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3: Nature, Nurture, and

Human Diversity

CHAPTER OVERVIEW Introduction (pp. 95–96)

Chapter 3 is concerned with the ways in which our Objective 1: Give examples of differences and of sim-
biological heritage, or nature, interacts with our indi- ilarities within the human family.
vidual experiences, or nurture, to shape who we are.
After a brief explanation of basic terminology, the 1. Our differences as humans include our
chapter explores the fields of behavior genetics, , , and
which studies twins and adopted children to weigh and
genetic and environmental influences on behaviors,
backgrounds.
and molecular genetics, which focuses on the specific
genes that influence behavior. The next section dis- 2. Our similarities as human beings include our
cusses psychology’s use of evolutionary principles to common ,
answer universal questions about human behavior. our shared architecture, our
The next two sections of the chapter shift the
ability to use , and our
spotlight to focus on environmental influences on
behavior. The impact of parents, the prenatal environ- behaviors.
ment, early experience, peers, and culture on the 3. A fundamental question in psychology deals with
development of the brain and behavior are each dis- the extent to which we are shaped by our heredi-
cussed in depth. The final section of the chapter
ty, called our , and by our
explores how genes and environment interact to
shape both the biological and social aspects of our life history, called our .
gender. In the end, the message is clear: our genes
and our experience together form who we are. Behavior Genetics: Predicting Individual
Differences (pp. 96–107)
NOTE: Answer guidelines for all Chapter 3 questions
begin on page 87. David Myers at times uses idioms that are un-
familiar to some readers. If you do not know
CHAPTER REVIEW the meaning of the following words, phrases,
or expressions in the context in which they
First, skim each section, noting headings and boldface appear in the text, refer to pages 93–94 for an
items. After you have read the section, review each explanation: To disentangle the threads of heredity
objective by answering the fill-in and essay-type and environment, behavior geneticists often use two
questions that follow it. As you proceed, evaluate sets of tweezers; blue-collar families; stories of star-
your performance by consulting the answers begin- tling twin similarity; “Mom may be holding a full
ning on page 87. Do not continue with the next sec- house while Dad has a straight flush”; yen; the area
tion until you understand each answer. If you need of a field is more the result of its length or width;
to, review or reread the section in the textbook before sleuth; Blueprints; two-edged sword.
continuing.

73
74 Chapter 3 Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity

Objective 2: Describe the types of questions that Identify other dimensions that show strong genetic
interest behavior geneticists. influences.

1. Researchers who specifically study the effects of


genes on behavior are called
.
2. The term environment refers to every
influence.

Objective 3: Define chromosome, DNA, gene, and


genome, and describe their relationships.
9. Through research on identical twins raised apart,
3. The master plans for development are stored in
psychologists are able to study the influence of
the . In number, each person
the .
inherits of these structures,
from each parent. Each is Objective 5: Cite ways that behavior geneticists use
composed of a coiled chain of the molecule adoption studies to understand the effects of environ-
. ment and heredity.
4. If chromosomes are the “books” of heredity, the
10. Studies tend to show that the personalities of
“words” that make each of us a distinctive
adopted children (do/do not)
human being are called .
closely resemble those of their adoptive parents.
5. The complete instructions for making an organ-
11. Adoption studies show that parenting
ism are referred to as the human
(does/does not) matter. For
. Human traits are influ-
example, adopted children often score
enced by many genes acting together in
(higher/lower) than their
.
biological parents on intelligence tests.
Objective 4: Explain how identical and fraternal
Objective 6: Discuss how the relative stability of our
twins differ, and cite ways that behavior geneticists
temperament illustrates the influence of heredity on
use twin studies to understand the effects of environ-
development
ment and heredity.
12. The term that refers to the inborn personality,
6. To study the power and limits of genetic influ-
especially the child’s emotional excitability, is
ences on behavior, researchers use
, which
and
(does/does not) endure over
studies.
time.
7. Twins who developed from a single egg are
13. From the first weeks of life,
genetically . Twins who
babies are more ,
developed from different fertilized eggs are no
, and . In
more genetically alike than siblings and are called
contrast, babies are
twins. In terms of the per-
, , and
sonality traits of extraversion and neuroticism,
.
identical twins are (more/no
more) alike than are fraternal twins. 14. Faced with a new or strange situation, high-
strung infants become
8. Divorce rates are (more/no
(more/less) physiologically aroused than less
more) similar among identical twins than among
excitable infants.
fraternal twins.
Evolutionary Psychology: Understanding Human Nature 75

Objective 7: Discuss heritability’s application to indi- Evolutionary Psychology: Understanding


viduals and groups, and explain what we mean when Human Nature (pp. 107–113)
we say genes are self-regulating.
If you do not know the meaning of the follow-
15. The proportion of variation in a trait within a ing words, phrases, or expressions in the con-
group that is attributable to genes is called its text in which they appear in the text, refer to
. pages 94–95 for an explanation: cash strapped;
tight genetic leash; Casual, impulsive sex; sexual
16. As environments become more similar, heredity come-on; In our ancestral history, females most
as a source of differences becomes often sent their genes into the future by pairing
(more/less) important. wisely, men by pairing widely; stick-around dads
over likely cads; mobile gene machines.
17. Heritable individual differences
(imply/need not imply) heri-
table group differences.
Objective 10: Describe the area of psychology that
18. For phenomena, human dif- interests evolutionary psychologists.
ferences are nearly always the result of both
and 1. Researchers who study natural selection and the
influences. adaptive nature of human behavior are called
.
Objective 8: Give an example of a genetically influ-
2. Researchers in this field focus mostly on what
enced trait that can evoke responses in others, and
give another example of an environment that can makes people so (much
trigger gene activity. alike/different from one another).

19. Throughout life, we are the product of the Objective 11: State the principle of natural selection,
of our and point out some possible effects of natural selec-
predispositions and our surrounding tion in the development of human characteristics.
.
3. According to the principle of
20. Environments trigger activity in , , traits that contribute to
and our genetically influenced traits evoke reproduction and survival will be most likely to
in other people. This may be passed on to succeeding generations.
explain why twins recall
4. Genetic are random errors
greater variations in their early family life than
in genetic replication that are the source of all
do twins.
genetic .
Objective 9: Identify the potential promise and perils 5. Genetic constraints on human behavior are gener-
of molecular genetics research.
ally (tighter/looser) than
21. The subfield of biology that investigates the spe- those on animal behavior. The human species’
cific genes that influence behavior is ability to and to
. in responding to different
22. Genetic tests can reveal at-risk populations for contributes to our
specific . , defined as our ability to
and .
23. One result of research in this field, genetic screen-
Because of our genetic legacy, we love the tastes
ing, allows expectant parents to ascertain, and
of sweets and , which we
even choose, the of their off-
tend to , even though
spring. Prenatal screening, however, raises many
issues. famine is unlikely in industrialized societies.
76 Chapter 3 Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity

Objective 12: Identify some gender differences in sex- 13. Gender differences in mate preferences are
uality. largest in cultures characterized by greater gen-
der (equality/inequality).
6. The characteristics by which people define male
and female constitute . These 14. Evolutionary psychologists counter the criticisms
by noting that the sexes, having faced similar
characteristics are subject to
adaptive problems, are more
and influences.
(alike/different) than they are
7. Compared to females, males are
(alike/different). They also note that evolutionary
(equally/more/less) likely to engage in casual,
principles offer testable .
impulsive sex, and they are
(equally/more/less) likely to initiate sexual
Parents and Peers (pp. 114–118)
activity. This is an example of a
difference. If you do not know the meaning of any of the
8. Men have a (higher/lower) following words, phrases, or expressions in the
context in which they appear in the text, refer
threshold for perceiving a woman’s friendliness
to page 95 for an explanation: while the excess
as a sexual come-on. This helps explain men’s connections are still on call; pathways through a
greater sexual . forest; shuffle their gene decks; as a potter molds
clay; vapors of a toxic climate are seeping into a
Objective 13: Describe evolutionary explanations for child’s life.
gender differences in sexuality.

9. The explanation of gender


Objective 15: Describe some of the conditions that
differences in attitudes toward sex is based on can affect development before birth.
differences in the optimal strategy by which
women and men pass on their . 1. Environmental influences begin during the peri-
According to this view, males and females od of development.
(are/are not) selected for dif- 2. Even identical twins may differ in this respect,
ferent patterns of sexuality. because they may or may not share the same
10. Cross-cultural research reveals that men judge .
women as more attractive if they have a 3. Compared with same-placenta identical twins,
appearance, whereas women twins who develop with different placentas are
judge men who appear , less similar in their traits.
, ,
and as more attractive. Objective 16: Describe how experience can modify
the brain.
Objective 14: Summarize the criticisms of evolution-
ary explanations of human behaviors, and describe 4. Rosenzweig and Krech discovered that rats raised
the evolutionary psychologists’ responses to these from a young age in enriched environments had
criticisms. (thicker/thinner) cortexes
than animals raised in isolation.
11. Critics of the evolutionary explanation of the gen-
der sexuality difference argue that it often works Describe the effects of sensory stimulation on neural
development.
(forward/backward) to pro-
pose a explanation.
12. Another critique is that gender differences in sex-
uality vary with expecta-
tions and social and family structures.
Cultural Influences 77

5. Experience shapes the brain by preserving acti- one generation to the next defines the group’s
vated connections and allow- .
ing unused connections to . 2. One landmark of human culture is the preserva-
This process, called , results tion of , which is derived
in a massive loss of unused connections by from our mastery of , so that
. we can pass it on to future generations.
Objective 17: Explain why we should be careful
Objective 20: Describe some ways that cultures
about attributing children’s successes and failures to
differ.
their parents’ influence.
3. All cultural groups evolve their own rules for
6. The idea that parents shape their children’s
expected behavior, called .
futures came from
and . 4. One such rule involves the buffer zone that peo-
ple maintain around their bodies, called
7. Parents do influence some areas of their chil-
.
dren’s lives, such as their
, Identify several cultural differences in personal space,
, and expressiveness, and pace of life.
.
8. In areas such as , the envi-
ronment siblings share at home accounts for less
than percent of their differ-
ences.

Objective 18: Evaluate the importance of peer influ-


ence on development.

9. Experiences with have a Objective 21: Explain why changes in the human
powerful effect on how children develop, partly gene pool cannot account for culture change over
time.
as a result of a “ effect” by
which kids seek out others with similar attitudes 5. Cultures change
and interests. (slowly/rapidly).
10. A group of parents can influence the 6. Many changes in Western culture have been dri-
that shapes the peer group ven by the discovery of new forms of
through what Judith Harris calls .
effects.
7. The speed at which culture changes is much
Cultural Influences (pp. 119–126) (faster/slower) than the pace
of evolutionary changes in the human
If you do not know the meaning of any of the .
following words, phrases, or expressions in the
context in which they appear in the text, refer Objective 22: Identify some ways a primarily individ-
to pages 95–96 for an explanation: cerebral hard ualist culture differs from a primarily collectivist cul-
drive . . . cultural software; norms grease the social ture, and compare their effects on personal identity.
machinery; cultures collide; standoffish.
8. Cultures based on value per-
sonal and individual
Objective 19: Discuss the survival benefits of culture.
. Examples of such cultures
1. The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and tra- occur in the ,
ditions of a group of people and transmitted from
78 Chapter 3 Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity

, and 2. Compared to the average man, an average


. woman has more , less
9. In contrast, cultures based on , and is a few inches
. Women are more likely
value , ,
than men to suffer from ,
and . Examples of such cul-
, and
tures occur in parts of and
.
.
3. Compared to women, men are more likely to
10. Whereas people in cultures commit and to suffer
value freedom, they suffer more . They are also more likely to
, divorce, and be diagnosed with ,
-related disease. - ,
, and
Objective 23: Describe some ways that child-rearing
differs in individualist and collectivist cultures.
.
11. Whereas most Western parents place more
Objective 26: Summarize the gender gap in aggres-
emphasis on (emotional close-
sion.
ness/independence) in their children, many
Asian and African parents focus on cultivating 4. Aggression is defined as or
(emotional closeness/indepen- behavior that is
dence). to hurt someone.
5. Throughout the world, men are more likely than
12. Children in collectivist cultures grow up with a
women to engage in ,
strong sense of .
, and .
Objective 24: Describe some ways that humans are 6. The aggression gender gap pertains to
similar, despite their cultural differences.
rather than
13. In general, differences between groups are aggression.

(smaller/larger) than person- Objective 27: Describe some gender differences in


to-person differences within groups. social power.

7. Compared to women, men are perceived as being


Gender Development (pp. 126–134)
more , , and
If you do not know the meaning of any of the . As leaders, they tend to be
following words, phrases, or expressions in the
more , while women are
context in which they appear in the text, refer
to page 96 for an explanation: surface early; more .
throws a master switch; “tomboyish”; initiate dates 8. Compared to men, women are perceived as being
. . . pick up the check; With the flick of an apron.
more , , and
.
Objective 25: Identify some biological and psycho-
logical differences between males and females. 9. These perceived differences occur
(throughout the world/only in
1. Among your (how many?)
certain cultures).
chromosomes, (how many?)
are unisex.
Reflections on Nature and Nurture 79

Objective 28: Discuss gender differences in connect- Objective 30: Discuss the relative importance of envi-
edness, or the ability to “tend and befriend.” ronment on the development of gender roles, and
describe two theories of gender typing.
10. According to Carol Gilligan, women are more
concerned than men in making 17. Our expectations about the way men and women
with others. behave define our culture’s
.
11. This difference is noticeable in how children
, and it continues throughout 18. Gender roles (are/are not)
the teen and adult years. Girls play in groups that rigidly fixed by evolution, as evidenced by the
are and less fact that they vary across
than boys’ groups. and over . For instance, in
societies there tends to be
12. Because they are more , women
minimal division of labor by sex; by contrast, in
are likely to use conversation to
societies, women remain
, while men are likely to use
close to home while men roam freely, herding
conversation to
cattle or sheep.
.
19. Our individual sense of being male or female is
13. Women tend and befriend—for example, they
called our
turn to others for , especially
. The degree to which we
when coping with .
exhibit traditionally male or female traits and
Objective 29: Explain how biological sex is deter- interests is called -
mined, and describe the role of sex hormones in bio- .
logical development and gender differences.
20. According to
14. The twenty-third pair of chromosomes deter- theory, children learn
mines the developing person’s . gender-linked behaviors by observing others and
The mother always contributes a(n) being rewarded or punished. When their families
chromosome. When the father discourage traditional gender-typing, children
contributes a(n) chromosome, (do/do not) organize them-
the testes begin producing the hormone selves into “boy worlds” and “girl worlds.”
. In about the 21. Another theory, called
(what week?), this hormone initiates the develop- theory, combines
ment of external male sex organs.
15. Genetically female infants who were exposed to theory with . According to
excess testosterone during prenatal development this theory, children learn from their
develop -appearing genitals. what it means to be male or female and adjust
Behaviorally, until adolescence, they tend to act their behavior accordingly.
in more aggressive “ “ ways
than do most girls. Reflections on Nature and Nurture (pp. 134–137)
16. Sex chromosomes control that
If you do not know the meaning of any of the
influence the brain’s wiring. In adulthood, part of
following words, phrases, or expressions in the
the lobe , an area involved in context in which they appear in the text, refer
fluency, is thicker in women. to page 105 for an explanation: won the day;
Part of the brain’s lobe, a key boggles the mind.
area for perception, is thicker in
men.
80 Chapter 3 Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity

Objective 31: Describe the biopsychosocial approach a. schizophrenia is caused by genes.


to development. b. schizophrenia is influenced by genes.
c. environment is unimportant in the develop-
1. As ment of schizophrenia.
becomes more and more irrelevant to power and d. identical twins are especially vulnerable to
mental disorders.
status, gender roles are
(converging/diverging). 5. Of the following, the best way to separate the
effects of genes and environment in research is to
2. We are the product of both
study:
and , but we are also a sys- a. fraternal twins.
tem that is . b. identical twins.
c. adopted children and their adoptive parents.
3. The principle that we should prefer the simplest
d. identical twins raised in different environ-
of competing explanations for a phenomenon is ments.
called .
6. Through natural selection, the traits that are most
likely to be passed on to succeeding generations
PROGRESS TEST 1 are those that contribute to:
a. reproduction. c. aggressiveness.
Multiple-Choice Questions b. survival. d. a. and b.
Circle your answers to the following questions and 7. Which of the following is not true regarding gen-
check them with the answers beginning on page 89. If der and sexuality?
your answer is incorrect, read the explanation for a. Men more often than women attribute a
why it is incorrect and then consult the appropriate woman’s friendliness to sexual interest.
pages of the text (in parentheses following the correct b. Women are more likely than men to cite affec-
answer). tion as a reason for first intercourse.
c. Men are more likely than females to initiate
1. Dr. Ross believes that principles of natural selec- sexual activity.
tion help explain why infants come to fear d. Gender differences in sexuality are noticeably
strangers about the time they become mobile. Dr. absent among gay men and lesbian women.
Ross is most likely a(n):
a. behavior geneticist. 8. Evolutionary psychologists attribute gender dif-
b. molecular geneticist. ferences in sexuality to the fact that women have:
c. evolutionary psychologist. a. greater reproductive potential than do men.
d. molecular biologist. b. lower reproductive potential than do men.
c. weaker sex drives than men.
2. A pair of adopted children or identical twins d. stronger sex drives than men.
reared in the same home are most likely to have
similar: 9. According to evolutionary psychology, men are
a. temperaments. drawn sexually to women who seem ,
b. personalities. while women are attracted to men who seem
c. religious beliefs. .
d. emotional reactivity. a. nurturing; youthful
b. youthful and fertile; mature and affluent
3. Collectivist cultures: c. slender; muscular
a. give priority to the goals of their groups. d. exciting; dominant
b. value the maintenance of social harmony.
10. Unlike twins, who develop from a sin-
c. foster social interdependence.
gle fertilized egg, twins develop from
d. are characterized by all of the above.
separate fertilized eggs.
4. If a fraternal twin becomes schizophrenic, the a. fraternal; identical
likelihood of the other twin developing serious b. identical; fraternal
mental illness is much lower than with identical c. placental; nonplacental
twins. This suggests that: d. nonplacental; placental
Progress Test 1 81

11. Temperament refers to a person’s characteristic: 16. Gender refers to:


a. emotional reactivity and intensity. a. the biological and social definition of male
b. attitudes. and female.
c. behaviors. b. the biological definition of male and female.
d. role-related traits. c. one’s sense of being male or female.
d. the extent to which one exhibits traditionally
12. When evolutionary psychologists use the word male or female traits.
“fitness,” they are specifically referring to:
a. an animal’s ability to adapt to changing envi- 17. The fertilized egg will develop into a boy if, at
ronments. conception:
b. the diversity of a species’ gene pool. a. the sperm contributes an X chromosome.
c. the total number of members of the species b. the sperm contributes a Y chromosome.
currently alive. c. the egg contributes an X chromosome.
d. our ability to survive and reproduce. d. the egg contributes a Y chromosome.
13. In a hypothetical world where all schools are of
18. Which theory states that gender becomes a lens
uniform quality, all families equally loving, and
through which children view their experiences?
all neighborhoods equally healthy, the heritabili-
ty of person-to-person differences would be: a. social learning theory
b. sociocultural theory
a. large. c. zero.
c. cognitive theory
b. small. d. unpredictable.
d. gender schema theory
14. The subfield that studies the specific genes that
influence behavior is: 19. The hormone testosterone:
a. behavior genetics. a. is found only in females.
b. molecular genetics. b. determines the sex of the developing person.
c. evolutionary psychology. c. stimulates growth of the female sex organs.
d. biopsychosocial genetics. d. stimulates growth of the male sex organs.

15. Which of the following most accurately expresses 20. Research studies have found that when infant
the extent of parental influence on personality? rats and premature human babies are regularly
a. It is more extensive than most people believe. touched or massaged, they:
b. It is weaker today than in the past. a. gain weight more rapidly.
c. It is more limited than popular psychology b. develop faster neurologically.
supposes. c. have more agreeable temperaments.
d. It is almost completely unpredictable. d. do a. and b.

Matching Items
Match each term with its corresponding definition or
description.
Terms Functions or Descriptions

1. X chromosome a. the biochemical units of heredity


2. heritability b. twins that develop from a single egg
3. fraternal c. one’s personal sense of being female or male
4. genes d. a set of expected behaviors for males and females
5. DNA e. twins that develop from separate eggs
6. identical f. variation among individuals due to genes
7. Y chromosome g. nongenetic influences
8. gender role h. the sex chromosome found in both women and
9. gender identity men
10. gender-typing i. the acquisition of a traditional gender role
11. environment j. a complex molecule containing the genetic infor-
mation that makes up the chromosomes
k. the sex chromosome found only in men
82 Chapter 3 Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity

PROGRESS TEST 2 7. Evolutionary explanations of gender differences


in sexuality have been criticized because:
Progress Test 2 should be completed during a final a. they offer “after-the-fact” explanations.
chapter review. Answer the following questions after b. standards of attractiveness vary with time and
you thoroughly understand the correct answers for place.
the section reviews and Progress Test 1. c. they underestimate cultural influences on
sexuality.
Multiple-Choice Questions d. of all of the above reasons.
1. Each cell of the human body has a total of:
a. 23 chromosomes. 8. Several studies of long-separated identical twins
b. 23 genes. have found that these twins:
c. 46 chromosomes. a. have little in common, due to the different
d. 46 genes. environments in which they were raised.
b. have many similarities, in everything from
2. Genes direct our physical development by syn- medical histories to personalities.
thesizing: c. have similar personalities, but very different
a. hormones. likes, dislikes, and life-styles.
b. proteins. d. are no more similar than are fraternal twins
c. DNA. reared apart.
d. chromosomes.
9. Adoption studies show that the personalities of
3. The human genome is best defined as: adopted children:
a. a complex molecule containing genetic infor- a. closely match those of their adoptive parents.
mation that makes up the chromosomes. b. bear more similarities to their biological par-
b. a segment of DNA. ents than to their adoptive parents.
c. the complete instructions for making an c. closely match those of the biological children
organism. of their adoptive parents.
d. the code for synthesizing protein. d. closely match those of other children reared in
the same home, whether or not they are bio-
4. Most human traits are: logically related.
a. learned.
10. Of the following, parents are most likely to influ-
b. determined by a single gene.
ence their children’s:
c. influenced by many genes acting together.
d. unpredictable. a. temperament.
b. personality.
5. Mutations are random errors in replica- c. faith.
tion. d. emotional reactivity.
a. gene
11. Chromosomes are composed of small segments
b. chromosome
of
c. DNA
d. protein a. DNA called genes.
b. DNA called neurotransmitters.
6. Casual, impulsive sex is most frequent among: c. genes called DNA.
d. DNA called enzymes.
a. males with high circulating levels of testos-
terone.
12. When the effect of one factor (such as environ-
b. males with traditional masculine attitudes.
ment) depends on another (such as heredity), we
c. females and males who are weakly gender-
say there is a(n) between the two factors.
typed.
d. females and males who are strongly gender- a. norm
typed. b. positive correlation
c. negative correlation
d. interaction
Progress Test 2 83

13. Compared to children raised in Western societies, 19. Genetically female children often play in “mascu-
those raised in communal societies, such as Japan line” ways if they were exposed to excess
or China: during prenatal development.
a. grow up with a stronger integration of the a. estrogen
sense of family into their self-concepts. b. DNA
b. exhibit greater shyness toward strangers. c. testosterone
c. exhibit greater concern for loyalty and social d. oxygen
harmony.
d. have all of the above characteristics. 20. Providing a child with a stimulating educational
environment during early childhood is likely to:
14. The selection effect in peer influence refers to the a. ensure the formation of a strong attachment
tendency of children and youth to: with parents.
a. naturally separate into same-sex playgroups. b. foster the development of a calm, easygoing
b. establish large, fluid circles of friends. temperament.
c. seek out friends with similar interests and atti- c. prevent neural connections from degenerat-
tudes. ing.
d. choose friends their parents like. d. do all of the above.

15. Which of the following is not true regarding cul-


tural diversity? True–False Items
a. Culture influences emotional expressiveness. Indicate whether each statement is true or false by
b. Culture influences personal space. placing T or F in the blank next to the item.
c. Culture does not have a strong influence on
how strictly social roles are defined. 1. Gender differences in mate preferences
d. All cultures evolve their own norms. vary widely from one culture to
another.
16. Women and men are most likely to be attracted to 2. The most emotionally reactive new-
strongly gender-typed mates in cultures charac- borns tend to be the most restrained 9-
terized by: month-olds.
a. gender inequality. 3. Research on twins shows a substantial
b. gender equality. genetic influence on attitudes toward
c. flexible gender roles. organized religion and many other
d. few norms. issues.
4. As environments become less similar,
17. An evolutionary psychologist would be most heredity as a source of differences
interested in studying: becomes more important.
a. why most parents are so passionately devoted 5. Compared to identical twins reared in
to their children. different families, fraternal twins recall
b. hereditary influences on skin color. their early family life more differently.
c. why certain diseases are more common 6. Parents have a stronger influence than
among certain age groups. do peers on whether a youth starts
d. genetic differences in personality. smoking.
7. Nature selects behavior tendencies that
18. Children who are raised by parents who discour- increase the likelihood of sending one’s
age traditional gender-typing: genes into the future.
a. are less likely to display gender-typed behav- 8. People from individualist cultures say
iors themselves. what they feel and what they presume
b. often become confused and develop an others feel.
ambiguous gender identity. 9. Parental influence on personality is
c. nevertheless organize themselves into “girl more limited than popular psychology
worlds” and “boy worlds.” supposes.
d. display excessively masculine and feminine 10. North Americans prefer more personal
traits as adults. space than do Latin Americans.
84 Chapter 3 Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity

11. Lacking any exposure to language d. Their case is unusual; children in the same
before adolescence, a person will never family usually have similar personalities.
master any language.
5. I am a rat whose cortex is lighter and thinner than
my litter mates. What happened to me?
PSYCHOLOGY APPLIED
a. You were born prematurely.
b. You suffer from fetal alcohol syndrome.
Answer these questions the day before an exam as a
c. You were raised in an enriched environment.
final check on your understanding of the chapter’s
d. You were raised in a deprived environment.
terms and concepts.
Multiple-Choice Questions 6. Chad, who grew up in the United States, is more
likely to encourage in his future children
1. If chromosomes are the “books” of heredity, the
than Asian-born Hidiyaki, who is more likely to
“words” are the .
encourage in his future children.
a. genes a. obedience; independence
b. molecules b. independence; emotional closeness
c. genomes c. emotional closeness; obedience
d. DNA d. loyalty; emotional closeness

2. To say that the heritability of a trait is approxi- 7. One of the best ways to distinguish how much
mately 50 percent means that: genetic and environmental factors affect behavior
a. genes are responsible for 50 percent of the is to compare children who have:
trait in an individual, and the environment is a. the same genes and environments.
responsible for the rest. b. different genes and environments.
b. the trait’s appearance in a person will reflect c. similar genes and environments.
approximately equal genetic contributions d. the same genes but different environments.
from both parents.
c. of the variation in the trait within a group of 8. My sibling and I developed from a single fertil-
people, 50 percent can be attributed to genes. ized egg. Who are we?
d. all of the above are correct.
a. opposite-sex identical twins.
3. After comparing divorce rates among identical b. same-sex identical twins.
and fraternal twins, Dr. Alexander has concluded c. opposite-sex fraternal twins.
that genes do play a role. Dr. Alexander is most d. same-sex fraternal twins.
likely a(n):
9. A psychologist working from the evolutionary
a. evolutionary psychologist.
perspective is likely to suggest that people are
b. behavior geneticist.
biologically predisposed to:
c. molecular geneticist.
d. divorcee. a. protect their offspring.
b. fear heights.
4. Despite growing up in the same home environ- c. be attracted to fertile-appearing members of
ment, Karen and her brother John have personali- the opposite sex.
ties as different from each other as two people d. do all of the above.
selected randomly from the population. Why is
this so? 10. The heritability of a trait will be largest among
a. Personality is inherited. Because Karen and genetically individuals who grew up in
John are not identical twins, it is not surpris- environments.
ing they have very different personalities. a. dissimilar; dissimilar
b. Gender is the most important factor in person- b. dissimilar; similar
ality. If Karen had a sister, the two of them c. similar; similar
would probably be much more alike. d. similar; dissimilar
c. The interaction of their individual genes and
nonshared experiences accounts for the com-
mon finding that children in the same family
are usually very different.
Psychology Applied 85

11. Compared with men, women: c. By mating aggressive and unaggressive foxes,
a. use conversation to communicate solutions. the researchers created a mutant species.
b. emphasize freedom and self-reliance. d. By selecting and mating the tamest males and
c. talk more openly. females, the researchers have produced affec-
d. do all of the above. tionate, unaggressive offspring.

12. Of the relatively few genetic differences among 17. Compared to men, women are more likely to:
humans are differences among population a. be concerned with their partner’s physical
groups. attractiveness.
a. less than 1 percent b. initiate sexual activity.
b. less than 10 percent c. cite “liking one another” as a justification for
c. approximately 25 percent having sex in a new relationship.
d. approximately 40 to 50 percent d. be less accepting of casual sex.

13. Responding to the argument that gender differ- 18. When his son cries because another child has
ences are often by-products of a culture’s social taken his favorite toy, Brandon admonishes him
and family structures, an evolutionary psycholo- by saying, “Big boys don’t cry.” Evidently,
gist is most likely to point to: Brandon is an advocate of in accounting for
a. our great human capacity for learning. the development of gender-linked behaviors.
b. the tendency of cultural arguments to rein- a. gender schema theory
force traditional gender inequalities. b. gender identity theory
c. the infallibility of “hindsight” explanations. c. gender-typing theory
d. all of the above. d. social learning theory

14. A person whose twin has Alzheimer’s disease has 19. The fact that after age 2, language forces children
risk of sharing the disease if they are iden- to begin organizing their worlds on the basis of
tical twins than if they are fraternal twins. gender is most consistent with which theory of
a. less how gender-linked behaviors develop?
b. about the same a. gender schema theory
c. much greater b. gender identity theory
d. It is unpredictable. c. gender-typing theory
d. social learning theory
15. Which of the following is an example of an inter-
action? 20. Three-year-old Jack is inhibited and shy. As an
a. Swimmers swim fastest during competition adult, Jack is likely to be:
against other swimmers. a. cautious and unassertive.
b. Swimmers with certain personality traits b. spontaneous and fearless.
swim fastest during competition, while those c. socially assertive.
with other personality traits swim fastest dur- d. Who knows? This aspect of personality is not
ing solo time trials. very stable over the life span.
c. As the average daily temperature increases,
sales of ice cream decrease.
d. As the average daily temperature increases,
sales of lemonade increase.

16. Which of the following most accurately summa-


rizes the findings of the 40-year fox-breeding
study described in the text?
a. Wild wolves cannot be domesticated.
b. “Survival of the fittest” seems to operate only
when animals live in their natural habitats.
86 Chapter 3 Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity

Essay Question KEY TERMS


Lakia’s new boyfriend has been pressuring her to
become more sexually intimate than she wants to at Writing Definitions
this early stage in their relationship. Strongly gender- Using your own words, on a piece of paper write a
typed and “macho” in attitude, Jerome is becoming brief definition or explanation of each of the follow-
increasingly frustrated with Lakia’s hesitation, while ing terms.
Lakia is starting to wonder if a long-term relationship
with this type of man is what she really wants. In 1. environment
light of your understanding of the evolutionary 2. behavior genetics
explanation of gender differences in sexuality,
explain why the tension between Lakia and Jerome 3. chromosomes
would be considered understandable. 4. DNA
5. genes
6. genome
7. identical twins
8. fraternal twins
9. temperament
10. heritability
11. interaction
12. molecular genetics
13. evolutionary psychology
14. natural selection
15. mutation
16. gender
17. culture
18. norm
19. personal space
20. individualism
21. collectivism
22. aggression
23. X chromosome
24. Y chromosome
25. testosterone
26. role
27. gender role
28. gender identity
29. gender-typing
30. social learning theory
31. gender schema theory
Answers 87

Cross-Check 1

As you learned in the Prologue, 2 3 4 5


reviewing and overlearning of
material are important to the learn-
6 7
ing process. After you have written
the definitions of the key terms in 8
this chapter, you should complete 9
the crossword puzzle to ensure that
10
you can reverse the process—
recognize the term, given the 11
definition.
12
ACROSS

6. Parents whose personalities 13


bear little relevance to their
children’s personalities.
7. Complex molecule containing 14
the genetic information that 15
makes up the chromosomes.
16 17
9. Set of expected behaviors for
those who occupy a particular 18
social position. 19
10. An understood rule for expect-
ed and accepted behavior.
11. The biological and social char-
acteristics by which people
20
define male and female.
12. The enduring behaviors, ideas,
attitudes, and traditions shared 8. One’s personal sense of being female or male.
by a large group of people. 17. Another word for heredity.
13. Environmental influences on behavior. 18. Segments of DNA capable of synthesizing
14. According to the evolutionary perspective, proteins.
women are drawn to healthy-looking men who
are also .
15. Behavior geneticists often compare the traits of ANSWERS
adopted children to those of their parents.
16. Source of all genetic diversity. Chapter Review
19. The proportion of variation among individuals Introduction
that can be attributed to genes.
20. Threadlike structure made up largely of DNA 1. personalities; interests; cultural; family
molecules. 2. biological heritage; brain; language; social
3. nature; nurture
DOWN
1. The study of the relative power and limits of Behavior Genetics: Predicting Individual Differences
genetic and environmental influences on 1. behavior geneticists
behavior.
2. Subfield of psychology that uses principles of nat- 2. nongenetic
ural selection to explore human traits and behav- 3. chromosomes; 46; 23; DNA
iors. 4. genes
3. When the effect of one factor depends on another 5. genome; gene complexes
factor.
4. Any nongenetic influence. 6. twin; adoption
5. A lens through which children organize their 7. identical; fraternal; more
understanding of being male or female. 8. more
88 Chapter 3 Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity

Other dimensions that reflect genetic influences are logically. Throughout life, sensory stimulation acti-
abilities, personal traits, and interests. vates and strengthens particular neural connections,
9. environment while other connections weaken with disuse. In this
way, our experiences shape the very structure of the
10. do not
neural pathways that process those experiences.
11. does; higher
5. neural; degenerate; pruning; puberty
12. temperament; does
6. Freudian psychiatry; psychology
13. difficult; irritable; intense; unpredictable; easy;
7. political attitudes; personal manners; religious
cheerful; relaxed; predictable in feeding and
beliefs
sleeping
8. personality; 10
14. more
9. peers; selection
15. heritability
10. culture; parents’-group-to-children’s-group
16. more
17. need not imply Cultural Influences
18. psychological; genetic; environmental 1. culture
19. interaction; genetic; environment 2. innovation; language
20. genes; responses; fraternal; identical 3. norms
21. molecular genetics 4. personal space
22. diseases Most North Americans, the British, and Scandi-
23. sex; ethical navians prefer more personal space than do Latin
Americans, Arabs, and the French. Cultural differ-
Evolutionary Psychology: Understanding Human ences in expressiveness and the pace of life often cre-
Nature ate misunderstandings. For example, people with
northern European roots may perceive people from
1. evolutionary psychologists Mediterranean cultures as warm and charming but
2. much alike inefficient, while Mediterraneans may see the north-
ern Europeans as efficient but emotionally cold.
3. natural selection
5. slowly
4. mutations; diversity
6. technology
5. looser; learn; adapt; environments; fitness; sur-
vive; reproduce; fat; store 7. faster; gene pool
6. gender; biological; social 8. individualism; independence (or control);
achievement; United States; Canada; Western
7. more; more; gender
Europe
8. lower; assertiveness
9. collectivism; interdependence; tradition; harmo-
9. evolutionary; genes; are ny; Africa; Asia
10. youthful; mature; dominant; bold; affluent 10. individualist; loneliness; stress
11. backward; hindsight 11. independence; emotional closeness
12. cultural 12. family self
13. inequality 13. smaller
14. alike; different; predictions
Gender Development
Parents and Peers
1. 46; 45
1. prenatal 2. fat; muscle; shorter; depression; anxiety; eating
2. placenta disorders
3. psychological 3. suicide; alcoholism; autism, color-blindness,
4. thicker hyperactivity, antisocial personality disorder
Research has shown that human and animal infants 4. physical; verbal; intended
given extra sensory stimulation develop faster neuro- 5. hunting; fighting; warring
Answers 89

6. physical; verbal 6. d. is the answer. (p. 108)


7. dominant; forceful; independent; directive (or c. Natural selection favors traits that send one’s
autocratic); democratic genes into the future, such as surviving longer
and reproducing more often. Aggression does
8. deferential; nurturant; affiliative
not necessarily promote either.
9. throughout the world
7. d. is the answer. Such gender differences charac-
10. connections terize both heterosexual and homosexual people.
11. play; smaller; competitive (p. 110)
12. interdependent; explore relationships; communi- 8. b. is the answer. Women can incubate only one
cate solutions infant at a time. (p. 111)
13. support; stress c. & d. The text does not suggest that there is a
gender difference in the strength of the sex drive.
14. sex; X; Y; testosterone; seventh
9. b. is the answer. (p. 111)
15. male; tomboyish
a. According to this perspective, women prefer
16. hormones; frontal; verbal; parietal; space mates with the potential for long-term nurturing
17. gender roles investment in their joint offspring.
18. are not; cultures; time; nomadic; agricultural c. While men are drawn to women whose waists
are roughly a third narrower than their hips, the
19. gender identity; gender-typing
text does not suggest that women equate muscu-
20. social learning; do larity with fertility.
21. gender schema; social learning; cognition; d. Excitement was not mentioned as a criterion
schemas for mating.
10. b. is the answer. (pp. 97–98)
Reflections on Nature and Nurture c. & d. There are no such things as “placental” or
“nonplacental” twins. All twins have a placenta
1. brute strength; converging during prenatal development.
2. nature; nurture; open 11. a. is the answer. (p. 102)
3. Occam’s razor 12. d. is the answer. (p. 109)
a. Survival ability is only one aspect of fitness.
Progress Test 1 b. & c. Neither of these is related to fitness.
13. a. is the answer. (pp. 102–103)
Multiple-Choice Questions b., c., & d. This hypothetical world is one in
1. c. is the answer. (p. 108) which there is no environmental variation.
a., b., & d. Whereas evolutionary psychologists Therefore, any individual differences are pre-
attempt to explain universal human tendencies, dictably due to genes.
these researchers investigate genetic differences 14. b. is the answer. (p. 105)
among individuals. a. Behavior geneticists use twin and adoption
2. c. is the answer. Research has not shown a strong studies to explore the relative power and limits of
parental influence on personality, temperament, nature and nurture on behavior.
or emotional reactivity. (p. 101) c. Evolutionary psychologists study how natural
selection favored behavioral tendencies that con-
3. d. is the answer. (p. 122) tributed to the survival and spread of our ances-
4. b. is the answer. (p. 98) tors’ genes.
a. & c. Although an identical twin is at d. Although this sounds intriguing, there is no
increased risk, the relationship is far from perfect. such field.
Mental disorders, like all psychological traits, are 15. c. is the answer. (pp. 116–117)
influenced by both nature and nurture.
d. This is not at all implied by the evidence from 16. a. is the answer. (p. 110)
twin studies. c. This defines gender identity.
d. This defines gender-typing.
5. d. is the answer. (p. 99)
a., b., & c. In order to pinpoint the influence of 17. b. is the answer. (p. 129)
one of the two factors (genes and environment), it a. In this case, a female would develop.
is necessary to hold one of the factors constant.
90 Chapter 3 Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity

c. & d. The egg can contribute only an X chromo- and life-styles. This indicates the significant heri-
some. Thus, the sex of the child is determined by tability of many traits.
which chromosome the sperm contributes. 9. b. is the answer. (pp. 100–101)
18. d. is the answer. (p. 132) a., c., & d. The personalities of adopted children
a. According to social learning theory, gender- do not much resemble those of their adoptive
typing evolves through imitation and reinforce- parents (therefore, not a.) or other children reared
ment. in the same home (therefore, not c. or d.).
b. & c. Neither theory focuses on gender-typing. 10. c. is the answer. (pp. 101, 117)
19. d. is the answer. (p. 130) a. & d. Temperament, which refers to a person’s
a. Although testosterone is the principal male emotional reactivity, is determined primarily by
hormone, it is present in both females and males. genes.
b. This is determined by the sex chromosomes. b. Genes limit parents’ influence on their chil-
c. In the absence of testosterone, female sex dren’s personalities.
organs will develop. 11. a. is the answer. (p. 96)
20. d. is the answer. (p. 115) b. Neurotransmitters are the chemicals involved
in synaptic transmission in the nervous system.
Matching Items d. Enzymes are chemicals that facilitate various
chemical reactions throughout the body but are
1. h (p. 129) 5. j (p. 96) 9. c (p. 132) not involved in heredity.
2. f (p. 102) 6. b (p. 97) 10. i (p. 132)
12. d. is the answer. (p. 105)
3. e (p. 98) 7. k (p. 129) 11. g (p. 96)
a. A norm is a culturally determined set of
4. a (p. 96) 8. d (p. 131)
expected behaviors for a particular role, such as a
gender role.
Progress Test 2 b. & c. When two factors are correlated, it means
either that increases in one factor are accompa-
Multiple-Choice Questions nied by increases in the other (positive correla-
tion) or that increases in one factor are accompa-
1. c. is the answer. (p. 96) nied by decreases in the other (negative correla-
b. & d. Each cell of the human body contains tion).
hundreds of genes. 13. d. is the answer. (p. 122)
2. b. is the answer. (p. 96) 14. c. is the answer. (p. 118)
a. Hormones are chemical messengers produced
by the endocrine glands. 15. c. is the answer. (pp. 119–121)
c. & d. Genes are segments of DNA, which are 16. a. is the answer. (p. 131)
the make-up of chromosomes. b. In such cultures gender differences in mate
3. c. is the answer. (p. 96) preferences tend to be much smaller.
a. This defines DNA. c. Although flexibility in gender roles was not
b. This defines a gene. discussed per se, it is likely that greater flexibility
d. The genes provide the code for synthesizing would equate with greater equality in gender
proteins. roles.
d. All cultures develop norms.
4. c. is the answer. (p. 97)
17. a. is the answer. This is an example of a trait that
5. a. is the answer. (p. 108) contributes to survival of the human species and
6. b. is the answer. (p. 110) the perpetuation of one’s genes. (p. 101)
a. Testosterone levels have not been linked to the b., c., & d. These traits and issues would likely be
frequency of casual sex. of greater interest to a behavior geneticist, since
c. & d. Males are far more accepting of casual sex they concern the influence of specific genes on
than are females. behavior.
7. d. is the answer. (pp. 112–113) 18. c. is the answer. (p. 132)
8. b. is the answer. (pp. 99–100) b. & d. There is no evidence that being raised in a
a., c., & d. Despite being raised in different envi- “gender neutral” home confuses children or fos-
ronments, long-separated identical twins often ters a backlash of excessive gender-typing.
have much in common, including likes, dislikes, 19. c. is the answer. (p. 130)
Answers 91

20. c. is the answer. (p. 115) c. If the question had stated “I have a heavier and
a. Although early experiences are a factor in the thicker cortex,” this answer would be correct.
development of attachment (discussed in a later 6. b. is the answer. Although parental values differ
chapter), educational stimulation is probably less from one time and place to another, studies
important than warmth and nurturance. reveal that Western parents today want their chil-
b. Because temperament appears to be a strongly dren to think for themselves, while Asian and
genetic trait, it is unlikely that early educational African parents place greater value on emotional
experiences would affect its nature. closeness. (p. 124)
True–False Items d. Both of these values are more typical of Asian
than Western cultures.
1. F (p. 111) 5. T (p. 105) 9. T (p. 116)
7. d. is the answer. To separate the influences of
2. F (p. 102) 6. F (p. 118) 10. T (p. 120)
heredity and experience on behavior, one of the
3. F (p. 101) 7. T (p. 108) 11. T (p. 115)
two must be held constant. (pp. 99–100)
4. F (p. 103) 8. F (p. 122)
a., b., & c. These situations would not allow one
to separate the contributions of heredity and
Psychology Applied environment.
8. b. is the answer. (pp. 121–122)
Multiple-Choice Questions a. Because they are genetically the same, identical
twins are always of the same sex.
1. a. is the answer. (p. 96) c. & d. Fraternal twins develop from two fertil-
b. DNA is a molecule. ized eggs.
c. & d. Genes are segments of DNA.
9. d. is the answer. (pp. 108–109, 111)
2. c. is the answer. Heritability is a measure of the
10. b. is the answer. Because their environments are
extent to which a trait’s variation within a group
largely the same, differences in the traits of such
of people can be attributed to heredity. (p. 102)
individuals are likely to be due to genetic differ-
a. & b. Heritability is not a measure of how much
ences. (p. 103)
of an individual’s behavior is inherited, nor of the
c. & d. If two individuals are genetically similar,
relative contribution of genes from that person’s
any differences in their behaviors and traits are
mother and father. Furthermore, the heritability
likely to be due to environmental factors.
of any trait depends on the context, or environ-
ment, in which that trait is being studied. 11. d. is the answer. (p. 129)
3. b. is the answer. (pp. 96, 97–98) 12. b. is the answer. Actually, only 5 percent are dif-
a. Evolutionary psychologists study the evolution ferences among population groups. (p. 108)
of behavior using the principles of natural selec- 13. a. is the answer. (p. 113)
tion. b. & c. In fact, these are typical criticisms of evo-
c. Molecular geneticists search for the specific lutionary psychology.
genes that influence behaviors. In his example, 14. c. is the answer. (p. 98)
the researcher is merely comparing twins.
15. b. is the answer. (p. 105)
d. Who knows?
a. An interaction requires at least two variables;
4. c. is the answer. (pp. 98, 103) in this example there is only one (competition).
a. Although heredity does influence certain traits, c. This is an example of a negative correlation.
such as outgoingness and emotional instability, it d. This is an example of a positive correlation.
is the interaction of heredity and experience that
16. d. is the answer. (p. 108)
ultimately molds personality.
b. There is no single “most important factor” in 17. d. is the answer. (p. 110)
personality. Moreover, for the same reason two a., b., & c. These are typical male attitudes and
sisters or brothers often have dissimilar personal- behaviors.
ities, a sister and brother may be very much alike. 18. d. is the answer. Following social learning theory,
d. Karen and John’s case is not at all unusual. Brandon is using verbal punishment to discour-
5. d. is the answer. (pp. 114–115) age what he believes to be an inappropriate
a. & b. Premature birth and fetal alcohol syn- gender-linked behavior in his son. (p. 132)
drome (discussed in a later chapter) usually do a. Gender schema theory maintains that children
not have this effect on the developing brain. adjust their behaviors to match their cultural con-
92 Chapter 3 Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity

cept of gender. In this example, we have only the 8. Fraternal twins develop from two separate eggs
father’s behavior on which to base our answer. fertilized by different sperm and therefore are no
b. & c. No such theories were discussed. more genetically similar than ordinary siblings.
19. a. is the answer. Many aspects of language, in- (p. 98)
cluding masculine and feminine pronouns, pro- 9. Temperament refers to a person’s characteristic
vide children with schemas through which they emotional reactivity and intensity. (p. 102)
begin organizing their worlds on the basis of gen- 10. Heritability is the proportion of variation among
der. (p. 132) individuals in a trait that is attributable to genetic
20. a. is the answer. (p. 103) factors. Current estimates place the heritability of
b., c., & d. Temperament is one of the most stable intelligence at about 50 to 70 percent. (p. 102)
personality traits. 11. An interaction occurs when the effects of one fac-
tor (such as environment) depend on another fac-
Essay Question tor (such as heredity). (p. 105)
Evolutionary psychologists would not be surprised Example: Because the way people react to us (an
by the tension between Lakia and Jerome and would environmental factor) depends on our genetically
see it as a reflection of women’s more relational and influenced temperament (a genetic factor), there
men’s more recreational approach to sex. Since eggs is an interaction between environment and
are expensive, compared with sperm, women prefer heredity.
mates with the potential for long-term investment in 12. Molecular genetics is the subfield of biology that
their joint offspring. According to this perspective, seeks to identify the specific genes that influence
this may be why Lakia is not in a hurry to become specific human traits and behaviors. (p. 105)
sexually intimate with Jerome. Men, on the other 13. Evolutionary psychology is the study of the evo-
hand, are selected for “pairing widely” but not neces- lution of behavior and the mind, using the princi-
sarily wisely in order to maximize the spreading of ples of natural selection. (p. 107)
their genes. This is especially true of men like Jerome,
14. Natural selection is the evolutionary principle
who have traditional masculine attitudes.
that traits that contribute to reproduction and
survival are the most likely to be passed on to
Key Terms succeeding generations. (p. 108)
15. Mutations are random errors in gene replication
Writing Definitions
that are the source of genetic diversity within a
1. In behavior genetics, environment refers to every species. (p. 108)
nongenetic, or external, influence on our traits 16. Gender refers to the biological and social charac-
and behaviors. (p. 96) teristics by which people define male and female.
2. Behavior genetics is the study of genetic and (p. 110)
environmental influences on behavior. (p. 96) 17. A culture is the enduring behaviors, ideas, atti-
3. Chromosomes are threadlike structures made of tudes, and traditions shared by a large group of
DNA molecules, which contain the genes. In con- people and transmitted from one generation to
ception, the 23 chromosomes in the egg are the next. (p. 119)
paired with the 23 chromosomes in the sperm. (p. 18. Norms are understood social prescriptions, or
96) rules, for accepted and expected behavior. (p.
4. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a complex mole- 120)
cule containing the genetic information that 19. Personal space refers to the buffer zone, or
makes up the chromosomes. (p. 96) mobile territory, that people like to maintain
5. Genes are the biochemical units of heredity that around their bodies. (p. 120)
make up the chromosomes; they are segments of 20. Individualism is giving priority to personal goals
the DNA molecules capable of synthesizing a over group goals and defining one’s identity in
protein. (p. 96) terms of personal attributes rather than group
6. A genome is the complete set of genetic instruc- identification. (p. 121)
tions for making an organism. (p. 96) 21. Collectivism is giving priority to the goals of
7. Identical twins develop from a single fertilized one’s group, and defining one’s identity accord-
egg that splits in two and therefore are genetical- ingly. (p. 121)
ly identical. (p. 97)
Focus on Vocabulary and Language 93

22. Aggression is physical or verbal behavior intend- Cross-Check


ed to hurt someone. (p. 127)
ACROSS DOWN
23. The X chromosome is the sex chromosome found
in both men and women. Females inherit an X 6. adoptive 1. behavior genetics
chromosome from each parent. (p. 129) 7. DNA 2. evolutionary
9. role 3. interaction
24. The Y chromosome is the sex chromosome found
10. norm 4. environment
only in men. Males inherit an X chromosome
11. gender 5. gender schema
from their mothers and a Y chromosome from
12. culture 8. gender identity
their fathers. (p. 129)
13. nurture 17. nature
25. Testosterone is the principal male sex hormone. 14. affluent 18. genes
During prenatal development, testosterone 15. biological
stimulates the development of the external male 16. mutation
sex organs. (p. 130) 19. heritability
26. A role is a cluster of prescribed behaviors expect- 20. chromosome
ed of those who occupy a particular social posi-
tion. (p. 131)
27. A gender role is a set of expected behaviors for
males and females. (p. 131)
28. Gender identity is one’s personal sense of being
male or female. (p. 132)
29. Gender-typing is the acquisition of a traditional
feminine or masculine gender role. (p. 132)
30. According to social learning theory, people learn
social behavior (such as gender roles) by observ-
ing and imitating and by being rewarded or pun-
ished. (p. 132)
31. According to gender schema theory, children
acquire a cultural concept of what it means to be
female or male and adjust their behavior accord-
ingly. (p. 132)

FOCUS ON VOCABULARY AND LANGUAGE (white-collar workers). The identical twins (both
named Jim) were adopted by similar working-class
Behavior Genetics: Predicting Individual (blue-collar) families.
Differences
Page 100: The stories of startling twin similarity do
Page 97: To disentangle the threads of heredity and not impress Bouchard’s critics, who remind us that
environment, behavior geneticists often use two sets “the plural of anecdote is not data.” Bouchard’s
of tweezers: twin studies and adoption studies. Myers investigation into the similarities between separated
is using an analogy here: to separate out (disentangle) twins suggests that genes influence many behaviors,
two different strings (threads) that are tightly inter- such as career choices, TV-watching habits, and food
twined, you can use a small pincers (tweezers). likes and dislikes (startling stories). The critics point
Similarly, in an attempt to discover and separate out out that any two strangers of the same sex and age
(tease apart) the differential effects of the environ- would probably have many coincidental things in
ment and genes (threads that are entangled), behavior common if they were to spend hours comparing
geneticists use two approaches (two sets of tweezers): their behaviors and life histories. Furthermore, sto-
twin studies and adoption studies. ries by, or about, individuals (single anecdotes) do not
constitute scientific data, even if there are many of
Page 99: blue-collar families . . . This phrase refers to a
them (the plural of anecdote is not data).
social category based on the type of work people do.
Traditionally, manual workers wore blue (denim) Page 101 (margin): “Mom may be holding a full house
work shirts (blue-collar workers) in contrast to office while Dad has a straight flush, yet when Junior gets a
workers, managers, etc., who wore white shirts random half of each of their cards his poker-hand may
94 Chapter 3 Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity

be a loser” David Lykken (2001). To make sense of genes and environment interact. Genes, rather than
this quote you need to be familiar with card games acting as master plans (blueprints) that always lead
such as poker. In this game, a “full house” and a to the same result, instead react and respond to their
“straight flush” are sequences of cards (hands) that environments. Thus, people with identical genes
usually are winners. Even if Mom and Dad have (identical twins) but with different experiences end
“winner” sets of genes, similar to the winning cards up with similar but not identical minds.
in poker, the random genes they pass on to their off-
Page 106: But as always, progress is a two-edged
spring (Junior) will not necessarily be a “winning”
sword, raising both hopeful possibilities and difficult
set of genes too (his poker-hand may be a loser).
problems. Myers is using the metaphor of a sword
Page 103: We all are driven to eat, but depending on with two cutting edges (two-edged sword) to illustrate
our culturally learned tastes, we may have a yen for the fact that progress has two aspects to it, one posi-
fish eyes, black bean salad, or chicken legs. Go bare- tive (hopeful possibilities) and one negative (new
foot for a summer and you will develop toughened ethical issues and difficult problems).
callused feet—a biological adaptation to friction.
Meanwhile, your shod neighbor will remain a tender- Evolutionary Psychology: Understanding Human
foot. The enormous adaptive capacity is a common, Nature
but extremely valuable, characteristic of human
Page 108: cash-strapped . . . This means to be in des-
beings (the behavioral hallmark of our species). We
perate need of money (strapped for cash). Russian
share a need for food (we all are driven to eat); howev-
researchers selectively bred only the tamest and
er, our particular food preferences tend to be
friendliest foxes from each of 30 generations over a
learned, and our desire (yen) for various foods is
40-year period. The present breed of foxes are affec-
typically culturally transmitted. If someone doesn’t
tionate, docile, and eager to please; in order to raise
wear shoes (he goes barefoot), his feet will become
funds for the financially destitute (cash-strapped)
tough, which is a biological adaptation. If a person
institute, they are being marketed as house pets.
wears shoes (your shod neighbor), his feet will be ten-
der or soft (he will be a tenderfoot); this is also the Page 108: But the tight genetic leash . . . is looser on
product of a biological mechanism. However, it is humans. Just as a dog is restrained or held in check
the environment that causes the difference between by a strap or cord (leash), genes generally determine
the two people. (Note: the word tenderfoot tradition- the fairly rigid or fixed patterns of behaviors of
ally referred to someone who was new to ranching many animals. In humans, however, genes are less
in the western United States and is now used to influential; thus, the usually strong genetic con-
describe any newcomer or novice.) straints (tight genetic leash) operate in a less deter-
Page 104: Thus, asking whether your personality is mined way (are looser).
more a product of your genes or environment is like Page 110: Casual, impulsive sex is most frequent
asking . . . whether the area of a field is more the result among males with traditional masculine attitudes
of its length or width. The area of a space, such as a (Pleck & others, 1993). There are large gender differ-
soccer field or a football field, is determined by mul- ences in sexual values and attitudes, which are
tiplying the length by the width. Obviously, you reflected in differences in male-female behaviors.
cannot find the area of the field without both length Males (especially those with stereotyped views of
and width. Likewise, we do not become who we are females) tend to be lacking in restraint (impulsive)
without both nature and nurture. As Myers notes, and nonchalant (casual) about having sex with some-
for psychological characteristics, human differences one they have just met and hardly know (casual,
are almost always the result of both genetic (nature) impulsive sex).
and environmental (nurture) factors.
Page 110: Men also have a lower threshold for per-
Page 105 . . . sleuth . . . A sleuth is a detective. Just ceiving warm responses as a sexual come-on. Males
like detectives trying to catch the criminal and solve will typically misinterpret an affable, affectionate,
the crime, researchers throughout the world are cur- friendly female’s behavior (her warmth) as an invita-
rently trying to locate (sleuth) the genes responsible tion to have sex (a sexual come-on). Numerous studies
for many disorders. have shown that men are more likely than women to
Page 106: Blueprints for “designer babies” . . . A blue- attribute a woman’s friendliness to sexual interest.
print is an architectural term for a copy of an original Page 111: In our ancestral history, women most often
diagram or plan used as a working drawing for cre- sent their genes into the future by pairing wisely, men
ating a building or structure. Myers notes that by pairing widely. Evolutionary psychologists note
Focus on Vocabulary and Language 95

that our normal desires (natural yearnings) help per- randomly interspersed (shuffled) and then passed on
petuate our genes. In our evolutionary past (ancestral (dealt) to the players, a man and a woman intermin-
history) females accomplished this best by being gle their genes (shuffle their gene decks) and conceive
selective in their choice of mate (pairing wisely) and offspring (deal a life-forming hand to their child-to-be).
men by more promiscuous behavior (pairing widely). The child is then exposed to numerous environmen-
Myers points out, however, that environmental fac- tal factors beyond parental control that limit how
tors, such as cultural expectations, can alter or shape much the parents influence the child’s development
how sexual behavior is expressed by both males and (children are not formless blobs sculpted by parental nur-
females (can bend the genders). ture).
Page 111: They (women) prefer stick-around dads over Page 116: And society reinforces such parent-
likely cads. Women tend to prefer males who are blaming: Believing that parents shape their children
more likely to be supportive of their children (their as a potter molds clay, people readily praise parents
offspring) and who are also more willing to make a for their children’s virtues and blame them for their
lasting contribution to their protection (stick-around children’s vices. Myers suggests that, because some
dads) rather than males who indicate little or no will- factors that affect development are under the par-
ingness to make such a co-parenting commitment ent’s control and others are not, it is not appropriate
(likely cads). to be judgmental. We should be slower to praise
parents for their children’s achievements (children’s
Page 111: As mobile gene machines, we are designed
virtues) and slower yet to be critical when the
to prefer whatever worked for our ancestors in their
children do not perform up to our expectations (chil-
environments. Evolutionary psychologists believe
dren’s vices). Children are not simply formed by
that behavioral tendencies that increase the proba-
their parents’ child-rearing abilities (as a potter molds
bility of getting one’s genes into the future have
clay) but rather are influenced by many factors
been selected for over the course of evolution.
beyond their control.
Humans who actively seek out mates and success-
fully procreate (mobile gene machines) are passing on Page 118: If the vapors of a toxic climate are seeping into
inherited tendencies to behave in certain ways (our a child's life, that climate—not just the child—needs
natural yearnings) because these behaviors were reforming. Myers is suggesting that when problem
adaptive for our ancestors. behaviors arise it is important to look at the whole
context that is influencing the child rather than just
Parents and Peers focusing on the youngster. If the environment (whole
school or neighborhood) is unhealthy and dangerous (a
Page 115: During early childhood—while the excess
toxic climate) and is slowly leaking (seeping) into a
connections are still on call— . . . . To be on call means
child’s life, then it is important to change (reform)
to be ready and available for use. Thus, during the
these environmental influences instead of simply
early childhood years while there are many neural
trying to change the child.
connections ready for use (still on call), an enriched
and stimulating environment is extremely important
Cultural Influences
for intellectual, perceptual, and social development.
As Myers puts it, “. . . use it or lose it.” Page 119: We come equipped with a huge cerebral
hard drive ready to receive many gigabytes of cultural
Page 115: Similar to pathways through a forest, less
software. Myers is comparing our capacity to learn
traveled paths gradually disappear, and popular
and adapt through cultural transmission to that of a
paths are broadened. This analogy suggests that
computer’s operating system (cerebral hard drive)
brain development goes on throughout life. Neural
which, like a human, is capable of receiving very
connections (pathways) that are frequently used (pop-
large amounts of information through programming
ular paths) are widened and more clearly defined,
(gigabytes of cultural software).
while those connections that are seldom used (in dis-
use) become weakened and may eventually disap- Page 120: Yet, norms grease the social machinery. Every
pear. society has its own rules and regulations about
accepted and appropriate modes of conduct (social
Page 116: In procreation, a woman and a man shuffle
norms), and these standards differ from culture to
their gene decks and deal a life-forming hand to their
culture. These proscriptions may sometimes seem
child-to-be . . . The idea here is that just as cards are
unjust or senseless, but because they are known and
96 Chapter 3 Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity

practiced by most people, they serve the function of more aggressively and behave in ways more typical
helping society run smoothly (they grease the social of boys (she will act in a tomboyish way).
machinery).
Page 131: Thirty years ago, it was standard for men
Page 120: When cultures collide, their differing to initiate dates, drive the car, and pick up the check,
norms often befuddle. When people from different and for women to decorate the home, buy and care
cultures meet, the interaction can be confusing for the children’s clothes, and select the wedding
(befuddling). Personal space (the distance we like to gifts. Gender roles are a culture’s expectations for
have between us and others) varies; someone who male and female behaviors, but these behaviors
prefers more space may end up constantly retreating change over time and across cultures, and vary from
(backpedaling) from someone who needs to be close generation to generation. Traditionally (as was com-
in order to have a comfortable conversation. mon practice 30 years ago), males asked females to go
out (initiated dates) and paid for the meal and enter-
Page 120: . . . standoffish . . . This means to be distant
tainment (picked up the check), and women looked
or unfriendly in social interactions. North
after domestic concerns, including purchasing and
Americans have a need for a bigger personal space
looking after the children's clothes and choosing
than do people from some other cultures. So, when
presents for those who were getting married (wed-
that space is infringed upon (invaded), the natural
ding gifts).
reaction is to back away, which may give the
impression of being aloof and unfriendly Page 131: With the flick of an apron, the number of
(standoffish). U.S. college women hoping to be full-time home-
makers plunged during the late 1960s and early
Gender Development 1970s. Over time, gender roles have changed. Within
a relatively brief period of time (with the flick of an
Page 128: These gender differences surface early, in apron), the number of women engaged in the tradi-
children’s play. Males and females differ in their tional female role (full-time homemaker) declined
feelings of belonging (connectedness), a disparity that rapidly (plunged) and the number of women in the
is noticeable from a young age (surfaces early). When work force increased substantially, especially in tra-
playing, boys tend to engage in competitive group ditional male fields such as medicine, law, and engi-
activity without much close, confidential, or affec- neering.
tionate dialogue. Girls typically are more intimate
with each other and play in smaller groups, fre- Reflections on Nature and Nurture
quently with one friend, and they are less competi-
tive and more supportive and empathic. Page 136: won the day . . . Galileo’s theory that the
Earth revolved around the Sun, and not the other
Page 130: The Y chromosome includes a single gene
way around (vice-versa), was eventually accepted (it
that throws a master switch triggering the testes to
won the day). His explanation was a coherent account
develop and produce the principal male hormone,
(it hung together) of the way the solar system actually
testosterone. . . . We all get an X chromosome from
works.
our mothers and either an X (you’ll be a girl) or a Y
(you’ll be a boy) from our fathers. Thus, the Y chro- Page 136: It boggles the mind—the entire universe
mosome is crucial to making males, and a single popping out of a single point some 14 billion years ago.
gene is responsible for initiating the process (it . . . When something is startling, unexpected, or
throws the switch) that activates (triggers) the produc- hard to comprehend, we say that “it boggles the
tion of testosterone by the testes. mind.” The idea that the entire universe arose from
a singularity (popped out of a single point) approxi-
Page 130: . . . “tomboyish” . . . A tomboy is a girl who
mately 14 billion years ago is one such “mind-bog-
likes to play boys’ sports and games. When a female
gling” idea that leaves even scientists full of rever-
embryo is exposed to too much testosterone (the
ence and wonder (they are awestruck).
male sex hormone), the developing child will act