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Draft Version

**All advice or information from The Concrete Centre is intended for those who will evaluate
**

the significance and limitations of its contents and take responsibility for its use and

application.

No liability (including that for negligence) for any loss resulting from such advice or

information is accepted by the Concrete Centre or their subcontractors, suppliers or

advisors.

Readers should note that this is a draft version of a document and will be subject to

revision from time to time and should therefore ensure that they are in possession of the

latest version.

5

Columns

5.1

General

The calculations in this section illustrate:

5.2 Design of a non-slender column using design charts.

5.3 Design of a perimeter column using iteration of equations to determine reinforcement

requirements.

5.4 Design of an internal column with high axial load.

5.5 Design of a slender column requiring a two hour fire resistance.

In general axial loads and first order moments are assumed to be available. The designs

consider slenderness in order to determine design moments, MEd. The columns are designed

and checked for biaxial bending. The effects of allowing for imperfections are illustrated.

A general method of designing columns is as follows:

1. Determine design life.

2. Assess actions on the column.

3. Determine which combinations of actions apply.

4. Assess durability requirements and determine

concrete strength.

5. Check cover requirements for appropriate fire

resistance period.

6. Determine cover for fire, durability and bond.

7. Analyse structure for critical combination moments

and axial forces.

8. Check slenderness and determine design moments.

9. Determine area of reinforcement required.

10. Check spacing of bars and links.

5.2

**<BS EN 1990 & NA Table NA
**

2.1>

<BS EN 1991 (10 parts) & UK

NAs>

<BS EN 1990 & NA Tables NA

A1.1 & NA A1.2(B)>

<BS 8500–1>

<Approved Document B

BS EN 1992–1–2>

<BS EN 1992–1–1 Cl. 4.4.1>

<BS EN 1992–1–1 Section 5>

<BS EN 1992–1–1 Section 5.8>

<BS EN 1992–1–1 Section 6.1>

<BS EN 1992–1–1 Sections 8 & 9>

Edge column

The intention of this calculation is to show a typical hand calculation.

A 300 mm square column on the edge of a flat slab structure supports an axial load of 1620 kN

and first order moments of 38.5 kNm top and −38.5 kNm bottom in one direction only. Using

fck = 30 MPa and cnom = 25 mm. The 250 mm thick flat slabs are at 4000 mm vertical centres.

Figure 5.1

Forces in edge column

WE 5 Columns v7b chg 13 Sep 07.doc

17 Sep. 07

Page 2 of 25

20] = max[300/30.7 = 1620 × 103 / (3002 × 0.187 / 400 ≥ 0.8.46 / 300 <Exp. M01 + 0.6 ≥ 20.2 Limiting slenderness.8.3. l0 = factor × l where factor = from Concise EC2 Table 5. 5.5 kNm = l0 / 400 ei e0 = max[h/30.doc 17 Sep.5 + 12.5 <Exp.8.1 (default) = 1.1 × 2.02 × 1620 = 38.4 kNm ∴ MEd = 51.5 / (− 38.4 × (− 38.2.4> Effective lengths are covered in Eurocode 2 Section 5.8.3 Design moments MEd = max[M02.2> Slenderness λ = l0 / i where i = radius of gyration = h / 120.810.1.7 − 38.1(1)> ∴ column not slender.1(1)> <5.8 5. λ * Effective length . WE 5 Columns v7b chg 13 Sep 07. > 36.10 suggests that using the procedure outlined in Eurocode 2 and <5.4> <5.2.7.10> = 36.5 + 12.1 of Concise EC2.7f)>.2.3.8.13N)> = 1.6 × 51. M01 + 0.4M01) ≥ 0.8.9 ≥ 32.3.2(1)> <5.15).14)> <Concise EC2 Table 5.2. condition 2 each end = 0.5 where A B C n = 0.7 − rm = NEd / Acfcd λlim = 20 ABC / n0.6 M2 = 0 (column is not slender) M01 = M02 ∴ max[M02.3.7 (default) = 1.5) = 2.7 − M01/M02 = 1.4M02 = 0.85 × 30 / 1.9) ≥ 0.8. 07 Page 3 of 25 .4 kNm M0Ed = (0. M0Ed + M2.8.5) = 0.5M2] = 51.2(5)> leads to similar effective lengths to those tabulated in BS 8110[ref to] and reproduced in Table 5.4 + 0.3.5 In this example λlim = 46.1.8. For simplicity tabular values are used in this example.7 / 0.81 = 20 × 0.3.2(3) 5.4 kNm * <5.4 = 20.2 and Exp (5.4 × 51. PD 6687: 2.5 for rectangular sections λ = 3187 × 3.85 l = clear height = 3750 mm l0 = 0.2 6.5.6M02 + 0.6 = 20.1.5M2] where M02 = M + eiNEd ≥ e0NEd where M = 38.8 <5.2 i. 5.e. 20] = 20 mm M02 = 38.7 × 1.1.2.3. M0Ed + M2.8. (5. The effective length of most columns will be l/2< l0 < l < Figure 5. experience suggests that these tabulated values are conservative. λlim λlim = 20 ABC / n0. (5.8.5 + 1620 × 3.1 Check slenderness. PD 6686[ref to] Cl 2.1(1)> <5.85 × 3750 = 3187 mm <5.9> <6. However.4 kNm = 51.

(5.0) and NEd / NRd = 0.5 ey / heq = = = 1.5 + 1964 × 500 / 1.5c.5c.9 = 2383.20 (Concise EC2 Figure 15.1)1.38a)> λy / λz ≈ 1.1 kNm A is dependent on NEd / NRd where NRd = Acfcd + Asfyd <6.64 ∴ OK.9(4).36 Interpolating for NEd / bhfck = 0.0 where MEdz = 38.48 + (32.8.4 kNm MRdz = MRdy To determine MRdz.1(4)> <Exp.6.8. (5.15 (Figure 15.1)1. 17 Sep. Page 4 of 25 .5) (MEdz / MRdz)a + (MEdy / MRdy)a WE 5 Columns v7b chg 13 Sep 07.2. 15.063 = 0.4 ∴ biaxial check required Check whether (MEdz / MRdz)a + (MEdy / MRdy)a ≤ 1. MEd / bh2fck = 0.48 by interpolating between values given for NEd / NRd= 0.2 and <5. (5.48 = 0.e > 0.0 i.2.24 × 3002 × 30 / 500 = 1296 mm2 <Concise EC2 Figs 15. find MEd / bh2fck (and therefore moment capacity) by interpolating between d2 / h = 0.5 / 76.(1. H25 (1964 mm2) 5.15 = 1530.5d) for the proposed arrangement and coexistant axial load Assuming 4 no.9 = 0.9(4)> <Exp.094 ∴ MRdz = MRdy = 0. Notes to Exp.doc = (38.7. (5. λy / λz ≤ 2.9 kN NEd / NRd = 1620 / 2383.39)> <Concise EC2 Figs 15.e.20 (Figure 15.5d> = 3002 × 0.5d> Try 4 no.4 / 76.15 (Concise EC2 Figure 15. 07 <5. (1. Asfyk / bhfck = 1964 × 500 / (3002× 30) = 0.39)> ∴ 4 no.85 × 30 / 1. 15.60 2 MEd / bh fck = 51.68 a = 1.4 Design using charts d2 = cnom + link + φ / 2 = 25 + 8 + 16 = 49 d2 / h = 49 / 300 = 0.1 . (5.5 kNm MEdy = 32.0 ∴ OK but check Exp. H25.094 × 3003 × 30 = 76.4 × 106 / (3003 × 30) = 0.28 = 0.5c) and 0.0 ez / beq (MEdy / NEd) / b 32.39)> <Exp.5 Check for biaxial bending <5. H25 OK.5c) and 0.38b)> <5. (5.9 Exp.8.38b) As a worst case MEDy may coexist with e0NEd about the orthogonal axis: (MEdz / NEd) / h 38.163 ∴ interpolating between d2 / h = 0.0 + 853.36 + 0.19 i.24 Asfyk / bhfck As = 0.5d) for:NEd / bhfck = 1620 × 103 / (3002 × 30) = 0.5.

One hour fire resistance is required and fck = 30 MPa.1.0 kNm 5.2. φ / 4 = 25 / 4 Max.6 kN.dur = 15 mm = 25 mm cmin Δcdev = 10 mm Therefore cnom = 25 + 10 = 35 mm to links cnom= 35 mm to links WE 5 Columns v7b chg 13 Sep 07.5. M02zz = 0 Load case 2: NEd = 1072. From first order analysis.6 Links Diameter min.2 Design summary: edge column 5.4. This 300 × 300 mm perimeter column supports three suspended floors and the roof of an office block. M02yy = 68.7 kNm.doc 17 Sep.5. cmin.4.2(3)> <4.2. cmin. 07 <Exp.6 kNm.3(3) 9.7 <9.1 Cover cnom = cmin + Δcdev where cmin = max[cmin. M02zz = 6.6 × 300 = 8 mm = 180 mm Links at say 175 mm cc 5.5. Assume XC1.1 kN.0 m and 3.dur] where = diameter of bar.1)> <4. It is to be designed at ground floor level where the storey height is 3.45 m and the clear height in the N–S direction (z direction) is 3. spacing = 0. 32 − 8 = 24 mm to links = say 25 mm cmin.3 Perimeter column (internal environment) This example is intended to show a hand calculation for a non-slender internal column using iteration (of x) to determine the reinforcement required.dur = minimum cover due to environmental conditions.1. load case 1: NEd = 1129.b = 32 mm to main bars.325 m in the E–W direction (y direction). Assume 32 mm bars and 8 mm links cmin. (4.3.3 & NA> <9.b.3(4)> Design summary Figure 5. M02yy = 89.5.3(3)> Page 5 of 25 .

022 × (500 / 1.2 & NA> <BS EN 1992–1–2: 5. n = 0.3(2)> <BS EN 1992–1–2: 5.54 and bmin = 310 mm ∴ no good! WE 5 Columns v7b chg 13 Sep 07.3.3(2)> Using 4 no.2a: l0. 2 <BS EN 1992–1–2: Annex C> † Assume min.2 Fire resistance Check validity of using Method A and Table 5.25b and ≤ 100 mm λ = l0 / i where l0 = 0.5 = 300 / 120.15 × 300 = 45 mm ∴ no good.3.3> Check validity of using Method B and Table 5.15) = 1129.3(3)> <BS EN 1992–1–2: 5.6 / 2383.2.9 = 0.2a> <BS EN 1992–1–2: 5.3.2b: emax = 0.fi / 0.47 between Table C5 (ω = 0. < 3. H20 gives ω = 0.5) = 0.doc 17 Sep.6 × 103 = 79 mm emax = 0. 4 no.47 ∴ interpolate for λ = 30 and n = 0.5 = h / 120.0 m ∴ OK.e.3.3(2).6 / 0. Table 5.5. 5.25b) ⇒ bmin = 235. a = 35 mm † <BS EN 1992–1–2: 5.3.7 × 3.15) / (0. H25 = 1964 mm (≡ 2. Use BS EN 1992–1–2 Annex C Tables C1 – C9.7 × 1129.3. e = 0.56 e ≈ 0.85 × 30 / 1.3.325 i.7(Acfcd + Asfyd) = 0.5 + 1964 × 500 / 1.fi ≈ 0. <BS EN 1992–1–2: 5.7 × 3.7(3002 × 0.5 = 87 mm = 2327 / 87 = 276 λ n = N0Ed.6 × 106 / 1129.3 Perimeter column (internal environment) 5. e = M02yy / NEd = 89.325 = 2327 mm i = radius of gyration = (I / A)0.3.85 × 30 / 1.3. 07 Page 6 of 25 .Figure 5.25b = 75 mm ∴ no good.34.3(3)> <BS EN 1992–1–2: 5.15h = 0.2%) ω = Asfyd / Acfcd = 0.

7 n = NEd / Acfcd = 1129.8.8.2(3) 6.7 – rm where rm = M01 / M2 Assuming conservatively that M01 = 0 rm = 0 C = 1. For critical direction condition 2 at top and condition 3 at bottom (pinned support). l0 l0 = 0. λ λ = l0 / i where i = radius of gyration = (I / A)0.95 × 3325 = 3158 mm Slenderness ratio.and Table C8 (ω = 1. 5. l0 = 0. MEd <5.2.5 where A = 1 / (1 + 0.1(1)> 5.74 λlim = 20 × 0.7 / 0.8.8.56: OK to use Method B but use min.5 λ = 3158 × 120.46 × 1. choose to use tabular method‡.5 = 40. Column is not slender <5.8. 5.45 + k2) ]0.3. <5.5 Assuming min.1> <5. 4 no. Assume 0. H25.8.doc 17 Sep.5 / 300 = 36.8. H25 (for fire) ω = 0.9(2)> WE 5 Columns v7b chg 13 Sep 07.5 [1 + k2 / (0. 07 Page 7 of 25 .2φef). 4 no.8. a = 35 mm ∴ for ω = 0.8.3.3.3.5) = 0.3.5l [1 + k1 / (0.2(1). (5. e = 0.56)0.5 = (1 + 2ω)0.1.5 Limiting slenderness ratio.0.4 λlim = 40.7 × 1.3.5 <Exp.4 ∴ as λ < λlim column is not slender and 2nd order moments are not required. k2 = relative stiffnesses top and bottom But conservatively.5 = 1.4> MEd = MOEd + M2 ≥ e0NEd = M + eiNEd ≥ e0NEd where M = moment from 1st order analysis eiNEd = effect of imperfections§ ‡ § See Section 5.5 where k1.740.1 The effects of imperfections need only be taken into account in the most unfavourable direction. λlim λlim = 20 ABC / n0.8.1(1) & NA> <5.1(1)> <5.6 × 103 / (3002 × 0.4 Design moments.25b) ⇒ bmin = 185.3 Structural design: check slenderness Effective length.4> <5.15)> <Concise EC2 Table 5. a = 30 mm bmin = 228.46 C = 1.56 as before B = (1 + 2 × 0.2(1)> λ = 36.45 + k1) ]0.85 × 30 / 1.5 = h / 120.7 B = (1 + 2 Asfyd / Acfcd)0.

2.21)> <Exp.02 × 1129. 07 Page 8 of 25 .8x < h where x = depth to neutral axis d2 = 35 + 8 + 25 / 2 = 55 mm assuming H25 = 1.5 × 106 NEd = 1129.6(1) & NA> <Exp. (σst) Figure 5. Appendix A3> For moment [MEd – αccηfckbdc(h / 2 – dc / 2) /γC] AsM / 2 = (h / 2 – d2) (σsc + σst) where MEd = 98.2 > 21.1 × 10−3 > 0.5 γC = stress in reinforcement in compression (tension) σsc.6 + 8.4 = 21. 5.5 Design using iteration of x For axial load AsN / 2 = (NEd – αccηfckbdc / γC) / (σsc – σst) <Concise EC2 Sec.0 + (l0 / 400) × 1072.9.19)> <Table 2.1> 5.02 × 1072.3. Appendix A3> <3.doc <Concise EC2 Sec.1> 17 Sep. 6.2.6 × 103 = 0. 5.2(7). 6.9 > 22.6 = 98.6 + (3158 / 400) × 1129.1 where l0 = 0.1N> <Fig.6 = 89.7 kNm MEdz = 6.2.where ei = l0 / 400 e0 = h / 30 > 20 mm <5.6 × 10−3 > 0.9 × 3000 = 13.2.8.2.5 kNm Load case 2: MEdy = 68. 6.2(1)> <6.4> Load case 1: MEdy = 89.4 Section in axial compression and bending WE 5 Columns v7b chg 13 Sep 07.0 for fck ≤ 50 MPa fck = 30 b = 300 h = 300 = depth of compression zone dc = λx = 0.85 αcc η = 1.1.4 kNm <Concise EC2 Table 5.1. (3.8. (3.

6 – 856.8 MPa εst = 0.3.5 – 56.e. 07 <5. AsN / 2 = (1129.0008 σst = 0.0035(300 – 200 – 55) / 200 = 0. (5.8 ∴ σst = 120 MPa = 866 mm2 = 796 mm2 Similarly for x = 212 mm σsc = 434.39)> Page 9 of 25 .9(3)> <Exp. not critical.5 – 56.0035 εcu 0.8 – 160 (1129.0035 × (200 – 55) 200 = σsc = 0.8 – 109 ∴σst = 109.0008 × 200000 ≤ 500 / 1.1) × 106 = = 733 mm2 95 × 594.5 × 106 – 0..4/98. AsN / 2 = (1129.0035 0. = εcu2 = 0..8 ∴ σsc = 434. x = 212 mm is approximately correct and AsN ≈ AsM.0035 × (x – d2) x = 0.8 + 160) (98.0035(h – x – d2) / x = 0.85 × 1. < 1. and assuming exponent a = 1 as a worst case for load case 2: (MEdz/MRdz)a + (MEdy/MRdy)a = (21. 0.8 εst = 0.0 × 30 × 300 × 200 × 0.5 – 57.5 × 103) (300 / 2 – 55) (434.91 i.8 Similarly for x = 210 mm εcu εsc εst = = = 0.8. ≈ 1628 mm2 AsM / 2 = ∴ Try 4 no.0) × 103 = = 1141 mm2 274.5 kNm.0 × 30 × 300 × 200 × 0. Assuming ey / ez > 0.0026.3) × 106 = 816 mm2 95 × 543. H25 (1964 mm2).85 × 1.00054.8 / (1.8 ∴ as AsN/2 ≈ AsM/2.8 – 120 AsM / 2 = (98.5)1 = 0.MPa = 812 mm2 (98.2 and biaxial bending is critical.Try x = 200 mm.15 = 160 MPa AsN / 2 = AsM / 2 = 1129.6 × 103 – 0.7/98.8) × 103 434.15 = 434.0025 εsc = 0.0025 × 200000 ≤ fyk / γS = 500 ≤ 500 / 1.8 (300 / 2 – 200 × 0.0 ∴ OK.doc 17 Sep.6 Check for biaxial bending [Proof: By inspection.5)1 + (68.8 / 2) / (1.0006.6 – 865.] WE 5 Columns v7b chg 13 Sep 07.8 98.6 – 816. Section is symmetrical and MRdz > 98.5) × 106 95 × 554. 5.5 × 103) 434.0) × 103 434.

25. above 5th floor they are 465 mm circular.7 Links Minimum size links = 25 / 4 = 6.6) is part of an eight-storey structure above ground with a basement below ground. say 8 mm Spacing: minimum of a) 0. 07 Page 10 of 25 . The problem is to design column C2 between ground floor and 1st floor.6 × 400 <9.8 Design summary Figure 5. Between ground and 5th floors the columns at C2 are 500 mm square.3(3). (6.5 Design summary: perimeter column 5.10a) and Exp.3.3. The design forces need to be determined.5.doc 17 Sep.5. (6. (6. The suspended slabs (including the ground floor slab) are 300 mm thick flat slabs at 4500 mm vertical centres.6 × 20 × 25 b) 0. This will include the judgement of whether to use Exp.6 Part plan of flat slab WE 5 Columns v7b chg 13 Sep 07. 1 hour fire resistance and fck = 50 MPa.6 × 300 c) 0.5 (reproduced as Figure 5. 9.4 Internal column The flat slab shown in Example 3. Figure 5.10) or the worse case of Exp.5.3(4)> = 300 mm = 180 mm = 240 mm Use H8 @ 175 mm centres 5. Assume an internal environment.10b) for the design of this column.

NEd Axial load to Exp.26 × (9. 5.5 + 0. qk = 0.4.1.8 1999. qk = 4.3) × 25 8th 1.b.2 601.doc 17 Sep.6 – 2279.3 594.0 + 6.b.4.26 Along grid 2 to be 6.3 594. 6th a.4.b.1.0 + 6.0 × (6.7 2449.5 − 0.2 (11).7 (offices) <BS EN 1991-1-1. 6.5.4 42.5. Col 6 – 7 a.b. Col 1 – 2 a.0 279. Col 2 – 3 a. Col G – 1 a.b.7 1224.3) × 25 4th a. 5th a.7 3070.1 279.b.2 m and internal elastic reaction factor = 0.4 1160.3> In keeping with Section 3.5 26.63 = 1. (6.5 17.b.b.1 Design forces In order to determine design forces for this column it is first necessary to determine vertical loads and 1st order moments.6 <BS EN 1991-1-1 6.6 5553.0 m and 6.b.3.6 + 8.5 = 1.7 4312.75 WE 5 Columns v7b chg 13 Sep 07.3 Design axial load. BS EN 1990: γQ = 1.9 594. 3rd a.1 = 0. Col 3 – 4 a.2 279.7 279. Consider spans adjacent to column C2: Along grid C to be 9.3 594. Col 4 – 5 0.2 & NA> ψ0.0 × (6.5 5.7 4932.b.6 m and internal of 2-span elastic reaction factor = 0. 6.7 1837.8 321.00 Load take-down for column C2.5 17.0) = Col 7 – 8 As before 7th a.5 2279.9 594.5 26.5 use coefficients to determine loads in take down.6) = Col 8 – R π ( 0.7 279.5 26.10) <BS EN 1990 Exp.0 612.5 279.8 5553.10) & NA> NEd = γGGk + γQQk1 + ψ0γQQki where γG = 1.2 Load take-down Actions: Roof: gk = 8.b.50 A1.2) / 2 × 1.3.5 17.0 <Sec. 3.5 17.3 – 42. & NA> Qki = accompanying action (subject to αA or αn) where αA = 1 – A / 1000 ≥ 0.5 × (4. 1st a. Gk @ level [1.5 + 0.8 279.6) = = 69.3.6 881.2) / 2 ] × [1. Col 5 – 6 a.6) / 2 ] × (8.0 1720.6 + 8.4> <Concise EC2 EC2 Table 15.9 594.9 594. ground – 1st floor.2.7> <Sec.35 <Table 2.3 594. 3.465 / 2) 2 × (4.b. (6.5 × 0. At above ground floor Σ Qk @ level Σ Roof 594.4 279. NA & Table NA.5 26.5 + 0. 2nd a.5.4> Floors: gk = 8.26 × (9. 07 Page 11 of 25 .63 + 0.7 3691.9 × (8.6 m and 8.5 26.4.2 1440.5.5 + 4.6) / 2 × (8.5 − 0.2 Qk1 = leading variable action (subject to reduction factor αA or αn) (10).b.

7 Subframe on column C2 along grid C ** According to BS EN 1991–1–1 6.1 – n / 10 for 1 ≤ n ≤ 5 = 0. (6.1 = 9000.5 × 0.8+ 44.5 for n > 10 where n = number of storeys supported ** αn = 0.1γQQk1 + ψ0.0 kN To Exp.35 × 5553.0 = 1.0) × 0. WE 5 Columns v7b chg 13 Sep 07.= 1 – 9 × 69.7) = 7497.4 kN To Exp. (6.75 αn = 1.4 kN <BS EN 1990 Exp.5 × 42.6 + 0.35 × 5553.3 kN Axial load to Exp.6 for 5 ≤ n ≤ 10 and = 0.1 + 2013. NEd= 8933. NEd= 9000.0 = 7497.4 + 2013.37 ≥ 0.0) × 0.6 + 1. (6.1.6 + 0.10a).10b). (6.10b) <BS EN 1990 Exp.7 × 1.doc 17 Sep.7 × 1.0 kN 5. use αn = 0.6 + 1.25 × 5553.5 − 42.10a) & NA> Axial load to Exp.5 + 0.35 × 5553.5 × 42.10).35 × 5553.1 = 8933.6 for 8 storeys supported ∴ as αn < αA.7 × 1.6 + 1.10) & NA> NEd = ξγGGk + γQQk1 + ψ0.5 × 2237. M Consider grid C to determine Myy in column 3 2 1 Modified diagram required Figure 5.5 × (2279. (6.1γQQki = 1.9 / 1000 = 0.7 × 1.3. (6.5 × 2237.2(11) the imposed load on the roof is category H and therefore does not qualify for reduction factor αn. 07 Page 12 of 25 .6 + 0.5 × 42.5 × (2279.8 + 44.1 = 9555.6 + 0.1γQQki assuming the variable action of the roof is an independent variable action: = 0.0 = 6942.4 First order design moments.3 kN To Exp.5 × 42.10a) NEd = γGGk + ψ0.6 ( 279.0 = 1.925 × 1.6 + 1.4 + 1436.6 Assuming the variable action of the roof is an independent variable action: NEd = 1.8 + 1999.5 − 42. (6.7 × 1. NEd= 9555.5 × 0.4.75 = 0.

Actions: gk = (6.62 / 12 = 106.62 / 12 = 819.75 b23d233/L23 + 0.6 4 = 0.75 b 21 d 21 3/L 21 where b = breadth d = depth L = length lc = lower column uc = upper column 21 = beam 21 23 = beam 23 = 0.10) FEM 23†† = 1.62 / 12 = 735.7 × 1.35 × 51.62 / 12 = 399.5 = 24.62 / 12 = 431.10a) critical Consider grid 2 to determine Mzz in column.9 × 8.4 kNm ∴ Exp. (6.1 × 0.7 × 9.35 × 51.6 + 0.doc 17 Sep.252 × (779.yy = 0.7 kNm 1st order moment using Exp (6. B C D Modified diagram required 6200 Figure 5.35 × 51.5 = 51.5 – 431.5 kNm Mlower. (6.9 + 1.33 / 8.62 / 12 = 779.10a) FEM 23 = 1.0144 + 0.25 × 51.0129) = 0.25 × 51.7 × 9.8 kNm FEM 21 = (1.yy = 0.0278 + 0.7 kNm 1st order moment using Exp.5 2 × 0.5 – 399.1 × 0.8) = 95.8) = 76.8 kNm FEM 21 = (1.8 kNm FEM 21 = (1.8 Subframe on column C2 along grid 2 †† FEM 23 = Fixed end moment in span 23 at 2 WE 5 Columns v7b chg 13 Sep 07.9 × 8.2) / 2 × 8.4) × 9.yy = 0.5 + 0.5 × 24.4) × 9.252 × [819.54 / 4.0 – 431.5 × 9.252 × (735. relative stiffness blcdlc3/Llc = 3 3 blcdlc /Llc + bucduc /Luc + 0. (6.5 / 4.10b) FEM 23 = 1.4 kN / m Relative stiffness of lower column: Assuming remote ends of slabs are pinned.9 + 1.0 + 6.0 + 6.5 × 24.9 × 8.4 ) × 9.0139 / (0.0 kNm Mlower.62 / 12 = 95.9 kN / m qk = (6.8] = 97.75 × 6.9 + 0.5 kNm Mlower.252 1st order moment using Exp.5 × 24.33 / 9.62 / 12 = 431.62 / 12 = 101.75 × 6. 07 Page 13 of 25 .35 × 51.2) / 2 × 8.

54 / 4.4 kNm Note: To determine maximum 1st order moments in the column.47 × 4. (6.0 kNm Mlower.7 kNm 8933.47 × 0.0278 + 0.5 + 1.5 kN/m qk = 11.7 kNm 9000.107 × (611.10).10) Using Exp.02 / 12 = 394.9) × 6.4 kNm Mzz 26.22 / 12 = 200.1)> 17 Sep. 5. Nevertheless.02 / 12 = 394.5 × 45. (6.5 + 1.9 kN/m Relative stiffness of lower column: Assuming remote ends of slabs are fixed.4.0 = 45. (6.35 × 97. maximum out-of-balance moments have been determined using variable actions to one side of the column only.9) × 6. to avoid duplicate designs for both Exp.4.5 kNm 26.47 × 8.9) = 19. thus: NEd = 9000 kN.4 kNm ∴ Exp.107 1st order moment using Exp.6 Design: cover cnom = cmin + Δcdev where cmin = max[cmin.22 / 12 = 611. (6.5 + 0.3 kNm FEM CD = 1.dur] where WE 5 Columns v7b chg 13 Sep 07.zz = 0.22 / 12 = 576.107 × (576.3 kNm 1st order moment using Exp.3 kNm design forces will be used.5 × 6. (6.b .33 / 6.5 × 45.5 × 45.10b) NEd Myy 9555.22 / 12 = 190.10b). (6.02 / 12 = 365.2 +11.5 kNm 1st order moment using Exp.0 – 394.0 – 365. (6. (4. cmin.7 × 1.9) × 6.33 / 6.25 × 97.Actions: gk = 0.3 kNm 19. (6. (6.6) = 26.35 × 97. 07 Page 14 of 25 . However. It may be argued that using coefficients for the design of the slab and reactions to the columns does not warrant the sophistication of using Exp.0139 / (0. (6.10a) FEM CB = 1.3 – 394. a worse case of their Myy = 95.10a) critical again.5 × 6.22 / 12 = 190.47 × 0. conservatively.zz = 0.10a) and Exp.10a) or Exp.9 kNm Mlower. (6.zz = 0.5 + 11.10a) or Exp.10b) rather than Exp. (6. The use of Exp.35 × 97.5 × 6. Mzz = 26.22 / 12 = 642.10b) is perfectly valid and will be followed here.9 kNm Mlower.10b) FEM CB = (1.6 + 9.5 = 4 2 × 0.4 kN 95.107 × (642.0516) = 0.5 = 11.0500 + 0.10a) and Exp.10) FEM CB = (1. (6.doc <Exp.6 kNm FEM CD = (1.7 kNm.5 = 97. 5. Method Using Exp.5 / 4. there would appear to be some economy in designing the column to Exp.3 kN 97.10b). (6. (6. (6.10a) Using Exp.9) = 26.63 × (8. relative stiffness 0.0 = 0.35 × 97.25 × 97.0 kN 76.5 × 6. The effect on axial load has.6) × 8.5 Summary of design forces in column C2 ground – 1st Design forces.0 kNm FEM CD = 1.7 × 6.7 × 6. been ignored.

4.2a <BS EN 1992–1–2 5.fi ≤ 3.e. = 15 mm = 32 mm to main bars.3. 07 Page 15 of 25 .3. Assume XC1. − 8 link = 24 mm.5 = h / 120.252 / (0. say 25 mm to link Δcdev = 10 mm ∴ cnom = 25 + 10 = <4.2a is valid <BS EN 1992–1–2 Table 5. l0 l0 = 0.4.cmin.252 l0 = 0.252)]0.5l [1 + k1 / (0.45 + 0.0 m where = effective length of column in fire l0 = 0.15h = 0.5 [1 + 0.fi / N0Ed. OK.15)> where k1 and k2 are relative stiffnesses top and bottom of the column as before (See Section 5.8 Structural design: check slenderness Effective length.252 / (0.4.2(1)> Limiting slenderness ratio.8.1 as per default C = 1.5 where A = 1 / (1 + 0.5 [1 + k2 / (0. λ λ = l0 / i where i = radius of gyration = (I / A)0.252)]0.7 – rm where <5.7 Assuming μfi bmin = 350 with ami n = 40 mm OK.5 λ = 3570 × 120.1.15 × 500 = 75 mm e = M0Ed.7 <4.5 (4500-300) [1 + 0.5.7 <5.4.dur cmin. (5. Table 5.b cmin.45 + k1)]0.2φef).2a> a) Check l0.45 + k2)]0.fi = M0 / NEd = 99. For fire using Method A and Table 5.5 × 106 / 8933 × 103 = 11 mm OK.7 as per default B = (1 + 200)0. Assume 0.68 × 4200 = 2856 mm Slenderness ratio. b) Check e ≤ emax = 0.45 + 0.36 = 0.4) Critical direction is where k1 and k2 are greater i.5 × (4500 – 300) = 2100 mm OK. λlim λlim = 20 ABC / n0.4.2a> 5. Assume 1.doc 17 Sep.2(3)> <BS 8500–1 Table A4> cmin 5. on grid C where k1 = k2 = 0.2.dur = diameter of bar.3.5 l0 = 0.5 × 4200 × 1.8.5 / 500 = 24. c) Check amount of reinforcement ≤ 4% = 0.5 × clear height = 0.5 <Exp.3 & NA> 35 mm Design: fire resistance Check validity of using Method A and Table 5.1(1) & NA> WE 5 Columns v7b chg 13 Sep 07.1. Assume 32 mm bars and 8 mm links = minimum cover due to environmental conditions.

5 = 34.8.78 = 1.26 = 20 × 0.10 Design using charts <5.7 = 175.9 Design moments.9 × 106 / (5003 × 50) = 0.7 + (3570 / 400) × 8933 × 10−3 ≥ 0.7 ≥ 178. imperfections need only be taken in one direction – where they have the most unfavourable effect ∴ use MEdzz = 178.7 kNm.5e> MEdyy / bh2fck = 178. to centroid of reinforcement in half section WE 5 Columns v7b chg 13 Sep 07.8.4.7 + 0.72 Choice of chart based on d2 / h where = depth to centroid of reinforcement in half section d2 assuming 12 bar arrangement with H32s d2 = 35 + 8 + (32 / 2) + (2 / 6) [500 + 2 × (35 + 8 + 32 / 2 ) / 3] = 59 + (1 / 3) × 127 = 101 Use Concise EC2 Figure 15.7 kNm ∴ Both critical.78 = 2. However.2.doc 17 Sep. C n ∴ λlim 5. 6.48 / 1.7 + 79.03 NEd / bhfck = 9000 × 103 / (5002 × 50) = 0.rm = M01 / M2 = –84.7 = 178.7 with MEdyy = 95.1(4)> = 95.4 < 178. 07 Page 16 of 25 .02 × 8933 = 95.7 ≥ 178.5d ∴ d2 / h = 101 / 500 = 0.7> <6.4.9(2)> <Concise EC2 Figs 15.5) = 1.7 kNm = 18.0 ∴ as λ < λlim column is not slender and 2nd order moments are not required.260.8.2(1)> <5.3 = –0.9 / 109. d2.48 = NEd / Acfcd = 8933 × 103 / (5002 × 0.2(1).8.1(4)> <5.2 Figure 5.85 × 50 / 1.8.9 Depth.7 × 1. 5.1 × 2.5a to 15.8 + 79. MEd MEd = M + eiNEd ≥ e0NEd where M = moment from 1st order analysis eiNEd = effect of imperfections where ei = l0 / 400 e0NEd = minimum eccentricity where e0 = h / 30 ≥ 20 mm MEdyy MEdzz <5.

7 × 106 / 9000 × 103 = 0.10 Eccentricities 5.5d. <5. > 0.20 and Asfyk / bhfck = 9648 × 500 / 500 × 500 × 50 = 0.From chart in Concise EC2Figure 15. 5. H32 (9648 mm2) ‡‡ .doc 17 Sep.72 MRd / bh2fck = 0.38b)> ∴ design for biaxial bending.5d> <5.9(3)> Eccentricities: as h = b check ey / ez MEdz critical.3 kNm a = where ‡‡ exponent dependent upon NEd / NRd <5.0 For load case 2 where: MEdz = 178. for d2 / h = 0. WE 5 Columns v7b chg 13 Sep 07. 15. 07 Page 17 of 25 .12 Design for biaxial bending Check (MEdz / MRdz)a + (MEdy / MRdy)a ≤ 1.9> Slenderness: λy ≈ λz ∴ OK.29 × 500 × 500 × 50 / 500 = 7500 mm2 <Concise EC2 Fig.8.4.5d) Asfyk / bhfck = 0.057 ∴ MRd ≈ 0.7 kNm MEdy = MRdy = moment resistance.e. (5.3(4)> Using design actions to Exp (6. (Imperfections act in z direction. (5.2 and < 5 <5.9.7 kNm = 95.4.54 i. Exp.) 95.11 Check biaxial bending <5.3(4)Exp.3(3).8.39)> <Concise EC2 Fig.30 As = 0.7 × 106 / 9000 × 103 ey / ez = 178.39 = 9000 x 103 / (5002 x 50) NEd / bhfck = 0.8.10) would have resulted in a requirement for 8500 mm2. 15. Using charts: MRdz From chart 15.9.057 × 5003 × 50 = 356. Figure 5.5d> Try 12 no.

1 kNm perpendicular to the beam (i.0 = 0. Interpolating between values given for NEd / NRd= 0. <9. is subject to an axial load of 1722.e.5.3 & NA> = 12 × 32 = 384 mm = 0.4.1. §§ Gk = 562.67 Check (MEdz / MRdz)a + (MEdy / MRdy)a ≤ 1.5.9 × 1. in Figure 4.5) and for NEd / NRd= 1.43 i.9.39)> 5. (5.5.5 kNm in the plane at the beam and 146.7 kN WE 5 Columns v7b chg 13 Sep 07. 9.5 Small perimeter column subject to two hour fire requirement This calculation is intended to show a small slender column subject to a requirement for 2 hours fire resistance.32 + 0. < 1. 07 Page 18 of 25 .6 × αn = 755.5 = 1722.6 × 400 = φ / 4 = 32 / 4 = 8 mm <9.25 + 755.6 × 0.14 Design summary Figure 5. (2.0) a = 1. The column is 350 mm square.6 × 20 × φ b) 0. It is supporting storage loads. < 150 mm ∴ no need to restrain bars in face but good practice suggests alternate bars should be restrained ∴ use single leg on face bars both ways @ 225 mm centres.4.NRd = Acfcd + Asfyd = 500 × 500 × 0.87.3)1.6 × 500 = 300 mm or = 240 mm <9.7 / 356.6 × h c) 0.doc 17 Sep.5 + 9648 × 500 / 1. 4000 mm long.6 × 0. about the z axis). in an external environment (but not subject to de-icing salts) and is subject to a 2 hour fire resistance requirement on three exposed sides.4. Assume the base is pinned.13 Links Minimum diameter of links: Spacing: either a) 0.11 (178.67 + (95.1 × 1.0 ∴ OK Use 12 no.7 (1. H32 <Notes toExp. Number of legs: Bars at 127 mm cc i.3(3).15 = 7083 + 3216 = 10299 kN NEd / NRd = 9000 / 10299 = 0.5. B. §§ The middle column.3(6) SMDSC 6. NEd = 562.2> 5.11 Design summary: internal column 5.7 / 356.e. measured from top of foundation to centre of slab.67 = 0.e.5.7 kN and from analysis moments of 114.3(4)> ∴ use H8 links at 225 mm cc.3)1.0.85 × 50 / 1. Qk = 755.

a for 350 mm square column For μfi = 0.dur = minimum cover due to environmental conditions.1(1) & NA 5. WE 5 Columns v7b chg 13 Sep 07.15 × 350 = 52 mm but e = 146. cnom cnom = cmin + Δcdev where = max[cmin.1.3.2a> Try Method B. Axis distance available = 43 mm + φ / 2 Required axis distance to main bars. secondarily XF1. Table 5. and for μfi = 0.3.12 Perimeter column 5.Figure 5. providing: 8 bars used – OK but check later l0.15h = 0.7. Table 5. cmin.1 × 106 / 1722.3.2(3)> <BS 8500–1 Table A4> 5.2.2b> Page 19 of 25 . Determine parameters n.doc 17 Sep. ω. Assuming primarily XC3 / XC4.fi ≤ 3 m – OK but check e ≤ emax = 0.1 Cover Nominal cover.b.dur = 25 mm Δcdev = allowance in design for deviation = 10 mm = 32 + 10 = 42 mm to main bars ∴ try cnom or = 25 + 10 = 35 mm to 8 mm links Try cnom = 35 mm to 8 mm links <Exp.2 Fire resistance a) Check adequacy of section for R120 to Method A. (4. 07 <BS EN 1992–1–2: 5.5.5. b) Check adequacy of section for R120 to Method B.b cmin. cmin.1)> <4. e and check λfi. Assume 32 mm main bars and 10 mm links cmin.7 × 103 = 85 mm ∴ no good.4.5. <BS EN 1991–1–2: 5. a = 57 mm.dur] cmin where = diameter of bar.3. a = 45 mm.

<BS EN 1992–1–2: Exp.45 + k1) ]0.Assume 4 no. ∴ Axis distance = 43 mm + φ / 2 is OK ∴ 4 no. (5.8. H25 with 35 mm cover to 8 mm links (a = 55 mm min.0.5 + 5180 × 500 / 1.5 + 2252.3(1).fi / i where l0.2b valid for use in this case Interpolating from BS EN 1992–1–2 Table 5. check adequacy of section to Annex B3 and Annex C.5.0.8b)> <BS EN 1992–1–2: 2. H25 = (5180 mm2 : 4.2(3) PD 6687> Treating beams as rectangular and cancelling E throughout: Icol / Pcol = 3504 / (12 × 3850) = 3.9 × 103 / 0. amin = 48 mm. Annex C & NA> <BS EN 1992–1–2: Annex C(2)> 5.8 × 105 WE 5 Columns v7b chg 13 Sep 07. bmin = 350 mm.5 [1 + k2 / (0.2% OK – integrity OK) n = N0Ed.3.doc 17 Sep. about z axis l0z = 0. H32 + 4 no. R120.9 × 103 / 0.46 for a rectangular section ∴ λfi = 2800 / (350 / 3. λ = 30 and interpolating between n = 0.fi = 0.2(3)> <BS EN 1992–1–2: Exp.5l [1 + k1 / (0.3.1 <Exp.) OK.40 OK ω = Asfyd / Acfcd ≤ 1.7 (350 × 350 × αcc × fck / γC + 5180 × 500 / γS) = 1205.3(2)> OK e = M0Ed.8a)> = 0. l0. e = 0.7 × 1722.3 and n = 0.0 <BS EN 1992–1–2: 5.7l = 0.46) = 27.5 where l = clear height between restraints = 4000 – 300 / 2 = 3850 mm k1.0 = 2252 / 2082 = 1.7 (2082. Table 5.15)> <PD 6687 2.8 For ω = 1.fi = 0. (5. k2 = relative flexibilities of rotational restraints at ends 1 and 2 respectively k1 = EIcol / lcol / [2EIbeam1 / lbeam1 + 2EIbeam2 / lbeam2] ≥ 0.10> <5. (5.24h.08 ≥ 1 But say within acceptable engineering tolerance ∴use ω = 1.25b.85 × 30 / 1.3 Structural design: check slenderness about z axis Effective length.5.2(3)> <BS EN 1992–1–2: 5.40 and ω = 1.7 = 85 mm OK ≡ 0.3.1 / 0.7 < 30 ∴ OK. 07 Page 20 of 25 .7(Acfcd + Asfyd) <9.fi / N0Ed.45 + k2) ]0.0) = 0. column width = 350 mm and axis distance = 48 mm ∴ Axis distance = 43 mm + φ / 2 is OK c) As additional check.fi / 0.7 × 4000 = 2800 mm i = radius of gyration = h / 3.7 × 146. H32 + 4 no.4.15) = 1205.2%) (say 4.5.25 × 105 Ibeam1 / lbeam1 = 8500 × 3003 / 12 × 6000 = 31. Using BS EN 1992–1–2 Table C. λfi = l0.2b for n = 0.70 × 1722.7 (350 × 350 × 0.7 × 103 / 0.

13 First order moments WE 5 Columns v7b chg 13 Sep 07.7 n = relative normal force = NEd / Acfcd = 1836 × 103 / (3502 × 0.7 × 1.∴ l0z Ibeam2 / lbeam2 = 0 k1 = 3.8.1(1)> <Exp.7 – 0 = 1.46l0z / h = 3.880.41 = 0.25 / (2 × 31.7 / 0.46 × 2965 / 350 <5.7 B = 1.1 = 0.45 + 0.5 × 3850 × [1 + 0. (5.8) = 0.1 k1 k2 = by inspection (pinned end assumed) = ∞ = 0.051 ≥ 0.3.3.5 where A = 0.087 × 1.5 = 0.13N) = 27. Figure 5.5 <5.3 Limiting slenderness ratio.9 ∴ As λz > λlimz column is slender about z axis.85 × 30 / 1.88 ∴ λlimz = 20 × 0. 07 Page 21 of 25 .doc 17 Sep.7 – rm where rm = M01 / M02 say rm = 0 C = 1.5 × 3850 × 1.45 + ∞) ]0.1 C = 1.1 / (0.5) = 0.1 × 1.77 × 3850 = 2965 mm Slenderness ratio.2(1)> = 29.1) ]0.5 [1 + ∞ / (0. λz λz = l0z / i where i = radius of gyration = h / 3.8.46 λz = 3. λlim λlimz = 20 ABC / n0.

5 × 3400 [1 + 0.4 Check slenderness on y axis Effective length.5 [1 + k1 / (0.5M2] where M02 = Mz + eiNEd ≥ e0NEd where Mz = 146.5 Design moments: MEdz about z axis MEdz = max[M02.45 + k1) ]0.5 where ly = clear height between restraints = 4000 + 300 / 2 – 750 = 3400 mm k1 Icol / lcol = 3504 / 12 × 3400 = 3.41 = 2620 mm = 0.8.5. λy = 3.8.68 × 105 Treating beams as rectangular Ibeam1 / lbeam1 = 350 × 7503 / [12 × (9000 – 350)] = 14.5 = 0.1 + 14.6M02 + 0.77 × 3400 Slenderness ratio.4M01) ≥ 0.doc 17 Sep.45 + ∞) ]0.8 kNm = 0.4 × 0 ≥ 0.8.1 + 13.7 M2 = nominal 2nd order moment = NEde2 where e2 = (1 / r) l02 / 10 where 1/r = curvature = KvKϕ[fyd / (Es × 0.1 k2 = ∞ (pinned end assumed) l0y = 0.1 × 105 k1 = 3.5 × 3400 × 1.8.02 × 1836 ∴ M02 = 146.15)> = 25.6 > 36.45d)] where = (nu – n) / (nu – nbal) Kv where WE 5 Columns v7b chg 13 Sep 07.1. (5. 5.9 As λy < λlimy.46l0y / h λy = 3.34)> Page 22 of 25 . M01 + 0.087 × 1.45 + k2) ]0.8.1 + (2965 / 400) × 1836 ≥ 0.1 / (0.2(1) 6.5l [1 + k1 / (0.6 × 159.4 × 159.1 kNm from analysis eiNEd = effect of imperfections where ei = l0 / 400 e0 = 20 mm = 146. (5.5.15)> <Exp. 07 <5.7 = 159.2> <5.4M02 = 95.5.7> <5.8.7 + 0.4> <5. column not slender in y axis.1 k1 = 0.2. l0.2(3)> <5.45 + 0.2) = 0.2 × 105 Ibeam2 / lbeam2 = 350 × 7503 / [12 × (8000 – 350)] = 16.1) ]0. about z axis l0y = 0.8.5 [1 + ∞ / (0. (5.8. 3> <Exp.7 kNm = equivalent 1st order moment at about z axis at about mid height may M0Ed be taken as M0ez where M0ez = (0. M0Ed + M2.060 ≥ 0.68 / (2 × (16.9 = 27. λlim = λlimz λlimy <Exp.46 × 2620 / 350 Limiting slenderness ratio.

51 × 434.6 148.35 + (fck / 200) – (λ / 150) = 0.08 – 0.1.4(2)> = final creep coefficient = from Figure 3.3 kNm M0Ed = M02 = 159.3 M01 ∴ MEdz = max[M02z.40 = (2.8 × 46.15 = 434.0 = × Mz + eiNEd 1.t0) Kϕ fyd Es d <3.7.1.7 kNm *** With reference to Exp. 3. C30/37.8.35 + 0.7 × 103 × 16.4 × 112.3 / 150 = 0.1 for inside conditions <Fig.3 + 1.3 mm ∴ M2 = 1722.51 = 500 / 1. M01 + 0. 07 Page 23 of 25 .74 × 1.13N).1 = × 146.45 × 291) = 0.1a> h = 350 mm. ϕef may be taken as equal to 2.doc 17 Sep. WE 5 Columns v7b chg 13 Sep 07.15 – 0. M0Edz + M2.1 kNm =0 = 159.8 MPa = 200000 MPa <3.7 = 1.7(3)> = effective depth = 350 – 35 – 8 – 16 = 291 mm = 0.0 100.08 as before = 2.5M2] = max[159. (5.0.1 = 112.7 kNm = 1 + 0.4 M0Eqp = 1st order moment due to quasi permanent loads Gk + ϕ2 Qk × Mz + eiNEd ≈ ξγGGk + ϕ0γQQk 63.74 Kϕ = 1 + βϕef where β = 0.1 / 2] 1/r = 28.68 = 0.4(2)> = effective creep coefficient = ϕ(∞.08 – 0.83) / (2. for the purpose of illustration the full derivation is shown here.195 = 0.8 + 28.t0) M0Eqp / M0Ed ϕ(∞.83 nbal = 0.0000186 l0 = 2965 mm as before e2 = (1 / r) l02 / 10 = 0.35 + 30 / 200 – 29. However.305 × 2.3 / 159.8 / (200000 × 0. 0 + 28.40) Kv = 1.1 + 13.2.5 × 46.25 × 63.305 ϕef *** where <5.0000186 × 29652 / 10 = 16.25 / 1.nu =1+ω where = Asfyd / Acfd ω = 1.3 + 0. t0 = 15 ≈ 2. 95.08 nu n = NEd / Acfcd = 1722.7 / 2082 = 0.

31 × 3502 × 30 / 500 = 2279 mm2 ∴ 4 no.25 ∴ need to check biaxial bending.9(2)> Page 24 of 25 .5.47 for NEd / bhfck = 0.7 × 106 / (3503 × 30) = 0.38a)> MEdz MEdy = 159.10 = 0. 15.8 Check biaxial bending λy ≈ λz ∴ OK. 07 <5.1 kNm = (0. (5. <Exp.8. In y direction: MEd / bh2fck <Concise EC2 Fig.45 × 3502 × 30 / 500 = 3308 mm2 ∴ 4 no. M0Edy + M2.7 128. 15.70 = 0. (5.5.6 Design moments: MEdy about y axis MEdy = max[ M02y.5M2] where M02y = My + eiNEd ≥ e0NEd ††† M0Edy M2 5. ∴ MEdy = 128.5 + 13. 5.4> <Concise EC2 Fig.7 × 103 / (3502 × 30) = 0.1 = 1.5e Asfyk / bhfck = 0.6 ≥ 36.7 kNm = 128.5. M01 + 0.124 Assuming 8 bar arrangement.5e Asfyk / bhfck = 5180 × 500 / (3502 × 30) = 0.5. H32 + 4 no. T25 (5180 mm2) OK.7 kNm 0: column not slender.7 = 114.doc 17 Sep.5e> = 128.5e = 0.25 In z direction: NEd / bhfck From Figure 15. ez = MEdy / NEd ey = MEdz / NEd ey / heq = ez / beq <Exp.6 × 114.4 M01y) ≥ 0.4 × 0 = 68.1 kNm Design in each direction using charts = 1722. centroid of bars in half section: d2 ≥ 35 + 8 + 16 + (350 / 2 – 35 –8 – 16) × 1 / 4 ≥ 59 + 29 = 88 mm d2/h = 0.1 × 106 / (3503 × 30) = 0.5e> MEd / bh2fck ††† Imperfections need to be taken into account in one direction only.0 where MRdz = MRdy = moment resistance∴ Using Concise EC2 Figure 15. T25 (5180 mm2) OK.39)> (MEdz/MRdz)a + (MEdy/MRdy)a ≤ 1. WE 5 Columns v7b chg 13 Sep 07.6M02y + 0.5 + 0. H32 + 4 no.4M02y = 0. 15.45 As = 0.47 NEd / bhfck From Figure 15.47 MEd / bh2fck = 159.162 <Concise EC2 Fig.31 Asfyk / bhfck As = 0.

∴ MRd a where NRd = 0.15 = 2082.4)1.7 / 4332.47 MEd / bh2fck = 0.9(4)> = 0. 15.97 OK.47 = 1.11 Design summary Figure 5.5.39 <Concise EC2 Fig.72 + 0.10 Design of links Diameter min.5 / 245.25 ∴ a (159.3 & NA> <9. if laps can be avoided in this single lift column then the integrity of the concrete is unlikely to be affected and 5.2(3) & NA> However.5. 5.5.doc 17 Sep.40 NEd / NRd = 1.5.6 × 350 = 210 mm ∴ Use H8 @ 200 mm cc <9. T32 (6432 mm2).25 <5.25 = 0.2% > 4% <9.5.58 + 0.5 + 5180 × 500 / 1. = 0.85 × 30 / 1. = 32 / 4 = 8 mm Spacing max.7)1.5. OK <PD 6687 2.7 / 245.8.25 + (114.7 = 0.2% is considered OK.4 kNm depends on NEd / NRd = Acfcd + Asfyd = 3502 × 0. ∴ Try 8 no. 07 Page 25 of 25 .25 + (114.2 = 4332.5 / 208.7 kN = 1722.5 + 2252.19 ∴ No good.14 Design summary: small perimeter column WE 5 Columns v7b chg 13 Sep 07.4)1.9 Check maximum area of reinforcement As / bd = 6432 / 3502 = 5.162 × 3503 × 30 = 208.88 for NEd / bhfck = 0.5e> = 0.7)1. For Asfyk / bhfck = 6432 × 500 / (3502 × 30) = 0.3(4)> 5.7 kNm ∴ MRd Check biaxial bending (159.19> 5.5.7 / 208.3(3) 9.191 = 245.

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