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주요 경력 및 자격
• 한양대학교 공과대학 금속공학과 학사 • 한양대학교 공과대학원 재료공학 석사 • 중앙대학교 공과대학원 토목공학과 박사과정 (구조공학) • • • • • • • • • • • • 용접 기술사 (한국, 자격 번호 : 99159010002P) 금속재료 기술사 (한국, 자격 번호 : 01163010010H) 미국 용접학회(AWS) 공인 용접검사원(CWI) (자격 번호 : 00010911) 기술지도사(중소기업청, 경영기술컨설턴트협회, 자격번호 : 003990) 미국 용접학회(AWS) 정회원 (회원 번호 : 167410) 미국 용접학회 한국지부(AWS Korea Section) 사업 이사 미국 부식학회(NACE) 정회원 (회원 번호 : 161478-00) 한국산업인력공단 국가고시 기술위원 건설교통부, 한국건설교통기술평가원 신기술 기술심의위원 한국수자원공사 건설부문 기술 자문위원 한국산업기술협회(KITA) 수석 기술위원 한국플랜트정보기술협회(KAPIT) 기술위원
Fundamentals of Corrosion
Jinhee Lee, PE
• GS건설㈜ 엔지니어링부문 재료기술팀장 역임 • 삼성물산㈜ 건설부문 기술연구소 금속재료기술 담당 역임 • 현대오일뱅크㈜ 검사팀 재료기술 담당 역임
Prepared by Jinhee Lee, PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee.PE@gmail.com
• 기술자문(Consulting) 분야 – 각종 부식 환경하의 재료 선정
(Material Selection for Corrosion Service)
1. Introduction 2. What is Corrosion 3. Forms of Corrosion 4. Refinery Corrosion overview 5. Corrosion Prevention 6. References 7. QA
– 용접 및 열처리 기술
(Welding & Heat Treatment Technology)
– 부식 및 방식 제어 기술
(Corrosion & Fouling Control)
– 금속 및 비금속 재료의 손상 해석
(Failure Analysis and Trouble Shooting)
– 파괴 및 비파괴 검사 기술
(DT & NDT Technology)
– 용접 기술실무 (21세기사), 2000년 6월, 689 페이지 – 섬유강화 플라스틱 (기전연구사), 2003년 1월, 288 페이지
2 Prepared by Jinhee Lee, PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee.PE@gmail.com 3
Prepared by Jinhee Lee, PE
E-mail : Jinhee.Lee.PE@gmail.com
Even though this brief presentation material does not contain sufficient information and reference data, I hope it can be a good educational material for the non metallic material engineer who willing to study and design economic and reliable plants. Corrosion can be minimized and preventable with fundamental knowledge of the corrosion engineering. Prepared by Jinhee Lee, PE
Material & Corrosion Specialist
4 Prepared by Jinhee Lee, PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee.PE@gmail.com 5
What is Corrosion?
• Corrosion is “ the chemical or electrochemical reaction between a material, usually a metal, and its environment that produces a deterioration of the material and its properties” - ASTM, Compilation of
ASTM Standard Definitions, Fourth Edition, 1979, pp. 152, 759.
• Corrosion is the destruction of a material by reaction with it’s environment. • Corrodere (Latin) – To eat away
Prepared by Jinhee Lee, PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee.PE@gmail.com
Corrosion is important step in the overall metal cycle
metal extraction copper metal products such as piping and wiring product utilization recycling Discontinued use, or corrosion/failure End of useful product life
Prepared by Jinhee Lee, PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee.PE@gmail.com 7
How Important is Corrosion?
Corrosion leads to loss of productivity, product contamination, part over design, and in some cases loss of life. It is conservatively estimated that $30 billion could be saved through proper use of corrosion minimization technology each year in the U. S. (M. G. Fontana, Corrosion Engineering, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill, NY, p. 1-5, 1986)
6 copper-bearing minerals found in the earth’s crust
Under atmospheric conditions, corrosion leads to the decomposition of materials into their natural state. The natural decomposition products of metals are minerals.
Prepared by Jinhee Lee, PE
E-mail : Jinhee.Lee.PE@gmail.com
Direct Corrosion Cost in USA
Indirect Corrosion Cost
Corrosion Cost = Corrosion Loss + Corrosion Prevention Effort + Research + Etc.
8 Prepared by Jinhee Lee, PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee.PE@gmail.com
Indirect costs of corrosion are conservatively estimated to be equal to the direct costs, for a combined cost of approximately $551 billion annually, or 6.3 percent of the GDP.
9 Prepared by Jinhee Lee, PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee.PE@gmail.com
Cost of Corrosion in Industry Categories ($137.9 Billion)
This data set indicates that only 8% of corrosion failures is unforeseeable. In other words 92% of the corrosion failures could be preventable
10 Prepared by Jinhee Lee, PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee.PE@gmail.com 11 Prepared by Jinhee Lee, PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee.PE@gmail.com
How does metal corrosion occur?
Mo Environment High energy
Anodic and Cathodic Reaction
Anodic reactions involve oxidation of an element to a higher oxidation state or valence Iron can be oxidized from elemental metallic iron to ferrous ions by means of electron transfer away from iron: Fe ↔ Fe2+ + 2eCathodic reactions involve reduction of an element to a lower oxidation state or valence Hydrogen can be reduced from a “+ 1” oxidation state to a “0” oxidation state as follows: 2H+ + 2e- ↔ H2
13 Prepared by Jinhee Lee, PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee.PE@gmail.com
In order for corrosion to occur, metal atoms must leave the lattice. Metal atoms must generally have high energy or lose or gain electrons to leave the solid.
Prepared by Jinhee Lee, PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee.PE@gmail.com
Electron transfer Environment Mn+ or MxOy
Electron Transfer is Essential to Nearly all Metal Corrosion
With the notable exceptions of high energy and liquid metal systems, metal corrosion requires electron transfer. Overall reactions do not show intermediate electron transfer steps that are necessary and often rate controlling. Electrical circuits must be completed (both anodic and cathodic reactions must occur).
14 Prepared by Jinhee Lee, PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee.PE@gmail.com 15
Electrical Circuit Corrosion Diagram
cathodic reaction resistance Counter Reaction V Corrosion Reaction solution and other resistances electrons
anodic reaction resistance
An electrochemical potential gradient is necessary for electron flow and corrosion to occur in most systems.
Prepared by Jinhee Lee, PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee.PE@gmail.com
Typical Corrosion Scenario
2H+ H2O 0.5O2 M 2eM2+
Each environment has elements that have specific tendencies to acquire electrons.
Gases and such as oxygen and chlorine, and ions such as ferric and hypochlorite, that have strong tendencies to acquire electrons are known as oxidants. Oxidants generally provide the driving force and electron acquisition that are necessary for corrosion.
Notice the electron transfer from one reaction to another.
16 Prepared by Jinhee Lee, PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee.PE@gmail.com 17
Prepared by Jinhee Lee, PE
E-mail : Jinhee.Lee.PE@gmail.com
Localized microbiological Intergranular. Stray-current. Fatigue Stress cracking. High-temperature (Oxidation.com 4 . Cavitation & Water drop impingement.com Uniform Corrosion original metal level Uniform Corrosion metal Microscopic view of the effect of uniform corrosion on a metal surface. Hydrogen damage. you will see that some steel has lifted in its metallic state. Solid metal embrittlement Prepared by Jinhee Lee.PE@gmail. General biological. PE E-mail : Jinhee. Liquid metal embrittlement.Lee. This expression is often used in relation to bridge inspection to describe built-up members of steel bridges which are showing signs of rust packing between steel plates. Galvanic.PE@gmail.) Forms of Corrosion Localized Corrosion Metallurgically influenced corrosion Mechanically assisted degradation Environmentally induced cracking 18 19 Filiform.com 21 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. exposed in a wastewater plant. Fretting. Prepared by Jinhee Lee. Located above the water level. etc.Lee. Pack Rust Pack rust is a form a localized corrosion typical of steel components that develop a crevice into an open atmospheric environment.Lee.PE@gmail. Carburization.com Carbon Steel Lamellar Corrosion or Exfoliation Carbon steel beam and the bolts. PE E-mail : Jinhee. Crevice. PE E-mail : Jinhee.com 23 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.Lee. If you observe carefully. Sulfidation.PE@gmail. Dealloying Erosion. 22 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.Forms of Corrosion General/Uniform Corrosion Atmospheric. Liquid metals. 20 Macroscopic top view of a uniformly corroded surface. PE E-mail : Jinhee. PE E-mail : Jinhee. but exposed to some levels of H2S.Lee. Pitting.PE@gmail. Molten salt.
500. Metals such as magnesium and aluminum that lose electrons easily are often referred to as “active” metals Prepared by Jinhee Lee.PE@gmail. sometimes supplemented with a coat of paint. Some of these surfaces are very difficult to reach.Lee. The application of an anticorrosion treatment lasts a good year. PE E-mail : Jinhee. Metals such as gold and platinum that do not lose electrons easily are often referred to as “noble” metals more reactive metal less reactive metal Macroscopic view of galvanic corrosion on a pipe flange. 187.000 m2 of surfaces that have to be maintained and repainted (7. Failure Analysis.com Very Noble Somewhat Noble Somewhat Active Moderately Active Very Active Very Active 29 Iron (Steel) Zinc Titanium Magnesium E-mail : Jinhee. titanium and magnesium in a corrosive environment such as 10 % hydrochloric acid at room temperature? Use the following qualitative information? Gold Copper Iron Zinc Titanium Magnesium 28 Metal Corrosion in Hydrochloric Acid (10 wt %) Metal Gold Copper noble/ active very noble somewhat noble somewhat active moderately active very active very active test result little or no reaction little or no reaction slow reaction fast reaction little or no reaction fast reaction explanation low reactivity restricts corrosion low reactivity restricts corrosion slow reaction due to metal reactivity reacts rapidly due to reactivity and H+ passivation layer restricts corrosion reacts rapidly due to high reactivity and H+ E-mail : Jinhee. zinc. PE E-mail : Jinhee. The budget for the job totals 20 million francs.com 26 Noble or Active in Corrosion What is likely to happen to gold. 1986. PE E-mail : Jinhee. S. the tower has been painted once every seven years. Vol. PE E-mail : Jinhee. Fig. p.com Galvanic Corrosion (이종금속부식) Each metal element has a unique tendency to lose electrons within a given environment. so that the tower can stay open and continue to greet visitors.Lee.Lee. Pao. Prepared by Jinhee Lee. iron. plus a 200 micron coating of powder paint 25 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.com Prepared by Jinhee Lee.Lee.300 tons of structural metal. The following requirements were specified: • For parts to be galvanized but not painted: 80 micron coating • For parts to be both galvanized and painted: same specification as above. R.PE@gmail. P.PE@gmail.Eiffel Tower Maintenance Since it was built (for the International Exhibition of Paris in 1889). 9th ed. Metals Park.. 11.com 27 Macroscopic view of galvanic corrosion which preferentially corrodes the more reactive of two connected metals. PE Prepared by Jinhee Lee.PE@gmail. P.PE@gmail. Wei. Metals Handbook. OH.Lee. copper. ASM.000 metal parts held together by 2.Lee. and 18. 13.PE@gmail. The Normandy bridge Many other parts of the Normandy Bridge have been protected by hot galvanization. PE 5 . This legendary structure comprises 220.000 rivets).com 24 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.
to the cathode (copper) is very important in design of process equipment to control galvanic corrosion. PE E-mail : Jinhee. E-mail : Jinhee.e. the fasteners and welds should be cathodes relative to the surrounding metal. the copper rivets are protected.com 35 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. The area ratio of the anode (steel) . This is good design.Lee.Lee.the rapidly corroding part . PE E-mail : Jinhee. which was exposed to seawater.Lee.Lee.Dissimilar Metal Couples OK Area Effect OK Graphite Titanium Alloy C-276 Stainless Steel Copper Cast Iron Steel Aluminum Zinc Can Be Bad * Area Effect : 가능한 양극면적을 크게 해야 방식 효과를 얻을 수 있다.PE@gmail. PE E-mail : Jinhee. PE Galvanic Corrosion Steel / Copper Low-Velocity Seawater Galvanic Corrosion Steel / Copper Low-Velocity Seawater The area ratios of cathode to anode determine the rate of corrosion of the anode.PE@gmail.Lee. a small cathode to anode area ratio. 33 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.com 6 .com 30 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. There is only a little corrosion on the steel plates which are the anodes.com 31 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.Lee.PE@gmail.com In the opposite galvanic condition. PE E-mail : Jinhee.com Good Galvanic Design Bad Galvanic Application 34 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.PE@gmail. i.PE@gmail. A couple with a large cathode & small anode is bad design and should be avoided. This photo is an example where unfavorably high current density at the anode causes very rapid corrosion of steel rivets in a copper plate.PE@gmail. PE E-mail : Jinhee. 32 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.
PE@gmail.Lee. The Titanic collision with the iceberg could have popped the weakened rivets.com 38 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. • System: Sewage treatment plant.com Galvanic Corrosion Galvanic Corrosion • Material: Carbon steel. • Material: Hot-dip galvanized steel. there is a strong possibility that stray currents from DC equipment caused accelerated corrosion.PE@gmail.PE@gmail. • Time to Failure: ½ year after fitting stainless-steel cap. coated with coal tar epoxy.Lee. Galvanic corrosion of the rivet iron is likely during that period of time.The Statue of Liberty Case The galvanic reaction between iron and copper was originally mitigated by insulating copper from the iron framework using an asbestos cloth soaked in shellac. PE E-mail : Jinhee. he notes. However. • Part: Skimmer in settling tank. – The rivet iron was different from the hull plate iron by design. – Photos and video taken by Robert Ballard during his 1985 and 1986 expeditions to the Titanic show preferential corrosion of the rivets in some areas. • Part: Heating tube from make-up water vessel. the integrity and sealing property of this improvised insulator broke down over the many years of exposure to high levels of humidity normal in a marine environment.PE@gmail. the ship sat in seawater for a year while the inside was furnished. enhancing the rivet popping mechanism which caused the Titanic to sink. which would explain a clinking sound reported by survivors.com The Statue of Liberty Restoration The Statue of Liberty renovation was indeed one of the greatest undertakings of the twentieth century. – During the year in seawater. • Time to Failure: 1 year. 40 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. might have created a circuit that slowly flecked away and weakened the rivets. established in 1884 37 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. • Phenomenon: Galvanic corrosion (reversal of potential).Lee. 160°C.com Corrosion Sank the Titanic? The Titanic was held together by 3 million rivets made with a different type of iron than the hull plates. – Inspection of the "big piece" which was retrieved from the ocean bottom also shows this same preferential corrosion in some areas.Lee.com 7 . – During the year at dockside. with pitting attack of the steel. PE E-mail : Jinhee. • Appearance: Pitting attack. PE E-mail : Jinhee. • Phenomenon: Galvanic corrosion.PE@gmail. The rivet iron needed to be maleable and therefore consisted of a higher level of slag inclusions.PE@gmail. And once the hull was finished. PE E-mail : Jinhee. The dissimilar metals of the hull and rivets. • System: Hot water system. 36 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. Corrosion Sank the Titanic? Baboian points out that the following information supports his theory that corrosion contributed to the sinking of the Titanic: – She was launched to be fitted out at dockside almost a year before her maiden voyage. • Appearance: Local flaking-off of the coating.Lee. The Statue of Liberty many corrosion problems were associated with: – Thousands of holes pitting the copper surface caused by a century of salt-air exposure – Distortion of the iron framework produced by continuous stress and fatigue – Previous repair attempts that created different problems and more deterioration The Statue of Liberty. corrosivity of the rivet iron could therefore have been higher than the hull plate iron. 39 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. All of this evidence points towards weakening of the hull/rivet structure. PE E-mail : Jinhee. requiring $230 million in private funding. PE E-mail : Jinhee.com 41 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. bathed in electrically conductive seawater.Lee.
by slag inclusions or surface defects.g. Ed. PE E-mail : Jinhee. 304SS 46 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. • Corrosion inhibitors may be helpful. PE E-mail : Jinhee.PE@gmail. Do not fully rely on painting. Forms of Corrosion Recognition and Prevention. • Apply coatings.PE@gmail.. since they reduce the aggressiveness of the environment.com 43 Pitting (공식) Illustration of Pitting Corrosion Macroscopic view of pits inside a pipe.e. Once the attack has started. The attack most often takes place at points where the passive layer might be weakened. for example seawater. PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee. the pipe being perforated at various places.Lee.com Formation of Corrosion Pit Pitting corrosion forms on passive alloys like stainless steel when the thin oxide film is broken and does not immediately repassivate.PE@gmail. • Time to Failure: 8 months.com 47 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. small anodic and large cathodic areas should be avoided) • Avoid threaded joints between metals far apart in galvanic series.Lee. • Appearance: Pitting corrosion in the form of numerous small cavities. PE E-mail : Jinhee.PE@gmail. • Provide for complete dielectric insulation of dissimilar metals. the material may be completely penetrated within a short time.Lee.Prevention of Galvanic Corrosion • Select combinations of metals close together in galvanic series (useful as first approximation only). 32. 42 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. • System: Effluent tank. • Avoid unfavorable area ratio effects (i.PE@gmail. p. • Phenomenon: Cavitation corrosion. • Part: Heating coil. • Prevent access of air and/or water to the joint of the two metals. e.com Pitting on Aluminum Alloy Pitting Corrosion • Material: Titanium.com 45 An example of pitting due to chlorides of an iron-nickelchromium alloy pickling hook Undercutting of the surface of a stainless steel by pitting Prepared by Jinhee Lee. Prepared by Jinhee Lee.com 8 .PE@gmail. PE E-mail : Jinhee. Vol 2.Lee. primarily chlorides (CI– ). Pitting occurs in stainless steels in neutral or acid solutions containing halides.Lee. 44 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. Dale McIntyre. use welded. PE E-mail : Jinhee. Oxygen Pitted Boiler Feed Water Pipe. but with caution (coatings contain pinholes!). brazed. Pits can become wide and shallow or may rapidly perforate the metal.. or fused joints instead.
Vol 13.PE@gmail. because a crevice will result if the paint is damaged. 1987. At flow rates over 1. p. therefore.Lee.PE@gmail.com 9 .Lee. • Appearance: Pitting attack. In seawater coolers. Otherwise.3% Mo + 16%N UNS S30400 S30403 S32100 S316001 S316032 S316031 S316353 S316534 S31703 50 PRE 19 19 18 26 24 26 24 29 29 Sandvik 2RK65 Sanicro 28 254 SMO 2RE10 2RE69 Sanicro 41 SAF 2304 SAF 2205 SAF 2507 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.5 m/s the risk decreases since there will be no deposit formation and build-up of an aggressive environment. 9th edition. • Phenomenon: Salt corrosion. Up to a certain limit.com 53 Preference site for Crevice Corrosion Prepared by Jinhee Lee.com 49 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.PE@gmail. • Part: Part of an aluminium air duct. PE E-mail : Jinhee. • If required. ASM-International. 48 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. such as seawater. • Crevice corrosion is most common in chloride-bearing solutions.com PRE-VALUES The chromium content of stainless steel grades is important and alloying with molybdenum and nitrogen has proved very beneficial for the pitting resistance. 52 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. • Stainless steel should normally not be painted. Metals Handbook. the risk for attack increases the more narrow the crevice is. • The risk is greatest in stagnant solutions. PE PRE 35 39 > 41 25 34 31 25 35 > 41 E-mail : Jinhee. From experimental data. • Crevice corrosion often occurs at lower temperatures and at lower chloride concentrations than for pitting corrosion. • Time to Failure: Unknown.com Schematic diagram of crevice corrosion. Crevice Corrosion (틈부식) PRE = %Cr + 3. Used by Permission.Lee. Corrosion. relations between elemental composition and pitting resistance have been developed. PE E-mail : Jinhee. PE E-mail : Jinhee. PE E-mail : Jinhee. the tubes should be cleaned regularly. • System: Air conditioning plant.Lee. the water should be decalcified. PE E-mail : Jinhee.com 51 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.PE@gmail. Critical pitting and crevice corrosion temperatures for austenitic stainless steel related to PRE numbers. Filiform crevice corrosion of aluminum under paint.PE@gmail.Lee.Lee.Pitting Corrosion • Material: Aluminium. the water should flow inside the tubes (as design crevices are more easily avoided there) rather than on the shell side. 1034. Effect of Temperature and PRE on Pitting Critical temperatures evaluated in 6% ferric chloride per ASTM G48 and in 1M NaCl.PE@gmail.
PE@gmail.Lee. For pH values below 4.Lee. It is also observed that hydrogen is produced in acid solutions below a pH of 4.com 10 . PE E-mail : Jinhee.PE@gmail. • Appearance: Pitting attack in the welds.Lee. ferrous oxide (FeO) is soluble.com 59 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. PE E-mail : Jinhee. PE E-mail : Jinhee.PE@gmail. PE E-mail : Jinhee. PE E-mail : Jinhee. thereby depolarizing the surface and allowing the reduction reaction to continue.Lee. the oxide dissolves as it is formed rather than depositing on the metal surface to form a film. pH In the range of pH 4 to pH 10. • Phenomenon: Weld defect. but on a combination of the two factors (hydrogen evolution and depolarization). indicating that the corrosion rate no longer depends entirely on depolarization by oxygen.com 55 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.com 57 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. • Part: Pipe sections.Lee.PE@gmail. the corrosion rate is observed to fall as pH is increased. For pH values above about pH 10. the corrosion rate is governed largely by the rate at which oxygen reacts with absorbed atomic hydrogen. This is believed to be due to an increase in the rate of the reaction of oxygen with Fe(OH)2 (hydrated FeO) in the oxide layer to form the more protective Fe2O3 (note that this effect is not observed in deaerated water at high temperatures). • System: Hot tapwater system. Thus.com Corrosion of steel as a function of water pH Corrosion of Steel vs. PE E-mail : Jinhee. the corrosion rate of iron is relatively independent of the pH of the environment.PE@gmail.0. Condition : exposure of iron to aerated water at room temperature 58 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.PE@gmail.Lee. In this pH range.Mechanism of Crevice Corrosion Crevice Corrosion of Type 304 Fastener in Marine Tide After 6 Months 54 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.com Crevice Corrosion on a Flange Gasket Contact Surface Crevice Corrosion • Material: Stainless steel (AISI 316). • Time to Failure: 5 years 56 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.
CPT Evaluation of crevice corrosion resistance may be done according to the ASTM G48B test.Lee.PE@gmail.PE@gmail. PE E-mail : Jinhee.5%W) + 30%N 64 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.Effect of Temperature and Chloride on Initiation of Crevice Corrosion Critical Crevice Temperature for 6% Mo Alloys in FeCl3 – ASTM G 48 60 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.Lee.Lee.PE@gmail.PE@gmail.com 61 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. PE E-mail : Jinhee. PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee. PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee.Lee.com 65 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. CCT. may be determined in the same way as for CPT. Susceptibility of various alloys to pitting and crevice corrosion in an acid brine media 62 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. As in the pitting test (practice A) samples are immersed in a 6% FeCl3 solution.5°C.PE@gmail.PE@gmail. PRE PRE = %Cr + 3.com 11 . PE E-mail : Jinhee.3(%Mo + 0. The critical temperature for crevice corrosion.com Evaluation of CCT.com Critical crevice & pitting corrosion temperature Nickel Alloys PRE Vs Crevice Corrosion in Seawater Pitting Resistance Index. PE E-mail : Jinhee. Where the temperature is increased by 2.com 63 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.
com ASTM G48-Standard Guide for Crevice Corrosion Testing Crevices in S30400 stainless steel . PE E-mail : Jinhee.5 FeCl3 + 0. PE E-mail : Jinhee. The large number of sites in duplicate or triplicate specimens is amenable to probabilistic evaluation 71 washers make a number of contact sites In this test.PE@gmail.Lee. washers make a number of contact sites on either side of the specimens. and the average or maximum depth of attack can be related to the rate of propagation.05 M NaCl The number of sites showing attack in a given time can be related to the resistance of a material to initiation of localized corrosion.com A special form of crevice corrosion in which the aggressive chemistry build-up occurs under a protective film that has been breached.PE@gmail. Corrosion processes and the subsequent build-up of voluminous corrosion products inside the lap joints lead to so-called "pillowing". 68 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. PE E-mail : Jinhee. PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee. 4/28/1988.000 feet.Lee.PE@gmail. 70 Prepared by Jinhee Lee..Lee.PE@gmail.Lee. Lacquers and "quick-dry" paints are most susceptible to the problem. PE E-mail : Jinhee. 66 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. PE 12 . The structural failure on April 28. 1988 of a 19 year old Boeing 737. The number of sites showing attack in a given time can be related to the resistance of a material to initiation of localized corrosion.Lee. This type of corrosion occurs under painted or plated surfaces when moisture permeates the coating. 69 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.PE@gmail.Corrosion of 90Cu-10Ni in Seawater Pillowing of a lap joint An advanced form of crevice corrosion is called pillowing. and the average or maximum depth of attack can be related to the rate of propagation.PE@gmail.com Prepared by Jinhee Lee.com Aloha Airline Disaster Filiform Corrosion The crawling under paint corrosion called 'filiform' Aloha Airlines. Notice how the rivet heads appear to be lower than the surrounding skin surface.com 67 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. after 30 days in 0.. operated by Aloha airlines. whereby the faying surfaces are separated.com ASTM G 78 test E-mail : Jinhee. The aircraft lost 1/3 of its roof due to a stress fracture while cruising at 24.
com 13 . Metals Handbook. leaving behind a porous. • Another example is "graphitic corrosion" of (gray) cast iron. PE E-mail : Jinhee. alkali solution Copper Red Brass 76 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. acids containing Chloride High-temperature steam and acidic species Hot brine or steam High heat flux and low water velocity (in refinery condenser tubes) Ferric chloride Hydrofluoric and other acids Sulfide solutions. Fe.PE@gmail. in which the metallic constituents are selectively leached or converted to corrosion products leaving the graphite intact. Corrosion. 73 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. copper-rich structure that has little mechanical strength –Layer type • High brass (Zn rich alloy) / acid solution The service conditions generally present where dezincification occurs include • Water with high levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide (uniform attack). 77 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. p. • Soft. 222.Dealloying. and Ni in others Cu.PE@gmail. human saliva Molten salts Oxidizing atmospheres.com –Plug Type • Low brass (Zn lean alloy) / weak acid.) 72 Microscopic dealloying in a brass screw thread. Vol 13.and highcarbon steels Iron-chromium alloys Nickel-molybdenum alloys 74 Selective Leaching Environment Many waters.Lee. PE E-mail : Jinhee. (The metal left as small islands is rich in the more noble metal. Aluminum alloying constituents are removed in dealuminification. PE E-mail : Jinhee.com Dezincification Dezincification selectively removes zinc from the alloy. Mo and T C (decarburization) Cr.Lee. Prepared by Jinhee Lee. especially under stagnant conditions Soils. which forms a protective film Mo A classical example of selective leaching or de-alloying of yellow brass where the zinc from the nut was dissolved and left only the spongy layer of copper. neutral. high in salt content and at or above room temperature (plug-type attack). 75 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. 1987. • The most common example is dezincification: the selective removal of zinc in brass alloys.PE@gmail. many waters HCl. Selective Leaching Selective Leaching • Selective leaching. PE E-mail : Jinhee.PE@gmail. is the removal of one element from a solid alloy by corrosion processes. Cr. also called Dealloying. low in salt content and at room temperature (uniform attack). hydrogen at high temperatures High-temperature oxidizing atmospheres Oxygen at high temperature Element removed Zn (dezincification) Fe (graphitic corrosion) Al (dealuminification) Si (desiliconification) Sn (destannification) Ni (denickelification) Cu Cu in some acids. Ag. PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee. low pH and low mineral water combined with oxygen. 9th edition. • Waters with high chloride ion content (uniform attack).Lee.com Microscopic view of typical dealloying. • Slightly acidic water. • Neutral or alkaline waters.com Combinations of alloys and environments subject to dealloying and elements preferentially removed Alloy Brasses Grey iron Aluminium bronzes Silicon bronzes Tin bronzes Copper-nickels Copper-gold single crystals Monels Gold alloys with copper or silver High-nickel alloys Medium.Lee.PE@gmail. PE E-mail : Jinhee. • Stagnant or slow moving waters (uniform attack). which forms zinc oxide (uniform attack).Lee.com Prepared by Jinhee Lee.PE@gmail.
reduce O2 content) • Cathodically protect • Use a better alloy (common cure . which forms zinc oxide (uniform attack). more noble copper-rich metal. • Neutral or alkaline waters. • Waters with high chloride ion content (uniform attack).. • Slightly acidic water.Lee. easily cast.com 83 • Graphitization is the breakdown of pearlite to ferrite + C at high temperature) • Grey cast iron is the cheapest engineering metal – 2-4% C. • Hard. PE E-mail : Jinhee. PE E-mail : Jinhee. Microstructure of grey cast iron. • As a result. • Soft.PE@gmail.above not usually feasible). 1 Sn. • Relatively high tube-wall temperatures • Permeable deposits or coatings over the tube surface 80 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.PE@gmail. • Appearance: Severe uniform attack with pitting to the point of leakage. Conditions favoring dezincification are contact with slightly acid or alkaline water. carbon present as microscopic flakes of matrix graphite within microstructure. PE E-mail : Jinhee.Dezincification • Material: Aluminium-zinc alloy (5 to 6% zinc). low pH and low mineral water combined with oxygen. • Time to Failure: 6 months. is impregnated with insoluble corrosion products.com Graphitization • Graphitic corrosion of gray cast iron.PE@gmail. 0. the more active zinc is selectively removed from the brass. PE E-mail : Jinhee. or for critical components.Lee. 1-3% Si.04 As) Sn and Sn-As in deposited films hinder redeposition of Cu • For very corrosive environments likely to provoke dezincification.com The service conditions generally present where dezincification occurs include • Water with high levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide (uniform attack).PE@gmail. 79 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. 100 μm Prepared by Jinhee Lee. whereby a brittle graphite skeleton remains following preferential iron dissolution • The term "graphitization" is commonly used to identify this form of corrosion but is not recommended because of its use in metallurgy for the decomposition of carbide to graphite above 425℃. 78 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. 1 Sn) Arsenical Admiralty (70 Cu. that makes up 4-5% of the total mass of the alloy.PE@gmail.Lee. low in salt content and at room temperature (uniform attack). PE E-mail : Jinhee.PE@gmail. • Stagnant or slow moving waters (uniform attack). 82 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. 29 Zn.com Why Dezincification Occurs Copper-zinc alloys containing more than 15% zinc are susceptible to dezincification. leaving behind a weak deposit of the porous. use – Cupronickels (70-90 Cu. PE E-mail : Jinhee. • System: Glasshouse irrigation system.g. high in salt content and at or above room temperature (plug-type attack). During dezincification. 29 Zn.Lee. • Part: Water distributor pipes. brittle.com 14 . – – – – Red Brass (<15% Zn) almost immune Admiralty Brass (70 Cu.Lee. the cast iron retains its appearance and shape but is weaker structurally • Can be protected by addition of Cr. 30-10 Ni) Prepared by Jinhee Lee. • During cast iron graphitic corrosion the porous graphite network.com 81 Prevention of Dezincification • Make environment less aggressive (e. • Phenomenon: Selective leaching (dezincification).Lee..
such as boiling nitric acid or hot organic acids. 86 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.com 85 20 μm Prepared by Jinhee Lee.Lee. (b) Close-up of the graphitically-corroded region shown in (a).com 87 Microscopic cross-section of metal with intergranular corrosion at the surface.PE@gmail. The rust tubercules or bubbles are also an indication of pitting corrosion.PE@gmail.com 89 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. Metals Handbook.com (a) External surface of a grey-iron pipe exhibiting severe graphitic corrosion.Graphitization Graphitization • Material: Grey cast iron.PE@gmail. (c) Micrograph of symmetrical envelopes of graphitically-corroded iron surrounding flakes of graphite.com 15 . p. 1987. Corrosion. PE E-mail : Jinhee.PE@gmail.PE@gmail. PE E-mail : Jinhee. • System: Cooling water system. The chromium content adjacent to the grain boundaries is thereby depleted and makes the metal susceptible to corrosion by specific chemicals. 88 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. • Part: Cooling water pump check valve. • Appearance: Outer edge black due to graphitic corrosion. Prepared by Jinhee Lee. carbon migrates to the grain boundaries where it combines with the chromium and precipitates as chromium carbide.Lee. • Time to Failure: 6 years Prepared by Jinhee Lee. • Phenomenon: Selective leaching (graphitic corrosion). Microscopic top view of a metal surface with intergranular corrosion.Lee. The gray cast iron water pipe shown on the right photo has graphitized and left graphitic surface plugs which can be seen on the cut surface.PE@gmail. PE E-mail : Jinhee. PE E-mail : Jinhee.com Mechanism of Sensitization If stainless steel is heated to between 420 to 820°C (800-1500oF). PE E-mail : Jinhee. 180. Vol 13.Lee. for example during welding. PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee. 9th edition.Lee. 84 Dezincification & Graphitization Intergranular Corrosion metal The brass on the left dezincified leaving a porous copper plug on the surface.
Lee. but in the heataffected zone as shown on this type 304 stainless steel welded pipe 90 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.Lee. Practice A A262.com 16 .316L. Practice C A262. 825 Stainless steels (Ni-Fe-Cr alloys) Prepared by Jinhee Lee. 316L. PE E-mail : Jinhee. 321. 347 Casting alloys Same Same 316. Practice D A262.com Intergranular attack in the heat affected zone of a type 304 stainless steel weld ASTM Evaluation test for intergranular attack Designation A262. contact) CuSO4-16%H2SO4 (no Cu) Alloys 304.Lee.com Effect of Carbon on Carbide Precipitation Sensitization of Stabilized ASS Time required for formation of harmful amount of chromium carbide in stainless steels with various carbon contents. 317. 317L.PE@gmail.PE@gmail. 317L Austenitic Stainless Steel Austenitic Stainless Steel Hastelloy alloys C-276.PE@gmail. PE E-mail : Jinhee. 317. PE E-mail : Jinhee. PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee. 316.PE@gmail.com 93 A708 (A393) G28 Fe2(SO4)3-50%H2SO4 No G35 Polythionic acids (stressed specimen) Yes E-mail : Jinhee. Practice E Test media Oxalic acid etch Fe2(SO4)3-50%H2SO4 HNO3 HNO3-HF CuSO4-16%H2SO4 (Cu. G Carpenters 20 Cb-3 Inconel alloys 600. and the widespread use of the L-grades of stainless steel today has practically eliminated intergranular corrosion. Practice B A262.PE@gmail. 92 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. 625 Incoloy alloys 800.com 91 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. 94 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.Intergranular Corrosion Intergranular Corrosion Corrosion attack occurs not in the weld metal. Intergranular attack is not common in most chemical industry process streams. PE Evaluation criteria Yes No No Yes Yes Yes The unfused root (area with lack of weld penetration) could have caused crevice corrosion in a chloride-containing water.Lee.com 95 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.Lee.PE@gmail. 304L. PE E-mail : Jinhee.
left to right. Look for corrosion products elsewhere.Lee.com Prepared by Jinhee Lee. • Alternatives May be associated with galvanic (bimetallic) corrosion. Determine velocity. Macroscopic view of a piece of steel exposed to erosion corrosion. 98 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.PE@gmail.PE@gmail. Erosion-corrosion initiated just downstream from the tube blockage.PE@gmail.Lee.com Erosion of Copper Pipe Erosion-Corrosion Tube Blockage The direction of water flow is shown on the slide. Corrosion. Erosion of 90-10 Cu-Ni Pipe • Analysis Analyze solution.com 96 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. Vol. PE E-mail : Jinhee. Erosion-corrosion continued until a small perforation developed. p. PE E-mail : Jinhee. at the tip of the red arrow.com 99 Metal damage of 90-10 Copper-Nickel heat exchanger tube occurs only at the inlet end where there is localized turbulence resulting in high localized velocity.PE@gmail. 563. PE E-mail : Jinhee. 100 101 This 90-10 Copper-Nickel alloy condenser tube was exposed in seawater and illustrates the effect of blockage.Lee.Lee.com 17 . which is aggravated by flow. which in this case was a shell.PE@gmail.Erosion Corrosion Microscopic view of the effect of errosion corrosion on a metal surface. PE E-mail : Jinhee. © NACEInternational 1981.PE@gmail. and identified by the horseshoe-shaped erosion patterns on the pipe surface (that is.Lee.Lee.com 97 Erosion Corrosion • Essential conditions Aggressive solution. A. or against the water flow). D. a horse walking upstream in a creek. 1981. 37. PE E-mail : Jinhee. Used by permission. Prepared by Jinhee Lee. higher than the flow of the liquid further down the tube. Jones. Prepared by Jinhee Lee. PE E-mail : Jinhee. Prepared by Jinhee Lee. Action aggravated locally by motion relative to substrate.
Lee.Lee. 2004. PE E-mail : Jinhee. On the other hand. • Appearance: Local attack. • Phenomenon: Erosion corrosion.• Material: Carbon steel. it had not been inspected since the power plant opened in 1976. The pipe wall at the rupture location had thinned from 10mm (394 mils) to 1. Prepared by Jinhee Lee. Prepared by Jinhee Lee. Although the carbon steel pipe carried 300℃ steam at high pressure.PE@gmail.com 103 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.com Erosion Resistant Fretting(or wear assisted corrosion) mildly corrosive environment moving object in contact with metal surface metal Erosion corrosion occurs where flowing media are involved. Macroscopic view of bolts from a submersible pump. killing four and injuring seven. The rupture was 560 mm in size. High flow rate gives a high level of heat recovery and the tubes are kept clean. • Time to Failure: 21 days continuous. Copper and copper alloys are attacked at flow rates of 1 m/s. • Part: Pipe bend. PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee.com 107 Macroscopic view of the effect of fretting on a metal surface.PE@gmail. • Phenomenon: Erosion corrosion.5mm.PE@gmail. PE E-mail : Jinhee. PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee. for instance in heat exchangers.PE@gmail. • System: Soda solution transport system. The top bolt shows fretting near the middle and top. 104 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. • System: Chemicals transport system. whereas high-alloy stainless steel can withstand up to at least 20 m/s.Lee.PE@gmail. • Part: Impeller of centrifugal pump. high flow rate accelerates erosion-corrosive attack 106 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.com 105 A piping rupture likely caused by flow accelerated corrosion and/or cavitationerosion occurred at Mihama-3 at 3:28pm on August 9.com Piping Rupture Caused by Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) Erosion Corrosion • Material: Bronze (cast CuSn10). • Time to Failure: 2 to 3 months 102 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.PE@gmail.Lee.com 18 . PE E-mail : Jinhee. PE E-mail : Jinhee. • Appearance: The entire surface of the impeller is attacked with a distinct flow pattern.
com 113 Protection from Fretting • • • • • • • • • • Avoid vibration transmitting design Introduce barrier between metals which allows slip Increase load (but do not overload) to stop motion Select suitable & compatible materials Isolate moving components from the stationary ones Increase vibration resistance between surfaces. • Phenomenon: Fretting.com 111 Fretting Corrosion Prepared by Jinhee Lee. PE E-mail : Jinhee.Fretting Corrosion Schematic illustration of the wear-oxidation theory of fretting corrosion Fretting corrosion is the deterioration at the interface of two contacting surfaces under load.com Type of Wear Wear can happen in more than one way.Lee. The primary mechanisms are abrasive wear. 110 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.mechanical removal of material from a surface caused by the flow of a liquid or gas containing particulate matter or liquid droplets. by treating one or both of the surfaces Design for exclusion of oxygen on bearing surfaces Improve lubrication design (arrange for better accessibility) Design (and carry out) for flushing of debris by the motion of lubricant Select suitable lubricant Prepared by Jinhee Lee.com Schematic illustration of the oxidation-wear theory of fretting corrosion 109 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.PE@gmail. adhesive wear and erosion. silica (sand) and many other minerals.PE@gmail. e.PE@gmail. PE E-mail : Jinhee. PE E-mail : Jinhee. • Time to Failure: 3 weeks. • Appearance: Babbitt metal crumbled out.Lee. • Abrasive wear . * Babbitt Metal : Cu-Sn-Pb-As Alloy 112 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.PE@gmail. accelerated by relative motion between them of sufficient amplitude to produce slip. Adhesive wear often happens between two unlubricated metallic surfaces of the same or similar composition. • System: Compressor lubricating system. PE E-mail : Jinhee.com Fretting Corrosion • Material: 12% Cr steel with Babbitt metal.wear brought about by welding under pressure of surface asperities and subsequent shearing of such welds to give surface damage.Lee.com 19 .loss of metal from a surface by the mechanical cutting action (rubbing or friction) of a secondary material which is in relative motion to that surface. PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee. • Part: Bearing ring.Lee.PE@gmail.Lee.g. • Adhesive wear .PE@gmail. PE E-mail : Jinhee. 108 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. • Erosion .
com 119 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. this condition can form an airlock.com 114 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. Principles and Prevention of Corrosion.PE@gmail. which can lead to dramatic pressure drops 116 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.Lee.PE@gmail. especially when operating in a near-closed position • at other geometry-affected flow areas such as pipe elbows and expansions • also.PE@gmail..com 117 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.Lee. PE E-mail : Jinhee.Cavitation (Type of Erosion Corrosion) Cavitation Damage • Essential Conditions Impact of water due to collapse of bubbles at wall.Lee. Jones. • System: Boiler feedwater system. by processes incurring sudden expansion. PE E-mail : Jinhee. D. • Analysis Study conditions to determine how cavities were formed. further exacerbating the problem. • Alternatives Schematic diagram of a typical magnified corrosion fatigue crack cross-section. Cannot occur in stagnant areas. Additionally. PE E-mail : Jinhee. PE E-mail : Jinhee. • Appearance: Material with sharp edges worn away to the point of leakage. 1996.Lee. A. PE E-mail : Jinhee. • Part: Section of steam dome of twostage deaerator.PE@gmail. PE E-mail : Jinhee. p. such as: • at the suction of a pump.com 20 . Macroscopic view of a piece of steel exposed to erosion corrosion. especially if operating near the net positive suction head required (NPSHR) • at the discharge of a valve or regulator. this is entirely unacceptable.Lee. • Phenomenon: Cavitation erosion. 2nd ed. which prevents any incoming fluid from offering cooling effects. • Time to Failure: Unknown. 349.PE@gmail. When a process fluid is supposed to be water in the 20-35°C range. 118 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. Bubbles originate: • At low pressure zones in turbulent flow • From boiling at adjacent heated surface.com Cavitation occurs when a fluid's operational pressure drops below it's vapor pressure causing gas pockets and bubbles to form and collapse.Lee. No corrosion product left. unless caused by local boiling. The locations where this is most likely to occur.PE@gmail. Pitting corrosion • Distinguished by Flow or high heat transfer essential.com Cavitation Damage • Material: Carbon steel. 115 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.
p. • Appearance: All along the upper part of the pipe. ASM-International. PE E-mail : Jinhee. How to Prevent Cavitation Damage • Cavitation erosion is best prevented by designing to avoid the formation of vapor cavities. . • Analysis Examine origin of crack for corrosion product. a strip of material 1. • Distinguished by Cyclic stresses below expected endurance limit and there is evidence of corrosion at start of crack.Lee. and uniform heat transfer prevents local boiling. Corrosion Propagated Fatigue • Essential Conditions Cyclic stress and corrosive environment which diffuses along crack to increase rate of propagation. usually adherent. 120 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. • Part: Pipe from the heating bundle in the vessel. • Time to Failure: 2 weeks. PE E-mail : Jinhee. 11.com 125 • Distinguished by Lower stress to propagate. P. 1986. • System: Vessel for boiling alcohols. Prepared by Jinhee Lee.PE@gmail. P. S.com 121 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.PE@gmail. Wei.Lee.Analyze corrosion product. PE E-mail : Jinhee. ASM.PE@gmail.5-3 cm wide was worn away to the point of leakage. • Where cavitation cannot be prevented by design (as in highduty feed pumps) the provision of cheap readily replaceable inducers minimizes the cost of erosion. R. • The most resistant materials both in fresh and sea water are Stellites followed by ferritic and austenitic stainless steels.Lee.PE@gmail.. Used by permission.com 122 Corrosion Initiated Fatigue • Essential Conditions Cyclic stress and corrosive environment which creates a discontinuity that initiates a fatigue crack.com 21 . 259. • Correct stream lining eliminates turbulence.com Corrosion Fatigue surface Corrosion Fatigue metal Schematic diagram of a typical magnified corrosion fatigue crack cross-section. on the two faces of a fatigue crack is an indication of corrosion propagated fatigue. Presence of corrosion products.com • A corrosion induced defect and/or corrosion product at the point of initiation of a fatigue crack is an indication of corrosion initiated fatigue. Metals Park.Cavitation Damage • Material: Phosphorous deoxidized copper. Failure Analysis. 9th ed. • Phenomenon: Cavitation erosion. 123 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. Pao.PE@gmail.PE@gmail. • Corrosion product.Lee. PE E-mail : Jinhee. PE E-mail : Jinhee. No corrosion on face of crack.Lee.Lee. Vol. OH. PE E-mail : Jinhee. Metals Handbook. • Analysis . Prepared by Jinhee Lee. 124 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.Analyze surface of fracture.
com 127 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. • System: Circulation system.PE@gmail. and catastrophic rupture when the crack length exceeds a critical value at the applied stress 126 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. Number of cycles) Curve.g. PE E-mail : Jinhee. PE E-mail : Jinhee. differential expansion of hot section components during startup & shutdown. • Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) • • • • The stress (fatigue strength) and number of cycles required to cause a failure of a rotating shaft in air and seawater is illustrated by this diagram. • Temperature variation in hot section blading : 200℃/minute. The endurance or fatigue limit is the stress level where no failures occur with continuing cycles of stress. For the steel in air.Fatigue .com Corrosion Fatigue Classification of Fatigue • High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) • Caused by aerodynamic excitation (Blade Passing Frequency) or by Selfexcited vibration and flutter. • Whereas fluctuating stresses may not by very high.PE@gmail. Prepared by Jinhee Lee.Lee. • Phenomenon: Corrosion fatigue. • Appearance: Cracked lining. the endurance limit is about 480 Mega Pascals (or 70. showing the initiation region.PE@gmail.Beach mark or Shell mark • Pattern often seen on a component subject to fatigue • At low magnitude : Beach Mark • At high magnitude : Striation Fatigue Crack Schematic representation of a fatigue fracture surface in a steel shaft.Lee.com Fatigue Fracture of Metal • Material: PTFE-lined steel.com 22 . PE E-mail : Jinhee.PE@gmail. e. the maximum stress at resonance can increase dramatically. Predominant in the bores and bolt hole areas of compressor and turbine disks which operate under centrifugal stresses.Lee. the propagation of fatigue crack (with beach markings). PE E-mail : Jinhee.com 129 Occurs as a result of machine start/stop cycles.com 131 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.Lee. • S-N (Stress vs.. Associated with machines that have been in operation for several years.PE@gmail. • Part: Pipe. 128 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. PE E-mail : Jinhee. PE E-mail : Jinhee. Minute flaws grow into crack which result in rupture.PE@gmail.Lee. • Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue (TMF) • Associated with thermal stresses. • Time to Failure: 2 years 130 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.000 pounds per square inch in the English units).Lee.
• System: Dredge. 134 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. • Appearance: Partly ductile fracture with distinct fatigue rings and corrosion pitting.000 hours) gas turbine blades – The stress to produce a creep rate of 0.com 23 .PE@gmail. PE E-mail : Jinhee. PE E-mail : Jinhee.PE@gmail.PE@gmail.0001% per hour (1% in 10. leading to a minimum constant creep rate. • In the USA two standards are commonly used – The stress to produce a creep rate of 0. PE E-mail : Jinhee. • Time to Failure: Several years. • Appearance: Cracks and rupture. 132 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. since failure avoidance is required and in this region some predictability is possible.Lee.5 years) steam turbine Prepared by Jinhee Lee. • Part: Chain link.com 133 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.Lee. PE E-mail : Jinhee. PE E-mail : Jinhee. • Phenomenon: Corrosion fatigue. partly brittle fracture with pits • Time to Failure: Unknown.Lee. The minimum secondary creep rate is of most interest to design engineers. Typical Creep Curve • Secondary(Steady State) Creep In which there is a balance between work hardening and recovery process.PE@gmail. temperature or pressure • Avoid internal stress • Avoid fluttering and vibration-producing or vibrationtransmitting design • Increase natural frequency for reduction of resonance corrosion fatigue • Limit corrosion factor in the corrosion-fatigue process (more resistant material / less corrosive environment).com 135 Creep • Creep in metals is defined as time dependent plastic deformation at constant stress (or load) and temperature.Lee. • Phenomenon: Low cycle fatigue or strain fatigue.Lee. PE E-mail : Jinhee.Fatigue Failure • Material: Carbon steel.PE@gmail. which leads to creep rupture. 136 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.com Prevention of Fatigue • Minimize or eliminate cyclic stresses • Reduce stress concentration or redistribute stress (balance strength and stress throughout the component) • Select the correct shape of critical sections • Provide against rapid changes of loading.com Creep Stage • Primary Creep in which the creep resistance increases with strain leading to a decreasing creep strain rate.PE@gmail.00001% per hour (1% in 100.Lee. • Part: Chains.000 hours or 11.com 137 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. • Material: Carbon steel. • System: Conveyor belt in a cheese store. • Tertiary Creep in which there is an accelerating creep rate due to the accumulating damage. and which may only be seen at high temperature and stresses and in constant load machines.
PE@gmail. Long duration.1 MPa).com 24 .Lee. Time and strain to fracture measured.1 Mo and 3 Cr . PE E-mail : Jinhee. • System: Vertical water-tube boiler (7.com 141 • Material: Carbon steel (35.PE@gmail.5% 142 Temper Embrittlement • Mainly Cr-Mo low alloy steel susceptible • Long time service within 370 ~ 590℃ • Impurities precipitation in grain boundary → become brittle (No other mechanical properties change except toughness value) Stress Rupture Test Measures stress versus time to rupture at constant temperature.Lee. PE E-mail : Jinhee. Relatively low loads and creep rates.1/2Mo : not sensitive 1 1/4Cr .Propagation of CREEP Creep Failure of Material 138 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.com Reformer PIG Tail Creep Damage 라-42(Reformer Tube Side) Creep Rupture 라-44 라-42(Manifold Side) 라-41 (Reformer Tube Side) Temperature Gradient 라 44 >> 라 41 라-43 140 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. Shorter duration. Strains typically less than 0.1 Mo : not sensitive Prepared by Jinhee Lee. • Time to Failure: Two years.PE@gmail. Strain measured accurately using sensitive equipment (inductance gauges) to determine creep rate. Simper less sensitive strain measuring equipment (dial gauges). Prepared by Jinhee Lee.com Comparison of creep and stress rupture tests Creep Test Measures strain versus time at constant temperature and load or stress.E 1/2 Mo steel : not sensitive 1 Cr . 2. Higher loads and creep rates.Lee. • Phenomenon: Creep rupture caused by overheating. less than 1.com Prepared by Jinhee Lee.PE@gmail.com 139 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.1 Mo : very sensitive 5 Cr . Strain typically up to 50% 143 • Sensitivity to T.8).000 to 10. PE E-mail : Jinhee.PE@gmail. • Appearance: Fractured water tube.000 hours. PE E-mail : Jinhee.PE@gmail. PE E-mail : Jinhee. Not always to fracture.1/2Mo : a little sensitive 2 1/4Cr . Always to fracture.Lee. • Part: Water tube.Lee.1/2 Mo : a little sensitive 9 Cr .Lee.000 hours typically. PE E-mail : Jinhee.
com • Material will not suffer a temper embrittlement in service AF + 2. ΔTT54 = (TT54[step cooled]-TT54) – FATT (Fracture appearance transition Temperature) 146 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.com 149 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. PE E-mail : Jinhee.5 (10P + 5Sb + 4Sn + As) < 2.Lee.0 for coarse grain weld metal • 15ft-lbs TT (15ft-lbs transition temperature) Generally 15ft-lbs considered as enough value to resist brittle fracture and this is a temperature showing 15ft-lbs of impact value 145 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.8 ~ 3.PE@gmail.Lee. a temperature range of 400°C to 600°C.5~3. PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee.AF) < 38°C where AF=As formed Charpy 54J temperature SC=Step cooled Charpy 54J temperature 144 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.com Effect of Temper Embrittlement on Impact Characteristics Temper Embrittlement Susceptibility of Various Cr-Mo Steels 148 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.PE@gmail. • Watanabe J factor for base and weld metal J=(Mn + Si)(P + Sn) x104 (in wt %) < 150 (for 1¼Cr).PE@gmail. depends on specification. PE E-mail : Jinhee.Temper Embrittlement Temper embrittlement refers to the decrease in notch toughness of Cr-Mo low alloy steels when heated in.com 147 Lower shelf 15ft-lbs TT • Upper shelf : 100% ductile fracture • Lower shelf : 100% brittle fracture Prepared by Jinhee Lee.5(SC . PE E-mail : Jinhee.com Temper Embrittlement • Criteria of brittleness – 15ft-lbs (20joules) of impact energy – FATT (Fracture appearance transition Temperature) Charpy V-notch energy absorption curve for a typical carbon steel • Degree of embrittlement – TT54 (54joules transition temperature) – TT54 + XΔTT54 ≤24℃ (X : correction factor : 2.PE@gmail. 100 (for 2¼Cr) Transition Temperature • Charpy Impact Test Plotting impact test value as test temperature Show “S” shape for carbon and alloy steel • Bruscato X factor for weld metal X=(10P + 5Sb + 4Sn + As)/100 (in ppmw) < 20 • DBTT(ductile brittle transition temperature) Temperature showing 50% brittle and 50% ductile fracture • Sugiyama equation for weld metal PE = C + Mn + Mo + Cr/3 + Si/4 + 3.PE@gmail.com 25 . PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee.Lee.PE@gmail. PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee. or cooled slowly through.5.
Iverson.25Cr .com 26 .PE@gmail.PE@gmail. 1Cr-. W. PE E-mail : Jinhee. This mass can extend over large areas.2 equipment (according to ASME) Define MPT • MPT generally suggested by the equipment manufacturer from experimental data but in general as follows… – For 2. PE E-mail : Jinhee. PE E-mail : Jinhee.5Mo. • Active MIC Byproducts of Active MIC are acids and/or ammonia.Lee.Lee. Al. • Consider MPT for hydrostatic test 150 151 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. 25% of MAWP for Div. Cu Fe Corrosive Sulphide Sulphuric Acid Fe++ to Fe+++ Mn++ to Mn+++ Prepared by Jinhee Lee.Lee. P. 1981.1 equipment.PE@gmail.com Biocorrosion (Bacteria-Assisted Corrosion) tubercule formation Microbiological Corrosion MIC will actively or passively attack metal. Passive MIC will attack large areas and accounts for the greatest metal loss.com 155 Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) There are three major types of bacteria which can cause corrosion Species Oxygen Desulfovibrio No Thiobacillus Gallionella Yes Yes Metals Fe.5Mo ≥ FATT+20℃ • Material is very susceptible to brittle fracture below MPT • MPT is related to S/up and S/D at cold temp. Macroscopic view of a piece of tube with tubercules that are caused by bacterial activity.25Cr-. These deposits will cause flow obstruction within fire sprinkler systems.Lee.com Bacteria related to MIC • Acid Producing Fungi • Aerobic Slime Formers • Iron/Manganese Oxidizing Bacteria • Methane Producers • Organic Acid Producing Bacteria • Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) • Sulfur/Sulfide Oxidizing Bacteria 154 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. 153 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. ASTM STP 741 p.5Mo. which will accumulate additional deposits.1Mo steel : MPT ≥ FATT – For 1. Cu Fe.PE@gmail. 40. PE E-mail : Jinhee.MPT for High Pressure Equipment • MPT (Minimum Pressuring Temperature) – Temperature at which equipment can withstand 40% of MAWP for Div.PE@gmail.Lee.PE@gmail. • Passive MIC Passive MIC is normally produced by the biological waste products forming a gel like mass.com Prepared by Jinhee Lee. PE E-mail : Jinhee.com metal Schematic diagram of a typical biologically assisted corrosion feature (tubercule). PE E-mail : Jinhee. Active MIC is localized and normally the point in which pinhole leaks are formed. . 152 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.Lee.
PE@gmail. that is. located on the weld.Lee. PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee.Lee.Lee.com Prepared by Jinhee Lee. Leaks at welds were observed after only 6 months. PE E-mail : Jinhee. shown here by an arrow.com 157 After Cleaning – No Attack Severe corrosion occurred underneath the bacteria colony.MIC Bacteria Effect .MIC Before Cleaning This is an example of a failure of a type 304 stainless steel pipe due to MIC caused by Gallionella bacteria in plant waste water service. 156 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.Lee. PE E-mail : Jinhee. PE E-mail : Jinhee.com High Temperature Corrosion • Types of high-temperature corrosion – Oxidation. • Sulfidation/oxidation implies sulfides plus oxides. and • Carburization implies carbides.Lee. PE E-mail : Jinhee. • More Peculiar Corrosion Phenomena – – – – 160 Metal Dusting Hot Corrosion Green Rot Black Plague 161 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.PE@gmail. The 6 mm (1/4 inch) thick walled piping is perforated. Decarburization. Prepared by Jinhee Lee. Nitriding – Hydrogen attack.PE@gmail.PE@gmail.com 27 . the mound of corrosion products from the bacteria. PE E-mail : Jinhee.PE@gmail.com Prevention of MIC in Water • Keep The System Clean • Keep Water Flow > 2 m/s (6fps) • Use Bactericide : – Chlorine – Chlorine Dioxide – Hyperchloride – Ozone – Non-oxidizing 158 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. Halide attack Corrosive High Temperature Environment • Oxidation implies oxides • Sulfidation implies sulfides.PE@gmail.com 159 Prevention of MIC in Water • Remove Heat Tints After Welding • Drain and Dry Equipment After Hydrotesting • Use Continuous Cleaning • Use High Pressure Hydrolancing • Use Stainless Steel Scrapers (Hard to Remove of Heavy Deposit) • Use Alloy Resistant to MIC Prepared by Jinhee Lee. Sulfidation – Carburization. Note the tuberculation.Bacteria Effects . and the crevice.
which in some cases can be due to temperature differences or concentration gradients in the system used.com Scaling Temperatures in Air Alloy 0.PE@gmail.com 28 . 163 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. oxygen : oxidation – Steam : oxidize the iron – Carbon. the formation of volatile metal and oxide species at the metal-oxide interface and transport through the oxide lattice and mechanically formed cracks in the oxide layer • At moderate and high temperatures.5% Mo 7% Cr .Lee. the gaseous diffusion of oxygen through a barrier layer of volatilized oxides • At high temperature. diffusion of oxygen and metal species through a compact oxide film • At moderate and high temperatures. carbon oxides and methane : Carburization – Sulfur containing Gases : Sulfidation – Hydrogen : C(Fe) + 2H2 <==> CH4 – Nitrogen : form nitrides below 540oC – Combustion gases – Chlorine and hydrogen chloride 162 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.PE@gmail. 347 316 309 310 Alloy B Alloy C Temperature °C °F 480 900 620 1150 650 1200 675 1250 705 1300 845 1550 955 1750 1095 2000 900 1650 900 1650 900 1650 1095 2000 1150 2100 760 1400 1150 2100 E-mail : Jinhee.0. • Molten salts: Molten salts generally act as fluxes. PE E-mail : Jinhee. the direct formation of volatile oxide gases • At high temperature.1% Mo 12% Cr martensitic 17% Cr ferritic 21% Cr ferritic 25% Cr ferritic 18-8 CrNi stabilized 18-8 18-8 CrNi + Mo 23-13 CrNi 25-20 CrNi 70-28 NiMo 59%Ni-16%Cr-16%Mo 166 Volume Ratio (P-B Ratio) • For an oxide to be protective the oxide-metal volume ratio must be somewhat larger than unity.PE@gmail. – Volume ratio is > 2. PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee. compressive stresses will develop in the oxide layer. Mat’l Code 1010 430. PE E-mail : Jinhee. spalling of metal and oxide particles.Lee.Lee. PE Prepared by Jinhee Lee. which could result in spalling of the oxide and in exposure of the metal to the corrosive atmosphere.PE@gmail.0. 165 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.PE@gmail.PE@gmail.3% Mo 9% Cr . Combined with the high temperature and the high ionic conductivity of molten salts this will result in high corrosion rates. a combination of oxide film formation and oxide volatility • At moderate and high temperatures.1% Carbon steel 5% Cr .com fully oxidized metal layer partially oxidized metal pure metal 164 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.Corrosive high temperature environments • Corrosive gases – Air.Lee. removing possible protective scales of corrosion products.com 167 • This rule is called the Pilling-Bedworth theory Prepared by Jinhee Lee. PE E-mail : Jinhee. 304 321. PE E-mail : Jinhee. the oxide does not totally cover the metal surface. – Volume ration < 1. permitting free access of the corrosive atmosphere to the metal on certain locations. 410 430 442 446 302.com Corrosive high temperature environments • Ash: Vanadium pentoxide and sodium sulfate present in fuel ash can attack stainless steels due to the formation of a molten oxide phase that fluxes the protective oxide scale. • Molten metals: Contact between molten metals and condensed metals frequently results in severe corrosion attack.Lee.com High Temperature Oxidation high temperature corrosive environment Six types of oxidation phenomena • At low temperature.
Lee. as carbon can form carbides (like Cr23C6.18 169 Gugenheim Museum.PE@gmail. Cr Content 170 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.16 168 Weathering Steel Non protective oxides K 0. PE E-mail : Jinhee.52 Pd 1.40 Ta 2. Nevada P-B Ratio : 1몰의 산화물의 부피를 1몰의 산화물을 생성하는데 소모되는 금속의 부피로 나눈 값 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.com 173 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.61 Sb 2.40 Ce 1. depleting the metal matrix locally of chromium and making it more sensitive to corrosion. PE E-mail : Jinhee.79 Fe 1.Pilling and Bedworth Ratio Protective oxides Be 1.PE@gmail.com 171 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.21 Ti 1.60 Pb 1.Lee. PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee.com Prepared by Jinhee Lee.28 Cr 1.33 U 3. Cr. Al Moisture & Air is essential to have protective hard scale Do not use costal environment Oxidation Resistance vs.PE@gmail.com 29 . • Results in the formation of a very hard top layer that is more brittle than the material at the core. • Carburization can have an influence on the corrosion behavior as well. PE E-mail : Jinhee. P.Lee.99 Mn 1.35 W 3.com Damaged Surface of High Temperature Corrosion Carburization • Carburization is the increase of the carbon content of (the surface of) a steel due to interactions with the environment at elevated temperatures.Lee. Cr3C 2 or Cr7C3 ).77 Co 1.59 Cd 1. PE E-mail : Jinhee.21% with Cu.40 Hf 2.PE@gmail.Lee. PE E-mail : Jinhee.68 Al 1. 172 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. Mo.59 Cu 1.95 Mo 3.05 V 3.45 Ag 1.com Weathering Steel Low Carbon : 0.PE@gmail.99 Ni 1.PE@gmail.
MPa 1500 1400 3.5Mo 3Cr-0. The gas pressure in these voids can generate an internal stress high enough to fissure.Lee.7 34.5Mo 2.PE@gmail.com 175 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.79 17. Co. Due to surface decarburization the hardness.Lee. psi Nelson Chart : Material Selection for Hydrogen Service 178 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. PE E-mail : Jinhee. PE E-mail : Jinhee.com Hydrogen partial pressure. Prepared by Jinhee Lee. Mo.com 177 Decarburization by Hydrogen • Surface decarburization Surface decarburization is the formation of hydrocarbons at the metal surface which causes a migration of carbon atoms to the surface.PE@gmail.Lee. PE E-mail : Jinhee.1 75. • Any compound that can influence the carbon level of the steel will influence the mechanical properties of the steel.34 13. – Good : Si(1.PE@gmail.com Decarburization • Decarburization is the decrease of the carbon content of (the surface of) a steel due to interactions with the environment at elevated temperatures.5Mo 1. oF 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 Beneficial Effect of Nitriding – Obtain high surface hardness – Increase wear resistance – Improve fatigue life – Improve corrosion resistance (except for stainless steels) – Obtain a surface that is resistant to the softening effect of heat at temperatures up to the nitriding temperature 179 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.PE@gmail. PE E-mail : Jinhee. room temperature strength and creep strength of a steel decrease. PE E-mail : Jinhee. as the hardness as well as the strength decrease.90 10.5 to 2. Zr and B Carburization of Modified HK-40 Furnace Tubing • Because carburization is based on carbon transport across the metal/gas interface. • Austenitic steels carburize more readily than ferritic steels because of the high solubility of carbon in austenite 174 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. whereas the ductility increases.25Cr-0.5Mo 1.5Mo 1Cr-0.Lee. preoxidation and the subsequent formation of an oxide film will increase the resistance against decarburization.5 48. Surface decarburization is accelerated by moisture.45 6. PE E-mail : Jinhee. oC Surface decarburization Internal decarburization (hydrogen attack) 6Cr-0. 176 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.Lee. Ni and the rare earths – Bad : Pb. Ti.25Cr-0.Lee. Due to internal decarburization the tensile strength and the ductility will drop dramatically.24 20. However. W.com 30 .0%).5Mo 1Cr-0. Nb.8 800 Nitriding Temperature.com 600 300 Hydrogen partial pressure. resulting in the formation of methane which will accumulate in voids in the metal matrix. • The decreasing carbon content causes a degradation of mechanical properties.3 62.5Mo Carbon Steel 200 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 7000 11000 400 500 700 Temperature.PE@gmail. the elongation of the metal when subjected to a tensile stress increases. crack or blister the steel (hydrogen attack). • Internal decarburization Hydrogen permeated into the steel can react with carbon.Carburization: Prevention • Minor alloying elements can exert an influence on the susceptibility to carburization of various alloys.PE@gmail.25Cr-1Mo 2Cr-0.
hydroxides.PE@gmail. but almost no oxygen.PE@gmail.com Combinations of some alloys and environments that have been shown to promote stress corrosion cracking Material Al alloys Mg alloys Cu alloys C steels Austenitic steels High strength steels Ni alloys Ti alloys 184 Environments Chlorides.PE@gmail. • Normally a high nickel chromium alloy is used as a construction material.com 185 Factors Favoring SSC-Stainless Steels • • • • • • Temperature < 55℃ Chloride Oxygen Evaporative Condition Pit – Stress Riser Residual or Applied Stress Prepared by Jinhee Lee.PE@gmail.Lee. chlorides. moist air Chloride-chromate mixtures. Corrosion. in principle. • Due to carburization of the metal iron carbides can form which ultimately. if enough carbon is available. PE E-mail : Jinhee. Microscopic cross-section of a stress corrosion crack in metal.Nitriding • Active nitrogen produced from ammonia can form nitrides below 540°C.Lee. p. 18-8 CrNi. PE E-mail : Jinhee. PE E-mail : Jinhee. Metal Dusting • Metal dusting is a form of rapid localized degradation that occurs in environments containing carbon and hydrogen compounds. • It has been suggested that resistant materials should contain enough chromium and silicon to obey the following rule: %Cr + 2 x %Si > 24% 182 Prepared by Jinhee Lee.PE@gmail.Lee. fluorides. water. Vol. • Metal dusting can be prevented by building and maintaining a stable. sulfates. 180 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. ASM Handbook.Lee. sulfur acid Moist air.com 31 .. resulting in a decrease of the corrosion resistance in aqueous solutions. resulting in localized accelerated attack and the production of voluminous amounts of carbon.PE@gmail. PE E-mail : Jinhee. can decompose into iron and graphite. sulfides Hydroxides Halides.g. Sodium hydroxide Ammonia.Lee. e. susceptible to metal dusting. moist air. continuous oxide layer. PE E-mail : Jinhee.Lee. iron carbides and other carbides. carbonates Anhydrous ammonia Chlorides. PE E-mail : Jinhee.com • Although copper and nickel show good resistance against nitriding. 181 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. methanol Prepared by Jinhee Lee. 354. iron. 25-20 CrNi or Inconel.com 183 Stress Corrosion Cracking stress + mildly corrosive environment metal Microscopic cross-section of a typical stress corrosion crack in metal. which can be realized by pre-oxidation and periodic steam injection. • These products can act as catalysts for the decomposition of carbon monoxide into carbon and oxygen.com Metal Dusting . moist air Nitric acid. the relative poor oxidation resistance of these metals at high temperatures and the susceptibility to sulfur attack does not make them a good choice.Prevention • All metals that can form stable carbides are. 13. Prepared by Jinhee Lee. moist sulfur dioxide Nitrates.
Tuttle and R.com Q&A Jinhee. Metallic Material Engineering .G. Lee.Lee. Technical Report Published by NACE (National Association of Corrosion Engineer) 13.) 370 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. REFERENCES Prevention of SCC • Select suitably resistant materials of construction.S. • Use inhibitors.com Jinhee.PE@gmail. Pipeline Risk Management Manual. White 15. P.E. Material & Corrosion Specialist Material & Corrosion Specialist Jinhee. Materials Selection for Hydrocarbon and Chemical Plants .Masaminchi Kowaka 4. • Shot peening may eliminate (residual) surface tensile stresses.com Jinhee.Russell H. SCC problems are often caused by trace impurities ! • Avoid designs that allow stagnant regions where impurities can concentrate or deposit. • Use lower operating temperatures if possible.W.M. Jones 6.Lee. ASM Handbook Vol 13. Corrosion Control in the Chemical Process Industries .N.Lee. Khatak and B.C.S. PE Jinhee. Corrosion Engineering Handbook . PE Jinhee. PE E-mail : Jinhee. Advances in Corrosion Control and Materials in Oil and Gas Production . Dillon 5.H. • Apply cathodic protection (for chloride-induced SCC only !).com 32 . During 8.Lee.D.Lee.com References List 1.David A.Lee. Metal Corrosion Damage and Protection Technology .PE@gmail.M. • Be aware of all of the constituents in the service environment.PE@gmail.Chevron 16.PE@gmail. Corrosion of Austenitic Stainless Steels : Mechanism.PE@gmail. and Monitoring . Corrosion Prevention Manual .6. 9. Stress Corrosion Cracking : Material Performance and Evaluation . PE E-mail : Jinhee.com 371 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. Mitigation.R. API.R. Materials Selection for Petroleum Refineries and Gathering Facilities . Puyear 20. Corrosion 2.E. S. Kent Muhlbauer 19. Borenstein 18.Philip A. PE E-mail : Jinhee. Corrosion Engineering .W. etc. International Code (NACE. Third Edition . Fontana 10. Jackman and L. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion Handbook . Raj 11.P. Technical Report Published by NiDi (Nickel Distributes Institute) 12. • Keep stress levels as low as possible (stress-relief where possible). Corrosion Atlas .D. H2S Corrosion in Oil and Gas Production : A Compilation of Classic Papers . ASM Handbook Vol 20.PE@gmail. Smith 7.UOP 17.P. Materials Selection and Design 3.A. Hansen and Robert B. 186 Prepared by Jinhee Lee. Lee. Kane 14. Schweitzer.