AMENDMENTS

TO THE

CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

23

accordingly. there being then 14 States in the Union. Ratification was completed on December 15. Pennsylvania. 913). In each case such fact has been noted. PROPOSED BY CONGRESS. or the date on which the Secretary of State of the United States received a copy of said certificate. 1789. 1790.] 2 Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion. having previously passed the House on September 24 (1 Annals of Congress 88. November 20. South Carolina. Maryland. and Massachusetts ratified the first ten amendments in 1939. December 22. January 28. The two amendments that then failed of ratification prescribed the ratio of representation to population in the House. AND AMENDMENT OF. Hence. 256 U. January 19. 1790. June 7. 1790. this second proposal was taken up by the States in the period 1980–1992 and was proclaimed as ratified as of May 7. or the right of the people 1 In Dillon v. Fifteenth. AND RATIFIED BY THE SEVERAL STATES. and Sixteenth Amendments were thus technically ratified by number. Delaware. When that date is not available. It will be seen. November 3. or of the press. or abridging the freedom of speech. THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. The first was ratified by ten States (one short of the requisite number) and the second. 97. Connecticut. or the date on which he proclaimed that the amendment had been ratified are not controlling. Gloss. and specified that no law varying the compensation of members of Congress should be effective until after an intervening election of Representatives. February 27. 1789. that only the Thirteenth. subsequently. the Supreme Court stated that it would take judicial notice of the date on which a State ratified a proposed constitutional amendment. when they passed the Senate. March 10. 25 . by six States. 1790. the ratification date given in the following notes is the date on which the legislature of a given State approved the particular amendment (signature by the speaker or presiding officers of both houses being considered a part of the ratification of the ‘‘legislature’’). or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. or the date on which the secretary of state of a given State certified the ratification. Virginia. 2 Brackets enclosing an amendment number indicate that the number was not specifically assigned in the resolution proposing the amendment. Accordingly the Court consulted the State journals to determine the dates on which each house of the legislature of certain States ratified the Eighteenth Amendment. Except as otherwise indicated information as to ratification is based on data supplied by the Department of State. the date given is that on which it was approved by the governor or certified by the secretary of state of the particular State. The first ten amendments along with two others that were not ratified were proposed by Congress on September 25. 1992. December 19. It. therefore. 1791.ARTICLES IN ADDITION TO. Fourteenth. when the eleventh State (Virginia) approved these amendments. 1790. New Hampshire. follows that the date on which the governor approved the ratification. 1791. 1790. December 15.S. PURSUANT TO THE FIFTH ARTICLE OF THE ORIGINAL CONSTITUTION 1 AMENDMENT [I. They appear officially in 1 Stat. Vermont. 1789. The several state legislatures ratified the first ten amendments to the Constitution on the following dates: New Jersey. January 25. 368 (1921). 1789. Rhode Island. New York. North Carolina. Georgia. 1791.

when in actual service in time of War or public danger. supported by Oath or affirmation. shall not be infringed. and no Warrants shall issue. liberty.] No Soldier shall. AMENDMENT [II.] The right of the people to be secure in their persons. or otherwise infamous crime. . without the consent of the Owner. and particularly describing the place to be searched. and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. without due process of law. and effects. without just compensation. nor shall private property be taken for public use. in time of peace be quartered in any house. nor in time of war. but in a manner to be prescribed by law.] A well regulated Militia. shall not be violated. unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury. or property. or in the Militia. and the persons or things to be seized. nor be deprived of life. being necessary to the security of a free State. except in cases arising in the land or naval forces.] No person shall be held to answer for a capital. nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb. AMENDMENT [IV. nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself. but upon probable cause. houses. papers. AMENDMENT [III. the right of the people to keep and bear Arms.26 CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES peaceably to assemble. AMENDMENT [V. against unreasonable searches and seizures.

nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. AMENDMENT [VIII.] In all criminal prosecutions.] Excessive bail shall not be required. the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial. to be confronted with the witnesses against him. and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation. nor excessive fines imposed. AMENDMENT [IX. and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence. AMENDMENT [VII. the right of trial by jury shall be preserved.] The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution. of certain rights. than according to the rules of the common law. by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed. are reserved to the States respectively. . nor prohibited by it to the States. to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor. shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. AMENDMENT [X. shall be otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States.] The enumeration in the Constitution. and no fact tried by a jury. or to the people. which district shall have been previously ascertained by law.] In Suits at common law. where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars.CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES 27 AMENDMENT [VI.

shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves. there being then 17 States in the Union. New York. 1804. 209. 1794. May 8.’’ In the interim South Carolina had ratified. then the amendment became operative by Tennessee’s ratification on July 27. January 23. January 5. North Carolina. when President John Adams in a message to Congress stated that the Eleventh Amendment had been adopted by three-fourths of the States and that it ‘‘may now be deemed to be a part of the Constitution. January 30. or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State. Ohio. . 402.’’ it has been generally believed that an approval or veto by a governor is without significance. 1804. 776. Secretary of State Madison declared the amendment ratified by three-fourths of the States. Rhode Island. there being then 15 States in the Union. Maryland. when the twelfth State (North Carolina) approved the amendment. 1804. 1794. South Carolina. June 15. Kentucky. 1803. March 27. Inasmuch as Article V of the Federal Constitution specifies that amendments shall become effective ‘‘when ratified by legislatures of three-fourths of the several States or by conventions in three-fourths thereof. June 16. Ratification was completed on February 7. May 19. The several state legislatures ratified the Eleventh Amendment on the following dates: New York. Vermont. 1794. 1794. Massachusetts... February 10. 478. New Jersey. 1803 and February 3. 1795. 4 Annals of Congress 477. Pennsylvania. December 24. December 7. at least. Id. 1795. It appears officially in 2 Stat. 1804. Vermont. Delaware. 1794. November 18. May 15. 1804. The Governor of New Hampshire. It was not signed by the presiding officers of the House and Senate until December 12. 1794. 1804. Rhode Island. It appears officially in 1 Stat. July 27. one of whom. 1803. December 4. The several state legislatures ratified the Twelfth Amendment on the following dates: North Carolina. and Tennessee.] 3 The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity. 1803. and by Connecticut at its session begun May 10.28 CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES AMENDMENT [XI. 1794. Massachusetts ratified this amendment in 1961. 30. February 7. 1794. On September 25. 1797. 1804. If the ratification by New Hampshire be deemed ineffective. South Carolina. commenced or prosecuted against one on the United States by Citizens of another State. 1794. between December 5 and December 30. 13 Annals of Congress 775. when it passed the House. Virginia. when it passed the House. 1798. 1794. March 31. 1795. Georgia. Maryland. February 22. when the legislature of the thirteenth State (New Hampshire) approved the amendment. Virginia. Id. 1804. having previously passed the Senate on December 2. 1803. between October 9 and November 9. 306. New Hampshire. 1804. 1803. December 27. December 26. Ratification was probably completed on June 15. 1804. 4 The Twelfth Amendment was proposed by Congress on December 9. between December 20. 1804. New Hampshire. 1804. June 26. 1804. The amendment was rejected by Delaware on January 18. in a circular letter to the Governors of the several States. and the act failed to pass again by two-thirds vote then required by the state constitution. December 22. and Tennessee had been admitted into the Union as the sixteenth State. they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as 3 The Eleventh Amendment was proposed by Congress on March 4. Connecticut. between February 27 and March 12. 1804. AMENDMENT [XII. vetoed this act of the legislature on June 20. Georgia. Official announcement of ratification was not made until January 8.] 4 The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President. November 29. Kentucky. however. 1804. 31. having previously passed the Senate on January 14. 1794.

directed to the President of the Senate. the votes shall be taken by states. which lists they shall sign and certify. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them.CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES 29 President. a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states. and if no person have such majority. if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed. shall be the President. and of the number of votes for each. then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President. before the fourth day of March next following. as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President—The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President. a . by ballot. in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives. the President.—The person having the greatest Number of votes for President. and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. and in distinct ballots the person voted for as VicePresident. the House of Representatives shall choose immediately. the Senate shall choose the Vice-President. if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed. and of all persons voted for as VicePresident. shall be the Vice-President. open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted. then the Vice-President shall act as President. and if no person have a majority. then from the two highest numbers on the list. the representation from each state having one vote. and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States. But in choosing the President.—The President of the Senate shall. and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President.

Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude. 1865. 1870. Delaware. 1964. 358 under date of June 16. 1868. 1865. 1865. 1865. 1865. Florida. May 4. 1865. 1865 (Florida again ratified this amendment on June 9. 1st Sess.) 531.. (38th cong. February 7. December 11. February 16. Id. Louisiana. New York. 1865. 1865. Maine. Vermont. January 23. West Virginia. Minnesota. 1865. February 2. 567 under the date of February 1. February 7. 1866 (after having rejected the amendment on March 16. 1865. Virginia. 1865 (date on which it was ‘‘approved’’ by Provisional Governor). Michigan. 1901 (after having rejected the amendment on February 8. December 15. SECTION 2. 1st Sess. Pennsylvania. 3042. Oregon. upon its adoption of a new constitution). 1940. On December 18. 1. April 7. Ratification was completed on December 6. 3149. Tennessee. Rhode Island. when the legislature of the twenty-eighth State . and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. Arkansas. Georgia. are citizens of the 5 The Thirteenth Amendment was proposed by Congress on January 31. 1865. Iowa.). Wisconsin. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Id. 1865. Nevada.. AMENDMENT XIV. 1865. 1866. Texas. February 17. 6 SECTION. North Carolina. 2d Sess. 1865. 1866. South Carolina. April 14. 5 SECTION 1. February 16. 1865. November 13. 1865.. when it passed the House. Massachusetts. 1865. 1865. June 30. 1865). 1865. Missouri. New Jersey. It appears officially in 13 Stat. December 4. February 7. February 8. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of VicePresident of the United States.30 CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators. February 1.. 1865. AMENDMENT XIII. March 9. 1868. 1866. February 12.) 3148. and by Mississippi on December 2. 1865. shall exist within the United States. 1865. 1865. Kansas. Connecticut. except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted. The several state legislatures ratified the Thirteenth Amendment on the following dates: Illinois. 1865. or any place subject to their jurisdiction. there being then 36 States in the Union. December 6. 1865. January 17. Indiana. 1865. Maryland. February 23. December 2. having previously passed the Senate on April 8. 1865. California. Globe (38th Cong. 1865. 774. Alabama. Cong. 1865. when it passed the House. February 9. Ratification was probably completed on July 9. It appears officially in 14 Stat. 6 The Fourteenth Amendment was proposed by Congress on June 13. Cong. December 28. 13 Stat. February 3. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof. Ohio. February 15 or 16. 1865. February 10. February 6. Globe (39th Cong. when the legislature of the twenty-seventh State (Georgia) approved the amendment. February 3. 1865 (date on which it was ‘‘approved’’ by Governor). New Hampshire. February 3. 1865). February 24. February 2. 1865. 1865. Secretary of State Seward certified that the Thirteenth Amendment had become a part of the Constitution. The amendment was rejected by Kentucky on February 24. having previously passed the Senate on June 8. 1865.

No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States. January 17. February 13. but not signed by legislative officers until February 13). February 18. October 30. without due process of law. Indiana. 1867 (date on which it was certified by the Missouri secretary of state). South Carolina. 1866. 1867. June 15. 15 Stat. January 10. 1868. October 8. two other States. July 13. 1868). 1867. Oregon. January 17. 1866). nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES 31 United States and of the State wherein they reside. Pennsylvania. certified that the amendment had become a part of the Constitution if the said withdrawals were ineffective. 1867. 1866. 1866. July 8. Massachusetts. 1866). July 7. Rhode Island. 2. 1867. 1867. Ohio. Illinois. North Carolina. 1867. 1868. 1867). SECTION. 1866 (the New Jersey Legislature on February 20. 1868 ‘‘withdrew’’ its consent to the ratification. January 15. Michigan. Minnesota. January 11. January 26. January 23. March 20. Secretary Seward certified without reservation that the amendment was a part of the Constitution. 1867. 1867 (actually passed February 7. January 19. On July 28. 1867. Mississippi. 1868. 1868 (after having rejected the amendment on November 9. April 6. February 7. 1867. . Iowa. Arkansas. Texas. New York. Louisiana. June 30. Secretary of State Seward on July 20. 1867. Florida. 1869 (after having rejected the amendment on January 9. liberty. In the interim. West Virginia. 1868. However. New Hampshire. Ohio and New Jersey had prior to that date ‘‘withdrawn’’ their earlier assent to this amendment. Accordingly. 1867. February 12. 1868. 1866. 1868 (date on which it was ‘‘approved’’ by the Governor). excluding Indians not taxed. Vermont. 1868 (after having rejected the amendment on December 13. July 9. June 9. July 21. Virginia. The several state legislatures ratified the Fourteenth Amendment on the following dates: Connecticut. 1868. 1867. 1867). 1868. January 16. 1866— Georgia ratified again on February 2. September 11. 1868 (after having rejected the amendment on December 20. Wisconsin. January 17. nor shall any State deprive any person of life. 1867). Congress on July 21. Nebraska. Georgia. The amendment was rejected (and not subsequently ratified) by Kentucky on January 8. counting the whole number of persons in each State. January 16. and it was repassed over his veto on March 24. July 2. Maine. 1867. 1867 (Ohio ‘‘withdrew’’ its consent on January 15. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers. New Jersey. Maryland and California ratified this amendment in 1959. the Governor vetoed that bill on March 5. January 22. Alabama on July 13 and Georgia on July 21. 1870. there being then 37 States in the Union. Representatives in Congress. February 12. 1870 (after having rejected the amendment on October 27. passed a joint resolution declaring the amendment a part of the Constitution and directing the Secretary to promulgate it as such. 706–707. Alabama. 1868). July 19. had added their ratifications. 1868. 1901 (after having rejected the amendment on February 7. March 9. Tennessee. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States. Kansas. the Executive and (South Carolina or Louisiana) approved the amendment. 1868). 1866). Missouri. September 19. or property. 1867. Delaware. 1870). 1866 (Oregon ‘‘withdrew’’ its consent on October 15. Nevada. 1868 (after having rejected the amendment on February 6.

to support the Constitution of the United States. including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion. but all such debts. under the United States. or elector of President and Vice President. SECTION. remove such disability. authorized by law. as a member of Congress. or as an executive or judicial officer of any State. or the members of the Legislature thereof. or as an officer of the United States. SECTION. except for participation in rebellion. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress. . shall not be questioned. or as a member of any State legislature.32 CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES Judicial officers of a State. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House. shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same. obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void. is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State. civil or military. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States. 4. or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave. the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twentyone years of age in such State. or under any State. having previously taken an oath. or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. and citizens of the United States. or in any way abridged. who. or other crime. 3. or hold any office. The validity of the public debt of the United States. being twenty-one years of age.

by appropriate legislation. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race. 1869.. when the legislature of the twenty-eighth State (Iowa) approved the amendment. November 16. there being then 48 States in the Union. The Congress shall have power to enforce. January 18.. Ratification was probably completed on February 3. Ratification was completed on February 3. October 8. March 12. 1869. January 13. Nebraska’s ratification on February 17. March 5. New York had prior to that date ‘‘withdrawn’’ its earlier assent to this amendment. 1870. March 15. The several state legislatures ratified the Fifteenth Amendment on the following dates: Nevada. On February . February 17. February 3. Massachusetts. March 5. 1869. Cong. or New Mexico) approved the amendment. authorized Secretary of State Fish’s certification of March 30. 1870 (Missouri had ratified the first section of the 15th Amendment on March 1. AMENDMENT XVI. 1869). 1563. and Tennessee. March 15. Id. 1869. California ratified this amendment in 1962 and Oregon in 1959. 1870 (Kansas had by a defectively worded resolution previously ratified this amendment on February 27. 1869). 1870). April 14. 1st Sess. 1869). 1870. 1869. Minnesota.) 1641. 1869. New York. 16 Stat. from whatever source derived. 1869. Id. March 1. 1564. March 25. 44 Cong. Michigan. Arkansas. 8 The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes. North Carolina. Delaware. Florida. having previously passed the Senate on July 5. 1869 (date on which it was ‘‘approved’’ by the Governor). when it passed the House. Illinois. 1869. 7 SECTION. June 14. January 27. Missouri. 4440. October 20. 1901 (date on which approved by Governor. 184. Georgia. Louisiana. 1869. March 11. Delaware had previously rejected the amendment on March 18. 4121. May 14. Wyoming. 1870. that the Fifteenth Amendment had become a part of the Constitution. 4441. 1869.. 1869. 1870. when the legislature of the thirty-sixth State (Delaware. February 12. 1869. February 2. February 18. 1870. New Jersey. It appears officially in 15 Stat. Mississippi. Vermont. 3rd Sess. Connecticut. 5. Globe (40th Cong. (61st Cong. Wisconsin. 1869. 1869. March 3. 1869. January 19.CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES 33 SECTION. color. or previous condition of servitude. Nebraska. 1869. It appears officially in 36 Stat. 8 The Sixteenth Amendment was proposed by Congress on July 12. July 1. without apportionment 7 The Fifteenth Amendment was proposed by Congress on February 26. there being then 37 States in the Union. Virginia. February 15. 1869 (New York ‘‘withdrew’’ its consent to the ratification on January 5. Even if this withdrawal were effective.. January 7. 1869. Kansas. Texas. Maryland. 1869. Rhode Island. 2. Rec. when it passed the Senate. 1870). 1870. March 5. 1913. 1870. Ohio.) 4390. it failed to include in its ratification the second section of the amendment). having previously passed the House on February 25. 1909. 1870. March 5. the provisions of this article. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. March 5. 1870. May 19. January 17. South Carolina. 1870. 1869. AMENDMENT XV. Pennsylvania. The amendment was rejected (and not subsequently ratified) by Kentucky. West Virginia. Alabama. SECTION. However. New Hampshire. Iowa. 1869. 1871 (after having rejected the amendment on February 7. 1869. 1. 1870 (after having rejected the amendment on May 4. Indiana. 1131. Maine. 346 under the date of February 27.

The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures. February 19. Colorado. March 14. 1911). North Carolina. 1913. elected by the people thereof. April 1. 1913. February 15. 1912. 1911 (after having rejected the amendment at the session begun January 9. 1913 (after having rejected the amendment on March 2. 1911. April 2. Iowa. New Hampshire. The several state legislatures ratified the Seventeenth Amendment on the following dates: Massachusetts. 1911. Indiana.. Kansas. Missouri. 1913. June 10. January 26. June 11. Secretary of State Bryan certified that it had become a part of the Constitution. 1912. 1913. February 19. Iowa. 1913. January 17. Washington. Idaho. Arkansas. 1913. February 3. Nebraska. Texas. South Carolina. 1912.) 1925. the executive authority of such State shall issue 25. May 22. 1913. Massachusetts. Indiana. there being then 48 States in the Union. February 24. New Hampshire. February 23. Nebraska. Kentucky. (62d Cong. January 28.34 CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES among the several States. February 25. Connecticut. February 24. 1911. On May 31. Oregon. 1913. Louisiana. and without regard to any census or enumeration. 1913. 1913. Ratification was completed on April 8. 1785. 1911. Texas. North Dakota. 1913. February 19. February 4. March 4. Washington. 1911. Illinois. Rec. 1911. 1912. 1913. and each Senator shall have one vote. 1913. 1910. 1913. January 31. New Jersey. 1913. 1913. February 9. February 20. 9 The Seventeenth Amendment was proposed by Congress on May 13. January 31. 1912. 1913. New Mexico. 1911. April 7. for six years. 1913. 1913. January 30. 1911. Arkansas. 1913. Nevada. February 14. Ohio. 1913. January 25. Idaho. Wisconsin. Secretary of State Knox certified that this amendment had become a part of the Constitution. May 16. February 8. January 27. January 19. 1913. Vermont. March 31. Oklahoma. 1913. January 15. April 22. 1913. 1913. 1911. February 6. 1913. 1913. January 23. 1913. Maine. 1913. 2d Sess. August 16. 1909. February 1. 1911. 1911. February 11. 1911. 1913. West Virginia. Georgia.) 6367. March 10. The amendment was rejected by Utah on February 26. Ohio. California. January 30. West Virginia. 1913. February 8. 1913. 1911. The several state legislatures ratified the Sixteenth Amendment on the following dates: Alabama. New York. South Dakota. Maine. Tennessee. 1st Sess. 1913.] 9 The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State. January 23. Illinois. 1910. Minnesota. Kansas. Pennsylvania. 1911. 1911. 1910. Vermont. South Dakota. March 16. Minnesota. February 19. California. New Jersey. March 7. Rhode Island. 1913. when the thirty-sixth State (Connecticut) approved the amendment. August 10. June 28. January 31. 646. March 7. Wyoming. 1913. June 3. 1910. 1914. 1913. 1911. 1912. 1910. 1911. February 18. 37 Stat. Wisconsin. January 30. Maryland. February 7. February 3. Nevada. June 5. (62d Cong. 1913. Louisiana. 1913. When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate. 1913. July 12. having previously passed the Senate on June 12. Tennessee. 1913. February 19. Oklahoma. Wyoming. Oregon. April 3. February 11. March 13. 1911. March 17. Arizona.. Montana. April 8. March 7. March 1. 1910. 48 Cong. 1913. 1910. Michigan. February 4. Colorado. 1911. New Mexico. 1913. North Dakota. North Carolina. 1911. 1911). Rec. Montana. 1910. February 5. when it passed the House. 1911. 38 Stat 2049. 1912. Michigan. . AMENDMENT [XVII. January 28. Delaware. February 7. March 2. 1913. January 31. Mississippi. 47 Cong. 1913. August 3. February 3. It appears officially in 37 Stat. April 8. Arizona. 1911. January 20. The amendment was rejected (and not subsequently ratified) by Connecticut. February 13. February 17. February 19. Missouri. and Utah. New York.

1919. Louisiana. 1922. January 29. Arkansas. January 8. April 2. January 29. 1918. New Hampshire. 1919. 1918. January 16. 1918. SEC. March 18. Id. Illinois. January 13.) 478. January 14. January 15. January 15. January 15. January 15. (65th Cong. Utah.] 10 SECTION. South Dakota. 1918 (date on which approved by Governor). Ohio. Missouri. January 14. Rec. Oregon. South Carolina. when it passed the Senate. 1919. 1918. This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution. 1919. 1919. Kentucky. January 17. New Mexico. January 28. 1918. Oklahoma. 10 The Eighteenth Amendment was proposed by Congress on December 18. 1918. 1919. Massachusetts. Cong. January 16. Kansas. Virginia. North Dakota. 1919. Tennessee. Nevada. August 9. It appears officially in 40 Stat. 1919. On January 29.CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES 35 writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided. January 11. January 8. Colorado. January 9. January 14. 1918. Pennsylvania. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture. January 16.. January 16. 1918. 1919. Michigan. 1919. California. Delaware. 1919. 1919. North Carolina. 1918. Connecticut. 1918. 1917. January 15. 1919. January 20. March 9. 1919. 1. February 19. 2. January 13. Minnesota. 1918. February 13. November 27. By its terms this amendment did not become effective until 1 year after ratification. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 1919. Indiana. January 13. or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. New Jersey. Maine. AMENDMENT [XVIII. Georgia. January 8. New York. having previously passed the House on December 17. 1919. January 14. January 14. March 20. 1918 (date on which approved by Governor). Ratification was completed on January 16. Wisconsin. 2d Sess. 470. there being then 48 States in the Union. May 6. 1919. Acting Secretary of State Polk certified that this amendment had been adopted by the requisite number of States. 1919. June 26. Washington. January 17. Alabama. The several state legislatures ratified the Eighteenth Amendment on the following dates: Mississippi. Texas. sale. 1059. Vermont. March 4. January 7. Nebraska. 1918. Maryland. Wyoming. 1941. Idaho. 1919. the importation thereof into. February 25. 1919. 40 Stat. January 16. 1919. Arizona. when the thirty-sixth State approved the amendment. or transportation of intoxicating liquors within. 1919. 1919. January 21. Florida. May 24. 1918. That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct. 1919. . 1919. Iowa. 1919. 1919. 1919. Montana. January 29. 1919. January 2. West Virginia. 1919. January 7. 1919. 1919. 1919.

Rec. February 9. by Virginia on February 12. September 8. 1920. Ratification was completed on August 18. Secretary of State Stimson certified that it had become a part of the Constitution. Texas. October 2. 1919. within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress. July 3. having previously passed the House on March 1. 1919. and the terms 11 The Nineteenth Amendment was proposed by Congress on June 4. 1919. when it passed the Senate. July 2. having previously passed the house on May 21. by Louisiana on July 1. 1919.] 12 SECTION. when the thirty-sixth State (Tennessee) approved the amendment. Rec.. 1919. AMENDMENT [XIX. 1920. 1920. Montana. Kansas. June 16. September 10. New York. July 28. 1920. 1919. Michigan. Cong. 1919 (readopted June 17. February 8. 1920. March 10. 94. 1919.. 1920. 1919 (date on which approved by governor). New Jersey.. June 10. 1932. (66th Cong. 5027. . 1919. 1920). 1919 (date on which approved by Governor). 1933. January 27. The several state legislatures ratified the Nineteenth Amendment on the following dates: Illinois. January 13. there being then 48 States in the Union. Ohio. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Massachusetts. June 28. December 1. there being then 48 States in the Union. 1920. Wisconsin. Indiana. 1919. 1823. 1920. Utah. 1920. December 15. Wyoming. June 16. 1919. (72d Cong. 1919. Arkansas. 47 Stat. August 2. Maine. Minnesota.36 CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES SEC. November 5. 1920. 1919 (date on which approved by Governor). as provided in the Constitution. December 4. Pennsylvania. 1933. Nevada. 1920. Kentucky. February 21. June 25. February 12. and Georgia and Louisiana in 1970. 1. 1919. June 10. by Mississippi on March 29. August 2. Florida in 1969. 1919. by Maryland on February 24. 1920. Missouri. On February 6. Arizona. West Virginia. when it passed the Senate. The amendment was rejected by Georgia on July 24. 362. South Dakota. 1919 (date on which approved by Governor). Nebraska. 1920. 1919. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States. by South Carolina on January 29. 12 The Twentieth Amendment was proposed by Congress on March 2. June 24. 1920. January 6. June 16. when the thirty-sixth State approved the amendment. 1919. January 16.] 11 The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. 1919 (date on which certified). California. Rhode Island. North Dakota. This amendment was subsequently ratified by Virginia in 1952. 1920 (confirmed September 21.) 5086. 1st Sess. 1919. 1921. 1919. Secretary of Colby certified that it had become a part of the Constitution. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January. 41 Stat. 1919. 2569. 3. by Alabama on September 22. Cong.) 635. On August 26. February 28. February 7. 1920. 1920. Oregon. Colorado. Alabama in 1953. Oklahoma. 1920 (date on which approved by govrnor). Ratification was completed on January 23. January 6. Vermont. February 11. 1st Sess. June 10. Idaho. New Hampshire. November 1. It appears officially in 47 Stat. 1919). Iowa. 1920. Id. New Mexico.. Id. It appears officially in 41 Stat. 745. 1919. AMENDMENT [XX.

1932. January 23. January 19. 1932. SEC. 1932. Washington. January 23. January 13. January 19. 1933. September 7. April 14. 1932. August 15. Connecticut. 1932. 1933. March 16. Minnesota. Kansas. Indiana. Nebraska. January 4. North Dakota. New Jersey. Arkansas March 17. 3. January 20. January 20. 1933. at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President. January 13. or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected. January 21. the President elect shall have died. The several state legislatures ratified the Twentieth Amendment on the following dates: Virginia. 1932. January 23. Oregon. April 26. 1933. 1932. 1933. the Vice President elect shall become President. March 17. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term. 1933. 1933. July 30. Vermont. January 5. January 19. January 16. Georgia. 1932. 1933. 1933. 1932. Texas. 1932. January 16. Illinois. or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify. Rhode Island. 1933. January 27. then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified. . 1933. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year. New Mexico. Delaware. If. March 21. Wyoming. 1933. and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January. March 31. March 4. 1933. Arizona. 2. Utah. Pennsylvania. 1932. Maine. April 1. March 11. 1932. 1932. and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified. June 22. unless they shall by law appoint a different day.CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES 37 of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January. 1933. West Virginia. New York. January 21. 1933. Montana. South Carolina. January 20. 1932. January 24. North Carolina. January 9. January 24. 1933. 1933. 1933. January 23. Tennessee. Missouri. 1933. declaring who shall then act as President. January 31. 1932. 1933. Nevada. Colorado. March 24. Ohio. Idaho. 1933. 1933. SEC. 1933. January 13. California. Oklahoma. 1933. 1933. and the terms of their successors shall then begin. Alabama. April 21. 1932. August 11. Wisconsin. New Hampshire. January 24. 1933. 1933. Massachusetts. 1933. 1933. South Dakota. Michigan. February 2. 1932. Kentucky. September 13. and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified. Iowa. of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified. 1933. Maryland. Mississippi. 1933. January 13. Florida. Louisiana. January 26. January 12. March 25.

Ratification was completed on December 5. and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them. Cong. SEC. Texas. June 27. Arkansas. June 24. Washington. The amendment was rejected by a convention in the State of South Carolina.) 4516. Acting Secretary of State Phillips certified that it had been adopted by the requisite number of States. Ohio. Connecticut.] 13 SECTION. Kentucky. 1933. July 24.. 1933. December 5. Id. April 10. 1933. 1933. Rec. 48 Stat. (72d Cong. 1933. 1749. 1933. 1933. 1. Wyoming. August 29. July 25. 1933. August 7. 1933. September 5. 1933. July 11. Iowa. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission. December 5. AMENDMENT [XXI. 6. 1933. 1933. Colorado. July 11. 1933. Rhode Island. August 1. September 23. when the thirty-sixth State (Utah) approved the amendment. May 25. 1933. November 27. 5. Indiana. Idaho. New Jersey. December 5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article. 4. September 26. The several state conventions ratified the Twenty-first Amendment on the following dates: Michigan. 1933. June 26. 1933. Tennessee. 2d Sess. Minnesota. Florida. when it passed the House. SEC. 1933. 1933. Missouri. there being then 48 States in the Union. Nevada. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them. 1933. The transportation or importation into any State. 1933. 4231. August 8. November 14. 2. New Mexico. September 5. on December 4. The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed. . 1933. 1933. October 25. 1933. Virginia. 1933. Pennsylvania. On December 5. 1933. Arizona. Maine. Delaware. June 1. November 24. October 3. Wisconsin. June 26. August 11. 1933. West Virginia. 1625. 1933. It appears officially in 47 Stat. 1933. 1933. or possession of the United States for delivery or use 13 The Twenty-first Amendment was proposed by Congress on February 20. July 10. New York. 1933. Montana. December 6. having previously passed the Senate on February 16. July 10.. Illinois. Alabama. 1933. 1933. October 17. 1933. 1933. October 18. California.38 CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES SEC. 1933. Oregon. 1933. Massachusetts. 1934. November 2. The electorate of the State of North Carolina voted against holding a convention at a general election held on November 7. May 8. April 25. 1933. Maryland. 1933. New Hampshire. 1933. SEC. August 6. 1933. 1933. Territory. October 10. Utah. Vermont. 1933.

1978. Oregon. 1947. April 16. February 26. 1947. Tennessee. is hereby prohibited. 1951.. (80th Cong. February 17. February 12. February 12. 1st Sess. Id. January 28. Arkansas.. 1947. 1951. Cong. April 2. May 17. during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of 14 The Twenty-second Amendment was proposed by Congress on March 24. 1947. February 20. 1951. 1947. April 16. South Dakota. 1951.] 14 SECTION. 1951. Utah. .) 2392. 1947. March 9. April 1. certified that it had been adopted by the requisite number of States. May 22. 1951. 1951. 1947. 1951. It appears officially in 61 Stat. 1949. Colorado. April 16. 1951. 1947. Jess Larson. 2019. in violation of the laws thereof. or acted as President. 1948. 1947. Virginia. there being then 48 States in the Union. April 15. March 14. Idaho. 1951. and no person who has held the office of President. Iowa. 1947. February 22. SEC. 1951. Maryland. 1947. 1948. Texas. March 31. April 1. and Alabama. April 3. Illinois. Indiana. Delaware. 1947. February 28. Louisiana. February 15. Rec. 1951. 16 Fed. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice. and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President. 1947. 1947. Michigan. 1948. Montana. Nebraska. Connecticut. Vermont. South Carolina. 1951. 1947. May 4. North Carolina. North Dakota. April 29. 1947. Georgia. May 21. Administrator of General Services. On March 1. 1947. 1950. 1947. when the thirty-sixth State (Minnesota) approved the amendment. New Jersey. March 31. Wisconsin. February 12. New Mexico. May 23. New York. 3. 1951. January 30. April 1. Wyoming. when this Article was proposed by the Congress. April 12. 1947. April 15. as provided in the Constitution. New Hampshire. 1947. Nevada. February 26. January 25. Mississippi. or acting as President. for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. Kansas. Ohio.CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES 39 therein of intoxicating liquors. February 27. Pennsylvania. having passed the House on March 21. January 29. AMENDMENT [XXII. 1951. 1951. February 25. within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress. January 21. March 13. California. Minnesota. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President. Reg. April 3. A total of 41 state legislatures ratified the Twenty-second Amendment on the following dates: Maine. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States. 1951. and having previously passed the Senate on March 12. Ratification was completed on February 27. 1949. 959. 1951. 1951. Missouri. 1947. 1. April 15. Florida.

1961. Illinois. March 30. Indiana.40 CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES President or acting as President during the remainder of such term. 1961. 1961. 2. February 1. February 6. March 3. February 28. when it passed the Senate. 1961. January 30. 1961. February 8. February 21. 1961. January 27. On April 3. 1961. Oklahoma. March 22. Wisconsin. The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct: A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State. Kansas. The several state legislatures ratified the Twenty-third Amendment on the following dates: Hawaii. March 8. 1961. New Mexico. Colorado. but in no event more than the least populous State. (86th Cong. 1961.. there being then 50 States in the Union. 1961. It appears officially in 74 Stat. but they shall be considered. Connecticut. December 19. 1961. 1. February 20. Michigan. 1961. March 10. to be electors appointed by a State. Montana. Maryland. 1961. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress. 1961. Vermont. Missouri. 1961. February 9. they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States. Id. March 29. March 21. 1961. January 31. 1960. 1961. Washington. 1961. 1960. 1961. February 13. March 29. Nevada. Oregon. for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President. 1961. January 17. Delaware. Arizona. 1961. 1960. and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment. Rec. and New Hampshire. AMENDMENT [XXIII. Utah. . January 19. 1961. 1961.] 15 SECTION. March 9.) 12858. 1961. Ohio. March 3. 12571. Ratification was completed on March 29. Tennessee. John L. Alaska. 1961. West Virginia. January 31. 1960. 1961. Nebraska. August 22. February 10. 1961. Wyoming. January 31. Iowa. certified that it had been adopted by the requisite number of States.. 1961. SEC. 1961. Reg. 1961. Minnesota. Maine. Rhode Island. Massachusetts. March 16. Cong. March 15. having previously passed the House on June 14. New York. February 14. 1961. March 14. 1961. 1961. March 15. Moore. 1961. California. Administrator of General Services. 15 The Twenty-third Amendment was proposed by Congress on June 16. February 21. 26 Fed. when the thirty-eighth State (Ohio) approved the amendment. 2d Sess. 2808. Idaho. South Dakota. 1961. March 20. March 6. 1057. 1961. New Jersey. Pennsylvania. February 2. North Dakota. February 9. 1961. June 23. 1961.

16 The Twenty-fourth Amendment was proposed by Congress on September 14. Kentucky. 1963. Missouri. when the thirty-eighth State (South Dakota) approved the Amendment. March 28. Iowa. having passed the House on August 27. 1962. New Mexico. 1963. Wisconsin. 1963. Utah. April 4. 1963. 1259. to have been ratified. 1964. Ratification was completed on January 23.. April 24. for electors for President or Vice President. 1963. 2. April 18. Johnson signed this certificate. 1965. 17 This Amendment was proposed by the Eighty-ninth Congress by Senate Joint Resolution No. The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President. 1. certified that it had been adopted by the requisite number of States. and the Senate agreed to the Conference Report on July 6. March 20. 1963. March 26. 1963. and by the House of Representatives. 1962. February 7. on April 13. 1965. Nebraska. Indiana. Nevada. 1963. February 20. March 19. Pennsylvania. March 7. 1963. January 25. March 15. February 19. Id. 1963. On February 4. 2d Sess. February 14. January 28. AMENDMENT [XXV. 1963. Reg. It appears officially in 76 Stat. Washington. November 14. in amended form. 1963. 1963. May 13. 1964. 1963. North Dakota. Colorado. Cong. Kansas. February 27. California. It was declared by the Administrator of General Services. 1963. January 23. 1.) 17670 and having previously passed the Senate on March 27. January 16. 25 Fed. Bernard L. 1962. 1963. 1965. 1963. Oregon. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. March 25. 1963. March 5. President Lyndon B. 1963. 1717. Administrator of General Services. 1963. February 4. Maine. Alaska. West Virginia. February 20. Thirty-eight state legislatures ratified the Twenty-fourth Amendment on the following dates: Illinois. New Jersey. 1963. . Hawaii. on February 23. February 1. June 27. South Dakota. March 28. Minnesota. Montana. March 21. Rec. 1963. May 1. 1963. Vermont. 1.] 17 SECTION. 1964. February 21. 1963.CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES 41 SEC. December 3. March 14. 1963. 1963. The House of Representatives agreed to a Conference Report on June 30. February 27. March 8. 1967. Boutin. or for Senator or Representative in Congress. Massachusetts. Michigan. (87th Cong. 5105. February 11. June 16. March 6. 1963. February 6. 1965. 1963. 1962. Florida. which was approved by the Senate on February 19. 1964.. 1963. New York. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 1963.] 16 SECTION. 2. the Vice President shall become President. 1963. Connecticut. Maryland. AMENDMENT [XXIV. Tennessee. 1962. 1963. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation. 1963. Idaho. SECTION. Ohio. 1963. New Hampshire. shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax. Delaware. there being then 50 States in the Union. Rhode Island.

February 3. March 22. 1966. 1965. 1966. Montana. 1966. January 25. March 14. September 15. 1966. Alabama. the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President. 1967. October 21. March 8. 1966. Kansas. Maine. Nevada. Tennessee. August 9. and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary. SECTION. 1967. Utah. July 12. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide. 1965. Arkansas. January 20. 1966. 1966. 1967. 1967. 1965. 1966. March 30. January 12. Texas. New Mexico.R. March 23. February 2. . October 20. April 25. SECTION. 1966. February 8. the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress. November 29. February 10. This Amendment was ratified by the following States: Nebraska. November 4. 1967 Illinois. 2. 32 Fed. Missouri. 1967. 67–2208. 1966. Oregon. 1967. 1967. 1966. February 10. 1965. 1966. Alaska. 1966. 1967. Washington. 1965. February 3. 1965. March 2. 1965. Idaho. January 28. North Carolina. February 10. October 5. Rhode Island. March 10. March 22. New Jersey. Indiana. July 16. 1965. New Hampshire. 1967. Louisiana. 1965. December 7. March 14. Massachusetts. 1966. Colorado. March 3. South Dakota. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives has written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Wisconsin. Florida. July 13.42 CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES SECTION. Wyoming. 1967. 1966. New York. 3. February 15. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President. Mississippi. 1967. Reg. 1966. Maryland. 4. such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President. 1967. August 18. Arizona. 1965. January 24. Hawaii. September 22. F. January 26. California. Vermont. 1967. March 7. Michigan. Connecticut. Doc. Pennsylvania. Virginia. January 26. May 25. July 5. Publication of the certifying statement of the Administrator of General Services that the Amendment had become valid was made on February 25. Minnesota. 1967. Ohio. 3287. 1965. Delaware. 1966. February 18. 1965. 1965. Kentucky. Iowa. 1966. 1967. transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. March 6. West Virginia. June 13. 1967. February 14. Oklahoma. January 17.

April 3. 1971. April 7. the Senate having previously passed an identical resolution on March 10. when action by the legislature of the 38th State. March 23. the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President. the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office. 1971. 42 States had ratified this Amendment: Connecticut. Arkansas. 1971. Hawaii. New Jersey. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue. Montana. otherwise. Tennessee. if Congress is not in session. within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration. Alaska. 1971. and the Administrator of the General Services Administration officially certified it to have been duly ratified on July 5. 1971. transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble. 36 Fed. March 24. 1971. Washington. April . 1971. If the Congress. 1971. March 23. Michigan. 12725. March 30. Idaho. Indiana. determines by twothirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. April 7. 1971. 1971. 1971. when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives has written declaration that no inability exists. March 24. March 23. March 30. It appears officially in 85 Stat. 1971. April 2. AMENDMENT [XXVI] 18 SECTION. upon passage by the House of Representatives. was concluded. Nebraska. or. Reg. 1971. 1971. he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide. April 8. 1971. 1971. Ratification was completed on July 1. 1971. Delaware. 1971. Massachusetts. Kansas. The right of citizens of the United States. 1971. April 8. 825. North Carolina. who are eighteen years of age or older. Minnesota. March 29. March 23. Iowa. Maryland.CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES 43 Thereafter. 1971. 1971. March 23. assembling within fortyeight hours for that purpose if not in session. As of the publication of this volume. to vote shall not be denied 18 The Twenty-sixth Amendment was proposed by Congress on March 23. March 30. 1.

REC. April 3. REG. May 31. 1992. April 22. 1987. 1971. April 27. when it passed the Senate. July 10. Idaho. June 4. § 106b. 1989. pursuant to 1 U. Connecticut. June 30. AMENDMENT [XXVII] 19 No law varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives shall take effect. West Virginia. Texas. May 25.S. Vermont. April 27. Virginia. Tennessee. Alaska. April 5. 1989. 2. 21187. 1992. Kansas. 1971. 1988. 1971. May 5. South Carolina. the proposal then failed of ratification while ten of the 12 sent to the States by Congress were ratified and proclaimed and became the Bill of Rights. West Virginia. 1971. 1971. South Dakota. June 2.C. Florida. February 1985. May 13. Louisiana. North Carolina. 1987. February 14. 1989. December 22. The several state legislatures ratified the proposal on the following dates: Maryland. Arizona.Doc. Georgia. 1989. when Michigan ratified on May 7. June 22. Montana. 1984. 1971. Arkansas. (1 Annals of Congress 88. 1992. New Mexico. Virginia. Pennsylvania. May 6. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. May 19. 1971. 1987. March 7. Oklahoma. Minnesota. there being 50 States in the Union. 19 This purported amendment was proposed by Congress on September 25. Oregon. Colorado. 913). March 13. 1971. Indiana. Maine. 92–11951. October 4. 1873. April 28. 1789. . Ohio. 1986. having previously passed the House on September 24. May 5.44 CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age. January 28. November 3. Alabama. Michigan. March 10. Mary 25. Louisiana. Illinois. Ohio. 1989. June 29. 1790. South Carolina. 1971. Texas. 1990. The provision was proclaimed as having been ratified and having become the 27th Amendment. February 25. 1971. 57 FED. Wisconsin. Having received in 1789–1791 only six state ratifications. North Carolina. 1985. Nevada. 1790. 1971. F. April 19. 1992. April 27. California. 1989. Alabama. April 27. 1986. July 7. 1971. 1988. H 3505–06. 1971. April 17. SECTION. May 22. 1971. February 9. New York. 1971. February 2. Oregon. Oklahoma. 1971. Delaware. 1978. 1971. 1987. It was also proclaimed by votes of the Senate and House of Representatives. 1791. Georgia. 1971. January 19. 1971. May 27. 1789. June 14. It appears officially in 1 Stat. 1789. June 30. Arizona. New Jersey subsequently ratified on May 7. 1988. 1990. Utah. 1971. 97. Iowa. July 15. 1971. 1791. July 1. Vermont. Missouri. 1985. Colorado. 1971. on May 19. 1971. 1986. 1991. 1992. April 9. April 16. May 6. Maine. July 8.R. Wisconsin. 1971. 8. May 13. March 17. North Dakota. July 1. Proclamation was by the Archivist of the United States. December 15. December 19. Rhode Island. 1985. May 28. March 23. (daily ed) S 6948–49. 1989. April 26. 1992. May 7. 138 CONG. New Hampshire. 1985. 1983. March 6. February 24. Wyoming. April 28. Missouri. until an election of Representatives shall have intervened. July 8. May 14. New Hampshire. 1971. Wyoming.

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