Appeal* (April 1947). exchange of letters (1944). "5 ' correspondence with Jinnah (i937~8). 49 . . Jinnah-Gandhi . 10 : return to power tion of Bengal (1911). criticizes Congress treatment of Muslim League. 62. I94 8 ) 210 Ganji. 138 . 178 . Major Jinnah. 119 Hardinge of Penshurst. Jinnah after three years (May 1947). Gen.. Cripps 138. Besant on. talks and corre analysis o spondence with Jinnah (i944)> 148referred to. conversation ' with Jinnah on Pakistan '. (1930). Lord Irwin on. 87 87-8. 25. 143 released from prison . Sir Douglas : meeting with Jinnah (1925). 55 . (1931).
in Kashmir. 15. (1939). 76-7 . on. (1928). Allan Octavian : formation of (1918). q. re TO* of Viceroy (1943-47). complete independence (1920). (1946). Khan Hunter. 98n. of India Act (1919). . 37-8 tions in British Parliament. 88 . 162 . q*v. 52. 141 and Cabinet Mission plan (1946). Govt. 186 . *74 announces June 1948 as date for transfer of power. . and Viceroy misconcep (1855-62). Council of India Bill (1914). 87 . 1946 massacres. 109 . Govt agree State Council of placed under 1919 Act by State. during dispute (Oct. declared William quoted. of State "W. 47-8. Jinnah becomes President Bombay branch (1917)* criticized by Lord Willingdon 67 : 184^4. as com posed in 1908. . British democratic resigns from (1919)* ?8. 50 . G. 23 . 48 . 67 . 69. offer of com Cripps Mission (1942)* *38 ments on by R. 159 t Mr Atlee promises transfer of seq. 65 . . Benn . naught's visit to inaugurate new Lord constitution 87 . . Lord Minto. 58 Dr Besant forms Home Rule League. 22.v. Assembly. 88 . 90 . Round Table (1930). Ramsay MacDonald's Montagu Cham hopes for (1928). 9^ . Jinnah resigns from Dr Besant resigns (1920). (1916). Sec. Wedgwood (1924-28).v. Lord Hardinge of Penhurst. 69. V (1911).v. berlain as Sec. succeeds Austen Viceroy E. Prince of Wales's visit visit (1921). 16970 . Jifcnah's membership of. 88 . *57 Cabinet Mission (1946). Reading. Sec. Lord Mountbatten. Lord Irwin (Earl of Viceroy (1926-31). . and Central Legislative (1945-47).v. (1942). of India Act Indian National Congress (1885). Jinnah : in Jinnah condemns system as unsuited to India (i94) 125-6. proclaims annulment of partition of Bengal (1911). of India Act (1919). Government of. 78-9 Montagu-Chelmsford Report Duke of Con. 92 . Lord Pethick-Lawrence. . 26 : . 83 Hume.INDEX (1946). 44 . of State (1929-31). power by June 1948 granted (Aug. 184 . . (Viscount Stansgate). 3^. 159 et seq. . of Simon Commission. 1947). 98. India : q. Viceroy (1921-26). 67 . . Lord Wavell. . 68 .. Lord Birkenhcad. 206 Dadabhai Home Rule (Swaraj) joint Naoroji's demand for. 80.-Gen. 109-10 . 233 . 53 Imperial Legislative Council auguration (1910). . 179 . Gov. 123*. 83 . 78. welcomes King George V and Queen Mary George Congress-Muslim League demand Congress tributes to for.v. (1939). 50-1 Muslim League policy (1913). 1947). Halifax). Govt. q. 96-7.. 69. 61 et seq. Kashmir transfer dispute (1947-48). Viceroy (1905-10). and Royal Assent to. Lord Willingdon. (1918). Viceroy (1910-16). (1921). India and Pakistan Home Rule formed by Dr League Besant (1916). q. 47 . 47 . 1^3 (1935). of State (1917). massacres 169-70 . Sec.. 96 . 87 . to (i947). S. visit of Cripps Mission. influence of Syed : Ahmed 38n. Nehru speaks to. Montagu-Chelmsford Report (1916-21). of 159. 36 Lord Canning. 44-5. 40 Sir Germany cited.v. 124 . war on Viceroy (1936-43). inaugurated q. advances under Act of 1935. Govt. 97 . M* Attiee Viceroy (1947). 138-40 . 36. ruling class of. Lord Linlithgow. 65 . . HJvl. on June 3 Plan (1947). 174 . Casey. 49 . 84-5. of power date advanced to Aug^ 15* to 1947. 83 from. Congress demands q. British conquest of. Viceroy (1931-36). King during 1914-18 war. Conferences. Gandhi changes name of League to Swaraj Sabha. 174 .
-Rear-[Vice-]Admiral J. I94?) 207 Indian Association. : England ment on 6 . 3 . early education. 118 Irwin. Jafar. turn to Karachi (1896). 193 . Boundary . Council debate on (1910). after Partition becomes first Lord MountGovernor- General (Aug. : India. W. during etseq. 193. Jinnah with her father in (1919). joins brother in (1931). 26. and Indian troops sent (Oct. Sir Frederick Jinnah (1940). 4 (recalled. 209 . Jinnah. The (1857) 37-9. 102 . The : see Congress Indian States transfer : JefTord. Inde pendence Day (Aug. 181 flies to London with draft Plan (May returns to India with 1947). 49 Interim Government proposals for : . 16. 199. 35 Jinnah Hall. 15. !59-<5o. 181 . first marriage. 39-40 Indian National Congress. . 4 . 14 . 162. Lord (Earl of Halifax) : Vice Jirmflh (1937). Kashmir accedes to. A. 9 Dadabhai Naoroji's influence on. 183 talk with Jinnah on Viceroy. partition of army. Jinnah's panies Jinnah on flight into Karachi (Aug. . . General Lord : Chief of Vice roy's Start 177. ' 98 . *33 Jinnah. 15. 37 . Ismay. 99 . Jinnah's Lord Morley's influence on. 1947). 205-6 Indians in South Africa Imp. London accom (1945-46). 101 . 7. 15-21 . 200-3 Jehangir. and Jinnah's speech to (1913). A. early years as an advocate.. 8 interest in Liberalism. 157. Sir John: to Indian Councils Act. 7 . 165 . 86 . experience as an actor. London : forma tion of. speaks of debt to. * bio Jinnah Gardens. 206 . I94^) Iqbal. Ali : parents. letter on Gandhi to King George V (1931). birth. Jafri. recalls Viceroy invites Con gress to form (Aug. Lord Mountbatten's advice to rulers. 40 . : circumstances during of power (1947). demands Con Muslim State (1930). 43 : 35 Russell Road. his alleged rudeness ' com : sister 16 . 4-7 . on accession to India or Pakistan. Lord Canning on. .INDEX Partition. Sir Cowasjee : tributes to Jinnah. 3 ancestry. 194 . 198 . 101. 26 9-10 Indian Mutiny. 99 M'ohammed . temporary Presidency Magistrate (1900). Queen Victoria on. Sir Syed Ahmed Elian on. nre 12 . 99 . lodgings at first roy of India (1926-31). 37-8 . 167 . 1947). Nanji Farced : 5. Dina (Mrs Neville Wadia). Leg. Jinnah enters Bandra Convent School '. Fatima. 219 League members (Oct. *95 : : i65n tribute 56-7 James. 13 . letters to graphical note. 92 . comments on * cormnunal feeling ' (March 1947). Bombay : 78 Jinnah. boyhood and death and last letter to Jinnah (1938). sails for Bombay (1897). 8-13 . 219 . 59. : creation of Pakistan Navy and rela tionship with Jinnah. last illness and death. : delegate to Round solidated Confs. Sir *<58 Muhammad Table . 133 Jardine. . cited. 1946). 188 193. sails for England. 181 . 98 Islamia College. 15. Kensington. talks with Jinnah on partition of Punjab and Bengal. 212 of M. Com 205-6 mission appointed. 9-12 . 73) . 234 . Peshawar bequest to. (1892) : Amendment : to quoted. 48 Gandhi's leadership of. Jianah of Lord Wavell's changes 163 . 188 accession of Native States batten at Partition. Lahore : 33. 114-15 . admit Muslim reconstituted to relationship between her brother and with her brother doctors. 184 mentioned. birth only child of M. (1932). influence on Jinnah. criticism to. 184 . 184 . 14 . 15). at Lincoln's Inn.
57. comparison CM* witli 235 . 97. Leg. Council (1913). 66 . suggesting conference attends ist Roo-Bsd port at Muslim League . ' Ambassador '. 77-8 . demands rejected at AE-Parties Con (1928). of State (1917). sorrow over death of Gokhale (1915). . 44 . Lord Minto. to Central Leg. on Indians in South will. attacks Lord Willingdon for his opinions (1918). and Viceroy's Assent to. 52 . 32-3 . described as speech to Leeds Limcjieen ioa. speech on Council of India Bill. on . 93. sails for England after separation from wife (1928). Karachi (1913). 87 . speech to Indian Association (1913).. 77 . signs Montagu as Sec. nomi nated. '. on Gandhi's unwillingness to co London in speech to Congress. 67-8. 67. to Bombay Muslim Students Union 62 . Unity 66 . Mussalman Wakf Validating Bill Mrs Naidu's tribute (1913). courtship and marriage to Ruttenbai Petit (1918). efforts for (1915). ment Gandhi's non-co-operation (1920). and Leg. Assembly (1926). session (1912). S. 78. 64 Council (1916). 78. 74-5. S>SH?o. named . Congress (1906). with Gokhale and England (1913). 59-61 . speech on. 70 . (1930). 25. 54 birth of daughter. 94. 58 . 91-2 on Nehru Report (1928). 95 . . Table Conf. . 87 . Syed Ahmed Khan's influence on. elected Dina London 56-7 . 82 E. Assembly (1923). 53-4 . leads anti-WilHngdon demonstration. for second term. Gokhale (1919). 68 opinion of Lord Chelmsford. 154 47 . Law Amendment Bill introduction of. 26 . 86 . 63-4 . Jinnah Hall. government* (1918). wife (1929). 80 . Council (1919)5 78. 87. S. 40-1. 97 . 78 . Pact ' (1916). (1921). Sir joins Muslim League. Lahore. 35 . frdm Imp. 65 . 16 ' with his sister. welcomes appointment of E. 42-3 his after. 27 compared with Alexander the Great. 54-8 friendship their voyage to . Mrs Naidu's devotion to. re signs from Congress (1920). 84. Leg. Fatima. (1915). and comments. letter to Ramsay greater Congress-Muslim League unity. before be . . 59. Leg. Imp. League attends Muslim 48. death and funeral of ' . 90 . 76. 67 protest against internment ofDrBesant (1917). of President of Bombay Home Rule . first political Indian National Congress. Ahmedabad Lucknow and the '. 94-^5 . executor). 82-3. 86. 83. 51-2 . session re-election to Imp. on Rowlatt Act (1919). illness of wife in Paris (1928). Bombay. 49 . . elected Central Leg. relationship with Lord Willingdon. Montagu's tribute to. 99 . 147-8 his first session . 80 resigns from Home Rule League (1920).INDEX relationship 15. secures Congress sup MacDonald (1929). 83 . of Hindu-Muslim compared with Gan . 43. LalTs tribute move Diwan 85 . tafe wiA Iqbal (1931). 88 . 97 . 89-90. 65 speech on . 50-1 speech in support of Gokhale's Elementary Education BiU (1912). Chaman recalls to. manifesto demanding 'responsible Africa. decision t fi&i* England. 99 in . 58 Cowasjee Jehangir's tributes to. League (1917). 38. Council (1910). 89 . coming a member. life * separate electorates (1916). on Wakf Bill. 75-7 . Jinnah Gardens. 69. 33. 20 . 133 . 90-1 . to. 84-5. 52-3 . (Liaquat AH Khan an elected to Imp. secretary Dadabhai Naoroji. 61 speech . speech on resigns Criminal (1913). 60. (1913). bjuilt as tribute to. 22 to dhi. in The Times (1914). operate with Muslims. visits ' England on army Indianization recommittee (1925). leads Congress delegation to England (1914). The Caucus Case aim . 62 . ' England and legdl pEadatee (i93i-34>. (1932). .
orders Muslim League to abstain from Constituent Pakistan (1946). 116-17 on treat ment of Palestine Arabs by British . 158 . speech to Muslim League workers. flies LordLinlithgow (1941). criticizes Lord PethickLawrence and Sir S. reviews Muslim demands 148-52 in interview with London News . to England (Dec. 164. talks and cor * 5 '> in war unwavering effort (1942). on women in politics. Begum Liaquat AH Germans with Muslims in India (1938). N.. first sign of lung disease (1944). * ' the Great Leader (1940). 137 .v. on 64th birthday (1940). 160 his doctor's comments (1946). 152-4 . calls for * f Day of Deliverance from Congress regime (1939). 127 visits wounded 128 . 164 . 124 . ' and Khaksars. Nehru (1938). attitude to the young and to students. 158 . 140 . 115 . talk with S. (1935). first called QuaicL-i-Azam. Gandhi's impa press *. with 115-16 . pondence with Gandhi (1937-38). comments on Communal Award. 168 . disappointment over Cripps Mission (1942). paper. ii 8 . supports All-India Muslim Students Federa and her hus band's relationship with. and Direct Action to achieve * * 134-5 T and . 168-9 for talks with . 142-3 . Ckude Batley. IqbaTs last letter to (1938). 147-8 . 1937). 133 . relationship with staff. com promise with Lord Wavell on In terim Govt. 160-1 . (1945).INDEX Mustafa Kemal. negotiations with Lord . 145-6 . compares Sudeten (1944). 119 . orders resigna tion Muslim Premiers from Nat. J Assembly. 165 . to his English journals (1940). to Kanji Dwarkadas j (1938). 138 ' pledges re-elected India (1933). G. and Muslim League 1946 Sir P. contributes articles on cratic government nations unsuitability for of demo India. (1946). Cripps. 144-5 . re Sir S. President Muslim League Central Election Board (1936). Lahore (1940). Griffiths (1940). 133-4. Chronicle (1944)* 15* comments on Gandhi talks. recalls stories of. Assembly (1934). elections. IqbaTs tribute (1937). described to . exchange of letters with Gandhi (1944). supports Cabinet ' ' Mission grouping plan (1946). 113-14. 23 6 . 122 . Pethick-Lawrence and Sir S. no. declares impos sibility of unity with Hindus support . inter viewed by Beverley Nichols (1943). letter HJML Govt. 158. 115 . 163 . 102-4 > by Liaquat AH Khan persuaded to Major Gardiner . Bakar. 138 . tributes to. 104-6 . Casey's prisonment. speech at Allah abad University. 143 attempted assassination of (1943). 166-7 criticizes Lord Wavell (1946). ' Pakistan Resolution (1940). 146-7 medical analysis of. Viceroy and Congress reject Muslim League demand for exclusive Mus lim nomination to Interim Govt. but his authority denied by Lord Wavell 128-9 . 165-6 estimate of. 151-2 . <. let Major Gardiner criticizing . his architect. 120-1 . Cripps (1946). 109 . success 157 in . . 125-6 * ' two theory. 139 corres (Lucknow. ter to Defence Council (1941). 119-22 . Khan tion (1937). ' Cripps to return to (1940). 163 . congratulated by Governor of Punjab for conciliating Muslims and Sikhs in Lahore (1936). protest against Congress interpretation of Mission Plan (1946). praised. 135 135-6 . Calcutta (1946). correspondence respondence with Gandhi (1944). 128 . builds new house (1939-40). expects im R. 137-8 . 12 . ' Tentative gives Viceroy ' Proposals for Muslim support dur ing war (1940). iio-ii . 167-8. 148 . 117-18 .. 169 . equal partners offer ignored ' m- ' by Nehru (1937). tience with (1942). 162. Central Leg. creates Dawn news attitude towards 142-3 .
(Aug. Time magazine com 170. rela tionship with Col. death (Sept. . 207-10 . Willingdon demonstration. in Paris separation and illness of (1928).7-48). . Sir Claude Auchinleck not to take military action in Kashmir. 219-25 . flies ' to Dacca and speech to students (March 1948). 13. 193-5 . *74 *> view of his alleged rudeness '. 221-25 . with Lord Ismay on partition of Punjab and Bengal. Pak. Mountbatten's appreciation talk ' of. Jinnah) : 6. J*anah's burial in (Sept. 217-18 . relation ship with his doctor. 15). 208 . 1947). Messervy quoted). recalled. to et seq.Gen. . . 200-3 . 209 . 1948). compliment to Lord Mountbatten. C. Earl : tribute to Jinnah. opens . 1948). Mrs Naidu's estimate of. 215 . 1948). 202-3 . alleged incident. 211 . relation ship with his nurse. 1 88 selected as GovernorGeneral of Pakistan. Government House. Jinnah returns to (1896). 7 Jinnah. ' Frontier Province (April 1948).-in-C. 213 . Lt. 213-14. June 3 broadcast speech. 12. 186 . meeting with Ian Stephens 1948). 224 . 170 . 74-5 . II.INDEX 1946). 1948). 182 .-Feb. visits Lahore during Kash mir trouble (Oct. and the army (Gen. 212 tributes from Lady "Wavell and and negotiations with Lord Mountbatten (194. 187 . E. 1947). Constituent Assembly (Aug. 209 tribute to 'traditions' of British. 194^) 226 237 . of Pakistan 1947). 221 . 58 . achieve . * his daughter's . 225 . his first military secretary. Sister Phyllis Dunham. death and burial (1929). 1948). flown from Quetta to 222-3 .-CoL flahi Bakhsh 219-25 . 198 his wish to retain British officers and officials after Partition. 3 . 215-16 . Jertord. on RadclifTe Award. 1948). 1947). 207 . 7. 14). tri . 193 flight from Delhi to Karachi (Aug. years (May his 1947). episode concerning visiting East Indies Station. on. 95 Jowitt. I947) 207 . A. 1948). on day of bute to Miss Fatima Jinnah. in. 31 . account of last illness (July-Sept. Karachi (Sept. concern of Govern ment over illness. 91-2 . interest in Navy. 199-200. 215 . moved from Ziarat to Quetta (Aug. 75 . 208-9. M. . >mh Royal Scots Pec. lationship between her brother and doctors. visit to NW. Sir Francis Mudie's tribute to. per suaded by F. 77-8 . and rela tionship with Adm. 3. n)> 197 > Inauguration as Gov. 200 . Muslim Leaguers breakdown relationship London. 14 . 178 * Begum Liaquat Ali Khan. Jinnah arrives (Aug. Jinnah. Karachi (July . 226 Jinnah Poonja (father of M. moves to Ziarat (June 1948). 194-5. . 171 in . 177 estimate of. 12. n. flown to. 180 . Address to 1947). 216 State Bank. Miss Fatima Jinnah on re I.-Gen. 1867 . addresses (Feb. Ruttenbai (nee Petit) : court ship and marriage (1918). 1947)* meets Gandhi after three 1 8 1. 17). 219 . 183 . ment of Pakistan (June I947) 184 describes policy for Pakistan. Nehru's Lord Lord Mountbatten. burial (Sept. Pres. 181 agrees to Peace Appeal (April 14. on partition of army. from Qnetta. St J. Birnie. 224. ments 173 . Gov. and Lord Ismay. 198 . Bombay (1918). part in anti- Karachi (Aug. 1 88 . return to India and nervous (Jan. 199 attends Anglican church service. 172. A. 101 203-5. Swearing-in of Pakistan Cabinet (Aug. Jinnah attends Congress session (1913) recalls and boyhood as 7. birthplace of M. last meeting with Sir Francis Mudie (May 1948). n. 209 . death (Sept. dines with Karachi : capital of Pakistan. illness in Lahore (Nov.
9 Linlithgow. quoted. passed (1940). Jinnah. on Pakistan Lincoln's Inn 198 last illness. 2067 j Indian troops enter Kashmir events 4 . tribute to Jinnah. accompanies Jinnah to . Mahmudabad. 215 Kathiawar Peninsula : 3. in letter to Major Gardiner (1941). 31. Bombay Jinnah's : 2o8n. 32. 179. 137 . 144-5 see Syed Khan. at : speech Jinnah Ziarat. ' Sir C. accession of leading to Maharaja to India (Oct. (April 1948). M. 52 Sir John Molesworth : 15 meeting between Jinnah and her husband in London (1933). 170 flag. 96-7 let ters from Jinnah and Sir J. 97 . graphical note. Nehru's love for Kashmir. 138 Little Gibbs Road. (Aug. 49-50 Leeds Luncheon Club Jinnah's speech to (1932). : mentioned. 152leader of Muslim 4 League members in Interim Govt. rebukes delegates to Round Table Conf. David (Lord) : and Treaty of Sevres (1920). its Syad Mnnammad : Lahore. 4i Lahore 32-5 : description ' and . 123 . Khaksars Lahore (1940). James Ramsay : and Dominion Status (1928). London address to Muslim Leaguers (Dec. Pakistan Resolution history. 37 agreement between Congress and Muslim League (1916). 102-3 anti-Muslim League riot. suades Jinnah from armed interven Pakistan forces aid tion. Sir John (Lord) : Municipal Corp. . 4 Kemal. 98 . Simon . 66 : siege ' of : Lytton.-Sept. Sir Syed Ahmed : : : Ahmed Khan. 172-3 Knowles. 221 . 2o8n and U. J ferred to. 'Lucknow Pact Geoffrey : military secretary to Jinnah (Feb. 206 crisis . 218. 104-6 . : 35 Lawrence. Raja of: tribute to 238 . 212 Liaquat Ali Khan. 128 . 1947). 153- Karim. Lord : Viceroy of India (1936-43).. 127-9 MacDonald. (1931). pledges security of Muslims in any future transfer of power (1940).INDEX Karachi Bar Association dress to (1947). 224 (1857). Viceroy : lays foundation-stone Aligarh University (1877). relationship with Jinnah. 34 Lawrence. cern 1947). and Lord Mountbatten's con 206 . Mustafa (Kemal Ataturk) compared with Jinnah. Col. History. : temporary home in (1939). Haji Abdul of. influence on Jinnah.N. ' Jinnah as student at. James (President Bombay Khaksar demonstration 128 Lati p (1940). 213 Liaquat Ali Khan. increases strength of Muslim League. Nawabzada : bio 104 . (Oct. 104-6 . over Maharaja's indeci sion. 128 . 100 advocating round table conferences. and F. 1903) : 17 MacDonald. Sir "Walter : quoted. 134 Lloyd George. 81 London Indian Association Association : see Indian Lucknow 1946). anecdote concerning Jinnah. re '. 207 . . and attempted assassination of Jinnah (1943). announces India's entry into World War n (1939). Security Council. 1946). 8.-Oct. Begum : describes MacPherson. Lord (ist Earl). 118 . criticized by Jinnah. Jinnah visits wounded. in . 20-1 : Jiiinah's defence Kashmir dispute 205 . 168 . 9 : Jinnah's ad recalls stories of relationship be tween Jinnah and her husband. visits Azad Kashmir Govt. persuades Jinnah to return to India (1933). Auchinleck dis London during (Dec. : : Khoja sect 4 Kim's Gun see Zam-Zamma Jinnah's Kingsway Hall. 1948). 1946).
Jinnah's speech at League meet ing (1920) on Gandhi's non-co operation campaign. 158 . form * 1915 session attended 64 . 49 . as date for transfer of power. : formation. Viceroy and Congress oppose demand for exclu sive Muslim nomination to Interim Govt. Sec.. adoption of Swaraj policy of Congress. broad 186 . ' 128-9 . 4th Earl of : Viceroy of India tion. 178 . 160. 50-1 . Admiral the Earl : reference to boyhood. 25 . 58 .Gen. Jinnah's appreciation of. and die Interim Govt. 99 . Govt. 106 Jin nah's new house (1939-40). 78-9 Morley. Sir Eric.. Nehru be littles (1938). Principal Sec. 127. 9 . 184 casts terms of Plan (June . 163 . Gen. 201 . for representation of minorities ' Gokhale (1906).-Gen. sign 1947). 174 . of Indian States on advice to rulers accession to Mohamed AH. Iqbal demands ' solidated Muslim State (1930). Muslim League. : Pakistan. : . 160 . 114. 183 . Sir Frank 46 200 MieVille. Lahore (1940). 1947). concern over indecision of Maharaja of join Muslim (1913)* 57 criticizes League Jinnah (1920). Edwin (1917). 56. 184 Minto. for asks transfer of power. 193 at inaugu ration of Jinnah as Gov. 73. Confer Kashmir. 206 Mudie. 177 . * Nehru for estimate of Jinnah. and other Indian leaders. 187 . of . can cels Peace Appeal* (April 14. : Messervy. demand 66 of State tribute to for India (1906). tribute to Mohammedan ence India : Educational S. 215-16 .. 44-5 . Jinnah orders resignation Muslim League Provincial Premiers from Nat.M. induces India or Pakistan. : meeting with Jinnah (May 1948). 117 . Viceroy (1947). 69-70 . 63-4 . 181 . appreciation of Jinnah. Defence Council (i94*)> 137-8 Jinnah's speech.INDEX Mehta. tion* passed. Bombay Jinnah's bungalow. of new India. * Plan and sanctions acceptance of Cabinet Mission ' * Direct Action 239 . Montagu. on Indians in South Africa. negotiates with Jinnah. Ian Stephens' comment on Lord Mountbatten's alleged 'proHindu' prejudices (Oct. 55 Mount Pleasant Road. Maulana Jinnah 85 to . 208 last founded. and Con Lucknow Pact ' (1916). 118 . Jinnah's efforts for greater unity with Con gress. sends Lord Ismay to London with draft Plan. 3). Montagu-Chelmsford Report Montagu-Chelmsford Report ferred to. flies to London and returns with final Plan. ac cepts Cabinet Mission Pkn (1946). Nehru. and Jinnah. induces Jinnah and Gandhi to Mission (1942). published (1918). Griffiths. on Cripps . 184 . Congress treatment of. success in elections fee Con stituent Assembly (1946). 134-5 Mountbatten of Burma. 68-9 (1917) and his opinions of Dr Besant. 82-3 . criticized by Sir P. see also London (1913). appointment an : . 162 . 58 . 205-6 . 111-13 . John (Lord Morley of Black burn) influence on Jinnah. announces August 15. 48 (1905-10). All-India of State for Deckration of . 177-87 . 91. 90 . 140 . : 199 . Con (1927). and concedes Pakistan. receives . 57. Jinnah joins in 41. 198. arrives in Delhi (March 1947). Sir Pherozesliali : 20. 1937 elections. 162. Sir Francis Jinnah. 41 Sec. growing power * Pakistan Resolu of (1939). 1947. opposition of Punjab " Prime Minister to. contests nounced. Gandhi. Con gress tribute to (1913). Muslim deputa 44-5 andjinnah. leaders. visits India August 1917. 157 . 68 . Gov. 1 80 . 157 success in 1946 general elections. to the Viceroy (1947) : 177. quoted* 179 . and with H. : re by Congress gress 69 .
1 80. Sikh atrocities against. " You are Jinnah's* 1947). (1915). <5n . H3-I4 . on effect of death of Gokhale. Dadabhai M. Viceroy's Assent 36-40 . 159-60 British branch (Nov. Jinnah pledges unwavering * increasing authority in Con gress. . 44 . 6. . Jinnah. 172-3 increasing strength in Punjab (March appeal to. political parties opposed . Assembly ' and Cabinet Mission Plan and Interim Govt. (1939). wel 7 come Jinnah at Karachi (Aug. belittles Muslim League (1938).P. 187 Students : Federation. Mussalman (1913) : Wakf Validating Bill introduced by Jinnah. Pandit Jawaharlal 49 . 7. for Central 10-12 . 1946). 1947). JjimaVs plea for separate electorates riots 89. Deliverance' fears for. 113 . 213-14. 137 . 45 . 139. 1 60 et seq. 184 . pledge to support total war against Japan (1942). 54. 140 . for co-operation (1946). 32 . ' cow-slaughter (1918). 1946). her tribute to affection for Jinnah. Naidu. Lahore (1936). All- formation under Jinnah's : encouragement (i937)> 120-1 Muslims and the partition of Bengal (1905). Aga . 45 Mrs Sarojini (author of Mohomed AU Jinnah An Ambassador : of Unity) : quoted. Jinnah-Gandhi talks (1944). 117 . Jinnah broadcasts to. 186vote for Pakistan. (Sept. on June 3 Plan. education. Khan riots. massacres (1946). 27. Gandhi's influence on. 182 . Lord WavelTs broadcast . 124. 42 revival . Cripps (1942). civil disobedience in Frontier Province (April 1947). 168-9 welcomesJinnah (Dec. . 21-2. (1946). 168 . biographical note. (Oct. 139 . attends Muslim League (1915). 143 . quoted. 27 Jinnah's skill as legislator (1913). 53 ing at Aligarh. recalled. 194-5 free" speech to (Aug. 8. 24n. 240 . no . 116-17 . the Wakf Validating Bill (1913). 26 Jinnah. 65. 39. 187 . 204. 53-4 . 11-12. 1947). 197 . Sir Percival Griffiths on. Viceroy and Congress reject Muslim League de * correspondence with Jinnah (1938). Iqbal demands Consolidated by comment on Jinnah joining Muslim League. Sikh plot against Punjab Muslims Muslim areas to (April 1947).. 157 to abstain from Constit. secretary to : with Sikhs over mosque. Jinnah . 148-52 . Fontier Province (March 1947).63 session . 206. 82 . 42. 164-5. 64 . 'Pakistan Resolution '. minority in Indian National Congress. 50 . electorates guaranteed under Com dispute Finsbury (1906). Syed Ahmed of learn anti-Muslim to. 54 I . (1945)* 157 to Jinnah. iio-n . 45. 64. Khan on. . de cline of. 15. 125 Lord LinHthgow's pledge to (1940). caused * 57-8. 168 . Jirmah orders members black flag* Govt. on imprisoned (1942-45). Bombay (1893). (1924). 99 *. against. on. . 23. n. 97 . 63. mand for exclusive Muslim nomina tion to Interim Govt. 73-4 . ignores Jinnah's 'equal offer partners' (1937). 169-70 167 . quoted. 57-8 . reaction to Sevres Treaty (1920). 53-4 . protest against Interim to 1946). 50. celebrate Day of * Nehru.. 44. 8 1 . ratifies Plan for transfer of power Muslim India (June 1947). 41 41-2 . . separate Naoroji. . Sir . under Hindu Raj. referred to. in Kashmir. 81. . . Muslim * State (1930). 1946). estimate and comment on of Jinnah's 213-14 : character. 55-6. 1 80 anti-Congress revolt in NW. to Sir S. 207 205 . his speech on. 26 (1892). support ofi in war effort. 182 vote on Pakistan. Aga Khan leads delegation to Round *Table Confs.INDEX * (July 1946). munal Award (1935). appoints members reconstituted Interim Govt. 26. N W.
(Aug.v. plan (1946). (1928).-Gen. 221 ' re Pakistan Resolution (1940) : ferred to. meeting with Jinnah (Feb. 94 Newnham Road. ment 93 : . 162-3 . 32 Musum League civil disobedience campaign in (March I947)> l8 > anti-Congress revolt (April 1947). Mountbatten his * (1947-48). Surgeon-Commander examination Jal R* - : 187 . n). I94^)> i?o Time magazine comment on. Pec.M. i<5o-* Sec. 198 . plight refugees. 125 . 146 . birth in. concern of Govt. 193 .INDEX Muslim demand India. and achieve of. (April . . 184 . . 217-18 . ijjetseq. 145-6 tion of navy. threatens grouping . 93. Sir Dinshaw (father ofRjitteabai Petit) : injunction against Jinnah. 206 Nehru. 198 . 1948). and Cabinet Mission Plan (1946). of sympathy of Kashmiri Muslims for. Jinnah's comments on (1942). of (Aug. quoted. estimate ' Nichols interview (1943). 1 Jinnah opens State Bank of (July i. 210 Ollivant. crea Nichols. 205 Nightingale. 1948). b&t (1946). 215 Nusserwanjee. of Pethick-Lawrence. 17 Oudh : British annexation of (1856). regular * Noman. London Jinnah re inter 198 . 207 troops sent . referred to during Jinnah-Beverley defiant speech at Benares (Dec. for partition * of ' Pakistan : the 158 . 167 flies London for talks with H. passed at Lahore.. at London June 3 broadcast speech. Jarnshed : tribute to Jinnah and description of his dis illusionment in 1928. Pandit Motilal (father of Jawaharlal) : and Nehru Report. Florence : letter to Dadabhai Naoroji. 128-9 Sir Arthur : episode preceding official visit to Pakistan . Azad 2o8n ' Kashmir Govt. 172-3 . over Jinnah's fityQ illness. 199 . enthusiasm for. Jinnah expounds Pakistan demand. 1947). 177-90 . Jinnah's visit to (April 1948). inauguration ofJinnah as Gov. 120-1 . views Muslim demands. Lord: State far India (1945-47)* 159. 178 meeting of Muslims (Dec. Admiral (1947). leads Cabinet Mission to India. Vice-Pres. Govt. Pres. Cabinet sworn in (Aug. . 197 . 127 . 93-5 Jinnah's comments on. wish to retain British view (1944). 159 . 186 . 14). q. medical of JitMiah (1044). 206 . praises Jinnah^ denies his authority. 84 . 164 . 171 relationship and nego . of Jinnah. Griffiths (1940). 1946). to Sir P. 15). Beverley (author of Verdict on interview with Jinnah India) : (1943). quoted. 170-1 to . 182 . * Pakistan Resolution passed (1940). n sion not to take military action in Kashmir (Oct. 204. 202-3 Patel. Jinnah chosen as first Gov. 1946). 3. Sir Charles : 15.-Gen. Jinnah's negotiations with Lord Mountbatten for. 94. Nehru Report published 1928. to vote on Pakistan. 5 Karachi : : Jinnah's News Chronicle. Mohammed (author of Mus lim India) : quoted. Interim Govt. (1947). last vote for Pakistan. deci 200-2 . 95 . 148 . 164 Petit. of. (1946). 1946). forms AllIndia Muslim Students Federation in to help 1948). 120-1 Province : Frontier North-West strength of Congress in (i937) 1*2 . Palliser. and Cripps Mission 128-9 . 151 and officials in. 36 74-5 241 . rektionship with (i937) Jinnah. Address to Constituent Assem bly of (Aug. odtidzed byjirmah. love for Kashmir. in Jinnah's officers Independence Day. tiations with Lord . 1 60 . 140 . Choudhury * name explained (by Rahmat AH).
34 Round 97 Table 90 . West : to vote on_ Pakistan. t (1615). to Karachi. 133 ' ' : Sabir assassination trial. 194?). 2nd : delegates rebuked by Ramsay Mac- Amritsar Massacre (1919). Karachi PCC. 94 : RaddifTe by. 1 1 : . Roe. 200 : Great Leader Quaid-i-Azam. 133-4 at Aligarh Raleigh. 187 Scots : Jinnah dines with. 1947). vote for Pakistan. W.-Sept. . atroci Sunk (Aug. Sevres. n Jinnah's visit to : (1925). Sir John (Viscount) leader of . 182. criticizes Rabbani. 182 . 88 Reddy. 3rd Marquess of : insult to Ali A Dadabhai Naoroji Sandhurst : : (1892). 33i dispute over mosque in (1936). attended by Jinnah. from Ziarat. 205 Conferences : ist (i945). 34 British annexation of (1849). : on perils of India (1929). 97 . on day of death (Sept. 187 242 . 125 Salisbury. riots in (April 1947). ' Round Table Conferences : ist : bai Punjab 35 . Rafiq attempts of Jinnah (1943). 36 . 90 arrives Bombay (1928). H. Sir Tej Bahadur Jinnah (1928). riots Sikh plot to (April 1947). views on ' criticized by Sir Sind : W. 1948). Napier's conquest of (1843). 180. 1948). : describes Jinnah leaving England (l934~5) 106 iio-n . 8 1 . cates q.INDEX Petit.C. 99 Rowlands. Setalvad. Prime Minister of. 184 . R. 157 : . 41 Ramsay. Sikh conquest * of. 14-15. to Jinnah. 182 . 35 : Jinnah 's first lodgings in London. 90 Simon. 35. Sir Walter: University. Sir Archibald 199 Rowktt Act (1919) : Jinnah con demns. 209 Russell Road. advo Conference Roosevelt. 97. Kensington. 183. to vote on Pakistan (1947)* vote for Pakistan. plot to form own state in Punjab (April 1947). dropped from. Mazangavi. the name first given to Jinnah in 1940. Study) : quoted. 159-60 Simon Commission protests against. Wilfred (author of Indian Summer) quoted. F. Rao Bahadar M. 180 . partition of. 139-40 36 184 . 204. D. 182 . 222-3 . opened by King George V (1930). 139 . 8 Russell. (1940). Sir Cyril (Lord) see RadclirTe Chair (1947) . 80 Royal form own state in. 35 J Lahore Punjab Rajah. Treaty of (1920) : 81. Jinnah's Award : frontiers defined after Partition comments (i947) on. 3rd: : Jinnah Jinnah and Muslim League (1945). during * war Indian problem (1942). Jinnah's 85 82 34. 133 Sir Thomas tribute to Jinnah visit 2nd (1946). man Boundary Commission Award ' break with Congress (1920). Sir Chimanlal on RadclifTe. Churchill. opposed to Donald (1931). during last illness (August 13. I93~4 198 89-90 Sapru. (author of Mohammed Political Jinnah. 182 . Jinnah flown from.C. 182. 184 Punjab. 10.v. Lprd : Viceroy of India : (1921-26). Reading. and : Quetta Jinnah moved to. 188 : 188 . No. Sikhs : conquest of Punjab. Rutten33. increasing Muslim League in strength (March 1947). 224 M. : tribute to Jinnah on behalf of Untouch ' ables (1940). Dr C. I44~5 Saiyid. : : to Punjab Simon Commission. Ruttenbai : : see Jinnah. 181. T. air Wing-Commander Ata AJD. 157 . 98. Jinnah forbids armed Muslim League action ties against. 78.
Lady chioness of) : (Dowager Mar alleged incident at Government House. Bombay (1918). (Aug. Council (1945). demands by 243 . 213 Wavell. Countess : tribute to Jinnah. Mrs Neville: see Jinnah. Caliphate abolished Lord (Marquess of) : Governor of Bombay (1913-19). 157 et seq. 189 Turkey : Muslim sympathy for. 126-7 Tuker. 167-8. Lieut. M. 81-2 . 101 Jinnah buys . Jinnah's bequest to. 1 68 .-Gen. 1946). and Caliphate Movement in India (1920). on fate of Muslims. Prince Edward of: visit to India and boycott by Gandhi (1921). C.. 167 . Aligarh University 41 . 193 . 180 Tara Singh. 41 . 82 see also Caliphate demonstration agjainst (191 8)* Viceroy of India (i93*-36)> : 98n 'Untouchables * Deliverance ' : join in celebration ' Day of (i939) Wood. : : Victoria. Treaty of Sevres. 75-7 . 63 . (1924). tioned. 211 ' or self-government * : see Home Rule Swaraj Sabha : see Home Rule League : Wadia.INDEX Sind Madrasah High School. 39-40 . quoted. Jinnah (Feb. as unsuitable to India Time magazine comments on. Sir Francis (author of While Memory Serves) : on 1946 men massacres. 38. (1876). Sultan deposed (1922) Willingdon. and Interim Govt. 75 ing 1914-18 war. ing Bill Wales. 125. 18 State Bank of Pakistan : opened by Jinnah (July i. 169-70 . vote for Pakistan. 61 WilHngdon. 133-4 : (1914-18) : pledges and help from India. criticism of Home Rule League. 162. foundation Moham medan Educational Conference. 76-7 77-8 . dur government (March 9. A. Jinnah's criticism of. on causes of the Indian Mutiny. 42 . 37 Jinnaiiand. Rajah's bouse from (1931). . relationship with Jinnah. 212 Wedderburn. 157. Symonds. . 101 to him. Lady Graham World War 124 . Richard (author of The Making of Pakistan) : quoted. A. : Empress of India the Indian Mutiny. ber tribute tribute to Jinnah on behalf of (1940). 169 invites .M. quoted. 88 Syed Ahmed Khan. Queen on 4 . 1948). and . broadcast appeal for Muslim co-operation. quoted. mentioned. 187 Interim Govt (1945). . 182 Congress to form Interim Govt. . Rao Babadar M. foundation (1877). (Dec. 43 anecdote concerning Somjee. reconstitutes Interim Govt. Sir early life and plans for reform. 1946). 7 . 61-2 . to vote on Pakistan (1947). 1948). 38-42 . 1946). conversation with Swaraj. and Muslim Wakfs. 1940). to admit Muslim League (Oct. 217-18 Stephens. Sir William : 59-60. 179. Ian (author of Horned Moon) : quoted. Wavell. criticism of Jinnah. flies to London for talks with H. Dina Wakf: see Mussalman Wakf Validat also Jinnah. Time and Tide article Jinnah contributes democratic denouncing : 167 . Indianization of Vice proposes roy's Exec. quoted. 157. 51 . Karachi 4. ' * opposes Muslim League's for exclusive demand Muslim nomination to 53 Sylhet : 184 . Master : incites Punjab Sikhs against Muslims (April 1947). 157 . 170 170 . Govt. M. Field-Marshal Viscount (Earl) : Viceroy of India (1943-47). 163.
Liaquat AH Khan visits. 123 Sir : India's Zam-Zamma. La- 33 last illness at. 2i$H22 . to Quetta. reports (1942). 6. . 244 . Wrench. hore Ziarat : : or * Kim's Gun '. 222 .INDEX Congress. (1939-45) declaration of war. 221 Jinnah moved from. 62. Evelyn (author of Im: mortal Years') 8 quoted. . 216 conversation with Jinnah !42 Jinnah moves to (June 1948).
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