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## Sections

• CHAPTER 5
• 5.1 Introduction
• 5.2 Bandwidth of FM
• 5.3 Tone Modulation
• 5.4 Phase Modulation
• 5.5 Generation of FM
• 5.6 Demodulation of FM
• 5.7 BandPass Limiter (BPL)

# Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

CHAPTER 5
CHAPTER 5

Angle Modulation

5.1 Introduction
Consider a sinusoid, Ac cos ( 2 π fc t + φ0 ) , where Ac is the (constant) amplitude, fc is the (constant) frequency in Hz and φ0 is the initial phase angle. Let the sinusoid be written as Ac cos ⎡ θ ( t ) ⎤ where θ ( t ) = 2 π fc t + φ0 . In chapter ⎣ ⎦

4, we have seen that relaxing the condition that Ac be a constant and making it a function of the message signal m ( t ) , gives rise to amplitude modulation. We shall now examine the case where Ac is a constant but θ ( t ) , instead of being equal to 2 π fc t + φ0 , is a function of m ( t ) . This leads to what is known as the angle modulated signal. Two important cases of angle modulation are Frequency Modulation (FM) and Phase modulation (PM). Our objective in this chapter is to make a detailed study of FM and PM.

An important feature of FM and PM is that they can provide much better protection to the message against the channel noise as compared to the linear (amplitude) modulation schemes. Also, because of their constant amplitude nature, they can withstand nonlinear distortion and amplitude fading. The price paid to achieve these benefits is the increased bandwidth requirement; that is, the transmission bandwidth of the FM or PM signal with constant amplitude and which can provide noise immunity is much larger than 2W , where W is the highest frequency component present in the message spectrum.

5.1

Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Now let us define PM and FM. Consider a signal s ( t ) given by

s ( t ) = Ac cos ⎡θi ( t ) ⎤ where θi ( t ) , the instantaneous angle quantity, is a ⎣ ⎦ function of m ( t ) . We define the instantaneous frequency of the angle modulated wave s ( t ) , as fi ( t ) = 1 d θi ( t ) 2π d t (5.1)

(The subscript i in θi ( t ) or fi ( t ) is indicative of our interest in the instantaneous behavior of these quantities). If θi ( t ) = 2 π fc t + φ0 , then fi ( t ) reduces to the constant fc , which is in perfect agreement with our established notion of frequency of a sinusoid. This is illustrated in Fig. 5.1.

Fig. 5.1: Illustration of instantaneous phase and frequency Curve 1 in Fig. 5.1 depicts the phase behavior of a constant frequency sinusoid with φ0 = 0 . Hence, its phase, as a function of time is a straight line; that is
θi ( t ) = 2 π fc t . Slope of this line is a constant and is equal to the frequency of

the sinusoid. Curve 2 depicts an arbitrary phase behavior; its slope changes with time. The instantaneous frequency (in radians per second) of this signal at t = t1 is given by the slope of the tangent (green line) at that time.

5.2

Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

a) Phase modulation

For PM, θi ( t ) is given by θi ( t ) = 2 π fc t + k p m ( t ) (5.2)

The term 2 π fc t is the angle of the unmodulated carrier and the constant k p is the phase sensitivity of the modulator with the units, radians per volt. (For convenience, the initial phase angle of the unmodulated carrier is assumed to be zero). Using Eq. 5.2, the phase modulated wave s ( t ) can be written as ⎡s ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ PM = Ac cos ⎡2 π fc t + k p m ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (5.3)

From Eq. 5.2 and 5.3, it is evident that for PM, the phase deviation of s ( t ) from that of the unmodulated carrier phase is a linear function of the base-band message signal, m ( t ) . The instantaneous frequency of a phase modulated signal depends on
kp ' d m (t ) 1 d θi ( t ) = fc + m (t ) . = m' ( t ) because 2π d t 2π dt

b) Frequency Modulation

Let us now consider the case where fi ( t ) is a function of m ( t ) ; that is,
fi ( t ) = fc + kf m ( t )

(5.4) (5.5)
t

or

θi ( t ) = 2 π

−∞

∫ fi ( τ ) d τ ∫ m ( τ) d τ

t

= 2 π fc t + 2 π kf

(5.6)

−∞

kf is a constant, which we will identify shortly. A frequency modulated signal
s ( t ) is described in the time domain by

⎡s ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ FM

⎡ = Ac cos ⎢2 π fc t + 2 π kf ⎢ ⎣

⎤ m ( τ ) d τ⎥ ∫ ⎥ −∞ ⎦
t

(5.7)

kf is termed as the frequency sensitivity of the modulator with the units Hz/volt. From Eq. 5.4 we infer that for an FM signal, the instantaneous frequency

5.3

2 to 5. This is quite evident in Fig. the instantaneous frequency has only two possibilities. FM and PM waveforms for three different base-band signals.4). we observe the following: i) Unlike AM. When m ( t ) is a square wave (Fig. 5. 5. Correspondingly.Principles of Communication Prof. 5.2(b) and 5. From Fig.4(b). V. 5. ii) iii) Unlike AM.4 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . we find that the minimum instantaneous frequency of the FM occurs (as expected) at those instants when m ( t ) is most negative (such as t = t1 ) and maximum instantaneous frequency occurs at those time instants when m ( t ) attains its positive peak value. Venkata Rao deviation of s ( t ) from the (unmodulated) carrier frequency fc is a linear function of m ( t ) . From these illustrations. mp (such as t = t 2 ).5 illustrate the experimentally generated AM.3(b). the zero crossings of PM and FM waves are not uniform (zero crossings refer to the time instants at which a waveform changes from negative to positive and vice versa). the envelope of PM or FM wave is a constant. it can assume only two possible values. 5. Fig.

Principles of Communication Prof. V.2: AM and FM with tone modulation 5.5 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Venkata Rao Fig 5.

Principles of Communication Prof.6 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 5.3: AM and FM with the triangular wave shown as m ( t ) 5. V. Venkata Rao Fig.

4: AM and FM with square wave shown as m ( t ) iv) A triangular wave has only two possibilities for its slope. Except at time instants such as t = t1 . Correspondingly. the PM wave has only two values for its fi ( t ) .7 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . it has zero slope and d m (t ) dt is an impulse. In Fig. 5. t = t1 5. V. it has a constant positive slope between t1 and t2 . which is evident from the figure. v) The modulating waveform of Fig.5(c) is a square wave. 5. 5.5(b). Venkata Rao Fig.Principles of Communication Prof. and constant negative slope to the right of t2 for the remaining part of the cycle shown.

This is justified by the fact that at t = t1 . (Because of differentiation. Let mI ( t ) = −∞ ∫ m ( τ) d τ .7. 5. dt Eq. the modulated carrier is simply a sinusoid of frequency fc .8 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 2 regardless of the value of k p or kf . t If mI ( t ) phase modulates a carrier with modulator sensitivity k p = 2 π kf . the average power of a PM or FM signal is.Principles of Communication Prof. At t = t1 . V. 5. fi ( t ) has to be infinity. m ( t ) should not have any discontinuities. Similarly a PM signal can be obtained using frequency modulator by differentiating m ( t ) before applying it to the frequency modulator. Pav = 2 Ac . except at the time instants when m ( t ) changes its polarity. θi ( t ) undergoes sudden phase change (as can be seen in the modulated waveform) which implies d θi ( t ) tends to become an impulse. Venkata Rao Therefore. 5. then the resulting signal is actually an FM signal as given by Eq.) As both PM and FM have constant amplitude Ac .3 and 5.7 reveal a close relationship between PM and FM.

5: PM with m ( t ) (a) a sine wave (b) a triangular wave (c) a square wave 5.Principles of Communication Prof.9 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . V. Venkata Rao Fig 5.

Example 5. the maximum phase deviation is (100 π ) .10 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .2 Let m ( t ) be a periodic triangular wave with period 10− 3 sec. we have 4 ⎛3 ⎞ 30 sin (150 t ) + 40cos (150 t ) = 50 ⎜ sin (150 t ) + cos (150 t ) ⎟ 5 ⎝5 ⎠ = 50 sin (150 t + ϕ ) where ϕ = tan− 1 ( ) 4 3 Hence s ( t ) = cos ⎡ 4 π × 106 t + 100 π sin (150 t + ϕ ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ Evidently. V. We shall find the maximum and minimum values of the instantaneous frequency for a) b) FM with kf = 104 Hz/volt PM with k p = π rad/volt 5. with m ( t )max = − m ( t )min = 1 volt.1 An angle modulated signal is given by s ( t ) = cos ⎡ 2 π 2 × 106 t + 30 sin (150 t ) + 40cos (150 t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ Let us find the maximum phase and frequency derivations. ⎣ ⎦ As 302 + 402 = 50 . The terms ⎡30 sin (150 t ) + 40cos (150 t ) ⎤ can be expressed in the form ⎣ ⎦ ⎡cos α sin (150 t ) + sin α cos (150 t ) ⎤ . Let ψ ( t ) = 100 π sin (150 t + ϕ ) 1 d ψ (t ) = 50cos (150 t + ϕ ) ⋅ 150 2π d t = 7500 cos (150 t + ϕ ) Hence maximum frequency deviation = 7500 Hz. Venkata Rao Example 5.Principles of Communication Prof.

what could be the expression for θi ( t ) and s ( t ) . fi ( t ) = fc + kf m ( t ) a) ( fi ( t ) )min ( fi ( t ) )max b) = 100 × 103 − 104 = 90 kHz = 100 × 103 + 104 = 110 kHz kp 2π m' ( t ) For PM. Let us 2 find the expression for θi ( t ) . where k is a suitable constant. V. s ( t ) has the instantaneous frequency given by fi ( t ) = fc + 2 π k ( fm ) cos ωm t . 1 d θi ( t ) 2 = fi ( t ) = fc + 2 π k ( fm ) cos ωm t 2π d t d θi ( t ) 2 = 2 π fc + ωm k cos ( ωm t ) dt 5.11 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . ( fi ( t ) ) max = 102 kHz Example 5. Venkata Rao Assume the carrier frequency to be 100 kHz. Hence ( fi ( t ) )min = 100 × 103 − 1 × 4.000 .Principles of Communication Prof.000 2 = 98 kHz Similarly. For FM. fi ( t ) = fc + Note that m' ( t ) is a square wave with maximum and minimum values as ± 4.3 Let s ( t ) be a general angle modulated signal given by s ( t ) = Ac cos ⎡θi ( t ) ⎤ = Ac cos ⎡ωc t + ϕ ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ It is given that when m ( t ) = cos ωm t . If m ( t ) is different from cos ωm t .

5.Principles of Communication Prof. V. 5. Let the modulated signal be given by. Fig. Venkata Rao or θi ( t ) = 2 π fc t + ωm k sin ( ωm t ) = 2 π fc t − k d ⎡cos ( ωm t ) ⎤ ⎦ dt ⎣ Generalizing.6. θi ( t ) = 2 π fc t − k d ⎡m ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ dt ⎣ and ⎡ d m (t ) ⎤ s ( t ) = Ac cos ⎢2 π fc t − k ⎥ dt ⎦ ⎣ Exercise 5.1 If ( fi )max − ( fi )min is to be 100 kHz show that k p = 10 π rad/volt. s ( t ) = Ac cos ⎡2 π × 108 t + k p m ( t ) ⎤ .1 A periodic signal m ( t ) angle modulates a very high frequency carrier.6: Modulating signal for the exercise 5.12 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 5. ⎣ ⎦ where m ( t ) is as shown in Fig.

(Recall that the bandwidth of any linear modulated signal is less than or equal to 2W . The spectrum of n 2 cos ( ωc t ) occupies the interval fc ± 2W and that of ( mI ( t ) ) cos ( ωc t ) occupies the interval fc ± nW . Let us take a closer look at this issue of FM bandwidth. Venkata Rao 5. we shall make a detailed analysis of the bandwidth requirements of FM. With mI ( t ) = envelope of s ( t ) is ⎡s ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ pe = Ac exp ⎡ j ( ωc t + cf mI ( t ) ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ −∞ ∫ m(τ)d τ. we have ⎡ ⎤ 2 cf2 s ( t ) = Ac ⎢cos ( ωc t ) − cf mI ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) − ( mI ( t ) ) cos ( ωc t ) + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅⎥ (5. the spectrum of the FM signal is not band-limited.4. at least theoretically. t the pre- ⎡ c2 cn 2 n = Ac ⎢1 + j cf mI ( t ) − f ( mI ( t ) ) + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ + j n f ( mI ( t ) ) + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ n! 2! ⎢ ⎣ ⎤ jω t ⎥e c ⎥ ⎦ (5.2 Bandwidth of FM In this section. For convenience. V. It appears that. and that of ( mI ( t ) ) 3 is 3 W etc.9) 2! ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ If m ( t ) is band-limited to W .) Let cf = 2 π kf . as MI ( f ) = consists of terms { } ( j 2πf ) M (f ) . then so is mI ( t ) . let s ( t ) denote the FM signal.8) As s ( t ) = Re ⎡s ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ pe . where W is the message band-width). ( mI ( t ) ) sin ( ωc t ) etc. it has infinite bandwidth and S ( f ) is not simply related to M ( f ) . But s ( t ) ( mI ( t ) ) 2 cos ( ωc t ) . Clearly.Principles of Communication Prof. A similar situation prevails even in the case of a PM signal. (PM is considered in section 5. 5. The spectrum of 3 ( mI ( t ) ) ( mI ( t ) ) 2 is of width 2W .13 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

Example 5.14 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . FM is nonlinear as Ac cos {ωc t + cf [ mI 1 ( t ) + mI 2 ( t )]} ≠ Ac cos {ωc t + cf mI 1 ( t )} + Ac cos {ωc t + cf mI 2 ( t )} 5.4 1 In general.11) Though the expressions for NBFM or NBPM resemble fairly closely that of an AM signal. This makes the time 2 domain signal of PM or FM very much different from that of an AM signal. s (t ) Ac ⎡cos ( ωc t ) − cf mI ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (5. there is one important difference. Venkata Rao 5.1 NarrowBand FM (NBFM) Assume that cf mI ( t ) max << 1. 5. Now S ( f ) is band-limited to 2W as in the case of an AM signal1.9 can be well approximated by the first two terms. A NBFM signal has phase variations with very little amplitude variations whereas the AM signal has amplitude variations with no phase variations. Similarly. that is. For this reason. then A ( t ) Ac .10 is similar to that of an AM wave. Note that from Eq. 5. Then s ( t ) of Eq.10) Eq. 5.Principles of Communication Prof. the case cf mI ( t ) max << 1 is called narrowband FM (NBFM). the sideband spectrum of PM or FM has a phase shift of π with respect to the carrier. we have the envelope of the NBFM signal given by A ( t ) = Ac 1 + cf2 mI2 ( t ) If cf mI ( t ) << 1. V. namely. the narrowband PM (NBPM) signal can be written as s (t ) Ac ⎡cos ( ωc t ) − k p m ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (5.10.2.

as will be seen a little later. However.2 WideBand FM (WBFM) If the condition cf mI ( t ) max << 1 is not satisfied. called the transmission bandwidth. then we have the wideband FM. 5.2 Let M ( f ) = ⎛ f ⎞ ga ⎜ 3 ⎟ and fc = 106 Hz. V. s ( t ) . at least theoretically. Then the instantaneous frequency varies in the 5.Principles of Communication Prof.10. S (f ) = Ac A K ⎡δ ( f − fc ) + δ ( f + fc ) ⎤ + c f ⎣ ⎦ 2 2 ⎡ M ( f − fc ) M ( f + fc ) ⎤ − ⎢ ⎥ ( f + fc ) ⎥ ⎢ ( f − fc ) ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ f ⎞ where M ( f ) = tri ⎜ 3 ⎟ ⎝ 10 ⎠ Exercise 5. 5. In order to estimate this bandwidth. which. From Eq. It is given that kf = 250 10 ⎝ 10 ⎠ 1 3 Hz/volt. as mentioned earlier has. Sketch S ( f ) for a NBFM signal.15 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . and Ac = 4 V. we observe that fi ( t ) = fc + kf m ( t ) Let mp = m ( t )max = m ( t )min . infinite bandwidth. is generated by using m ( t ) = 103 sin c 2 103 t . we have s ( t ) = Ac ⎡cos ( ωc t ) − cf mI ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ( ) But Hence mI ( t ) ←⎯ → M (f ) j 2πf and cf = 2 π kf .2. Venkata Rao A NBFM signal. most of the power of the FM signal resides in a finite bandwidth. We shall find S ( f ) .

Principles of Communication Prof. That is. V. felt that bandwidth requirement of FM can be made less than that of AM (that is. Spectral frequency f is the independent variable of the frequency domain where as fi ( t ) is a time dependent quantity indicating the time behavior of a signal with angle modulation. In the 1920s radio engineers. Venkata Rao range fc − kf mp to fc + kf mp . ( BT )FM is ( ) ( ) ( BT )FM = 2 kf mp ? Let ∆ f denote the maximum deviation of the carrier frequency fc . less than 2W ) by choosing ∆ f appropriately! The fallacy here lies in equating the instantaneous frequency to the spectral frequency. as will be shown later. Then. This is indeed the fallacy that gave birth to FM in the first place. and each one of these exponentials exists for all t with the given frequency. to a very good approximation. As the total range of frequency deviation (with centre at fc ) is 2 kf mp . the transmission bandwidth of an FM signal. can we assume that. We shall now give some justification that bandwidth of an FM signal is never less than 2W . ( BT )FM ≠ 2 ∆ f but 2W . thinking that the actual bandwidth of an FM signal is 2 ∆ f . ( BT )FM = 2∆f ? The above expression for the transmission bandwidth is valid only when ∆ f >> W . In the case ∆ f << W . we imply that x ( t ) is composed of the complex exponentials with the magnitude and phase specified by X ( f ) . it should not be equated with spectral frequency. fi ( t ) . 5.16 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . on the other hand represents the frequency of a cosine signal that can be treated to have a constant frequency for a very short duration. ∆ f = kf mp . maybe only for a few cycles. for all practical purposes. can we assume that. When we refer to the spectrum X ( f ) of a signal x ( t ) . Although fi ( t ) is measured in Hz.

5. is ( BT )FM = 2(∆ f + W ) (5. V. 5. is from ⎡fc + kf m ( tk ) − 2W ⎤ to ⎡fc + kf m ( tk ) + 2W ⎤ . tk + ⎟ 2W ⎠ ⎝ is fi ( tk ) = fc + kf m ( tk ) .12) For the wideband FM case. we shall treat the adjacent sample separation to be equal to The FM wave for the staircase-approximated signal will consist of a sequence of sinusoidal pulses.7(b) and (c) 2W respectively. as ( BT )FM by 2 ∆ f . lies in the frequency range f ≤ Hence. ( BT )FM can be well approximated In the literature. as shown in Fig. ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ Clearly the significant part of the spectrum of the FM signal will lie in the interval ( fc − kf mp − 2W ) to fc + kf mp + 2W .13) 5. Venkata Rao Let the base-band signal m ( t ) be approximated by a staircase signal. other rules of thumb for FM bandwidths are to be found.Principles of Communication Prof. For 2W 1 . each of a constant frequency and duration of 1 sec.7(a). From the sampling theorem (to be discussed in chapter 6).7(c). 2W convenience.17 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . A typical pulse and its spectrum are shown in Fig. its spectral range (between the first nulls) as shown in Fig. (Note that about 92% of the energy of 1 ). The most commonly used rule. this staircase approximation is justified as long as the width of each rectangle (separation between two adjacent samples) is less than or equal to 1 . Hence. 5. T ( ) a rectangular pulse of duration T sec. = 2 k f mp + 4 W = 2 ∆ f + 4 W = 2 ( ∆ f + 2 W ) (5. where ∆ f >> W . we can take as one possible value of the transmission bandwidth of an FM signal. ⎛ 1 ⎞ The frequency of the RF pulse in the interval ⎜ tk . called the Carson’s rule.

18 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .7: Estimation of FM spectral width Carson’s rule gives a better bandwidth estimate than does Eq. 5. In other cases. 5.12 for the NBFM (∆ f << W ) case.13. where ∆ f << W is not satisfied (wideband and intermediate cases) Eq. This is in agreement with our result on NBFM.Principles of Communication Prof. V. its bandwidth is approximately 2W . 5. 5.12 gives a better estimate than does Eq. 5. Venkata Rao Fig. namely.

5.16b) s ( t ) = Re ⎡s pe ( t ) ⎤ = Ac cos ( ωc t + β sin ( ωm t ) ) ⎣ ⎦ 5. In this case. 5.12 and Eq. ∆ f = kf Am and W = fm .14) Then Eq. 5. Eq.13 can be combined into ( BT )FM (5.1 NBFM s ( t ) = Ac cos ⎡ ωc t + β sin ( ωm t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ = Ac cos ( ωc t ) cos ( β sin ( ωm t ) ) − sin ( ωc t ) sin ( β sin ( ωm t ) ) { } 5. 5.12 and 5. assuming mI ( − ∞ ) = 0 ωm ⎡ ⎛ ⎞⎤ A spe ( t ) = Ac exp ⎢ j ⎜ ωc t + cf m sin ( ωm t ) ⎟ ⎥ ωm ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎝ ⎡ ⎛ ⎞⎤ k A = Ac exp ⎢ j ⎜ ωc t + f m sin ( ωm t ) ⎟ ⎥ fm ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎝ For tone modulation. V. Venkata Rao We now define the deviation ratio D .15) where k varies between 1 and 2. as D = ∆f W = 2W ( D + k ) (5. That is. 5.3. the deviation ratio is referred to as the modulation index and is usually denoted by the symbol β .16a) (5. β = kf Am and fm j β sin( ωm t ) ⎤ spe ( t ) = Ac e j ωc t ⎡e ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (5. As can be seen.3 Tone Modulation Let m ( t ) = Am cos ( 2 π fm t ) Then mI ( t ) = Am sin ( ωm t ) .15.13 are special cases of Eq.19 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . for tone modulation.Principles of Communication Prof.

5.26). we make the following observation. 5. 5.8.17a) (5. s ( t ) = Ac ⎡cos ( ωc t ) − β sin ( ωm t ) sin ( ωc t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ β ⎧ ⎫ = Ac ⎨cos ( ωc t ) + ⎡cos ( ωc + ωm ) t − cos ( ωc − ωm ) t ⎤ ⎬ ⎣ ⎦ 2 ⎩ ⎭ Corresponding expression for AM (Eq 4.17b) Then. Venkata Rao NBFM: small β . Let β be small enough so that we can use the approximations cos ( β sin ( ωm t ) ) sin ( β sin ( ωm t ) ) 1 . 4.Principles of Communication Prof. we construct the phasor diagram for NBFM.20 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 5. (We have taken the carrier phasor as the reference.8: Phasor diagram for NBFM with tone modulation Using Eq. the resultant of the side-band phasors is collinear with the carrier phasor whereas. it is perpendicular to the carrier phasor in NBFM. shown in Fig.17c) Fig.17(b) can be written as A β ⎧ s ( t ) = Re ⎨ Ac e j ωc t + c 2 ⎩ − j ( ωc − ωm ) t ⎤ ⎫ ⎡e j ( ωc ⎢ ⎣ + ωm ) t −e ⎥⎬ ⎦⎭ (5. V.17(c). and β sin ( ωm t ) . In the case of AM. 5.7) is µ ⎧ ⎫ ⎡ ⎤ ⎣s ( t ) ⎦ AM = Ac ⎨cos ( ωc t ) + 2 ⎡cos ( ωc + ωm ) t + cos ( ωc − ωm ) t ⎤ ⎬ ⎣ ⎦ ⎩ ⎭ Eq. (5.) Comparing the phasor diagram for the NBFM with that of the AM signal (Fig.

e j β sin( ωm t ) ←⎯ → n = −∞ ∑ ∞ Jn ( β ) δ ( f − n fm ) (5.3. Venkata Rao It is this quadrature relationship between the two phasors of NBFM that produces angle variations resulting in corresponding changes in fi ( t ) .16(a) is a periodic signal with period 1 .19b) Hence.19a) That is.19c) Using Eq. V. we can express spe ( t ) as 5.Principles of Communication Prof. 5. 5. 5.2 WBFM The exponential term in the brackets in Eq.18 is recognized as the nth order Bessel function of the first kind and argument β and is commonly denoted by the symbol Jn ( β ) .21 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 5. that is. xn 1 = 2π −π ∫ π j β sin θ − n θ ) e ( dθ (5. Expressing this term in Fourier series.18) The integral on the RHS of Eq. xn 1 = Jn ( β ) = 2π −π ∫ π j β sin θ − n θ ) e ( dθ (5. we have fm = e j β sin( ωm t ) n = −∞ 1 2 fm 1 − 2 fm ∑ ∞ xn e j n ωm t where xn = fm ∫ e j β sin( ωm t ) e− j n ωm t dt Let θ = ωm t .19. Then. e j β sin( ωm t ) = n = −∞ ∑ ∞ Jn ( β ) e j n ωm t (5.

Venkata Rao spe ( t ) = Ac n = −∞ ∑ ∞ Jn ( β ) e j ⎡ 2 π( fc + n fm ) t ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (5.22 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 5. then e j β cos( ωm t ) ⎛ π ⎞ = x ⎜t − ⎟. Jn ( β ) ( β 2 )n n! 5. V. 1) 2) 3) Jn ( β ) is always real (For all n and β ) Jn ( β ) = ( − 1) J − n ( β ) n For small values of β .3 Eq.22) Exercise 5.20) As s ( t ) = Re ⎡s pe ( t ) ⎤ .21) Taking the Fourier transform of s ( t ) . Show that ←⎯ → n = −∞ n ∑ ( j ) Jn (β ) δ ( f ∞ ∞ + n fm ) b) Ac cos ⎡ωc t + β cos ( ωm t ) ⎤ = Ac ⎣ ⎦ ⎡ ⎛ π ⎞⎤ j β sin ⎢ωm ⎜ − t ⎟⎥ ⎢ ⎝ 2 ωm ⎠⎥ ⎣ ⎦ e n = ∑ π⎤ ⎡ Jn ( β ) cos ⎢( ωc + n ωm ) t + n ⎥ 2⎦ ⎣ −∞ Hint: e j β cos( ωm t ) = If x ( t ) = e j β sin ωm ( − t ) . 2 ωm ⎠ ⎝ Now use the Fourier transform properties for time reversal and time shift.Principles of Communication Prof.19(c) gives the Fourier transform of e a) e j β cos( ωm t ) j β sin( ωm t ) . we obtain ⎣ ⎦ s ( t ) = Ac n = −∞ ∑ ∞ Jn ( β ) cos ⎡2 π ( fc + n fm ) t ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (5. Properties of J n ( β ) : The following properties of Jn ( β ) can be established. we have S (f ) = Ac 2 n = −∞ ∑ ∞ Jn ( β ) ⎡δ ( f − fc − n fm ) + δ ( f + fc + n fm ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (5.

5. fc ± fm .9 depicts the behavior of Jn ( β ) .) . This situation corresponds to the special case of NBFM. We now make the following observations regarding the spectrum ( f > 0 ) of a tone modulated FM signal.4. Thus. 3) The amplitude of the carrier component varies with β according to J0 ( β ) .4 . this amplitude ‘contains’ part of the message information. As can be seen from the plot. 5. J0 ( β ) = 0 for some values β ( β = 2. 5. n > 1 4) n = −∞ ∑ ∞ 2 Jn ( β ) = 1 Fig 5. n = 1. V. 5. J0 ( β ) 1 J1 ( β ) Jn ( β ) β 2 0. for small values of β .Principles of Communication Prof. 4) From Fig.10 gives the spectral plots obtained from a spectrum analyzer with β 2.23 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Then the FM spectrum has only three components: at fc . the carrier component is very nearly zero (approximately 50 dB below the maximum value). only J0 ( β ) and J1 ( β ) are significant. 1) The spectrum of a tone modulated FM wave contains carrier component and an infinite set of side-frequencies located symmetrically on either side of the carrier at frequency separations of n fm . Moreover. in contrast to AM. Venkata Rao Hence.5. ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 2) For small β . 2.9(b). etc. β Fig. we find that Jn ( β ) decays monotonically for that Jn ( β ) << 1 for n > 1 and β n >> 1 .

the average power Pav of the FM signal with tone modulation is Pav = 2 Ac 2 n = −∞ ∑ ∞ 2 Jn ( β ) .430 0. that is.Principles of Communication Prof. we expect 0. For n = 1 . we treat the largest magnitude as 0 dB and compare the rest respect to with this value. we have J 4 ( β ) = 0. for 20 log10 n = 5 . Similarly. theoretical value is 20 log dB. 5. 5.066 = − 17.43 close agreement with this. 5.11(a).281.132 = − 10.11(b) is the spectral plot as observed on a spectrum analyzer.11(a) gives the theoretical plot of various spectral components for β 4 .281 = − 3.25 . Fig.43 spectrum analyzer agrees with this.1 0. Fig.11(b) is in 0.7 and value indicated by the 0. Let us normalize the dB plot with respect to the largest magnitude. Venkata Rao Fig 5. For n = 4 .21. 5. Spectrum analyzer display is in close agreement with this. the value as observed on the plot of Fig. 5. From Eq. We see from this plot that the third spectral component has the largest magnitude which is an agreement with the theory. The values of the remaining spectral components can be similarly be verified. V. Hence 20 log10 0.24 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

n for fixed β β 5. 5. β for fixed n (b) Jn ( β ) vs. Venkata Rao Fig.Principles of Communication Prof.25 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .9: Bessel Functions: (a) Jn ( β ) vs. V.

As the RMS value of a sinusoid is independent of the frequency. 5. ( BT )FM = 2 ( β + 1) fm (5. then = 2 n fm = 2 ( β + 2 ) fm (5. This result is true in general 2 (whether m ( t ) is a tone or not) because an FM signal is essentially a constant amplitude cosine signal with time varying frequency.24b) which corresponds to Eq. which implies that the Pav of the tone modulated FM signal is 2 Ac .15 with k = 1.Principles of Communication Prof. we state that ( Pav )FM ( BT )FM = 2 Ac 2 (5.15. 5. if we assume that we can neglect Jn ( β ) for n > β + 2 .24a) This in agreement with Eq. 5. then.10: Spectrum analyzer output with β 2.26 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .23) For large β . Venkata Rao Fig. If we neglect the values of Jn ( β ) for n > β + 1 .4 But from property 4 of Jn ( β ) . with k = 2 . V. 5. we have n = −∞ ∑ ∞ 2 Jn ( β ) = 1.

From Appendix A5.11(a): Jn ( β ) for β = 4 (b) Spectrum analyzer output for β 4 Consider β = 5 . Venkata Rao Fig. V.018 .053 and J8 ( 5 ) = 0. P1 . we have J7 ( 5 ) = 0.27 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 5.1. the average power of these two is. 5.Principles of Communication Prof.

but reduce the value of β by increasing fm . We will keep ∆ f = 20 f0 .28 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .2 where BT .then nsig would be 25. nsig can be found from the table in Appendix A5.0031) . Let us tabulate BT for a few other values of β . For example. As such. 2 2 Hence. If we take Ac = 1. V.) Let fm = f0 when β = 20 .1. if β = 20 . we see that practically the entire power of the FM signal is confined to the frequency range [fc ± 6 fm ] . Also listed in the table are BT .Principles of Communication Prof. ( Pav )FM P1 = 0. For a given β .0031 = 0. then BT = 2 nsig fm (5. the magnitude of a spectral component depends only on Jn ( β ) and these Bessel coefficients have been tabulated extensively. etc.2 = 2 ( β + 2 ) fm 5. we find that even Eq.0003 ) = c ( 0. In this case. 5.1 = 2 ( β + 1) fm (Carson’s rule). and BT .. let us define transmission bandwidth such that it includes all those spectral components whose magnitude is greater than one percent of the unmodulated carrier amplitude.1 and BT . Venkata Rao P1 = 2 Ac A2 ( 0.24(b) is a fairly good measure of ( BT )FM for tone modulation. With tone modulation.0028 + 0. 5.1. As Jn ( 5 ) for n ≥ 9 are much smaller than J8 ( 5 ) . These are listed in Table 5. (For β = 10. it is possible to estimate the value of BT to the accuracy desired.01 for n ≤ nsig .24c) where nsig is such that Jn ( β ) ≥ 0.31 % .

1: BT of Eq.29 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . BT does not go zero. (From the table. 5.33 0. V.5 0.1 2 nsig BT BT . Otherwise.1 . we find that 40 f0 2∆f 1 = = 400 f0 10 BT ii) For small values of β . ∆ f becomes less and less significant in the calculation of BT . we see that i) For small values of β (less than or equal to 0. which is based on Carson’s rule is in close agreement with BT only for very small values of β . we require a BT of 50 f0 where as with β = 0. BT required is 400 f0 .2 is better. in absolute terms. For β = 0.24c for various values of β with ∆ f = 20f0 From the above table. 10 and 20.1 BT .2 f0 2 f0 4 f0 10 f0 20 f0 40 f0 60 f0 200 f0 50 28 16 8 6 4 4 2 50 f0 56 f0 64 f0 80 f0 120 f0 160 f0 240 f0 400 f0 42 f0 44 f0 48 f0 60 f0 80 f0 120 f0 160 f0 440 f0 44 f0 48 f0 56 f0 80 f0 120 f0 200 f0 280 f0 840 f0 Table 5. In fact. it increases. with β = 20 .1. As such. as β → 0 .) iii) BT . BT . It is interesting to note that for β = 5. BT .5). bandwidth is essentially decided by the highest frequency component in the input spectrum.Principles of Communication Prof.2 (which is generally considered to overestimate the bandwidth requirement) is less than BT as given 5.1 . Venkata Rao fm β 20 10 5 2 1 0.

3. In other words.30 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Another measure of bandwidth that is useful in the study of frequency modulation is the rms bandwidth.Principles of Communication Prof.4 Phase Modulation All the results derived for FM can be directly applied to PM. Therefore. fi ( t ) = kp ' 1 d θi ( t ) = fc + m (t ) 2π d t 2π (5. 5. where m'p = m' ( t ) (5.38 × 10− 4 . This is because BT of Eq.4.2 resulting in a larger value for the bandwidth.01 Ac )2 2 Ac 2 2 = 10− 4 takes into account only upto J7 ( 5 ) β = 5. 5. It is instructive to analyze the FM signal when m ( t ) is a sum of sinusoids.24(c) neglects only those frequency components whose magnitude is less than or equal to 0. This has been dealt with in Appendix A5.01 Ac .2 and ( J8 ( 5 ) Ac ) ( 2 Ac 2 ) 2 = 3. That is. BT as given by Eq.25a) where m' ( t ) is the derivative of m ( t ) . 5.24(c). V. for phase modulation. ∆f = kp 2π m'p . 5. This has been done in the Appendix A5. the ratio Power of any spectral component not included in BT Pav is less than With ( 0. Venkata Rao by Eq.24(c) includes few more spectral components in the bandwidth than that taken into account by BT .25b) max 5. We know that. 2 BT .

The FM generator is fed a tone modulating signal Am ⎡cos 4 π × 103 t ⎤ . ( BT )PM will be much larger than for the case of the signals with strong spectral components at lower frequencies. Starting near about zero. ∆ f is a function of m'p and this value is strongly dependent on M ( f ) . Hence the bandwidth of WBFM is essentially independent of the spectrum of m ( t ) (It has a weak dependence on W ). it has been found that the carrier component goes to zero for the first time. frequency fm is decreased until the carrier component goes zero for the second time. it depends only on the peak value of the modulating signal.31 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Similarly. Example 5.5 To determine the frequency sensitivity of an FM source. What is the frequency sensitivity of the source? Keeping Am at 2 V. V. On the other hand. as ∆ f = kf mp . 1 < k < 2 (5. for signals with strong high frequency components. What is the value of fm for this to happen? ( ) 5.Principles of Communication Prof. predominance of lower-frequency components will result in a lower value of m'p . for PM. As a result. For FM. Venkata Rao ( BT )PM = 2[∆ f + k W ] . Strong high frequency components in M ( f ) would result in large values of m'p . there is one important difference between PM and FM. Am is gradually increased and ⎣ ⎦ when Am = 2 V.26) ⎡ k m' ⎤ p p = 2⎢ + kW ⎥ ⎢ 2π ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ With respect to ∆ f . the following method has been used.

Unmodulated carrier amplitude is the same for both AM and FM. 5. (That is. the magnitude of the spectral components at ( fc ± 1000 ) Hz is Ac µ . Hence.5 .6 A 1. V.5 = 4.32 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . If the frequency components at ( fc ± 1000 ) Hz have the same magnitude in AM as well as FM.4 .8 × 103 fm 4. The modulation index β of FM is 8.5 or fm = Example 5. the smallest value of β for which J0 ( β ) = 0 is β = 2.8 = 2. fm ∆ f = 2. For FM.4 .0 kHz tone is used to generate both an AM and an FM signal.4 .8 × 103 = 872 Hz 5. Ac µ = Ac J1 ( 8 ) ⇒ µ = 2 J1 ( 8 ) 2 = 0. the magnitude of the spectral components at ( fc ± 1000 ) Hz is 2 Ac J1 ( 8 ) . Venkata Rao With tone modulation. That is. For AM.) But β = ∆f = 2.4 kHz/V 2 The carrier component is zero for the second time when β = 5.4 fm = 4.Principles of Communication Prof.47 5. we have kf = 4.8 kHz = kf mp As mp is 2 V. find the modulation index of AM. we know that carrier goes to zero for the first time when β = 2.

85 cos ( 2 π f2 t ) be used to generate an FM as well as a PM signal. i) ii) (a) B T ( )FM and (b) B T ( )PM for the following combinations f1 = 500 Hz and f2 = 700 Hz f1 = 1000 Hz and f2 = 1400 Hz We will assume that Jn ( β ) can be neglected if n > β + 2 .33 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . a) ( B T )FM Case i) f1 = 500 Hz and f2 = 700 Hz From Eq. Venkata Rao Example 5.3).2 × 103 Hz 5.3. Then.85 700 6 We shall take into account Jm ( β1 ) upto m = 12 ( = β1 + 2 ) and Jn ( β2 ) upto n = 8 ( = β2 + 2 ) . V. ( B T )FM = 2 (12 × 500 + 8 × 700 ) = 23. Let us compute of f1 and f2 . Modulator constants are kf = 5 kHz/V and k p = 10 rad/V.1 (Appendix 5.7 In this example we will show that the bandwidth of the PM signal is strongly dependent on M ( f ) whereas this dependence is weak in the case of an FM signal. we have s ( t ) = Ac ∑∑ Jm ( β1 ) Jn ( β2 ) cos ⎡( ωc + m ω1 + n ω2 ) t ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ m n β1 = β2 = 5 × 103 = 10 500 5 × 103 × 0. Let m ( t ) = cos ( 2 π f1 t ) + 0. A5.Principles of Communication Prof.

we have β1 = 5 and β2 3. and this product is C = J 4 ( 5 ) J2 ( 3 ) = 0. Let us calculate the ratio J13 (10 ) J8 ( 6 ) ⎡Jm (10 ) Jn ( 6 ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ so as to get an idea of the max magnitude of the spectral components that have been neglected in calculating B T Let ( )FM . If we account for Jm ( β1 ) and Jn ( β2 ) upto m = 7 and n = 5 .19 However. we find that the maximum value of the product Jm (10 ) Jn ( 6 ) occurs for m = 8 and n = 5 . Let.486 = 0.34 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Jm ( β1 ) Jn ( β2 ) .1).0114 = 0. A = 0.03 × 0. then ( B T )FM = 2 7 × 103 + 5 × 1400 = 28 × 103 Hz ( ) Of course the maximum value of Jm ( β1 ) and Jn ( β2 ) occurs for m = 4 and n = 2 . D = J8 ( 5 ) J6 ( 3 ) = 0.115 . B = J8 (10 ) J5 ( 6 ) = 0.0002 5. Then. we see that the magnitude of any spectral component depends on the product. Venkata Rao In the equation for s ( t ) above.391 × 0.018 × 0. B Case ii) f1 = 1000 Hz and f2 = 1400 Hz Now.318 × 0.0052 .362 = 0.0006 A = J13 (10 ) J9 ( 6 ) = 0.Principles of Communication Prof. = 0. V.02 From the tables (Appendix A5.

001. J 4 ( 5 ) J2 ( 3 ) Then. ( B T )PM m' ( t ) = − ⎡2 π f1 sin ( 2 π f1 t ) + 0. V. ( B T )FM b) = 2 ( 6000 + 5 × 1400 ) = 26 × 103 Hz which is fairly close to the previous value of 23.19 0. J7 ( 5 ) J 6 ( 3 ) = 0.Principles of Communication Prof.85 ( 2 π f2 ) sin ( 2 π f2 t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ Now m' ( t ) frequency modulates the carrier β1 = Similarly.001 This is much less than ( A B ) which implies that we have taken into account more number of spectral components than case (i) above. 2 π f1 = k p = 10 2π f1 kp ⋅ β2 = 0.2 × 103 Hz.0002 = C 0.5 Case i) f1 = 500 Hz and f2 = 700 Hz ( B T )PM = 2 (12 × 500 + 10 × 700 ) = 26 × 103 Hz Case ii) f1 = 1000 Hz and f2 = 1400 Hz As β1 and β2 remains unchanged.85 k p = 8. then. If we restrict ourselves to the number of spectral components upto m = β + 1.003 which is closer to ( A B ) than 0. we have ( B T )PM = 2 12 × 103 + 10 × 1400 = 52 × 103 Hz ( ) 5. Venkata Rao Hence D 0.35 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

Exercise 5.36 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 5.5 Generation of FM We had earlier identified two different categories of FM. V. This example shows that the bandwidth of the PM signals is strongly dependent on M ( f ) . If s ( t ) can be expressed in the form a) s ( t ) = Ac cos ⎡ω 'c t − β sin ( 2 ωm t ) ⎤ . namely.12. 5.12: Scheme for the Exercise 5. Fig. We shall now present the schemes for their generation.4 Let fc be the frequency of the modulator when m ( t ) = 0 .4 Consider the scheme shown in Fig. NBFM and WBFM.Principles of Communication Prof. Venkata Rao This is twice B T ( )PM of case (i). ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ what are the values of fc' and β ? b) What are the frequency components in the spectrum of s ( t ) ? Ans: ⎛ k A2 ⎞ fc' = ⎜ fc + f m ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ β = 2 kf Am 2 fm 5. 5.

Venkata Rao 5.10) we have. V.attributed to Armstrong .2 WBFM: Indirect and direct methods There are two distinct methods of generating WBFM signals: a) Direct FM b) Indirect FM.14.37 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Fig.5. results in NBPM with a suitable value for k p . From the approximation (5.1 Narrowband FM One of the principal applications of NBFM is in the (indirect) generation of WBFM as explained later on in this section. a) Indirect FM (Armstrong’s method) In this method . 5. This is then converted to WBFM by using frequency multiplication.Principles of Communication Prof. Details on their generation are as follows.13: Generation of NBFM signal 5. 5. 5.first a narrowband FM signal is generated. 5. Applying m ( t ) directly to the balanced modulator.13 can be used to generate the NBFM signal. This is shown schematically in Fig. s (t ) Ac ⎡cos ( ωc t ) − cf mI ( t ) sin ( ωc t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ The system shown in Fig.5.

. 2 ∆ f ...38 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Then. .. For simplicity...15. 2 fc .. 5.. consider a square law device with output y ( t ) = x 2 ( t ) where x ( t ) is the input.. A nonlinearity of order n can give rise to frequency multiplication by a factor of n ..Principles of Communication Prof. where θ ( t ) = ωc t + 2 π kf ⎣ ⎦ −∞ ∫ m (α) d α t Note that we have dropped the subscript i from θi ( t ) . The required WBFM signal can be obtained by a suitable BPF. where ∆f is the frequency deviation of the input NBFM signal. n ∆ f . If necessary. an x n ( t ) will give rise to FM output components at the frequencies fc . . V. y ( t ) = cos2 ⎡θ ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ = 1 1 + cos ⎡2 θ ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 2 { } ⎤ m (α ) d α⎥ ∫ ⎥ −∞ ⎦ t = ⎡ 1 1 + cos ⎢2 ωc t + 4 π kf 2 2 ⎢ ⎣ (5. frequency multiplication can be resorted to in more than one stage.14: Generation of WBFM (Armstrong method) The generation of NBFM has already been described. 5. Let x ( t ) be the FM signal given by. An input-output relation of the type y ( t ) = a1 x ( t ) + a2 x 2 ( t ) + . n fc with the corresponding frequency deviations ∆ f . 5. 5. Venkata Rao Fig. The multiplier scheme used in a commercial FM transmitter is indicated in Fig.27 can be filtered out to give an FM output with the carrier frequency 2 fc and frequency deviation twice that of the input FM signal. x ( t ) = cos ⎡θ ( t ) ⎤ ..27) The DC term in Eq. A frequency multiplier is a nonlinear device followed by a BPF.

Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Fig. 5.15: Multiplier chain used in typical commercial FM transmitter

The carrier frequency of the NBFM signal fc 1 , is 200 kHz with the corresponding ∆ f1 = 25 Hz. Desired FM output is to have the frequency deviation ∆ f4 kHz and a carrier fc 4 of 91.2 MHz. 75

( )

To obtain ∆ f4 = 75 kHz starting from ∆ f1 = 25 Hz, we require a total frequency multiplication of

(75 × 10 ) = 3000 . In the scheme of Fig. 5.11, this
3

25

has been accomplished in two stages, namely, multiplication by 64 followed by multiplication by 48, giving a total multiplication by the factor 64 × 48 = 3072 . (Actually each stage of multiplication is implemented by a cascade of frequency doublers or triplers. Thus multiplication by 64 is obtained by 6 doublers in cascade where as multiplication by 48 is implemented by a cascade of a frequency tripler and 4 doublers.) Multiplication of fc 1 = 200 kHz by 3072 gives a carrier frequency fc 4 = 614.4 MHz. As the final required carrier frequency is 91.2 MHz, a frequency conversion stage is used to down convert fc 2 (12.8 MHz) to fc 3 (1.9 MHz). In this process of down conversion, frequency deviation is unaffected ( ∆ f2 = ∆ f3 = 1.6 kHz ) . The possible drawbacks of this scheme are the introduction of noise in the process of multiplication and distortion in the

5.39

Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

generation of NBFM signal especially for low modulating frequencies as could become excessive.

∆f fm

Example 5.8

Armstrong’s method is to be used to generate a WBFM signal. The NBFM signal has the carrier frequency fc1 = 20 kHz. The WBFM signal that is required must have the parameters fc = 6 MHz and ∆ f = 10 kHz. Only frequency triplers are available. However, they have a limitation: they cannot produce frequency components beyond 8 MHz at their output. Is frequency conversion stage required? If so, when does it become essential? Draw the schematic block diagram of this example.

Total frequency multiplication required =

6 × 106 20 × 103

= 300 . Using only

frequency triplers, we have 35 = 243 and 36 = 729 . Hence a set of six multipliers is required. But these six cannot be used as a single cascade because, that would result in a carrier frequency equal to 20 × 103 × 36 = 14.58 MHz and the last multiplier cannot produce this output. However, cascade of 5 triplers can be used. After this, a frequency conversion stage is needed.

Fig 5.16: Generation of WBFM from NBFM of example 5.8

Block diagram of this generation scheme is shown in Fig. 5.16. As the final frequency deviation required is 10 kHz, the NBFM must have a

5.40

Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

( ∆ f )1

=

10 × 103 = 13.71 Hz. After the frequency conversion stage, we have 729

one more stage multiplication by 3. If fc 3 is the carrier frequency at the mixer output, then fc 3 × 3 = 6 MHz ⇒ fc 3 = 2 MHz. Assuming that fLo is greater than incoming carrier frequency of 4.86 MHz, we require fLo = 6.86 MHz so that the difference frequency component is 2 MHz.

Exercise 5.5

In the indirect FM scheme shown in Fig. 5.17, find the values of fc, i and ∆ fi for i = 1, 2 and 3 . What should be the centre frequency, f0 , of the BPF. Assume that fLO > fc,2 .

Fig. 5.17: Scheme for the Exercise 5.5

Exercise 5.6

In the indirect FM scheme shown in Fig. 5.18, find the values of the quantities with a question mark. Assume that only frequency doublers are available. It is required that fLO < fc,2 .

Fig. 5.18: Scheme for the Exercise 5.6 5.41

the oscillation frequency varies linearly with the control voltage. We can generate the required FM signal from a VCO by using the message signal m ( t ) in the control voltage. let x ( t ) become E0 . for 0 < t ≤ t1 .19(a). V. Let us first examine the case when the input v m ( t ) is a positive constant v 0 . Then. the direct generation of FM is quite simple and any such system can be called as a Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO). In a VCO. The electronic switch is designed such that it is in position 1 when y ( t ) = V0 and goes to position 2 when y ( t ) = − V0 . One can construct a VCO by using an integrator and hysteric comparator (such as Schmitt trigger circuit). The Schmitt trigger output y ( t ) is + V0 when the integrator output x ( t ) is increasing. Method 2 below gives the details of this scheme. and − V0 when x ( t ) is decreasing. We shall explain below two methods of constructing a VCO.Principles of Communication Prof. Then y ( t ) goes to − V0 and the electronic switch assumes position 2. At this point. The value of t1 can be obtained from 5. Venkata Rao b) Direct FM Conceptually.19(b). Method 1 below gives the details of this scheme. y ( t ) changes from + V0 to − V0 when x ( t ) reaches + E0 and from − V0 to + V0 when x ( t ) reaches − E0 . 5. Consider the situation at t = 0 when y ( t ) has just switched to V0 and the switch going from position 2 to position 1. Method 1: Consider the scheme shown in Fig. we have x ( t ) = − E0 + 1 ∫v d τ RC 0 0 t When t = t1 . x ( t ) has attained the value − E0 . 5.42 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Further. Another way of realizing a VCO is to vary the reactive component of a tuned circuit oscillator such as Colpitt’s oscillator or Hartley oscillator. The relationship between x ( t ) and y ( t ) is shown in Fig.

Venkata Rao E0 1 = − E0 + RC 2 RC E0 v0 t1 0 ∫ v0 d τ or t1 = Fig. That is. where 4 RC 5.Principles of Communication Prof. V. 5. we can have f0 = fc = . It is easy to see that ( t 2 − t1 ) = 2 RC E0 . 1 . By 4 RC 1 . x ( t ) and y ( t ) are periodic with period v0 −1 ⎡ 4 RC E0 ⎤ 4 RC E0 or the fundamental frequency of these waveforms is f0 = ⎢ ⎥ v0 ⎣ v0 ⎦ Note that f0 depends on the input signal v 0 .43 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .19: Direct FM generation (method 1) The output x ( t ) now keeps decreasing until t = t2 when x ( t ) = − E0 . If v 0 = E0 then f0 = properly choosing the values of R and C .

by making v m ( t ) = v 0 + k m ( t ) where k is a constant such that k m ( t ) < v 0 .Principles of Communication Prof. Then ωi ( t ) = 1 ⎡ k m (t ) ⎤ LC0 ⎢1 − ⎥ C0 ⎦ ⎣ ⎡ k m (t ) ⎤ 1 ⎢1 + ⎥ 2C0 ⎦ LC0 ⎣ Let ωc = 1 . Though all junction diodes have inherent junction capacitance. the varactor is a junction diode. the output s ( t ) is Ac cos ( 2 π fc t ) . which is the desired result. 2 C0 when k m (t ) C0 << 1 ωi ( t ) = ωc + cf m ( t ) . Then. varactor diodes are designed and fabricated such that the value of the junction capacitance is significant (varactors are available with nominal ratings from 0. 5. as given by C ( t ) = C0 − k m ( t ) where k is an appropriate constant. Method 2: The oscillation frequency f0 of a parallel tuned circuit with inductance L and capacitance C is given by f0 = 1 or ω0 = 2 π LC 1 LC Let C be varied by the modulating signal m ( t ) .1 to 2000 pF). V. we can have the instantaneous frequency of s ( t ) as fc + kf m ( t ) . Venkata Rao fc is the required carrier frequency. Then. when used as voltage-variable capacitors are reverse biased and the capacitance of the junction varies inversely with the applied (reverse) voltage. If the triangular wave x ( t ) is the input to a narrowband BPF tuned to fc . In very simple terms. LC0 k ωc . where cf = One of the more recent devices for obtaining electronically variable capacitance is the varactor (also called varicap. Varactor diodes. or voltacap).44 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

5. Cd = C0 − k m ( t ) where C0 is the value of Cd . with m ( t ) = 0 . ' ' C ( t ) = C1 + C0 − k m ( t ) = C0 − k m ( t ) . The frequency of the oscillator output depends on L1 and Ceq where Ceq = C1 || Cd . VB reverse biases D such that when m ( t ) = 0 . it suffers from the carrier 5. RFC is an RF choke that prevents the RF energy of the oscillator circuit from feeding into the audio transformer.20: Direct FM generation (method 2) Consider the scheme shown in Fig. where C0 = C1 + C0 ( ) The other components in Fig. 5. Note that C2 >> Cd or C1 and is essentially a short at the required FM frequencies. Ceq is of the correct value to result in output frequency fc . C2 is a blocking capacitor to isolate the DC level of the varactor from the rest of the modulator circuit. Cd can be taken as. Venkata Rao Fig.14 have the following functions. Hence C ( t ) of the oscillator circuit is.20.Principles of Communication Prof. R1 limits the current in the circuit in the event that the peaks of the audio signal voltage exceed the voltage of the DC source and momentarily forward bias the diode D . Direct FM generation can produce sufficient frequency deviation and requires little frequency multiplication. When the message signal m ( t ) is ' ' on. Cd being the capacitance of the varactor D .45 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 5. V. However.

Donald Tillman describes a new VCO design (called a quadrature trapezoid VCO) especially suited for electronic music applications.) To make the VCO chip functional.4 MHz. Waldow and Ingo Wolf describe a VCO operating in the frequency range 100 MHz to 4 GHz [1].01 Hz to 1 MHz.html. V. Another chip with an operating frequency range of about 1 MHz is LM 566.Principles of Communication Prof. 5. 5. Some additional circuitry is required to achieve frequency stability. For example XR-2206 of the EXAR Corporation.4. Details are available at: http://www. Texas Instruments CD 4046 is an inexpensive VCO chip with a normal operating frequency range upto 1. Free running frequency of the VCO is 18 MHz. Voltage controlled oscillators are available in the form of IC chips.46 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .till. Venkata Rao frequency instability as the carrier frequency is not obtained from a highly stable oscillator.5. Koster. what is required is an external capacitor and one or two external resistors. USA has an operating frequency range of 0. PLLs are discussed in sec. (Actually CD 4046 is a PLL and VCO is a part of it.com/articles/QuadTrapVCO/discussion. CD 74HC7046 is another PLL chip with VCO.

20 for the direct generation of FM. by using the binomial approximation.7 Consider the circuit of Fig. Let VB = 4 V and m ( t ) = 0. V.054 sin ⎡ 10 π × 103 t ⎤ . Venkata Rao Exercise 5. The diode capacitance Cd . 5.47 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . a) Show that. Write the expression for the generated FM signal. It is given that C1 = 250 pF and the circuit ⎣ ⎦ resonates at 2 MHz when m ( t ) = 0 .86 sin ⎡ 10 π × 103 t ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ (Note that C2 is a short circuit at the frequencies being generated. 5.Principles of Communication Prof.2 × 10− 12 sin ⎡ 10 π × 103 t ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 3 ( ) ( ) Show that fi ( t ) = 2 × 106 + 705.) ( ) ( ) c) Let Ac be the amplitude of oscillations of the VCO. Cd can be put in the form Cd b) 10− 10 = − 0. is related to the reverse bias as. Cd = where v d 100 pF 1 + 2vd is the voltage across the varactor.

21.21: A variation of the VCO circuit of Fig. ( fi )max and ( fi )min from the above scheme.14 The varactor diodes D1 and D2 are connected back-to-back. the two diodes are in series. 5.4 kHz and ( fi )min 90. m ( t ) = 0. L1 = 50 µ H and the capacitance of the varactor diode Cd .48 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . ( ) frequency fc . follows the relation Cd = 50 pF vd where v d is the voltage across the diode.5cos 2 π × 103 t . Calculate the carrier Let VB = 5 V. as far as the tuned circuit is concerned. 5. This arrangement helps to mitigate the effect of the RF signal of the tuned circuit (also called tank circuit) driving a single diode into conduction on its peaks which will change the bias voltage (and thereby the frequency that is generated). Venkata Rao Exercise 5. What are the values of ( fi )max and ( fi )min .20 is shown in Fig.6 kHz. given that C1 = 50 pF. Ans: fc 91 kHz. Do not use any approximations. 5. 5. V. Of course. ( fi )max 91. this means the capacitance of the combination is one-half that of a single diode.8 A simple variation of the circuit of Fig. Fig. 5.Principles of Communication Prof. if you use binomial approximation. without any approximation.

It is assumed that the time constant of the network is small enough in comparison with the variations in the instantaneous frequency of the FM signal. We shall now indicate three ways of implementing this demodulation scheme. V. ( f > 0 . Venkata Rao 5. (for f > 0 ). over the required bandwidth. Hence a frequency selective network with a transfer function of the from H ( f ) = α f + β . the message signal.6 Demodulation of FM A variety of techniques and circuits have been developed for demodulating FM signals.7. 1 Band-pass limiters have been analyzed in section 5. 5. the circuit converts the frequency deviation into a corresponding amplitude change.49 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .22 where d represents a banddt pass differentiator with the magnitude characteristic H ( f ) = α f + β .1 FM-to-AM conversion The instantaneous frequency of an FM signal is given by fi = fc + kf m ( t ) . We shall consider a few of these techniques falling under the following categories: 1) 2) 3) 4) FM-to-AM conversion Phase shift discrimination Zero crossing detection Phase Locked Loop (PLL) 5.Principles of Communication Prof. BPL1 is a Band-Pass Limiter which eliminates amplitude fluctuations from the received FM signal. Consider the scheme shown in Fig. which in this case is proportional to m ( t ) .6. 5. That is. and α and β are constants) over the FM band would yield an output proportional to the instantaneous frequency.

50 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .AM conversion s ( t ) is the constant amplitude FM signal to be demodulated.28 represents a signal that is both amplitude and frequency modulated.Principles of Communication Prof.28) Eq.28. s ' ( t ) . 5. ⎡ ωc + 2 π kf m ( t ) ⎤ ≥ 0 ). giving rise to an FM signal with constant envelope. Therefore. d Ac ( t ) on the RHS of Eq. signal m ( t ) can ⎣ ⎦ be obtained from s ' ( t ) . Assume that the received FM signal (with amplitude fluctuations) is applied directly as the input to the differentiator. Even if this term were to be dt neglected. As Ac ωc represents a DC term. The need for a BPL is as follows. Band-pass limiter eliminates the amplitude fluctuations. which implies ⎣ ⎦ that the envelope of s' ( t ) does not contain a term proportional to m ( t ) . it is essential to maintain the FM envelope at a constant level. is given by ⎡ s' ( t ) = − Ac ⎡ωc + 2 π kf m ( t ) ⎤ sin ⎢ωc t + 2 π kf ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎣ ⎤ m (α) dα⎥ ∫ ⎥ −∞ ⎦ t (5.to .22: Schematic of an FM demodulator based on FM . 5. (Several factors such as channel noise. Let Ac ( t ) denote the envelope of the FM signal. after the DC-block. ⎣ ⎦ hence. The envelope of s ' ( t ) = Ac ⎡ωc + 2 π kf m ( t ) ⎤ (we assume that ∆ f = kf mp ≤ fc . V. Venkata Rao Fig. 5. Then. there would be an additional term. fading etc. the output of the differentiator. We shall now indicate some schemes to implement this method of demodulation. the envelope of s ' ( t ) would be Ac ( t ) ⎡ ωc + 2 π kf m ( t ) ⎤ . cause variations in Ac ). 5.

Fig. we have the corresponding segment. 5. 5. A' to B' ) for demodulation purposes. The parts of the characteristic shown in red have been drawn as straight lines. V. Venkata Rao Scheme 1: Circuit implementation of the scheme of Fig. (This is a good approximation to the actual characteristic. 5.Principles of Communication Prof. The transfer characteristic of a tuned circuit in a small region off resonance is approximately linear.22. 5. we can use the straight line segment between A and B (for f > 0 . 2 2 f1 + f2 and 2 5.) Assuming that m ( t ) > 0 produces an increase in the instantaneous frequency.23. Let us assume that the FM signal to be demodulated has the carrier frequency fc = f1 ≤ fc − BT B where as f2 ≥ fc + T .23: Magnitude characteristics of a tuned circuit In Fig. This is shown in Fig.51 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . we have shown the resonance characteristic of a tuned circuit. Scheme 2 (Slope detection): Another way of implementing the FM-to-AM conversion scheme is through a simple tuned circuit followed by an envelope detector.24. can be carried out by constructing an op-amp differentiator circuit followed by an envelope detector. for f < 0 .

then. 5. the output of the primary is 2 fairly constant. fc gets converted to fIF . V. changes in the instantaneous frequency will give rise to corresponding changes in the output amplitude. This method of demodulating an FM signal is also known as slope detection. 5. the detector stage follows the IF stage. where f0 > fc . 5. Though the method is fairly simple. As such. we can expect the m ( t ) to resemble m ( t ) fairly closely. The primary of the coupled circuit is tuned to fc 1 whereas the secondary is tuned to f0 .24: Segment A to B of Fig. 5.23 As can be seen from the figure. over the frequency range f ± fc ≤ BT . Envelope detection of this output will produce the required message signal.Principles of Communication Prof.25: Tuned circuit demodulator Consider the demodulator circuit shown in Fig. 5. Fig. Venkata Rao Fig.52 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .25. it suffers from the following disadvantages: the resonant circuits on the primary and secondary side are 1 In a superheterodyne receiver. If.

below fc .53 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The resonant circuit on the primary is tuned to fc whereas the two resonant circuits on the secondary side are tuned to two different frequencies. where 2 B is the width of the 3-dB bandwidth of the individual tuned circuits) and does not require any DC bock (The two resonant frequencies of the secondary are appropriately selected so that output of the discriminator is zero for f = fc ). Though the balanced configuration has linearity over a wider range (as can be seen from Fig.26(b). making the demodulation of a WBFM unsatisfactory. 5. 5. V. The scheme.Principles of Communication Prof. the difference of the two envelope detected outputs would be proportional to m ( t ) . Scheme 3 (Balanced slope detection): This latter problem is partially overcome by using a balanced configuration (balanced slope detection). Venkata Rao tuned to two different frequencies. The outputs of the tuned circuits on the secondary are envelope detected separately. the frequency range of linear amplitude response of a tuned circuit is somewhat limited. the width of linear frequency response is about 3 B . shown in Fig. it suffers from the disadvantage that the three tuned circuits are to be maintained at three different frequencies.26(a) has three tuned circuits: two on the secondary side of the input transformer and one on the primary. 5. one above fc and the other.

4(b) be the input to a differentiator followed by an envelope detector.26: Balanced slope detection (a) circuit schematic (b) response curve Example 5. We shall assume that the differentiator will produce the appropriate step change in the output for sudden changes in the input frequency.54 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . V. 5. Venkata Rao Fig. 5. 5. Let us find an expression for the output of the differentiator and sketch the output of the envelope detector.9 Let the FM waveform of Fig.Principles of Communication Prof.

where f2 > f1 . Taking the constant of proportionality as unity. V. Venkata Rao Let the FM waveform between the time instants cos ( 2 π f1 t ) and that between time instants ( t1. with two different frequencies. Then the output of the differentiator is. 5. we obtain the modulating square wave signal. 5.27: Output of the ED After DC block.55 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . For the values of R and C given. we have the output of ED as shown in Fig 5.) The output of the ED is proportional to A1 during t1 < t < t2 and proportional to A2 during t2 < t < t3 .27 Fig. would act as a demodulator for the FM. 5.0 MHz. this can act as a differentiator.Principles of Communication Prof. A2 > 0 .28.4(a).10 a) Consider the RC network shown in Fig. t3 ) be taken as cos ( 2 π f2 t ) . t2 ) be taken as ( t 2 . we will show that for frequencies around 1. (Imagine Figure 5. d dt Example 5. t1 < t < t2 : 2 π f1 sin ( 2 π f1 t ) = A1 sin ( 2 π f1 t ) t2 < t < t3 : 2 π f2 sin ( 2 π f2 t ) = A2 sin ( 2 π f2 t ) with A2 > A1 and A1 . followed by ED with a DC block. Hence.

v out ( t ) is v out ( t ) = 5 × 10− 9 d ⎡s ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ dt ⎣ 5. j 2πf RC 1 + j 2πf RC c) a) H (f ) = RC = 100 × 50 × 10− 12 = 5 × 10− 9 and for frequencies around 1. we require. V. we can recover m ( t ) from the ED output. we can take H ( f ) as 100 j 2 π f RC .00 MHz. let v in ( t ) = s ( t ) = Ac cos ⎡2 π × 106 t + cf mI ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ where kf m ( t ) << 106 Hz. With s ( t ) as the input. For the above network. 2 π f R C << 1. 2 π f RC = 2 π × 106 × 5 × 10− 9 = 10 π × 10− 3 = As π 100 π << 1.10 b) Let us find the condition on R and C such that this network can act as a differentiator for frequencies around some frequency fc . which is a differentiator.Principles of Communication Prof.28: The RC network of Example 5.56 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . If v out ( t ) is envelope detected. Venkata Rao Fig. 5. = 5 × 10− 9 j 2 π f H (f ) ( ) b) c) for frequencies around some fc . we will show that.

V. we have the Foster-Seely discriminator (and its variant the ratio detector) and the quadrature detector.2 Phase shift discriminator This method of FM demodulation involves converting frequency variations into phase variations and detecting the phase changes. In other words. 5. this method makes use of linear phase networks instead of the linear amplitude characteristic of the circuits used in the previous method. Foster-Seely discriminator and the ratio detector have been discussed in appendix A5.2. Quadrature Detector (QD): Consider the FM signal s ( t ) = Ac cos ⎡ωc t + φ ( t ) ⎤ where ⎣ ⎦ φ ( t ) = 2 π kf −∞ ∫ m (λ ) d λ t d φ (t ) = 2 π kf m ( t ) Then φ' ( t ) = dt 1 ⎡ φ ( t ) − φ ( t − ∆ t ) ⎤ . We shall now explain the operation of the quadrature detector.6.Principles of Communication Prof.57 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . provided ∆ t is small. ⎦ ∆t ⎣ φ ( t − ∆ t ) can be obtained from φ ( t ) with a delay line or a network with linear phase. Venkata Rao = 5 × 10− 9 Ac sin ⎡2 π × 106 t + cf mI ( t ) ⎤ 2 π × 106 + 2 π kf m ( t ) ⎣ ⎦ { } Output of the ED = 5 × 10− 9 Ac ⎡2 π × 106 + 2 π kf m ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ k ⎡ ⎤ = 2 π × 106 × 5 × 10− 9 Ac ⎢1 + f6 m ( t ) ⎥ . 10 ⎣ ⎦ = π Ac 100 kf ⎡ ⎤ ⎢1 + 106 m ( t ) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 5. Under this category.

A (f ) ⎧ ⎪− ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ B π − 2 π ( f − fc ) ∆ t . V.29: Block diagram of a quadrature detector With H ( f ) specified as above. let us calculate the output of the network with the input Ac cos ⎡ ωc t + φ ( t ) ⎤ = Ac ⎣ ⎦ + ϕ( t ) ⎤ ⎦ e j ⎡ωc t + ϕ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ +e 2 − j ⎡ωc t + ϕ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ . As H ( f ) has the j 2πf ∆t linear phase term e − output of the filter is j ⎢ ωc ( t 1 Ac e ⎣ 2 ⎡ .29) Fig. the term at the − ∆ t ) + ϕ( t − ∆ t ) − π ⎤ + ωc ∆ t ⎥ 2 ⎦ j ⎢ωc t 1 = Ac e ⎣ 2 ⎡ + ϕ( t − ∆ t ) − π⎤ 2⎥ ⎦ . the phase function. (which will contribute a delay of ∆ t ). Venkata Rao Consider the scheme shown in Fig. f − fc < T 2 2 BT π − 2 π ( f + fc ) ∆ t . f < 0 .Principles of Communication Prof. f > 0 . 5. We can take 1 j ⎡ω t Ac e ⎣ c 2 to represent the positive part of the spectrum. 5.58 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . f + fc < 2 2 (5.29. H ( f ) has the transfer characteristic given by H (f ) = e j A( f ) where A ( f ) . can be well approximated by a linear phase function. namely. 5.

Combining these two terms.59 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . the quantity π⎤ ⎡ Ac cos ⎢ωc t + ϕ ( t − ∆ t ) − ⎥ = Ac sin ⎡ωc t + ϕ ( t − ∆ t ) ⎤ . 5.29. Venkata Rao Similarly. the output corresponding to the negative part of the input spectrum − 1 would be Ac e 2 π⎤ ⎡ j ⎢ωc t + ϕ( t − ∆ t ) − ⎥ 2⎦ ⎣ . ⎣ ⎦ 2⎦ ⎣ The π phase shift provided by H ( f ) at f = ± fc gives rise to the term 2 quadrature detector.30. 5. Multiplication of this output by Ac cos ⎡ωc t + ϕ ( t ) ⎤ followed ⎣ ⎦ by low pass filtering yields the output y ( t ) proportional to sin ⎡ φ ( t ) − φ ( t − ∆ t ) ⎤ . 5. y ( t ) can be approximated as. we have at the output of the filter. y (t ) k1{φ ( t ) − φ ( t − ∆ t )} = k1 ∆ t ϕ' ( t ) = k2 m ( t ) where k1 and k2 are constants with k2 = cf k1 ∆ t . Several tuned circuits.Principles of Communication Prof. can provide the bandpass response with the phase characteristic given by Eq. Fig.30: A network to provide the phase of Eq. when properly designed.29 5. ⎣ ⎦ Assuming ∆ t to be very small. Consider the series RLC circuit shown in Fig. V. 5.

Then. f0 arg ⎡H ( f ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ − π 2Q ( δ f ) − 2 f0 (5. (f + f0 ) f fb 2 and fb arg ⎡H ( f ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 2(δ f ) π − tan− 1 2 fb 2 ( δ f )Q π − tan− 1 f0 2 δ f = ( f − f0 ) and If 2 ( δ f )Q << 1 . Venkata Rao H (f ) = V0 ( f ) = Vi ( f ) R + j 2πf L + = 1 j 2πf C 1 j 2πf C 2 1 j 2 π f RC − ( 2 π f ) LC + 1 (5.Principles of Communication Prof.31) 5.30) Let f0 = R 1 and fb = . − − where Q = f0 fb f0 . Eq. then. f + f0 2 f0 . 5. around f0 so that f Then.60 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .30 reduces to 2 πL 2 π LC H (f ) = (f 2 0 − f 2 + j ( f fb ) 2 f0 ) Consider f > 0 ⎛ ff ⎞ ⎡ ⎤ arg ⎣H ( f ) ⎦ = − tan− 1 ⎜ 2 b 2 ⎟ ⎜f − f ⎟ ⎝ 0 ⎠ = − 2 ⎛ f 2 − f0 ⎞ π − tan− 1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ff ⎟ 2 b ⎝ ⎠ = − ⎡ ( f + f0 ) ( f − f0 ) ⎤ π − tan− 1 ⎢ ⎥ 2 f fb ⎣ ⎦ Let the circuit be operated in a small frequency interval. V.

When the input to the hard limiter is a sine wave of period T0 . Some details on these FM receivers can be found in Roddy and Coolen [2].61 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Fig. Quadrature detector is well suited to IC construction. Companies such as Signetics.3 Zero-crossing detection Consider the scheme shown in Fig. 5. 5. The circuit given in Fig. V. we have δ f = ( f − fc ) and ∆ t = Q 1 ⋅ π fc There are other circuit configurations (other than the one given in Fig. 5.30) that can provide the required phase shift for the quadrature detector.6. with the transitions in the square wave occurring at the zero 5. 5.32(a). it produces at its output a square wave of the same period. Venkata Rao As H ( f ) is the frequency response of a network with real impulse response. have built high quality FM receivers using QD as the FM demodulator. we will have arg ⎡H ( − f ) ⎤ = − arg ⎡H ( f ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ By choosing f0 = fc . 5.31 is another possibility.Principles of Communication Prof.31: Another phase shift circuit for the QD Here C provides a very high reactance at the carrier frequency and the parallel tuned circuit resonates at f = fc .

V. When the input to the hard limiter is an FM signal. We shall assume that during the T sec. Then the monostable output. looks like a pulse train of nearly constant period. The number of such pulses in this interval nT vI (t ) = 1 T T fi ( t ) with an average value. t −T ∫ t v p (λ) d λ = 1 nT A τ T A τ fi ( t ) After the DC block. Consider a time interval T such that 1 1 >> T >> . 5. Venkata Rao crossings of the input sine wave. where W is the W fc highest frequency present in the input signal. which is the desired result. interval. we will have y ( t ) being proportional to m ( t ) . 5. the message signal m ( t ) is essentially constant which implies that instantaneous frequency fi ( t ) is also a near constant (Fig.Principles of Communication Prof. which produces a short pulse of amplitude A and duration τ at each upward (or downward) transition of v H ( t ) .32(b)). the hard limiter output appears as a square wave of varying frequency. The hard limiter output v H ( t ) . triggers a monostable pulse generator. v p ( t ) .62 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

33(a). 5. 5. Venkata Rao Fig 5. V. recall the squaring loop. timing recovery. PLL consists of a phase detector and a VCO connected as shown in Fig. In its simplest form.6. Section 4. The basic aim of a PLL is to lock (or synchronize) the instantaneous angle of a VCO output to the instantaneous angle of a signal that is given as input to the PLL.32: Zero-crossing detector 5.2.Principles of Communication Prof. the input signal to PLL is the received FM signal.63 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . In the case of demodulation of FM.4 FM demodulation using PLL PLL is a versatile building block of the present day communication systems. frequency synthesis etc.3). it has a large number of other applications such as carrier tracking (in schemes with a pilot carrier and even suppressed carrier. Besides FM demodulation.

5. (This will become evident later. 5. the most common PD is that of an analog multiplier followed by a LPF (Fig. the instantaneous phase of v ( t ) locks on to θ x ( t ) . Venkata Rao Fig. V. s is the variable of the Laplace transform. if necessary with some fixed phase difference. the instantaneous phase of x ( t ) .33(b)). and is designed such that θv ( t ) .33(c). G ( s ) is system function in the 5.) A number of circuits are available which have been used as phase detectors.Principles of Communication Prof. In the context of FM demodulation. In this figure. shown in Fig.33: Phase lock loop (a) Basic configuration (b) PD of (a) in functional form (c) PLL as a negative feedback loop PD makes the comparison of the instantaneous phase of x ( t ) and v ( t ) .64 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 5. The scheme resembles closely that of a negative feedback amplifier configuration.

x ( t ) = cos ⎡ ωc t + ϕ ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ Let and let the VCO output be. e1 ( t ) is maximum when ϕ ( t ) = ψ ( t ) . from Fig. Here after. This is not the characteristic of a proper phase detector.33(b). This anomaly can be corrected. the loop ⎣ ⎦ locks in phase quadrature. π phase shift in the 2 Now let us look at the demodulation of FM.32. that is ⎣ ⎦ 2 1 cos ⎡ ϕ ( t ) − ψ ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 2 (5. Similarly. 5. ⎣ ⎦ w ( t ) = x ( t ) v ( t ) = cos ⎡ωc t + ϕ ( t ) ⎤ cos ⎡ωc t + ψ ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ = Only the term e1 ( t ) = 1 cos ⎡2 ωc t + ϕ ( t ) + ψ ( t ) ⎤ + cos ⎡ϕ ( t ) − ψ ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 2 { } 1 cos ⎡ ϕ ( t ) − ψ ( t ) ⎤ will appear at the output of the LPF. Venkata Rao forward path whereas H ( s ) is the network in the feedback path. by making the amplifier gain ga sufficiently large.32) (We are assuming that the LPF has unit gain) As the phase detector. V. 5. we want e ( t ) to be zero where ϕ ( t ) = ψ ( t ) . A properly designed negative feedback system ensures that the error quantity e2 ( t ) is fairly close to zero so that v1 ( t ) x1 ( t ) . it is possible to make θv ( t ) follow the changes in θ x ( t ) . we shall assume this VCO output.65 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Then. That is. Let x ( t ) = s ( t ) = Ac cos ⎡ωc t + ϕ ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 5. but from Eq.Principles of Communication Prof. v ( t ) = cos ⎡ωc t + ψ ( t ) ⎤ . This is ensured by providing sufficiently high loop gain. if the loop provides a π 2 phase shift so that the output of the VCO is sin ⎡ ωc t + ψ ( t ) ⎤ .

33b) (5.34) for the PLL.33a) (5.66 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . we can draw following block diagram (Fig.Principles of Communication Prof. where K 2 = ⎣ ⎦ (5. which is a known quantity).33c) (5. and Let y ( t ) = ga e1 ( t ) θe ( t ) = ϕ ( t ) − ψ ( t ) Ac Av ga sin ⎡θe ( t ) ⎤ ∗ h ( t ) ⎣ ⎦ 2 Ac Av ga 2 (5. where K1 = 2 π kv e1 ( t ) of Fig. 5. in a superhet. Venkata Rao where ϕ ( t ) = 2 π kf −∞ ∫ m ( τ ) d τ . Or ψ' ( t ) = 2π kv y ( t ) = K1 y ( t ) . The VCO is designed such that when y ( t ) . V. 5.36) Using Eq. the VCO output can be written as v ( t ) = Av sin ⎡ωc t + ψ ( t ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ where ψ ( t ) = 2π kv ∫ y ( τ ) d τ and kv is the voltage sensitivity of the VCO. the demodulator follows the IF stage and fc is actually fIF .33(c).35) Then y ( t ) = = K 2 sin ⎡θe ( t ) ⎤ ∗ h ( t ) . in units of Hz/volt.36 and 5. e1 ( t ) = Ac Av sin ⎡ ϕ ( t ) − ψ ( t ) ⎤ ∗ h ( t ) ⎣ ⎦ 2 t (5.34b) (5. 5. (As mentioned earlier.35. 5.33(b) is. the t control voltage is zero. its frequency is fc . 5.34a) where h ( t ) is the impulse response of the LPF. Hence. This is called the free running frequency of the VCO.

Then ϕ' ( t ) .34: Equivalent circuit of a PLL Fig. 5. Though balanced slope detection offers linearity over a wider frequency range. Summary of the Detectors: Slope detection using a single tuned circuit has been presented to show how simple an FM demodulator could be. Literature on PLL is very widespread. y ( t ) K1 α m (t ) . V. 5.67 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The Foster-Seely discriminator and the ratio detector have been the work horses of the FM industry 5.Principles of Communication Prof.34 brings out much more clearly the negative feedback nature of the PLL. it is not used in practice because of its limited range of linearity. it suffers from the problem of tuning. θe ( t ) << 1 for all t Let the loop be in lock so that sin θe ( t ) θe ( t ) . where in the quantities involved are instantaneous phase deviations of the input and the VCO output. For a more detailed and rigorous analysis. As ϕ ( t ) = 2 π kf −∞ ∫ m ( τ) d τ . Venkata Rao Fig. refer Taub and Shilling [3]. ψ ( t ) ϕ ( t ) and ψ' ( t ) t . That is. The above has been a very elementary analysis of the operation of PLL. we have ϕ' ( t ) = 2 π kf m ( t ) ψ' ( t ) Hence y ( t ) = K1 2 π kf m ( t ) .

they are now becoming less and less important as better circuit configurations have been developed especially from the point of view of IC design. The input-output relationship of a hard-limiter is given by 5. A band-pass limiter consists of a hard limiter followed by a band-pass filter. It is less useful when the frequency deviation is a small fraction of the carrier frequency. including the IF amplifier is available in a single chip (e.7 BandPass Limiter (BPL) We know that information in an FM wave resides in the instantaneous frequency (or in the zero-crossings) of the signal. we want A ( t ) = A .1. PLL performs better than other demodulators when the signal-tonoise ratio at the input to the detector is somewhat low. A divide by ten counter inserted after the hard limiter extends the range up to 100 MHz. Except the phase-shifting network. V. distortion introduced by the channel. Commercial zero crossing detectors have better than 0. BPL helps us to recover the constant envelope FM signal from the one that has envelope fluctuations. The quadrature detector offers very high linearity and is commonly used in high quality receivers. from the point of view of proper demodulation.6. if the envelope A ( t ) is not a constant. etc. a constant. Though the FM signal that is generated at the transmitter has a constant envelope. In other words.1 % linearity and can operate from 1Hz to 10 MHz. Venkata Rao until recently. This is due to various impairments during propagation on the channel. the received signal may not possess this property. This type of detector is best suited when exceptional linearity over a very large frequency deviation is required. RCA CA 3089E). As such.g. as was pointed out in section 5. the rest of the detector. channel noise. In fact.Principles of Communication Prof. the amplitude changes of the carrier are irrelevant. 5. it will give rise to distortion in the demodulated output.68 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . namely.

then 5.35(a). would be as shown in Fig.69 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .35: (a) Input to the hard limiter (b) Output of the hard limiter Then the output with A taken as 1. x (t ) > 0 ⎪ y (t ) = ⎨ ⎪− A . 5. will be a periodic square wave (with period 2 π ) when the input to the limiter is a cosine signal. cos θ as a function of θ is always periodic with period 2 π . when considered as a function of θ . x ( t ) < 0 ⎩ (5. V. 5. If the input to the hard limiter is the FM signal (with or without envelope fluctuations). y ( t ) is the output and A is a constant. if x ( t ) = cos ω t = cos θ . Venkata Rao ⎧ A . Fig. Let x ( t ) be as shown in Fig. 5.35(b).37) where x ( t ) is the input. then the output would be a sequence of alternate positive and negative rectangular pulses with durations that are not uniform.Principles of Communication Prof. Hence the hard limiter output. However. Such a wave is difficult to analyze. Hence.

that θ = θi ( t ) = ωc t + cf ∫ m ( τ ) d τ = ωc t + ϕ(t ) t Then. 5. from Eq.38.) Let θ be the instantaneous angle of the FM signal. cos θ > 0 y ( θ) = ⎨ ⎩− 1.36: Hard limiter output with cos θ as input y ( θ ) being a periodic signal (Fig.36). 5. it is possible for us to obtain constant envelope FM signal with carrier frequency fc and deviation ∆ f . Hence Fourier series consists of only cosine terms with the even harmonics missing.Principles of Communication Prof. V.38) (Note that y ( θ ) is real. suppressing the components with spectra centered at the 5. We will assume that BPF will pass the required FM signal. With an appropriate BPF. 5 etc. where n = 1. we have y ( θ) = 4 4 cos [ ωc t + ϕ(t )] − cos ⎡3 ( ωc t + ϕ(t ) ) ⎤ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⎣ ⎦ 3π π At the output of BPL. cos θ < 0 Fig.2. 1. 3.70 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .2. we can expand it in terms of Fourier series. 5. See Sec. and has half-wave symmetry. namely y ( θ) = 4⎡ 1 1 ⎤ ⎢cos θ − 3 cos3 θ + 5 cos5 θ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅⎥ π⎣ ⎦ (5. we have the constant envelope FM waves with carrier frequencies n fc and frequency n ∆ f respectively. Venkata Rao ⎧ 1.

The receiver for the broadcast FM is of the superheterodyne variety with the intermediate frequency of 10. 7.37 can be easily be realized in practice. One such circuit is shown in Fig. BPL can be used as a frequency multiplier. these stations can broadcast high quality music. a current limiting resistor R and two zener diodes arranged in a back-to-back configuration. as defined by Eq. Venkata Rao harmonics of fc . 5. Incidentally. etc. Let us now look at the receiver for the single channel (or monophonic) broadcast FM. the circuit consists of a high gain amplifier. 5. Like the superhet for AM.1 Monophonic FM Reception FM stations operate in the frequency range 88. V. Zeners can be chosen to have the appropriate break down voltages. 5.8 Broadcast FM 5. 5. As the audio bandwidth is 15 kHz. 5.8.71 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Principles of Communication Prof.37. Fig.38) also has the 5. A hard limiter. 5.9 MHz with stations being separated by 200 kHz. that is. the FM receiver (Fig.7 MHz. the transmission bandwidth allocation for each station is about 200 kHz.1 to 107. multiplication factors being 3.37: Circuit realization of a hard limiter As shown in the figure.

the envelope detector output is used for AVC. hence the discriminator output will vary symmetrically with respect to zero output. the net DC voltage is zero and LO frequency will not be changed. we have a lot of choices: Foster-Seely. As far as the frequency discriminator is concerned.Principles of Communication Prof. Then the discriminator input will have equal frequency variations with respect to fIF . (Recall that. that LO frequency is ' ' not correct. AFC is not a requirement. Assume. most of the present day receivers might be using frequency synthesizers in place of a LO. As such. Assume that the receiver is properly tuned so that fLO − fc = fIF . where fIF < fIF . This is unlike AM. Venkata Rao front end tuning. These being fairly stable. operating at the allocated frequencies. This is very important as a change in the frequency of the LO can result in improper demodulation. This will be followed by the limiter-discriminator combination. mixer stage and IF stage. Then the input to the S-curve of 5. 5. Basic operation of the AFC block is as follows.) However. however. Let fLO − fc = fIF . Fig.38: FM broadcast superhet receiver The need for a band-pass limiter has already been explained.72 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Also. where the envelope detector is the invariable choice. which is different from the AM radio. ratio detector. the output of the discriminator is used in a feedback mode to control the frequency stability of the local oscillator. PLL etc. in the case AM. RF stage. quadrature detector. V.

Similarly. In other words.channel transmitter is shown in Fig. V. This voltage will increase the ' capacitance of the varicap which implies fLO decreases and this makes fIF tend to fIF .39. whose output drives the speaker.Principles of Communication Prof. 5. 5. 5.8. If this voltage is applied to the varicap in the LO circuit.39: FM stereo transmission scheme 1 Output of the discriminator goes through a de-emphasis network before being applied to a base- band amplifier. if ' ' fLO − fc = fIF where fIF > fIF . fIF tends towards fIF . Discriminator output goes through a base-band amplifier1 (with a bandwidth of 15 kHz). Pre-emphasis and de-emphasis will be discussed in Chapter 7. These are generally called as left microphone and the right microphone. fLO will increase which implies ' ' fIF will be increased. audio signal is derived as the output of two separate microphones.73 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The two.2 Two-channel (stereo) FM Two-channel (stereo) FM is fairly common these days and stereo transmission has been made compatible with mono-aural reception. This means that the discriminator output will have a net negative voltage. As the name indicates. Pre-emphasis at the transmitter and de-emphasis at the receiver are used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio performance. in the two-channel case. Venkata Rao the discriminator will be operating mostly in the negative output region. then the discriminator output is positive most of the time which implies a net positive DC value. Let the corresponding output signals be denoted by mL ( t ) and mR ( t ) . Fig. 5.

the other input to modulator being the carrier with a frequency of 38 kHz. Hence. 5. let us look at the operations performed by the stereo receiver after recovering mB ( t ) from s ( t ) . The carrier 38 kHz is derived from the primary source at 19 kHz and a frequency doubler. The block schematic of the stereo receiver upto the discriminator is the same as shown in Fig. The final base-band signal mB ( t ) consists of the sum of y1 ( t ) .40: Spectrum of the final base-band signal The signal mB ( t ) is used to frequency modulate the carrier allotted to the station. The resulting signal s ( t ) is transmitted on to the channel. The signals v1 ( t ) and v 2 ( t ) go through a pre-emphasis stage. V. v1 ( t ) = mL ( t ) + mR ( t ) and v 2 ( t ) = mL ( t ) − mR ( t ) . Typical spectrum (for f > 0 ) of the base-band signal as shown in Fig.38 (that is. The signal y 2 ( t ) is applied to a balanced modulator. Venkata Rao As shown in the figure. V1 ( f ) = mL ( f ) + mR ( f ) Y3 ( f ) = K ⎡Y2 ( f − f0 ) + Y2 ( f + f0 ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ f0 = 38 kHz and K is a constant Fig.74 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 5. monophonic case). 5.40.Principles of Communication Prof. 5. Hence y 3 ( t ) is a DSB-SC signal. y 3 ( t ) and 19 kHz primary carrier.

5. it would have been difficult to extract it at the receiver. 5. the individual channels signals.) Fig. These signals. after de-emphasis will yield v1 ( t ) and v 2 ( t ) .41: Scheme to recover mL ( t ) and mR ( t ) From v1 ( t ) and v 2 ( t ) . (Note that if a pilot carrier of 38 kHz had been sent. will drive the two speakers. (Note that constants of proportionality are ignored and are taken as 1. 5.) r1 ( t ) and r2 ( t ) . after suitable power amplification. Venkata Rao These operations are indicated in Fig. arranged such that one is on the left and the other is on the right. If the receiver is not stereophonic.41.75 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . it would respond only to v1 ( t ) thereby making it stereo transmission and monophonic reception compatible. V. The DSB-SC signal is coherently demodulated by generating the 38 kHz carrier from the pilot carrier of 19 kHz.Principles of Communication Prof. namely mL ( t ) and mR ( t ) are obtained.

3971 .2458 0.0256 0.4861 0.0002 - 1 0.1296 0.0491 0.0.1054 0.0.0435 0.3576 0.0.0070 0.2811 0.0.2239 0.2459 0.0660 0.1263 0.0014 - 6 0.76 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .0002 - 5 .3621 0.1506 .0.0306 0.2611 0.3391 0.3528 0.5767 0.2341 .0634 0.0001 - 8 0.0.3641 0.0002 - 2 0.2423 0.0096 0.9385 0.2075 0.0465 0.3276 0.0145 0.7652 0.0025 0.3206 0.0.0608 0.3912 0.4401 0.2235 0.2429 0.1717 0.1776 .0026 0.0.0.2346 .2767 -0.2601 0.1231 0.3091 0.0.0.0340 0.0033 0.1321 0.2196 .0012 0.2546 0.1310 0.0001 - 4 .3179 0. V.0009 0. Venkata Rao Appendix A5.0114 0.0.0005 0.1320 0.0184 0.3648 0.0152 0.1858 0.1289 0.2167 0.0025 0.0005 0.3376 0.0070 0.0055 0.1 Table of Bessel Functions Jn (β ) β n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 0.0010 10 .0584 .0020 0.0002 - 3 .0533 0.0290 0.4302 0.0430 0.1149 0.0120 5.0212 0.0196 0.5 0.2919 0.0040 0.1130 .Principles of Communication Prof.2911 .0.0565 0.1148 0.

Major differences are a by-pass capacitor C between the primary and secondary. Fig.2. A5.1 illustrates the circuit diagram of this discriminator where all the resonant circuits involved are tuned to the same frequency.1: Circuit schematic of Foster-Seely discriminator In the frequency band of operation. Hence. an additional inductance L and only a single tuned circuit on the secondary ( L2 || C2 ) . A5. Venkata Rao Appendix A5. The mutually coupled double tuned circuit has high primary and secondary Q and low mutual inductance. V.Principles of Communication Prof. 5.26. C3 and C4 are essentially short circuits. which implies that the entire input voltage Vin would appear across L . the primary current 5. we may neglect the primary resistance and any impedance coupled from the secondary. When evaluating the primary current.2 Phase Shift Discriminator (i) (ii) Foster-Seely Discriminator The Ratio Detector A5.2.2. C .77 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Note the similarity between this circuit and the circuit of Fig.1 Foster-Seely discriminator Fig.

2.3) 5. A5.2. we have ⎛M ⎞ Vs = − ⎜ ⎟ Vin ⎝ L1 ⎠ Assuming the diode circuit will draw very little current. V.2) where the sign depends on the direction of the winding.1 in Eq.2. Venkata Rao Ip = Vin j ω L1 (A5.Principles of Communication Prof. A5. 3 is given by ωC2 V23 = Is − j XC2 = ( ) ( R2 + j ( X L Vs − j XC2 2 ) − XC2 ) ( ) = j M Vin XC2 where X 2 = X L2 − XC2 L1 R2 + j X 2 The voltage applied to diode D1 .2.2. X L2 = ω L2 and XC2 = 1 . we calculate the current in the secondary because of Vs as. the voltage across the terminals 2. Is = R2 + j X L2 − XC2 ( Vs ) where R2 is the resistance associated with the inductance L2 .2. is V62 = VL + = Vin + 1 V23 2 1 V 2 23 (A5.78 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .1) (Note that all the voltages and currents are phasor quantities) The voltage induced in series with the secondary as a result of the primary current is given by Vs = ± j ω M I p (A5. Hence. Taking the negative sign and using Eq. V62 .

We will consider three different cases: f = fc 1. When the input frequency f = fc we have V23 = ⎛ M X c2 j M Vin XC2 = j⎜ ⎜ LR L1 R2 ⎝ 1 2 ⎞ ⎟Vin ⎟ ⎠ (A5. the demodulator follows the IF stage. This is shown in Fig. Let us 2 2 construct a phasor diagram by taking Vin as reference.5a) That is.2(a). 1 Note that in a superheterodyne receiver. V62 and V63 respectively are equal.Principles of Communication Prof.4) The final output voltage V54 is. V63 . A5. the secondary voltage V23 leads the primary voltage by 90 . f > fc and f < fc . irrespective of the incoming carrier frequency. is V63 = Vin − 1 V23 2 (A5.2.2. As the magnitude of the voltage vectors applied to the diodes D1 and D2 . V54 = V64 − V65 which is proportional to {V62 i) − V63 } . 5. V. fc is actually fIF . Hence. the voltages V64 and V65 are equal and hence the final output V54 is zero.2. the voltage applied to diode D2 .79 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . and the discriminator circuit is always tuned to fIF . Venkata Rao Similarly. Thus 1 1 V23 will lead Vin by 90 and − V23 will lag Vin by 90 .

A5.5b) That is. Then. V64 > V65 which implies the final output V54 = V64 − V65 is positive.2.2(b). A5. V23 leads in Vin by less than 90 and − V23 lags in Vin by more than 90 .2: Phasor diagram illustrative of the operation of Foster-Seely discriminator when the input frequency exceeds fc . V23 = Vin XC2 M j ( 90 − θ ) j M Vin XC2 e = L1 R2 + j X 2 L1 Z2 ii) (A5. V. This is shown in Fig. X 2 = X L2 − XC2 is positive.Principles of Communication Prof.80 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Venkata Rao Fig.2. 5. As the magnitude of the vector V62 is greater than that of V63 . Let R2 + j X 2 = Z2 e j θ .2.

which is usually termed as the S-curve of the discriminator.Principles of Communication Prof. We can take the voltage decrease on R4 also as 2 V.3 gives the plot of the frequency response of the Foster-Seely discriminator. for the given frequency deviation. the voltages across R3 and R4 are equal and let this value be 3 V. The actual value of the final output depends on how far away the input frequency is from fc .3) normally lies between the 3 dB points of the tuned circuit which forms part of the discriminator circuit.2(c). Foster-Seely discriminator responds also to input amplitude variations.2. Let the input to the discriminator be fi ( t ) = fc . let fi ( t ) be such that voltage across R3 increases while that across R4 decreases. In other words. Then. A5. we can easily argue that the final output would be negative when f < fc .2. based on the phasor diagram of Fig. Now. Useful range of the discriminator (frequency range of linear response. say ∆ f1 .81 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .3: Response curve of the Foster-Seely discriminator iii) Similarly. Fig. shown in red in Fig. A5. Let the voltage increase on R3 be 2 Volts. A5. V. A5.2. This implies 5. Venkata Rao Fig.2. we have the voltage at point 4 equal to 5 volts where as the voltage at point 5 equal to 1 V.

2. Comparing the ratio detector circuit with that of the Foster-Seely discriminator. V65 Let the input signal strength be increased such that. a parallel RC combination consisting of ( R5 + R6 ) and C5 has been added and the output Vout is taken across a different pair of points. Foster-Seely discriminator has to be the preceded by a BPL. the voltage across R4 . A5. Then V64 will become 10 Volts whereas V65 becomes 2 V.2. we find the following differences: direction of D2 is reversed. Venkata Rao Vout = ( 5 − 1) = 4 . Let V64 denote voltage across R3 and V65 . with their difference being equal to 8 V.82 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Principles of Communication Prof.4. We shall now briefly explain the operation of the circuit. That is. Vout V65 changes from the previous value. when fi ( t ) = fc . V64 = V65 = 6 . the circuit responds not only to frequency changes but also to changes in the incoming carrier strength. Hence. Now let fi ( t ) change such that we have the deviation ∆ f1 as in the previous case. it is possible to have a demodulator circuit which has built in capability to handle the amplitude changes of the input FM signal. V. Then V64 = 5. thereby obviating the need for an amplitude limiter. The resulting circuit is called the ratio detector which has been shown in Fig.2 Ratio Detector By making a few changes in the Foster-Seely discriminator. A5. Though the ratio V64 remains at 5. 5.

Hence. any variation in the magnitude of this sum voltage can be considered to be spurious. With the diode D2 being reversed. the voltage V54 represents the sum voltage.83 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . we find that by and large. Taking R5 = R6 . A5. we find that the voltages V64 and V65 are series aiding rather than series opposing and as such. Suppression of these spurious variations would result in a detector that is unaffected by input voltage fluctuations which implies that circuit does not require a separate limiter stage.1 and the corresponding phasor diagrams. the sum V62 + V63 remains constant. How the sum voltage is kept constant would be explained a little later.2.Principles of Communication Prof.2. Venkata Rao Fig. V.A5.4: Circuit schematic of a ratio detector Reexamining Fig. we find Vout = V64 + V47 = V64 − V74 = V64 − = V64 − 1 V54 2 V56 + V64 2 = 1 [V64 − V56 ] 2 = k ⎡ V62 − V63 ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ 5.

For a large number of years. the damping is reduced. when Vin increases. The situation now is that the current in the diodes' load has risen but the voltage across the load has not changed. The gain of the driving amplifier increases thereby counteracting the fall in the input voltage.4. In the circuit Fig. Venkata Rao Usually. the output is positive whereas below resonance V56 > V64 . V64 = V56 which implies that Vout is zero. Above resonance. Q falls and so does the gain of the amplifier driving the detector. This nearly counteracts the rise in the input voltage. V. Companies such as Motorola have built high quality FM receivers using the Foster-Seely discriminator and the ratio detector. the secondary of the ratio detector transformer is more heavily damped. For example. of late. as V64 > V56 . their utility has come down. C3 = C4 and R3 = R4 . C5 charges to the full potential existing between the points 5 and 4. But V54 remains constant at first because C5 is a fairly large capacitance and it is not possible for the voltage across it to change instantaneously.84 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . the Foster-Seely discriminator and the ratio detector have been the work horses of the FM industry. extra diode current flows trying to charge C5 . Hence at resonance. C5 will tend to oppose any rise in Vout . C5 is a capacitor of a rather large value. which.2. A5. 5. C5 is of the order of 5 µ F whereas C3 and C4 are of the order 300 pF. and the output is negative.Principles of Communication Prof. This being so. as indicated earlier is essentially a constant. Some details can be found in Roddy and Coolen [2]. This is because as the input voltage tries to rise. As these circuit configurations are not very convenient from the point of view of IC fabrication. Thus the ratio detector provides variable damping. If Vin tries to increase. If Vin is constant. Similarly.

2.85 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 2. 3. 5. 3.3 Multi-tone FM Let m ( t ) = A1 cos ω1 t + A2 cos ω2 t where f1 and f2 are arbitrary. These terms are not present in linear modulation. j β sin ω t spe ( t ) = Ac ⎡e 1 ( 1 ) ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎡e j β2 sin( ω2 t ) ⎤ e j ωc t ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ where β1 = A1 kf A k and β2 = 2 f f1 f2 ⎧⎡ ⎤⎡ ⎤⎫ ⎪ ⎪ spe ( t ) = Ac ⎨ ⎢ ∑ Jm ( β1 ) e j m ω1 t ⎥ ⎢ ∑ Jn ( β2 ) e j n ω2 t ⎥ ⎬ e j ωc t ⎪⎣ m ⎦⎣n ⎦⎪ ⎩ ⎭ Hence.3. 2. ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 3) A set of side frequency components due to f2 : These components have amplitudes J0 ( β1 ) Jn ( β2 ) at frequencies ( fc ± n f2 ) . Venkata Rao Appendix A5. n = 1.1) The (discrete) spectrum of s ( t ) can be divided into 4 categories: 1) 2) Carrier component: amplitude = J0 ( β1 ) J0 ( β2 ) when f = fc A set of side frequency components due to f1 : These components have amplitudes Jm ( β1 ) J0 ( β2 ) at frequencies ( fc ± m f1 ) .Principles of Communication Prof. ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ . linear modulation generates only those components with m = 1 and n = 1 . 2. s ( t ) = Ac ∑∑ Jm (β1) Jn (β2 ) cos ⎡( ωc + m ω1 + n ω2 ) t ⎤ ⎣ ⎦ m n (A5. n = 1. 3. 3. V. ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ Cross spectral terms of the type given at (4) above clearly indicate the non-linear nature of FM. Even with respect to the terms of the type (2) and (3). ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 4) A set of cross modulation (or beat frequency) terms with amplitudes Jm ( β1 ) Jn ( β2 ) at frequencies ( fc ± m f1 ∓ n f2 ) where m = 1. Then. m = 1.

4 RMS Bandwidth of WBFM We have already used a number of measures for the bandwidths of signals and systems. etc.4. V. Let σf denote the standard deviation of S X . null-to-null bandwidth. We shall define the r ms bandwidth of a band-pass process as Brms = 2 ⎛ ( f − f0 ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ ⎠ or 2 Brms = 4 ( f − f0 ) ∞ 1 2 ⎞2 (A5. can be treated as a band-pass random process.4. with fc >> ∆ f . The WBFM process.1b) 2 where ( f − f0 ) = 2 ∫ (f − f0 ) S X ( f ) d f 2 ∞ 0 ∫ SX (f ) d f 2 0 ∞ = ∫ (f − f0 ) S X ( f ) d f PT (A5.Principles of Communication Prof. has the properties of a ∫ PDF. Venkata Rao Appendix A5. such as 3-dB bandwidth. N ( f ) = ∞ −∞ SX (f ) SX (f ) d f . S X .86 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . another meaningful and useful bandwidth quantity is the r ms bandwidth. Then.4. Let S X ( f ) denote the power spectral density of a random process X ( t ) .2a) 2 0 where PT is the total power of the process and 5. N ( f ) . In the context of WBFM. The basic idea behind the r ms bandwidth is as follows. 2 σf can be used as a measure of the spectral width of the process. the normalized PSD.1a) (A5. noise equivalent bandwidth. Then.

4. Venkata Rao f0 = 2 PT ∞ 0 ∫ f SX (f ) d f (A5. f denotes only the frequency variable. this has been done to avoid confusion. A5. it is assumed that fi ( t ) remains constant for a sufficiently long period.Principles of Communication Prof.) 5. (Note that RM ( τ ) is the ACF of the process.) For the FM case. In this derivation. it has been shown by Peebles [4] that.4. the mean ⎣ ⎦ 1 square value of the process. 2 ⎛ f − fc ⎞ In Eq.4) (Note that in quasi-static approximation.4. (Note that we are using the symbol p ( ) to denote the PDF.3) Using quasi-static approximation. FM wave appears to be a regular sinusoid 2 Ac and fi can be replaced by f . Let pM ( m ) denote the PDF of the process.) For the WBFM process. We will now ⎝ kf ⎠ show that ( Brms )WBFM = 2 kf ⎡RM ( 0 ) ⎤ 2 where RM ( 0 ) = M 2 ( t ) . we have fi = fc + kf m where m is a specific value of m ( t ) for some t . as such. V. Then m = ( fi − fc ) kf (A5.4. pM ⎜ ⎟ is the positive part of the spectrum.2b) Let M ( t ) be a strict sense stationary message process with m ( t ) as a sample function.87 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .4. PT = ST = . ⎛ f + fc ⎞ ⎤ PT ⎡ ⎛ f − fc ⎞ ⎡S X ( f ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦WBFM = 2 k ⎢ pM ⎜ k ⎟ + pM ⎜ k ⎟ ⎥ f ⎣ ⎝ f ⎠ ⎝ f ⎠⎦ (A5. instead of the earlier symbol f ( ) .

we expect the PSD of the resulting WBFM also to be uniform over the appropriate frequency range. Venkata Rao For f > 0 . 2 kf ⎝ kf ⎠ f − fc = λ .5) Let m ( t ) be a sample function of a strict sense stationary process M ( t ) . When m = 0 . ( Brms )WBFM = 2 kf Example A5.4. we have f = fc .2(a).4. m < 1 pM ( m ) = ⎨ 2 ⎪0 . A5. we have ∞ 0 ( Let 2 Brms ) WBFM 8 = PT ∫ (f − fc ) ⋅ 2 ⎛ f − fc ⎞ PT pM ⎜ ⎟ df .4.4. Then.1 RM ( 0 ) (A5. 5. It is given that ⎧1 ⎪ .Principles of Communication Prof. otherwise ⎩ a) b) Find ⎡S X ( f ) ⎤ ⎣ ⎦WBFM . V. A WBFM signal is generated using m ( t ) as the message signal. kf ( 2 Brms ) ∞ WBFM = 4 − 2 ∫ ( λ kf ) pM ( λ ) d λ fc kf ∞ 4 kf2 −∞ ∫ λ 2 pM ( λ ) d λ = 4 kf2 M 2 ( t ) = 4 kf2 RM ( 0 ) That is.4 in A5. What is the value of Brms ? As pM ( m ) is uniform. S X ( f ) is symmetrical with respect to f = fc (we assume that the input PDF is symmetric about zero) and hence f0 = fc .88 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Using Eq.

if m ( t ) is the sample function of a Guassian process.1: Shape of the PSD of Example A5. 2 ∫ ⎤ A2 α df⎥ = c 2 ⎥ ⎦ 2 2 Ac Ac ⋅ α ( 2 kf ) = 2 kf 2 That is. For example.1. the frequency range over which SM ( f ) exists is ⎛ f − fc ⎞ ⎛ f + fc ⎞ fc − kf < f < fc + kf .Principles of Communication Prof.4. otherwise ⎡ ⎤ Hence. ⎝ kf ⎠ ⎝ kf ⎠ Fig. α = 1 2 2 ⎧ Ac . V. ⎣S X ( f ) ⎦ WBFM In a few situations Brms might be quite meaningful. Let pM ⎜ ⎟ + pM ⎜ ⎟ be as shown in Fig.89 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . That is.4. when integrated over the entire range should be equal to ⎡ A2 2⎢ c ⎢ 4 kf ⎣ or fc + kf fc − kf 2 Ac . A5.4.4. A5. we require that the RHS of Eq. In other words. A5.1 To find the value of α . there is a small but finite ( ) 5.4. f − kf < f < fc + kf ⎪ = ⎨ 8 kf c ⎪ ⎩ 0 . Venkata Rao whereas m = ± 1 results in the instantaneous frequency to be fc ± kf respectively.

∞ ⎡B ⎣ rms ( )M ⎤ ⎦ 2 = −∞ ∫ f 2 SM ( f ) d f RM ( 0 ) (A5. Venkata Rao probability that m ( t ) will assume very large values.4. then ( Brms )WBFM (Note that = 2 × 3 × kf = 6 kf 9 = 3) RM ( 0 ) = Exercise A5. This implies that ∆ f becomes excessive and as such BT given by Carson’s rule or its variants would be extremely high.90 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .4.4. Brms ( ) ( ) will not be unduly excessive. Show that = 2 kp RM ( 0 ) ⎡ B rms ⎣ ( B rms )PM ( )M ⎤ ⎦ (A5.Principles of Communication Prof. V.6) Let B rms ( )PM denote the RMS bandwidth of the PM signal.1 We define the RMS bandwidth of any lowpass process M ( t ) as. For example if m ( t ) belongs to a Guassian process and say pM ( m ) is N ( 0. 9 ) .7) 5. As Brms weights the large frequency derivations with small probabilities.

VSB becomes the automatic choice. It is very difficult to generate the SSB of the video signal. Hence the use of DSB is ruled out. At the flick of a button on a remote. Venkata Rao Appendix A5. Actually at the transmitter.2 MHz. it is only partially VSB. Similarly. With a suitable carrier component. we have real time reception almost at any point on this globe. (Filtering method is ruled out because of appreciable low frequency content in Mv ( f ) and because of the fairly wide bandwidth. not too far into the future. V. Maybe. Distances are no longer a barrier. Let m v ( t ) denote this signal.) The bandwidth of a monochrome video signal is about 4. designing the HT with required specifications in extremely difficult. We shall now take a closer look at the modulation techniques used in (commercial) TV.) As such. we have seen that VSB can be envelope detected.5 Modulation Techniques in TV Color television is an engineering marvel. blackand-white transmission can be viewed on a color receiver. we have access to so much information and entertainment in such a fine detail (audio as well as video with all its hues and colors) that the angels could envy the humans on this count. it is difficult to design a filter with an exact vestigial sideband. based on the NTSC standard used in North America and Japan. Our purpose here is to illustrate how various modulation techniques have been used in a practical scheme. The bandwidth allocated to each TV station by the regulatory body is about 6 MHz. m v ( t ) . As the TV transmission and reception started with monochrome (black and white) signals we shall begin our discussion with this scheme. we may be able to watch any program of our choice in the language we prefer to listen either in real time or near real time. Hence PAL and SECAM systems have not been discussed.91 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Principles of Communication Prof. It is at 5. (Note that color transmission can be viewed on a monochrome receiver. because of the high power levels at the transmitter.

1: Modulation stages in a monochrome TV transmitter Fig. Venkata Rao the IF stage of the receiver that perfect VSB shaping is achieved. Fig.Principles of Communication Prof.1 shows the block diagram of the modulation scheme of a monochrome TV transmitter. A5. Fig.5. subsequently it is demodulated. A5. Details of the magnitude spectrum of the transmitted signal is given in Fig.5. A5.2. A5. V.92 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .5.2: Audio and video spectrum of a monochrome TV signal 5.5.

75 ) MHz. A5.75 ) to fcv is transmitted without any attenuation. the audio bandwidth can be taken as 2 ( ∆ f + W ) = 2 ( 25 + 10 ) = 70 kHz. A5.Principles of Communication Prof.5 MHz. is applied to an IF amplifier and VSB shaping network. it is termed as partial VSB. Venkata Rao In this figure. V. Below the frequency ( fcv − 0. Fig. TV receiver is of the superheterodyne variety.3: (Partial) Block diagram of monochrome TV receiver The mixer output. which is higher than fcv by 4. LSB is gradually attenuated reaching almost zero level at ( fcv − 1.93 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . A5.5.3. The characteristic of the VSB shaping filter is shown in Fig. The IF amplifier has a pass-band of 41 to 47 MHz. v1 ( t ) . The audio signal.25 MHz ) .25 MHz above the lower frequency limit allotted to the station) The USB of the video occupies the full bandwidth of 4.5. The maximum frequency deviation is 25 kHz. A part of the reciever structure is shown in Fig. 5. band-limited to 10 kHz frequency modulates the audio carrier.2 MHz. As this is not exactly a VSB characteristic.5.4. That part of LSB spectrum between ( fcv − 0. fcv is the video carrier and fca is the carrier for audio. (The video carrier fcv is 1. Hence.

Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Fig. A5.5.4: VSB shaping in TV receiver

The frequency modulated audio signal is also passed by the IF stage but with much less gain than the video part. That is, v 2 ( t ) consists of the video signal of the (VSB+C) type and the FM audio signal, with a carrier at 4.5 MHz and with Aca << Acv where Aca is the audio carrier amplitude and Acv is the amplitude of the video carrier. Under these conditions, it can be shown that v 3 ( t ) , the output of the envelope detector, has the video as well as required audio. The video amplifier removes the audio from v 3 ( t ) . The output of the video amplifier is processed further and is displayed on the picture tube. v 3 ( t ) is also applied as input to an IF stage, with the IF of 4.5 MHz. The audio part of the v 3 ( t ) is passed by this IF stage; the FM demodulator that follows produces the audio signal.

Color TV: The three primary colors, whose linear combination can give rise to

other colors are: Red, Blue and Green. These color signals, pertaining to the scene that is being shot, are available at the outputs of three color cameras. Let us denote these signals as mR ( t ) , mG ( t ) and mB ( t ) respectively. These basic color components are linearly combined to produce (i) the video signal of the monochrome variety (this is called the luminance signal and is denoted by
mL ( t ) )) and (ii) two other independent color signals (called the in-phase

component of the color signal and the quadrature component of the color signal). 5.94

Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

Let us denote these components as mI ( t ) and mQ ( t ) respectively. The equations of the linear transformation are given below in the form of a matrix equation.
⎡ mL ( t ) ⎤ 0.59 0.11 ⎤ ⎡ 0.3 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0.6 − 0.28 − 0.32⎥ ⎢ mI ( t ) ⎥ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢0.21 − 0.52 0.31 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ mQ ( t ) ⎦
M

⎡mR ( t ) ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ mG ( t ) ⎥ ⎢ mB ( t ) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

(A5.5.1)

From Eq. A5.5.1, we obtain
mL ( t ) = 0.3 mR ( t ) + 0.59 mG ( t ) + 0.11mB ( t )

(A5.5.2)

It has been found that mL ( t ) as given by Eq. A5.5.2 closely resembles mv ( t ) of the monochrome system. mL ( t ) has the same bandwidth as mv ( t ) namely, 4.2 MHz. This is required to preserve the sharp transitions in the intensity of light at the edges in a scene. However, the eye is not as sensitive to color transitions in a scene and is possible to reduce the bandwidth occupancy of mI ( t ) and mQ ( t ) . In the NTSC system, bandwidth allocation for mI ( t ) is 1.5 MHz and that of
mQ ( t ) is 0.5 MHz. These chrominance signals are quadrature multiplexed

(QAM) on the color subcarrier as shown in Fig. A5.5.5.

Fig. A5.5.5: Generation of composite baseband video

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Principles of Communication

Prof. V. Venkata Rao

The composite video signal mbv ( t ) is modulated on to the carrier fcv . This implies that color subcarrier, fcc , is 3.58 MHz above fcv and fca is 4.5 MHz above fcv . As such, the color information gets interleaved in between the spectral lines of the luminance signal and no additional bandwidth is required for the color TV system. In order to facilitate coherent demodulation of the QAM signal, a few cycles of the color subcarrier (called color burst) is sent along with the transmitted signal. This reference carrier is tracked by a PLL in the receiver. The VCO output of the PLL is used in the demodulation of the chrominance signal. For more details on TV transmission and reception, refer to Carlson, Crilly and Rutledge [5] or Leon Couch [6].

TV modulator circuit is available in an IC chip. For example, Motorola MC 1374 includes an FM audio modulator, sound carrier oscillator, RF dual input modulator. It is designed to generate a TV signal from audio and video inputs. It is also suited for applications such as video tape recorders, video disc players, TV games etc. The FM system can also be used in the base station of a cordless telephone. Circuit details and other parameters can be obtained from the manual.

Exercise A5.5.1

Indirect method can used to generate the FM signal for the audio in TV. Required carrier is 4.5 MHz and ∆ f = 25 kHz. Using fc1 = 200 kHz and ∆ f1 < 20 Hz, design the modulator such that frequency at any point in the modulator does not exceed 100 MHz. Use the shortest possible chain of frequency doublers and triplers.

5.96