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Inverting and Non-inverting OP Amp
OBJECTIVES: To theoretically analyse the basic op-amp circuits. To build and test typical op-amp application circuits, such as inverting and non-inverting amplifier.
EQUIPMENT: Instruments: DC power supply Digital Multimeter (DMM) Function Generator Oscilloscope Components: Op Amp : LM 741 Resistor : 1k, 10k (4), 22k, 100k (2), 5M
BRIEF THEORY An operational amplifier ("op-amp") is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a single-ended output. An op-amp produces an output voltage that is typically hundreds of thousands times larger than the voltage difference between terminals. We know now that an Operational amplifiers is a very high gain DC differential amplifier that uses one or more external feedback networks to control its response and characteristics. We can connect external resistors or capacitors to the op-amp in a number of different ways to form basic "building Block" circuits such as, Inverting, Non-Inverting, Voltage Follower, Summing, Differential, Integrator and Differentiator type amplifiers.
An "ideal" or perfect Operational Amplifier is a device with certain special characteristics such as infinite open-loop gain Ao, infinite input resistance Rin, zero output resistance Rout, infinite bandwidth 0 to ∞ and zero offset (the output is exactly zero when the input is zero).
There are a very large number of operational amplifier IC's available to suit every possible application from standard bipolar, precision, high-speed, low-noise, high-voltage, etc in either standard configuration or with internal JFET transistors. Operational amplifiers are available in IC packages of either single, dual or quad op-amps within one single device. The most commonly available and used of all operational amplifiers in basic electronic kits and projects is the industry standard μA-741.
Operational amplifiers are important building blocks for a wide range of electronic circuits. They had their origins in analog computers where they were used in many linear, non-linear and frequency-dependent circuits. Their popularity in circuit design largely stems from the fact the characteristics of the final elements (such as their gain) are set by external components with little dependence on temperature changes and manufacturing variations in the op-amp itself. The op-amp is one type of differential amplifier. Other types of differential amplifier include the fully differential amplifier (similar to the op-amp, but with two outputs), the instrumentation amplifier (usually built from three op-amps), the isolation amplifier (similar to the instrumentation amplifier, but with tolerance to common-mode voltages that would destroy an ordinary op-amp), and negative feedback amplifier (usually built from one or more op-amps and a resistive feedback network).
There several type of basic single stage amplifier :Non-inverting amplifier
An op-amp connected in the non-inverting amplifier configuration In a non-inverting amplifier, the output voltage changes in the same direction as the input voltage.
An op-amp connected in the inverting amplifier configuration In an inverting amplifier, the output voltage changes in an opposite direction to the input voltage.. Voltage Follower
PROCEDURE Part A : Inverting Amp 1. The oscilloscope was set up to show a dual trace, one for the input of the op-amp and one for the output. The DC input coupling was use. The function generator was set up to produced a sine wave with an amplitude > 0.5 V and frequency 1 kHz. The grounds of the function generator, oscilloscope, and prototyping board were making sure connected. 2. The values of our resistors were measure, then using the prototyping board, the inverting amplifier was wire up as shown in Figure 8.1. 3. The gain Av was measure for R = 1k, 10k, and 100k. Av = - R /R1 was compare using the measured values of R and R1 and verified that the amplifier inverts. 4. For the circuit with R = 100k, the input voltage was increased until distortion occurs at the output. The input voltage was recorded and the distorted output waveform was draw. The input was report at which this occurs.
Figure 8.1 5. For the circuit with R = 100k, the gain Av was measure at the logarithmically-spaced frequencies of 100 Hz, 300 Hz, 10 kHz, …, 1 MHz, 3 MHz. For R = 10 k, it was repeated. The result was plot on log-log graph paper. Also on this graph the theoretical gain |Av| = R / R1 was shown. 6. The experiment was perform to calculate the input impedence of this amplifier.
Part B : Non – Inverting Amp 1. The non-inverting amplifier designed in the prelab was constructed. (Figure 8.2) 2. 1V amplitude, 1 kHz sinusoidal input signal was applied to the amplifier. Vin and Vo were display at the same time. The image was draw. The phase measurement and peakpeak measurement was turned on. 3. The phase shifts as well as gain were reported. 4. The input voltage was increased until distortion occurs at the output. The input voltage was recorded and the distorted output waveform was captured. The voltage was report at which this distortion occurs.
Figure 8.2 5. The input was set to 4V amplitude and places the scope in X-Y mode. Vin was make sure on channel 1 and Vo was on channel 2. The curve was capture and the slope of the line was measured. The waveform must be captured with the cursor in the right place. 6. The connections to terminals 2 and 3 were interchange. What happened has been reported. Also the waveform was captured at the input + / - input terminals (2 &3) of the op-amp on the same frame.
DISCUSSION Basically, in this experiment we need to analyze the process of two type operation amplifier application which are inverting op-amp and non-inverting op-amp. The different type of operation amplifier produce the different output waveform and output voltage in oscilloscope and other reading. Basic inverting operational amplifier circuit In part A of experiment, we need to construct an inverting op-amp circuit. An inverting operation amplifier uses negative feedback to invert and amplify. The basic circuit for the inverting operational amplifier circuit is quite straightforward and only needs a few components beyond the operational amplifier integrated circuit itself. The circuit consists of a resistor from the input terminal to the inverting input of the circuit and another resistor connected from the output to the inverting input of the op-amp. In this circuit the non-inverting input of the operational amplifier is connected to ground. Generally, an amplifier or simply amp, is any device that changes, usually increases, the amplitude of a signal. The relationship of the input to the output of an amplifier—usually expressed as a function of the input frequency—is called the transfer function of the amplifier, and the magnitude of a voltage. The Rin,Rf resistor network allows some of the output signal to be returned to the input. Since the output is 180° out of phase, this amount is effectively subtracted from the input, thereby reducing the input into the operational amplifier. This reduces the overall gain of the amplifier and is dubbed negative feedback. One of the main features of the inverting amplifier circuit is the overall gain that it produces. This is quite easy to calculate. The voltage gain is actually the output voltage (Vout) divided by the input voltage (Vin), i.e. it is the number of times the output voltage is larger than the input voltage. As the gain of the operational amplifier itself is exceedingly high and the output from the amplifier is a matter of a few volts, this means that the difference between the two input terminals is exceedingly small and can be ignored. As the non-inverting input of the operational amplifier is held at ground potential this means that the inverting input must be virtually at earth potential. So, it is easy to determine the equation for the voltage gain. As the input to the op-amp draws no current this means that the current flowing in the resistors R1 and R2 is the same. Using ohms law Vout /R2 = -Vin/R1. Hence the voltage gain of the circuit Av can be taken as:
- R2 / R1
The presence of the negative sign is a convention indicating that the output is inverted
It is often necessary to know the input impedance of a circuit, and in this case of the inverting operation amplifier. A circuit with a low input impedance may load the output of the previous circuit and may give rise to effects such as changing the frequency response if the coupling capacitors are not large. It is simple to determine the input impedance of an inverting operational amplifier circuit. It is simply the value of the input resistor R1. This is because the inverting input is at earth potential and this means that the resistor is connected between the input and earth. Basic non-inverting operational amplifier In Part B of experiment, we need to construct a non-inverting op-amp circuit and analyze the output waveform, output voltage and etc. From our observation, the result is different from experiment in Part A. The basic circuit for the non-inverting operational amplifier is relatively straightforward. In this circuit the signal is applied to the non-inverting input of the op-amp. However the feedback is taken from the output of the op-amp via a resistor to the inverting input of the operational amplifier where another resistor is taken to ground. It is the value of these two resistors that govern the gain of the operational amplifier circuit. The gain of the non-inverting circuit for the operational amplifier is easy to determine. The calculation hinges around the fact that the voltage at both inputs is the same. This arises from the fact that the gain of the amplifier is exceedingly high. If the output of the circuit remains within the supply rails of the amplifier, then the output voltage divided by the gain means that there is virtually no difference between the two inputs. As the input to the op-amp draws no current this means that the current flowing in the resistors R1 and R2 is the same. The voltage at the inverting input is formed from a potential divider consisting of R1 and R2, and as the voltage at both inputs is the same, the voltage at the inverting input must be the same as that at the non-inverting input. This means that Vin = Vout x R1 / (R1 + R2). Hence the voltage gain of the circuit Av can be taken as: Av = 1 + R2 / R1
It is often necessary to know the input impedance of a circuit. The input impedance of this operational amplifier circuit is very high, and may typically be well in excess of 10^7 ohms.
For most circuit applications this can be completely ignored. This is a significant difference to the inverting configuration of an operational amplifier circuit which provided only a relatively low impedance dependent upon the value of the input resistor. The input impedance is at least the impedance between non-inverting and inverting inputs, which is typically 1 MΩ to 10 TΩ, plus the impedance of the path from the inverting input to ground (i.e., in parallel with ).Because negative feedback ensures that the non-inverting and inverting inputs match, the input impedance is actually much higher. Although this circuit has a large input impedance, it suffers from error of input bias current such as:
o o o
The non-inverting and inverting inputs draw small leakage currents into the operational amplifier. These input currents generate voltages that act like unmodeled input offsets. These unmodeled effects can lead to noise on the output (e.g., offsets or drift). Assuming that the two leaking currents are matched, their effect can be mitigated by ensuring the DC impedance looking out of each input is the same. The voltage produced by each bias current is equal to the product of the bias current with the equivalent DC impedance looking out of each input. Making those impedances equal makes the offset voltage at each input equal, and so the non-zero bias currents will have no impact on the difference between the two inputs. A resistor of value which is the equivalent resistance of in parallel with , between the source and the non-inverting input will ensure the impedances looking out of each input will be matched.
While conduct the experiment, there several problem that we faced such as:
The connection of circuit is not correct and not properly connected each other. The oscilloscope not function well because it not produce correct waveform We decide to change to another oscilloscope. The Integrated Circuit (IC) in our circuit suddenly burn because of oversupply voltage. After that, we change the IC with the new one.
But with help from lecturer and demonstrator, all the problem can be handled. In the experiment, there are some percentage error between measured value and calculated value. There are some suggestion in order to reduced the percentage error in our experiment and to be improved next time: 1) Make sure all connection are tight and connected properly. 2) If possible, use new components in the experiment. 3) Avoid using long wire in order to reduced internal resistance in the circuit.
CONCLUSION Alhamdulillah, we finally finished the experiment on Inverting and Non-inverting OP Amp. The Operational Amplifier, or Op-amp as it is most commonly called, is an ideal amplifier with infinite Gain and Bandwidth when used in the Open-loop mode with typical d.c. gains of 100,000, or 100dB.The basic Op-amp construction is of a 3-terminal device, 2-inputs and 1-output.An Operational Amplifier operates from either a dual positive (+V) and an corresponding negative (-V) supply, or they can operate from a single DC supply voltage. The two main laws associated with the operational amplifier are that it has an infinite input impedance, (Z∞) resulting in "No current flowing into either of its two inputs" and zero input offset voltage "V1 = V2".An operational amplifier also has zero output impedance, (Z = 0).Opamps sense the difference between the voltage signals applied to their two input terminals and then multiply it by some pre-determined Gain, (A).This Gain, (A) is often referred to as the amplifiers "Open-loop Gain". Op-amps can be connected into two basic configurations, Inverting and Non-inverting. From the experiment, we know well about operation amplifier process and become familiar with inverting op-amp and non-inverting op-amp circuit. Besides, we also proudly can analyse the basic op-amp circuits theoretically and we also can build and test typical op-amp application circuits, such as inverting and non-inverting amplifier. In conclusion, the objectives of this experiment are achieved.
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