Success and Sustainability in the UK Automotive Industry

Driving Force: Success and Sustainability in the UK Automotive Industry FC1

Success and Sustainability in the UK Automotive Industry

2 4 Foreword Industry and Government working together Introduction Europe’s most diverse and dynamic automotive industry Chapter 1 A global force


13 Chapter 2 World-class productivity 18 Chapter 3 Government and industry in partnership 22 Chapter 4 People and skills 25 Chapter 5 Cutting edge research and development 31 Chapter 6 Looking forward 34 Appendix

Cover image: © SMMT

Driving Force: Success and Sustainability in the UK Automotive Industry 1

Industry and Government working together

Today’s industries face challenges on an unprecedented scale. Globalisation, the pace of technological change and consumer demand have revolutionised the way we do business.
Knowledge and skills play an increasingly important role in the UK’s capacity for innovation and growth. And the motor industry in the UK is meeting those challenges successfully, measured by its total activity rather than by the assembly of the final product. The UK is consolidating its leading position as a centre of excellence in the production of vehicles and components, satisfying the demand of a vibrant domestic market and providing wider access to the rest of the European customer base. The UK is an excellent place to do business. It is home to an increasingly dynamic industry at the forefront of process improvement, product innovation and best practice, delivered by the best people. We have skills and flexibility in our workforce, we have the backbone of our world-beating motorsports experience, we have the engineering capability, we have a proven track record for innovative development, and our designers are world-renowned. In addition, the UK Government has created a regulatory and business framework which actively encourages home-grown and inward investments. It offers an environment where all companies are treated equally, regardless of ownership, with the result that no other member state in the EU is home to as many manufacturers of vehicles – cars, trucks and buses – as the UK. This publication sets out the facts about the automotive industry in the UK, underlining its strengths and capabilities. Undoubtedly, global competition provides tough challenges and the UK has had to take its share of rationalisation – including well-publicised plant closures. But the overall story is one of remarkable adaptability and resilience based on continuous development and openness to world markets. By working cooperatively, government, industry and academia are ensuring that the UK builds on this automotive success story and continues to provide a home for competitive automotive manufacturing and sustainable mobility.

Margaret Hodge Minister of State for Industry and the Regions

2 Driving Force: Success and Sustainability in the UK Automotive Industry


“The UK is an excellent place to do business. It is home to an increasingly dynamic industry at the forefront of process improvement, product innovation and best practice, delivered by the best people. ”

Driving Force: Success and Sustainability in the UK Automotive Industry 3

Europe’s most diverse and dynamic automotive industry
The sector has two distinct parts: the manufacture of vehicles and components; and the motor trade (including retail, distribution and aftermarket services).
In the case of manufacturing, Britain leads Europe as the most diverse and productive vehicle manufacturing location and as a global centre of excellence for engine development and production. More than 40 companies manufacture vehicles in the UK – ranging from global volume car makers, van, truck and bus builders, to specialist niche players. The industry is supported by a dynamic supply chain including many of the world’s major Tier 1 component manufacturers, technology providers, design and engineering consultancies; and it benefits from a world-renowned knowledge base. No other European country has anything like this range and number of automotive players. The industry in the UK is characterised by significant foreign direct investment and high exports, equivalent to 12.4% of the UK’s exports of goods. Overall, automotive manufacturing provides 221,000 jobs and contributes some £9.8 billion value-added to the UK economy. The companies based in the UK operate in Europe’s second biggest automotive market with UK customers in 2005 accounting for the purchase of more than 2.4 million new cars – equivalent to 17% of European vehicle registrations. Moreover, the UK offers a highly sophisticated retail and service/ maintenance sector, which last year generated some £22 billion value added to the UK economy. It comprises some 65,000 businesses employing 550,000 people. Setting standards The automotive industry is at the forefront of process improvement – setting standards for other sectors, such as aerospace – and is characterised by economies of scale and low unit costs, despite the increasing complexity of its products. In 2005, 1.6 million cars – equivalent to the peak number of fully assembled cars that rolled off the production lines in the early 1970s1– and just over 200,000 commercial vehicles were produced in the UK. Of these, more than 73% of the cars and 62% of the commercial vehicles were exported. The UK accounts for some 3% of worldwide vehicle output and 9% of European assembly, ranking it fourth in Europe and ninth globally. This is in stark contrast to the industry of 40 years ago, when most cars sold in UK were designed and built in the UK, mainly for the home market. Now the majority of UKmade vehicles are exported to a wide variety of markets, with Europe the


UK car production peaked in 1972 at 1.9 millions units, but this included a substantial number of kits for direct export.

4 Driving Force: Success and Sustainability in the UK Automotive Industry

main destination, significant sales in North America and Asia, and specialist luxury marques sold around the globe. There are more than 2,600 component manufacturers in the UK, contributing over £4.8 billion added value and employing around 132,000 people. The UK is also an increasing force in powertrain design and production (the components making up the power transmission system of a motor vehicle from engine to final drive), with a particular strength in engines. There is a long-established, independent, design engineering sector offering the full spectrum of services from concept design through to limited-series vehicle production. The sector is recognised internationally for its flexibility and responsiveness and for the innovative qualities of its engineers. It continues to evolve and the last five years have witnessed a succession of acquisitions, closures and re-emergences in response to the changing demands of its global market. The UK is also strongly influential in vehicle styling, with many British designers and graduates from British institutions directly employed by vehicle manufacturers around the globe. As a direct result of this

expertise, Nissan recently moved its design studio from Germany to London. Heritage and change This strong combination of heritage, diversity and agility places the automotive industry in the UK in excellent shape to face the unremitting pressures for change in the 21st Century. The principal challenge is for the UK’s automotive manufacturing industry to align its technology, product and business performance to deliver customer value in a global industry subject to relentless cost-cutting pressures. Regulation poses further challenges. Environmental protection and safety legislation are set to strongly influence the number and type of vehicles that will be manufactured, marketed and used. The focus within Europe will be on securing these environmental benefits while generating competitive advantage. Additionally, industry analysts expect South East Asian manufacturers to dramatically increase their global market share. But with the UK’s close focus on efficiency, productivity, innovation and value-added manufacturing and its cross-section of international manufacturers, the industry is well placed to face these challenges with confidence.

Driving Force: Success and Sustainability in the UK Automotive Industry 5



The UK automotive manufacturing industry is truly dynamic, accounting for 1.1% of GDP adding £9.8 billion of value (6.6% of the total for the , whole UK manufacturing sector) and sustaining around 221,000 jobs. The world’s major automotive companies are attracted to the UK by an unrivalled combination of engineering excellence, a skilled and flexible workforce and a government that strives to create an excellent business environment for companies to prosper – whether domestic or with foreign parents.

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A global force

One of the great strengths of the UK automotive industry is a deep understanding of globalisation and an ability to continuously evolve and create new opportunities in the face of change. Over the last 20 years there has been a revolution in the way vehicles are manufactured, with a streamlining of production processes, elimination of waste and focus on quality, cost and delivery. It can be said that the automotive industry in the UK now rivals that in any country in the world for its combined efficiency, quality and unit cost. Foreign direct investment Overall, the sector includes some 3,300 firms. The majority of vehicle manufacturers and first-tier component suppliers are overseas owned, all treated equally by the Government. Seven of these are volume car manufacturers with a number of truck, van and bus companies, supported by 19 of the world’s top 20 suppliers. The list includes, for example, BMW (MINI), Ford light commercial vehicles and engines (together with its Premier Automotive Group marques: Jaguar, Land Rover and Aston Martin), GM (Vauxhall), Honda, Nissan, Peugeot2 and Toyota. Suppliers include Aisin, Bosch, Calsonic, Dana, Delphi, Denso, GKN, Johnson Matthey, Pilkington, Siemens VDO, TRW Conekt, Visteon and many more. In addition, there are a number of manufacturers producing high value and luxury vehicles serving niche

“The automotive industry in the UK now rivals that in any country in the world for its combined efficiency, quality and unit cost. ”
markets, including BMW (RollsRoyce), Caterham, Connaught, Gibbs, McLaren and Mercedes-Benz (Mercedes-McLaren SLR), Morgan, Proton (Lotus), TVR, and VW (Bentley). There are also companies from the construction equipment, heavy plant and off-road sectors such as Caterpillar, CNH, JCB, Komatsu, McCormick and Terex, all manufacturing in the UK. The UK has three sites producing light and medium vans. IBC Vehicles in Luton builds Vauxhall/Opel, Renault and Nissan badged vehicles, the Ford plant in Southampton manufactures Transit vans and LDV in Birmingham has recently introduced the new Maxus van. The UK’s volume truck builder is Leyland Trucks, a wholly owned subsidiary of the PACCAR group of the US. The Leyland facility is one of Europe’s largest and most advanced plants. It builds trucks under the DAF and Foden brands. The plant has won many industry awards for its efficient performance. Overall the industry is currently investing over £1 billion annually in new plant and technology, equivalent to 10% of gross value-added.

Peugeot plant at Ryton scheduled to cease production in mid-2007

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A global force

Highlights of the results of recent investments include: ■ Toyota’s Burnaston plant has seen output up 25% in two years; ■ MINI output now exceeds 200,000 units annually, in response to sustained strong demand; ■ Exciting new models at Land Rover have lifted output by 20% to new record levels in 2005. Over 2,600 companies are active in the automotive components sector, ranging from the global players mentioned above to small and medium-sized businesses. Together

“The UK is also a centre for design engineering where around 7,500 people are employed. ”
they contribute over £4.8 billion added value and employ some 132,000 people. The sector exports over £6 billion worth of goods annually, 75% destined for Europe and over £1 billion-worth travelling to the Americas. The UK is also a centre for design engineering where around 7,500 people are employed, generating a turnover of some £650 million, with

Bentley gears up new flagship convertible
In 1998, Bentley Motors became part of the Volkswagen Group which announced a £500 million investment in the company. Bentley will soon build the luxurious four-seater convertible Azure at its home facility in Crewe, Cheshire. The latest new model joins the Bentley line-up in Spring 2006 and becomes the flagship car of the range.
A purpose built facility brings together the latest technology with unprecedented levels of craftsmanship for both the established Bentley Arnage and the new Azure. Bentley also produces its Continental GT and Continental Flying Spur cars on the same site. The facility combines traditional hand built skills with some robotics, but the vast majority of the 6400 spot welds on Arnage and the 6600 spot welds on Azure are actually applied manually. The exceptions being the hemming operations of the doors, bonnet and boot areas. The new model is yet another in a series of new products conceived and built at the Bentley site in Crewe, Cheshire. Bentley Motors is this year celebrating 60 years of manufacturing at Crewe. Bentley has around 276 British suppliers and approximately 35 percent of these are located in the Midlands and North West areas. Its products are designed, engineered and produced on the self contained site, where a specialist team of over 500 engineers are dedicated to the brand development. In 2005, the company returned to profit with vehicle production exceeding 8500 cars.

© Bentley

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Toyota exports
October 2005 saw the two millionth car drive off the production line at Toyota’s Burnaston plant since the start of operations in December 1992.
From Burnaston, Toyota Motor Manufacturing (UK) Ltd exports Avensis and Corolla models to 80 markets worldwide with around 75% of production distributed to mainland Europe, 10% to Japan and 15% to the UK domestic market. In 2003 the Toyota Avensis, exclusively built in the UK, became the first European designed and built Toyota to be exported to the Japanese domestic market. Toyota was awarded the Queen’s Award for export in the category of International Trade in recognition of the company’s outstanding contribution to British exports between 2002–2004, with a net contribution to the UK’s balance of payments typically more than £400 million per year.
© Toyota

around 65% exported. The UK is home to the dedicated facilities of vehicle manufacturers, such as those at Ford’s engineering centres at Dunton, Gaydon and Whitley, and Nissan’s R&D centre at Cranfield. In addition renowned names such as Lotus Engineering, MAHLE, MEL, Millbrook, MIRA, mi Technology, Perkins, Pi Technology, Prodrive, Ricardo, RLE, Roush, TRW Conekt, TWI and Zytek are also active in the UK. Many of these have other overseas operations, located everywhere from mainland Europe to the US, Japan and China. Motorsport In addition to the strength in mainstream vehicle design engineering, the UK is the global leader in motorsport and home to many frontrunners in Formula 1. The sector has an estimated annual turnover of £4.6 billion and directly

employs 38,000 people, with UK firms commanding 80% of the global market. As brand values become ever more important, motorsport offers global manufacturers a unique platform to establish their reputation. Here, marques such as Subaru have capitalised on their world rallying success to increase road car sales in the UK, and the relationship between McLaren and Mercedes-Benz led to the development of the Mercedes-

“The UK is the global leader in motorsport and home to many frontrunners in Formula 1. ”
McLaren SLR road car. There are also spin-off benefits to the mainstream automotive industry where companies such as Prodrive have moved from their roots in rallying to offer wider design engineering and development services whilst

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A global force

“The UK is a centre of excellence for powertrain development and manufacture, producing some three million automotive engines a year. ”
capitalising on the motorsport culture of team working and on time delivery to secure competitive advantage. Powertrain excellence The UK is a centre of excellence for powertrain development and manufacture, producing some three million automotive engines a year, with an estimated £3 billion in sales.

A prime example is BMW Group’s Hams Hall plant in Warwickshire, built to meet worldwide demand for the company’s four-cylinder petrol engines, with £400 million invested to date. In 2002, its first full year of production, Hams Hall made 154,000 engines for BMW 3-series and Z4 cars. It also announced a decision to assemble a new-generation, fourcylinder petrol engine for future MINI and BMW 1-series variants, the result of BMW’s collaboration with PSA Peugeot Citroen, and representing a combined investment of around £500 million on R&D and manufacturing facilities over the period to 2007. The BMW decision involved the transfer of manufacturing from a relatively low labour cost location,

Engine production in the UK (thousands of units/year):
Automotive Bentley BMW Cummins Ford Bridgend Ford Dagenham Honda Land Rover Nissan Powertrain Toyota Vauxhall Others Sub total Non-automotive Perkins Others Total 1999 2000 2001 70 43 493 670 109 210 301 219 160 75 5 2355 2002 154 50 576 615 160 220 256 204 351 138 5 2729 2003 124 55 594 620 180 250 281 200 420 100 5 2829 2004 8 146 44 621 682 188 47 272 114 580 12 5 2719

45 531 520 108 200 275 240 100 75 5 2099

47 485 670 63 200 316 230 133 75 5 2224

300 40 2439

300 40 2564

300 40 2695

300 40 3069

300 40 3169

300 40 3059

Totals may not add up due to rounding.

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Ford Bridgend to produce a million engines a year
The Ford Bridgend engine plant in Wales is on schedule to produce a million units annually by 2010 and it will supply the latest petrol V8 engine for the new Jaguar XK Coupe.
The plant has built up a strong relationship with Jaguar – part of Ford’s Premier Automotive Group (PAG) of luxury brands – over the last decade and delivered a world-beating V8 engine that has helped the brand move ahead of its rivals. The million power units annually will include the new 4.2-litre range in the latest XK series, together with PAG’s existing 4.4-litre V8, a new in-line six cylinder engine, and Ford’s successful Duratec series of four-cylinder engines. The all-new XK is the most technically advanced Jaguar ever built with an advanced lightweight aluminium structure and is assembled in Castle Bromwich, West Midlands. The V8 develops 300bhp and is fitted with a Jaguar Sequential Shift six-speed automatic transmission incorporating steering wheel mounted paddles for manual gear changes.

© Ford

Brazil, to the technology-rich environment of the UK. Ford too, sources a significant proportion of its engines in the UK – some 25% of its global requirement – and has expanded its facilities at Bridgend (petrol) and Dagenham (diesel) to meet this demand. The Dagenham site is now Ford’s global diesel engine centre of excellence. Meanwhile, in the off-road sector, JCB has recently invested more than £80 million in the development and production of a new range of fourlitre diesel engines at its dedicated plant in Derbyshire. The retail sector The UK offers a highly sophisticated retail and service/maintenance sector, employing more than 550,000 people and generating added value of some £22 billion annually; and the

past decade has seen a shift in added value from the manufacturing of vehicles to the retail end of the business chain. The sector is fiercely competitive across its range of services, from new vehicle sales through franchised and other retailers, to the trading of used vehicles, vehicle maintenance, servicing and repair, and sales of spare parts. Consumers are increasingly buying on merit and demanding better quality and value. This behaviour enabled Korean brand Kia, which entered the UK market in 1991, to enjoy a 28% rise in sales for the first half of 2005, following a near 60% increase in 2004. Mazda is also selling well in the UK – 48,000 cars were sold in 2004, representing an 8% increase over the previous year.

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A global force

The UK retail landscape has seen the emergence of a number of large quoted plcs, such as Pendragon and Inchape, who operate multi-marque networks and whose scale benefits both their balance sheets and customers alike. By contrast, the European retail network tends to rely more on brand loyalty and has a much higher concentration of small family-run dealerships. However, recent European policy and regulation developments have introduced greater competition in the EU. For example, recent changes to the Block Exemption Regulations mean that from October 2005, automotive retailers have been able to set up secondary sales outlets in other countries of the EU as well as their own. This may lead to retailer groups establishing operations

across Europe. The big challenge for the UK retail sector is whether it can create strong UK-owned retail groups that can grow in Europe and elsewhere. Trade body The Retail Motor Industry Federation (RMIF), whose membership is made up of large, medium and small retail motor businesses including franchised car retailers, independent garages and bodyshops, represents the retail sector. The RMIF’s role is to influence and play a major part in important motor trade issues affecting every individual in the sector, including European representation, such as on issues like the EC Block Exemption Regulation, and customer service standards.

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‘Quality, cost and delivery’ (QCD) is the mantra of today’s automotive engineers, and nowhere is this more important than in the UK, home to Europe’s most efficient car and truck plants.

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World-class productivity

Overall value-added per employee as a measure of productivity has risen by 45% in just three years: a significant improvement. The UK’s leading facility in terms of output is Nissan at Sunderland, with over 300,000 cars produced in 2004. This is also Europe’s most productive car plant, with Toyota at Burnaston and Honda in Swindon also in the European top 10 most productive car factories.

The year 2001 saw the arrival of the BMW MINI, now a major success around the world. When BMW started production, each worker was producing 36 cars a year; now it is 45. In 2004 Jaguar’s Halewood plant became Ford’s best performing plant in the world measured against a number of indicators in the Ford Production System. In 2005 Aston Martin’s production reached record levels on the back of the DB9 and new V8 Vantage models. The marque

Honda success in Europe
It has been 14 years since the first British-built Accord rolled off the assembly line at Honda of the UK Manufacturing Ltd (HUM), Swindon. Just 1200 Associates (as Honda calls its employees) built 30,000 cars in the first full year of production.
Two years later, the European Civic was introduced with production starting in September 1994. To manufacture two models on the same line was a major milestone in the plant's history - and these models have had a tremendous impact on Honda's fortunes in Europe. By 1995, the plant was building 91,200 cars a year, three-quarters of them Civics. Civic sales in Europe rose by 30%, while Honda increased its total car business in Britain by 50%. A further milestone was reached in 2000, when production of the CR-V was added to the Swindon line-up. Since then, a second production line has been added and the plant now employs 4,000 Associates building 190,000 cars per year. Nearly 800,000 Civics have been built over the 12-year period, with more than 60% exported to North America, Japan and mainland Europe. 326,000 Accords and 460,000 CR-Vs have also been built, the CR-Vs destined for the North American market as well as Europe. Here in Britain, the locally-built Civic is established as Honda's most popular car range, accounting for one in every three of the company's car sales. The model is also the most widely sold British-built compact in this country, with the Civic three-door the most popular car in its class. In October 2005 Honda reached another major milestone with the start of mass production of the 8th generation Civic, a five-door hatchback. Volume production began just seven months after the concept version was unveiled at the Geneva Motor Show.

© Honda

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Jaguar in Britain
In summer 2005 Jaguar’s Halewood plant in Merseyside was presented with the prestigious JD Power and Associates European Plant Quality Gold Award.
And for three consecutive years, the plant has received the top score in Ford’s Integrated Systems Review. This annual process audit measures manufacturing and quality standards in all Ford-owned facilities. This is an influential internal review and Halewood is now seen as a global benchmark for best practice. The Jaguar facility scooped the JD Power accolade after its product, the X-TYPE, led Jaguar to a remarkable success in JD Power’s annual survey of US customer satisfaction. It improved to second position overall in the survey and became the highest-ranked European nameplate. The X-TYPE is Jaguar’s most improved model. The Merseyside manufactured car improved 37 points in the JD Power study, a 35% leap over the year before. The study ranks new vehicle quality after 90 days in the hands of customers and is recognised as the industry’s top benchmark for quality. The Halewood plant is also home to the Premier Automotive Group’s European Lean Learning Academy and acts as a centre of excellence for Premier Automotive Group employees. Managers from across Europe spend three weeks at the centre sharing best practice and learning about the principles and techniques associated with lean manufacturing.
© Jaguar

is well on its way to achieving Ford’s goal for annual sales. Leyland Trucks also saw record production in 2005 with its highest annual output from the Leyland plant in its 25-year history. Over 17,000 Daf/Foden trucks where built in 2005, taking total production from the plant over the 25 years to the milestone figure of a quarter of a million. Quality, cost and delivery (QCD), or lean manufacturing, is an approach that is constantly searching for better ways of doing things and looking at how to eliminate waste. It has been the driving force behind development of the UK automotive industry in recent years.

SMMT Industry Forum The impetus to achieve improved QCD came with the arrival of Honda, Nissan and Toyota in the mid-1980s and early 1990s. They spearheaded a drive for efficient production and for process improvement that lifted quality across the sector to worldbeating levels. This was the origin of the SMMT (Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders) Industry Forum which brought together a unique collaboration between international vehicle manufacturers, including Honda, Nissan and Toyota, as well as GM (Vauxhall) and Volkswagen. DTI was a strategic partner in the process and in 1996 helped turn the concept into a reality

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World-class productivity

with an initial grant of almost £4 million when Industry Forum opened for business. With the shared goal of raising manufacturing standards to worldclass across the whole industry, the founding companies of Industry Forum each supplied master engineers to transfer the skills, knowledge, tools and delivery

techniques of process improvement across the sector and down the supply chain. This led to the development of a suite of ‘learning by doing’ programmes, and while the master engineers have since returned to their respective companies, the training is now delivered by senior Industry Forum Engineers who maintain the high standards.

MINI scores major success
The outstanding sales success of the MINI has prompted the BMW Group to invest over £100 million in its Oxford plant between now and 2007, creating around 200 new jobs in MINI production.
The BMW Group has already invested £280 million in the production of MINI in Oxford since 2000. Around half of the £100 million announced last year is being invested into a new body shell production extension in order to increase capacity and reduce customer waiting times. The MINI is on sale in more than 70 different countries, from Chile to China, and worldwide sales since launch reached a total of 529,921 vehicles at the end of 2004. The UK remains the largest market, followed by the US and Germany with more than 75% of MINIs being exported from the Oxford plant. MINI production, originally planned for around 100,000 vehicles per year, now exceeds 200,000 units annually in response to sustained strong demand, making the Oxford plant the fourth largest vehicle producer in the UK. The total number of employees has risen to 4,500, including around 125 apprentices. Growth has been based on continuous efficiency improvements in production processes including ideas from the plant’s employees which have led to savings of £17.2 million since 2002. With one of the most flexible working time models in the UK automotive industry, the current three-shift working pattern enables the plant, in response to customer demand, to run seven days and up to 134 hours per week, using the remaining time for maintenance and cleaning. From 2007, more than 80 people and 160 computer-controlled welding robots will be assembling MINI body shells in a new building. The paint shop will be equipped with new, highly efficient and flexible paint technologies to improve both capacity and flexibility. The MINI production triangle in the UK incorporates plants Oxford, Hams Hall (petrol engines) and Swindon (pressed parts). This localised network delivers increased economic impact, enhanced technical competence and flexibility.

© Mini

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Measuring QCD provides significant advantages
Clarity The measures highlight priorities for improvement in production management with clarity and focus. Simplicity They simplify even a complex manufacturing process and identify a straightforward route to gain performance improvements. Feedback The measures can be used to quantify the results of any changes to the process. The effect of a change can be compared with the status of the process before the change. QCD provides rapid feedback and quantifiable numeric comparisons. Benchmarking QCD provides the basis for objective comparison with benchmarked processes or the performance of a benchmark company. This highlights processes which offer better methods and practices. The bottom line Business survival is dependent on the profit generated from satisfying customers. QCD is a robust production tool which has a measurable effect on manufacturing efficiency, and can help to improve competitiveness, develop business and increase profit.
© Ford

Since 1996, the Industry Forum has worked with over 450 car and components manufacturers to improve their performance and the model has been used for around 14 other industry sectors, including construction equipment, semiconductors, electronics, aerospace, telecommunications, textiles, building products, food and chemicals processing. A study by SMMT Industry Forum identified average benefits of £150,000 per annum per company taking a MasterClass, giving a payback time of just over a month after the improvements had been implemented. Overall, the benefits

“Since 1996, Industry Forum has worked with over 450 car and components manufacturers to improve their performance. ”
being enjoyed by British manufacturing industry since Industry Forum was formed is estimated at close to £118 million. This work provides the basis for new initiatives such as the Automotive Academy and Supply Chain Groups which are looking to embed lean manufacturing skills and processes more broadly and deeply across the whole automotive manufacturing sector (see page 20).

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© Ford

The value the UK Government places on manufacturing and the automotive industry in particular is demonstrated by the quality, frequency and intensity of dialogue and collaboration.
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Government and industry in partnership

The regulatory and policy agenda impacting on the automotive sector is a challenging one – in particular, environmental imperatives and the need for continuous improvement in safety standards will continue to be major drivers of the market. The Government fully appreciates the need for regular, high level contact with the sector and the development of a partnership approach to ensure policy-making on these and other areas is effectively joined up and properly informed by the potential implications for competitiveness. The UK seeks to minimise threats and maximise opportunities, pursuing the partnership approach through bodies such as the Vehicle Industry Policy and European Regulation Group (VIPER), the Retail Motor Strategy Group (RMSG) and the Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership (LowCVP). VIPER VIPER was established in 2003 by the DTI’s Automotive Unit to provide a ‘one stop policy shop’ for the automotive sector. Representatives of a cross-section of the industry (including all the major vehicle manufacturers) are brought together on a regular basis with officials from across Government, including not just DTI, but also the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, and the Department for Transport. VIPER monitors the policy formulation process in the UK and Europe, scanning the horizon to ensure industry is engaged in all relevant aspects of policy development from an early stage and

“Representatives of a crosssection of the industry (including all the major vehicle manufacturers) are brought together on a regular basis. ”
facilitating detailed discussion on key subjects at all stages of the policy formulation and implementation process. In everything it does, VIPER helps to reinforce the Government’s commitment to the principles of Better Regulation and the emphasis at all points is on maximum transparency. Since its inception, VIPER has helped to frame UK policy on a wider variety of issues, from the implementation of the End of Life Vehicles Directive to the European Commission’s latest ‘Euro V’ proposals on air quality (it is estimated that the cost to business of implementing the End of Life Vehicles Directive, for example, has been cut by £250 million). In 2005, it also enabled the UK Government to engage with the automotive sector on a regular basis throughout the lifetime of the European Commission’s CARS21 group3. The success of the VIPER model has led DTI to replicate it in a number of other industrial sectors. Retail Motor Strategy Group The Retail Motor Strategy Group (RMSG) was created in 2002 to provide a strategic interface between the Government and industry on the particular policy framework impacting the automotive retail sector.



CARS21 was a high level group brought together by the European Commission to consider the future of the European automotive sector and, in particular, how enhanced competitiveness could be delivered

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Government and industry in partnership

“The RMSG enables members to access the government officials responsible for developing and implementing policy and regulation at both a UK and European level. ”
Membership of the Retail Motor Strategy Group (RMSG) is drawn from senior management and Chief Executives, from Government,

manufacturers, franchised and independent retailers, parts suppliers and consumer representative bodies. Like VIPER, the RMSG enables members to access the government officials responsible for developing and implementing policy and regulation at both a UK and European level, shaping their thinking at the earliest opportunity. Priority areas of work include the EC Block Exemption Regulation defining the competition law

Shaping the future
In 2001 the DTI’s Automotive Unit established an Automotive Innovation and Growth Team (AIGT) under the chairmanship of Sir Ian Gibson, bringing together the expertise of Government, industry and academia to analyse the industry and set out actions for all parties.
The AIGT made a number of recommendations the following year. These included the establishment of three organisations:
■ An Automotive Academy to raise skill standards throughout the industry (see page 23); ■ The Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership to accelerate the move to a low carbon future through joint stakeholder activity (see page 21); ■ Centres of Excellence (CoE) in two priority areas – sustainable transport and low carbon propulsion (see page 27).

The AIGT made a number of additional recommendations aimed at improving other aspects of the sectors, including:
■ Placing the Foresight Vehicle network under industry ownership to improve its responsiveness to industry needs (see page 27); ■ The development of a Supply Chain Group programme to increase efficiency of the supply chain through the promotion of best practice.

The Supply Chain Group (SCG) programme was launched in April 2003 to run for five years with up to £15 million of government funding. It aims to strengthen the productivity and competitiveness of assisted businesses through the adoption of world-class processes and techniques. Companies can apply for a grant that may cover up to 50% of the cost of a project. Already 27 SCG projects are under way covering automotive companies that employ over 50,000 people and generate over £2.5 billion of added value, representing a significant part of the sector.

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framework for the sector across the EU and the desire to increase customer confidence in service standards throughout the industry. Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership LowCVP is an action and advisory group established in January 2003 to take the lead in accelerating the shift to clean, low carbon vehicles and fuels in the UK. It is a partnership of organisations from the automotive and fuel industries, academia, environmental non-governmental organisations and other stakeholders who are working together with Government on shared goals to make the shift happen. The objectives are set out in the Government’s Powering Future Vehicles Strategy which defines low carbon targets for 10% of new car sales and 20% of new buses in the UK by 2012 in support of the UK’s commitment to the Kyoto Protocol.

“LowCVP has been recognised internationally as a best practice government and industry partnership. ”
LowCVP has been recognised internationally as a best practice government and industry partnership. An early outcome was the development of the new Energy Efficiency Car Label, ahead of the rest of Europe, which is helping transform the market by persuading consumers to buy greener cars. Another outcome is a programme initiated by DTI/DEFRA to use public procurement as a mechanism to accelerate the introduction of low carbon vehicles into the market in volumes large enough to make their manufacture a viable proposition for the future. This is being taken forward by Cenex and is described in further detail on page 27.

Driving Force: Success and Sustainability in the UK Automotive Industry 21


Skills are of fundamental importance to the economic prosperity of the UK. Against a backdrop of globalisation, rapid technological change and an ageing population, knowledge and skills are playing an increasingly important role in the UK’s capacity for innovation and growth.

22 Driving Force: Success and Sustainability in the UK Automotive Industry

People and skills

In recognition of this link between productivity and skills, one of the key recommendations of the Automotive Innovation and Growth Team (see “Shaping the future” page 20) was for the creation of an Automotive Academy to ensure the skills levels of the UK automotive workforce are raised to the highest possible global standards. The brief was for an Academy that would be industrydriven and deliver training that was world-class, demand-led, consistent throughout the country and nationally and internationally recognised.

to establish a core curriculum of training programmes and material. Courses are subject to a stringent validation process and materials, trainers and assessors across the UK are benchmarked against best practice. Those successfully completing the courses gain a nationally recognised Certificate of Achievement. Employees come from all disciplines – engineers, supply and purchasing staff, shop floor operators, team leaders, managers and executives – and from across the industry, from the smaller manufacturers in the component supply chain up to the UK’s biggest vehicle manufacturers. The Academy has also created a ‘skills escalator’ to promote continuous learning, encouraging greater focus on career development with the aim of retaining skilled staff and delivering sustainable business improvements. The hub of the Academy is based in the heart of the UK automotive industry in the West Midlands and is responsible for the skills strategy as well as marketing and public relations. In addition, it carries out validation of the courses, training providers and assessors. The hub is supported by a network of regional spokes working to identify and satisfy local demand. The spokes act as agents for the Academy, providing a ‘one-stop shop’ contact point to help companies with their training and funding requirements. There will be nine spokes, each providing an essential regional focus and offering support locally, with a remit to improve the skills base in the automotive industry in their local area, serving everyone from small companies in the supply chain to the major manufacturers.

“The Academy has also created a ‘skills escalator’ to promote continuous learning, encouraging greater focus on career development. ”
Established by the SMMT in 2004 as a partnership between Government and industry and with over £13 million backing from the DTI, the Automotive Academy now operates across the industry, offering training from the shop floor through to senior boardroom directors, with lean production and business improvement at its core. The Academy’s vision is to be the prestigious national centre of learning for people in the automotive industry in the UK. The Academy does not itself deliver courses, rather it provides easy access for firms and individuals in Britain to training that is globally competitive and directly relevant to the industry. The Academy is working with stakeholders from the education sector including the Sector Skills Council (SEMTA), the qualification awarding bodies, the Learning and Skills Council and training providers

Driving Force: Success and Sustainability in the UK Automotive Industry 23

People and skills

Improving skills in the retail sector
Automotive Skills Limited is the Sector Skills Council* for the retail motor trade, charged by Government and employers with leading the drive to raise the skills base in the UK automotive industry.
It does this by working with employers and partners in the motor industry across the UK to develop a highly skilled and motivated workforce. Its purpose is to:
■ Reduce skills gaps and shortages; ■ Improve productivity, business and public service performance; ■ Increase opportunities for the development of the workforce across the whole sector; ■ Influence action which improves the quality and quantity of learning supply.
*Automotive Skills Limited is part of a network of Sector Skills Councils which brings together employers, trade unions and professional bodies working with Government to develop the skills that UK business needs. SEMTA is the corresponding Sector Skills Council for automotive manufacturing.

© Automotive Skills

Nissan design studio in London
Nissan has recently opened a new colour studio inside its European design headquarters in central London.
The facility, which covers 240 square metres, is situated in the south wing of the Rotunda, a converted British Rail maintenance workshop, which has been home to Nissan Design Europe (NDE) since January 2003. Seven full-time designers will be based there, working on both exploratory and production vehicles. The colour designers come from a variety of cultural and professional backgrounds, their common strength being an ability to develop an atmosphere or identity through the balanced use of colour, materials and detailing. NDE employs around 50 full-time staff, all of which are based in the Paddington studio. It plays a key role in Nissan’s global design network, which comprises six studios worldwide.
© Nissan

24 Driving Force: Success and Sustainability in the UK Automotive Industry


The creativity and inventiveness of our people is the UK’s greatest asset and our ability to invent, design and manufacture the goods and services that people want is vital to our future prosperity.

Driving Force: Success and Sustainability in the UK Automotive Industry 25

Cutting edge research and development

With increasing globalisation, the capability to exploit new ideas is essential to safeguard and deliver high quality jobs and successful businesses. The UK is well placed to succeed. In 2003, the UK produced about 12% of global citations across nine major research fields including Engineering, Physical Sciences, Environmental

plays a major role in the success of the UK as a centre for world-class automotive research and development. Design engineering teams across the industry are dedicated to cuttingedge innovation (see Chapter 1). Small, specialist vehicle manufacturers, such as Morgan, Connaught and Zytek are also significant in that they are agile enough to provide a faster route to market than the high volume manufacturers. They are also less constrained in their choice of technology partners. Similarly, the UK’s commercial vehicle sector, including bus and truck, is particularly important as an entry point for environmentally friendly vehicle technologies in fleet

“Design engineering teams across the industry are dedicated to cutting-edge innovation. ”
Sciences, Mathematics and Business, and overall is ranked second only behind the United States. Unsurprisingly against this background, technological innovation

Ford’s Dagenham Diesel Centre and the Centre for Engineering and Manufacturing Excellence
Officially opened by the UK Prime Minister in 2003, Ford's Dagenham Diesel Centre (DDC) in Essex is an advanced production and engineering facility while the nearby Centre for Engineeering and Manufacturing Excellence (CEME) is an outstanding establishment for education and learning.
The Dagenham Diesel Centre is the focus of Ford’s diesel engine development and production and is a state-of-the-art facility, creating and building premium high technology diesel engines for Ford, Jaguar, Land Rover and PSA Peugeot Citroën customers. Ford has invested £550 million in diesel engine and manufacturing at Dagenham since 2003 and it is expected that around 50% of all cars sold in Europe by 2006 will be diesel-powered. CEME was established with some £37 million funding from a unique private/public partnership led by Ford and the London Development Agency, together with Barking and Havering Further Education Colleges and London Riverside Limited. It offers a world-leading learning environment specifically aimed at encouraging a diverse, socially inclusive and innovative range of learning activities to build engineering, manufacturing and business capabilities.

© Ford

26 Driving Force: Success and Sustainability in the UK Automotive Industry

applications. This also introduces new technology elements into the supply chain. This technological capability reflects the current strengths and structure of the sector. For example, the UK has world-class capability in powertrain systems integration, an area that is becoming ever more important as the electronic and mechanical systems become more complex and the demands on reliability more stringent. Foresight Vehicle Programme The sharing of this expertise, through knowledge transfer, is crucial to the industry as a whole. Here, industry, academia and the Government have come together to create Foresight Vehicle, the UK’s prime knowledge transfer network for automotive applications, seeking to identify critical technologies for sustainable road transport. In addition to networking, Foresight Vehicle products include over 100 collaborative R&D projects worth more than £100 million, involving industry working with the research base, transferring technology and solving problems. These projects cover the key technology themes of: ■ Engine and powertrain; ■ Hybrid, electric and alternatively fuelled vehicles; ■ Advanced software, sensors, electronics and telematics; ■ Advanced structures and materials; ■ Design and manufacturing processes.

“Foresight Vehicle products include over 100 collaborative R&D projects worth more than £100 million. ”
The Foresight Vehicle Technology Roadmap provides technology and research directions for future road vehicles and has been developed in a global context to help support UK industry to provide sustainable mobility for UK citizens. It is available through the SMMT Foresight Vehicle website. Centres of Excellence The Technology Roadmap validates the recommendations of the Automotive Innovation and Growth Team (AIGT) for action in the key technology areas of telematics and low carbon propulsion technologies. As a result, two new cross-sectoral Centres of Excellence have been established to move these technologies closer to the market. Cenex – the Low Carbon and Fuel Cells Centre of Excellence – was established in April 2005. Jointly funded by industry and the DTI, the Centre is helping to build a competitive advantage for the automotive industries in the UK through the shift to a low carbon economy. Its activities will assist UK companies developing low carbon automotive technologies to bring these to market, and showcase the UK’s expertise to encourage inward investment. Cenex is also operating, on behalf of the DTI, the UK’s Knowledge Transfer Network in low carbon and fuel cells technologies.

Driving Force: Success and Sustainability in the UK Automotive Industry 27

Cutting edge research and development

Cenex is focusing upon: ■ Mapping current and emerging technologies in the low carbon and fuel cell markets and identifying and communicating those which may influence the future direction of the industry; ■ Influencing the creation and deployment of fleet-scale demonstrators in the UK passenger vehicle, public transport and commercial vehicle sectors; ■ Facilitating affordable market entry strategies for low carbon and fuel cell technologies by direct intervention with public and private sector procurement bodies; ■ Becoming a flagship organisation for the promotion of UK activities on low carbon and fuel cell technologies and acting as the focus for projects requiring international co-operation; ■ Mobilising or otherwise constructing an effective UK supply chain by coordinating the activities of academia, component suppliers, assemblers, OEMs and other intermediaries. Public procurement is expected to play a key role in transforming the road vehicle market in the UK.

Low carbon urban delivery vehicles have been selected as one of the public procurement exemplars being progressed under the Environmental Innovations Advisory Group’s (a joint DTI/DEFRA unit) Forward Commitment Project to encourage the development of the market for environmental technologies. Cenex is leading this project. innovITS is the Centre of Excellence for telematics and technologies for sustainable mobility, also established in April 2005. Its vision is to coordinate the UK’s validation of new and innovative Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) as a catalyst to building world-class products and services that enable the UK ITS industry to compete globally. Its coverage, from either a service provider or road user perspective, includes both: ■ The management of vehicles using the road system to improve the journey time, reliability and safety for those vehicles and to improve road network efficiency; ■ Systems to improve safety, comfort and journey time reliability for users of vehicles.

28 Driving Force: Success and Sustainability in the UK Automotive Industry

Work is focusing around five project themes which will evolve over time: ■ A commercial vehicle platform – a unified on-board platform for commercial vehicles to enable a wide range of current and emerging telematics applications; ■ Infrastructure integration – information services and roadside equipment for delivering a range of current and emerging ITS applications from a common base;

■ Smart traveller services – dynamic travel information services for multimodal operations with integration between vehicleoriented and other journey stages; ■ Extended fleet management – advanced monitoring and management applications for commercial fleets and freight; ■ Integrated communications solution – a medium-independent on-board platform for vehicle-tovehicle and vehicle-toinfrastructure communications.

JCB’s bold investment in its own diesel engine
Deciding to build your own diesel engine, instead of buying from established engine producers, is not a decision to be taken lightly. But this was the brave step JCB took in order to have a state-of-theart diesel engine designed specifically for off-highway use.
Three years after the go-ahead, the first JCB 444 diesel engine was produced at the Dove Valley plant in Derbyshire on 1 November 2004. The new plant has now produced more than 10,000 engines and output will reach 25,000 in 2006. To start with a clean sheet of paper required an investment of £80 million in research and development and the advanced assembly plant. JCB already designs and produces in-house: transmissions, axles and cabs. Working with world-class technology partners, the new engine was designed to achieve excellent low-speed torque, class-leading low noise levels and the latest combustion technology able to cope with the ever more stringent emissions regulations. The basis of the design is a very strong, rigid construction with a bedplate at the base of the engine to improve stiffness and so improve durability and lower noise levels. The result is the most modern engine designed specifically for the construction equipment industry and acclaimed by operators for its low noise and excellent performance. Manufacturers from sectors as diverse as marine and generators are keen to use the JCB 444 engine in their equipment and third party sales are already well under way.

Driving Force: Success and Sustainability in the UK Automotive Industry 29

Cutting edge research and development

Hydrogen and fuel cells
The UK Government has welcomed the development of a Strategic Framework for Hydrogen Energy in the UK and is committed to establishing a Hydrogen Co-ordination Unit that will provide an important focus and catalyst for hydrogen energy activity in the UK.
A DTI-commissioned report indicated that for the UK the use of hydrogen as a transport fuel offers significant opportunities for cost-competitive CO2 reduction by 2030. Hydrogen energy could provide competitive CO2 reductions for the UK in six types of road transport energy chains using fuel cell vehicles. These chains also offer improved energy security. The chains are defined by their primary energy source: renewable electricity, nuclear electricity, natural gas with carbon capture and storage (CCS), coal with CCS, biomass with optional CCS and novel hydrogen production technologies. None of these energy chains are readily available today and all require significant changes to the energy system. However, they are sufficiently promising to be worth pursuing as options for the UK. The Government has also announced a £15 million fund over four years for the demonstration of hydrogen and fuel cell projects. This is in addition to continuing support for hydrogen and fuel cell R&D. Currently around £4 million a year is dedicated to hydrogen R&D across the public sector. Of this, some £2.5 million is funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), including the Sustainable Hydrogen Energy Consortium funded under the EPSRC’s Supergen programme. Additional funding for applied R&D will come from the Collaborative R&D product under the DTI Technology Programme where £20 million per annum is earmarked for industry-led research into clean energy technologies.
© Ford

30 Driving Force: Success and Sustainability in the UK Automotive Industry


The future is led by demand – demand for sustainable mobility, delivering cleaner, more fuel-efficient vehicles to a sophisticated audience, produced by an efficient and productive industry competing on a global stage.

Driving Force: Success and Sustainability in the UK Automotive Industry 31

Looking forward

We want the volume vehicle manufacturers to continue to invest here as part of the UK’s rich tapestry of automotive design, engineering and manufacturing excellence. We will attract them through a skilled workforce, dynamic supply chains, creative ideas, and innovative products and processes, helping them to develop their brands and differentiate their products in the marketplace.

in high added-value manufacturing and services. We play to our strengths. The UK represents 1% of the world population but it accounts for 5% of the world’s science. The UK has the world-beating design and engineering skills to help OEMs achieve their goals. The UK is already a world centre for design and manufacturing excellence in powertrain. We need to remain at the forefront of this industry as new propulsion technologies emerge. But far from looking inwards, we’re also looking at what’s happening in the US and in Japan, where there are, for example, real-world trials of fuel cell cars. We know that we need to have supply chains capable of working with these leaders in the future.

“The UK represents 1% of the world population but it accounts for 5% of the world’s science. ”
The Government is doing everything it can to create the right business and regulatory background for the UK automotive industry to succeed and to deliver a future deeply rooted

Gibbs Aquada
The Gibbs Aquada amphibious car exemplifies the diversity of the UK automotive industry.
The vehicle is the result of seven years’ work by 70 engineers and designers at the company’s headquarters in the Midlands where the firm was established by New Zealand entrepreneur Alan Gibbs and Briton Neil Jenkins in 1999. Their aim was to build a production sports amphibian that was fully compliant with marine and road regulations. It was decided to build the vehicle in the UK, the home of niche, low volume car manufacture and Formula 1 engineering. The engine, placed in a mid/rear position, directly behind the cockpit, is the lightweight alloy K-series, 175bhp, 2.5-litre V-6 from Powertrain. On land, this is capable of pushing the vehicle up to 100mph. On water the same engine drives a jet that expels water at high pressure to propel the boat like a jet ski, allowing the vehicle to plane across the water at more than 30 mph. The jet unit is less than one metre long and weighs just under 40 kg – possibly the smallest in existence for its power.
© Gibbs

32 Driving Force: Success and Sustainability in the UK Automotive Industry

© Connaught Motor

We are keeping our technological options open, looking at pathways to low carbon emissions, advanced gasoline and diesel, more efficient transmissions, hybrid and fuel cell technologies, biofuels and hydrogen, and also making sure that we have a market here for the next generation of environmentally-designed cars, to encourage their manufacturers to locate in the UK. We are looking beyond the car, recognising that the modern road vehicle is a key component of an integrated transport system. Transport that works for everyone is a key priority for the Government. Intelligent Transport Systems form an important part of the UK’s delivery plans for future transport, helping road users to travel more safely on less congested roads. The Government’s ITS policy framework for the roads sector describes the UK’s drive for a joined-up approach to make the best use of ITS. The skills base for the car of the future is just as important as the technology that will be used to build

it. We are producing world-class engineers, from traditional mechanical, to electronic engineers, recognising that some 40% of the value of the car is now embedded in electrical and electronic systems. We are providing the right environment for a new generation of chemical engineers to work on future fuel cell systems. We are investing massively in our workforce through the Automotive Academy – in workers on the shop floor, supervisors and engineers, and most importantly, in the leaders of tomorrow. We are applying our worldrenowned ideas and know-how to provide solutions. The automotive industry is crucial to the UK’s future as a high technology, high wage, knowledge-driven economy and it is crucial to the UK’s economic success and prosperity. This brochure describes how the UK is planning a future which delivers sustainable mobility; a future that is good for the motorist, good for the environment and good for industry.

Driving Force: Success and Sustainability in the UK Automotive Industry 33


Design and Performance Engineering Centres of Excellence

34 Driving Force: Success and Sustainability in the UK Automotive Industry

Major Powertrain Production Locations

Driving Force: Success and Sustainability in the UK Automotive Industry 35


Leading Car Production Locations

36 Driving Force: Success and Sustainability in the UK Automotive Industry

Key Universities for the Automotive Sector

Driving Force: Success and Sustainability in the UK Automotive Industry 37


Web links to major contributors to this brochure

http://unitedkingdom.cat.com/ http://www.aisin-europe.com/ http://www.aquada.co.uk/ http://www.astonmartin.co.uk/ http://www.automotiveacademy.co.uk/ http://www.bentleymotors.com/bentleymotors/ http://www.boschautoparts.co.uk/ http://www.caterham.co.uk/ http://www.cenex.co.uk/ http://www.ckeurope.com/ http://www.cnh.com/home.asp http://www.conekt.net/ http://www.connaughtmotorco.com/ http://www.cosworth-technology.co.uk/ http://www.delphidieselsystems.com/uk/ http://www.denso-id.co.uk/ http://www.dft.gov.uk/stellent/groups/dft_roads /documents/divisionhomepage/030684.hcsp http://www.dti.gov.uk/sectors_automotive.html http://www.epsrc.ac.uk/ http://www.ford.co.uk/ http://www.foresightvehicle.org.uk/ http://www.gkn.com/ http://www.goskills.org/ http://www.grouplotus.com/ http://www.honda.co.uk/ http://www.industryforum.co.uk/ http://www.innovits.com/ http://www.its-uk.org.uk/ http://www.jaguar.co.uk/ http://www.jcb.com/ http://www.komatsu.co.uk/ http://www.landrover.com/ http://www.ldv.co.uk/ http://www.leyland-trucks.co.uk/ http://www.lowcvp.org.uk/

http://www.matthey.com/index.htm http://www.mccormick-intl.com/uk/ http://www.mclarencars.com/ http://www.melglobal.com/transport_solutions/ http://www.millbrook.co.uk/ http://www.mini.co.uk/ http://www.mira.co.uk/ http://www.mi-technology.com/ http://www.morgan-motor.co.uk/ http://www.nissan.co.uk/ http://www.perkins.com/ http://www.peugeot.co.uk/ http://www.pilkington.com/europe/uk+and+irel and/english/default.htm http://www.pitechnology.com/ http://www.prodrive.com/Intromovie.htm http://www.ricardo.com/default.aspx http://www.rle-international.co.uk/ http://www.rmif.co.uk http://www.rolls-roycemotorcars.com/ http://www.roush.co.uk/ http://www.siemensvdo.co.uk/ http://www.smmt.co.uk/ http://www.supplychaingroups.co.uk/ http://www.terexcompactequipment.com/ http://www.toyota.co.uk/ http://www.tvr-eng.co.uk/ http://www.twi.co.uk/ http://www.vauxhall.co.uk/ http://www.visteon.co.uk/ http://www.zytekgroup.co.uk/
The DTI acknowledges the help and assistance given by the Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders in compiling this brochure. Further information about SMMT and the UK automotive sector can be located on www.smmt.co.uk and www.autoindustry.co.uk

38 Driving Force: Success and Sustainability in the UK Automotive Industry

Driving Force: Success and Sustainability in the UK Automotive Industry 39

Printed in the UK on recycled paper containing a minimum of 75% post consumer waste. First published April 2006. Department of Trade and Industry. www.dti.gov.uk © Crown Copyright. DTI/Pub 8274/??k/04/06/NP URN 06/1067 .

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