ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
Prepared by : Ashish Gurung Submitted to: Sajida Saleem Date: April 17, 2011

...........2.................. 12 5. Explain how the relationship between NHS‟s structure and culture can impact on the performance of the operations................. Suggest and compare how you would explain the concept of organisational structure and culture.......... 2......................... .....Table of Contents 1.................... 5 4 Approaches of leadership and motivational theories............................................... 5 3.........1....... .... 8 4. 2 2.................. Discuss and compare different approaches of management and identify current major trends in management theories for two organisations.............................. Distinguish between group task roles........ 9 4.......... 7.... Assume and briefly discuss the factors that might influence the behaviour of NHS employees....... ....... Explain different motivational theories and their application within NHS organisation........................... ....2.................3.................................................................3............ Distinguish between different approaches to the study of leadership and discuss how relevant are they in current business environment......................................... Describe essential characteristics of a successful work group or team. Discuss the impact of technology on a team functioning within the NHS.............. 17 ......................................................... 11 5 Group task roles and impact of technology in group members of NHS.. Give examples for each of these... 13 5.......... 14 6........... ................... 2 2............. 1 Organizational culture and structure in NHS .................................................................................................................... group building and maintenance roles and individual roles..... ........ As a manager explain how you would develop effective team relationships..1..................1.. What implications do the motivational theories have for the managers? ....... 3 2........................................................... Consider the magnitude of the organization and the Event while assuming the factors... Executive Summary ............ performance and the influences that threaten success.............. .......... ..................2...................................................1...... ... ............................................. 12 5........................ Conclusion ..... 8 4................. 15 References ................ 4 3 Management approaches.3.......................

It can further bring an improvement in the quality and employee productivity by showing managers how to empower their people. Organizational Behavior offers both challenges and opportunities for managers. 1 . OB specifically focuses on how to improve productivity. OB offers managers a guidance in creating an ethically healthy work climate. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Organizational behavior is a field of study that investigates the impact of individuals. groups and structure have on behavior within organizations. It offers specific offers to improve the skills of a manager. reduce abseentism and turnover and increase employee citizenship and job satisfaction. design and implement change programs and help employees to balance work / life conflicts. for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organizations‟ effectiveness.Organizational Behavior 1. OB recognizes the differences and helps managers in seeing the value of workforce diversity and practices that may needs to be changed when managing in different locations.

grouped and coordinated.Organizational Behavior 2. Organizational structure refers to the arrangement of jobs in an organization. Team orientation – the degree to which work activities are organized around team or groups Aggressiveness – the degree to which people are aggressive and competitive 2 . In other words organizational structure defines how jobs are formally divided. Formalization – the degree to which jobs are standardized within an organization Organization culture – Organizational culture is a system of shared meaning held by the members of the organization that differentiates it from other organizations. While designing an organizational structure there are six key element that have to be kept in mind by every managers which are as follows:       Work specialization – refers to the degree to which tasks in the organization are subdivided into separate jobs Departmentalization . There are seven characteristics of organization which are as follows:       Innovation and risk taking – the degree to which employees are encouraged to take risks and be innovative Attention to detail – the degree to which employees are expected to exhibit attention to detail Outcome orientation – the degree to which management focuses on results People orientation – the degree to which management decisions take into consideration the effect of outcomes on the members of the organization.1.refers to the basis by which jobs are grouped together Chain of command – the unbroken line of authority that extends from the top level of the organization to the lower level Span of control – the number of subordinates that a supervisor can handle efficiently Centralization and Decentralization – degree to which the authority is concentrated whether at a central point or by all the organizational members. Suggest and compare how you would explain the concept of organizational structure and culture. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND STRUCTURE IN NHS 2.

pharmacists and optometrists. Primary care is the first point of contact for most people and is delivered by a wide range of independent contractors. The organization culture is pictured by appraising the organization on the basis of the above characteristics. dentists.Organizational Behavior  Stability – the degree to which the organizational activities emphasizes on maintaining the status quo The above characteristics exist in a continuum from low to high. including GPs. (Organizational Behavior – Stephen P. http://www. Explain how the relationship between NHS’s structure and culture can impact on the performance of the operations. its staff. (NHS wikipidea) Talking about the NHS culture it is made up of hundreds of organization each with their own management boards and budget systems. prescriptions.uk/NHSEngland/thenhs/about/Pages/nhsstructure.2. and many aspects of personal care. 3 . Robbins) 2.nhs. The NHS also has a formal constitution which sets out the legal rights and responsibilities of the NHS. dental care. The NHS provides healthcare to anyone normally resident in England or any other part of the United Kingdom with most services free at the point of use for the patient though there are charges associated with eye tests. The National Health Service also known as NHS is the publicly funded healthcare system in England.aspx The diagram above shows that NHS structure is divided into two major parts Primary care and Secondary care. and users of the service and makes additional non-binding pledges regarding many key aspects of its operations.

Assume and briefly discuss the factors that might influence the behavior of NHS employees. Consider the magnitude of the organization and the Event while assuming the factors. This may have a positive as well as negative impact on the behavior of the employees working there. Points for Discussion) 2. (Internal & External Factors That Influence Employee Behavior | eHow.3. outdated systems. The NHS structure and culture shows that the employees working there are very closely knitted. Similarly.The rest of society has moved on but in NHS the old-fashioned demarcations between staff. Professor of Sociology. restricted opening and operating times. unnecessarily complex procedures and a lack of training all combine to create a culture where the convenience of the patient can come a poor second to the convenience. University of Nottingham. (Seminar 3. usually following referral from a primary or community health professional such as a GP. External factors include family life and other business relationships.Organizational Behavior Secondary care also known as acute healthcare can be either elective care or emergency care. Factors that might influence the behavior of the NHS employees can be divided into internal and external factors.com 4 . Positive impact in the sense the employees may feel that they are tied together and get motivated and work together for the attainment of goal. Professor Robert Dingwall. The NHS ways of working and its culture bears too many of the hallmarks of the 1940s. organizational structure and the corporate culture. the old fashioned demarcations within the staffs may create an inconvenience for the patients. external factors i. Internal factors include leadership. Elective care means planned specialist medical care or surgery.e family life and relationship with the outsiders also plays a major role in influencing the behavior of the staffs working in NHS. Talking about the negative impact.

According to system approach. behavioral management approach were developed. Then. Scientific management deals with the job of individual employees whereas administrative management deals with the organization as a whole. it focuses on utilizing the limited labor force. the approach failed to predict complex individual behavior.1. The 14 principles of management by Henry Fayol and the Bureaucratic theory of authority structure and relations by Max Weber are the theories under the Administrative approach. employees were viewed as tools rather than as resources so. But. Classical management approaches includes the scientific management and administrative management. Scientific management focuses on increasing productivity. Human relations and organizational behavior were given importance. mathematical models cannot fully account for individual behaviors and attitudes in the organization. Quantitative management techniques were developed to assist in decision making. Then.Organizational Behavior 3. the approach is more appropriate for stable and simple organizations. In other words. Theories of management before refer to classical management approaches. an organization is viewed as a system where there is interdependence of the entities within the system. A system is an interrelated set of elements functioning as a whole. The classical approach laid a foundation for development of other management approaches or theories. In Classical management. planning and controlling. a husband and wife engineering team further developed work measurement methods. „father of scientific management‟ began first time and motion studies. But. But. Discuss and compare different approaches of management and identify current major trends in management theories for two organizations. Frederick W Taylor. Lillian and Frank Gilbreth. this approach had some demerits i. the system approach was developed. After the II world war. System approach is very much relevant in today‟s complex work setting. They have applied efficiency methods to their home and 12 children. MANAGEMENT APPROACHES 3. He developed the efficiency principles.  Management Approaches Management approaches have been divided as classical management and management today. 5 .e.

He strongly believed that character is a product of circumstances and that environment and early education is critical in forming good character. where he described his vision of society. He also became active in improving living conditions of employees through the implementation of improvements in housing. In 1813. Finally the tactical improvements of waste reduction or the elimination of muda are very valuable. It is also crucial to ensure that the process is as flexible as necessary without stress or "muri" (overburden) since this generates "muda" (waste). sanitation. He started a legislative movement to limit child employment to those over the age of ten while reducing the workday to 10 1/2 hours. „New View of Society‟ was published by Robert. Robert‟s ideas stemmed from his ownership of a cotton mill in where he developed a strong interest in the welfare of the 400 to 500 child employees. including interaction with suppliers and customers. by designing out "mura" (inconsistency).  Major trends in management theories for two organizations The owner of a cotton mill Robert Owen is credited with being the forerunner of the modern Human relations school of management. public works and establishing schools for the children. The most significant effects on process value delivery are achieved by designing a process capable of delivering the required results smoothly. The Toyota Company follows the Toyota Production System (TPS). There are seven kinds of muda that are addressed in the TPS which are as follows:    over-production motion (of operator or machine) waiting (of operator or machine) 6 . TPS is an integrated socio-technical system developed by Toyota that comprises its management philosophy and practices. Behavioral and Quantitative perspectives are considered as universal perspectives – “One Best Way” Contingency theory also known as situational approach tells that appropriate managerial behavior in a given situation depends upon unique elements in that situation.Organizational Behavior Classical. The TPS organizes manufacturing and logistics for the automobile manufacturer. and to eliminate waste (muda). TPS‟s main objectives are to design out overburden (muri) and inconsistency (mura). a pamphlet.

wikipedia.org/wiki/Toyota_Production_System) 7 .Organizational Behavior     conveyance processing itself inventory (raw material) correction (rework and scrap) The elimination of waste has come to dominate the thinking of many when they look at the effects of the TPS because it is the most familiar of the three to implement. In the TPS many initiatives are triggered by inconsistency or overburden reduction which drives out waste without specific focus on its reduction. (http://en.

1. Early Leadership Theories: 1. intelligence. APPROAHES OF LEADERSHIP AND MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES 4. 2. Research on the leadership by various researchers identified seven traits associated with successful leadership: Drive. “ . Trait Theories (1920s-30s)    Research focused on identifying personal characteristics that differentiated leaders from non-leaders. Leadership is “the process of influencing an organized group toward accomplishing its goals. Distinguish between different approaches to the study of leadership and discuss how relevant are they in current business environment. honesty and integrity.Organizational Behavior 4. job-relevant knowledge. the desire to lead. and extraversion.Roach and Behling. Behavioral Theories  University of Iowa Studies (Kurt Lewin) identified three leadership styles: o Autocratic style o Democratic style o Laissez faire style  Ohio State Studies identified two dimensions of leader behavior: o Initiating structure: the role of the leader in defining his or her role and the roles of group members o Consideration: the leader’s mutual trust and respect for group members’ ideas and feelings  University of Michigan Studies identified leaders exhibited one of the two dimensions of behavior: o Production oriented: emphasizing task accomplishment o Employee oriented: emphasizing personal relationships 8 . self-confidence.

Creates four specific leadership styles incorporating Fiedler‟s two leadership dimensions: Results:     Telling: Selling: Participating: high task-low relationship leadership high task-high relationship leadership low task-high relationship leadership Delegating: low task-low relationship leadership Leadership plays a central part in understanding group behavior. Management. (2010). N. 10th Edition.2.Organizational Behavior Contingency theories of leadership: 1. S. attitude e.. so as a leader one should recognize relevant situational factors i.( Robbins. Explain different motivational theories and their application within NHS organization. 9 .e. The Fiedler Model Proposes that effective group performance depends upon the proper match between the leader‟s style of interacting with followers and the degree to which the situation allows the leader to control and influence. In today‟s organization. Coulter.and Vohra. level of group support. Hersey and Blanchard‟s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) Leaders must relinquish control over and contact with followers as they become more competent. P. M. motivation. task structure of the job. Situational factors in matching leader to the situation:    Leader-member relations Task structure Position power 2. experience. there is increased use of team works. India: Dorling Kindersley) 4.tc and lead the team towards the goal of the organization.

there are two factors i. Contemporary theories of leadership includes: ERG theory: The Maslow‟s theory has been revised and according to the ERG theory there are three groups of core needs: existence. According to McGregor. Robbins) Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs: Abraham Maslow Need Hierarchy Theory describes that the behavior is determined by the individual need and the organization should fulfill the lower needs of the employee first.Organizational Behavior Motivation refers to the influencing the people in or outside the organization to get the desired task done. Maslow has divides the need in 5 categories. under Theory X. relatedness and growth. the assumption that employees like to work and are responsible and these employees must be rewarded. Two factor theory: The two factor theory also called motivational hygiene theory was proposed by Frederick Herzberg.e. McClelland’s Theory of needs: 10 . the assumption that employees dislike work and responsibility so they must be coerced to perform and under Theory Y. (Organizational Behavior – Stephen P. Usually the managers are the one who motivates the employee for achieving the company goal as needed. According to Herzberg.      Psychological need Safety need Social need Esteem need Self actualization need Theory X and Theory Y: Douglas McGregor proposed two views of human beings: negative labeled Theory X and positive labeled Theory Y. Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction whereas Extrinsic factors are related to with dissatisfaction.

as a manager one should make sure that employees have hard. employees have different needs so the needs of the employees should be treated differently. achievement. This will allow the manager to individualize goals. Goal Setting Theory: The Goal Setting Theory says that specific and difficult goals with feedback lead to higher performance.e. 4. 11 . power and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation. What implications do the motivational theories have for the managers? I have presented a number of motivation theories and its application in the above tasks. Similarly.3. specific goals as well as feedback on how well they are faring in pursuit of those goals. The manager should recognize the individual differences i. As a manager one can follow the given steps while motivating employees in the organization.Organizational Behavior According to McClelland‟s theory of needs. Employees should be given a chance to contribute in number of decision making and rewards should be given to the employees by equating the inputs they bring to the job. level of involvement and rewards to align individual needs.

Give examples for each of these. Group building goes through five stages which is shown in the figure below: 12 .htm) Task roles can be divided as following:              Initiator Information seeker Opinion seeker Information giver Opinion giver Elaborator Summarizer Coordinator-Integrator Orienter Disagreer Evaluator-Critic Energizer Procedural Technician Group building refers the process of developing a group.1. GROUP TASK ROLES AND IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY IN GROUP MEMBERS OF NHS 5.( http://www. Distinguish between group task roles. that move the team forward in accomplishing its tasks and mission.Organizational Behavior 5. either consciously or unconsciously. These roles are of vital importance in good team functioning.teambuildinginc.com/tps/020c3. group building and maintenance roles and individual roles. Task Roles Team task roles are those roles that members assume.

As a manager explain how you would develop effective team relationships.gotobai.pdf)       Mission Empowerment Involvement Willingness to take risk Unity Change 13 .2.srds.thecqi. (http://www. They look after the emotional life of the group.org/Knowledge-Hub/Knowledge- portal/Interactions-of-organisations-and-people/Role-of-the-individual/) 5.com/pdf/The-six-characteristics-of-a-successful-team.uk/cedtraining/handouts/hand37. They open up the channels of communication.Organizational Behavior Maintenance roles provide the „oil‟ for the machinery. Essential characteristics of a successful work group or team are as follows: (http://www.htm) Individual roles refer to role that an employee plays as an individual in an organization. The success of every organization depends upon each individual working together to achieve the common goal.co. Describe essential characteristics of a successful work group or team. The organization‟s structure will determine how these individuals are brought together and how they relate to one another. consider the needs of individuals. performance and the influences that threaten success. help make it work. Organizations are made up of individuals who are brought together so that they are able to achieve the mission. (http://www.

oxfordjournals. which indicates the diversity of interpretations of the likely impact of information technology upon the health services. (http://jpubhealth.full.pdf+html) 14 .org/content/7/3/179. managers shouldn‟t look any group in isolation. Discuss the impact of technology on a team functioning within the NHS. authority structure. have caused districts to review the management mechanisms necessary for organizing and supporting these new demands. status inequities. These developments have been so recent that little is known about how districts are responding. Structural factors like norms control group member behavior by establishing standards of right and wrong. managers can explain the behaviors of the team members if they know the norms. The increasing use of information technology in district health authorities. due to the implementation of the recommendations of the Steering Group on Health Services Information and the joint NHS/DHSS groups on performance indicators.Organizational Behavior A manager must first recognize that work groups are part of an organization and that factors such as organizations strategy. The responses show a wide variation in approaches. and the changing requirements for information. So. A short questionnaire was sent to all the district health authorities in England and Wales to identify whether districts were appointing information officers and the management arrangements being adopted. As a manager one must ensure that there is a positive relationship between the structural factors and the performance of the members in a group. A number of structural factors such as role perception. size of the group.3. 5. selection procedures and reward system provides a favorable and unfavorable climate for a group to operate. Managers should keep in mind that a group is likely to be productive when the team members have the essential skills to do the group tasks. group task and cohesiveness show a relationship to performance. So.

CONCLUSION Organizational behavior being the study of the individuals. 15 .Organizational Behavior 6. groups and structure and their impact in the organization. So the study of NHS and their culture and the impact in the organization has given the clear picture about our future work life. Organizational Behavior offers both challenges and opportunities As we have gone through the trends of the organization behavior and the study of NHS was truly helpful. The study of leadership and the motivational theories and their implementation in the organization led us to the knowledge to how we can show such skills in the organization in future. for the purpose of applying such knowledge in the real world was truly helpful. The theoretical knowledge only is not enough for the management students.

Organizational Behavior 16 .

www. vi. x.org/content/7/3/179. University of Nottingham.full.wikipedia.srds. Professor Robert Dingwall.pdf+html http://www. N.uk/cedtraining/handouts/hand37.uk/NHSEngland/thenhs/about/Pages/nhsstructure. www. v.co.teambuildinginc.pdf Internal & External Factors That Influence Employee Behavior | eHow. India: Dorling Kindersley viii.html#ixzz1JgD4Cpl2 ii. REFERENCES i. Coulter.nhs. Points for Discussion xii.com http://jpubhealth. M. 10th Edition.and Vohra.htm www..thecqi.Organizational Behavior 7.org/Knowledge-Hub/Knowledge-portal/Interactions-oforganisations-and-people/Role-of-the-individual/ xi.com/tps/020c3.org/wiki/Toyota_Production_System 17 .aspx Organizational Behavior – Stephen P. Management. vii.ehow. Robbins Robbins. Seminar 3.gotobai. iv. http://en.com/pdf/The-six-characteristics-of-a-successful-team. iii. Professor of Sociology. P.com/list_6741291_internal-factors-influence-employeebehavior. www. (2010).oxfordjournals.htm www. ix. S.

Organizational Behavior References .

Organizational Behavior offers both challenges and opportunities for managers. . groups and structure have on behavior within organizations. for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organizations’ effectiveness. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Organizational behavior is a field of study that investigates the impact of individuals. design and implement change programs and help employees to balance work / life conflicts. OB recognizes the differences and helps managers in seeing the value of workforce diversity and practices that may needs to be changed when managing in different locations. reduce abseentism and turnover and increase employee citizenship and job satisfaction. It can further bring an improvement in the quality and employee productivity by showing managers how to empower their people.Organizational Behavior 1. It offers specific offers to improve the skills of a manager. OB offers managers a guidance in creating an ethically healthy work climate. OB specifically focuses on how to improve productivity.

Organizational structure refers to the arrangement of jobs in an organization.1. There are seven characteristics of organization which are as follows: • • • • • • Innovation and risk taking – the degree to which employees are encouraged to take risks and be innovative Attention to detail – the degree to which employees are expected to exhibit attention to detail Outcome orientation – the degree to which management focuses on results People orientation – the degree to which management decisions take into consideration the effect of outcomes on the members of the organization. Team orientation – the degree to which work activities are organized around team or groups Aggressiveness – the degree to which people are aggressive and competitive . grouped and coordinated. Suggest and compare how you would explain the concept of organizational structure and culture. In other words organizational structure defines how jobs are formally divided. While designing an organizational structure there are six key element that have to be kept in mind by every managers which are as follows: • • • • • • Work specialization – refers to the degree to which tasks in the organization are subdivided into separate jobs Departmentalization .Organizational Behavior 2. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND STRUCTURE IN NHS 2.refers to the basis by which jobs are grouped together Chain of command – the unbroken line of authority that extends from the top level of the organization to the lower level Span of control – the number of subordinates that a supervisor can handle efficiently Centralization and Decentralization – degree to which the authority is concentrated whether at a central point or by all the organizational members. Formalization – the degree to which jobs are standardized within an organization Organization culture – Organizational culture is a system of shared meaning held by the members of the organization that differentiates it from other organizations.

dentists. The NHS also has a formal constitution which sets out the legal rights and responsibilities of the NHS. prescriptions. including GPs.uk/NHSEngland/thenhs/about/Pages/nhsstructure. (Organizational Behavior – Stephen P. Primary care is the first point of contact for most people and is delivered by a wide range of independent contractors. dental care. The organization culture is pictured by appraising the organization on the basis of the above characteristics. The National Health Service also known as NHS is the publicly funded healthcare system in England.1. pharmacists and optometrists. and users of the service and makes additional non-binding pledges regarding many key aspects of its operations. (NHS wikipidea) Talking about the NHS culture it is made up of hundreds of organization each with their own management boards and budget systems. The NHS provides healthcare to anyone normally resident in England or any other part of the United Kingdom with most services free at the point of use for the patient though there are charges associated with eye tests. . Robbins) 1. http://www. its staff. and many aspects of personal care.Organizational Behavior • Stability – the degree to which the organizational activities emphasizes on maintaining the status quo The above characteristics exist in a continuum from low to high. Explain how the relationship between NHS’s structure and culture can impact on the performance of the operations.aspx The diagram above shows that NHS structure is divided into two major parts Primary care and Secondary care.nhs.

outdated systems. Factors that might influence the behavior of the NHS employees can be divided into internal and external factors. Talking about the negative impact.e family life and relationship with the outsiders also plays a major role in influencing the behavior of the staffs working in NHS. (Seminar 3.Organizational Behavior Secondary care also known as acute healthcare can be either elective care or emergency care. organizational structure and the corporate culture. restricted opening and operating times. Points for Discussion) 1. Elective care means planned specialist medical care or surgery. The NHS structure and culture shows that the employees working there are very closely knitted. Similarly. (Internal & External Factors That Influence Employee Behavior | eHow. External factors include family life and other business relationships.The rest of society has moved on but in NHS the old-fashioned demarcations between staff. The NHS ways of working and its culture bears too many of the hallmarks of the 1940s. Consider the magnitude of the organization and the Event while assuming the factors. Positive impact in the sense the employees may feel that they are tied together and get motivated and work together for the attainment of goal. This may have a positive as well as negative impact on the behavior of the employees working there.2. Professor of Sociology. unnecessarily complex procedures and a lack of training all combine to create a culture where the convenience of the patient can come a poor second to the convenience. the old fashioned demarcations within the staffs may create an inconvenience for the patients. usually following referral from a primary or community health professional such as a GP.com . Internal factors include leadership. University of Nottingham. Assume and briefly discuss the factors that might influence the behavior of NHS employees. external factors i. Professor Robert Dingwall.

The 14 principles of management by Henry Fayol and the Bureaucratic theory of authority structure and relations by Max Weber are the theories under the Administrative approach. Then. the system approach was developed. the approach failed to predict complex individual behavior. Lillian and Frank Gilbreth. an organization is viewed as a system where there is interdependence of the entities within the system. Then. this approach had some demerits i. it focuses on utilizing the limited labor force. a husband and wife engineering team further developed work measurement methods. . Classical management approaches includes the scientific management and administrative management. MANAGEMENT APPROACHES 2. But. But. They have applied efficiency methods to their home and 12 children. According to system approach. After the II world war.1. In Classical management. Scientific management focuses on increasing productivity. planning and controlling. Scientific management deals with the job of individual employees whereas administrative management deals with the organization as a whole. mathematical models cannot fully account for individual behaviors and attitudes in the organization. the approach is more appropriate for stable and simple organizations. Quantitative management techniques were developed to assist in decision making. • Management Approaches Management approaches have been divided as classical management and management today. The classical approach laid a foundation for development of other management approaches or theories. System approach is very much relevant in today’s complex work setting. He developed the efficiency principles. But.e. employees were viewed as tools rather than as resources so. A system is an interrelated set of elements functioning as a whole. Frederick W Taylor. behavioral management approach were developed. Discuss and compare different approaches of management and identify current major trends in management theories for two organizations.Organizational Behavior 2. ‘father of scientific management’ began first time and motion studies. Human relations and organizational behavior were given importance. In other words. Theories of management before refer to classical management approaches.

The most significant effects on process value delivery are achieved by designing a process capable of delivering the required results smoothly. The Toyota Company follows the Toyota Production System (TPS). TPS’s main objectives are to design out overburden (muri) and inconsistency (mura). public works and establishing schools for the children. ‘New View of Society’ was published by Robert.Organizational Behavior Classical. Robert’s ideas stemmed from his ownership of a cotton mill in where he developed a strong interest in the welfare of the 400 to 500 child employees. It is also crucial to ensure that the process is as flexible as necessary without stress or "muri" (overburden) since this generates "muda" (waste). He strongly believed that character is a product of circumstances and that environment and early education is critical in forming good character. He started a legislative movement to limit child employment to those over the age of ten while reducing the workday to 10 1/2 hours. • Major trends in management theories for two organizations The owner of a cotton mill Robert Owen is credited with being the forerunner of the modern Human relations school of management. Finally the tactical improvements of waste reduction or the elimination of muda are very valuable. by designing out "mura" (inconsistency). where he described his vision of society. sanitation. TPS is an integrated socio-technical system developed by Toyota that comprises its management philosophy and practices. There are seven kinds of muda that are addressed in the TPS which are as follows: • • • • over-production motion (of operator or machine) waiting (of operator or machine) conveyance . Behavioral and Quantitative perspectives are considered as universal perspectives – “One Best Way” Contingency theory also known as situational approach tells that appropriate managerial behavior in a given situation depends upon unique elements in that situation. and to eliminate waste (muda). In 1813. He also became active in improving living conditions of employees through the implementation of improvements in housing. including interaction with suppliers and customers. The TPS organizes manufacturing and logistics for the automobile manufacturer. a pamphlet.

Organizational Behavior • • • processing itself inventory (raw material) correction (rework and scrap) The elimination of waste has come to dominate the thinking of many when they look at the effects of the TPS because it is the most familiar of the three to implement.wikipedia. In the TPS many initiatives are triggered by inconsistency or overburden reduction which drives out waste without specific focus on its reduction. (http://en.org/wiki/Toyota_Production_System) .

Organizational Behavior 1. self-confidence. and extraversion. the desire to lead. Leadership is “the process of influencing an organized group toward accomplishing its goals. job-relevant knowledge. Early Leadership Theories: 1. intelligence. Research on the leadership by various researchers identified seven traits associated with successful leadership: Drive.Roach and Behling. APPROAHES OF LEADERSHIP AND MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES 1. Behavioral Theories • University of Iowa Studies (Kurt Lewin) identified three leadership styles: ○ Autocratic style ○ Democratic style ○ Laissez faire style • Ohio State Studies identified two dimensions of leader behavior: ○ Initiating structure: the role of the leader in defining his or her role and the roles of group members ○ Consideration: the leader’s mutual trust and respect for group members’ ideas and feelings • University of Michigan Studies identified leaders exhibited one of the two dimensions of behavior: ○ Production oriented: emphasizing task accomplishment ○ Employee oriented: emphasizing personal relationships . Trait Theories (1920s-30s) • • • Research focused on identifying personal characteristics that differentiated leaders from non-leaders.1. “ . Distinguish between different approaches to the study of leadership and discuss how relevant are they in current business environment. 1. honesty and integrity.

M.( Robbins. In today’s organization.e. Coulter. motivation.. S. Explain different motivational theories and their application within NHS organization. India: Dorling Kindersley) 1. experience.and Vohra. so as a leader one should recognize relevant situational factors i. Management. 10th Edition. level of group support. .Organizational Behavior Contingency theories of leadership: 1. N. Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) Leaders must relinquish control over and contact with followers as they become more competent. P. Creates four specific leadership styles incorporating Fiedler’s two leadership dimensions: Results: • • • • Telling: Selling: Participating: high task-low relationship leadership high task-high relationship leadership low task-high relationship leadership Delegating: low task-low relationship leadership Leadership plays a central part in understanding group behavior. The Fiedler Model Proposes that effective group performance depends upon the proper match between the leader’s style of interacting with followers and the degree to which the situation allows the leader to control and influence.tc and lead the team towards the goal of the organization. attitude e. there is increased use of team works. Situational factors in matching leader to the situation: • • • Leader-member relations Task structure Position power 1. task structure of the job.1. (2010).

there are two factors i. Usually the managers are the one who motivates the employee for achieving the company goal as needed. Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction whereas Extrinsic factors are related to with dissatisfaction. Two factor theory: The two factor theory also called motivational hygiene theory was proposed by Frederick Herzberg. the assumption that employees dislike work and responsibility so they must be coerced to perform and under Theory Y. achievement. Goal Setting Theory: . relatedness and growth. Contemporary theories of leadership includes: ERG theory: The Maslow’s theory has been revised and according to the ERG theory there are three groups of core needs: existence. McClelland’s Theory of needs: According to McClelland’s theory of needs. Maslow has divides the need in 5 categories.Organizational Behavior Motivation refers to the influencing the people in or outside the organization to get the desired task done. According to McGregor.e. power and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation. (Organizational Behavior – Stephen P. the assumption that employees like to work and are responsible and these employees must be rewarded. Robbins) Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs: Abraham Maslow Need Hierarchy Theory describes that the behavior is determined by the individual need and the organization should fulfill the lower needs of the employee first. According to Herzberg. under Theory X. • • • • • Psychological need Safety need Social need Esteem need Self actualization need Theory X and Theory Y: Douglas McGregor proposed two views of human beings: negative labeled Theory X and positive labeled Theory Y.

1. Similarly. As a manager one can follow the given steps while motivating employees in the organization.e.Organizational Behavior The Goal Setting Theory says that specific and difficult goals with feedback lead to higher performance. The manager should recognize the individual differences i. specific goals as well as feedback on how well they are faring in pursuit of those goals. 1. Employees should be given a chance to contribute in number of decision making and rewards should be given to the employees by equating the inputs they bring to the job. as a manager one should make sure that employees have hard. level of involvement and rewards to align individual needs. . This will allow the manager to individualize goals. employees have different needs so the needs of the employees should be treated differently. What implications do the motivational theories have for the managers? I have presented a number of motivation theories and its application in the above tasks.

htm) Task roles can be divided as following: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Initiator Information seeker Opinion seeker Information giver Opinion giver Elaborator Summarizer Coordinator-Integrator Orienter Disagreer Evaluator-Critic Energizer Procedural Technician Group building refers the process of developing a group.com/tps/020c3. Give examples for each of these.1. These roles are of vital importance in good team functioning. that move the team forward in accomplishing its tasks and mission. GROUP TASK ROLES AND IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY IN GROUP MEMBERS OF NHS 2. either consciously or unconsciously. Distinguish between group task roles. group building and maintenance roles and individual roles. Group building goes through five stages which is shown in the figure below: . ( http://www.teambuildinginc. Task Roles Team task roles are those roles that members assume.Organizational Behavior 2.

com/pdf/The-six-characteristics-of-a-successful-team. They open up the channels of communication.srds.co.htm) Individual roles refer to role that an employee plays as an individual in an organization. As a manager explain how you would develop effective team relationships.pdf) • • • • • • Mission Empowerment Involvement Willingness to take risk Unity Change . Essential characteristics of a successful work group or team are as follows: (http://www. The organization’s structure will determine how these individuals are brought together and how they relate to one another.1. They look after the emotional life of the group.org/Knowledge-Hub/Knowledgeportal/Interactions-of-organisations-and-people/Role-of-the-individual/) 1.uk/cedtraining/handouts/hand37.thecqi.gotobai. (http://www. (http://www.Organizational Behavior Maintenance roles provide the ‘oil’ for the machinery. performance and the influences that threaten success. consider the needs of individuals. Describe essential characteristics of a successful work group or team. The success of every organization depends upon each individual working together to achieve the common goal. help make it work. Organizations are made up of individuals who are brought together so that they are able to achieve the mission.

Structural factors like norms control group member behavior by establishing standards of right and wrong.oxfordjournals. managers can explain the behaviors of the team members if they know the norms. which indicates the diversity of interpretations of the likely impact of information technology upon the health services. group task and cohesiveness show a relationship to performance. Discuss the impact of technology on a team functioning within the NHS. (http://jpubhealth. 1. size of the group. managers shouldn’t look any group in isolation. As a manager one must ensure that there is a positive relationship between the structural factors and the performance of the members in a group. A short questionnaire was sent to all the district health authorities in England and Wales to identify whether districts were appointing information officers and the management arrangements being adopted. So. These developments have been so recent that little is known about how districts are responding.Organizational Behavior A manager must first recognize that work groups are part of an organization and that factors such as organizations strategy. and the changing requirements for information. Managers should keep in mind that a group is likely to be productive when the team members have the essential skills to do the group tasks. The increasing use of information technology in district health authorities. So. selection procedures and reward system provides a favorable and unfavorable climate for a group to operate. A number of structural factors such as role perception. status inequities.org/content/7/3/179. authority structure. have caused districts to review the management mechanisms necessary for organizing and supporting these new demands.1.pdf+html) .full. The responses show a wide variation in approaches. due to the implementation of the recommendations of the Steering Group on Health Services Information and the joint NHS/DHSS groups on performance indicators.

So the study of NHS and their culture and the impact in the organization has given the clear picture about our future work life. for the purpose of applying such knowledge in the real world was truly helpful. The study of leadership and the motivational theories and their implementation in the organization led us to the knowledge to how we can show such skills in the organization in future. CONCLUSION Organizational behavior being the study of the individuals. .Organizational Behavior 2. Organizational Behavior offers both challenges and opportunities As we have gone through the trends of the organization behavior and the study of NHS was truly helpful. The theoretical knowledge only is not enough for the management students. groups and structure and their impact in the organization.

Organizational Behavior .

Professor of Sociology. Coulter. India: Dorling Kindersley viii. M. http://jpubhealth.htm x.uk/NHSEngland/thenhs/about/Pages/nhsstructure. Management.full. http://www. 10th Edition. Professor Robert Dingwall.Organizational Behavior 3.thecqi.org/Knowledge-Hub/Knowledge-portal/Interactions-oforganisations-and-people/Role-of-the-individual/ xi. P. (2010). REFERENCES i.aspx vi.com/pdf/The-six-characteristics-of-a-successful-team.wikipedia.ehow. Seminar 3.htm ix. N. Organizational Behavior – Stephen P.org/content/7/3/179.org/wiki/Toyota_Production_System .oxfordjournals.com iv. http://en. www. Robbins. www.com/list_6741291_internal-factors-influence-employeebehavior.co. www.com/tps/020c3. www.pdf iii.www. S. Robbins vii.srds. University of Nottingham.gotobai..pdf+html v.html#ixzz1JgD4Cpl2 ii.nhs. Points for Discussion xii.uk/cedtraining/handouts/hand37.teambuildinginc.and Vohra. Internal & External Factors That Influence Employee Behavior | eHow.

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