AS 1684.

2—2006

Residential timber-framed construction
(Incorporating Amendment No. 1)

PART

2

NON-CYCLONIC AREAS

Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]

AS

This Australian Standard® was prepared by Committee TM-002, Timber Framing. It was approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 9 November 2005. This Standard was published on 31 January 2006.

The following are represented on Committee TM-002: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • A3P Association of Consulting Engineers, Australia Australian Building Codes Board Building Research Association of New Zealand CSIRO Manufacturing and Infrastructures Technology Engineered Wood Products Association of Australasia Engineers Australia Forest Industries Federation (WA) Housing Industry Association Master Builders, Australia New Zealand Forest Industries Council New Zealand Timber Industry Federation Scion South Australian Housing Trust Structural Engineered Timber Manufactures Association, New Zealand Timber and Building Materials Association, NSW Timber Development Association, NSW Timber Development Association of South Australia Timber Queensland

This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 04273. Standards Australia wishes to acknowledge the participation of the expert individuals that contributed to the development of this Standard through their representation on the Committee and through public comment period.

Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]

up-toKeeping Standards up-to- date
Australian Standards® are living documents that reflect progress in science, technology and systems. To maintain their currency, all Standards are periodically reviewed, and new editions are published. Between editions, amendments may be issued. Standards may also be withdrawn. It is important that readers assure themselves they are using a current Standard, which should include any amendments that may have been published since the Standard was published. Detailed information about Australian Standards, drafts, amendments and new projects can be found by visiting www.standards.org.au Standards Australia welcomes suggestions for improvements, and encourages readers to notify us immediately of any apparent inaccuracies or ambiguities. Contact us via email at mail@standards.org.au, mail@standards.org.au or write to Standards Australia, GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001.

AS 1684.2—2006
(Incorporating Amendment No. 1)

Australian Standard®
Residential timber-framed construction Part 2: Non-cyclonic areas

Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]

First published as AS 056—1946. Second edition 1948. Revised and redesignated as AS CA38—1971. Revised and redesignated as AS 1684—1975. Third edition 1992. Revised and redesignated in part as AS 1684.2—1999. Second edition 2006. Reissued incorporating Amendment No. 1 (November 2006).

COPYRIGHT © Standards Australia All rights are reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without the written permission of the publisher. Published by Standards Australia GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001, Australia ISBN 0 7337 7094 0

AS 1684.2—2006

2

PREFACE
This Standard was prepared by the Joint Standards Australian/Standards New Zealand Committee TM-002, Timber Framing, to supersede AS 1684.2—1999. After consultation with stakeholders in both countries, Standards Australia and Standards New Zealand decided to develop this Standard as an Australian Standard rather than an Australian/New Zealand Standard. This Standard incorporates Amendment No. 1 (November 2006). The changes required by the Amendment are indicated in the text by a marginal bar and amendment number against the clause, note, table, figure, or part thereof affected. This Standard will be referenced in the Building Code of Australia 2006; thereby superseding AS 1684.3—1999, which will be withdrawn 12 months from the date of publication of this Standard. The objective of this Standard is to provide the building industry with procedures that can be used to determine building practice, to design or check construction details, and to determine member sizes, and bracing and fixing requirements for timber-framed construction in non-cyclonic areas. The objective of this revision is to— (a) address issues and practices that have been raised by some states building industry interests to better reflect their needs and construction practices, and include editorial amendments and some technical changes to correct mistakes and enhance the application of the document; and improve the ability of building certifiers to assess and approve applications in accordance with deemed to satisfy documents and to provide more economical deemed to satisfy details.

(b)

Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]

The continued development of timber framing systems and the need to cater for a widening variety of materials and design conditions have led to a total revision of structural framing design. These developments include— (i) (ii) provision for limit state design methods; revised/new structural grades for timber;

(iii) provisions catering for open plan living—larger spans, wider openings and bigger rooms, which need more rational approach to bracing design; (iv) (v) (vi) special ‘engineered’ and fabricated timber products; recognition of a wider range of high wind and cyclonic design; and computer-aided design software for member sizes, bracing and tie-down.

The increased scope and application of this Standard to cater for these conditions has also led to the need to perform a more rigorous design check on a wider range of members and construction practices including window sill trimmers and roof bracing. This Standard is a companion publication to the following: AS 1684 1684.1 1684.3 1684.4 Residential timber-framed construction Part 1: Design criteria Part 3: Cyclonic areas Part 4: Simplified—Non-cyclonic areas

3

AS 1684.2—2006

This Standard provides detailed design, bracing and connection procedures for wind classifications N1 to N4. Prior to using this Standard, it is necessary to establish the design gust wind speed and wind classification (see Clause 1.4.2). Alternatively, for wind classifications N1 and N2, AS 1684.4 provides a simpler set of design solutions derived from this Standard. It should be noted that a more economical design may be obtained by following the design procedures given in this Standard. It should be noted that AS 1684.4 includes additional differences to AS 1684.2 and 1684.3. The following Supplements form an integral part of, and must be used in conjunction with, this Standard: Supplement N1/N2 Supp. N1/N2 Supp. N1/N2 Supp. N1/N2 Supp. N1/N2 Supp. N1/N2 Supp. N1/N2 Supp. N1/N2 Supp. N1/N2 Supp. N1/N2 Supp. N1/N2 Supp. N1/N2 Supp. N1/N2 Supp. N1/N2 Supp. N1/N2 Supp. N3 Supp. N3 Supp. N3 Supp. N3 Supp. N3 Supp. N3 Supp. N3 Supp. N3 Supp. N3 Supp. N3 Supp. N3 Supp. N3 Supp. N3 Supp. N3 Supp. N3 Supp. N4 Supp. N4 Supp. N4 Supp. N4 Supp. N4 Supp. N4 Supp. N4 Supp. N4 Supp. N4 Supp. N4 Supp. N4 Supp. N4 Supp. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 General introduction and index Wind classification N1/N2—Seasoned softwood—Stress grade F5 Wind classification N1/N2—Seasoned softwood—Stress grade F7 Wind classification N1/N2—Seasoned softwood—Stress grade F8 Wind classification N1/N2—Seasoned softwood—Stress grade MGP 10 Wind classification N1/N2—Seasoned softwood—Stress grade MGP 12 Wind classification N1/N2—Seasoned softwood—Stress grade MGP 15 Wind classification N1/N2—WA seasoned hardwood—Stress grade F14 Wind classification N1/N2—Seasoned hardwood—Stress grade F17 Wind classification N1/N2—Seasoned hardwood—Stress grade F27 Wind classification N1/N2—Unseasoned softwood—Stress grade F5 Wind classification N1/N2—Unseasoned softwood—Stress grade F7 Wind classification N1/N2—Unseasoned hardwood—Stress grade F8 Wind classification N1/N2—Unseasoned hardwood—Stress grade F11 Wind classification N1/N2—Unseasoned hardwood—Stress grade F14 Wind classification N1/N2—Unseasoned hardwood—Stress grade F17 Wind classification N3—Seasoned softwood—Stress grade F5 Wind classification N3—Seasoned softwood—Stress grade F7 Wind classification N3—Seasoned softwood—Stress grade F8 Wind classification N3—Seasoned softwood—Stress grade MGP 10 Wind classification N3—Seasoned softwood—Stress grade MGP 12 Wind classification N3—Seasoned softwood—Stress grade MGP 15 Wind classification N3—WA seasoned hardwood—Stress grade F14 Wind classification N3—Seasoned hardwood—Stress grade F17 Wind classification N3—Seasoned hardwood—Stress grade F27 Wind classification N3—Unseasoned softwood—Stress grade F5 Wind classification N3—Unseasoned softwood—Stress grade F7 Wind classification N3—Unseasoned hardwood—Stress grade F8 Wind classification N3—Unseasoned hardwood—Stress grade F11 Wind classification N3—Unseasoned hardwood—Stress grade F14 Wind classification N3—Unseasoned hardwood—Stress grade F17 Wind classification N4—Seasoned softwood—Stress grade F5 Wind classification N4—Seasoned softwood—Stress grade F7 Wind classification N4—Seasoned softwood—Stress grade F8 Wind classification N4—Seasoned softwood—Stress grade MGP 10 Wind classification N4—Seasoned softwood—Stress grade MGP 12 Wind classification N4—Seasoned softwood—Stress grade MGP 15 Wind classification N4—WA seasoned hardwood—Stress grade F14 Wind classification N4—Seasoned hardwood—Stress grade F17 Wind classification N4—Seasoned hardwood—Stress grade F27 Wind classification N4—Unseasoned softwood—Stress grade F5 Wind classification N4—Unseasoned softwood—Stress grade F7 Wind classification N4—Unseasoned hardwood—Stress grade F8

Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]

A ‘normative’ appendix is an integral part of a Standard. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] . provided they satisfy the requirements of the Building Code of Australia. A CD-ROM.AS 1684. is attached to this Standard. 13 Wind classification N4—Unseasoned hardwood—Stress grade F11 14 Wind classification N4—Unseasoned hardwood—Stress grade F14 15 Wind classification N4—Unseasoned hardwood—Stress grade F17 Span tables in Supplements for unseasoned hardwood F8 and F11 may be used for unseasoned F8 and F11 softwood as well. Notes to the text contain information and guidance. fastening or bracing methods or materials other than those specified. They are not an integral part of the Standard. N4 Supp. Statements expressed in mandatory terms in Notes to the Span Tables are deemed to be requirements of this Standard. The terms ‘normative’ and ‘informative’ have been used in this Standard to define the application of the appendix to which they apply. Alternatives may be used. which contains the above Supplements. N4 Supp.2—2006 4 N4 Supp. whereas an ‘informative’ appendix is only for information and guidance. This Standard does not preclude the use of framing.

................................... 29 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] SECTION 3 SUBSTRUCTURE 3............. 16 1................. 15 1............................................................................................................................................................................1 GENERAL .......................................................1 SCOPE ...............................................4 LIMITATIONS ............... 22 2.....................................................................................5 AS 1684...........................................................................11 STRESS GRADES .2 SITE PREPARATION AND DRAINAGE ................................................ 7 1... 15 1................................................................................................................................. 18 SECTION 2 TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINITIONS 2................................................5 DESIGN CRITERIA ............... 17 1................8 DURABILITY.....................2 TERMINOLOGY OF FRAMING MEMBERS ..........................4 DURABILITY............ 46 .... 36 SECTION 4 FLOOR FRAMING 4............................................................ 33 3........2 COMPANION DOCUMENTS ............................................................7 LOAD PATHS OFFSETS AND CANTILEVERS ............15 CONSIDERATIONS FOR DESIGN USING THIS STANDARD...........................................................9 DIMENSIONS.. 42 4..................................14 ALTERNATIVE TIMBER DIMENSIONS ..................................................................... 23 2...... 33 3.......................................................... 12 1...................................................5 SUBSTRUCTURE BRACING ....................3 MEMBER SIZES ... 11 1........................................................................ 19 2............................................................7 DEFINITIONS—GENERAL ...................5 HORIZONTAL NAIL LAMINATION—WALL PLATES ONLY......................................... 14 1........................ 15 1............................................................. 13 1............................................................... 33 3................................. 17 1................. 19 2...................................................................................................................................................2—2006 CONTENTS Page SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL 1................................................................................ 16 1........... 23 2...... 9 1...........................................................................3 VERTICAL NAIL LAMINATION ........................ 7 1.......3 GROUND CLEARANCE AND SUBFLOOR VENTILATION ................1 GENERAL ....7 FOOTINGS AND SUPPORTS FOR WIND CLASSIFICATIONS N1 AND N2 ..16 INTERPOLATION...........................1 SCOPE .................. 33 3.................................6 FORCES ON BUILDINGS ...............................................................................................................................................................................6 LOAD WIDTH AND AREA SUPPORTED........................................................................................10 BEARING ......................................... 41 4...2 BUILDING PRACTICE ........................12 ENGINEERED TIMBER PRODUCTS ................................................................. 33 3....6 SUBFLOOR SUPPORTS . 33 3........ 24 2............4 STUD LAMINATION.....................................3 NORMATIVE REFERENCES ..........................................................................................................................................13 SIZE TOLERANCES ............ 7 1.........................................

.........7 JOIST SPACING—FLOORING ................................................. 66 SECTION 7 ROOF FRAMING 7.......... 58 6.......................................2 BUILDING PRACTICE ......... 168 9.............................................................................. 52 5.......................... 226 E EXAMPLES .............................................................. 246 I STORAGE AND HANDLING ...................... 58 6........................................................................................................................................... 111 8.......... 218 B TYPICAL CONSTRUCTION MASS......................................2 TEMPORARY BRACING ............... 230 G RACKING FORCESALTERNATIVE PROCEDURE ................................................ 52 5.............................................................8 DECKING ........................................................................................................................................... 81 7........................ 52 5......................... 112 8..........................................................2 PLATFORM FLOORS ....................1 SCOPE ...................................................... 161 9...................................................................... 55 5........ 219 C DURABILITY...3 MEMBER SIZES ............................................................................................2 GENERAL CONNECTION REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................... 227 F MOISTURE CONTENT AND SHRINKAGE ............................................ 161 9....................................................................................................1 GENERAL ................. 257 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] ............ 209 APPENDICES A INFORMATIVE AND RELATED DOCUMENTS................ 112 SECTION 9 FIXINGS AND TIE-DOWN DESIGN 9.............................................................. 165 9...............................1 GENERAL ................................. 80 7............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 166 9................................................................3 PROCEDURE FLOW CHART ......................................................3 FITTED FLOORS (CUT-IN FLOORS)....5 NOMINAL FIXINGS (MINIMUM FIXINGS) ................................................................ 52 5........ 57 SECTION 6 WALL FRAMING 6. 167 9.....................................2—2006 6 Page SECTION 5 FLOORING AND DECKING 5.........4 EXPANSION JOINTS.................................................3 WALL AND SUBFLOOR BRACING .............................................................................................................................7 SHEAR FORCES ..................... 52 5........................................................2 BUILDING PRACTICE ................................................................5 LAYING AND FIXING .....................1 SCOPE ....................................................................................................................................................................................1 GENERAL ............................3 MEMBER SIZES ..................................... 96 SECTION 8 RACKING AND SHEAR FORCES (BRACING) 8........AS 1684............................................................4 NOMINAL AND SPECIFIC FIXING REQUIREMENTS ..................................6 SPECIFIC TIE-DOWN FIXINGS .................................................................................. 233 H TIMBER SPECIES AND PROPERTIES................................................................ 222 D INTERPOLATION..................... 55 5..................................6 WET AREA FLOORS...............

thereby minimizing the risk of creating an environment that may adversely affect the ultimate performance of the structure. www. They are not an integral part of the Standard. loadings and other parameters applicable to those classes of building are within the limitations of this Standard.7 AS 1684.1 for details of design criteria.standards.4 Residential timber-framed construction Part 1: Design criteria Part 3: Cyclonic wind areas Part 4: Simplified—Non-cyclonic areas 1. placement and fixing of the various structural elements used in the construction of timber-framed Class 1 and Class 10 buildings as defined by the Building Code of Australia and within the limitations given in Clause 1. and shall be used in conjunction with. This Standard may also be applicable to the design and construction of other classes of buildings where the design criteria. Throughout this Standard. reference is made to the Span Tables in the Supplements. bracing and connections. The provisions of this Standard also apply to alterations and additions to such buildings.2—2006 STANDARDS AUSTRALIA Australian Standard Residential timber-framed construction Part 2: Non-cyclonic areas SECT ION 1.3 NORMATIVE REFERENCES The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this Standard.3 1684.1 1684. that assist in the correct specification and determination of timber members.4.au  Standards Australia .2 COMPANION DOCUMENTS This Standard is a companion publication to the following: AS 1684 1684.1 SCOPE 1 SCOPE AND GENERA L This Standard specifies requirements for building practice and the selection. The Supplements are an integral part of. this Standard. NOTE: Documents referenced for informative purposes and related documents are listed in Appendix A. Whilst this Standard can be used to design Class 10 buildings. less conservative levels of design for this building class may be permitted by building regulations and other Australian Standards.org. This Standard also provides building practice and procedures. 2 1. loadings and other parameters. NOTES: 1 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] See AS 1684.

imposed and other actions 1170.1 Part 1: Product specification 2870 3700 3740 4055 4440 Residential slabs and footings—Construction Masonry structures Waterproofing of wet areas within residential buildings Wind loads on housing Installation of nailplated timber trusses 4785 Timber—Softwood—Sawn and milled products 4785.AS 1684.1 Part 1: Design methods 1720.4 Part 4: Wet-processed fibreboard 1860 Particleboard flooring 1860.0 Part 0: General principles 1170.1 Part 1: Specifications 2269 2918 4534 4791 ABCB BCA Plywood—Structural Domestic solid fuel burning appliances—Installation Zinc and zinc/aluminium-alloy coatings on steel wire Hot-dip galvanized (zinc) coatings on ferrous open sections.2 Part 2: Timber properties 1810 1860 Timber—Seasoned cypress pine—Sawn and milled products Installation of particleboard flooring 2796 Timber—Hardwood—Sawn and milled products 2796.4 Part 4: Earthquake loads AS 1214 1397 Hot-dip galvanized coatings on threaded fasteners (ISO metric coarse thread series) Steel sheet and strip—Hot-dip zinc-coated or aluminium/zinc-coated 1684 Residential timber-framed construction 1684.2—2006 8 AS 1170 Minimum design loads on structures 1170.org.1 Part 1: Product specification Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 5604 Timber—Natural durability ratings AS/NZS 1170 Structural design actions 1170.1 Part 1: Design criteria 1691 Domestic oil-fired appliances—Installation 1720 Timber structures 1720.standards.1 Part 1: Permanent. applied by an in-line process Building Code of Australia  Standards Australia www.au .2 Part 2: Wind actions 1604 Specification for preservative treatment (all Parts) 1859 Reconstituted wood-based panels—Specifications 1859.

9 AS 1684.1 for the corresponding wind classification adopted.2 shall be used to determine the wind classification necessary for the use of this Standard. The wind classifications covered by this Standard shall be determined as follows: (a) Where the wind classification is determined from AS 4055.1. topographic classification and shielding classification given in AS/NZS 1170.1 MAXIMUM DESIGN GUST WIND SPEED Wind classification regions A and B N1 N2 N3 N4 Maximum design gust wind speed (m/s) Permissible stress method (Vp ) 28 (W28N) 33 (W33N) 41 (W41N) 50 (W50N) Serviceability limit state (V s ) 26 26 32 39 Ultimate limit state (V u) 34 40 50 61 1.5 m.2 to 1. 1. The maximum building width is specified in Clause 1. the terrain category.4. L-shaped or a combination of essentially rectangular elements including splayed-end and boomerang-shaped buildings.and two-storey constructions built within the limits or parameters given in Clauses 1. (b) NOTES: 1 2 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] TABLE 1. The ultimate limit state design gust wind speed determined from AS/NZS 1170.1.4. the maximum building height limitation of 8. square.4.2—2006 1. shall apply to this Standard. Either AS 4055 or AS/NZS 1170.1.4. the simplified wind classifications for non-cyclonic areas N1 to N4.2 or AS 4055. Some regulatory authorities provide wind classification maps or wind classifications for designated sites within their jurisdiction.4.4. Where AS/NZS 1170. shall be used with the corresponding maximum design gust wind speeds given in Table 1. as described by AS 4055.4.2 shall not be more than 5% greater than the ultimate limit state wind speed given in Table 1.3 Plan Building shapes shall be essentially rectangular.au  Standards Australia . 1. a wind classification shall be adopted in accordance with Table 1.4 Number of storeys of timber framing The maximum number of storeys of timber framing shall not exceed two (see Section 2). as given in AS 4055.5.2 Wind classification For wind loads.standards.2 is used to determine the maximum design gust wind speed. The determination of the design gust wind speed and wind classification should take into account building height.4 LIMITATIONS 1. www.org.1 General The criteria specified in this Standard are specifically for conventional timber-framed buildings and applicable to single.10 and Figure 1.

16. 16. 3000 mm max. of p Ro ° max 35 .0 m max.0 m max. Member sizes may be limited by the maximum roof load widths (RWL) given in the Span Tables in the Supplements.AS 1684. One or two storey 16. 10 Eaves 3000 mm max. 3000 mm max. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] (b) Plan 3000 mm max.2).0 m max. 3000 mm max.standards. 16.2—2006 Ro o 35 f pitc °m h ax .au 3000 mm max. (a) Sections ax . (c) Verandahs NOTES: 1 2 Building height limitations apply where wind classification is determined using AS 4055 (see Clause 1.org.0 m max. W 16.0 m max. FIGURE 1. 1 W m m 0 6.0 m max. W 16. itch .1 GEOMETRIC BUILDING PARAMETERS  Standards Australia www.4.

excluding eaves (see Figure 1. NOTES: 1 The Span Tables for studs given in the Supplements provide for stud heights in excess of 3000 mm to cater for gable.3. For rafters or purlins. may exceed 3000 mm. trussed or pitched.e. mass of roof shall include all supported materials except the rafters that are accounted for in the design. 1. and the like. overturning and uplift forces.2). intermediate beams. strutting beams.4. underpurlins) is also accounted for in the Span Tables in the Supplements. reduction to bracing wall capacities. The provisions contained in this Standard may also be applicable to houses with external wall heights up to 3600 mm where appropriate consideration is given to the effect of the increased wall height on racking forces. or in any combination of these (see Figures 2. ridge beams and underpurlins.7 Roof pitch The maximum roof pitch shall be 35° (70:100).org. not gable or skillion ends (see Figure 1. The mass of a member being considered has been accounted for in the design of that member. other than those of common external walls.or two-storey construction. the spacing of bracing elements.8 Spacing of bracing For single or upper storey construction. combined hanging strutting beams.4. For counter beams.1)). For underpurlins. For the lower storey of two-storey or subfloor of single. bracing walls shall be spaced in accordance with Clause 8.4.5.4. i.. measured at right angles to elements. 1.9.9 Roof types Roof construction shall be hip. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 1. shall not exceed 9000 mm (see Section 8). NOTE: Bracing walls may be spaced greater than the prescribed limits where the building is designed and certified in accordance with engineering principles 1.2—2006 1. 2 3 1. the mass of roof framing (rafters. The roof mass shall be determined for the various types of roof construction for input to the Span Tables in the Supplements for rafters or purlins.5 DESIGN CRITERIA The design criteria that have been used in the preparation of this Standard are as follows: www. skillion and some other design situations where wall heights. mass of roof shall include all supported materials. Building height limitations apply where wind classification is determined using AS 4055 (see Clause 1.1). the maximum building masses relevant to the use of each member Span Table are noted under the Table. shear forces and member sizes.4.2 to 2.10 Building masses Building masses appropriate for the member being designed shall be determined prior to selecting and designing from the Span Tables in the Supplements.au  Standards Australia . Where appropriate.5 Width The maximum width of a building shall be 16 000 mm. skillion.6 Wall height The maximum wall height shall be 3000 mm (floor to ceiling as measured at common external walls. NOTE: Appendix B provides guidance and examples on the determination of masses. gable. cathedral. 1.4.4.7).standards.11 AS 1684.

earthquake and snow loads are not shown (see Clause 1. bracing and connection details have been accommodated in the design.org.au .2 kPa on member sizes. load combinations and serviceability requirements of framing members are given in AS 1684. Members shall also meet serviceability requirements for their application. NOTE: Typical unreinforced masonry may include masonry bases for timber-framed houses . Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Assumptions used for forces. the appropriate wind classification (e.AS 1684. together with the stress grade.2). N2). When using Span Tables in the Supplements.2. Suction (uplift) Construction load (people.2 LOADS ON BUILDINGS  Standards Australia www.4. AS/NZS 1170. shall be established prior to selecting the appropriate supplement to obtain timber member sizes.) Wind Internal pressure Suction Dead load (structure) Internal pressure (a) Gravity loads (b) Uplift wind loads NOTE: For clarity. FIGURE 1. with appropriate allowances for the distribution of concentrated or localized loads over a number of members where relevant (see also Clause 1. Forces applied to timber-framed buildings.1. Statements expressed in mandatory terms in Notes to the Span Tables are deemed to be requirements of this Standard. are indicated in Figure 1. furniture etc.5).standards. bracing and connection details are suitable for construction (including timber-framed brick veneer) of design category H1 and H2 domestic structures in accordance with AS 1170. The member sizes.2—2006 12 (a) (b) The basis of the design used in the preparation of this Standard is AS 1684.4.6 FORCES ON BUILDINGS The design of framing members may be influenced by the wind forces that act on the specific members.1. and wind loadings recommended in AS/NZS 1170. (e) The effects of snow loads up to 0. wind and earthquake loads. The design dead. live. All framing members shall be adequately designed and joined to ensure suitable performance under the worst combinations of dead. NOTE: Construction supporting vehicle loads is outside the scope of this Standard. which shall be considered in the design of framing members. 1. live.. forces and capacities given in this Standard are based on limit states design. This Standard does not provide specifications for unreinforced masonry construction subject to earthquake loads.1.1 and AS 1720. loads. materials) Dead load (structure) Dead load (structure) Live loads (people.g. (c) (d) All pressures.2 and AS 4055 were taken into account in the member computations.

3 summarizes some of these actions. Floor members designed as ‘supporting floor load only’ may support a loadbearing wall (walls supporting roof loads) where the loadbearing wall occurs directly over a support or is within 1. the limitations imposed regarding the support of point loads and the use of offsets and cantilevers are specified in Section 4.2 and Clause 4.13 AS 1684.4 and 1.2—2006 Forces on buildings produce different effects on a structure. Racking (walls deform) Overtur ning (rotation) (a) Racking—Wall deform (b) Overturning—Rotation Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Sliding (tendency to slide) Uplift (connection failure) (c) Sliding—Tendency to slide (d) Uplift—Connection failure FIGURE 1.3 EFFECTS OF FORCES ON BUILDINGS 1. Each effect shall be considered individually and be resisted. For floor framing.1.3). relying on structural members that transfer loads horizontally. where applicable.5 times the depth of the member from the support. where the load occurs directly over the support or is within 1.3.2.  Standards Australia 2 3 www. be transferred through the timber frame to the footings by the most direct route.au .5 times the depth of the floor member from the support (see also Clause 4. Figure 1.7 LOAD PATHS OFFSETS AND CANTILEVERS Roof loads shall. NOTES: 1 This load path in many cases cannot be maintained in a completely vertical path.org.standards. Offset or cantilevered floor framing supporting loadbearing walls may also be used (see Figures 1. Other members supporting roof or floor loads.5). This Standard takes account of these. do not require to be designed for that load.3.

standards. NOTE: For guidance on durability design.  Standards Australia www. FIGURE 1.5 OFFSETS 1. which could cause decay. or shall be adequately treated with preservative in accordance with the AS/NZS 1604 series.5 D max.8 DURABILITY Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Structural timber used in accordance with this Standard shall have the level of durability appropriate for the relevant climate and expected service life and conditions including exposure to insect attack or to moisture. unless the ground contact or exposure is of a temporary nature.au . Structural timber members that are in ground contact or that are not protected from weather exposure and associated moisture ingress shall be of in-ground durability Class 1 or 2 as appropriate (see AS 5604).4 CANTILEVER Roof or floor load This member designed as not supporting load D Support Offset 1.org.2—2006 14 Adequate fixing required to backspan support Cantilever Backspan FIGURE 1. see Appendix C.AS 1684.

All structural timber to be used in conjunction with this Standard shall be identified in respect of stress grade.9 DIMENSIONS Timber dimensions throughout this Standard are stated by nominating the depth of the member first.2. followed by its breadth (see Figure 1.6).standards. hanging beams. F17.g.). joists etc. In all cases.org. Depth (width) Breadth (thickness) Le n h gt Depth Br ea dth Depth ea Br dth FIGURE 1. MGP12). etc. framing members shall bear on their supporting element. 90 × 35 mm (studs. by their full breadth (thickness). e. the equivalent bearing area shall not be less than that required above. a minimum of 30 mm at their ends or 60 mm at the continuous part of the member. 45 × 70 (wall plates.11 STRESS GRADES All structural timber used in conjunction with this Standard shall be stress graded in accordance with the relevant Australian Standard. counter beams. combined counter/strutting beams and verandah beams) shall be as given in the Notes to the Span Tables of the Supplements. combined strutting/hanging beams.10 BEARING The minimum bearing for specific framing members (bearers..6 DIMENSIONS 1.).g. except for battens. strutting beams. Where the bearing area is achieved using a non-rectangular area such as a splayed joint.au  Standards Australia .15 AS 1684. 1. Reduced bearing area shall only be used where additional fixings are provided to give equivalent support to the members. Stress grades covered by Span Tables in the Supplements to this Standard are given in Table 1..2—2006 1. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] www. battens. NOTE: The timber stress grade is usually designated alphanumerically (e. as appropriate. lintels.

3 mm. mechanically or proof stress graded may be used in accordance with this Standard at the stress grade branded thereon. may be used where their design is in accordance with AS 1720. NOTES: 1 2 1. …………………………………………. 4 mm. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 1. blocking. MGP15 F8*. MGP12 F5. who may require provisions additional to those contained in this Standard. such as roof trusses.standards. Check local timber suppliers regarding availability of timber stress grades. I-beams. F8. manufacture or use of engineered timber products. pinaster pines. there are no relevant Australian Standards applicable to the design. Carribean.12 ENGINEERED TIMBER PRODUCTS Fabricated components. the use of these products in accordance with this Standard is subject to the approval of the regulatory authority and the recommendations of the specific manufacturer. slash. etc. MGP10.AS 1684.  Standards Australia www. hoop. additional support. F7. 0 mm. but are not restricted to.org. F14 F17 F14 F5.2 STRESS GRADES Species or species group Cypress (unseasoned) Hardwood (unseasoned) Hardwood (seasoned) Hardwood (seasoned Western Australia) Seasoned softwood (radiata.1 and their manufacture and use complies with the relevant Australian Standards. glued-laminated timber members. In such cases..au . These may include. lateral restraint. the following maximum undersize tolerances on timber sizes shall be permitted: (a) Unseasoned timber: (i) (ii) (b) Up to and including F7 ………………………………………………….) Douglas fir (Oregon) (unseasoned) Spruce pine fir (SPF) (seasoned) Hemfir (seasoned) * Most common stress grades available F5 F8. and the like. Timber that has been visually. F11*. laminated veneer lumber and nailplate-joined timber. F7 F5 F5 Other stress grades available F7 F17 F22*. NOTE: In some situations. F11* F8 F8 Span tables in Supplements for unseasoned hardwood F8 and F11 may be used for unseasoned F8 and F11 softwood as well.2—2006 16 TABLE 1. F11. Seasoned timber—All stress grades NOTE: When checking unseasoned timber dimensions onsite.13 SIZE TOLERANCES When using the Span Tables given in the Supplements. F8 and above ……………………………………………………………. allowance should be made for shrinkage. which may have occurred since milling. F27  F4*.

14 ALTERNATIVE TIMBER DIMENSIONS The alternative timber dimensions given by this Clause shall not apply to the Span Tables in the Supplements. hardwood dimensions 19 30 30 40 40 60 80 125 125 175 175 220 260 290 1.7 provides guidance.3. Individual member sizes are determined by selecting the roof framing timbers and then systematically working through the remainder of the framework to the footings. Bracing and tie-down requirements should also be considered when determining the basic frame layout to ensure any necessary or additional framing members are correctly positioned. Where a timber dimension is stated in the clauses of this Standard. seasoned W. NOTE: The recommended procedure for designing the structural timber framework is to firstly determine the preliminary location and extent of bracing and tie-down and then the basic frame layout in relation to the floor plan and the proposed method of frame construction. The size tolerances given in Clause 1. The flow chart shown in Figure 1.3 ALTERNATIVE TIMBER DIMENSIONS Min.standards. it refers to the usual minimum dimensions of seasoned timber.2).au  Standards Australia . Alternative dimensions for seasoned timber.4.org.13 are also applicable to these dimensions. It shall include consideration of terrain category building height and topographic and shielding effects (see Clause 1.2—2006 1. unseasoned timber and seasoned Western Australian hardwood shall be in accordance with Table 1. The wind classification is the primary reference used throughout this Standard. the design gust wind speed and corresponding wind classification shall be determined.17 AS 1684. or by considering the floor framing through to the roof framing.15 CONSIDERATIONS FOR DESIGN USING THIS STANDARD Prior to using this Standard.A. TABLE 1. www. seasoned timber dimension (mm) 19 32 35 42 45 70 90 120 140 170 190 240 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Nominal unseasoned timber dimensions 25 38 38 50 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 250 300 Min.

cantilevers.2—2006 18 Reference After determining the max. etc.standards.au . offsets. wall frame and roof frame. refer to Table 1 for wind classification. design gust wind velocity (refer to AS 1170.org.  Standards Australia www. including load paths.16 INTERPOLATION Interpolation shall be made in accordance with Appendix D. Section 1 Determine individual member size Floor frame ¾ Section 4 Wall frame ¾ Section 6 Roof frame ¾ Section 7 Design bracing system Section 8 Check Design tie-down and other connection requirements Section 9 FIGURE 1.AS 1684.2 or AS 4055 or the relevant authority).7 FLOW CHART FOR DESIGN USING THIS STANDARD Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 1. Determine wind classification N1 to N4 Consider preliminary location and extent of bracing and tie-down systems and modify framing layout if required Section 8 and 9 Establish basic frame layout and method of construction¾ floor frame.

2 to 2.2 TERMINOLOGY OF FRAMING MEMBERS Figure 2.au  Standards Australia . pier) NOTE: The ceiling and floor joists are shown parallel to the external loadbearing wall for clarity.1 GENERAL 2 TERM IN O L O GY DEF I N I T I O N S AND The terminology and definitions given in this Section shall be used in conjunction with the requirements of this Standard.standards. FIGURE 2.7 apply to roof framing.org. In practice. Lintel location may also vary (see Figure 6. Figures 2. the more usual case is for the joists to be located perpendicular to the external wall.8). Hanging beam Cleat (hanger) Rafter Fascia Soffit bearer Lintel Ledger Jack stud Sill trimmer Ceiling joist Jack ceiling joist (trimmer) Top wall plate Brace Nogging Common stud Bottom wall plate Jamb stud Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Jack stud Floor joist Bearer Termite shield (ant cap) Stump (post. WALL AND CEILING www. 2. wall and ceiling framing members in general.2—2006 SECT ION 2.1 details floor.19 AS 1684.1 FRAMING MEMBERS—FLOOR.

Jack rafter (crown end) Underpurlin Ceiling joist Top plate Common rafter Jack ceiling joist Creeper rafter NOTE: Some members have been omitted for clarity.au . FIGURE 2.3 FRAMING MEMBERS—HIP AND VALLEY ROOF CONSTRUCTION  Standards Australia www.AS 1684.standards.org. FIGURE 2. verge rafter) Outrigger Ceiling joist NOTE: Some members have been omitted for clarity.2—2006 20 Ridgeboard Fascia Collar tie Underpurlin Common rafter Top plate Raking plate Solid blocking Bargeboard (verge.2 FRAMING MEMBERS—GABLE ROOF CONSTRUCTION Ridgeboard Hip rafter Creeper rafter Broken hip Cripple creeper rafter Jack rafter (crown end) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Valley rafter Valley creeper rafter Collar tie Hip rafter Hanging beam Roof strut Fascia 190 x 19 min.

au  Standards Australia .org.4 FRAMING MEMBERS—SCOTCH VALLEY CONSTRUCTION Intermediate beam Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Ridge beam Raking top plate Verge rafter Common rafter supporting roof and ceiling loads ( roof beam ) Eaves beam Studs supporting concentrations of loads NOTE: Some members have been omitted for clarity. FIGURE 2.5 FRAMING MEMBERS—CATHEDRAL ROOF CONSTRUCTION www.21 AS 1684.standards. FIGURE 2.2—2006 Common rafter Valley creeper rafter Scotch valley (pitching plate) Top plate Ridgeboard Ceiling joist Fascia Common rafter NOTE: Some members have been omitted for clarity.

org. verge rafter) Raking plate FIGURE 2. FIGURE 2. Laminations shall be unjoined in their length. 10 screws. they shall be minimum No.8.8 mm in diameter and shall be staggered as shown in Figure 2.AS 1684.2—2006 22 Fascia Solid blocking Outrigger Bargeboard Top plate Bargeboard (verge. provided they penetrate a minimum of 75% into the thickness of the final receiving member.  Standards Australia www.standards.6 SKILLION ROOF Standard truss Structural fascia Gable end stud Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Outriggers End wall Barge (verge rafter) Verge overhang Raking truss (gable truss) NOTE: This diagram applies to verge overhangs greater than 300 mm from the raking or gable truss (see AS 4440).au . This is only permissible using seasoned timber laminations of the same timber type and stress grade. They shall be through-nailed and clinched. They may be at the same spacing and pattern.7 GABLE END—TRUSSED ROOF 2. Where screws are used in lieu of nails. or nailed from both sides.3 VERTICAL NAIL LAMINATION Vertical nail lamination shall be permitted to achieve the required breadth for the larger section sizes given in the Span Tables of the Supplements using thinner and more readily obtainable sections. Nails shall be minimum of 2.

2/35 × 70) shall be horizontally nail-laminated in accordance with Figure 2. 10 screws. Studs over 38 mm but not exceeding 50 mm thick shall be nailed with one 90 mm nail at maximum 600 mm centres (see Figure 2.org. using— www.9 STUD/PLATE LAMINATION 2. centres NOTE: Refer to Section 9 for other nominal fixing requirements including plates to studs.standards. provided the achieved width is at least that of the nominated size. Studs up to 38 mm thick shall be nailed together with one 75 mm nail at maximum 600 mm centres. Plates nailed together over each stud Joints min. the required size may be built up by using two or more laminations of the same timber type. additional blocking shall be provided Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 600 max.23 AS 1684. stress grade and moisture content condition.9.au  Standards Australia . Multiple studs nailed together at 600 mm max.2—2006 2 D max. D Additional nail(s) at point of load or support FIGURE 2. 1200 mm apart and staggered Where joints occur in either top plate between studs. and where rafter or truss bears onto top plates.8 VERTICAL NAIL LAMINATION (EXAMPLE—STRUTTING BEAMS) 2.5 HORIZONTAL NAIL LAMINATION—WALL PLATES ONLY Wall plates that are made up of more than one section (e. they shall be minimum No.g. Where screws are used in lieu of nails. Posts shall not be nail-laminated.4 STUD LAMINATION In the case of studs at sides of openings and studs supporting concentrations of load.. FIGURE 2. provided they penetrate a minimum of 75% into the thickness of the final receiving member. They may be at the same spacing and pattern.9).

2—2006 24 (a) (b) two 75 mm long nails for plates up to 38 mm deep.6. Where more than two plates are used.org.2.11.10).1 General The load width and area supported are used to define the amount of load that is imparted onto a member. 2. Refer to Section 9 for definition of ULW.OR UPPER-STOREY CONSTRUCTION  Standards Australia www.2 Floor load width (FLW) Floor load width (FLW) is the contributory width of floor.6 LOAD WIDTH AND AREA SUPPORTED 2. FLW shall be used as an input to Span Tables in the Supplements for all bearers and lower storey wall framing members. Floor load width (FLW).10 and 2. coupled with another geometric descriptor such as spacing will define an area of load that a member is required to support. For uplift due to wind loads.4. 2. that imparts floor load to a supporting member.standards. Type of construction (a) Cantilevered balcony Location Floor load width (FLW) FLW = x + a 2 Bearer A FLW FLW FLW Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Bearer B FLW = x + y 2 A a x B y C Bearer C FLW = y 2 (b) Supported balcony Bearer A FLW = x 2 FLW FLW FLW FLW Bearer B FLW = x + y 2 Bearer C A x B y C z D FLW = y +z 2 Bearer D FLW = z 2 FIGURE 2. Load width.AS 1684.6. ceiling load width (CLW) and roof load width (RLW) shall be determined from Clauses 2. the nailing requirement applies to each lamination All joins in multiple bottom plates shall occur over solid supports such as floor joists. or two 90 mm long nails for plates up to 50 mm deep (see also Clause 9.10 FLOOR LOAD WIDTH (FLW)—SINGLE. measured horizontally.2 to 2. solid blocking between bottom plate and bearer or concrete slab. The FLW input is illustrated in Figures 2. the definition ‘uplift load width’ (ULW) is used as ULWs may differ significantly from RLWs depending upon where the structure is tied down. A minimum of two nails shall be installed at not greater than 600 mm centres along the plate.au .6.6.

au  Standards Australia .12. usually measured horizontally.standards.25 AS 1684. Lower FLW = z 2 FIGURE 2. The CLW input is illustrated in Figure 2. CLW shall be used as an input to Span Tables for hanging beams. www.6.org. counter beams and strutting/hanging beams.11 FLOOR LOAD WIDTH (FLW)—TWO-STOREY CONSTRUCTION 2.2—2006 FLW A FLW a x FLW B FLW y FLW C FLW z D FLW Type of construction Location Wall A Wall B Wall C Wall D Floor load width (FLW) Upper FLW = Upper FLW = x +a 2 x+y 2 y 2 (a) Lower storey loadbearing walls Upper FLW = N/A* Upper FLW = Bearer A x +a 2 x 2 Lower FLW = Upper FLW = Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Bearer B (b) Bearers supporting lower storey loadbearing walls Bearer C Lower FLW = Lower FLW = x+y 2 x+y 2 y 2 Upper FLW = y +z 2 Upper FLW = N/A* Bearer D * See single or upper-storey construction. that imparts ceiling load to a supporting member.3 Ceiling load width (CLW) Ceiling load width (CLW) is the contributory width of ceiling.

4 Roof load width (RLW) The roof load width (RLW) is used as a convenient indicator of the roof loads that are carried by some roof members and loadbearing wall members and their supporting substructure.13 to 2. FIGURE 2.au .standards.AS 1684.6.13 ROOF LOAD WIDTH (RLW)—NON-COUPLED ROOFS  Standards Australia www.org. The RLW value shall be used as an input to the relevant wall framing and substructure Span Tables. B & C Beam D (Hanging beam) CLW x A B CLW y C Beam E (Strutting/hanging beam) * CLW = CLW is not required as an input to the Tables for wall framing or bearers supporting loadbearing walls. Figures 2. A1 Type of construction Wall Roof load width (RLW) for member sizing x+y +a 2 x y b A RLW = (a) Truss a Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] B A y b RLW = x+y +b 2 x +a 2 y +b 2 x+y 2 B (b) Cathedral x a A RLW = B RLW = A C b x B C RLW = A RLW = (c) Skillion x +a 2 a B A B RLW = x +b 2 FIGURE 2.16 define RLW in relation to various types of roof construction.12 CEILING LOAD WIDTH (CLW) 2.2—2006 26 Location D E Ceiling load width (CLW) N/A* CLW = x 2 y 2 Walls A.

the roof area supported shall be determined for the studs supporting concentrated loads. the roof area supported shall be determined for the studs supporting concentrated loads.org.27 A1 AS 1684.au  Standards Australia . In this case.standards. FIGURE 2.15 ROOF LOAD WIDTH (RLW)—COUPLED ROOFS WITH UNDERPURLINS www. FIGURE 2. NOTE: Collar ties have been omitted for clarity. In this case.2—2006 Type of construction Wall Roof load width (RLW) for member sizing x a y A b RLW = x + a A B B RLW = y + b (a) No ridge struts A b x a y RLW = x +a 2 y +b 2 B RLW = A C B C N/A* (b) Ridge struts * RLW may not be applicable where strut loads are supported by studs supporting concentrations of load and the remainder of wall C is deemed non-loadbearing.14 ROOF LOAD WIDTH (RLW)—COUPLED ROOFS WITH NO UNDERPURLINS Roof load width (RLW) for member sizing x +a 2 Type of construction Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Wall x a y b A RLW = A B B RLW = y +b 3 x +a 4 y +b 6 (a) No ridge struts A b x a y RLW = B A C B RLW = (b) Ridge struts C N/A* * RLW may not be applicable where strut loads are supported by studs supporting concentrations of load and the remainder of wall C is deemed non-loadbearing.

5 Area supported The area supported by a member is the contributory area.  Standards Australia www. The floor area shall be used as an input to Span Tables in the Supplements for studs supporting concentrated loads and posts.2—2006 28 Type of construction Wall Roof load width (RLW) for member sizing RLW = x +a 4 y +b 6 x y + 4 6 x +a 2 y +b 2 x+y 2 v +a 2 x a y b A B A C B RLW = (a) Cathedral—Framed C RLW = x a y b A RLW = B A C B RLW = (b) Cathedral—Truss W R L ro o f ) ain (m C RLW = a v A RLW = A B B RLW =RLW for main roof + v 2 (c) Verandah NOTE:Collar ties have been omitted for clarity. Typical ‘area supported’ inputs for roofs and floors is illustrated in Figure 2.6. measured in either the roof or floor plane.AS 1684.au . The roof area shall be used as an input to Span Tables in the Supplements for strutting beams.org. FIGURE 2.17.16 ROOF LOAD WIDTH (RLW) COMBINATIONS AND ADDITIONS Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 2. combined strutting/counter beams and studs supporting concentrated loads and posts. combined strutting/hanging beams. that imparts load onto supporting members.standards.

2—2006 Underpurlin A B A Underpurlin B Strutting beam span Strutting beam Strutting beam span Strutting beam Roof area supported = (1/2)A x (1/2) B (ridge strutted) Roof area supported = (1/2) A x (3/4) B (ridge not strutted) (a) Typical roof area supported by strutting beam Rafter span A 1/2 an sp sp 1/2 Joist span C an Post spacing B pan 1/2 s Roof area supported = A /2 x B /2 1/ Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 2s pa n Floor area supported = C /2 x D /2 Post spacing D NOTE: If the post was the central support for a continuous span verandah beam and bearer. the areas supported would be as follows: (a) (b) Roof area supported = A/2 × B.29 AS 1684.7.1 Loadbearing wall A wall that supports roof or floor loads. www. Floor area supported = C/2 × D. (b) Typical roof and floor area or supported by post FIGURE 2.standards.17 AREA SUPPORTED 2.7 DEFINITIONS—GENERAL 2.org.au  Standards Australia . or both roof and floor loads.

3 Regulatory authority The authority that is authorized by legal statute as having justification to approve the design and construction of a building.  Standards Australia www. 2.2 Non-loadbearing walls A non-loadbearing internal wall supports neither roof nor floor loads but may support ceiling loads and act as a bracing wall. A coupled roof system may include some area where it is not possible to fix ceiling joists or collar ties to all rafters.5 Span and spacing 2.5.18(d)).5.org.7.7. usually without the support of internal walls.7.4.7. NOTE: In the context of this Standard.7. for example. 2.au Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] .7.7.5.7. 2. 2. with ceiling joists and collar ties fixed to opposing common rafter pairs and a ridgeboard at the apex of the roof (see Figure 7. In particular. 2. 2.or L-shaped house.7. A nonloadbearing external wall may support lateral wind loads (e.g.3 Span The face-to-face distance between points capable of giving full support to structural members or assemblies. A non-loadbearing external wall supports neither roof nor floor loads but may support ceiling loads and act as a bracing wall..1). unless otherwise indicated. private building surveyors or other persons nominated by the appropriate State or Territory building legislation as having the legal responsibility for approving the use of structural timber products.5 Continuous span The term applied to members supported at or near both ends and at one or more intermediate points such that no span is greater than twice another (see Figure 2.standards. or any part of the building design and construction process.1 Coupled roof Pitched roof construction with a roof slope not less than 10°.4 Trussed roof An engineered roof frame system designed to carry the roof or roof and ceiling. and single and continuous span.1 General Figure 2. and which is erected on-site 2.18 illustrates the terms for spacing.5.2 Non-coupled roof A pitched roof that is not a coupled roof and includes cathedral roofs and roofs constructed using ridge and intermediate beams.AS 1684.7.18(c) and 2.7. This includes the case where members are partially cut through over intermediate supports to remove spring (see Figures 2.4. span.7.4. the regulatory authority may include local council building surveyors.18(e)). 2. 2.4 Roofs 2.4. gable or skillion end wall).5.7.2 Spacing The centre-to-centre distance between structural members. hip ends or parts of a T.2—2006 30 2.3 Pitched roof A roof where members are cut to suit.4 Single span The span of a member supported at or near both ends with no immediate supports. rafter spans are measured as the distance between points of support along the length of the rafter and not as the horizontal projection of this distance. 2.

18 SPACING AND SPAN www. in which case the design span is the longest span. FIGURE 2.31 AS 1684.au  Standards Australia .2—2006 Joists spacing (centre-line to centre-line) Joists span (between inter nal faces of support members) Bearer spacing (centre-line to centre-line) (a) Bearers and joists Ra er Ov ha ng r fte sp an (b) Rafter Single span (c) Two supports Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Saw cut Joint or lap Single span Single span (d) Joint or sawcut over supports Continuous span Continuous span (e) Continuous span NOTE: The design span is the average span unless one span is more than 10% longer than another.standards.org.

7. construction that includes not more than two levels of timber-framed trafficable floor. or by lower levels of timber wall framing or other support systems designed in accordance with engineering principles and approved by the regulatory authority. NOTE: This requirement does not preclude the application of this Standard to up to a two-storey timber-framed construction supported— (a) (b) by a bearer and joist substructure designed in accordance with this Standard.8 Two-storey In any section through the house. Trafficable floors in attics and lofts are included in the number of storeys. 2.7 Stud height The distance from top of bottom plate to underside of top plate or the distance between points of lateral restraint provided to both the breadth and depth of the stud.7.standards.7. at right angles to and fixed to the end of deep joists (including I-joists).9 Rim board A member. a set of structural design properties in accordance with AS 1720.7. 2. that provides restraint to the joists. 2. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]  Standards Australia www. the maximum distance from the ground to the underside of the lower floor bearer shall be 1800 mm. for the purposes of design. In the subfloor of a two-storey construction.org.AS 1684.6 Stress grade The classification of timber to indicate.2—2006 32 2.au .1.

2 SITE PREPARATION AND DRAINAGE 3. likely to increase the termite risk or cause damage to footings or concrete slabs or subsoil drainage. and the like.org.2. 3. piers. 3.1 Termite management Protection against termites shall be provided in accordance with the provisions of the Building Code of Australia.1 General Stumps. 3. NOTE: The ground surface should be graded to fall away from the building.4 DURABILITY 3. 3.standards.4.au  Standards Australia . grading or the provision of drainage or diversion channels.6.3 GROUND CLEARANCE AND SUBFLOOR VENTILATION Ground clearance and subfloor ventilation shall be provided in accordance with the provisions of the Building Code of Australia. 3. see Appendix C.2—2006 S E C T I ON 3.8).33 AS 1684.2. 3. This Clause provides a procedure to determine typical vertical gravity loads and the capacity and size of some footings.3 Site drainage Surface and subsurface water occurring on the building site shall be diverted to prevent it from flowing under the structure.1 SCOPE 3 SU B ST RU CT U RE This Section sets out requirements for site preparation. tree roots or stumps and other wood debris. positioned beneath the floor shall be designed to support vertical gravity loads.6 SUBFLOOR SUPPORTS 3. subfloor supports and the determination of footing sizes suitable for supporting timber-framed houses. using allowable soil-bearing stresses.4. www.1 General The clearing and drainage of the site on which the building is to be erected shall be adequate to ensure protection of any timber framing or components from the effects of prolonged dampness or insect attack. Ponding of water under the structure shall be prevented by filling. This Section is derived from AS 2870. 3.2. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 3. including waste material from the construction. NOTE: For extremely damp or unventilated situations or timber in contact with the ground. posts. within and around the building.5 SUBSTRUCTURE BRACING The substructure shall be adequately braced against all of the applied loads (see Section 8).2 Site clearing The site shall be cleared of any logs.2 Species selection Any species and durability classes of timber may be utilized for floor and subfloor framing where adequate ventilation and weather protection is provided (see also Clause 1.

Calculate the total vertical gravity load from the load combination given in Clause 3.30 0.2 and 3.4 Determination of vertical gravity loads 3. slatebased billiard tables.1 and.6. The weight of quarry or slate tiles and bedding compound are not covered by this Table. footings.5. Soil classifications E and P are beyond the scope of this Section and further professional advice is required. hot tubs and other permanent loads are not included in the typical weights given in Table 3. Ceilings are assumed to be either 13 mm plasterboard.6.1 provides guidance for the weight of typical floor systems.6.6.6. Where items such as water beds.6. or material of similar weight (0.2 Soil classification Details provided in this Clause are only applicable to A.4.3). S.4.4. 3. TABLE 3. M or H soil classification with a minimum allowable bearing capacity of 100 kPa.4.. for piers.6.12 kN/m 2).6.2 Permanent (dead) loads (G) Permanent loads shall be determined as follows: (a) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Floor loads The total floor loads (kN) shall be calculated by multiplying the floor area (m 2 ) supported by the individual stump. posts.3. Where the allowable bearing capacity of the soil has been determined from site investigation.AS 1684. i.6.6.6). Table 3. spas.3 Procedure The following procedure shall be used to determine the vertical gravity loads and the capacity and size of the footing: (a) (b) (c) Determine the individual dead and live loads that contribute to the total vertical gravity load combination (see Clauses 3. carpet and underlay Timber flooring up to 22 mm thick plus lightweight floor covering and ceilings Timber flooring up to 22 mm thick plus ceramic or terracotta floor covering Timber flooring up to 22 mm thick plus ceramic or terracotta floor coverings and ceilings  Standards Australia . 3.60 0. for wind classifications N1 and N2.1 General Vertical gravity dead and live loads shall be determined in accordance with Clauses 3.6.org.4. where present. post.6.2 and 3. the weight of these shall be added to the total.standards. stumps.7.6. stump and post sizes may be determined from Clause 3. 3.au Timber flooring up to 22 mm thick plus lightweight floor covering.1 WEIGHT OF TYPICAL FLOORS Floor and/or ceiling type Weight (kN/m 2 ) 0. then this capacity shall be used to determine the footing size in accordance with Clause 3. pier. Determine the size of the footing. the contribution of individual areas shall be summed to determine the total load. under consideration by the unit weight of the floor system (kN/m2 ) If supported floor areas have different weights.40 0. Site soil classifications shall be made in accordance with AS 2870.70 www.4. 3.e. and the like (see Clause 3. or the like. or bearing area required.2—2006 34 Alternatively.

5 kN/m2 . under consideration by 1. post or the like.9 kN/m 2 for tile roofs. NOTE: The value of 0.2 for the total vertical bearing load. or the like. post. (b) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Other live loads In alpine and sub-alpine areas. may be determined as follows: A = P/100 NOTES: 1 2 The 100 kPa is the allowable bearing capacity of the foundation.6 Footing size or bearing area The size of footing may be determined directly from Table 3. The values of 0. under consideration by 0.4 kN/m 2 .6. www.org. in kilonewtons sum of individual floor (and snow if applicable) live loads.5 Determination of total vertical gravity load combination for footings The total vertical gravity load combination. NOTES: 1 2 3. and 0. P (kN). For two-storey construction.0 kN/m 2 except for decks greater than 40 m2 where the live load reduces to 1.5 Q NOTE: The above load combination is derived from AS 2870.6. the live load contributed by the area of deck under consideration shall be 3. this load shall be used. Care should be taken when determining the contributory roof area and respective load paths applied to each footing under consideration.25 kPa do not need to be included in the calculation of total vertical gravity loads. in kilonewtons = G + 0.6. Where the actual permanent wall load (kN) applied to individual footings has been calculated. shall be calculated as follows: P where G Q = = sum of individual permanent floor. For worked examples. Floor live loads (kN) shall be determined by multiplying the floor area (m2 ) supported by the individual stump. the floor area of both upper and lower storeys shall be included in the floor area determination.au  Standards Australia . post. 3.5 kN/m 2 shall only apply to the general floor and deck areas of Class 1 buildings.4 kN/m 2 for sheet roofs.35 AS 1684. pier. pier.9 kN/m 2 have been determined as typical average unit weights for total roof weights for sheet and tile roofs respectively. wall and roof loads.4 kN/m 2 applied to the floor area has been determined as a typical distributed wall load averaged over the floor area for most housing. (b) Roof loads The total roof load (kN) shall be determined by multiplying the roof area (m 2 ) supported by the individual stump. pier.5 kN/m2 . For decks greater than 1.0 m above the ground. the bearing area required for the footing. under consideration by 0. P (kN).2—2006 (a) Wall loads The total wall load (kN) shall be determined by multiplying the floor area (m 2 ) supported by the individual stump. determined in accordance with AS 1170.6.4. A (m 2 ).standards. 3.3 Live loads (Q) Live loads shall be determined as follows: (a) Roof and floor live loads Roof live loads up to 0. see Appendix E.5.4 kN/m 2 and 0. The value of 1.4. the contribution of snow loads exceeding 0. determined from Clause 3. Alternatively. shall also be added to the live loads. or the like.2 kPa.

is given in AS 2870.0 12 16 Minimum concrete pier or stump or sole plate diameter (mm) 250 300 350 400 450 Minimum concrete pier/stump or sole plate size (mm × mm) 225 × 225 275 × 275 300 × 300 350 × 350 400 × 400 3. and pad footings and sole plates required to transfer roof.AS 1684. wall and floor loads to the soil foundation.7. 3. taken across the grain.au . For wind classifications greater than N2. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Timber soleplates shall not project beyond any face of the stump or post they support by more than their own thickness.9 7. Type 5 footings are only suitable where the allowable foundation bearing pressure equals or exceeds 125 kPa. footings for stumps or posts are classified as types 1 to 5. or three times their own thickness measured along the grain. as shown in Table 3. including minimum depth requirements. The bracing requirements of Section 8 shall be considered to ensure that the use of footing or post or stump details given in this Section are also adequate to resist lateral loads.1 General This Clause deals with the selection of stumps and posts.1 9.  Standards Australia www.2 BEARING LOAD AND FOOTING SIZE Total vertical bearing load (kN) 4.7 FOOTINGS AND SUPPORTS FOR WIND CLASSIFICATIONS N1 AND N2 3. see Clause 3. Footings shall be proportioned to evenly distribute vertical and lateral loads from the building to the foundation material such that significant settlement or other movement is prevented.6.3.7. NOTE: Further information. Footing types 1 to 4 are for use in areas where the allowable foundation bearing pressure is at least 100 kPa.2—2006 36 TABLE 3.standards.org.2 Simplified footing classification For the purposes of this Clause.

100 × 100 or 115 dia.7. 100 × 100 or 110 dia.au  Standards Australia .180 18 300 × 600 × 100 thick 5 0.4. 100 × 100 or 110 dia. 125 × 125 or 125 dia. 2 3 4 5 NOTES: 1 2 3 As approved Stump or post size is also dependent upon height above ground (see Clause 3. × 150 deep 350 × 350 × 200 deep or 400 dia. 100 × 100 or 110 dia.standards.3(b)). 150 × 150 or 150 dia. 125 × 125 or 130 dia. 100 × 100 or 110 dia.1. 125 × 125 or 145 dia. 125 × 125 or 135 dia. 125 × 125 or 120 dia.120 12 300 × 400 × 75 thick 4 0.4 STUMP/POST SIZES Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Stress grade Footing type (see Table 3. 100 × 100 or 110 dia. The use of stumps or posts in material other than timber shall be subject to the requirements of the relevant authority. see Clause 3.0 250 × 360 × 75 thick 3 0. Timber durability/preservative treatment should be appropriate for the expected service conditions (see Appendices C and F). www. 125 × 125 or 120 dia.4.3 Stumps and posts (a) Sizes Stump and post sizes shall be appropriate to the footing type used. For termite protection.2—2006 TABLE 3. × 100 deep 300 × 300 × 150 deep or 350 dia. 100 × 100 or 110 dia. × 200 deep Nominal unseasoned size of timber soleplates (mm) 200 × 225 ×38 thick 1 2 0. as given in Table 3.180 22 300 × 600 × 100 thick 3.org. TABLE 3. 100 × 100 or 110 dia.5 Minimum size of unreinforced concrete pad footing (mm) 230 × 230 × 100 deep or 250 dia. × 200 deep 430 × 430 × 250 deep or 500 dia. 100 × 100 or 115 dia. 125 × 125 or 135 dia. × 200 deep 430 × 430 × 250 deep or 500 dia.37 AS 1684. 100 × 100 or 110 dia. 100 × 100 or 110 dia.090 9.3) F4 F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 Nominal unseasoned timber stump/post size (mm) 1 100 × 100 or 110 dia. 100 × 100 or 110 dia. 125 × 125 or 125 dia.3 FOOTING CLASSIFICATION Footing type Minimum bearing area (m 2 ) 0.7. 100 × 100 or 115 dia.045 Bearing capacity (kN) 4. 125 × 125 or 120 dia.

5 shall not exceed 15 times the minimum face width or diameter unless designed in accordance with recognized engineering principles.55 kPa being 0. The Table values are based on a distributed load of 1.AS 1684.org.6 and 3.3 times the stump height above ground level or 450 mm.4 Footing type support limitations (load widths × bearer spans) Tables 3. the height limitation may not apply.75 kPa permanent live load. 1 200 1 500 1 800 2 100 2 400 3 000 3 600 Maximum permissible bearer span (mm) 2 400 4 800 6 400 9 700 12 100 1 900 3 900 5 200 7 700 9 700 1 600 3 200 4 300 6 400 8 100 1 400 2 800 3 700 5 500 6 900 1 200 2 400 3 200 4 800 6 000 1 000 1 900 2 600 3 900 4 800 800 1 600 2 100 3 200 4 000 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]  Standards Australia www.7.5 LOAD WIDTHS AND BEARER SPANS FOR FOOTING TYPES 1 TO 5 FOR BEARERS SUPPORTING FLOOR LOADS ONLY Floor load width (mm) Footing type 1 2 3 4 5 NOTES: 1 2 Maximum permissible bearer span is for each footing type.4 kPa wall load spread over the floor area. (c) Embedment Stumps or post embedment in the foundation material shall be at least 0. 0. 3. 3. Bearer size is determined from the relevant Span Tables in the Supplements (see Section 4).7 give maximum permissible load widths and bearer spans for each footing type.4 kPa floor load and 0. based on footing capacity.2—2006 38 (b) Height The height above ground of any stump or post determined using Table 3. TABLE 3. Both of these requirements shall be satisfied. NOTE: Where posts or stumps are designed in accordance with engineering principles.standards. The Span Tables give maximum bearer spans based on the capacity of the relevant timber cross-section. whichever is the greater.au .5.

4 kPa floor load and 0.39 AS 1684.2—2006 TABLE 3.55 kPa being 0.9 kPa for sheet and tile roofs respectively.au  Standards Australia .4 and 0.4 kPa wall load spread over the floor area.6 LOAD WIDTHS AND BEARER SPANS FOR FOOTING TYPES 1 TO 5 FOR BEARERS SUPPORTING SINGLE-STOREY LOADBEARING WALLS Roof load width (mm) Footing type Roofing type 1 500 3 000 4 500 6 000 7 500 Maximum permissible bearer span (mm) Floor load width 900 mm 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Tile Sheet 2 300 4 500 6 000 9 000 11 300 1 600 3 300 4 400 6 600 8 200 1 700 3 500 4 600 6 900 8 700 1 000 2 200 2 900 4 400 5 500 1 400 2 800 3 800 5 600 7 000 800 1 600 2 200 3 300 4 100 1 200 2 400 3 200 4 700 5 900 NS 1 300 1 800 2 600 3 300 1 000 2 000 2 700 4 100 5 100 NS 1 100 1 500 2 200 2 800 Floor load width 1 800 mm 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 1 300 2 600 Sheet 3 500 5 300 6 600 1 100 2 200 Tile 2 900 4 300 5 400 1 100 2 300 3 000 4 500 5 600 800 1 600 2 200 3 300 4 100 1 000 2 000 2 600 3 900 4 900 NS 1 300 1 800 2 600 3 300 800 1 700 2 300 3 500 4 300 NS 1 100 1 500 2 200 2 700 NS 1 600 2 100 3 100 3 900 NS 900 1 300 1 900 2 400 3 4 5 NOTES: 1 2 3 NS = Not suitable Maximum permissible bearer span is for each footing type. Bearer size is determined from the Span Tables in the Supplements (see Section 4).standards. and a distributed load of 1. 0.75 kPa permanent live load.org. www. The Table values are based on roof loads of 0.

4 kPa wall load spread over the floor area.2—2006 40 TABLE 3.standards.au .4 and 0.AS 1684.4 kPa floor load and 0. and a distributed load of 1.75 kPa permanent live load for each floor.org.55 kPa being 0.  Standards Australia www. The Table values are based on roof loads of 0.9 kPa for sheet and tile roofs respectively. Bearer size is determined from the relevant Span Tables in the Supplements (see Section 4). 0.7 LOAD WIDTHS AND BEARER SPANS FOR FOOTING TYPES 1 TO 5 FOR BEARERS SUPPORTING TWO-STOREY LOADBEARING WALLS Roof load width (mm) Footing type Roofing type 1 500 3 000 4 500 6 000 7 500 Maximum permissible bearer span (mm) Floor load width (upper + lower storey) 2 400 mm 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Tile Sheet 1 000 2 100 2 800 4 200 5 200 900 1 800 2 400 3 500 4 400 900 1 800 2 400 3 700 4 600 NS 1 400 1 900 2 800 3 500 800 1 600 2 200 3 300 4 100 NS 1 200 1 500 2 300 2 900 NS 1 500 2 000 2 900 3 700 NS 1 000 1 300 2 000 2 500 NS 1 300 1 800 2 700 3 300 NS 900 1 100 1 700 2 100 Floor load width (upper + lower storey) 3 600 mm 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] NS 1 500 Sheet 1 900 2 900 3 600 NS 1 300 Tile 1 700 2 600 3 200 NS 1 100 Sheet 1 500 2 200 2 800 NS 1 000 Tile 1 400 2 000 2 600 NS 1 300 1 800 2 700 3 300 NS 1 100 1 400 2 200 2 700 NS 1 000 1 400 2 100 2 600 NS 900 1 200 1 800 2 200 NS 1 200 1 600 2 400 3 000 NS 900 1 200 1 900 2 300 NS 1 000 1300 1 900 2 400 NS NS 1 000 1 600 2 000 NS 1 100 1 500 2 300 2 800 NS 800 1 100 1 600 2 000 NS 900 1 200 1 800 2 300 NS NS 900 1 400 1 700 NS 1 000 1 400 2 100 2 600 NS NS 1 000 1 500 1 800 NS 800 1 100 1 700 2 200 NS NS 800 1 300 1 600 Floor load width (upper + lower storey) 4 800 mm 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 NOTES: 1 2 3 NS = Not suitable Maximum permissible bearer span is for each footing type.

given in Figure 4.2 Materials Any timber species may be used for floor framing. Engineered timber products may have their own specific limitations (see Clause 1.standards. provided it is kept dry. NOTES: 1 2 Significant imperfections. www.1.4 Weatherproofing The detailing of wall cladding. 4. nor be at closer spacing than. attention shall be given to the durability of materials and detailing required to ensure an adequate service life (see Clause 1. and shall be used in conjunction with Span Tables 1 to 6. 4.1.1 GENERAL 4.2—2006 SECT ION 4.g.8). that is. NOTE: See Appendices C and F for information on durability.12).org.3 Framing configurations Various configurations of bearers and joists may be used to support flooring at either the ground level or at the first floor level. should be regarded as holes with respect to the hole spacing limitations given in Figure 4. including conventional joists over bearers and joists in line with bearers (low profile floor framing).1. verandahs. well ventilated. holes and notches shall not exceed the sizes. decks. 4. the member size shall not be reduced by any other method to a net section size less than that required to achieve the span requirements. Only one surface at the end of any member shall be notched.41 AS 1684. 4. not exposed to weather.au  Standards Australia .6 Cuts.1. allowance shall be made for shrinkage. flashings and damp-proof course in any construction shall be such that timber floor frame members will be protected from the weather or ground moisture rising through the substructure.1 Scope 4 F L OOR FR AM I NG This Section sets out the requirements for the construction of timber-framed floors and.1. holes and notches in bearers and joists Cuts.1. where applicable. NOTE: Shrinkage associated with the use of seasoned or small section unseasoned bearers and joists (overall depth of floor frame less than 200 mm) is usually of minimal significance to the overall performance of the structure (see Figure F1 in Appendix F). 33 to 35 and 49 and 50 given in the Supplements. When constructing floors that are exposed to the weather (e.8 and Clause 3. not in contact with or close to the ground (see Clause 1. 4. such as knots.1. decks. verandahs). moisture content and shrinkage respectively. and the like..5 Shrinkage Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Where large unseasoned timber members or members with different shrinkage characteristics are used. Unless otherwise specified.3).1.

D. D/4 max.AS 1684. D/3 min. BEARERS. less than 200 mm No min. D/2 or 100 mm max.5).au .  Standards Australia www. D (a) D/2 max.org.2. (b) D/3 max. D (e) D/2 or 6 D 100 mm max.standards.2 BUILDING PRACTICE 4. D/8 or 25 mm max. D D/8 or 25 mm max. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] (f) NOTE: Not more than 3 holes per 1800 mm of span (g) NOTE: Not more than one hole per 1800 mm of span Not less than hole dia. D.7. D/8 or 25 mm max. JOISTS. D/8 or 25 mm max.2—2006 42 D/4 max.1 Bearers 4. max. less than 200 mm (c) D/4 max.1 NOTCHES. 200 mm or greater 6 B min. (h) 50 dia. Bearers may either be single or continuous span over supports (see Clause 2.1. D/2 max. 100 mm max. Notch may be over support Notch may be over support D/4 max.2. RAFTERS 4.1 General Bearers shall span between subfloor supports or walls. NOTE: Not more than one hole per 1800 mm of span D (i) FIGURE 4. B 50 mm min. D D 100 mm max. CUTS AND HOLES IN BEAMS. (d) D min. D. min. B/4 max. D/3 min.

www.au  Standards Australia . Butt joint Half check Halved joint Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Scarfed joint Dove tail NOTE: Bearers may also be lapped over supports.2 shows various connection methods that can be used over supports. within the allowable limits.7). posts or columns in such a manner as will give adequate bearing and provide restraint against lateral movement (see Clause 9.2 Fixing of bearers to supports Bearers shall be fixed to their supporting stumps. Packing of minor deficiencies in depth is permitted.3 Built-up bearers The required breadth of larger section bearers may be obtained by vertically nail-laminating thinner sections together (see Clause 2.1. they shall be deemed to be supported at two points only. NOTES: 1 2 Bearers may be planed to within the allowable tolerances of the member specified. with adequate bearing for both members. shall have the spring placed upwards to allow for straightening under loading. single span.2 BEARER SUPPORTS (ALTERNATIVES) 4. Joints in bearers shall occur only over supports.2. The minimum bearing each side of a join shall be 50 mm.standards.12). bearers shall be levelled. i.1. 4. if bearers are partially cut through (crippled) over supports to correct bow or spring. incompressible material over the full area of support. All cuts shall be located over a support.3). Figure 4.43 AS 1684.org. preferably by checking (notching) out the underside over supports. provided the packing is a corrosion-resistant.. Regardless of their length. Bearers with minor spring.e.2. Vertical scarf FIGURE 4.2—2006 Where required. Some engineered nailplated products may permit joins to occur other than over supports (see Clause 1.

3).6 Block location Midspan One-third span points One-quarter span points Fixing requirements For 38 mm thick.2.au . where required.  Standards Australia www. Where cuts are used to correct bow or spring. 2/75 mm nails each side For 50 mm thick. The undersides of joists having minor excesses shall be notched over bearers in order to bring them to the required level. so that each side of the cut section is adequately supported.0 to 3.1 (see Figure 4.3) Joists having minor spring (within allowable limits) shall be laid such as to allow for straightening under loading. if joists are partially cut over supports to correct bow or spring they shall be deemed to be supported at two points only (single span). Joints in joists that are required to be in line (for example.6 Over 3. they shall be located centrally over the support. TABLE 4. supporting wall plates or fitted flooring) shall be butted or scarfed. Joints in joists shall be as shown in Figure 4.0 2. to support loadbearing walls parallel to joists (see Clause 4. but shall not be lapped.2.2. Spacer blocks shall be placed between the bearers and.2.1 General Joists shall be laid with their top surfaces level to receive flooring.2—2006 44 4.2.standards. provided the packing is fixed and is of corrosion-resistant and incompressible material over the full area of contact.3.4) or flooring (see Clause 5.1 SPACER BLOCK LOCATION AND FIXINGS Bearer span (m) Under 2. Regardless of their length. at the intervals specified in Table 4. at supports. where relevant. Spacing of joists shall be determined by the span capacity of the flooring (see Section 5). Joists joined over bearers or supports shall have minimum 30 mm bearing for each joist.AS 1684.4 and shall be made only over bearers or supports. Additional single or double joists shall be provided.org. 2/100 mm nails each side 4/75 mm nails each side 2/M10 through bolts Blocking Additional fixing where full bearing is not provided FIGURE 4. Packing of joists having minor deficiencies in depth may be utilized.1.4 Double bearers (spaced bearers) The required breadth of larger bearers can be obtained by using spaced double bearers.3 DOUBLE BEARER Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 4.2 Joists 4.

they shall be suitable to carry relevant uniform and point loads that may be transferred to the rim board via the plates.7. for deep joists in unseasoned timber where the span exceeds 3.standards. herringbone strutting or solid blocking shall be provided between all joists in evenly spaced rows not exceeding 1800 mm centres. including I-joist and floor systems.org.2—2006 Scarf joint Butt joint T imber cleat or metal plate Lap FIGURE 4.2. joists shall be provided directly under all loadbearing walls parallel to the joists.1).2 Location of joists The following shall apply: (a) Fitted flooring For flooring that abuts wall plates.2. These joists shall be spaced to provide solid bearing and fixing for the bottom wall plate and to project not less than 12 mm to give support for fixing of the flooring (see Figure 5.8 m centres. Where rim boards (see Clause 2. the joists shall be restrained at their supports with either— Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] (a) (b) a continuous trimming joist provided to the ends of joists above external bearers or wall plates.2. (b) Joists are not required under internal non-loadbearing walls except as required to support flooring.45 AS 1684. Trimmers or solid blocking shall be a minimum thickness of 25 mm. In addition. www.0 m and there is no ceiling installed on the underside of joists. Trimmers or solid blocking may be 25 mm less in depth than the joists (see Figure 4.au  Standards Australia . A single joist only is required under external non-loadbearing walls.5) or other equivalent method for the purpose of ventilation.9) are used in conjunction with deep joists.2. a pair of joists shall be provided under each wall that is parallel to the direction of the joists.3 Deep joists Where the depth of floor joists is equal to or exceeds four times the breadth (deep joists). or solid blocking or herringbone strutting between the outer pairs of joists and between intermediate pairs at not more than 1. 4. Platform flooring Where flooring is continuous under wall plates.4 TYPICAL METHODS OF JOINING JOISTS 4.

4.standards.1 Bearers supporting loadbearing walls The size of bearers supporting single. Depth ( D ) equal to or greater than 4 x breadth ( B ) 18 00 m ax . joists shall be completely seated into the hanger and fixed to maintain structural integrity.1. Lower storey studs (all supporting walls) NOTES: 1 2 For engineered timber products.2—2006 46 18 00 m ax . These Tables are applicable to loadbearing walls that are parallel to bearers and which distribute loads evenly along these bearers.3.6. The size of bearers supporting the lower storey of two-storey loadbearing walls shall be determined from Span Tables 33 and 34 of the Supplements for floor load widths (FLW) of 1800 mm and 3600 mm. Additional blocking or strutting for unseasoned deep joists over 3.1 Bearers 4.or upper-storey loadbearing walls shall be determined from Span Tables 1 of 4 of the Supplements for floor load width (FLW) of 1200 mm. For design parameters. see Clause 1. For support of other loads.org.au .5 STRUTTING AND BLOCKING FOR DEEP JOISTED FLOORS 4.  Standards Australia www. respectively. 3600 mm and 4800 mm.2.AS 1684.3.6. or the like.3.12. 2400 mm. respectively. see Figure 4. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Where joist hangers or specialist connections are utilized.1.4 Fixing of joists to bearers or lower wall plates Joists shall be fixed to bearers at all points of support (see Section 9).2. may be necessary to ensure joists do not twist or roll over during construction (prior to fixing of flooring). FIGURE 4.3 MEMBER SIZES 4.0 m span with no ceiling under neath B D Outside joist pairs shall be blocked Deep floor joist. additional blocking. see Clauses 4. A temporary batten across the tops of blocked joists.1.3.4 to 4.

2—2006 (s ee W n RL ctio Se 2) (s ee W n RL ctio Se 2) Loadbearing wall or flo ng er aci p Up st sp joi Upper floor joist Floor joist Up (se per e S floo Bottom ec r F plate t i o LW n2 ) Top plate Loadbearing wall FL W Se ( cti see on 2) Floor bearer Be ar er a sp n Lo (se wer e S floo ec r F t i o LW n2 ) Floor bearer Be a sp rer an = pier. stump or other support (a) Single or upper storey Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] (b) Lower storey or two storey FIGURE 4. For decks located more than 1000 mm above the ground. the size of bearers supporting floor loads shall be determined from Span Table 49 of the Supplements.org.47 AS 1684.7 for design parameters for bearers supporting floor loads. The maximum cantilever of bearers shall be as given in the Span Tables of the Supplements.2 Bearers supporting floor loads only For bearers supporting floor loads only or for decks located equal to or less than 1000 mm above the ground.3. www.6 BEARERS SUPPORTING LOADBEARING WALLS 4.au  Standards Australia .standards.1. Refer to Figure 4. the size of bearers shall be determined from Span Table 5 of the Supplements.

Floor load width shall be determined in accordance with Clause 2. Where the loadbearing wall occurs outside 1.3.5 times the depth of the bearers from its support. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] TABLE 4.3.1). 4.8).5 times the bearer depth from the bearer support.au .3. 4. the bearer may be considered as not supporting roof loads.6.org.2.3.1. the allowable offset or cantilever shall be determined from Table 4.5 Single or upper storey bearers supporting loadbearing walls at right angles to their span Where loadbearing walls are supported at or within 1.standards. stump or other support a sp rer an FIGURE 4.AS 1684.2 (see also Figure 4.1.2 BEARERS SUPPORTING LOADBEARING WALLS AT RIGHT ANGLES Permissible cantilevers and offsets for bearers under loadbearing walls (maximum roof load width 3600 mm) Depth of member (mm) Up to 125 126 to 200 201 to 275 Over 275 Maximum permissible cantilever as proportion of actual backspan (%) Sheet roof 11 15 17 19 Tile roof 8 10 12 14 Maximum permissible offset as proportion of allowable span (%) Sheet roof 22 30 34 38 Tile roof 16 20 24 28  Standards Australia www.1.2—2006 48 Floor bearer FLW (see Section 2) Floor joist Be = pier.1.4 Bearers supporting gable or skillion end walls Bearers supporting non-loadbearing gable or skillion end walls shall be considered as for bearers supporting single-storey loadbearing walls with a sheet roof and a roof load width (RLW) of 1500 mm (see Clause 4.7 BEARERS SUPPORTING FLOOR LOADS ONLY 4.3 Bearers in lower storey supporting upper-storey floor loads The size of bearers in lower-storey construction supporting floor loads from the upper storey shall be determined from Span Table 35 of the Supplements.

3.3.1. TABLE 4.0 m off the ground shall be determined from Span Table 49 of the supplements.standards.7 Bearers supporting decks more than 1 m off the ground The size of bearers supporting decks more than 1.49 AS 1684.2 Floor joists 4.3. delivered through studs supporting concentrations of load and studs at sides of openings.org. floor joists may cantilever up to 25% of their allowable span provided the minimum backspan is at least twice the cantilever distance. 4.8 OFFSETS AND CANTILEVERS 4.3.6 Bearers supporting roof point loads The maximum roof point loads that bearers can support are given in Table 4. For floor joists supporting floor loads only.1 General The size of floor joists shall be determined from Span Table 6 of the Supplements. The size of joists for decks located more than 1000 mm above the ground shall be determined from Span Table 50 of the Supplements. girder truss.5 Load from a roof strut. See Figure 4. and the like.3 BEARERS SUPPORTING PARALLEL LOADBEARING WALLS Roof type Sheet Tiles * Uniform load Maximum roof load width RLW (mm) As per Span Tables 1 to 4 and 33 & 34 As per Span Tables 1 to 4 and 33 & 34 Point load* Maximum area of roof supported (m 2 ) 5 2. the size may be determined from either Span Table 6 or 50 in the Supplements.2—2006 Loadbearing walls Flooring Loadbearing walls Flooring Joists Bearer cantilever Backspan Offset FIGURE 4. lintel. www. strutting beam.9 for design parameters for floor joists.au  Standards Australia .1. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 4. NOTE: For decks up to 1000 mm above the ground.3.2.

AS 1684.2—2006

50

Floor bearer Floor joist

Jo

ist

sp

an

*

Jo

ist

sp

* For unequal spans, see Section 2

an

*

Jo

ist

a sp

cin

g

(a) Design parameters
Roof loads Roof loads

Loadbearing wall

D

1.5 D

Middle half of span

(b) Loadbearing wall offset

FIGURE 4.9 FLOOR JOISTS

4.3.2.2 Floor joists supporting non-loadbearing gable or skillion end walls The size of joists supporting non-loadbearing gable or skillion end walls shall be the same size as the adjacent floor joists. Unless required for the support of flooring, a single joist may be used.
Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]

4.3.2.3 Floor joists supporting loadbearing walls at right angles to joists Where loadbearing walls are offset up to 1.5 times the joist depth from the supporting bearer or wall, the joist may be considered as supporting floor loads only (see Figure 4.9). In single- or upper-storey floors, where the loadbearing wall occurs within the middle half of the span of the joist, the joist size shall be determined from Span Table 6 of the Supplements for the appropriate roof load width (RLW). For loadbearing walls occurring between 1.5 times the depth from the support up to the middle half of the span, interpolation is permitted (see Figure 4.9). For loadbearing walls supported by cantilevered floor joists, the maximum cantilever shall not exceed 15% of the allowable span determined from Span Table 6 of the Supplements for the appropriate roof load width (RLW), and the minimum backspan shall be at least four times the cantilever distance. In the lower storey of a two-storey construction, floor joists shall not support loadbearing walls within their spans. 4.3.2.4 Single- or upper-storey floor joists supporting roof point loads and loadbearing walls parallel to joists For RLW = 0, floor joist sizes determined from Span Table 6 of the Supplements may support roof point loads and loadbearing walls parallel to joists in accordance with Table 4.4. Where multiple joists are used, the maximum RLW or point load area may be increased in proportion to the number of additional joists.

 Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

51

AS 1684.2—2006

For roof load widths greater than the values given in Table 4.4, the joists may be considered as for bearers in accordance with the bearer Span Tables of the Supplements and an equivalent joist size provided. TABLE 4.4 JOISTS SUPPORTING ROOF LOADS TRANSFERRED THROUGH WALLS PARALLEL TO JOISTS
Roof type Sheet Tile * Uniform load parallel to joists Maximum RLW (mm) 3 600 2 100 Point load* Maximum area of roof supported (m 2 ) 5 2.5

Load from a roof strut, strutting beam, girder truss, lintel, etc., delivered through studs supporting concentrations of load and studs at sides of openings.

4.3.2.5 Openings in floors Trimming joists and trimmers supporting curtailed joists shall be of the same size, and shall be not less in size than the associated floor joists. Trimmers between 1000 mm and 3000 mm in length shall have their breadth, including the breadth of trimming joist, increased by at least 20% more than the common joist breadth for each 300 mm in length, or part thereof, greater than 1000 mm. Trimmers exceeding 3000 mm shall be designed as bearers. Trimmers and curtailed joists greater than 1000 mm shall not rely solely on the strength of nails into end grain and shall be suitably connected (e.g., metal nailplate connectors), (see Figure 4.10).

Trimming joist
Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]

30

00

mm

ma

x.

Trimmers

Metal connectors when span exceeds 1000 mm Curtailed joists (trimmed joists)

FIGURE 4.10 OPENINGS IN FLOORS

4.3.2.6 Joists supporting decks more than 1 m off the ground The size of joists supporting decks more than 1.0 m off the ground shall be determined from Span Table 50 of the Supplements.

www.standards.org.au

 Standards Australia

AS 1684.2—2006

52

SECT ION
5.1 SCOPE

5

F L OOR I N G

AND

DECK I NG

This Section specifies the requirements for the installation of tongued and grooved strip flooring and decking as well as plywood and particleboard sheet flooring.
NOTE: Appendix F provides guidelines on moisture content of timber flooring.

5.2 PLATFORM FLOORS Where platform floor construction is used, the flooring shall be protected from wetting by rain and wet trades.
NOTE: During construction, all flooring should be flood-coated with a water-repellent sealer.

5.3 FITTED FLOORS (CUT-IN FLOORS) Fitted floors (cut-in floors) are installed after walls have been erected, and after roofing, wall cladding, doors and windows have been installed. Where boards are laid parallel with walls, a minimum 10 mm gap shall be provided between the board adjacent to the bottom plate and the bottom plate (see Figure 5.1).

12 mm min. bearing

12 mm min. bearing 10 mm min. gap

10 mm min. gap

Bearer
Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]

Bearer

Joist

FIGURE 5.1 FITTED FLOORS

5.4 EXPANSION JOINTS For continuous floor widths over 6 m, measured at right angles to flooring, intermediate expansion joints shall be provided in addition to the perimeter gaps. This joint shall be either a single 10 mm wide gap, under a wall or across a hallway and the like, or smaller gaps with closer spacings to give an equivalent space (for example, 1 mm gaps at 1 m spacing or loose cramping). 5.5 LAYING AND FIXING 5.5.1 Strip flooring—Laying Fitted flooring shall be kept 10 mm clear of walls or wall plates that are parallel to the length of the boards. End-matched flooring may be laid with end joints between joists provided that end joints are joined tightly together and well distributed and end-matched joints in adjoining boards do not fall within the same joist spacing. Board lengths shall be at least the equivalent of two joist spacings (see Figure 5.2). Finger-jointed hardwood flooring manufactured in accordance with AS 2796.1 shall be considered equivalent to continuous strip flooring.

 Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

53

AS 1684.2—2006

Butt joints shall be cut square and butt-joined tightly together over floor joists. Joints in adjoining boards shall be staggered (see Figure 5.2).

(a) Butt joints over joists—staggered (not to occur in adjacent boards on same joist)

(b) End-matched joints—staggered (not to occur in adjacent boards within same span)

FIGURE 5.2 END JOINTS

5.5.2 Cramping 5.5.2.1 General Tongues shall be fitted into grooves and boards cramped together ensuring that the boards are bedded firmly on floor joists. Boards shall be in contact with the joists at the time of nailing. 5.5.2.2 Fixing Boards up to 85 mm cover width shall be fixed by face-nailing with one or two nails or shall be secret-nailed with one nail at each joist (see Figure 5.3). Boards over 85 mm cover width shall be fixed with two nails at each joist. Alternate nails in double-nailed boards shall be skewed slightly to the vertical, in opposing directions (see Figure 5.4). The minimum edge distance for nailing at butt joints or board ends shall be 12 mm.
NOTES:
Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]

1

All nails, including machine-driven nails, should be punched a minimum of 3 mm below the top surface. Nail punching should allow for sanding and finishing and to draw boards tightly onto joists. Pre-drilling boards for fixings at butt ends aids in reducing splitting.

2

FIGURE 5.3 SECRET NAILING

The nail sizes for flooring up to 21 mm thick shall be as given in Table 5.1. TABLE 5.1 NAIL SIZES FOR FIXING TONGUED AND GROOVED FLOORING TO JOISTS
Nailing Hand-driven Machine-driven Softwood joists 65 × 2.8 mm bullet-head 65 × 2.5 mm Hardwood and cypress joists 50 × 2.8 mm bullet-head 50 × 2.5 mm

www.standards.org.au

 Standards Australia

AS 1684.2—2006

54

12 mm from ends

Alter nate nails in opposing directions

(a) Intermediate joists

(b) Butt ends

FIGURE 5.4 FACE NAILING

5.5.2.3 Fixing to structural plywood underlay Underlay shall be structural plywood to AS/NZS 2269. The thickness shall be determined from Table 5.3 except that it shall be not less than 15 mm thick. Strip flooring shall be facenailed or secret-nailed to plywood underlay in accordance with Table 5.2. Double face-nailing shall be used for boards exceeding 85 mm cover width. TABLE 5.2 NAIL SIZES FOR FIXING TONGUED AND GROOVED FLOORING TO STRUCTURAL PLYWOOD UNDERLAY
Strip flooring thickness (mm) 19 or 20
Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]

Recommended nailing (for 15 mm min. thickness subfloor) Either 38 × 16 gauge chisel point staples or 38 × 2.2 mm nails at 300 mm spacing 32 × 16 gauge chisel point staples or 30 × 2.2 mm nails at 200 mm spacing

12 , 19 or 20

5.5.3 Structural plywood flooring 5.5.3.1 Laying Plywood panels shall be laid with the face grain of the plies at right angles to the line of the supporting joists and shall be continuous over at least two spans. Ends of sheets shall be butted over joists. Edges of sheets, unless tongued and grooved, shall be joined over noggings between joists. Noggings shall be of timber not less than 70 × 35 mm section and shall be set flush with the top of the joists. 5.5.3.2 Fixing (see Figure 5.5) Nails used for fixing of plywood shall be either 2.8 mm diameter flat-head or bullet-head hand-driven nails, or 2.5 mm diameter machine-driven nails and of length of not less than 2.5 times the thickness of the panel. Nails shall be spaced at 150 mm centres at panel ends and at 300 mm centres at intermediate joists and along noggings. Nails shall be not less than 10 mm from edge of sheets. Deformed shank nails shall be used where a resilient floor covering is fixed directly to the plywood. Structural adhesive or deformed shank nails shall be used where plywood is fixed to unseasoned floor joists of depth greater than 150 mm.
 Standards Australia www.standards.org.au

300 mm centres at intermediate joists and noggings Bearer Stump 10 mm from edge at 150 mm centres at ends and joints Direction of face grain of plywood FIGURE 5.standards. 5..2 Laying Sheets shall span not less than two floor joist spacings. Nails shall be 10 mm from all edges and at 150 mm centres at ends and butt joints for square edge sheets.3 shall not be used for plywood in which the outer veneers are thinner than any or all of the inner veneers. Structural elastomeric adhesive shall be used in a designated wet area.5. panel ends shall be staggered. Table 5.55 AS 1684.5 FIXING OF PLYWOOD SHEET FLOORING 5. bathrooms. 5.3 Fixing Sheets shall be securely glued and nailed to the top edge of the joists.2—2006 Where possible. the tabulated spacings shall be reduced by 25%. www. Nails shall be at 300 mm centres maximum at intermediate joists or nogging. 5. Structural plywood flooring shall not be cramped during installation.4.7 JOIST SPACING—FLOORING The maximum allowable spacing of supports for tongue and groove strip and sheet flooring shall be in accordance with Table 5.5.6 WET AREA FLOORS Timber floors in wet areas (e. laundries) shall be protected from moisture in accordance with the Building Code of Australia.4 Particleboard 5. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Square edges and ends of sheets shall be butted centrally over joists or on trimmers or blocking.1 General Particleboard flooring shall be layed and fixed in accordance with AS 1860. For plywood sheets supported over one span only.au  Standards Australia .4.3. 5.5.org.4.g.5.

standards.1 Standard Standard 19 19 510 580 390 450 Thickness (mm) 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Grade F8 400 430 460 480 510 540 560 590 610 640 660 F11 420 450 480 520 540 560 590 620 650 670 700 F14 440 480 510 540 570 600 620 660 680 710 740 Plywood (see Note 3) AS/NZS 2269 Particleboard (see Note 4) NOTES: 1 2 3 AS/NZS 1860. it has been assumed that in any thickness of plywood the veneers are all of equal thickness. For full details on particleboard flooring. Strip flooring boards may be regraded after elimination of imperfections by docking. For plywood flooring thicknesses detailed above.3 STRUCTURAL FLOORING—MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE SPACING OF JOISTS Thickness (mm) Maximum spacing of joists (mm) Butt joined End matched Flooring Standard Grade Strip flooring Select Australian hardwoods Other hardwoods —Density less than 560 kg/m 3 AS 2796.1 An allowance has been made for light sanding. the dimensions listed in this Table will be slightly conservative if the outer veneers are thicker than any or all of the inner veneers.1 —Density greater than 560 kg/m 3 Medium feature— Standard Medium feature— Standard AS 1810 Grade 1 Grade 2 Standard Radiata Pine AS 4785.2—2006 56 TABLE 5. For plywood of a given total thickness. see AS/NZS 1860.au .org.1 19 19 680 620 520 470 Medium feature— Standard 19 19 19 20 19 19 30 510 580 580 580 450 510 920 390 450 450 450 390 — 700 Cypress AS 4785.1 Utility Standard Softwood other than cypress or radiata pine: —Density less than 560 kg/m 3 —Density greater than 560 kg/m Sheet flooring Standard Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 3 AS 2796. 4  Standards Australia www.AS 1684.1.1 See AS/NZS 1860.

57

AS 1684.2—2006

5.8 DECKING The maximum allowable spacing of joists for timber decking shall be in accordance with Table 5.4 (see also Clause 4.3.2). TABLE 5.4 DECKING BOARDS
Decking Hardwood Cypress Treated softwood Grade Standard grade (AS 2796.1) Grade 1 (AS 1810) Standard grade (AS 4785.1) Thickness (mm) 19 19 21 19 22 Maximum joist spacing (mm) 500 400 450 400 450

Decking board fixing requirements for decking up to 22 mm thickness shall be in accordance with Table 5.5. TABLE 5.5 DECKING BOARD FIXING REQUIREMENTS
Decking Joists Nailing (hot-dip galvanized or stainless steel, 2 nails per board crossing) Machine-driven Hardwood and cypress Hardwood and cypress Treated softwood Hardwood and cypress Treated softwood 50 × 2.5 flat- or dome-head 50 × 2.5 flat-head deformed shank 65 × 2.5 flator dome-head Hand-driven 50 × 2.8 bullet-head 50 × 2.8 bullet-head deformed shank 65 × 2.8 bullet-head

Treated softwood
Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]

50 × 2.5 flat- or dome-head 50 × 2.5 flat-head deformed shank 65 × 2.5 flat-head

50 × 2.8 flat- or dome-head 50 × 2.8 flat-head deformed shank 65 × 2.8 flat-head

www.standards.org.au

 Standards Australia

AS 1684.2—2006

58

SECT ION
6.1 GENERAL 6.1.1 Scope

6

WA L L

FRA M IN G

This Section sets out the requirements for the construction of conventional stud-framed walls and shall be used in conjunction with Span Tables 7 to 20 (single- or upper-storey construction), 36 to 48 (lower-storey construction), or 51A and 53 (verandahs and posts) of the Supplements. 6.1.2 Wall frame members Walls shall be framed with studs, plates, nogging, bracing, lintels, and the like, as typically shown in Figure 6.1 and as outlined in this Section.

T imber or metal bracing Top plate Sheet bracing Common stud Nogging Lintel

Wall intersection Jack stud Jamb stud
Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]

Bottom plate

FIGURE 6.1 WALL FRAME MEMBERS

6.1.3 Bracing Temporary and permanent bracing shall be provided to stud walls to resist horizontal forces applied to the building. Appropriate connections shall also be provided to transfer these forces through the framework and subfloor structure to the building foundation (see Section 8). 6.2 BUILDING PRACTICE 6.2.1 Studs 6.2.1.1 Straightening of studs (crippling) Common studs may be straightened by ‘crippling’ with saw cuts and cleats (see Figure 6.2). Up to 20% of common studs, including those in bracing walls, may be crippled. Studs at the sides of openings and studs supporting concentration of load shall not be crippled.
NOTE: Studs may be planed provided the minimum size remaining is not less than the minimum design size required; for example, a stud of 90 mm depth may be planed down to 70 mm depth if the minimum design depth required is 70 mm.

 Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

59

AS 1684.2—2006

Saw-cut D /2 max.

600 mm min.

42 x 19 x 600 mm min. length cleats fixed with 4/50 mm nails

D

FIGURE 6.2 STUD CRIPPLING

6.2.1.2 Common studs Common studs shall be evenly spaced to suit loads, lining and cladding fixing. Large size studs can be made up by nail-laminating together two or more smaller sized studs (see Clause 2.3). 6.2.1.3 Wall junctions Studs at wall junctions and intersections shall be in accordance with one of the details shown in Figure 6.3. Studs shall be not less in size than common studs. All junctions shall have sufficient studs, located such as to allow adequate fixing of linings. All intersecting walls shall be fixed at their junction with a minimum of three blocks or noggings fixed to each wall with 2/75 mm nails. Blocks or noggings shall be installed at 900 mm max. centres.
Noggings at max. 900 mm spacing Studs to be securely fixed with blocking and nails Studs to be securely fixed with blocking and nails Provide minimum 200 mm long stud size blocks spaced max. 900 mm apart

A1
Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]

Special fixing may be required for inter nal linings

Suitable for exter nal brick veneer walls

(a) Intersections

(b) Corners

FIGURE 6.3 TYPICAL WALL JUNCTIONS

www.standards.org.au

 Standards Australia

AS 1684.2—2006

60

6.2.1.4 Notching, trenching and holes in studs and plates The maximum size and spacing of cuts, holes, notches, and the like, in studs and plates shall be in accordance with Figure 6.4 and Table 6.1. Holes in studs and plates shall be located within the middle half of the depth and breadth of the member, respectively. A longitudinal groove up to 18 mm wide × 10 mm deep may be machined into the middle 1/3 depth of a stud to accept full-length anchor rods. Where the groove exceeds this dimension, the remaining net breadth and depth of the stud shall be not less than the minimum size required.
Stud depth D Stud C E Stud breadth B

A H H A

F

E F P Bottom plate

Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]

FIGURE 6.4 NOTCHING OF WALL STUDS

 Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

61

AS 1684.2—2006

TABLE 6.1 HOLES AND NOTCHES IN STUDS AND PLATES
Symbol A H C E F P NOTES: 1 2 3 4 A horizontal line of notches up to 25 mm may be provided for the installation of baths. Except as permitted for diagonal cut in bracing, notches up to 20 mm may occur in every fifth individual stud. For additional jamb stud allowances, see Figure 6.9. Top and bottom plates in internal non-loadbearing and non-bracing walls may be discontinuous up to 60 mm (cut or drilled) to permit installation of services provided that, at the discontinuity, the plates are trimmed or otherwise reinforced either side of the discontinuity to maintain the lateral and longitudinal integrity of the wall. Description Notched Distance between holes and/or notches in stud breadth Hole diameter (studs and plates) Notch into stud breadth Notch into stud depth Distance between notches in stud depth Trenches in plates Min. 3D Max. 25 mm (wide face only) Max. 10 mm Max. 20 mm (for diagonal cut in bracing only) (see Notes 1 and 2) Min. 12B Min. 3D Max. 25 mm (wide face only) Max. 10 mm Not permitted (see Note 1) N/A 3 mm max. Limits Not notched

Studs may be designed as notched or not-notched. For common studs, the maximum notch depth for single- or upper-storey or lower-storey construction shall be 20 mm. When determined in accordance with the Span Tables given in the Supplements, top and bottom plate sizes may be trenched up to a maximum of 3 mm. Where trenching exceeds this depth, the minimum remaining net depth of the plate shall be used when determining the allowable design limits from the Span Tables.
Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]

NOTE: As an example, if a 45 mm deep plate is trenched 10 mm, then the design using the Span Tables shall be based on a 35 mm deep plate.

Jamb Studs in external walls and other loadbearing walls shall not be notched within the middle half of their height or within the height of the opening. A notch up to a maximum of 20 mm in depth is permissible outside this region at the top and/or the bottom of the stud (see Figure 6.5).
Notching permitted if outside middle half of jamb studs height Middle half of stud height

Notching of jamb studs not permitted within height of opening

Notching permitted if outside middle half of jamb studs height

FIGURE 6.5 NOTCHING OF JAMB STUDS
www.standards.org.au  Standards Australia

Nogging thickness shall be a minimum of 25 mm and shall be suitable for the proper fixing of cladding and linings.6 NOGGING 6. Noggings shall be installed either centrally in the depth of the studs or flush with one face of the stud in order to provide fixing or support to cladding or linings. or below studs supporting concentrations of load. offset) D Stud Bottom plate 1350 mm max. Not less than ( D .2. solid blocking or a concrete slab. 35 mm thick Bottom plate FIGURE 6.5 Nogging Wall studs shall have continuous rows of noggings at 1350 mm maximum centres (see Figure 6.2 Plates 6.7 BOTTOM PLATE STIFFENING  Standards Australia www.1. Concentration of load Stud(s) Solid blocking min.au . shall be stiffened (see Figure 6. Top plate Nogging B 2B (max. Stagger in the row of noggings shall be not greater than twice the nogging breadth.AS 1684.2. Bottom plates shall be provided along the full length of all walls except at door openings.2—2006 62 6.6).2. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 6.7). Noggings are not required to be stress graded.25) mm FIGURE 6.2.1 General Top plates shall be provided along the full length of all walls including over openings.2 Bottom plates Bottom plates may be butt-jointed provided both ends are fixed and supported by floor joists. Bottom plates supporting jamb studs to openings exceeding 1200 mm.2.2.org.standards.

all studs shall be housed around the ring beam as shown for jack studs. strutting beams. but may be made up by horizontal nail lamination.4 Joints in top plates Top plates shall be joined using one of the methods given in Section 9 for the relevant wind classification. 6. Concentration of load Intermediate vertical blocking.2. hanging beams or counter beams 3000 mm or more in length.standards. or the like) occurs between studs (that is studs supporting concentrations of load not provided). struts.8 TOP PLATE STIFFENING 6.8. A minimum clearance of 15 mm shall be provided between the underside of the lintel or lintel trimmer and the top of the window frame. Alternatively. spacing.2.3 Stiffening of top plates Where a concentration of load (from roof beams.2. min. combined strutting/counter beams.63 AS 1684. combined strutting/hanging beams. and orientation as the common studs. girder truss.9. Jack studs shall be the same size.2. the use of metal nailplate connectors is recommended for the fixing of blocking to studs.2—2006 6. top plates shall be stiffened in accordance with Figure 6. Where the breadth of the ring beam is not the full depth of the wall frame. www. 2 FIGURE 6. as shown in Figure 6.9. double blocking shall be provided with 3 nails at each end of blocking (total 6 nails at each stud).au  Standards Australia .9(d). Jack studs shall be provided in all cases between the lintel and the top plate or trimmer. A continuous lintel (ring beam) may be located directly below the top plate as shown in Figure 6. size as for common studs Top plate Two nails at each joint NOTE: Where the supported roof area exceeds 10 m .3 Openings Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Openings shall be framed with jamb studs and lintels (heads) as shown in Figure 6.2. or by placing the block on edge on top of the top plate from stud to stud.org.

or tie members (binders) (see Figure 6.org. Common stud Nogging Jack stud Lintel Common stud N Head may W be housed into jamb stud by the lesser of N = W /4 and 10 mm) Ledger (not required where lintel 120 mm or less in depth) D 45 mm min.4 Framing around chimneys and flues Placement of all framing members shall be in accordance with AS 1691 and AS/NZS 2918.2—2006 64 Jamb stud (stud at side of opening) Jack stud Top plate D/2 max.2. External walls supporting ceiling joists.5 Lateral support for non-loadbearing walls 6. continuous timber ceiling battens. rafters or trusses are deemed to have adequate lateral support. where trusses are supported by a verandah plate or other beam. cut around lintel. 6.10).AS 1684. such as gable end walls and verandah walls.9 OPENINGS 6.1 External walls External walls shall be laterally supported against wind forces. Non-loadbearing external walls.au .2.standards.2. or on flat Lintel trimmer Jamb stud x = combined width of jamb studs Secondary jamb stud (c) Lintels having breadth greater than half stud depth Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] (d) Lintel directly below top plate FIGURE 6.  Standards Australia www.5. ends of hanging or strutting beams. (housing for jack stud not permitted) Jack stud. shall be restrained laterally at a maximum of 3000 mm centres by means of— (a) (b) (c) (d) intersecting walls. Jamb stud (stud at side of opening) (a) Spans not exceeding 1200 mm (Non-loadbearing walls) (b) Lintel breadth less than or equal to half stud depth Common stud Jack stud Lintel D Secondary jamb stud 35 mm Lintel min.

when trusses are pitched off verandah beams.org. or equivalent. M10 bolt. strap with 4/2.2 Internal walls—Trussed roofs Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Non-loadbearing walls shall be kept a minimum of 10 mm below the underside of the bottom chord.standards. end distance) (a) Bolt or framing anchors (b) Metal strap FIGURE 6. or ceiling battens when used.2—2006 Where binders are required. I.11. NOTE: Alternative details for the lateral support of non-loadbearing external walls. continuous members fixed to the external top plate as shown in Figure 6.10 BINDERS 6. Ceiling joist Binder (tie) 35 ´ 70 mm 30 ´ 0. Trusses shall be fixed to internal non-loadbearing walls as shown in Figure 6.8 mm G.2.10. they shall be 35 × 70 mm min. Truss parallel to wall Truss at right angle to wall For fixing of inter nal bracing walls.6.11 FIXING OF TRUSSES TO A NON-LOADBEARING INTERNAL WALL www.3.9). are given in Section 9.8mm nails each end Binder (tie) 35 ´ 70 mm Ceiling joist Blocking size as for ceiling joist Top plate Nail block to top plate with 2/75 mm nails Top plate Stud Provide min. are provided for each side of the joint.65 AS 1684. or as required for bracing (see Clause 8. provided 4/75 mm nails.5. see Section 8 Wall top plate Slotted bracket at 1800 mm centres to allow vertical movement of truss on loading (a) Truss parallel to wall (b) Truss perpendicular to wall FIGURE 6. 80 mm from end of binder or two framing anchors (no min.au  Standards Australia . Binders may be spliced. such as may occur in trussed roof construction. that is binders overlap at least two ceiling joists with 2/75 mm nails to each joist and/or binder crossing.

3.3. For design parameters for wall studs.1 Common suds The size of studs in single.or upper-storey loadbearing walls NOTE: Noggings have been omitted for clarity. which shall be determined from the appropriate Span Table given in the Supplements. NOTES: 1 2 Statements expressed in mandatory terms in Notes to the Span Tables are deemed to be requirements of this Standard.standards.2 Wall studs 6.3.3.12 WALL STUDS  Standards Australia www.12.2—2006 66 6. sheeting. The size of studs in the lower storey of two-storey loadbearing walls shall be determined from Span Tables 36 and 37 of the Supplements for not-notched and notched studs respectively.org.3.2 to 6.1 General Clauses 6. Rafter or truss spacing Rafter or truss Rafter or truss spacing RLW (see Section 2) RLW (see Section 2) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Upper floor joist Stud height Upper FLW (see Section 2) Stud Stud spacing Stud spacing (a) Single. In some instances.3 MEMBER SIZES 6.7 provide details with respect to the determination of wall framing member sizes. (b) Lower-storey loadbearing walls FIGURE 6. 6. lining or cladding fixing requirements may necessitate larger sizes than those determined from the Span Tables.au Stud height . see Figure 6.or upper-storey loadbearing walls shall be determined from Span Tables 7 and 8 of the Supplements for not notched and notched studs respectively.AS 1684.2.

Where studs support hanging beam loads only.1.2 Studs supporting concentrated loads The size of studs supporting concentrated loads in single-or upper-storey construction shall be determined from Span Tables 9 and 10 of the Supplements for not notched and notched studs respectively. see Clause 6. For design parameters for studs supporting concentrated loads.13. ‘roof area’ is not relevant. In such cases an area equal to half the area of ceiling supported by the hanging beam should be used in the Span Tables in lieu of area of sheet roof supported.1.13 STUDS SUPPORTING CONCENTRATIONS OF LOADING www. see Figure 6. girder trusses or hanging beams 3000 mm or more in length.67 AS 1684.org.3. The Span Tables for studs supporting concentrations of load (upper storey) are appropriate for determining the size of studs supporting concentrated loads such as from strutting beams. Where cutin or metal angle bracing is used (see Clause 6.standards. roof struts. (b) Studs supporting concentrated floor loads FIGURE 6. The Span Tables require an input in terms of roof area supported.2.2.au  Standards Australia .3. Upper floor bearer Underpurlin A A Upper floor joist B Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] B Roof strut Stud supporting concentrated load Stud(s) supporting Strutting concentrated beam floor loads Roof area supported = (A × B)/4 A = total of underpurlin spans B = total of rafter spans Floor area supported = (A × B)/4 A = span of upper floor bearer B = total of joist spans (a) Roof area supported NOTE: Ridge is assumed to be strutted.4) the studs shall be designed as notched. The size of studs supporting concentrated floor loads in the lower storey of a two-storey construction shall be determined from Span Tables 38 and 39 of the Supplements for not-notched and notched studs respectively. 6.2—2006 The Span Tables provide for the design of notched and not-notched wall studs. For studs at wall junctions and intersections.2.

the following shall apply except for the requirements in connection types (d) and (e) of Table 9.standards.3.3.g. see Figure 6.3 Jamb studs (studs at sides of openings) The size of jamb studs for single-or upper-storey construction shall be determined from Span Table 11 of the Supplements.2—2006 68 6. respectively. shall be increased by one half of the breadth of the stud required to support the concentrated load. 3600 mm and 4800 mm. 10. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Where the lintel tables require bearing lengths greater than that provided by the secondary jamb stud.20: (a) (b) (c) 2 members (e.9.2. see Figure 6. Where the jamb stud size required by the Span Tables is made up of multiple members.g. provided jamb linings or other comparable stiffeners are used and these studs do not support concentrated loads.14. For design parameters for jamb studs. shall have their size increased by the size required for a stud supporting the equivalent concentrated load as determined from Span Tables 9..au .org. either side of the opening. jamb studs at sides of openings may be the same size as the common studs.4). Where the concentrated load is located at or within one third of the lintel span from the jamb stud. an additional secondary jamb stud shall be provided. 41 and 42 of the Supplements for floor load widths (FLW) of 1800 mm. which in turn support major concentrated loads from strutting beams. 3 members (e. 2/90 × 35)—provide 1 full-length stud plus 1 secondary jamb stud.  Standards Australia www. the breadth of the jamb studs. roof struts. Jamb studs that support lintels... 3/70 × 35)—provide 2 full-length studs plus 1 secondary jamb stud. 38 and 39 of the Supplements. For the terminology of secondary jamb stud. For doorway openings up to 900 mm. 4/90 × 45)—provide 2 full-length studs plus 2 secondary jamb studs.g. or the like (see Clause 6. this jamb stud shall be increased in size by the size of the stud supporting the concentrated load.6.AS 1684. girder trusses. The size of jamb studs in the lower storey of a two-storey construction shall be determined from Span Tables 40. 4 members (e. floor bearers. Where the concentrated load is located at or within the central third of the lintel span.

14 JAMB STUDS www.2—2006 RLW (see Section 2) Rafter or truss RLW (see Section 2) Upper floor joist Lintel Upper FLW (see Section 2) Common stud e Op nin g Jamb studs Stud height f ho idt ing W en op Stud height f ho idt ing W en op Lintel Jamb studs (a) Single or upper storey Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] (b) Lower storey NOTE: Noggings have been omitted for clarity.standards.au  Standards Australia . FIGURE 6.69 AS 1684.org.

or upper-storey internal loadbearing walls supporting roof loads only shall be determined from Span Tables 12 and 13 of the Supplements for not notched and notched studs respectively.15 INTERNAL LOADBEARING WALL STUDS  Standards Australia www. (b) Lower storey FIGURE 6. For design parameters for internal loadbearing wall studs.standards.AS 1684.au . Rafter/truss spacing Rafter or truss Roof loads supported off other walls RLW (see Section 2) FLW floor load width (see Section 2) Stud height Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Stud height Stud spacing Studs supporting floor loads only (a) Single or upper storey NOTE: Noggings have been omitted for clarity.2—2006 70 6.15.2.3. The size of studs supporting floor loads only in lower-storey construction shall be determined from Span Tables 43 and 44 of the Supplements for not notched and notched studs respectively. see Figure 6.4 Internal loadbearing wall studs The size of studs in single.org.

16 GABLE OR SKILLION END WALL STUD HEIGHT www. the stud height is measured as the greater of the ceiling height or the height from ceiling to roof. wall studs—single or upper storey. Where studs support a loadbearing ridge or intermediate beam.5 Gable or skillion end and non-loadbearing external wall studs Gable or skillion end wall stud sizes shall be determined from the appropriate Span Tables of the Supplements (that is. Noggings are omitted for clarity. Ceiling. for example. or lower storey) and shall be not less than the smallest stud permitted for the stud height (see Figure 6.org.standards.3. if applicable (see Note 1) Loadbearing ridge beam support (see Note 2) h1 h2 h3 h4 h5 Stud height = average height of 5 longest studs = ( h 1 + h 2 + h 3 + h 4 + h 5 )/5 NOTES: 1 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Where the house has a horizontal ceiling or where a specially designed horizontal wind beam is provided. studs supporting concentration of load. stud spacing.2.16).71 AS 1684.au  Standards Australia . separate consideration is required.2—2006 6. and for sheet roof of any RLW. 2 3 FIGURE 6.

3.or upper-storey construction shall be determined from Span Table 14 of the Supplements.7 Concentrated loads on non-loadbearing internal walls Where studs supporting concentrated loads (see Clause 6.17 MULLIONS 6.3. design shall be based on the principle given in the following example: 35 × 70 mm on top of a 45 × 70 mm.2.3. bottom plates may be 35 mm minimum depth for any stress grade. the bottom plates may be the same size as the common studs for any stress grade. www.3.AS 1684. see Figure 6. Double or multiple bottom plates (ribbon plates) may be used. If plates of different thicknesses are used in combination. e. 2/35 × 70. (a) (b) (c) Calculate the RLW assuming 2/35 × 70 = RLW 1 . If wall studs are positioned at or within 1.standards.2. Calculate the RLW assuming 2/45 × 70 = RLW 2 . Allowable RLW = (RLW 1 + RLW 2) divided by 2.2.2—2006 72 6. 3/38 × 75. For design parameters for mullions.org.2.17.g. If the wall studs are positioned directly above floor joists or are supported by blocking or a concrete floor.5 times the depth of bottom plates from supporting floor joists. Top plate Lintel Lintel Lintel trimmer Sill trimmer Mullion shall be designed for opening width of ( a + b .au  Standards Australia .600 mm) a b FIGURE 6. the remainder of the wall shall be deemed to be non-loadbearing.6 Mullions The size of mullions shall be determined as for jamb studs in Clause 6. provided the allowable roof load width (RLW) is determined in accordance with the Span Tables for members indicated as being made up of multiples.3 except that the opening width shall be equal to the combined opening width either side of the mullion less 600 mm.2) are incorporated in an internal wall that is otherwise non-loadbearing. The size of bottom plates in the lower storey of a two-storey construction shall be determined from Span Table 45 of the Supplements.3. 6..3 Bottom plates Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] The size of bottom plates in single.

4 Top plates The size of top plates for single storey or upper storey of a two-storey construction shall be determined from Span Tables 15 and 16 of the Supplements respectively for sheet and tile roofs.18. and www.standards.73 AS 1684.1. or where tie-down spacing is 0 (see Note vii in Span Tables 15 and 16). Rafter/truss spacing Rafter or truss RLW (see Section 2) RLW (see Section 2) Upper floor joist spacing Joist spacing Stud FLW (see Section 2) Floor joist Stud spacing Bottom plate (lower storey of two storeys) Joist spacing Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] (a) Single or upper storey NOTE: Noggings have been omitted for clarity.org.2—2006 Where the bottom plate supports studs supporting concentrated loads. see Figure 6.2.au  Standards Australia .3. solid blocking between bottom plate and bearer or concrete slab. The size of top plates for the lower storey of a two-storey construction shall be determined from Span Table 46 of the Supplements for both sheet and tile roofs. Trenching and holes in bottom plates shall not exceed the limitations given in Clause 6. posts or jamb studs.18 BOTTOM PLATES 6. Wall plate sizes in the Span Tables are appropriate for wall plates supporting defined roof loads located at any position along the length of the plate. For design parameters for bottom plates. the plate shall be supported over a floor joist. (b) Lower storey FIGURE 6. such as where rafters or trusses are nominally fixed (see Table 9.2). Top plates may be a minimum of 35 mm deep times the breadth of the stud for any stress grade where— (a) they are not required to resist wind uplift forces.4.

5 times the depth of the plate from the stud. combined strutting/hanging beams.AS 1684. strutting beams. Double or multiple top plates (ribbon plates) may be used provided the allowable roof load width (RLW) is determined in accordance with the Span Tables for members indicated as being made up of multiples.standards. combined strut/counter beams.2—2006 74 (b) loads from roof trusses. Stiffening or blocking of top plates shall be in accordance with Figure 6. design shall be based on the principles given in the following examples: Example 1: 35 × 70 mm on top of a 45 × 70 mm — Calculate the RLW assuming 2/35 × 70 = RLW 1 — Calculate the RLW assuming 2/45 × 70 = RLW 2 — Allowable RLW = (RLW 1 + RLW 2 ) divided by 2 Example 2: 35 × 70 mm F7 on top of a 45 × 70 mm F17 — — — Calculate the RLW for 2/35 × 70 F7 = RLW 1 Calculate the RLW for 2/35 × 70 F17 = RLW 2 Allowable RLW = (RLW 1 + RLW 2 ) divided by 2 Roof beams. See Figure 6. studs supporting concentrations of load or posts. and the like. If plates of different thicknesses or stress grade are used in combination.19 for design parameters for top plates.g.. girder trusses.org. Rafter/truss spacing RLW (see Section 2) Rafter or truss Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] RLW (see Section 2) Upper floor joist spacing Top plate Top plate Upper floor joist FLW (see Section 2) Stud Stud Stud spacing Stud spacing (a) Single or upper storey NOTE: Noggings have been omitted for clarity. 3/38 × 75. struts.8. (b) Lower storey FIGURE 6. and the like. Top plates fully supported on masonry walls shall be determined from the Span Tables assuming a stud spacing of 300 mm and a tie-down spacing equivalent to the tie-down spacing of the plate to the masonry. floor joists. hanging beams or counter beams 3000 mm or more in length. e. shall be supported directly by jamb studs.19 TOP PLATES  Standards Australia www.au . 2/35 × 70. are located directly above studs at or within 1. NOTE: Noggings have been omitted for clarity. rafters.

75 AS 1684.2 in any stress grade. non-loadbearing walls. may be constructed using the sizes shown in Table 6.2 FRAMING SIZES FOR NON-LOADBEARING INTERNAL WALLS Member Top and bottom plates Common studs of maximum height 2700 mm 3300 mm 3600 mm 4200 mm Studs supporting lintels NOTES: 1 2 Plates may be trenched up to 5 mm.org.standards. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] NOTE: The actual opening widths may be up to 70 mm greater than the maximum spans given in the Span Tables of the Supplements. with or without openings.3. Where studs supporting concentrations of load are incorporated in an internal wall that is otherwise non-loadbearing. TABLE 6. plates and noggings in non-loadbearing internal walls In conventional construction.3.2—2006 6. Studs may be notched up to 20 mm.au  Standards Australia .3. Adequate bearing for lintels shall be provided as required by the Notes to the Span Tables given in the supplements. the remainder of the wall shall be deemed non-loadbearing. www.6.5 Studs. 70 × 35 90 × 35 or 2/70 × 35 90 × 35 or 2/70 × 35 90 × 45 or 2/90×35 As for common studs 600 600 600 600 — Minimum Size (mm) 35 × 70 Maximum spacing (mm) — 6.6 Lintels 6.1 General Top plates shall be provided above lintels.

au .3. (b) Lower storey FIGURE 6. Rafter or truss RLW (see Section 2) ss tru er/ ing ft Ra pac s RLW (see Section 2) Lintel Stud Upper FLW (see Section 2) Lintel Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Li l nte sp an sp el an Stud Lin t (a) Single or upper storey NOTE: Noggings have been omitted for clarity.  Standards Australia www.6. See Figure 6.AS 1684.20 for design parameters for lintels.20 LINTELS 6.3.6.2—2006 76 6.2 Lintels in loadbearing walls The size of lintels in loadbearing walls shall be determined from Span Tables 17 and 18 of the Supplements for single or upper storey or from Span Tables 47 and 48 of the Supplements for the lower storey of a two-storey construction for sheet and tile roofs respectively.3. Lintels in gable ends not supporting roof loads may also be sized as lintel trimmers (see Clause 6.org.6.standards.6) provided that wall loads are adequately supported by other means such as the ability of the sheeting to self-span over the opening.3 Lintels in gable end walls The size of lintels in gable end walls not supporting roof loads shall be determined as for lintels supporting sheet roofing with a roof load width (RLW) of 1500 mm and a rafter or truss spacing of 600 mm.

See Figure 6. windowsill trimmers may be the same size and grade as the common studs in that wall.standards.3. For opening widths greater than 1500 mm. a lintel shall be provided and the size of the lintel shall be determined from Span Table 23 using a ceiling load width of 1800 mm.au  Standards Australia . Where wall openings wider than 1200 mm occur in non-loadbearing internal or external walls.6.3. or supporting hanging beams.8) for these two applications respectively.21 WINDOWSILL TRIMMERS www.5 Lintels in non-loadbearing internal walls The size of lintels in internal walls supporting ceiling joists only.5. shall be determined by using the hanging beam Span Table 23 (see Clause 7.6.9.2—2006 6.21 for design parameters for windowsill trimmers.6.3.6 Windowsill trimmers For opening widths up to 1500 mm.3. the windowsill trimmer size shall be determined from Table 6. see Clause 2.77 AS 1684.3. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] W indowsill trimmer Height to lintel or lintel trimmer W indowsill span FIGURE 6. designed as per windowsill trimmers.7) or the counter beam (beams supporting hanging beams) Span Table 24 (see Clause 7. shall be provided above windows or doors where the lintel is placed directly under the top plate and the distance between the top of the window or door to the top plate exceeds 650 mm.4 Lintels supporting concentrated roof loads The size of lintels supporting concentrated roof loads shall be determined from Span Tables 19 and 20 of the Supplements for sheet and tile roofs respectively.3. 6. 6.org. Lintel trimmers. For area of supported roof. see Figure 6.6.

3 SIZE OF WINDOWSILL TRIMMERS (2100 mm HIGH TO LINTEL OR LINTEL TRIMMER) Opening width (mm) Stress grade N1/N2 F5/MGP10 1800 F8/MGP12 F14 F5/MGP10 2100 F8/MGP12 F14 F5/MGP10 2400 F8/MGP12 F14 F5/MGP10 2700 F8/MGP12 F14 F5/MGP10 3000 F8/MGP12 F14 F5/MGP10 3300 F8/MGP12 F14 F5/MGP10 3600 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Wind classification N3 70 × 35 or 90 × 35 70 × 35 or 90 × 35 70 × 35 or 90 × 35 70 × 45 or 90 × 35 70 × 35 or 90 × 35 70 × 35 or 90 × 35 2/70 × 35 or 90 × 35 70 × 35 or 90 × 35 70 × 35 or 90 × 35 2/70 × 45 or 2/90 × 35 2/70 × 35 or 90 × 35 70 × 35 or 90 × 35 3/70 × 35 or 2/90 × 35 2/70 × 35 or 90 × 45 70 × 45 or 90 × 35 3/70 × 45 or 2/90 × 45 2/70 × 45 or 2/90 × 35 2/70 × 35 or 90 × 35 3/90 × 35 3/70 × 45 or 2/90 × 35 3/70 × 35 or 90 × 45 — 3/90 × 45 3/90 × 45 — — — N4 70 × 35 or 90 × 35 70 × 35 or 90 × 35 70 × 35 or 90 × 35 2/70 × 35 or 90 × 45 70 × 35 or 90 × 35 70 × 35 or 90 × 35 2/70 × 45 or 2/90 × 35 2/70 × 35 or 90 × 35 70 × 35 or 90 × 35 3/70 × 45 or 2/90 × 35 2/70 × 35 or 90 × 45 70 × 45 or 90 × 35 2/90 × 45 3/70 × 35 or 2/90 × 35 2/70 × 35 or 90 × 45 3/90 × 45 3/70 × 35 or 2/90 × 45 3/70 × 35 or 2/90 × 35 — 3/90 × 35 3/70 × 45 or 2/90 × 45 — — — — — — 70 × 35 or 90 × 35 70 × 35 or 90 × 35 70 × 35 or 90 × 35 70 × 35 or 90 × 35 70 × 35 or 90 × 35 70 × 35 or 90 × 35 70 × 35 or 90 × 35 70 × 35 or 90 × 35 70 × 35 or 90 × 35 2/70 × 35 or 90 × 35 70 × 35 or 90 × 35 70 × 35 or 90 × 35 2/70 × 35 or 90 × 45 70 × 45 or 90 × 35 70 × 35 or 90 × 35 2/70 × 45 or 2/90 × 35 2/70 × 35 or 90 × 35 2/70 × 35 or 90 × 35 3/70 × 45 or 2/90 × 35 3/70 × 35 or 90 × 45 2/70 × 45 or 90 × 45 3/90 × 45 3/90 × 35 2/90 × 45 — — 3/90 × 45 F8/MGP12 F14 F5/MGP10 4200 F8/MGP12 F14 F5/MGP10 4800 F8/MGP12 F14 NOTES: 1 2 Openings may be 70 mm wider than the nominal width given above.au .org. see Figure 6..standards.  Standards Australia www. softwood. gable ends) shall be sized in accordance with Clause 7.3.2—2006 78 TABLE 6. For design parameters for verandah beams.AS 1684.31.16 and Figure 7. The ends of beams that are supported on stud walls shall be carried by jamb studs (with beams considered as lintels) or posts. 6.22. Cantilevered beams (e.7 Verandah beams (plates) The size of verandah beams shall be determined from Span Table 51A of the Supplements for single span and continuous spans respectively. seasoned and unseasoned timber.3. The sizes in this Table are applicable to hardwood.g.

79 AS 1684.org. www. of the size specified in Span Table 53 of the Supplements.23 POSTS SUPPORTING ROOF AND/OR FLOOR LOAD Seasoned posts of sizes up to 3 mm under the minimum depth and breadth. The roof and/or floor area to be used in Span Table 53 shall be 10% greater than the sum of the actual roof and/or floor area.standards.3. Floor area supported = C/2 × D. shall be used.au  Standards Australia . Rafter span A 1/2 an sp sp 1/2 Joist span C an Post spacing B pan 1/2 s Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Roof area supported = A /2 x B /2 1/ 2s pa n Floor area supported = C /2 x D /2 Post spacing D NOTE: If the post was the central support for a continuous span verandah beam and bearer. Refer to Figure 6.8 Posts supporting roof and/or floor loads The size of posts supporting roof and/or floor loads shall be determined from Span Table 53 of the Supplements. FIGURE 6.22 VERANDAH BEAMS 6. the areas supported would be as follows: (a) (b) Roof area supported = A/2 × B.23 for design parameters for posts supporting roof and/or floor loads.2—2006 RLW (see Section 2) Rafter or truss Verandah beam Rafter/truss spacing Verandah beam span FIGURE 6.

NOTE: In some diagrams some members have been omitted for clarity.2.1 COUPLED ROOF  Standards Australia www.1.7.2 Types of roofs and limitations 7. the maximum distance between external walls shall not exceed 6000 mm for sheet roofs or 4000 mm for tile roofs. provided with nominal fixing only (see Section 9). the rafters or ceiling joists may be lapped over the support for a distance equivalent to at least three times their depth.1. or shall be lapped or spliced at their support points (see Clause 7.1). except where the roof connections and members are designed in accordance with AS 1720. or 8/3.1.1.1. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] A1 FIGURE 7.org.1 Scope 7 RO O F FRA M I N G The Section sets out specific requirements for building practice. Reference shall also be made to the footnotes for each member given in the Span Tables of the Supplements. Lapped rafters or ceiling joists.2—2006 80 S E C T I O N 7. Fishplates shall be a minimum of 19 mm thick by the full depth of rafters or ceiling joists. A1 Where splices in rafters or ceiling joists are necessary. A1 Engineered nailplated rafters or ceiling joists shall be spliced and supported in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations.05 mm diameter machine-driven nails.1. 7. For a coupled roof with no roof struts.1) shall be not less than 10° and ceiling joists and collar ties shall be fixed to opposing pairs of rafters.2 Coupled roof The roof pitch in a coupled roof construction (see Figure 7.2.standards. in accordance with Section 9. Rafters may be supported on underpurlins. Splices shall be butt-joined with fishplates to both sides with minimum length six times the joist depth.2.1 General Raftered roofs (‘pitched’ roofs) shall be either coupled or non-coupled (cathedral or skillion) (see Clause 2.4).1 GENERAL 7. 7. design. they shall be made only at points of support. or with an M12 bolt (see Section 9). or both ends of the butted rafters or ceiling joists to fishplates shall be secured with at least six hand-driven nails. Rafters shall be continuous in length from ridge to wall plate.au . and specification of roof framing members. Alternatively.AS 1684.

ridge and intermediate beams may be exposed internally (see Figure 2.3).2.2 BUILDING PRACTICE 7. to provide a flat finish to the ceiling.2.2.4.2 Splices and joints in coupled roof NOTE: See Clause 7. the size and fixings shall be appropriate for the mass of the ceiling material used.2.1.org.4.2. 7.2.2.3 Non-coupled roof A non-coupled roof (including cathedral and skillion) shall have rafters (raking beams) supported off walls.81 AS 1684.2. and the like) shall be trimmed to provide full support for ceiling linings. ridge beams and/or intermediate beams. steel ceiling joist hangers or equivalent approved fasteners. 7.4. 7.2.4 Trussed roof The design of a timber roof truss shall be in accordance with engineering principles and AS 1720.standards. For coupled roofs.2 Construction loads on ceiling framing Ceiling joist sizes determined in accordance with the Span Tables in the Supplements shall not be used to support construction loads or the loads of workers until the joists are adequately fixed and laterally restrained by the installation of ceiling lining or ceiling battens (see also Clause 7. 7.2.3. or until the construction planks are used on the top of ceiling joists during construction.3 Ceiling battens Where ceiling battens are used.2. Each alternate connection shall be fixed to opposite sides of the hanging beam (see Figure 7.2—2006 7. 7. with or without battens. trimmers shall be as follows: (a) Openings up to 1000 mm—same size as ceiling joist.4.5).1.4. ceiling joists shall be in single lengths or spliced in accordance with Clause 7. to support workers.2. The wind design criteria shall be consistent with that used in this Standard (see Clause 1.1 Ceilings Ceilings may be fixed to the underside of ceiling joists.6 mm galvanized steel strapping.1. 7.4 Ceiling joists 7.2.4 Trimming around openings In a joisted ceiling. www. Ceiling battens shall not support construction loads or the loads from workers. any opening (manholes.4. 7. Where no loads other than normal ceiling loads shall be carried. and at the same spacing and in the same direction as the main rafters so that they may be fixed to and act as ties between the feet of pairs of opposing rafters.1 General Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Ceiling joists shall be at spacings to support ceiling linings.1.2.3 Connection to hanging beams Ceiling joists shall be fixed to hanging beams using a minimum of 35 × 32 mm timber cleats.2).au  Standards Australia .4.2. rafters or purlins or the bottom chord of trusses.4). 25 × 1.1. It may have ceilings in the same plane as the roof. End bearings of joists shall be the full width of the supporting wall plate except as provided for in Clause 7. Intermediate ceiling joists may be required to support ceiling linings. skylights. Rafters. 7.

Where hanging beams are used as lateral binders.AS 1684.5. 7. or the like.8.2. flushing cistern.2 End support of hanging beams Hanging beams shall be held in a vertical position at both ends by nailing or bolting to an available rafter.au .1 General Hanging beams shall support ceiling joists and the attached ceiling materials only. Where the slope of rafters is such that the depth of a hanging beam has to be reduced by more than two-thirds in order to avoid interference with roof cladding.8). gable end struts or by means of angle strutting from internal walls.2.org. shall be designed for these loads.7 and 7.5 Platforms in roof spaces Ceiling joists shall support ceiling loads only.0 m or more. see Clauses 7. For beams supporting roof and ceiling loads. Hanging beams are usually at right angles (or may be angled or placed off centre) to ceiling joists and are located directly above them (see Figure 7. or the plates shall be stiffened (see Figure 6. provision shall be made for additional support incorporating a jack ceiling joist (trimmer) as shown in Figure 7. Any platforms constructed in the roof space above a ceiling for the support of a storage water heater.2 COUNTER BEAM SUPPORTING HANGING BEAMS 7.10. Ridgeboard Hanging beam Rafter Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Counter beam Ceiling joist Supporting wall FIGURE 7.2).2.2.3.2—2006 82 (b) Openings greater than 1000 mm and up to a maximum of 3000 mm—breadth of trimmer to be increased by 20% for each 300 mm greater than 1000 mm. the connection to the external walls shall be equivalent to that shown in Figure 6.4.standards.5.2. (c) 7.5 Hanging beams 7. feed tank.  Standards Australia www. End-bearings of hanging beams shall be the full width of the wall plate. Members shall be connected by framing brackets. they shall be located directly above a stud.2. Where hanging beams span 3. Openings greater than 3000 mm—trimmer size as for hanging beams.

as the hanging beam is located directly over the ceiling joists. The hanging beams shall be supported by 45 × 42 mm minimum ledgers fixed at each side of the counter beam with 5/3.4).8).2.e. they shall be designed as combined strutting/counter beams (see Clause 7. or 45 x 42 mm ledgers with 5/3.standards. joists suspended on cleats). Roof loads are placed onto the beam by roof struts and ceiling loads are as for hanging beams (i. the hanging beam may be checked out over the counter beam. 7.2.au .3 SUPPORT OF HANGING BEAM WITH JACK CEILING JOIST (TRIMMER) 7.05 mm dia. or butted up to the counter beam.4 FIXING HANGING BEAM TO COUNTER BEAM 7. nails or 2/No. Where roof loads are required to be supported on counter beams.2.2.2)..6.4).org.  Standards Australia www. 14 type 17 screws Ceiling joist 25 mm clearance at support for combined strutting/counter beam FIGURE 7. 35 x 32 mm cleat or proprietary tie Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Counter beam Hanging beam Proprietary connectors such as j oist hangers.6.2.2. End support of counter beams shall be similar to that for hanging beams (see Clause 7.2—2006 Hanging beam Ceiling joist Rafter Top plate Joists fixed with ties on alter nate sides of hanging beam Jack joist (trimmer) Beam bolted to rafter FIGURE 7.2 and 7.7 Combined strutting/hanging beams Combined strutting/hanging beams shall be at right angles to rafters and ceiling joists.2.9). NOTES: 1 2 The clearance requirements specified for the strutting beam are not necessary. or by other proprietary connectors such as joist hangers (see Figure 7.6 Counter beams 7. 14 Type 17 screws. End supports shall be as for strutting beams (see Clause 7.83 AS 1684.2 Intersection of hanging and counter beams At intersections of hanging and counter beams. Combined strutting/hanging beams support both roof and ceiling loads.05 mm diameter nails or 2/No.1 General Counter beams may be provided to support hanging beams (see Figures 7.5.

the hanging beam may be checked out over or butted up to the strutting/counter beam. and nailed (see Figure 7.2. They may extend in any direction in the roof space. underpurlins shall be lapped a minimum of 450 mm and spliced with 6 through-nails or 3/ No 14 Type 17 screws or 2/M10 bolts through the splice. Where strutting beams occur over openings.8 Combined strutting/counter beams Combined strutting/counter beams shall be used to support roof loads and ceiling loads via hanging beams.standards. Beams shall bear directly above studs supporting concentrated loads or distributed over two or more studs by means of top plate stiffening (see Figure 6. Strutting beams shall support roof loads only. Laps shall be made over a support. For end supports.2.au . the lintels shall be designed for a concentrated load. see Clause 7. lapped.2 Joints in underpurlins Where underpurlins are joined in their length.2—2006 84 7. whichever is greater. the 25 mm clearance specified for strutting beams is required. Alternatively. Where the end dimension is less than 100 mm.  Standards Australia www.5).9 Strutting beams Ends of strutting beams shall bear on the full width of wall plates. with the joint halved. See Figure 7. an alternative support method shall be provided similar to that shown for hanging beams (see Figure 7.2. Rafter Strutting beam Underpurlin Minimum end dimension 100 mm or D /3 whichever is the greater.3). Where two or more rows of underpurlins are required they shall be spaced evenly between the ridge and the wall’s top plates.6). 7. The ends of strutting beams may be chamfered to avoid interference with the roof claddings.2. Blocking shall be provided between strutting beams and wall plates to provide an initial clearance of 25 mm at midspan between the underside of the beams and the tops of ceiling joists. Where counter beams are located between the ceiling joists.1 General Underpurlins shall be in single lengths where possible and shall be in straight runs at right angles to the direction of rafters. ceiling lining or ceiling battens.10 Underpurlins 7. It shall be supported by 45 × 42 mm timber ledgers fixed at each side of the strutting beam or by other proprietary connectors such as joist hangers.5 INSTALLATION OF STRUTTING BEAMS 7.9. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Strut Block to provide strutting beam support D 25 mm clearance at midspan of strutting beam Stud FIGURE 7.2.org. At intersections of hanging beams and combined strutting/counter beams.8). as appropriate (see Figure 7.AS 1684. They shall be located at right angles to hanging beams and parallel to ceiling joists.10.2. 7. the joint shall be made over a point of support.10.4 for a similar detail. or one-third the beam depth.

Proprietary framing anchors and blocking that provide 3 way support. Proprietary joist hangers. Proprietary/patented joist hangers. lapped and nailed joint Rafter Joint over support Underpurlin Strut FIGURE 7.org. They shall be fastened to the hip or valley using one of the following means: (A) (B) (C) (D) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Cutting the underpurlin to and around the hip or valley and providing support directly below via a roof strut.85 AS 1684.7. 7.4 Support of underpurlins Underpurlins shall be securely fastened to hip or valley rafters in accordance with one of the following options: (a) Underpurlins supporting a hip or valley rafter: (i) (ii) They shall not cantilever more than one-eighth of their allowable span. www.2. (b) Underpurlins supported by a hip or valley rafters shall be fastened to the hip or valley using one of the following means: (i) (ii) Proprietary/patented framing anchors and blocking that provide three-way support.6 JOINING UNDERPURLINS 7. provided the actual backspan is at least three times the cantilever length. see Figure 7.10.au  Standards Australia .2—2006 Halved. or by a method providing equivalent support.2. Using a proprietary/patented tension rod system (equivalent to the old BARAP system). the underpurlins shall be deemed to be supported by the hip or valley rafters to which they are attached.standards. Where underpurlins are not strutted at the junctions with hip or valley rafters and the allowable underpurlin cantilever is exceeded.10.3 Cantilevered underpurlins The ends of an underpurlin may project (cantilever) beyond a support by up to 25% of the maximum allowable span of the underpurlin.

but there are insufficient strutting supports.6. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]  Standards Australia www.org.AS 1684. Junctions of ridgeboard and hip or valley rafters shall be strutted where the hip or valley rafters exceed 5 m span.7 TYPICAL UNDERPURLIN CONNECTIONS TO HIP OR VALLEY 7.1 General Ridgeboards shall be provided to locate and stabilize rafter ends.2—2006 86 Hip or valley rafter Underpurlin supported by hip or valley rafter Jack rafter Underpurlin supporting hip or valley rafter Strut Proprietary or fabricated metal connector Framing anchor or metal tie Spacer block FIGURE 7.12.2. or alternative provisions shall be made for the full support of the roof loads. NOTE: An example of an alternative would be the provision of a tie-bolt truss. Purlins that support ceiling loads and roof loads shall be designed as rafters/purlins with ceiling attached.1 General Rafters shall be single length members or joined over supports.11.au . Rafters in cathedral roofs shall be designed to carry both roof and ceiling loads. the ridgeboard shall be designed as a ridge beam for an uncoupled roof. 7.2 Birdsmouthing Rafters may be birdsmouthed to a depth not exceeding one third of the rafter depth (see Figure 7. Opposing pairs of rafters shall not be staggered by more than their own thickness at either side of their ridge junction.2. 7.2.2.12 Ridgeboards 7. or where underpurlins are supported off hip or valley rafters.11 Rafters 7. Where a ridgeboard is required to be strutted along its length.2.standards.28). The size of ridgeboards shall be determined from Table 7.11.

The pitching plate shall be minimum 35 mm thick by such width as will provide adequate bearing for the feet of creepers.2.87 AS 1684.15 Roof strutting 7. strutting beams or combined hanging/strutting beams. hip rafters shall be supported by an underpurlin in at least one direction.13 Hip and valley rafters Where strutting points are available.4) is used at the junction of two roof surfaces. nail-spliced (minimum of 6 nails per side of splice) using full depth fishplates on both sides of the ridgeboard (see Figure 7. They shall be birdsmouthed or halved to underpurlins as shown in Figure 7.2. Struts shall not be supported on hanging or counter beams. Joint shall be midway between rafters Rafter Full depth or close to full depth fishplates (min. Where strutting points are not available. preferably. NOTE: Full-length ridgeboards should be used wherever possible. and no strutting point is available at the junction of the hip or valley and underpurlin. Except as provided for in Clauses 7. hip and valley rafters shall be supported by struts at the same number of equally spaced intermediate points as for common rafters.05 mm diameter nails on each side of the joint Ridgeboard FIGURE 7. 7.2. 7.15.2.14.2.9.15.15.2—2006 7.org. as shown in Figure 7.2.2.2 Joints in ridgeboards Ridgeboards may be joined using a scarf joint at the abutment of a rafter pair or. a tie-bolt truss system. struts shall be provided to support roof members.12.14 Scotch valleys Where ‘scotch valley’ construction (see Figure 2. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] www.1 Roof struts Where necessary. such as underpurlins ridgeboards and hip and valley rafters. a strut shall be used at the intersection of the hip or valley and ridgeboard. or the hip or valley rafter may be designed to support the underpurlin loads. the pitching plate to which creeper rafters of the secondary roof are fixed shall be securely nailed at each common rafter crossing.8).2. 6/65 x 3.2.4. struts shall be either vertical or perpendicular to the rafters or at an angle not exceeding 35° to the vertical. 19 mm thick). Struts shall be supported off walls.au  Standards Australia .8 FISHPLATED RIDGEBOARD SPLICE 7. Where the underpurlins are supported by the hip or valley rafters.3 and 7. This may be used where the underpurlins cantilever beyond a strut by more than 25% of the maximum span.standards. may be installed. 7.15. and valley rafters shall be supported by underpurlins in both directions. fitted between rafters on both sides of the ridge and fixed with min. If the hip or valley rafters support the underpurlin.

10 STRUTS PERPENDICULAR TO RAFTERS  Standards Australia www.AS 1684.8 GI strap shall be passed over the underpurlin and nailed to each side of the strut with 4/30 × 2.au . One framing anchor with four nails to each leg may be used as an alternative to the strap. or top plates shall be stiffened in accordance with Clause 6.2.2. a 30 × 0.2.org. Rafter Rafter Underpurlin Max.9 VERTICAL STRUTS Studs supporting struts shall be determined in accordance with Clause 6.2—2006 88 Alternatively. for struts between vertical and perpendicular to rafter where not birdsmouthed or halved to the underpurlin.10.8 dia. nails each side in addition to at least 2 skew nails. as appropriate. Struts that are not vertical shall be restrained by blocks or chocks. as shown in Figure 7. Not less than 25 mm Not less than 40 mm Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Strut set perpendicular to rafters 2/75 mm nails Firm base for nailing Not less than 3 nails Chock FIGURE 7.3.3.2. nails and to the underpurlin with 2/30 × 2.8 dia.standards. 12 mm Not less than 38 mm Not less than 38 mm FIGURE 7.

or they shall be in accordance with Clause 7. 15° min.2. 120 x 35 mm F8 at max. 600 mm centres One framing anchor 90 x 70 mm F8 min. Next underpurlin or strutted ridge m 0m 270 L2 = max . 1/M16 bolt central through strut and ceiling joists 1/M16 bolt through rafter and two ceiling joists Rebate strut for one ceiling joist Length of L1 shall be between L2 and 1. Strut 90 x 70 mm F8 min. min.standards.11 TIED ROOF STRUTS www.2 Tied and braced strut system Where struts are located at an angle exceeding 30° to the vertical. L1 = 2 mm 700 max .) 4600 mm max.15.4. they shall be tied and braced to form a frame in accordance with Figure 7.2—2006 7.org.11. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Double ceiling joists (2/90 x 35 mm F8 min.25 times L2 FIGURE 7. continuous-span underpurlin 50 mm min. Hanging beam Single ceiling joist 80 mm min.89 AS 1684.15.2. One framing anchor each side Rafter.au  Standards Australia .

2.AS 1684. 14 type 17 screws with min.16 Collar ties Collar ties shall be provided in all coupled roof construction. the collar ties shall be fitted to opposing rafters at a height above the top plate not greater than two-thirds of the rise of the roof.13 OPPOSING STRUTS 7.au .5) Equal angles not less than 45° Chock nailed to plate Min. Where underpurlins are not required. 35 mm penetration into receiving member to each end of cleats Underpurlin Strut nailed to underpurlin with 4/75 mm nails Struts (see Table 7. Where the rafter span is such as to require support from underpurlins.2. collar ties shall be fitted to opposing common rafters at a point immediately above the underpurlins.12).0 m spacing between the struts and underpurlin connection.15. and not greater than 45° to the vertical (see Figure 7.  Standards Australia www. they shall comply with Figure 7.5 m with maximum 3. angle 60 ° to horizontal Each strut 30 mm min.12 FAN OR FLYING STRUTS 7. FIGURE 7.3 Fan struts A pair of struts (fan or flying struts) may be used in the same line as. bearing to top plate Stiffener NOTE: Maximum rafter span = 3000 mm. or perpendicular to.standards. Maximum fan strut length shall be 4.15.4 Opposing struts Where roofs are strutted using opposing struts.org. 90 x 35 mm spreader cleats both sides of struts fixed with M12 through bolt or 2/No. The pair of struts shall be at the same angle. A1 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] FIGURE 7.2. the underpurlin with their supports opposing each other.2—2006 90 7. Size of collar ties shall be in accordance with Table 7.13.6.

19 Non-coupled roofs 7. hip.au  Standards Australia . ridge beams and/or intermediate beams.17 Hip ends Hip ends shall be constructed in accordance with one or more of the alternative methods shown in Figure 7.org.2 m long or min.14. roof pitch below 10°).2. common or jack rafters. valley rafters.g. or at 1200 mm maximum spacing.18 Alternative support systems Where shown to be suitable through engineering design principles.2 m long.standards.14 HIP END 7.2—2006 Collar ties shall be fitted to every second pair of common rafters.1 General Non-coupled roofs shall have rafters. 7.2.05 mm ∅ machinedriven nails for ties up to 4.19. 2/75 hand-driven nails or 3/75 × 3. Non-coupled roof systems include cathedral roofs (ceiling in line with roof) as well as other raftered roofs outside the limits for ‘coupled roof construction’ (e. Rafters or raking roof beams to cathedral roofs shall be designed to support roof and ceiling loads.. allowable span of the undepurlin is permitted to support the hip rafter.2. as appropriate. A1 When a tie-bolt system is used to support the hip/underpurlin connection. Studs supporting ridge or intermediate beams shall be designed as ‘supporting concentration of load’ or as posts. www. supported off walls. provided the actual backspan is at least three times the actual cantilever length FIGURE 7. tie-bolt trusses or other alternative support systems may be used in combination with underpurlins. Collar ties shall be fixed to rafters with one M10 bolt for ties greater than 4. whichever is the lesser. or raking roof beams.91 AS 1684. 7.2. the underpurlin shall be supported at the first common rafter T ie-bolt truss system Strut at junction of hip and ridge when hip or valley rafters support underpurlins Span of underpurlin Single or fan strut supporting Crown end Creeper rafter The underpurlin that supports the creeper rafters in the hip end may be supported by a tie-bolt truss as illustrated or a combined hanging/strutting beam Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Hip rafter A cantilever of one-eighth of the max.

7.  Standards Australia www.2.au .AS 1684. 14 type 17 screws each side of the butt joint.2—2006 92 7.2.2. 7. 7.19. Lintels supporting girder trusses over openings shall be designed as lintels supporting point loads. Intermediate beams shall be provided where required between the ridge and top plate of the wall.1 General Trusses shall be handled. They shall be placed either under the rafters or positioned between pairs of rafters as for a ridgeboard. Trusses shall be designed in accordance with engineering principles. Intermediate beams shall support the rafters (and ceiling loads where required). A minimum timber (softwood) structural fascia of 190 × 19 mm shall be used.21 Trussed roofs 7.23 Fixing of ceiling framing to internal bracing walls All bracing walls shall be fixed to ceiling or roof framing (see Section 8).2. The screws shall be positioned not more than 75 mm from the ends of the fishplate and butt joint. installed and braced in accordance with AS 4440. Trusses shall not be supported off internal walls unless the wall and the truss are specifically designed for the purpose. Girder trusses shall be considered concentrations of load and supported as outlined in Section 6. erected.22 Bracing for raftered and trussed roofs All roof frames shall be adequately braced to withstand horizontal forces applied to the building.3 Truss layout Placement of trusses shall be in accordance with the truss design.21. The fishplate shall be screw-fixed to the side or underside of the batten using 2/No.standards. they shall be spliced using a minimum 600 mm long fishplate of the same size and grade as the batten. Bracing shall be designed and fixed to transfer any loads to the supporting structure (see Section 8).2. Grooves in fascia to accept eaves lining are permitted.2. 7. NOTES: Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 1 2 Other fascias or combinations of members with similar stiffnesses may be used.org. 7.2.2.20 Roof battens Where possible. 7. 7.21.2. Ridge beams shall be at right angles to the rafters and shall be continuous to points of support.21. battens shall be continuous spanned and joined over supports. Where battens are butt-joined between supports. and shall be at right angles to the rafters.2 Structural fascias A structural fascia that is capable of distributing overhang loads to adjacent trusses shall be installed.2 Ridge and intermediate beams Ridge beams or walls shall be provided at the apex in the roof and shall be designed to support roof loads and ceiling loads (where required).21.4 Support of trusses Loadbearing walls supporting trusses shall be in accordance with Section 6.

2.24. www. 70 × 35 mm where their span is greater than 600 mm but not greater than 1. the inner ends of soffit bearers shall either be supported by means of minimum 45 × 19 mm hangers from rafters (see Figure 7. Hanger min. the size shall be determined as either for a rafter or verandah beam.1 General Gables or verges shall be formed either— (a) (b) with rafters supported on cantilevered extensions of ridgeboards or beams. allowance for shrinkage Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] (a) Hanger support (b) Wall frame fixing FIGURE 7.2.24 Eaves construction 7.25 Gable or verge construction 7.24.2.25. In masonry veneer buildings. 45 x 19 mm Soffit bearer 12 mm min.2 Boxed eaves Soffit bearers used in the construction of boxed eaves shall be spaced to suit eaves lining and shall be not less than the following sizes: (a) (b) 45 × 32 mm where the span does not exceed 600 mm.15(b)). underpurlins.5 m. which shall be adequately fixed and nogged to prevent overturning and to provide fixing for roof battens. or with outriggers or outriggers at right angles to and trimmed into common rafters or trusses.15(a)). a minimum 12 mm clearance shall be provided between the soffit bearer and the top of the masonry to allow for frame shrinkage.15 TYPICAL BOXED EAVES CONSTRUCTION 7. or shall be fixed to the external wall studs (see Figure 7.93 AS 1684. Members cantilevered to support gables shall not project beyond their supports by more than 25% of the allowable span of the member and their backspan shall be at least twice that of the cantilever.2. 7. intermediate beams and wall plates.org.1 General Where fascias and bargeboards are used as structural members to support roof loads.2—2006 7.au  Standards Australia . In the case of masonry veneer buildings where soffit bearers are supported by the wall frame.2.standards.

and shall be of sufficient size and stress grade to support dead.16). Open gable eaves may be unlined or may be sheeted on the upper side or the underside of rafters. for pitched roofs with a horizontal ceiling. or raking truss (gable end truss) with gable end studs supported off the top plates (see Figure 7.5.16 OPEN GABLE OR VERGE—TRUSSED ROOF  Standards Australia www. see Clause 6. gable end studs supported off the top plate. For gable end studs. studs continuous up to a raking top plate below rafters. or brick veneer where used. live and wind loads.au . or gable trusses fully supported off the gable end wall.org.AS 1684.25.2 Open gables Open gable end walls may be constructed using— (a) (b) (c) for exposed rafter (cathedral) roofs.2—2006 94 7.3.2.standards. Verge rafter Blocking Outrigger Bargeboard Raking truss (gable end truss) Gable studs Roof batten Standard truss Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] FIGURE 7. Gable end studs or additional vertical members and trusses shall be provided at the spacing required to fix cladding.2.

Boxed gables shall be securely fixed off the structural wall plate with strutting or bracing as necessary to support the load of the gable framing and the roof covering.3 Boxed gables Boxed gables shall have 70 × 35 mm soffit bearers fixed between the lower ends of gable studs or gable truss and the frame wall.2.95 AS 1684.8 mm nails each end and to beam (see Note 2) NOTES: 1 2 Method used depends upon whether the ceiling joists are at 90° or parallel to the beam.17).2. FIGURE 7. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] (a) Block skew nailed to beam and to support with 3/75 mm skew nails to each member (b) Min 35 × 32 mm tie nailed to top of beam and to support with 2/75 mm nails each end (see Note 2) (c) Galvanized strap nailed to support and top of beam with 2/30 × 2.standards.25. Gable lining shall be fixed either directly to the gable truss or to the gable studs (see Figure 7.18 LATERAL RESTRAINT www.2—2006 7.17 BOXED GABLE—TRUSSED ROOF 7. as they also permit these beams to be supported up clear of the ceiling joists by packing under at their supports.au  Standards Australia .26 Lateral restraint of hanging. lateral restraint shall be provided by one of the methods shown in Figure 7. strutting. and the like Where required. strutting/hanging beams. Boxed gable-end truss Upper outrigger Standard truss Lower outrigger Strut or brace (where required) Waling plate 70 x 35 mm soffit bearer FIGURE 7. Methods given in (b) and (c) are particularly suitable for restraining strutting beams and strutting/hanging beams at the intermediate points where the beams are supported.org.18.

2—2006 96 7. the minimum ceiling batten sizes shall be in accordance with Table 7. the underside of ceiling joists.3. 7. as appropriate (see Clause 2.27 Framing around chimneys and flues Placement of all framing members around chimneys and flues shall be in accordance with AS 1691 and AS/NZS 2918.3.standards. the spacing of support shall be taken along the length of the board. For hand-driven nailed or hand-driven nailed and glued ceiling linings. 7.3 Ceiling lining and non-trafficable roof decking Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 7. bottom or top chord of trusses or to battens to ensure the integrity of the roof and/or the ceiling diaphragm.7. TABLE 7.AS 1684.au . or machine-driven nailed ceiling linings with a mass up to 12 kg/m 2 .4).1 CEILING BATTEN SIZE Rafter or truss spacing (mm) Ceiling batten grade 300 F5 Unseasoned F8 Unseasoned F5 Seasoned 38 × 38 25 × 38 35 × 42 600 900 Batten Spacing (mm) 450 38 × 38 25 × 38 35 × 42 600 38 × 38 25 × 38 35 × 42 300 38 × 38 25 × 50 35 × 42 450 38 × 38 38 × 38 35 × 42 600 38 × 38 38 × 38 35 × 42 300 38 × 50 38 × 38 35 × 42 450 38 × 75 38 × 38 35 × 42 600 38 × 75 38 ×50 38 × 42 1200 7.org. Where boards are not at right angles to rafters.2.1 General Member sizes shall be determined from the Span Tables of the Supplements for coupled or non-coupled roof construction.  Standards Australia www. or glued and screwed.3. batten sizes may need to be increased to avoid damage to ceiling lining or fixings due to flexibility.2 Tongue and groove non-trafficable roof decking Tongued and grooved timber boards used for non-trafficable roofs shall be in accordance with Table 7. 7.1 General Ceiling lining or non-trafficable roof decking shall be attached directly to rafters or purlins.2.2 Ceiling battens For glued.3. Suspended ceiling systems shall not be assumed to provide diaphragm action to transfer wind loads to bracing walls.3.3.3 MEMBER SIZES 7.3.1.

3. Allowance has been made for light sanding.1 AS 2796.3 Structural plywood for non-trafficable roof decking Structural plywood used for non-trafficable roof decking shall be in accordance with Table 7.1 Western Australian hardwoods Select AS 2796. TABLE 7.org. Tabulated spacing shall be reduced by 25% if supported over one span only. and shall be continuous over at least two spans.standards.4. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 7.2 TONGUED AND GROOVED BOARDS FOR NON-TRAFFICABLE ROOF Minimum thickness of boards (mm) Standard Timber Visual grade Standard AS 2796.1 NOTES: 1 2 3 Where battens are used and sized for the rafter spacing.1 AS 2796. Structural plywood shall be fixed to all end and intermediate supports in accordance with Table 7.1 South-eastern Australian hardwoods North-eastern Australian hardwoods Radiata Cypress Softwood Hardwood (density less than 560 kg/m 3 ) Softwood Hardwood (density greater than. 560 kg/m 3 ) Standard and Select 11 14 20 25 Standard and Select 12 15 21 26 Standard Select Standard Select One grade Grade 1 and Grade 2 10 10 11 10 10 12 12 12 13 12 13 12 15 15 17 19 17 18 17 21 21 22 24 22 23 22 26 27 11 Spacing of supports (mm) 450 600 13 900 19 1200 24 AS 2796.3 STRUCTURAL PLYWOOD TO AS/NZS 2269 FOR NON-TRAFFICABLE ROOFS Maximum rafter or truss spacing (mm) 800 900 1200 Minimum allowable plywood thickness (mm) Stress grade F8 13 16 19 F11 12 15 17 F14 12 15 16 NOTE: Allowance has been made for light sanding.2—2006 TABLE 7. Plywood sheets shall be laid with the grain of the face ply parallel to the span.1 AS 4785. www. or equal to.3.au  Standards Australia . Finger jointing is permitted. lining is not considered structural.3.1 AS 4785.1 AS 1810 AS 4785.97 AS 1684. Edges of sheets that are not tongued and grooved shall be supported.

are suitable for the support of normal ceiling loads and linings. 7.3.standards. storage. For details on the lateral restraint of external walls.15 mm × 65 mm No.15 mm × 75 mm No.8 mm ∅ × 50 mm N4 2.2. Where required.15 mm × 60 mm No.4 Loads on ceilings The member sizes given for ceiling joists. 8 × 50 mm Spacing (mm) 200 100 200 NOTE: Fixings in this Table are applicable to timber species of minimum joint strength J4 or JD4 and to plywood up to 20 mm thick. 8 × 40 mm 2. 8 × 40 mm 2.2.2—2006 98 TABLE 7.5.8 mm ∅ × 65 mm or 3. see Clause 6. the framing shall be designed in accordance with AS 1720.  Standards Australia www.8 mm ∅ × 50 mm No. For design parameters for ceiling joists.1 (see also Clause 7.au . 8 × 50 mm 2. 8 × 50 mm 3. hanging beams.5 Binders Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Binders may be required in ceilings to provide lateral restraint to external walls.org.8 mm ∅ × 40 mm N3 2.6 Ceiling joists The size of ceiling joists shall be determined from Span Table 21 (without overbatten) or Span Table 22 (with overbatten) of the Supplements. and the like. hot water systems or the like.AS 1684. they shall be a minimum of 35 × 70 mm.3.2).19. 7.4 MINIMUM FIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL PLYWOOD NON-TRAFFICABLE ROOFS Rafter or truss spacing (mm) Wind classification Connector type N1 or N2 Flat-head nails 800 or 900 Countersunk self-drilling timber screws Flat-head nails 1200 Countersunk self-drilling timber screws Fastener Nail Screw — General roof areas — Within 1200 mm of roof perimeter All roof areas No. Overbattens shall be a minimum of 35 × 70 mm F5. see Figure 7. Where ceiling framing is required to support other loads including ladder or stair systems.8 mm ∅ × 75 mm or 3. 8 × 40 mm Roof area No. 7.3.

18).8 Counter beams The size of counter beams shall be determined from Span Table 24 of the Supplements.au  Standards Australia .7 Hanging beams The size of hanging beams shall be determined from Span Table 23 of the Supplements.2—2006 Hanging beam Ceiling joist x Hanging beam span FIGURE 7. For design parameters for hanging beams.org.3. Hanging beam Ceiling joist Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] x Hanging beam span Ceiling load width (CLW) = x 2 x = total of ceiling joist spans either side of hanging beam FIGURE 7.standards.20.19 CEILING JOISTS 7. The top edge of hanging beams. www. see Figure 7. Hanging beams shall support ceiling loads only via ceiling joists. with a depth to breadth ratio exceeding 7.3. shall be laterally restrained at their supports (see Figure 7.20 HANGING BEAMS 7. This Span Table may also be used for lintels in internal walls supporting hanging beams.99 AS 1684.

2—2006 100 Counter beams shall support ceiling loads via hanging beams. For design parameters for counter beams. see Figure 7.standards. Ridgeboard Hanging beam Ceiling joist Counter beam C be oun am ter sp an x Ceiling l oad width (CLW) = x 2 x = total of hanging beam spans either side of the counter beam FIGURE 7.au .21 COUNTER BEAMS Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]  Standards Australia www.org.AS 1684.21.

22 COMBINED STRUTTING/HANGING BEAMS www.3.22.au  Standards Australia . see Figure 7.2—2006 7. FIGURE 7.9 Combined strutting/hanging beams The size of combined strutting/hanging beams shall be determined from Span Table 25 of the Supplements.18).101 AS 1684.standards. Ridge struts have been omitted for clarity.org. Underpurlin A B Rafter Ceiling joist x Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Roof strut Combined strutting/hanging beam g gin n an spa H m a be Roof area supported A B × 2 2 Roof area supported = A = total of underpurlin spans either side of strut B = total of rafter spans Ceiling load width (CLW) = x 2 x = total of ceiling joist spans either side of hanging beam NOTES: 1 2 Strutting/hanging beams support both roof and ceiling loads. The top edge of combined strutting/hanging beams with a depth to breadth ratio exceeding three shall be laterally restrained at their supports and intermediately at the strutting points (see Figure 7. Combined strutting/hanging beams may support both roof loads from struts and ceiling loads from ceiling joists. For design parameters for combined strutting/hanging beams.

23 COMBINED COUNTER/STRUTTING BEAMS www. For design parameters for combined counter/strutting beams.org. The top edge of combined counter/strutting beams with a depth to breadth ratio exceeding three shall be laterally restrained at their supports (see Figure 7.18). Combined counter/strutting beams may support roof loads from struts and hanging beams from ceiling loads.au . (to t of al un lin A ur rp de s n pa s) Ridgeboard Underpurlin Hanging beam Rafter Roof strut Counterstrutting beam Co lo B (to ta Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] un t b e e r.standards. see Figure 7.AS 1684.s am tru sp ttin an g ta l ha of x ng be ing am sp an ) NOTE: Ridge struts have been omitted for clarity.23.  Standards Australia fr af te rs pa ns ) (to Roof area supported Roof area supported = A B × 2 2 A = total of underpurlin spans either side of strut B = total of rafter spans Ceiling load width (CLW) = x 2 x 2 Counter-strutting beam spacing = x = total of hanging beam spans FIGURE 7.10 Combined counter/strutting beams The size of combined counter/strutting beams shall be determined from Span Tables 26 of the Supplements.3.2—2006 102 7.

org.standards. see Figure 7.24 STRUTTING BEAMS www. The top edge of strutting beams with a depth to breadth ratio exceeding three shall be laterally restrained at their supports and intermediately at the strutting points (see Figure 7. Roof area supported A Ridgeboard B Roof strut Strutting beam Strutting beam span Underpurlin Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Roof area supported = A × B where ridge is strutted 2 2 A = total of underpurlin spans B = total of rafter spans NOTES: 1 2 Strutting beams to support roof loads only Ridge struts have been omitted for clarity.24.2—2006 7.3.11 Strutting beams The size of strutting beams shall be determined from Span Table 27 of the Supplements. Strutting beams shall support roof loads only.103 AS 1684. FIGURE 7.18). For design parameters for strutting beams.au  Standards Australia .

standards.25. where ridge is not strutted (x = total of rafter spans either side of underpurlin) NOTES: 1 2 For single spans.au . or 2 x. FIGURE 7. and unequal spans.5.7. The ends of underpurlins may project (cantilever) beyond a support by up to 25% of the maximum allowable span of the underpurlin.org. For design parameters for underpurlins.3. where ridge is strutted. Ridge struts have been omitted for clarity. continuous spans.AS 1684.2—2006 104 7. cantilever = (1/4) allowable backspan Min. see Figure 7. see Clause 2.25 UNDERPURLINS  Standards Australia www. backspan = 3 × actual cantilever Roof load width (RLW) = = x . provided the actual backspan is at least three times the cantilever length.12 Underpurlins The size of underpurlins shall be determined from Span Table 28 of the Supplements. Rafter spacing Ridgeboard Underpurlin x Rafter Sp an Roof strut an n) Sp spa ck (ba Cantilever Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Max.

see Figure 7.3. For overhang and span limits. For design parameters for rafters supporting roof loads only. FIGURE 7.standards.105 AS 1684. see Span Tables given in the Supplements.26 RAFTERS/PURLINS (COUPLED ROOFS) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Ra fte rs pa n Rafter Ridgeboard Ov er ha ng Ridge beam Sp an x Overhang (b) Continuous span (for unequal spans. FIGURE 7. see Figure 2. (b) Continuous span (for unequal spans. see Span Tables of the Supplements and Clauses 7.2 and 7.2—2006 7.18) Sp an x Rafter spacings Ridge beam Rafter spacings Ra fte rs pa n Intermediate beam Ov er ha ng Sp an x Overhang Sp an Spacing x (a) Single span NOTES: 1 2 Birdsmouthed rafters may be notched up to 1/3 of their depth.3. Ridgeboard Underpurlin Ceiling joist Rafter spacings (a) Single span NOTES: 1 2 Maximum birdsmouth = 1/3 of rafter depth. Where rafters support both roof and ceiling loads.13.3.3.13.13.27. see Figure 7.3.27 RAFTERS SUPPORTING ROOF AND CEILING LOADS (NON-COUPLED OR CATHEDRAL ROOFS) www.18) For overhang and span limits.13 Rafters and purlins 7.au  Standards Australia . see Figure 2.26.1 General The size of rafters or purlins shall be determined from Span Table 29 of the Supplements.org.

refer to the Notes to Span Table 29 in the Supplements and Figure 7. Where rafters are birdsmouthed less than one third of the depth of the rafter. 7. Unseasoned timber dressed sizes shall be not more than 10 mm in depth or thickness under the nominal sizes stated in the rafter Span Tables. Where the nominated sections suitable for nail lamination are used.3. the allowable overhang may be determined by interpolation between the overhang permitted for a onethird-depth birdsmouth and the overhang permitted for a non-birdsmouthed rafter. where common rafters are projected to form rafter overhangs that equal or exceed 750 mm.2 Rafter overhangs Rafter overhang limits contained in the Span Tables are applicable for use with a birdsmouth notch not exceeding one third of the rafter depth in combination with a structural fascia that is rigidly connected to the ends of the rafters (see Figure 7. for all roof masses.3. overhang 30% single span value of rafter except where overhang for a birdsmouthed rafter permits a greater overhang D Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] ·· ·· D /3 max.3 Birdsmouthed and non-birdsmouthed rafters Where rafters are not birdsmouthed over top plates as shown in Figure 7.3. Wedge or framing anchor (a) Birdsmouthed (b) Non-birdsmouthed FIGURE 7.2—2006 106 7. except that for 38 mm nominal thickness. the allowable overhang may be 30% of the single span value. For additional limitations on rafter overhangs. such as framing anchors that provide equivalent bearing support.13. as may be used in cathedral or flat/skillion roofs where rafters are exposed to view.standards.3 may not be suitable for the support of attachments (pergolas and the like) to the ends of overhangs.  Standards Australia www.13.4 Dressed rafters Table 7.15(b). D Max. The allowable overhang shall not exceed 30% of the reduced span value for a dressed rafter.28(b). In hipped roofs.3. A minimum timber (softwood) structural fascia of 190 × 19 mm shall be used.au .AS 1684. the dressed thickness shall be not less than 32 mm. each lamination shall be not more than 10 mm in depth and 5 mm in thickness under the sizes stated.28 RAFTER OVERHANG AND BIRDSMOUTHING 7. Where non-structural fascias are used.13. Rafters shall be supported by means of wedges or other alternative support systems. the hip or valley rafters shall be reinforced with 2/70 × 35 × 900 mm long fishplates extending 450 mm either side of the birdsmouth.5 provides span and overhang reductions for dressed (undersize) rafters.org. Seasoned timber dressed sizes shall be not more than 10 mm in depth and 5 mm in thickness under the sizes stated in the rafter Span Tables. NOTES: 1 2 The maximum overhangs permitted by the Span Tables and Clause 7. the allowable overhangs shall be two-thirds of those permitted by the Span Tables.13.28(a)).

3.29 RIDGE AND INTERMEDIATE BEAMS www.107 AS 1684. wall. skillion roofs.29. etc. FIGURE 7.org.) Intermediate beam Supporting wall or intermediate beam Ridge beam Supports (post.) x Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] x y e eb idg span R am Supporting wall = supports x+y 2 Roof load width (RLW) = Roof load width (RLW) = x 2 x and y = rafter spans x = total of rafter spans either side of intermediate beam Beams shall not be checked or birdsmouthed at their supports. For design parameters for ridge and intermediate beams. Rafters may butt into or pass over ridge beams. see Figure 7.5 REDUCED SPANS AND OVERHANGS FOR DRESSED RAFTERS Rafter depth (mm) Under 200 200 to 300 Over 300 Allowable span for dressed beams as a percentage of allowable undressed beam span (mm) Seasoned timber Unseasoned timber 80% 85% Not applicable 85% 90% 95% 7.au  Standards Australia . wall. (a) Ridge beams NOTES: 1 2 (b) Intermediate beams For overhang and span limits. Ridge beam Rafter Supports (post. see Span Tables given in the Supplements. or the like The size of ridge or intermediate beams in non-coupled cathedral or skillion roofs shall be determined from Span Tables 30 and 31 of the Supplements for single and continuous spans respectively.2—2006 TABLE 7.standards.14 Ridge or intermediate beams—Cathedral. etc.

The Span Table provides sizes for roof battens supporting roofing loads only for spans up to 1200 mm.standards.3. Roof batten Rafter or truss Batten spacing Batten span Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Overhang FIGURE 7. the size may be determined from Span Table 29 of the Supplements for rafters and purlins where those members are to be used only on their edge.au . see Figure 7.org.AS 1684.30 ROOF BATTENS  Standards Australia www.2—2006 108 7. For design parameters for roof battens.30.15 Roof battens The size of roof battens shall be determined from Span Table 32 of the Supplements. For spans greater than 1200 mm or where roofing and ceiling loads are supported.

FIGURE 7.org.31 CANTILEVERED GABLE ENDS 7.6 gives details of requirements for miscellaneous roof framing members not given in the Span Tables of the Supplements. Backspan minimum 2C Cantilever C Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] NOTE: To determine the size of a cantilevered member. Roof strut length shall be measured from the underside of the underpurlin/ridgeboard/hip rafter to the top of the strutting beam/wall. underpurlins. The backspan of the cantilevered member shall be at least twice the cantilever length.31.3.17 Other members or components Table 7.standards.109 AS 1684. using single span = 3 C. For ridge and intermediate beams. refer to the appropriate Span Tables in the Supplements. and the like.3.au  Standards Australia .2—2006 7. the cantilever shall not exceed the value given in Span Tables. or where underpurlins are supported off hip rafters. the size of lintels.16 Cantilevered gable ends Where cantilevered at gable ends as shown in Figure 7. Junction of ridgeboard and hip or valley rafters shall be strutted where hip or valley rafters exceed 5 m span. www. verandah beams. shall be determined from the appropriate Span Table in the Supplements for a single span equal to three times the cantilever distance.

as for rafters Valley boards See Note Roof struts (sheet roof) Struts to 1500 mm long for all stress grades Struts 1500 mm to 2400 mm long for all stress grades Ties to 4200 mm long for F8/MGP12 or higher stress grade Collar ties Ties to 4200 mm long for less than F8/MGP 12 stress grade Ties over 4200 mm long for F8/MGP 12 or higher stress grade Ties over 4200 mm long for less than F8/MGP 12 stress grade Soffit bearers Max.standards. 35) 19 min. span 600 mm (boxed eaves) Span 600 mm to 1500 mm Soffit bearer Where applicable hangers Fascias Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Minimum size (mm) Depth not less than length of the rafter plumb-cut × 19 thick Depth not less than length of the rafter plumb-cut × 19 thick Depth not less than length of the rafter plumb-cut × 35 thick 50 greater in depth than rafters × 19 thick (seasoned) or 25 thick (unseasoned) 50 greater in depth than rafters × min. thickness as for rafters 50 greater in depth than rafters with thickness as for rafter (min.6 OTHER MEMBERS AND COMPONENTS Member Application Unstrutted ridge in coupled roof Ridgeboards Strutted ridge in coupled roof with strut spacing not greater than 1800 mm Strutted ridge in coupled roof with strut spacing greater than 1800 mm to 2300 mm Stress grade F11/MGP15 minimum and no less than rafter stress grade Stress grades less than F11/MGP15 Valley rafters Minimum stress grade. thick × width to support valley gutter 90 × 45 or 70 × 70 70 × 70 70 × 35 70 × 45 or 90 × 35 90 × 35 90 × 45 or 120 × 35 42 × 35 70 × 35 42 × 19 190 × 19 See Section 8 90 × 45 or 70 × 70 70 × 70 70 × 70 90 × 70 Hip rafters Rigidly connected to rafter overhangs Struts to 1500 mm long for F8/MGP12 and higher stress grades Gable Struts Braces for gable ends Roof struts (tiled roof) Struts 1500 to 2400 mm long for F8/MGP12 and higher stress grades Struts to 1500 mm long for less than F8/MGP12 stress grade Struts 1500 to 2400 mm long for less than F8/MGP12 stress grade Roof struts (Roof load area up to 12 m ) Roof type Length (mm) Up to 1500 Sheet 1501 to 2400 2401 to 3000 3001 to 3600 Up to 1500 1501 to 2400 Tile 2401 to 3000 3001 to 3600 MGP 12 or better MGP 12 or better F8 or better MGP 12 or better F5 or better F8 or better Solid.org.  Standards Australia www. glued or nail-laminated Type 2 Size (mm) 90 × 45 or 2/70 × 35 2/90 × 45 2/90 × 45 2/90 × 45 2/70 × 45 or 2/90 × 35 2/120 × 45 2/90 × 35 2/120 × 45 2/90 × 35 2/90 × 45 NOTE: 175 × 25 × 6 mm hardwood weatherboards may also be used for valley boards.AS 1684.2—2006 110 TABLE 7.au . glued or nail-laminated Nail-laminated Solid or glue-laminated Nail-laminated Solid or glue-laminated Solid or glue-laminated Grade F5 or better Solid.

3 FIGURE 8. bracing within the building. wall bracing shall be designed for each storey.111 AS 1684. Each horizontal diaphragm transfers racking forces to lower level diaphragms by connections and bracing. NOTE: Figure 8. Gable end bracing Cross or sheet bracing Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Cross or sheet bracing Subfloor cross-bracing. shall be constructed into walls or subfloor supports and shall be distributed evenly throughout. cantilevered stumps or bracing wall W ind NOTES: 1 2 The wind force on unclad frames may be equal to or greater than those on a completed clad or veneered house.1 GENERAL 8 RACK IN G AND (BRAC I NG ) SHEAR FORCES Permanent bracing shall be provided to enable the roof.1 illustrates examples of the types and positions where bracing is required. ceilings and floor surfaces including their associated framing. where the forces are then resisted by the foundations. which normally occurs in vertical planes.standards. Horizontal wind (racking) forces are applied to external surfaces that are supported by horizontal or near horizontal diaphragms. Diaphragms include roofs.2—2006 SECT ION 8.au  Standards Australia . Where buildings are more than one storey in height. Where required. This continues down to the subfloor supports or concrete slab on the ground. Appropriate connection shall also be provided to transfer these forces through the framework and subfloor structure to the building’s foundation.1 VARIOUS BRACING SYSTEMS CONNECTING HORIZONTAL DIAPHRAGMS www.org. wall and floor framework to resist horizontal forces applied to the building (racking forces).

Determine area of elevation (see Clause 8. bracing shall be calculated to address the most adverse situation and shall be distributed throughout the house approximately in proportion to the forces (or areas) relevant to each shape (see Clause 8.org. 8.6.2 TEMPORARY BRACING Temporary bracing is necessary to support wind and construction loads on the building during construction. it shall be included in the ‘area of elevation’ calculations.3.5 kN/m × length of bracing wall = 1.2—2006 112 8. 8. width of building and roof pitch. a diagonal brace Type (c) as per Table 8.18 and 8. in accordance with the following procedure: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Determine the wind classification (see Clause 1. where required. the racking force (kN) is divided by the capacity of each brace. Tables 8. Temporary bracing may form part of the installed permanent bracing.2).3.2).5 give pressures depending on these variables. L.3.3. buildings that are composed of a combination of storeys or rectangles.5). respectively.e.3.18.6 and 8. H or U shapes.AS 1684. the elevation used shall be that for the worst direction.6. For complex building shapes.  Standards Australia www.au . NOTE: To calculate the number of braces required for wall bracing. Irrespective of which method is used. or the like.4 = 3.3.3.7 and Tables 8.3 WALL AND SUBFLOOR BRACING 8. Calculate racking force (see Clause 8.5 and AS 4055 and AS/NZS 1170.4 m long section of braced wall. the shapes may be considered individually and added together later or the total area as a whole can be calculated. As wind can blow from any direction.3. The total capacity of each brace is equal to the length of the braced wall multiplied by its unit capacity (kN/m) as given in Table 8. (f) (g) Check even distribution and spacing (see Clauses 8.6 kN for a 2.10). Design bracing systems for— (i) (ii) subfloors (see Clause 8.3.4). If a verandah. and lower storey of two storeys or subfloor for both long and short sides of the building.6.9 and 8.3.2 Wind pressure on the building Wind pressures on the surfaces of the building depend on the wind classification.6). and walls (see Clause 8.5 × 2. the gable end facing the wind will result in a greater amount of load at right angles to the width of the house than the hip end facing the wind.3. For example.3.3 and Figure 8. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 8.19).2)..3 Area of elevation The wind direction used shall be that resulting in the greatest load for the length and width of the building. i.6.standards. In the case of a single-storey house having a gable at one end and a hip at the other. Temporary bracing shall be equivalent to at least 60% of permanent bracing required.6. is present and is to be enclosed.6).18 has a total capacity of 1.1 to 8.3.1 General Bracing shall be designed and provided for each storey of the house and for the subfloor. Determine the wind pressure (see Clause 8. Pressures are given for single storey and upper storey of two storeys for both long and short sides of the building. Check connection of bracing to roof/ceilings and floors (see Clauses 8.

W ind direction 1 Gable end W ind direction 2 Hip end (a) Plan Area of elevation h Floor level Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] (b) Wind direction 1 Area of elevation (gable ends) Area of elevation h Floor level (c) Wind direction 2 NOTES: 1 2 h = half the height of the wall (half of the floor to ceiling height).2(A) DETERMINING AREA OF ELEVATION FOR A SINGLE-STOREY BUILDING www.2. The area of elevation of the triangular portion of eaves overhang up to 1000 mm wide may be ignored in the determination of area of elevation. See Figure 8.6. The total of racking forces is the sum of the forces calculated for each section. each level shall be considered separately for the purpose of calculating the minimum bracing required.standards.3. For wind direction 2. the pressure on the gable end is determined from Table 8.au  Standards Australia . 3 FIGURE 8.3.org.6.113 AS 1684.6 and 8.2 for guidance on determining the area of elevation. Bracing shall be evenly distributed (see Clauses 8.7).2—2006 Where there is more than one floor level in a building.1 and the pressure on the hip section of the elevation is determined from Table 8.

.e.au . FIGURE 8. The area of elevation of the triangular portion of eaves overhang up to 1000 mm wide may be ignored in the determination of area of elevation.2—2006 114 Gable end W ind direction 1 Hip end W ind direction 2 Hip end (a) Plan Area of elevation h Floor Level Single storey section Area of elevation (gable end) Area of elevation (gable end) Floor level h Floor level h Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Upper storey of two-storey section Lower storey of two-storey section (b) Wind direction 1 A1 (c) Wind direction 2 NOTES: 1 2 3 h = half the height of the wall (half of the floor to ceiling height). lower storey floor to lower storey ceiling).standards.2(B) DETERMINING AREA OF ELEVATION FOR A TWO-STOREY OR SPLIT LEVEL BUILDING  Standards Australia www.org.AS 1684. For lower storey of two storey section h = half the height of the lower storey (i.

2(C) DETERMINING AREA OF ELEVATION FOR SUBFLOORS www. the area of elevation will vary depending upon the wind direction or elevation being considered. The racking force calculated for the worst case should be selected.standards. The area of elevation of the triangular portion of eaves overhang up to 1000 mm wide may be ignored in the determination of area of elevation. (d) Wind direction 3—Gable end For houses on sloping ground.au  Standards Australia .115 AS 1684. FIGURE 8.org. (b) Wind direction 1 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Area of elevation Area of elevation Floor Floor h h (c) Wind direction 2—Hip end NOTES: 1 2 3 h = half the height from the ground to the lower storey floor.2—2006 W ind direction 2 Hip end W ind direction 3 Gable end W ind direction 1 (a) Plan Area of elevation Floor H h In the subfloor of a two-storey construction. the maximum distance (H) from the ground to the underside of the bearer in the lower floor shall be 1800 mm.

AS 1684.org.1  Standards Australia www. UPPER OF TWO STOREYS. The racking force shall be calculated for both directions (long and short sides) of the building. The total racking force for each storey or level of the building shall be the product of the projected area of elevation of the building multiplied by the lateral wind pressure determined from Tables 8.4 2. LOWER STOREY OR SUBFLOOR OF SINGLE STOREY OR TWO STOREYS—ALL VERTICAL SURFACE ELEVATIONS (GABLE ENDS.92 1.au .standards. shall be calculated as follows: Total racking force = Area of elevation (m2) × Lateral wind pressure (kPa) TABLE 8.3.1 PRESSURE (kPa) ON AREA OF ELEVATION (m 2)—SINGLE STOREY. NOTE: Appendix G provides a simplified procedure that may lead to a more conservative solution. SKILLION ENDS AND FLAT WALL SURFACES) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Wind classification N1 N2 N3 N4 Pressure (kPa) 0. The total racking force.4 Racking force The racking force on the building shall be determined by using the method given in this Clause or by using the alternative method given in Appendix G.1 to 8. in kN.5.2—2006 116 8.67 0.

84 0.77 0.72 0.0 5.56 0.75 0.0 9.49 0.0 12.38 0.67 0.84 0.55 0.45 0.53 0.65 0.55 0.61 0. www.36 0.52 0.52 0.0 N2 4.51 0.50 0.standards.49 0.62 0.84 0.71 0.45 0.50 0.35 0.51 0.52 0.55 0.50 0.54 0.46 0.48 0.74 0.51 0.71 0.52 0.61 0.0 5.52 0.52 0.43 0.0 16.51 0.0 11.70 0.84 0.50 0.57 0.59 0.64 0.0 16.45 0.58 0.72 0.41 0.74 0.47 0.53 0.52 0.0 10.44 0.48 0.42 0.71 0.117 AS 1684.51 0.60 0.0 15.53 0.78 (continued) NOTE: 0° pitch is provided for interpolation purposes only.42 0.65 0.61 0.46 0.60 0.74 0.51 0.76 0.65 0.36 0.39 0.52 0.61 0.0 14.58 0.2 PRESSURE (kPa) ON AREA OF ELEVATION (m 2)—SINGLE STOREY OR UPPER STOREY OF TWO STOREYS—LONG LENGTH OF BUILDING—HIP OR GABLE ENDS W W ind direction W ind direction W NOTE: See Figure 1.41 0.43 0.47 0.59 0.72 0.75 0.52 0.0 9.45 0.71 0.72 0.84 0.74 0.61 0.0 7.55 0.54 0.55 0.63 0.39 0.72 0.0 13.77 0.84 0.56 14.36 0.75 0.56 0.53 0.49 0.69 0.50 0.54 0.61 0.48 0.1 for guidance on determining W .61 0.40 0.0 7.72 0.55 0.40 0.42 0.56 0.0 8.73 0.84 0.54 0.47 0.62 0.51 0.59 0.72 0.42 0.0 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Roof pitch (degrees) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0.54 0.77 0.49 0.71 0.54 0.61 0. W (m) N1 4.44 0.72 0.61 0.75 0.35 0.52 0.org.au  Standards Australia .57 0.44 0.61 0.73 0.75 0.67 0.44 0.39 0.73 0.61 0.56 0.77 0.0 11.53 0.36 0.84 0.53 0.52 0.29 0.0 10.63 0.84 0.46 0.0 12.61 0.61 0.61 0.0 15.64 0.39 0.70 0.61 0.61 0.56 0.70 0.42 0.84 0.43 0.2—2006 TABLE 8.61 0.40 0.44 0.34 0.52 0.71 0.36 0.31 0.44 0.0 0.53 0.0 6.52 0.61 0.51 0.37 0.73 0.53 0.0 8.84 0.0 13.30 0.50 0.69 0.38 0.84 0.47 0.37 0.0 6.71 0.35 0.74 0.54 0.64 0.46 0.76 0.84 0.73 0.33 0.53 0.

3 1.7 1.0 2.1 1.3 1.2 1.0 2.5 1.0 16.  Standards Australia www.2 1.81 0.4 1.3 1.2 1.0 14.1 1.0 15.0 8.90 0.99 1.1 1.6 1.2 1.75 0.2 1.4 1.6 1.7 1.1 1.1 1.94 0.3 1.5 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.68 0.4 1.7 1.0 0.0 6.3 1.2 (continued) W W ind direction W ind direction W NOTE: See Figure 1.0 1.0 11.3 1.0 2.7 1.85 0.3 1.AS 1684.0 6.2 1.2 1.7 1.95 0.91 0.77 0.1 1.7 1.88 0.5 1.74 0.8 1.3 1.2 1.77 0.8 1.4 1.0 13.au .1 for guidance on determining W .7 1.0 2.0 8.91 0.7 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.0 2.2 1.1 1.org.0 1.85 0.65 0.1 1.0 2.3 1.79 0.2 1.1 1.6 1.1 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.95 0.1 1.0 5.3 1.1 1.0 16.95 0.0 12.0 1.0 7.7 1.8 1.6 1.0 2.8 1.89 0.8 1.1 1.0 10.1 1.91 0.3 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.2 1.3 1.8 NOTE: 0° pitch is provided for interpolation purposes only.92 0.7 1.3 1.1 1.7 1.0 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Roof pitch (degrees) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1.4 1.78 0.0 2.0 5.97 0.7 1.0 9.7 1.2—2006 118 TABLE 8.0 12.7 1.1 1.1 1.93 1.0 2.7 1.0 11.6 1.0 15.0 2.0 2.95 0.8 1.0 14.7 1.3 1.82 0.1 1.1 1.84 0.7 1.7 1.99 0.6 1.4 1.79 0. W (m) N3 4.79 0.1 1.00 0.97 0.7 1.1 1.83 1.98 0.5 1.6 1.78 0.0 1.1 1.6 1.2 1.1 1.8 1.2 1.7 1.1 1.0 13.0 2.76 0.3 1.97 0.2 1.93 0.1 1.1 1.71 0.0 7.4 1.3 1.7 1.0 9.4 1.2 N4 4.2 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.5 1.7 1.94 0.2 1.3 1.87 0.7 1.7 1.1 1.0 10.7 1.standards.0 0.5 1.7 1.2 1.96 0.75 0.62 0.0 2.8 1.4 1.1 1.

57 0.81 0.48 0.79 0.58 0.58 0.80 0.0 15.0 14.2—2006 TABLE 8.66 20 0.57 0.72 0.58 0.59 0.0 12.62 0.59 0.45 0.0 7.84 5 0.84 0.80 0.52 0.77 0.84 0.58 0.59 0.82 0.0 8.72 0.59 0.55 0.81 0.78 0.63 15 0.84 0.81 0.52 0.72 0.73 0.85 0.58 0.59 0.69 0.84 0.57 0.59 0.80 0.0 10.74 0.55 0.58 0.52 0.48 0.70 0.75 0.81 0.0 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Roof pitch (degrees) 0 0.52 0.0 9.48 0.75 0.84 0.79 0.84 0.53 0.61 0.0 7.0 16.74 0.67 0.52 0.standards.81 0.69 0.65 0.61 0.60 0.79 0.73 0.72 0.61 0.0 12.119 AS 1684.51 0.53 0.au .72 0.59 0.58 0.52 0.77 0.51 0.61 0.61 0.82 0.48 0.46 0.59 0.72 0.66 0.84 0.84 0.80 0.47 0.79 0.59 0.3 PRESSURE (kPa) ON AREA OF ELEVATION (m 2)—LOWER STOREY OR SUBFLOOR OF SINGLE STOREY OR TWO STOREYS—LONG LENGTH OF BUILDING—HIP OR GABLE ENDS W W ind direction W ind direction W W W ind direction W ind direction NOTE: See Figure 1.58 0.54 0.59 0.0 8.72 0.78 0.61 0.80 30 0.75 0.73 0.81 0.82 (continued)  Standards Australia 10.83 0.61 0.55 0.57 0.59 0.82 0.84 0.78 0.58 0.53 0.66 0.48 0.52 0.58 0.52 0.61 0.0 NOTE: 0° pitch is provided for interpolation purposes only.61 0.53 0.75 0.54 0.66 0.1 for guidance on determining W .82 0.71 0.81 0.58 0.58 0.52 0.73 0.57 0.61 0.56 0.59 0.53 0.82 0.0 11.72 0.73 25 0.72 10 0.0 14.0 5.61 0.58 0.66 0. W W (m) N1 4.57 0.0 6.84 0.61 0.61 0.73 0.54 0.57 0.54 0.61 0.73 0.48 0.61 0.org.49 0.79 0.0 5.80 0.68 0.73 0.74 0.66 0.60 0.0 13.80 0.0 15.59 0.72 0.80 0.60 0.48 0.52 0.52 0.66 0.0 16.82 0.48 0.64 0.83 0.53 0.52 0.50 0.79 0.50 0. www.68 0.53 0.79 0.84 0.54 0.76 0.81 0.0 11.56 0.52 0.57 0.84 0.84 0.81 0.59 0.0 13.84 0.82 0.79 35 0.59 0.82 0.57 0.0 N2 4.49 0.53 0.0 9.70 0.83 0.81 0.0 6.81 0.

9 1.6 1.7 1.3 (continued) W W ind direction W ind direction W W W ind direction W ind direction NOTE: See Figure 1.9 1.2 1.2 2.1 1.9 1.3 1.7 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.0 10.0 7.7 1.0 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Roof pitch (degrees) 0 1.3 1.9 13.5 20 1.9 1.1 1.5 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.1 1.3 1.0 1.7 1.1 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.2 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.0 9.5 1.0 1.0 16.9 1.0 2.3 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.8 1.6 1.9 1.1 1.3 1.0 7.7 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.9 1.1 1.9 1.9 1.0 5.1 1.9 1.9 35 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.5 15 1.0 2.3 1.0 16.3 1.0 1.9 1.3 1.9 1.8 1.2 1.9 1.1 1.0 8.6 1.5 1.0 2.00 0.7 1.1 1.1 1.5 1.0 1.9 1.3 1.2 1.9 1.9 1.3 1.0 14.9 1.0 2.0 8.0 15.0 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.9 1.3 1.9 1.3 1.9 1.1 1.1 1.0 N4 4.9 1.9 1.2 1.7 1.9 1.0 1.3 2.3 1.3 1.7 25 1.0 2.2 1.0 NOTE: 0° pitch is provided for interpolation purposes only.3 1.1 1.1 1.0 12.0 2.7 1.3 1.0 6.9 1.1 for guidance on determining W .9 1.0 2.8 1.2—2006 120 TABLE 8.5 1.3 1.7 1.2 1.7 1.7 1.2 1.9 1.7 1.0 1.0 12.9 1.2 1.AS 1684.3 1.1 1.org.3 1.98 1.2 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.0 1.7 1.0 2.0 15.7 1.0 2.0 5 1.7 1.7 1.9 1.0 6.standards.9 1.3 1.0 14.1 1.2 1.6 1.3 1.0 9.0 2.7 1.3 1.7 1.0 13.3 1.7 1.8 1.3 1.6 1.0 5.9 30 1.9 1.1 1.1 1.9 1.7 1.3 1.3 2.3 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.9 1.7 1.3 1.8 1.2 1.3 1.au .0 1.2 1.0 2.2 1.9 1.0 1.3 1.  Standards Australia www.7 1.6 1.8 1.2 1.7 10 1.6 1. W W (m) N3 4.0 11.0 1.1 1.8 1.0 2.0 2.0 11.0 10.

0 14.79 0.71 0.56 0.82 0.55 0.77 0.67 0.78 0.44 0.72 0.46 0.92 0.72 0.52 0.45 0.0 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Roof pitch (degrees) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0.56 0.79 0.0 6.73 0.55 0.0 13. www.76 0.0 N2 4.57 0.71 0.77 0.59 0.46 0.78 0.54 0.67 0.73 0.62 0.56 0.92 0.64 0.46 0.67 0.77 0.81 0.58 15.73 0.58 0.0 9.75 0.55 0.57 0.77 0.64 0.59 0.57 0.0 7.52 0.55 0.53 0.52 0.52 0.92 0.52 0.79 0.75 0.55 0.79 0.92 0.121 AS 1684.57 0.79 0.79 0.77 0.84 0. W W ind direction W (m) N1 4.67 0.64 0.92 0.92 0.54 0.4 PRESSURE (kPa) ON AREA OF ELEVATION (m 2)—SINGLE STOREY OR UPPER OF TWO STOREYS—SHORT END OF BUILDING—HIP ENDS W W ind direction NOTE: See Figure 1.82 0.73 0.67 0.0 16.57 0.57 0.51 0.80 0.0 6.52 0.0 10.79 0.0 14.47 0.73 0.62 0.72 0.54 0.46 0.56 0.0 12.0 5.77 0.55 0.75 0.92 0.48 0.80 0.67 0.52 0.76 0.72 0.0 0.53 0.77 0.56 0.56 0.77 0.58 0.0 8.2—2006 TABLE 8.61 0.73 0.57 0.77 0.74 0.79 0.64 0.56 0.58 0.92 0.57 0.49 0.78 0.52 0.75 0.77 0.0 15.64 0.56 0.69 0.79 0.57 0.92 0.1 for guidance on determining W .49 0.76 0.55 0.54 0.58 0.68 0.46 0.0 13.64 0.57 0.76 0.0 9.56 0.77 0.77 0.67 0.67 0.92 0.au  Standards Australia .57 0.76 0.68 0.0 7.57 0.50 0.59 0.66 0.56 0.0 10.59 0.92 0.52 0.72 0.75 0.79 0.standards.73 0.53 0.56 0.56 0.77 0.53 0.50 0.86 0.0 12.0 16.46 0.0 5.56 0.65 0.73 0.79 0.72 0.57 0.79 0.80 (continued) NOTE: 0° pitch is provided for interpolation purposes only.56 0.77 0.56 0.73 0.67 0.60 0.81 0.79 0.47 0.0 8.54 0.52 0.46 0.92 0.64 0.55 0.75 0.67 0.53 0.0 11.72 0.0 11.60 0.43 0.55 0.92 0.81 0.53 0.67 0.83 0.53 0.77 0.56 0.57 0.66 0.67 0.70 0.53 0.77 0.67 0.76 0.org.

1 1.4 1.9 1.0 14.2 1.2 1.  Standards Australia www.0 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Roof pitch (degrees) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.1 2.2 1.6 1.7 1.1 1.3 1.3 1.1 2.8 1.8 1.8 1.1 2.1 1.4 (continued) W W ind direction NOTE: See Figure 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.9 1.8 1.0 6.7 1.AS 1684.2 1.1 1.8 1.8 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.7 1.00 0.2 1.0 1.0 2.8 1.2 1.8 1.8 1.5 1.2 1.5 1.2 1.8 1.5 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.4 1.7 1.8 1.0 10.0 1.1 1.7 1.6 1.8 1.8 1.1 2.1 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.1 2.1 1.2 1.5 1.8 1.1 1.0 12.8 1.1 1.7 1.2 1.8 1. W W ind direction W (m) N3 4.4 1.7 1.00 1.8 1.8 1.0 8.2 1.au .8 1.1 1.2—2006 122 TABLE 8.8 1.9 1.8 1.1 1.0 14.9 1.1 2.8 1.2 1.2 1.8 1.94 0.2 1.9 1.2 1.2 1.8 1.0 2.0 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.0 13.2 1.2 1.8 1.0 16.0 10.1 1.1 2.7 1.8 1.3 1.0 15.4 1.00 1.7 1.7 1.2 1.2 1.1 2.4 1.00 1.7 1.1 for guidance on determining W .3 1.0 1.0 9.4 1.7 1.0 16.1 2.8 1.0 5.2 1.5 1.0 12.2 N4 4.0 1.2 1.4 1.2 1.5 1.1 2.8 1.2 1.7 1.8 1.2 1.7 1.4 1.2 1.8 1.9 1.0 6.2 1.97 0.1 1.org.8 1.4 1.0 7.1 1.2 1.7 1.8 1.3 1.1 2.2 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.3 1.8 1.2 1.0 7.6 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.0 13.2 1.1 1.9 1.0 9.8 1.2 1.4 1.0 8.8 1.1 2.0 1.0 11.7 1.4 1.8 1.4 1.standards.0 15.1 2.0 11.9 1.4 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.2 1.2 1.0 5.8 1.2 1.92 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.7 1.1 1.8 1.8 1.2 1.5 1.9 NOTE:0° pitch is provided for interpolation purposes only.

92 0.63 0.86 0.85 0.58 0.80 0.64 0.92 0.62 0.87 0.61 14.61 0.65 0.62 0.88 0.59 0.85 0.87 0.0 8.2—2006 TABLE 8.85 0.64 0.67 0.78 0.61 0.62 0.60 0.87 0.standards.0 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Roof pitch (degrees) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0.0 N2 4.0 0.63 0.61 0.85 0.61 0.61 0.86 0.0 10.83 0.90 0.79 0.62 0.0 6.85 085 0.60 0.86 0.85 0.83 0.87 0.60 0.67 0.67 0.86 0.67 0.0 12.81 0.59 0.83 0.85 0.84 0.92 0.0 15.61 0.86 0.86 0.0 5.0 16.92 0.62 0.67 0.63 0.83 0.80 0.86 0.83 0.88 0.0 5.62 0.61 0.61 0.92 0.86 0.79 0.83 0.62 0.83 0.61 0.83 0.87 0.org.85 0.61 0.87 0.0 15.61 0.84 0.85 0.63 0.0 7.63 0.0 13.89 0.62 0.60 0.60 0.61 0.62 0.58 0.85 0. W W ind direction W (m) N1 4.92 0.83 0.80 0.61 0.85 0.63 0.67 0.85 0.63 0.64 0.64 0.61 0.61 0.86 0.60 0.62 0.60 0.61 0.62 0.60 0.84 0.0 9.63 0.86 0.83 0.79 0.0 16.0 12.61 0.61 0.80 0.au  Standards Australia .83 0.67 0.84 0.67 0.84 0.64 0.1 for guidance on determining W .67 0.67 0.62 0.92 0.58 0.85 0.62 0.61 0.92 0.88 0.89 0.0 14.85 0.83 0.58 0.84 0.60 0.0 6.86 0.61 0.57 0.67 0.62 0.81 0.84 0.60 0.92 0.67 0.63 0.82 0.60 0.84 0.61 0.61 0.84 0.60 0.85 0.85 (continued) NOTE: 0° pitch is provided for interpolation purposes only.62 0.90 0.92 0.0 9.0 7.92 0.57 0.87 0.83 0.57 0.80 0.60 0.84 0.63 0.65 0.60 0.0 13.85 0.62 0.60 0. www.63 0.85 0.87 0.85 0.84 0.60 0.92 0.61 0.83 0.84 0.87 0.0 8.62 0.123 AS 1684.57 0.0 11.61 0.5 PRESSURE (kPa) ON AREA OF ELEVATION (m 2)—LOWER STOREY OR SUBFLOOR OF SINGLE STOREY OR TWO STOREYS— SHORT END OF BUILDING—HIP ENDS W W ind direction NOTE: See Figure 1.84 0.85 0.58 0.0 11.92 0.60 0.67 0.88 0.84 0.89 0.58 0.82 0.58 0.0 10.60 0.

4 1.0 2.0 12.3 1.1 2.4 1.0 1.au .3 1.4 1.3 1.9 1.0 16.3 1.3 1.3 1.9 1.1 2.9 1.3 1.3 1.3 16.1 2.4 1.4 1.0 2.0 2.0 2.3 1.3 1.3 1.8 1.0 13.3 1.0 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Roof pitch (degrees) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1.9 1.0 15.1 2.3 1.4 1.0 2.9 1.0 11.3 1.1 2.8 2.1 2.3 1.4 1.4 1.1 2.9 1.4 1.0 7.0 9.4 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.0 6.0 2.3 1.0 2.0 2.3 1.9 1.9 1.3 1.0 2.0 10.3 1.3 1.0 2.2 1.2 1.0 2.0 2.4 1.3 1.1 2.2 1.0 2.0 2.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.9 1.0 2.9 1.9 1.3 1.0 2.0 2.3 1.3 1.0 NOTE:0° pitch is provided for interpolation purposes only.3 1.0 2.3 1.3 1.  Standards Australia www.0 2.1 2.0 2.3 1.1 2.1 2.5 (continued) W W ind direction NOTE: See Figure 1.4 1.3 1.9 1.9 1.3 1.0 2.1 2.0 2.4 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.0 13.3 1.9 1.0 12.1 2.0 2.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.8 2.3 1.3 1.4 1.0 5.0 15.0 2.0 1.3 1.9 1.9 1.0 2.3 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.0 2.0 2.3 1.9 1.3 1.2 1.0 2.8 1.4 1.0 2.0 N4 4.0 2.0 2.0 6.3 1.1 2.3 1.4 1.2—2006 124 TABLE 8.3 1.0 2.9 1.0 2.3 1.4 1.0 8.3 1.4 1.1 2.0 2.0 2.3 1.1 2.3 1.0 2.standards.9 1.1 2.3 1.0 2.0 2.0 2.9 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.0 2.0 9.0 2.0 2.9 1.3 1.1 2.9 2.9 1.0 2.0 2.4 1.4 1.3 1.0 11.3 1.3 1.0 2. W W ind direction W (m) N3 4.1 for guidance on determining W .0 5.3 1.AS 1684.0 2.0 14.0 8.3 1.9 1.3 1.4 1.9 1.9 1.0 2.4 1.0 1.0 2.3 1.0 7.9 2.0 14.0 10.org.0 1.1 2.1 2.0 2.2 1.3 1.

Slab-on-theground construction requires no consideration.125 AS 1684.1 General All lateral loads (wind. The soil shall be compacted in depths of no more than 300 mm. TABLE 8. For wind classification N4. The lateral capacity of the individual stumps is not taken into account. Tables 8. Below the floor. Braced stumps have lateral support provided by cross-bracing and cantilevered stumps allow the lateral forces to be resisted by the foundations. Roof and wall bracing is designed to transfer these loads to the floor plane.3 Soil classification reduction factor The bracing capacities given in Tables 8.5. 8.4 Braced timber stumps Braced timber stumps utilize either steel or timber cross-bracing to achieve racking capacity. which may be backfilled with either soil or concrete. Stumps backfilled with soil Stumps shall be placed centrally onto a concrete pad.9.5. the values in the tables shall be modified in accordance with AS 2870.2—2006 8.2 Braced and cantilevered timber or concrete stumps There are two types of stump arrangements. the capacity shall be reduced by multiplying the values in these tables by the load capacity reduction factor given in Table 8. Loose sand shall not be used as backfill. braced or cantilevered stumps.6 LOAD CAPACITY REDUCTION FACTOR FOR OTHER SOIL CLASSIFICATIONS FOR WIND CLASSIFICATIONS UP TO N3 Soil classification Classes M-D and H Lateral load capacity reduction factor 0.3.6.13 are based on nil or minimal net uplift on supports and are suitable for wind classifications up to N3. Elevated floors require subfloor bracing. Concrete for the pad shall be N20 grade. the subfloor support structure shall be designed to transfer these loads to the footings. The stump may be either of timber or concrete and placed into either a concrete or soil backfill as follows: (a) (b) Stumps backfilled with concrete Stumps shall be backfilled with a concrete mix of minimum N20 grade with a maximum 20 mm nominal aggregate size. When other soil classification are found.3. www. using 20 mm nominal maximum size aggregate.3.au  Standards Australia . cantilevered stumps or columns.org.5 and Table 8. Tables 8. that is. and the like) shall be resisted by the foundations (ground) of the building. 8. with each layer rammed with a rod or mechanical compacting equipment. S and M. crossbracing or masonry supports or a combination of wall and subfloor bracing.3.7 to 8.3.13 are based on soil classifications A. Soil to be used for backfill shall be free of rock and vegetable matter. earthquake.7 and 8.3.5.8 give the bracing capacity of concrete and soil-backfilled stumps respectively. The stumps shall be set into a pier hole.7 to 8.standards.5. The specific details of the method of attachment and the strength of the braces shall be in accordance with Clause 8.5. The minimum thickness of the pad shall be 200 mm thick with not less than 150 mm of concrete below the end of the stump.8 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 8.5 Subfloor bracing 8.

3 4. 8.AS 1684.1 11 7. connection and bracing of crossed diagonal timber braces attached to concrete.7 BRACING CAPACITY OF A DIAGONALLY BRACED STUMP IN CONCRETE BACKFILL—SOIL CLASSIFICATIONS A.5.6 10 12 14 16 15 18 21 23 19 23 27 31 350 150 mm min.1 5.5 11 15 9. S AND M— WIND CLASSIFICATIONS TO N3 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] B Depth of stump into ground D (mm) Stump diameter B (mm) 150 mm 400 600 800 1000 Bracing capacity per stump H (kN) 100 3. Footing size needs also to be assessed for bearing (see Clause 3.9 12 15 20 D 150 mm min.5 Timber braces on concrete.0 7. Footing size needs also to be assessed for bearing (see Clause 3.7 9. Concrete pad 125 150 200 NOTES: 1 2 This Table is suitable for wind classification up to N3. S AND M— WIND CLASSIFICATIONS TO N3 B Concrete depth D (mm) Concrete pier diameter W (mm) 150 mm 400 600 800 1000 Bracing capacity per stump H (kN) 250 300 D 6.6). The size of timber columns shall be determined from Span Table 53 given in the Supplements.0 6.3. Concrete pad W 400 450 11 19 26 35 NOTES: 1 2 This Table is suitable for wind classification up to N3.2 8.6).au .  Standards Australia www.6 5. masonry or timber columns The size. TABLE 8.2—2006 126 TABLE 8.4 6.9 and Figure 8.4 9. masonry or timber columns shall be determined from Table 8.standards.org.8 BRACING LOAD CAPACITY OF A DIAGONALLY BRACED STUMP IN SOIL BACKFILL—SOIL CLASSIFICATIONS A.8 8.3.

Bearers fixed to columns with 1/M12 or 2/M10 bolts 170 × 45 mm F11 or better braces over 2 or 3 columns.11 to 8. 30° min. The reduction factor for other soil classifications given in Table 8. (for two column system) Detail A FIGURE 8. The maximum bracing capacity of timber stumps inserted in the footings given in Tables 8. 150 mm min. see AS 2870.org. Tables 8.10 to 8. 90 × 90 mm Concrete/masonry or timber column min.3.14 for the relevant footing depth or timber size. 3000 mm max.13 give the bracing capacities of the footings for timber or concrete stumps encased in soil backfill.6 shall be applied to these tables.2—2006 TABLE 8. min. 14 Type 17 screws 13 1/M16 bolt 15 1/M20 bolt 22 NOTE: Alternate bearer to column connections of equivalent shear capacity to the bracing capacity of the braced set may be obtained from Table 9.13 are suitable for wind classification up to N3 where no uplift occurs. The footing size shall also be assessed for bearing (see Clause 3.9 TIMBER BRACES ON CONCRETE.13 shall not exceed the values given in Table 8.14 shall be F8.10 gives the bracing capacities of the footings for timber or concrete stumps encased in concrete backfill. 120 × 120 mm or 150 mm diameter Brace and bearer to column connection 90 × 45 mm F11 or better over 3 columns or 140 × 45 mm F11 or better over 2 columns 90 × 45 mm F11 or better over 3 columns or 140 × 45 mm F11 or better over 2 columns. S and M.3 TIMBER BRACES ON MASONRY OR TIMBER COLUMNS 8. for M20 bolt. The lateral capacity or size of timber stumps shall be determined from Table 8.6 Cantilevered stumps in concrete or soil backfill Table 8. See Detail A 60° max.au  Standards Australia .127 AS 1684. Bolt size or screws as per Table 8.14.standards.28.5. www. MASONRY OR TIMBER COLUMNS Column type Timber columns min.6). Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 3600 mm max. The soil classifications for these Tables are based on Classes A. For wind classification N4.9 130 mm min. The shear capacity of the set may be equally distributed over the number of columns in the set. 160 mm min. Bearers fixed to columns with 1/M16 or 2/M12 bolts Brace to column Bracing connection capacity (kN) 4/No. 90 × 90 mm Timber columns only. The minimum stress grade of timber stumps derived from Table 8. Tables 8. for M16 bolt.10 to 8.

8 4.0 13 17 450 3.9 5.1 7.6 5.2 2.1 4.1 9.3 3.2—2006 128 All cantilevered timber stumps with bracing capacities of 7.6 3.6 6.standards.6 5.10 BRACING CAPACITY—CANTILEVERED STUMPS IN CONCRETE BACKFILL— SOIL CLASSIFICATIONS A.4 5.4 3.5 kN or greater shall be fixed to bearers with structural connections having a shear capacity equivalent to the bracing capacity of that stump.8 8.3 3.7 9.2 13 17 1.5 13 16 1.7 10 16 22 29 2.2 7.8 8.4 7.5 11 17 22 1.6 3.5 9.7 9.3 5.6 13 19 25 (continued) www.9 4.3 4.8 5.2 12 0.0 6.0 2.8 7.6 8.1 13 15 1. NOTE: Shear capacities of stump to bearer connections are given in Table 9.4 10 15 19 600 4.3 7.1 2.org.2 14 19 25 1. TABLE 8.7 11 14 1.3 6.1 13 18 23 1.1 11 300 2.4 4.2 12 17 23 29 2.0 6.7 13 350 2.8 11 15 19 1.28.8 2.8 6.0 2.2 6.8 4.4 4.2 7.2 12 18 26 33 2.5 3.4 9.0 4.AS 1684.7 10 15 19 1.2 5.2 12 17 22 1.4 5.5 9.6 9.9 9.5 9.0 7.8 11 14 1.4 10 15 21 26 2.6 16 23 31 39 3.6 6.0 5.1 11 15 19 1.0 3. S AND M—WIND CLASSIFICATIONS TO N3 H E D 150 mm W Height above footing E (mm) Pier depth D (mm) 400 600 800 Bracing capacity H (kN) Pier diameter W (mm) 250 1.8 11 15 400 3.0 7.au 200 1000 1200 1400 400 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 600 800 400 1000 1200 1400 400 600 800 600 1000 1200 1400 400 600 800 800 1000 1200 1400 NOTE: This Table is suitable for wind classifications up to N3  Standards Australia .

1 12 0.7 1.5 9.0 2.0 5.2 9.5 2.9 13 17 1.4 7.6 12 0.7 13 17 1.8 2.1 5.7 4.9 4.0 9.1 5.4 7.6 11 0.3 8.7 4.6 8.9 2.9 7.2 9.6 1.8 8.7 3.6 1.5 0.8 10 0.6 8.8 2.8 7.4 12 17 23 1.3 6.4 2.3 2.2 5.7 1.5 8.5 1.129 AS 1684.5 4.9 8.2 2.8 2.au  Standards Australia .4 7.9 8.6 11 15 21 1.3 3.7 1.5 0.6 0.0 3.2 3.1 2.0 11 450 1.3 7.7 7.3 2.0 10 14 0.7 13 0.2—2006 TABLE 8.4 13 0.0 9.7 0.4 4.10 (continued) H E D 150 mm W Height above footing E (mm) Pier depth D (mm) 400 600 Bracing capacity H (kN) Pier diameter W (mm) 250 0.4 4.8 3.3 5.0 6.0 12 600 1.5 2.3 8.7 5.1 350 1.1 3.6 4.0 2.1 11 14 0.9 11 15 1.4 4.3 5.9 0.1 2.3 6.7 4.4 6.6 5.7 4.7 3.1 7.0 12 16 1000 800 1000 1200 1400 400 600 800 1200 1000 1200 1400 400 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 600 800 1400 1000 1200 1400 400 600 800 1600 1000 1200 1400 400 600 800 1800 1000 1200 1400 NOTE: This Table is suitable for wind classifications up to N3 www.org.1 3.7 6.9 7.8 2.5 1.6 1.4 1.2 11 0.standards.1 9.5 14 19 1.7 1.8 1.8 6.4 1.0 3.7 5.6 6.2 3.7 3.1 2.4 3.0 6.6 2.0 7.9 3.8 2.2 4.9 4.5 8.7 1.4 9.9 3.1 3.9 5.3 0.9 6.0 2.4 5.9 10 13 0.4 4.9 7.3 5.1 2.9 12 15 0.6 1.1 4.0 8.7 300 0.4 400 1.6 5.1 7.9 9.0 6.6 10 0.

5 1.1 1.8 3.5 7.4 6.2 8.1 7.7 1.7 3.7 1.4 2.6 1.au .8 11.6 5.9 4.3 9.2 3.1 2.7 11 14 0.1 2.3 1.5 0.2—2006 130 TABLE 8.standards.4 1.2 0.8 8.3 10 0.7 6.2 0.5 2.0 1.4 4.8 4.1 1.4 200 1.4 5.3 1.8 3.5 150 0.3 2.4 1.8 2.1 0.5 3.7 7.8 1.2 7.3 0.3 0.7 6.9 5.4 2.0 (continued) 600 800 400 1000 1200 1400 400 600 800 600 1000 1200 1400 400 600 800 800 1000 1200 1400 NOTE: This Table is suitable for wind classifications up to N3.5 5.9 1.4 2.8 2.8 2.8 0.5 1.8 5.2 2.6 125 0.8 8.1 3.3 1.4 1.0 3.  Standards Australia www.9 1.3 1.6 8.1 0.5 3. S AND M— WIND CLASSIFICATIONS TO N3 H E B D Concrete pad 150 mm W 200 mm Concrete base support W = 300 mm Height above footing E (mm) Stump depth D (mm) 400 600 800 200 1000 1200 1400 400 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Bracing capacity H (kN) Stump thickness/diameter B (mm) 100 0.6 12 0.4 2.5 1.5 2.1 6.4 2.7 2.AS 1684.2 250 1.8 3.3 5.1 1.8 2.6 2.1 2.5 1.4 3.11 BRACING CAPACITY—CANTILEVERED STUMPS IN SOIL BACKFILL—SOIL CLASSIFICATIONS A.9 2.4 3.9 5.9 4.6 5.9 3.6 0.9 9.5 3.2 4.8 4.5 0.6 6.9 4.8 4.4 1.9 0.org.4 4.3 3.0 2.1 0.1 0.5 1.8 7.3 4.3 5.9 4.1 0.

8 1.4 0.6 2.2—2006 TABLE 8.1 1.8 1.0 7.8 2.au  Standards Australia .6 1.2 0.1 3.0 4.8 3.3 1.2 0.3  0.8 2.7 1.6 8.0 2.9 3.6 0.8 1.6  0.9  0.2 0.6 4.7 2.6  0.1 6.2  0.5 2.3 2.9 4.2 3.2 0.8  0.6 4.3 1.0 1.1 1.2 2.4 2.1 3.7 1.5 6.7 3.0 0.11 (continued) H E B D Concrete pad 150 mm W 200 mm Concrete base support W = 300 mm Height above footing E (mm) Stump depth D (mm) 400 600 1000 800 1000 1200 1400 400 600 1200 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Bracing capacity H (kN) Stump thickness/diameter B (mm) 100 0.6 2.6 200 0.9 4.5 6.3 1.3 0.7 1.9 1.1 3.5 3.6 1.9 1.3 4.3 4.5 0.0 150 0.8 250 0.8 1.5 0.9  0.6  0.2 0.7 2.6 5.7 1.8 0.standards.8 4.131 AS 1684.3 0.7 1.3 3.4 125 0.9 1.6 5.4 0.5 3.6 2.5 1.4 0.9 2.3  0.3 2.6 1.5 2.2 1.9 1.org.3 3.2 0.0 1.7 1. www.5 2.0 0.0 (continued) 800 1000 1200 1400 400 600 800 1400 1000 1200 1400 400 600 800 1600 1000 1200 1400 NOTE: This Table is suitable for wind classifications up to N3.6 0.0 1.3 2.6 2.7 2.2 3.9 1.3  0.0 5.1 1.2 5.

5 0.8 1.au .3 2.1 1.5 0.4 0.1 1.5 1.5 2.2—2006 132 TABLE 8.2 125  0.0 1. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]  Standards Australia www.0 4.3 200  0.AS 1684.4 3.9 3.11 (continued) H E B D Concrete pad 150 mm W 200 mm Concrete base support W = 300 mm Height above footing E (mm) Stump depth D (mm) 400 600 1800 800 1000 1200 1400 Bracing capacity H (kN) Stump thickness/diameter B (mm) 100  0.6 1.4 250  0.standards.org.4 2.8 1.3 3.8 1.8 150  0.9 2.8 5.6 NOTE: This Table is suitable for wind classifications up to N3.

2 4.6 8.6 12 0.1 4.1 2.4 4.0 1.5 1.9 4.12 BRACING CAPACITY—CANTILEVERED STUMPS IN SOIL BACKFILL—SOIL CLASSIFICATIONS A.5 0.8 4.6 1.7 4.8 8.2 3.3 1.6 3.0 150 0.4 1.2 3.4 2.2 2.2 400 600 600 800 1000 1200 1400 400 600 800 800 1000 1200 1400 400 600 1000 800 1000 1200 1400 NOTE: This Table is suitable for wind classifications up to N3.2 0.7 1.1 0.8 1.2 3.2—2006 TABLE 8. www.7 7.2 2.3 1.4 1.3 4.5 1.7 5.1 3.1 0.9 5.7 1.1 0.5 0. S AND M—WIND CLASSIFICATIONS TO N3 H E B D Concrete pad 150 mm W 200 mm Concrete base support W = 400 mm Height above footing E (mm) Stump depth D (mm) 100 400 600 200 800 1000 1200 1400 400 600 400 800 1000 1200 1400 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Bracing capacity H (kN) Stump thickness/diameter B (mm) 125 0.5 5.2 4.1 0.2 3.5 4.3 1.2 0.1 3.1 0.2 3.9 9.1 3.4 2.2 1.7 11 14 0.6 3.8 3.0 0.2 4.9 0.5 0.5 6.0 (continued) 0.3 1.5 3.au  Standards Australia .3 10 0.8 11 0.4 2.7 2.5 2.4 1.4 250 1.org.5 2.6 8.8 4.4 3.4 2.1 6.1 3.8 200 1.0 6.6 3.1 2.2 0.5 1.6 3.8 2.7 2.6 3.standards.8 4.7 2.1 7.2 0.4 0.6 5.8 5.4 6.2 7.2 6.9 0.5 3.5 4.6 5.8 5.3 9.3 1.2 0.8 7.9 2.7 7.9 2.4 1.2 2.0 2.8 2.1 3.4 2.7 2.5 1.1 4.2 8.8 1.133 AS 1684.1 0.3 5.1 3.9 4.8 5.5 1.0 1.1 2.7 5.7 2.6 0.3 0.7 3.8 2.5 3.7 3.5 2.7 6.8 8.8 5.9 1.3 6.

3  0.6 0.1 2.2 1.3 3.5 1.  Standards Australia www.9 2.3 200 0.3 4.8  0.9 1.8 3.4 1.3 2.9 1.2  0.9 4.6 2.1 3.1 1.3  0.9 2.3 1.0  0.AS 1684.4 0.3 3.2—2006 134 TABLE 8.7 1.2 5.9 2.5 2.4 1.8 1.7 1.3 1.4 2.au .0 7.5 1.8 150 0.1 6.6 1.4 250 0.7 1.2 1.8  0.2 0.6 5.7 2.6  0.8 1.2 0.6  0.7 1.6  0.6 1.1 1.5 1.4 2.0 4.2 2.9  0.7 2.5 2.7 3.3 2.4 1.0 1.5 2.1 1.org.9 1.1 1.12 (continued) H E B D Concrete pad 150 mm W 200 mm Concrete base support W = 400 mm Height above footing E (mm) Stump depth D (mm) 100 400 600 1200 800 1000 1200 1400 400 600 1400 800 1000 1200 1400 400 600 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Bracing capacity H (kN) Stump thickness/diameter B (mm) 125 0.2 1.9 1.5 1.0 5.1 1.1 3.9 3.8 2.6 2.3  0.6  0.5 1.8 1.2 0.6 4.9 3.4  0.3 1.9  0.5 3.7 2.8 5.5 6.6 4.1 1.9 2.2 1600 800 1000 1200 1400 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1800 NOTE: This Table is suitable for wind classifications up to N3.5 1.5 3.0 4.6 1.3 3.4 3.standards.7 1.0  0.

7 2.5 6.2 3.1 4.2 6.2 0.2 4.8 4.8 5.au  Standards Australia .3 9.8 6.8 8.2 4.8 200 1.5 0.5 3.standards.0 2.2 0.7 2.1 3.5 5.3 1.8 8.6 5.1 4.2 0.9 3.4 0.3 4.135 AS 1684.7 4.3 3.6 4.0 0.3 1.5 4.9 1. www.3 0.7 4.5 2.6 3.org.0 6.3 0.6 4.4 1.5 6.0 2.2 3.1 0.2 0.6 12 0.5 8.3 4.7 5.3 1.0 5.7 2.6 3.4 1.9 9.8 9.4 1.4 2.9 0.7 2.0 5.7 7.6 1.3 10 0.2 0.4 2.6 3.2 5.7 3.8 2.7 2.1 4.5 1.6 0.1 0.7 6.6 8.3 1.1 6.0 3.7 1.7 7.6 5.1 2.5 0. S AND M—WIND CLASSIFICATIONS TO N3 H E B D Concrete pad 150 mm W 200 mm Concrete base support W = 600 mm Height above footing E (mm) Stump depth D (mm) 400 600 200 800 1000 1200 1400 400 600 400 800 1000 1200 1400 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Bracing capacity H (kN) Stump thickness/diameter B (mm) 100 0.6 4.8 3.0 (continued) 400 600 600 800 1000 1200 1400 400 600 800 800 1000 1200 1400 400 600 1000 800 1000 1200 1400 NOTE: This Table is suitable for wind classifications up to N3.1 4.8 1.8 5.3 3.9 2.3 0.5 6.2 0.4 250 1.5 1.9 0.5 1.13 BRACING CAPACITY—CANTILEVERED STUMPS IN SOIL BACKFILL—SOIL CLASSIFICATIONS A.5 8.2—2006 TABLE 8.0 1.7 4.3 0.2 4.1 2.4 1.8 4.5 1.6 3.1 4.3 2.2 3.9 5.5 1.5 150 0.7 11 14 0.5 3.3 1.1 7.3 4.7 7.1 3.1 0.2 5.8 3.7 6.5 125 0.8 11 0.8 5.3 7.8 7.5 6.8 1.7 5.5 5.1 3.4 2.1 7.1 2.4 2.

9 3.2 2.2 3.6 1.4 0.2 0.6  1.8  1.13 (continued) H E B D Concrete pad 150 mm W 200 mm Concrete base support W = 600 mm Height above footing E (mm) Stump depth D (mm) 400 600 1200 800 1000 1200 1400 400 600 1400 800 1000 1200 1400 400 600 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Bracing capacity H (kN) Stump thickness/diameter B (mm) 100 0.1 3.9 1.standards.1 1.0 5.4 2.3 2.8 5.2—2006 136 TABLE 8.6 2.5 3.5 2.7 2.6 5.9 1.2 1.9 3.au .2 3.3  1.8 2.0 2.5 1.2  1.6 1.0 1.1 125 0.6 3.6 4.8 2.0 7.7 3.1 1.7 3.6 2.5 1.3  0.9 3.2 0.3 2.0 3.6 2.5 6.4 — 0.5 3.2 0.3 4.2 2.6 4.5 2.3 3.org.7 1.6 — 0.3 1.8 1.4 250 0.1 6.8 2.4 — 0.4 3.2 5.2 3.7  0.4 2.6 1600 800 1000 1200 1400 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1800 NOTE: This Table is suitable for wind classifications up to N3.7 1.7 1.8 2.1 2.9  0.0 — 1.2  0.8 2.1 150 0.1 2.6 4.7 1.0 4.0 4.7 3.AS 1684.  Standards Australia www.9 4.8 — 0.0 1.9 4.9 1.5 2.3 2.5 1.7  0.2 1.3 3.4 3.2 2.0 2.4 2.0 2.6 3.4 1.2  0.3 200 0.

Footing plan size and depth.2 125 × 125 37 19 12 6.7 1. S and M only.5 0.2—2006 TABLE 8. The horizontal load can be resisted by adding the capacity of individual stumps to resist the total force. 200 mm × 200 mm—225 mm diameter.5 2. 175 mm × 175 mm—200 mm diameter.6 150 × 150 50 32 22 14 7.4 0. additional bracing or cross-bracing shall be used.8 0. Where the column capacity is not adequate to resist the lateral load. 125 mm × 125 mm—150 mm diameter.4 2.standards.4 5.8 1. 8.15 and Figure 8.au  Standards Australia . Steel columns over 900 mm above the ground shall not be used for bracing.9 3. materials or sizes shall be designed in accordance with engineering principles Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] www.4.9 0.8 1.0 1.3 200 × 200 50 50 50 38 23 13 8. shall apply to soil classifications A.14 MAXIMUM BRACING (LATERAL) CAPACITY OF TIMBER STUMPS Height of stump E above footing (mm) 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Maximum bracing capacity of timber stumps (kN) Nominal unseasoned size of stumps (mm × mm) 100 × 100 19 9.4 0.137 AS 1684.2 2. steel or concrete post or columns placed into concrete footings may be used for transferring racking forces to the foundation.9 3. Bracing systems for other soil classifications.3 4. All bracing shall be fixed to the floor or footing below and the floor above to enable the transfer of the full bracing capacity of the bracing system. Individual load capacities and details of columns or posts are given in Table 8.5. 250 mm × 250 mm—275 mm diameter.15.3 2.6 4 250 × 250 50 50 50 50 50 33 20 14 10 NOTE: The following round timber stump sizes may be used in lieu of the square sizes given above: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) 100 mm ´ 100 mm—125 mm diameter.org.6 6.3 175 × 175 50 50 34 26 13 7. as given in Table 8. 150 mm × 150 mm—175 mm diameter. unless incorporated in a bracing set.3.3 0.8 4.7 Bracing columns Timber.

au . Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] No-fines concrete shall be used for external hardwood columns NOTE: For guidance on durability. respectively.4 CONCRETE. see Appendix C. MASONRY AND STEEL BRACING COLUMNS  Standards Australia www.2 76 × 76 × 4.0 Footing plan size or diameter (mm) 350 × 350 350 × 350 350 × 350 Footing depth D (mm) 900 900 900 Bracing capacity (kN) 6 4.5 3 — 1801 to 2400 4-Y12 225 — 400 × 400 900 3 2401 to 3000 NOTES: 1 2 3 4 4-Y12 250 — 600 × 600 900 2. Footing depth may be reduced to 600 mm when enclosed by a minimum of 100 mm thick concrete slab cast on the ground and of a minimum size of 6 m2. FIGURE 8. see AS 3600 and AS 3700.2—2006 138 TABLE 8.org. For concrete and masonry columns and walls. For bearer tie-down. M = reinforced concrete masonry.15 COLUMN BRACING CAPACITY Height of column above ground (mm) 600 or less 601 to 900 901 to 1800 Column details Concrete and masonry Plan size (mm) M200 × 200 M200 × 200 C200 × 200 M200 × 400 M300 × 300 C200 × 200 M200 × 400 M300 × 300 C250 × 250 M200 × 400 M300 × 300 Reinforcement 1-Y12 1-Y12 4-R10 Timber diameter (mm) 125 150 200 Steel (mm) 76 × 76 × 3. see Section 9.3 C = reinforced concrete column.AS 1684.standards.

16 are not applicable to stand-alone panels of masonry less than 3000 mm. NOTE: The minimum width of the floor is measured parallel to the direction of wind under consideration. the spacing of bracing shall be as per Clause 8.or two-storey. The total minimum length of unreinforced masonry bracing walls in any full length of wall shall be 3000 mm with the minimum length of individual panels in the wall not less than 900 mm.5. The maximum distance between bracing sets. The bracing capacity of subfloor masonry is not applicable in regions where there are no walls above. All brickwork shall comply with AS 3700 or the Building Code of Australia.6.or two-storey construction Bracing in the subfloor or lower storey of two-storey construction shall be evenly distributed. decks or the like. under a platform strip or sheet timber floor system shall be as follows: (a) (b) (c) For wind classifications N1 and N2.org.9 Spacing of bracing in the lower storey of two-storey construction or the subfloor of single. stumps.2—2006 8. 14 000 mm if the minimum width of floor is 6000 mm.5 Subfloor of single storey with clad frame over Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 1.7 where the width of the floor is considered as the ceiling depth.8 Unreinforced masonry bracing Unreinforced masonry walls may be used to transfer racking forces in the subfloor region.139 AS 1684. and engaged-piers shall be regularly spaced.standards. The description of single.5. for example. For wind classification N3. The walls shall be a minimum of 90 mm thick. TABLE 8. piers. Table 8.3.3. For wind classifications N4.16 UNREINFORCED MASONRY BRACING CAPACITY Description Bracing capacity (kN/m) Subfloor of single storey with brick veneer over 3 Subfloor of two storeys with brick veneer over 7.3.5 Tie-down shall be provided from bearers to footings Subfloor of two storeys with clad frame over 3 8. 11 500 mm if the minimum width of floor is 6000 mm. The bracing capacities given in Table 8.16 gives the capacity of masonry walls in the subfloor region only. If the width of the floor is less than as given above. and the like.au  Standards Australia . wall or posts. brick veneer or clad frame refers to the construction above the unreinforced masonry bracing wall under consideration. under verandah roofs. www. 14 000 mm if the minimum width of floor is 4800 mm.

AS 1684.2—2006

140

8.3.6 Wall bracing 8.3.6.1 General Walls shall be permanently braced to resist horizontal racking forces applied to the building. Wall bracing shall be designed to resist racking forces equal to or greater than the forces calculated from Clause 8.3.4. The total capacity of bracing walls shall be the sum of the bracing capacities of individual walls. See Table 8.18 for the capacity of structural bracing walls, and see Section 9 for fixing requirements. 8.3.6.2 Nominal wall bracing Nominal wall bracing is wall framing lined with sheet materials such as plywood, plasterboard, fibre cement, hardboard, or the like, with the wall frames nominally fixed to the floor and the roof or ceiling frame. The maximum amount that can be resisted by nominal wall bracing is 50% of the total racking forces determined from Clause 8.3.4. Nominal wall bracing shall be evenly distributed throughout the building. If this is not the case, the contribution of nominal bracing shall be ignored. The minimum length of nominal bracing walls shall be 450 mm. The bracing capacity of nominal bracing is given in Table 8.17.

TABLE 8.17 NOMINAL SHEET BRACING WALLS
Method Sheeted one side only Sheeted two sides
Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]

Bracing capacity (kN/m) 0.45 kN/m 0.75 kN/m

8.3.6.3 Structural wall bracing Structural wall bracing is purpose-fitted bracing, being either sheet or cross-timber or steel bracing. Table 8.18 gives the specific capacity for each metre length of various structural bracing types. For corrosion protection requirements, see also Clause 9.2.2.
NOTE: Nominal bracing cannot contribute to bracing resistance where it occurs in the same section of wall as structural bracing, such as where plasterboard lining is fixed over a structural brace:

For sheet-braced walls, the sheeting shall be continuous from the top plate to the bottom plate with any horizontal sheet joins made over nogging with fixings the same as required for top and bottom plates. Unless otherwise specified, sheet-bracing walls shall be a minimum of 900 mm wide to satisfy the requirements of their nominated ratings. The capacity of sheet bracing given in bracing types (g) to (m) in Table 8.18 is based on fixing the sheeting to framing having a minimum joint strength group of J4 or JD4. If JD5 is used, the bracing capacity given in bracing types (g) to (m) in Table 8.18 shall be reduced by 12.5%.
NOTE: For wall heights greater than 2700 mm, the values in the table may be proportioned downward relative to the wall heights. For example, for a wall height of 3600 mm multiply the values in the table by 2700/3600 = 0.75 (see Clause 8.3.6.4).

 Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

141

AS 1684.2—2006

TABLE 8.18 STRUCTURAL WALL BRACING (MAXIMUM WALL HEIGHT 2.7 m)
Type of bracing
A1

Bracing capacity (kN/m)

(a)

Two diagonally opposed timber or metal angle braces
45 ´ 1 9 mm or 70 ´ 19 mm hardwood timber braced fixed to each stud and plate with 1/ 5 0 ´ 2.8 mm Æ galv. flat-head nail

Galv. metal angle (18 ´ 16 ´ 1.2 mm) brace fixed to studs with 1/30 ´ 2.8 mm Æ nail and to plate with 2 /30 ´ 2.8 mm Æ galv. flat-head nails 30 ° to 60 °

0.8

1800 mm min. to 2700 mm max.

Fix bottom plate to floor frame or slab with nominal fixing only (see Table 9.4)

NOTE: All flat-head nails shall be galvanized or equivalent. (b)
Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]

Metal straps—Tensioned

60° to 30°

30 ´ 0.8 mm tensioned metal brace fixed to studs with 1/30 ´ 2.8 mm Æ galv. flat-head nail (or equivalent) and to plate with 3 /30 ´ 2.8 mm Æ galv. flat-head nails, or alter native metal strap, faxed as above, with a net sectional area not less than 15 mm 2

1.5

1800 mm min. to 2700 mm max.

Fix bottom plate to floor frame or slab with nominal fixing only (see Table 9.4)

(continued)

www.standards.org.au

 Standards Australia

AS 1684.2—2006

142

TABLE 8.18 (continued)
Type of bracing
A1

Bracing capacity (kN/m)

(c)

Timber and metal angle braces The maximum depth of a notch or saw-cut shall not exceed 20 mm. Saw-cuts studs shall be designed as notched.

1.5

Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]

A1

(d)

Double diagonal tension or metal strap braces
30 ´ 0.8 mm galv. metal strap looped over plate and fixed to stud with 4/30 ´ 2.8 mm Æ galv. flat-head nails (or equivalent) to each end. Alter natively, provide single straps to both sides, with 4 nails per strap end, or equivalent anchors or other fasteners 30 ´ 0.8 mm tensioned metal strap fixed to studs with one 30 ´ 2.8 mm Æ galv. flat-head nail (or equivalent) and to plates with 4/30 ´ 2.8 mm Æ galv. flat-head nails, or alter native metal strap, fixed as above, with a net sectional area not less than 21 mm 2

3.0

30 ° to 60 °

1800 mm min. to 2700 mm max.

Fix bottom plate to floor frame or slab, with nominal fixing requirement
(continued)

 Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

143

AS 1684.2—2006

TABLE 8.18 (continued)
Type of bracing (e) Diagonal timber wall lining or cladding Minimum thickness of board—12 mm fixed with 2/20 × 50 mm long T-head nails. Intermediate crossings of boards and studs shall be fixed with one nail. Bracing capacity (kN/m)

Fix bottom plate to floor frame or slab, with nominal fixing requirement

40 ° to 50 °

Perimeter nail spacing

s

2100 mm min.

2700 mm max.

30 ´ 0.8 mm G. I. strap to each cor ner of bracing panel tying studs to plates 4/2.8 mm dia. nails each end

NOTE: Noggings have been omitted for clarity. (f) (g)

s (mm)

60 40

2.1 3.0

Other timber, metal angle and strap bracing shall be designed and installed in accordance with engineering principles. Plywood Plywood shall be nailed to frame using 30 mm × 2.8 mm ∅ galvanized flat-head nails or equivalent.
Horizontal butt joints permitted, provided fixed to nogging at 150 mm centres 150 mm

Minimum plywood thickness (mm) Stress grade Stud spacing mm 450 600

Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]

150 mm

150 mm

300 mm

No nogging (except horizontal butt joints) F8 F11 F14 F27 7 4.5 4 3 9 7 6 4.5

Sheathed panels shall be connected to subfloor Fastener spacing: 150mm top and bottom plates 150 mm vertical edges, nogging 300 mm intermediate studs

One row of nogging F8 F11 F14 F27
Where required, one row of noggings staggered or single line at half wall height

7 4.5 4 3

7 4.5 4 3

3.4

NOTES: 1 For plywood fixed to both sides of the wall, see Clauses 8.3.6.5 and 8.3.6.10. 2 No other rods or straps are required between top or bottom plate. 3 Fix bottom plate to floor frame or slab with nominal fixing only (see Table 9.4). (continued)
www.standards.org.au  Standards Australia

AS 1684.2—2006

144

TABLE 8.18 (continued)
Type of bracing
A1

Bracing capacity (kN/m)

(h)

Minimum plywood thickness (mm) Stud spacing Stress For Method A, M12 rods shall be used at each end of sheathed section top (mm) grade 450 600 plate to bottom plate/floor frame. Method B has no rods but sheathing shall be F8 7 9 nailed to top and bottom plates and any horizontal joints at 50 mm centres. F11 6 7 Horizontal butt joints permitted, provided nail F14 4 6 fixed to nogging at s = 150 mm centres for F27 4 4.5 s Method A, or s = 50 mm centres for Method B Fastener spacing, s (mm) Top and bottom plate:  Method A 150  Method B 50 s Vertical edges 150 Method A 6.4 Intermediate 300 studs Method B Fixing of bottom 6.0 plate to floor frame or slab Plywood Plywood shall be nailed to frame using 30 × 2.8 ∅ galvanized flat-head nails or equivalent.
150 mm 300 mm

Method A: M12 rods as shown plus a 13 kN capacity connection at max. 1200 mm centres Method B: A 13 kN capacity connection at each end and For Method A only: M12 rod top to Sheathed panels shall bottom plate each end of sheathed section be connected to subfloor intermediately at max. 1200 mm centres NOTE: For plywood fixed to both sides of the wall, see Clauses 8.3.6.5 and 8.3.6.10. Minimum plywood (i) Plywood Plywood shall be nailed to frame using 30 × 2.8 mm ∅ galvanized thickness (mm) flat-head nails or equivalent. Stud NOTE: For plywood fixed to both sides of the wall, see Clauses 8.3.6.5 and spacing 8.3.6.10. Stress (mm) grade Horizontal butt joints permitted, provided 50 mm fixed to nogging at 50 mm centres 450 600
100 mm

Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]

A1

No nogging (except horizontal butt joints)
50 mm

F11 F11

4.5 7.0

4.5 7.0

7.5 8.7

100 mm

Fastener spacing (mm) Top and bottom plate Vertical edges 50

100

M12 rod top to bottom plate each end of sheathed section

Fix bottom plate to floor frame or slab with M12 rods as shown, plus a 13 kN capacity connection at max. 600 mm centres

Intermediate studs

100

(continued)
 Standards Australia www.standards.org.au

4).40 mm × 2.org. 1200 mm centres. Double 6 mm glue bead where plywood sheets butt together on a common stud. (k) Decorative plywood—Glued and nailed Decorative plywood shall be nailed to frame using min.5 mm ∅ bullet-head nails.5 mm ∅ bullet-head nails.au  Standards Australia . Intermediate studs 200 (continued) www.3 Fastener spacing (mm) Top and bottom plates 200 Vertical edges Skew-nailed in groove and punched on edge of plywood sheet 200 NOTE: Fix bottom plate to floor frame or slab with a 13 kN capacity connection at each end of braced panel and at max. Skew-nailed in groove and punched on edge of plywood sheet 100 mm F11 100 mm Fastener spacing (mm) 200 mm 2. Continuous 6 mm bead of elastomeric adhesive to studs and plates.1 Top and bottom plate: Vertical edges 100 100 Intermediate studs 200 NOTE: Fix bottom plate to floor frame or slab with nominal fixing only (see Table 9.2—2006 TABLE 8.18 (continued) Type of bracing A1 Bracing capacity (kN/m) Minimum nominal thickness of decorative structural plywood (mm) Stress grade Stud spacing (mm) (600 max.) 6 (j) Decorative plywood—Nailed Decorative plywood shall be nailed to frame using min. 40 × 2.) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 200 mm F11 200 mm 6 5. The depth of groove shall not exceed one-third the nominal thickness.standards.145 AS 1684. Double 6 mm glue bead where plywood sheets butt together on a common stud Minimum nominal thickness of decorative structural plywood (mm) Stress grade Stud spacing (mm) (600 max. The depth of groove shall not exceed one-third the nominal thickness.

80 mm At least one side of the bracing wall shall be lined with gypsum plaster board or equivalent Bracing capacity (kN/m) Minimum hardboard thickness 4. 1200 mm centres in between NOTE: Bolt/rod washer sizes as per Table 9.8 mm ∅ galvanized flat-head nails or equivalent. Maximum stud spacing = 600 mm. 1800 mm centres. Type C only: M12 rod at each end and max. Hardboard shall be nailed to frame using minimum 30 × 2. 4 150 mm 300 mm Fix bottom plate to floor frame or slab with nominal fixing only (see Table 9. Nails shall be located a minimum of 10 mm from the vertical edges and 15 mm from the top and bottom edges. (continued)  Standards Australia www. Bracing panel minimum width = 900 mm.4.AS 1684.org.8 mm Fastener spacing (mm) Top and bottom plates Vertical edges and nogging Intermediate studs 80 150 300 Type A 3. Type B: Fix bottom plate to floor frame or slab with M10 bolts each end and intermediately at max.au .2—2006 146 TABLE 8.standards.4) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] (m) Hardboard Types B and C Hardboard shall comply with AS/NZS 1859.4 150 mm Fixing of bottom plate to floor frame or slab Type A: Fixing bottom plate to floor frame or slab with nominal fixing requirement (see Table 9. Maximum stud spacing = 600 mm.8 mm ∅ galvanized flat-head nails or equivalent.4. Type B 6.8 mm Fastener spacing (mm) Top and bottom plates Vertical edges and nogging 40 150 40 mm staggered Intermediate studs 300 Fixing of bottom plate to floor frame or slab.1. Nails shall be located a minimum of 10 mm from the vertical edges and 15 mm from the top and bottom edges. Hardboard shall be nailed to frame using minimum 30 × 2. 1800 mm centres in between Minimum hardboard thickness 4.18 (continued) Type of bracing (l) Hardboard Type A Hardboard shall comply with AS/NZS 1859.0 150 mm At least one side of the bracing wall shall be lined with gypsum plaster board or equivalent 300 mm 150 mm Type B only: M10 bolt at each end and max. 1200 mm centres Type C: M12 rods at each end and intermediately at max.4). Bracing panel minimum width = 900 mm.0 Type C 9.

4. TABLE 8.1. 460 mm min. Bracing panel minimum width = 460 mm. Nails shall be located a minimum of 10 mm from the vertical edges and 15 mm from the top and bottom edges.standards. 150 mm 460 mm min. Hardboard shall be nailed to frame using minimum 30 × 2. Type D: Type D 3. For wall heights greater than 2700 mm the capacity shall be multiplied by the values given in Table 8.75 0.0 150 mm 150 mm 150 mm Fix bottom plate to floor frame or slab with no6minal fixing only (see Table 9. 8.19. Maximum stud spacing = 600 mm.18 (continued) Type of bracing (n) Hardboard Type D and E―Short wall bracing systems Hardboard shall comply with AS/NZS 1859.8 mm ∅ galvanized flat-head nails or equivalent. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] NOTE: Bolt/rod washer sizes as per Table 9.8 mm Fastener spacing (mm) Top and bottom plates Type D Type E 80 40 150 Vertical edges and nogging 80 mm Fixing of bottom plate to floor frame or slab.147 AS 1684.19 BRACING WALL CAPACITY/HEIGHT MULTIPLIER Wall height (mm) 3000 3300 3600 3900 4200 Multiplier 0.8 0.org.3.6.4 Wall capacity and height modification The capacity of bracing walls given in Table 8.7 0.64 www.4) Type E: M12 rods at each end.4 Type E 6. Type D only: M10 ´ 50 mm long coach screw with 30 ´ 38 mm washer at each cor ner of panel 40 mm staggered At least one side of the bracing wall shall be lined with gypsum plaster board or equivalent Type E only: M12 rod at each end Bracing capacity (kN/m) Minimum hardboard thickness 4.18 is appropriate to wall heights up to and including 2700 mm.9 0.au  Standards Australia .2—2006 TABLE 8.

3. C and D are the design strengths of individual bracing walls.2—2006 148 8.AS 1684. Nailing shall not split the framing.3. FIGURE 8. where possible.6. at the corners of the building. Where the same structural plywood bracing system is fixed to both sides of the wall. etc.18 for plywood. or in bracing type (g)— (i) (ii) for panel length of 600 mm. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Total bracing strength = A + B + C + D.5 for 600 mm long varying linearly to 1.5 Length and capacity for plywood bracing walls For the bracing capacities given in Table 8.standards. except— (a) (b) in bracing type (h) for Method A only. For tie-downs for these panels. the bracing capacity shall be half of that for 900 mm.6. B. NOTE:See also Examples 1 and 2 given in Appendix E.org.5 LOCATION OF BRACING  Standards Australia www. the capacity of the wall will equal the combined capacity of the bracing system on each side.6. and connections at the top and bottom of the wall shall be increased to match the combined bracing capacity of the plywood system on each side.10. 8.3. the minimum length of the panels may be 600 mm.5). see Clause 8. the minimum length of the panels shall be 900 mm.au .0 for 900 mm. Bracing shall initially be placed in external walls and. and for panel length between 600 mm and 900 mm.6 Location and distribution of bracing Bracing shall be approximately evenly distributed and shall be provided in both directions (see Figure 8. (a) Right angles to long side (b) Right angles to short side NOTE: A. the bracing capacity may be determined by multiplying the respective capacities by 0.

standards. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] FIGURE 8.5.21 for the relevant wind classification.3.6.6) or other bracing systems shall be determined from Clause 8.7 Spacing of bracing walls in single storey or upper storey of two-storey construction For single storey or upper storey of two-storey construction. ceiling depth and roof pitch. Where bracing cannot be placed in external walls because of openings or the like.9. Alternatively. or for subfloors. NOTE: Ceiling depth is measured parallel to the wind direction being considered. wall frames may be designed for portal action. For the lower storey of a two-storey construction.3. spacing shall be in accordance with Table 8.au  Standards Australia .2—2006 8.149 AS 1684.20 and Table 8. For wind classifications greater than N2. the maximum distance between braced walls at right angles to the building length or width shall not exceed 9000 mm for wind classifications up to N2. a structural diaphragm ceiling may be used to transfer racking forces to bracing walls that can support the loads. the spacing of bracing walls (see Figure 8.org.6 SPACING OF BRACING www.

1 7.9 6.3 6.5 8.9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 4.6 25 3.1 8.6 6.6 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 Roof pitch (degrees) 15 5 6.8 6.3 3.1 6.4 4.6 6.5 5.8 5.3 5.5 5.9 TABLE 8.9 7.8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 25 5.1 6.8 3.6  Standards Australia www.9 8.2 5.6 7.standards.6 35 4.4 3.5 4.6 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 20 6.9 8.2 4.3 8.3 5.9 8.2 5.7 8.9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 5 6.2 5.2 7.7 6.5 5.org.5 4.3 4.8 5.2 4.2 7.9 8.au .7 7.4 4.2 5.9 6.1 6 6.7 35 2.3 4.2 8.AS 1684.20 MAXIMUM SPACING OF BRACING WALLS—WIND CLASSIFICATION N3 Maximum bracing wall spacing (m) Ceiling depth (m) 0 ≤4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 5.7 7.9 9 9 9 9 9 9 20 4.6 8.4 8.1 7.4 4.3 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 7.4 6.9 4.4 7.5 7.1 6.6 6.9 7.6 5.9 4.3 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 17.1 7.5 7 8.1 8.7 5 5.4 8.9 7.4 7.1 4.4 4 4.7 7.1 3.3 8.2 7.2 5.6 7.9 6.8 3.5 30 2.9 7.7 4 4.5 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 17.8 6.7 3.7 9 9 9 9 9 30 4.9 8.2—2006 150 TABLE 8.2 5.2 6.8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 5 4.7 7.1 5.3 6.4 8.9 6.21 MAXIMUM SPACING OF BRACING WALLS—WIND CLASSIFICATION N4 Maximum bracing wall spacing (m) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Ceiling depth (m) 0 ≤4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 3.9 3.4 6.9 5.4 8.7 6.4 5 5.5 5.7 5.4 8.4 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 Roof pitch (degrees) 15 7.7 5.

22(a) and (i).standards.22. For typical details and shear capacities. provided they are suitably connected to the main ceiling diaphragms using appropriate connections such as crossed metal bracing straps to rafter overhangs or sheet bracing to rafter overhangs (see Figure 8.6. 2 3 www. to provide continuity of the ceiling diaphragm. i.9 Fixing of top of bracing walls Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] All internal bracing walls shall be fixed to the floor for lower storey bracing walls. See Table 8. where appropriate. as referenced in Table 8. see Table 8.7 BRACING UNITS UNDER EAVES 8. with structural connections of equivalent shear capacity to the bracing capacity of that particular bracing wall.5 and Appendix H. Clause 9.7).15. roof or external wall frames can be achieved by using individual connections or combinations of connections.au  Standards Australia .2—2006 8. see Table 9. NOTES: 1 The connection required to achieve the necessary shear capacity between bracing walls and the ceiling. to the bulkhead.6. For trussed roofs.3. The crossed metal or sheet bracing shall be connected.6. For an explanation and further information on joint groups (J and JD).8 External bracing walls under the ends of eaves External bracing walls under the ends of eaves may be used as bracing walls.e.. Nominal and other bracing walls with bracing capacity up to 1. FIGURE 8. The same structural requirements that apply to normal external bracing walls shall apply to the external bracing walls under the ends of eaves. and/or the external wall frame. no additional fixing requirements.22.3. These bracing walls shall be limited to 20% of the total wall bracing required in each direction. the ceiling or roof frame. where nominal fixings are permitted as above. the nominal fixings should permit vertical movement of the trusses.5 kN/m require nominal fixing only.org. Crossed metal braces in the roofline continue the ceiling diaphragm action to the rafter overhangs.151 AS 1684.

9 4.9 6.22 FIXING OF TOP OF BRACING WALLS Shear capacity (kN) Rafters.8 9.8 mm Æ nails each face 1/No. provide timber blocks either side of the trimmer.3 5.0 2. 14 type 17 screws 90 ´ 35 mm F8 or 90 ´ 45 mm F5 trimmer on flat Seasoned timber J3 J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 Nails 3. 14 type 17 screws Provide clearance where roof NOTE: For trussed roofs.05 3.1 3.3 6.5 2/M10 12 8.14 Type 17 Bolts 4.5 2.0 M12 Screws or bolts as per table Bracing wall 7.0 5.6 2.6 4.8 7.8 2.14 Type 17 12 8.3 3.1 9.4 Provide clearance where roof is trussed M10 6.AS 1684.9 8.4 1.0 1.9 4.5 1. Alternatively.14 Type 17 2/No.5 3.1 8.5 2/75 mm Æ nails each end as per table or 2/75 mm No.33 Screws No.9 3.3 2. screws or bolts through the top plate shall be placed in holes that permit free vertical movement of the trusses.6 9.9 (continued)  Standards Australia www.0 2.5 2. nails or screws is trussed through the top plate shall be placed in holes that permit free vertical movement of the trusses.7 6.3 5.2—2006 152 TABLE 8.0 NOTE: For trussed roofs.8 3.4 5.1 2.au .standards.14 Type 17 3/No.3 6.3 1.9 4.4 1.6 4. joists or trusses to bracing wall Unseasoned timber J2 (a) 4/75 mm Æ nails as per table or 3/No.6 13 9.9 3.9 4. wall (b) Screws Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Trimmer: One bolt: or: Two bolts: or: 90 90 120 120 Æ Æ Æ Æ 35 45 35 45 mm mm mm mm F8 F5 F8 F8 Framing anchors (legs not bent) 6/2.4 5.0 4.3 3.8 7.1 3. fixed as Bracing prescribed for each block.1 2.7 2. 2/M12 13 9.org.4 4.5 1.1 5.

) 4/2.0 4.8 mm G.0 4.2—2006 TABLE 8.0 5.05 4/3.6 2.5 mm holes shall be drilled in batten to allow for truss deflection 2.05 mm nail either side of wall (e) Nailing plates or framing anchor (legs not bent) to either end of nogging 6/2.7 3.3 2.9 2.5 1.6 4.1 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Provide clearance where roof is trussed Bracing wall Ceiling battens fixed with 1/3.org.5 4.4 5. bolted.6 13 4.7 4.6 5.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.2 3.8 4.4 3. 3.5 3.6 7.9 9.standards.6 5.33 6/3.14 Type 17 9.9 7.8 3.0 2.5 Bracing wall (d) Rafter or truss 2/3.5 6.8 mm nails each end and to bridging Seasoned timber J3 J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 Nails ∅3.3 3.5 1.7 3.8 1.05 6.5 3.6 5.4 7.6 5.7 5.5 4.3 1.4 5.8 1. joists or trusses to bracing wall Unseasoned timber J2 (c) 90 35 mm F8 bridging piece Two looped straps (30 0.33 Bolts M10 M12 2/M10 Screws Shear blocks nailed.9 6.4 3.1 2. or screwed as per table Bracing wall 5.05 6/3.22 (continued) Shear capacity (kN) Rafters.1 5.7 13 6.0 6.14 Type 17 3/No.6 6.0 4.1 4.0 Gap to truss 2/No.9 8.05 mm nails per batten.1 30° (max) Gap between top plate and truss 3/75 mm nails as per table ∅3.3 4.8 mm Æ nails each face or 2/No.153 AS 1684.4 2.4 (continued) www.0 5.14 Type 17 batten screws either end 90 ´ 35 mm F8 or 90 ´ 45 mm F5 trimmer Nails 4/3.6 4.33 7.au  Standards Australia .0 2.9 9.2 4.1 8.1 4.6 3.3 5.2 3.5 3.I.

33 (continued)  Standards Australia www.2 0.7 6.7 15 6.2 3.6 5.6 7. or bottom chord NOTE: For truss roof.org.0 5.6 3.90 0.9 4 3. nails through the top plate shall be placed in holes that permit free vertical movement of the trusses.7 1.85 1.6 5.5 3.1 Bracing wall (g) Nails or screws to each block as per table Truss Nails 4/3. ceiling joist.4 6.05 6/3.6 5.AS 1684.5 4.1 Top plate Two looped straps (30 ´ 0.2 4.4 3.I.au .2—2006 154 TABLE 8.33 5.4 1.7 3.0 6.5 Screws Bracing wall Gap to truss Top plate 2/No.4 (h) Truss or rafter Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Gap to truss Bracing wall 8.4 6.1 0.8 mm Æ nails each face 6.14 Type 17 9.6 4.standards.0 4.3 4.8 mm G.8 mm nails each end and to truss (i) Rafter.8 3.2 1.3 2.0 5. 2 skew nails per crossing size as per table Nails 2/3.9 10 4.9 10 4.9 7.0 4.05 Bracing wall 1.2 3.9 7.5 3.05 4/3.5 3.66 1.0 0.1 2.33 6/3.4 4.6 5.4 3.75 2/3.3 4. joists or trusses to bracing wall Unseasoned timber J2 (f) J3 Seasoned timber J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 Rafters for ceiling joists Framing anchor (legs not bent) 6/2.6 2.77 1.4 2.22 (continued) Shear capacity (kN) Rafters.) 4/2.7 4.1 0.14 Type 17 3/No.

2 4.I straps with number of nails each end of straps as per table.6 2.9 10 4.10 Fixing of bottom of bracing walls The bottom plate of timber-framed bracing walls shall be fixed at the ends of the bracing panel and.standards.3 4.0 2.6 7.8 8. The bracing wall tie-down details in Table 9.5 3.3 5.18.0 2.7 15 6.6.6 5.5 4. which do not specify intermediate bottom plate fixings.6 3.1 4.4 (k) Inter nal bracing wall 2/30 ´ 0.18.8 6.14 Type17 3/No.6 3.05 6/3.1 6.3 6. the bottom plates shall be fixed at the ends of each bracing panel using tie-down fixings determined from Table 8.33 6/3.7 4. www.2 3.18 may also be used to fix bottom plates to timber-framed floors where their uplift capacities are appropriate.6 5.3 2.33 5.4 2.0 4.6 5.0 6. joists or trusses to bracing wall Unseasoned timber J2 (j) Blocking pieces large enough to avoid splitting Nails.155 AS 1684. Details included in Table 9. at max.9 7.4 3.0 5.1 8.1200 mm centres shall be used.0 2.2—2006 TABLE 8.0 5.3 4.23 and Table 8.1 2.9 10 4.24.1 4.org.1 2. For bracing wall systems of capacity 6 kN/m or greater given in Table 8.9 7.4 3. if required.24. 14 Type 17 screws.5 Bolts M10 M12 2/M10 6.8 mm G. screws or bolts as per table blocks to be both sides of rafter or bottom chord Seasoned timber J3 J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 Nails 4/3.1 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 4/2.0 3.5 3. or propriety nailing plate with equal capacity Nails 4/2.au  Standards Australia .4 3.6 5.5 3. additional intermediate bottom plate fixings of a minimum of 1/M10 bolt.9 4. intermediately to the floor frame or concrete slab with connections determined from Table 8.2 3.1 6/2.3 1 6/2.4 4.2 3.0 Screws Gap between top plate and truss Bracing wall 2/No.4 6.4 6.4 7.6 9.9 8.8 13 9. Where bottom plate fixing information is not given in Table 8.1 4.1 8.7 3.1 5.5 3.3 3.14 Type17 Straps 9.6 5.22 (continued) Shear capacity (kN) Rafters.18 are not required where tie-down walls are provided and the tie-down connections used are equivalent in capacity to those determined for the bracing wall from Table 8.8 4. or 2/No.9 2.05 4/3.7 2 Top plate Exter nal wall 6.6 4.18.8 8.8 3.0 3.0 4.3.6 13 4.

such systems shall be used.standards. TABLE 8.6 4.8 7.0 7.0 6.2—2006 156 Where bracing systems require more fixings or stronger fixings than determined from Tables 8.0 1.14 Type17 screws 11 8.8 9. Where provided. i.au .24.1 4. no additional fixing requirements. with min. The maximum tension load of 8. Nominal bracing walls require nominal fixing only.5 2 4.5 kN given in the Notes to Span Tables for studs in the Supplements is not applicable when considering the uplift force at the ends of bracing walls. the bottom plate tie-down details given in Table 8.e. 38 mm penetration into flooring and/or joist M10 16 cup-head 14 10 10 7 5 2/No. Uplift force at ends of bracing walls (kN) For bracing walls rated at (kN/m) capacity 1 2.0 2. that is from the top plate to the floor frame or concrete slab.AS 1684. 14 Type 17 batten screws as per table.5 11 4 10 11 12 4.15 mm Æ nails 27 27 26 20 16 12 (continued)  Standards Australia www.5 8.24.org.23 UPLIFT FORCE AT ENDS OF BRACING WALLS Wall height (mm) 2400 2700 3000 NOTES: 1 2 3 Some bracing wall systems require fixings to be full-length anchor rods.4 (b) Bolts as per table Bolts M10 18 18 18 15 12 9 M12 Double joist or 450 mm long full depth cleat nailed to joist with 6/75 ´ 3.4 6.7 3.5 13 15 17 6 14 16 18 8 19 22 24 10 24 27 30 TABLE 8.2 8.4 4.4 2.5 6.1 9.4 9.8 5.24 FIXING OF BOTTOM OF BRACING WALLS Uplift capacity (kN) Fixing details Unseasoned timber J2 (a) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Seasoned timber J3 J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 M10 cup-head bolts or No.0 3.2 5..5 3 7.23 and 8.18 may be used in lieu of the details determined from Tables 8.5 3.5 11 12 14 5 12 14 15 5.23 and 8.

0 Bearer or underbatten M12 bolt 27 27 26 20 16 12 (d) Screws or coach screws (125 mm long) each end of bridging piece as per table M10 bolt 120 ´ 70 mm bridging piece on flat 2/No.org.au  Standards Australia .0 (e) Two nailing plates each end of bridging.24 (continued) Uplift capacity (kN) Fixing details Unseasoned timber J2 (c) Solid nogging Bolt as per table Seasoned timber J3 J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 M10 bolt 18 18 18 15 12 9.screwed.3 17 13 9. with 6/2. chemical or expanding masonry anchor Refer to manufacturer’s specifications www.standards.9 8. 27 27 26 20 16 12 (g) Fired.157 AS 1684.3 5.3 5.9 4.0 18 18 13 15 12 9.8 mm Æ nails to each face Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 100 ´ 50 mm bridging piece on edge M10 bolt 18 16 11 15 12 9 M12 bolt Bolt as per table 22 16 11 18 15 11 (f) Hooked or bent anchor bolt as per table M10 bolt 18 18 18 15 12 9 M12 bolt 180 mm min.0 13 9.2—2006 TABLE 8. 14 Type 17 screws 2/M12 coach screws 12 8.0 7. legs not bent. 14 Type 17 screws 3/No.

33 dia nails or 1/No.AS 1684.au .14 Type 17 screws or 2/M10 bolts 2/M12 bolts 2/M16 bolts 3/No. Table 8.26.7.26). for wind classifications up to N4 and roof pitches to 35°.14 Type 17 screws or 2/M10 bolts 2/M12 bolts 2/M16 bolts To be designed  Standards Australia www.14 Type 17 screw 3/No. and the following: (i) (ii) Ridge to internal wall—minimum of two timber braces in opposing directions at approximately 45° (see Table 8.2—2006 158 8.26 GABLE ROOF STRUTS AND CONNECTIONS AT ENDS OF STRUTS Stress grade of strut Strut size (mm) 70 × 35 to 70 × 45 F5 or MGP10 2/90 × 35 to 2/90 × 45 3/90 × 35 to 3/120 × 35 3/90 × 45 to 3/140 × 45 70 × 35 to 70 × 45 F14 or MGP15 2/90 × 35 to 2/90 × 45 3/90 × 35 to 3/120 × 35 3/90 × 45 to 3/140 × 45 End connection 4/3.2. valleys and the like.25 GABLE ROOF BRACING—GABLE STRUT SIZE AND GRADE Width of gable roof (mm) Wind Stress classigrade fication 6000 9000 0 to 15 12 000 Roof pitch (degrees) 16 to 25 26 to 35 NS 0 to 15 3/90×35 15 000 16 to 25 26 to 35 NS NS NS NS NS NS NS 0 to 15 16 to 25 26 to 35 0 to 15 16 to 25 26 to 35 N1/N2 F5 or 70×35 70×45 2/90×35 70×45 2/90×45 3/120×45 2/90×35 3/120×35 MGP10 F14 or 70×35 70×35 MGP15 70×45 70×35 70×45 2/90×45 70×45 2/90×45 3/120×35 2/90×35 3/120×35 NS 3/90×35 NS N3 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] F5 or 70×35 70×45 2/90×45 70×45 3/90×35 3/120×45 2/90×45 3/120×45 MGP10 F14 or 70×35 70×35 2/70×35 70×35 2/90×35 2/120×45 70×45 2/120×45 3/140×45 2/90×45 3/90×45 MGP15 F5 or 70×35 2/90×35 2/120×45 2/70×35 3/120×35 MGP10 NS 3/120×35 NS NS NS 3/120×45 NS N4 F14 or 70×35 70×35 2/90×35 70×45 2/70×45 3/90×45 2/70×45 3/120×35 MGP15 3/90×35 3/140×45 NS = not suitable. Diagonal metal bracing—single or double diagonal bracing to be designed and installed in accordance with engineering principles. gable roof buildings with a roof pitch greater than 10° but less than 25° shall be provided with roof bracing in accordance with Clause 8.7.1 Pitched roofs (coupled and non-coupled roofs) The following shall apply to the bracing of pitched roofs: (a) (b) Hip roofs Hip roofs shall not require any specific bracing as they are restrained against longitudinal movement by hips.3. Alternatively. TABLE 8.7 Roof bracing 8.25 and 8. TABLE 8.3.25. Gable roofs (including cathedral roofs) For wind classifications up to N2.org.3.standards. seek enginee ring advice. bracing shall be in accordance with Table 8.

2—2006 8.27 GABLE ROOF BRACING ALTERNATIVES Brace location alternative (a) Ridge to internal wall in opposing directions (b) Ridge to external wall plates on both sides of ridge Brace specification* Length (mm) Up to 2100 Over 2100 to 2400 Over 2400 to 3000 Over 3000 to 4200 As required Minimum size (mm) 70 × 45 2/90 × 35 2/90 × 45 3/120 × 35 90 × 19 or 75 × 25 timber or equivalent metal system End connection 5/3.27).au  Standards Australia .8): (i) Gable roofs—using either— (A) (B) ridge to internal wall—minimum of two timber braces in opposing directions at approximately 45° (see Table 8. single or double diagonal—designed and installed in accordance with engineering principles.27).3. (ii) Diagonal metal bracing.8 GABLE ROOF BRACING www.33 ∅ nails M10 cup-head bolt M12 cup-head bolt 2/M10 cup-head bolts 5/3. roof bracing shall be provided in accordance with Table 8. The minimum timber grade for gable roof bracing shall be F5.75 nails each end Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] FIGURE 8.159 AS 1684.2 Gable roofs (including cathedral roofs) for wind classifications up to N2 The following shall apply for gable roofs: (a) General For buildings with a gable width (excluding eaves overhangs) up to 12 000 mm and a roof pitch greater than 10° but less than 25°.standards.27 and the following (see Figure 8.org. and installed in accordance with (iii) Structural sheet bracing—designed engineering principles. TABLE 8. or ridge to external wall plates—single diagonal timber brace on both sides of the ridge running at approximately 45° from ridge to wall plate (see Table 8.05 nails or 4/3.7.

75 mm nails each side of joint FIGURE 8.9 TIMBER BRACING SPLICE 8.3. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]  Standards Australia www.standards.org.7. 700 mm long timber splice plate or equivalent nailplates 5/3.9.2—2006 160 (b) Intersection of timber braces Where timber braces intersect they shall be spliced in accordance with Figure 8.au .3 Truss roofs Bracing requirements for truss roofs shall be in accordance with AS 4440.AS 1684.

2—2006 SECT ION 9.2. 9.standards.1(b) and 9. www.2 to 9.1 SCOPE 9 F I X I N GS AND D E S I G N T I E. Figure 9.11 shall apply to all connections and fixings. materials) Suction (uplift) Dead load (structure) Live loads (people.1 LOAD ACTIONS 9.2.2.1(a).DO WN This Section specifies the fixing requirements necessary to ensure the structural adequacy of the interconnection of the various framing members in a house.161 AS 1684. materials) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] W ind Suction (c) Lateral wind loads FIGURE 9.) Dead load (structure) Inter nal pressure Suction W ind Dead load (structure) Inter nal pressure (a) Gravity loads (b) Uplift wind loads Construction load (people. fur niture etc.1 General The general details given in Clauses 9.au  Standards Australia . Construction load (people.2 GENERAL CONNECTION REQUIREMENTS 9.1(c) illustrate the typical load actions that are accounted for in this Section.org.

they shall satisfy the requirements of the relevant authority. The grade of all other metal components shall be in accordance with the relevant Australian Standards.2. TABLE 9. AS 1397 and AS 1214.0 50 × 50 × 3. framing anchors and similar structural connection shall be G 300.3 Straps.2.2. Where corrosion protection of steel is required it shall be in accordance with AS/NZS 4791.1.2. 9.au  Standards Australia . screws.AS 1684. Where other types of corrosion protection are provided. or shall comply with. 9. screws.org. Hole for thread—root diameter.5 mm larger than the bolt diameter. bolts.6 Drilling for coach screws Drilling for coach screws shall be as follows: (b) (c) Hole for shank—shank diameter + 1 mm. the design loads shall be reduced in proportion to the reduction of thickness and net bearing area. The min.2 Corrosion protection and steel grade All metal used in structural timber connections shall be provided with corrosion protection appropriate for the particular conditions of use.0 9.standards. Bolt holes in steel shall provide a snug fit.2—2006 162 9. that is not more than 0. Circular washers of equivalent thickness and with the same net bearing area are also permitted to carry the same full design loads. For thinner washers or washers with smaller net bearing areas. that is. bolts. framing anchors and similar structural connections shall be Z 275. the material requirements of the relevant Australian Standards. moisture and presence of salt. coach screws and framing anchors Straps. timber treatment. 9.0 65 × 65 × 5. coach screws and framing anchors shall be manufactured in accordance with. steel grade for metal strap. The minimum thickness of metal strap shall be 0.2. The level of corrosion protection provided shall take into consideration weather exposure.8 mm.4 Steel washers The size of steel washers shall be determined from Table 9.1 STEEL WASHERS Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Bolt or coach screw diameter (mm) M10 cup-head M12 cup-head M16 cup-head M10 bolt or coach screw M12 bolt or coach screw M16 bolt or coach screw Washer size (mm) Standard Standard Standard 38 × 38 × 2. less the hole diameter. and for seasoned timber they shall be 1 mm to 2 mm larger than the bolt diameter. www. AS/NZS 4534. The minimum corrosion protection that shall be applied to metal straps.5 Drilling for bolts Bolt holes in unseasoned timber shall be 2 mm to 3 mm greater in diameter than the bolt diameter.

163

AS 1684.2—2006

9.2.7 Screw and coach screw penetration The minimum penetration of the threaded portion of screws and coach screws into the receiving member shall not be less than 35 mm for screws and 5 times the diameter of coach screws, unless otherwise noted. 9.2.8 Framing anchor and strap nails All nails used for framing anchor and straps shall be corrosion protected flat-head connector nails. Clout shall not be used for this purpose. 9.2.9 Alternative metal strap size Except for diagonal metal strap braces, metal strap with a minimum net section of 21 mm2 may be used in lieu of 30 × 0.8 mm strap. 9.2.10 Joining of top plates Top plates in walls shall be joined by one of the methods shown in Figure 9.2 for the relevant wind classification.

(a) Suitable for wind classifications N1, N2 and N3

(b) Suitable for wind classifications N1 and N2

(c) Suitable for wind classifications N1, N2 and N3

Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]

(d) Suitable for wind classifications N1 to N4

(e) Suitable for wind classifications N1 to N4

(f) Suitable for wind classifications N1 to N4

FIGURE 9.2 JOINING OF TOP PLATES

9.2.11 Tie-down of members joined over supports Unless shown or illustrated, the uplift capacities given in the relevant details in Tables 9.16 to 9.25 apply to members that are continuous over supports. Where members are joined over supports, consideration shall be given to the effect of reduced end distances for connectors (bolts, screws etc.).
www.standards.org.au  Standards Australia

AS 1684.2—2006

164

Where members are joined over supports, such as shown in Figure 9.3(b), the uplift capacity shall be equal to the uplift capacity as if there were no join over the support as the full strength of the connection is maintained.
NOTE: As a general guide, where members are joined over supports, such as shown in Figure 9.3(a), the uplift capacity should be equal to half the uplift for the number of connectors (i.e., bolts) shown as the required end distances are reduced.

50 min. 50 min.

50 min. 50 min.

(Halved Joint)

(a) Type 1

Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]

(b) Type 2

FIGURE 9.3 JOINING MEMBERS AT SUPPORTS

 Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

165

AS 1684.2—2006

9.3 PROCEDURE FLOW CHART Fixing and tie-down requirements shall be provided, where required, in accordance with the procedure set out in Figure 9.4.

Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]

FIGURE 9.4 FLOW CHART SHOWING PROCEDURE FOR TIE-DOWN REQUIREMENTS

www.standards.org.au

 Standards Australia

AS 1684.2—2006

166

9.4 NOMINAL AND SPECIFIC FIXING REQUIREMENTS For all houses and wind speeds, the nominal (minimum) fixing requirements shall be in accordance with Clause 9.5. As the design gust wind speed increases, additional specific fixings and tie-down connections are required to resist the increased uplift and sliding or lateral forces (shear forces between wall/floor frame and supports) generated by the higher winds. Requirements with respect to resisting racking forces and special fixings for bracing shall be as given in Section 8. Table 9.2 gives the design situations where either nominal (minimum) fixings or specific fixings are required for a range of wind classifications and various connections in the house with respect to uplift loads. Table 9.3 gives the design situations where either nominal (minimum) fixings or specific fixings are required for a range of wind classifications and various connections in the house with respect to lateral (shear) loads. TABLE 9.2 UPLIFT
Wind classification Connection
Sheet roof

N1
Tile roof Sheet roof

N2
Tile roof Sheet roof

N3
Tile roof Sheet roof

N4
Tile roof

Roof battens to rafters/trusses — within 1200 mm of edges — general area Single or upper storey rafters/trusses to wall frames, floor frame or slab Single or upper storey floor frame to supports Lower storey wall frame to floor frame or slab Lower storey floor frame to supports

S S S N N N

S S N N N N

S S S N N N

S S N N N N

S S S S S N

S S S S S N

S S S S S S

S S S S S S

Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]

N = nominal (minimum) connection only (refer to Clause 9.5) S = specific connection may be required for uplift forces (refer to Clause 9.6)

TABLE 9.3 SHEAR
Connection N1 and N2 Bottom plate to slab Joists to bearers Bearers to stumps N N N Wind classification N3 N N S N4 N at 900 mm max. centres S S

N = nominal (minimum) connection only (see Clause 9.5) S = specific connection may be required for shear forces (see Clauses 9.7.5 and 9.7.6)

 Standards Australia

www.standards.org.au

167

AS 1684.2—2006

9.5 NOMINAL FIXINGS (MINIMUM FIXINGS) Unless otherwise specified, the minimum diameter of machine-driven nails shall be 3.05 mm for hardwood and cypress and 3.33 mm for softwood framing. Machine-driven nails shall be plastic polymer (glue) coated or annular or helical deformed shank nails. Where the nail length is not specified in Table 5.2 or elsewhere, the minimum depth of penetration into the final receiving member shall be 10 times the nail diameter where driven into side grain or 15 times the nail diameter where driven into end grain. Unless otherwise specified herein, not less than two nails shall be provided at each joint. Where plain shank hand-driven nails are used in lieu of machine-driven nails they shall be a minimum diameter of 3.15 mm for hardwood and cypress and 3.75 mm for softwood and other low-density timber. Nails used in joints that are continuously damp or exposed to the weather shall be hot-dip galvanized, stainless steel or monel metal. The nominal (minimum) fixings for most joints are given in Table 9.4. TABLE 9.4 NOMINAL FIXINGS FOR TIMBER MEMBERS
Joint Floor framing Bearer to timber stump/post 4/75 × 3.33 mm or 5/75 × 3.05 mm machine-driven nails plus 1/30 × 0.8 mm G.I. strap over bearer and fixed both ends to stump with 4/2.8 mm dia. each end; OR 1/M10 bolt through bearer halved to stump; OR 1/M12 cranked bolt fixed vertically through bearer and bolted to stump plus 4/75 × 3.33 mm or 5/75 × 3.05 mm machine-driven nails 1/M10 bolt or 1/50 × 4 mm mild steel bar fixed to bearer with M10 bolt and cast into masonry (to footing) No requirement 1/6 mm dia. rod cast into stump, vertically through bearer and bent over 1/M10 coach screw or bolt 2/75 × 3.05 mm dia. nails Plates up to 38 mm thick—2/75 × 3.05 mm nails through plate; Plates 38 to 50 mm thick—2/90 × 3.05 mm nails through plate; OR 2/75 × 3.05 mm nails skewed through stud into plate 2/75 × 3.05 mm nail skewed or through nailed 2/50 × 2.8 mm dia. nails at each joint 2/75 × 3.05 mm dia. nails at each joint Plates up to 38 mm thick—2/75 × 3.05 mm nails at max.600 mm centres Plates 38 to 50 mm thick—2/90 × 3.05 mm nails at max.600 mm centres One 75 mm masonry nail (hand-driven at slab edge), screw or bolt at not more than 1200 mm centres Refer to Clause 2.5 and Clause 9.2.10 1/75 × 3.05 mm nail at 600 centres max. 1/M12 or 2/M10 bolts (unless otherwise specified) (continued) Minimum fixing for each joint

Bearer to masonry column/wall/pier (excluding masonry veneer construction) Bearer to supports (masonry veneer construction) Bearer to concrete stump/post Bearers to steel post Floor joist to bearer Wall framing Plates to studs

Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]

Noggings to studs Timber braces to studs or plates
A1

Lintel to jamb stud Bottom plates to joists Bottom plates to concrete slab Ribbon plate to top plate Multiple studs Posts to bearers or joists

www.standards.org.au

 Standards Australia

wall framing and roof framing excluding roof battens (see Figure 9. From Table 9. From Table 9.6. The details given in this Clause for specific tie-down fixings for trussed roofs satisfy the general requirements of AS 4440. determine the uplift forces to be resisted by the joint under consideration. OR 50 mm thick—2/90 mm nails.5 as a guide.org.6. nominal (minimum) fixings only shall be required unless otherwise noted for shear or racking loads.1 General This Clause provides details for structural connections to resist uplift and shear forces (lateral loads) in floor framing. Where specific tie-down fixings provide equal or better resistance to gravity or shear loads. indicates they are not inferior to the nail sizes given above.2—2006 168 TABLE 9. wall framing and roof framing.2 m or 3/75 mm nails for ties up to 4. as determined by testing. 9.14. www. then nominal nailing is not required in addition to the specific tie-down fixing. OR One framing anchor with three nails to each leg. Where appropriate.6. where adjoining a ceiling joist of— 38 mm thick—2/75 mm nails. 1/75 hand-driven nail. 9. nails plus 2/75 mm skew nails 2/75 mm skew nails plus.4 (continued) Joint Roof framing Roof trusses to top plates Minimum fixing for each joint See Clause 1. due allowance for the counterbalancing effects of gravity loads may be considered.I.15 and Figure 9.6.5).2 m long 1/M12 or 2/M10 bolts (unless otherwise specified for tie-down) Rafters to top plates Coupled roofs Non-coupled roofs Rafter to ridge Ceiling joists to top plates Ceiling joists to rafters Collar ties to rafters Verandah beams and roof beams to post NOTES: 1 Nails.12. or other than those described.standards. that are smaller than the nominated size.3 Application To determine an appropriate structural tie-down detail. AS 4440 does not provide specific tie-down details. fixing joist to rafter 2/75 mm skew nails 2/75 mm skew nails 2/75 mm skew nails In coupled roof construction. which states that the fixing of trusses to the supporting structure shall be in accordance with the approved specification.8 mm dia.6 SPECIFIC TIE-DOWN FIXINGS 9.2 Uplift load width (ULW) The wind uplift load width (ULW) shall be used to determine the tie-down requirements for each structural joint in floor framing.AS 1684. OR 1/30 × 0. OR 2/75 × 3. may be used providing their performance. Where the gravity loads equal or exceed the uplift loads. 9.8 mm G.5 or Tables 9.6 to 9.05 mm machine-driven nails 1/M10 bolt for ties over 4. the following general steps shall be followed: (a) (b) (c) Using Figure 9. 2 The nominal connections for roof trusses to top plates given in this Table are based on the minimum connection details recommended by truss plate manufacturers. For trussed roofs. determine the appropriate joint group for the timber in the joint under consideration. strap over truss with strap ends fixed to plate with 3/2. determine the appropriate wind uplift load width (ULW) for the member or joint under consideration.au  Standards Australia . Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Continuity of tie-down shall be provided from the roof sheeting to the foundations.

The ULWs illustrated above for bearers and floor joists illustrate this approximation.standards. 4 For single storey slab on ground construction. the only ULWs applicable are those shown for roof and wall frames.2—2006 ULW for roof and wall frames ULW ULW ULW ULW ULW ULW for floor frames ULW ULW ULW ULW (a) Roof beam construction ULW for roof and wall frames ULW ULW ULW ULW ULW ULW ULW for floor frames ULW ULW ULW ULW ULW (b) Traditional raftered construction Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] ULW for roof and wall frames ULW ULW ULW ULW for floor frames ULW ULW ULW (c) Roof truss construction NOTES: 1 To determine ULW for floor joists and bearer. 3 Trusses may be specially designed for tie-down from their ridge or panel points through internal walls.au  Standards Australia .org. 2 Circles indicate tie-down points. FIGURE 9.5 ROOF UPLIFT LOAD WIDTH ULW FOR WIND www.169 AS 1684. consideration should be given to the sharing of uplift load through internal partitions.

13. NOTES: 1 2 For wind classifications N1 and N2 coupled sheet roofs.16 to 9.38 2. kPa Wind classification Connection/tie-down position Sheet Roof battens to rafters/trusses — within 1200 mm of edges — general area Single.0 NOTE: The values in italics make allowance for overturning forces.28 — Sheet 1.33 N3 Tile 2. and wind classification N3 coupled tile roofs.61 — 1.01 — 0.74 0.14 using roof uplift load width ULW (see Figure 9.82 1.57 1.g.91 0. ULW for uplift may differ significantly from the RLW.24(A).22. NOTE:Tie-down details for rafters to underpurlins and rafters to top plates or wall frame can be selected from any of the appropriate details given in Tables 9. (iv) (v) each rafter is tied down to the external wall frame using the ULW for trussed roofs shown in Figure 9. and at hip ends.61 0.5 by multiplying the net uplift pressure (e.14 N4 Tile 3.31 0.92 1.standards.13.82 1.01 1. (iii) each rafter is tied down to the underpurlin using the ULW for underpurlins shown in Figure 9.44 N1 Tile 0.or upper-storey floor frame to supports Lower storey wall frame to floor frame or slab Lower storey floor frame to supports 1.42 — — — — — — — 1. TABLE 9. as follows: Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Net uplift force = Net uplift pressure × Uplift load width (ULW) × Spacing Alternatively.39 2.21 or 9. floor frame or slab Single.42 1. Details for tying the rafters together at the ridge can be obtained from Table 9.4 Wind uplift forces The wind uplift forces that occur at tie-down points can be determined from Table 9.17 0.5(c).  Standards Australia www.AS 1684. which dictate rather than direct uplift.2—2006 A1 170 (d) Enter the appropriate design strength Tables 9.5(b) and the uplift force determined from Table 9.6 to 9.org.82 1. The tie-down details given in Tables 9.42 1.25 and establish a suitable tiedown detail. CLW or FLW used for determination of timber member sizes.5) for the respective tie-down positions.01 1.52 1.42 1.68 0.5(b) and the uplift force determined from Table 9.44 0.99 1. allowance for typical dead load deducted) by the area of roof contributing to tie-down at that point.93 Sheet 4.16 to 9.98 1. roof tie-down may be considered as for trussed roofs with tie-down taken via the roof frame to external walls provided that— (i) (ii) collar ties are fixed to rafters with 1/M10 cup-head bolt at max. each pair of rafters is tied together at the ridge using a connection determined using the ULW for ridges shown in Figure 9. and the uplift force determined from table 9. the forces may be determined directly from Tables 9.or upper-storey rafters/trusses to wall frames and wall plates to studs.5 NET UPLIFT PRESSURE.6.14 Sheet 2.au . 1200 mm centres.98 0.58 0. that is a detail shown for a floor joist to bearer would be equally applicable to use for a rafter to beam connection and vice versa.61 0. 9.74 N2 Tile 1.or upper-storey bottom plates to floor frame or slab Single.13.0 1.84 0.25 are interchangeable for other tie-down positions.. the rafters supported by the underpurlin shall be tied down to the underpurlin and to the external wall with details similar to the common rafters.12 — — — — — — — 0.

PIERS OR MASONRY SUPPORTS Uplift force (kN) Wind uplift load width ULW (mm) Fixing spacing (mm) Tile roof 1800 2400 1500 3000 3600 4200 1800 2400 3000 3000 3600 4200 1800 2400 4500 3000 3600 4200 1800 2400 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Wind classification N1 Sheet roof N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N Tile roof N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N2 Sheet roof N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N Tile roof N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N3 Sheet roof N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N Tile roof 2.5).standards.6 NET UPLIFT FORCE—LOWER STOREY BEARERS—TO COLUMNS. STUMPS.6 4.7 3.3 5.2 9.org. N = nominal (minimum) connection only (see Clause 9.0 10 12 8.6 4.171 AS 1684.1 10 13 16 18 10 14 18 21 25 13 18 22 27 31 N4 Sheet roof 2.0 10 12 8.2—2006 TABLE 9.3 5.au  Standards Australia .5 5.7 3.2 9.4 6.4 6.4 7.5 5.1 10 13 16 18 10 14 18 21 25 13 18 22 27 31 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N 6000 3000 3600 4200 1800 2400 7500 3000 3600 4200 NOTES: 1 2 Interpolation within the Table is permitted. www.4 7.

90 1.3 1.3 1.0 2.4 6.8 2.3 4.org.6 5.4 6.0 10 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N 6000 3000 3600 4200 1800 2400 7500 3000 3600 4200 NOTES: 1 2 Interpolation within the Table is permitted.AS 1684.0 1.8 2.68 0.0 10 N4 Sheet roof 0.standards.4 7.2—2006 172 TABLE 9.7 3. N = nominal (minimum) connection only (see Clause 9.7 3.0 2.0 1.90 1.  Standards Australia www.7 9.7 4.2 8.2 8.5).3 1.6 4.7 3.3 4.au .7 NET UPLIFT FORCE—FLOOR JOISTS—LOWER STOREY OF TWO STOREYS— TO BEARERS OR SUPPORTS Uplift force (kN) Wind uplift load width ULW (mm) Fixing spacing (mm) Tile roof 1800 2400 1500 3000 3600 4200 1800 2400 3000 3000 3600 4200 1800 2400 4500 3000 3600 4200 1800 2400 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Wind classification N1 Sheet roof N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N Tile roof N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N2 Sheet roof N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N Tile roof N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N3 Sheet roof N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N Tile roof 0.5 6.0 2.8 2.3 1.6 5.7 9.4 7.1 3.5 6.8 2.0 2.1 3.68 0.7 4.0 2.0 5.7 3.0 5.6 4.0 2.

8 11 14 24 4.6 12 2.1 8.2 13 N3 Sheet roof 0.7 3.9 6.41 0.8 NET UPLIFT FORCE—WALL FRAME—LOWER STOREY OF TWO STOREYS— TO FLOOR FRAME OR SLAB Uplift force (kN) Wind uplift load width ULW (mm) Fixing spacing (mm) Tile roof 450 600 900 1500 1200 1350 1800 3000 450 600 900 3000 1200 1350 1800 3000 450 600 900 4500 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Wind classification N1 Sheet roof N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N Tile roof N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N2 Sheet roof N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N Tile roof 0.4 4.7 6.8 2.5 12 14 19 31 N4 Sheet roof 1.8 6.8 9.0 2.6 5.2 1.3 4.6 2.9 2.3 1.2 3.8 3.9 7.3 1.2 1.1 10 18 3.5 7.2 1.7 4.6 2.7 4.1 5.6 2.3 9.4 3.9 6.5 1.4 7.2—2006 TABLE 9. www.1 7.standards.8 5.0 2.org.91 1.6 2.1 1.1 8.4 3.68 0.2 8.4 9.82 1.5 9.8 2.7 4.1 2.2 1.6 4.5 6.2 3.55 0.7 3.5).2 5.4 6.9 2.2 4.2 1.9 8.0 2.4 3.2 3.6 4.6 2.8 3.1 5.6 8.5 10 2.173 AS 1684.0 5.5 2.7 0.8 16 3.1 8.3 9.82 1.0 5.8 13 14 19 32 6.6 4.3 1.9 8.8 5.1 1.3 9.7 7.4 3.au  Standards Australia .9 6.6 11 19 3.4 6.2 2.0 10 13 22 Tile roof 0. N = nominal (minimum) connection only (see Clause 9.0 2.2 4.6 10 11 15 25 4.96 1.7 4.7 7.1 13 2.1 12 16 18 24 40 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N 1200 1350 1800 3000 450 600 900 6000 1200 1350 1800 3000 450 600 900 7500 1200 1350 1800 3000 NOTES: 1 2 Interpolation within the Table is permitted.5 3.8 5.4 1.

5 7.9 6.6 4.5 8.2 2.6 10 12 15 17 11 15 19 23 26 15 20 25 30 35 19 25 31 38 44 N4 Sheet roof 4.6 8.2 9.9 6.8 11 6.8 13 16 19 22 14 19 24 29 34 19 26 32 39 45 24 32 40 49 57 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N 6000 3000 3600 4200 1800 2400 7500 3000 3600 4200 NOTES: 1 2 Interpolation within the Table is permitted.5 5. N = nominal (minimum) connection only (see Clause 9.7 3.2 4.7 3.org.2—2006 174 TABLE 9.6 4.3 5.6 2.0 10 12 8.1 6.8 5.8 11 9.4 7.5).2 9. OR MASONRY SUPPORTS Uplift force (kN) Wind uplift load width ULW (mm) Fixing spacing (mm) Tile roof 1800 2400 1500 3000 3600 4200 1800 2400 3000 3000 3600 4200 1800 2400 4500 3000 3600 4200 1800 2400 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Wind classification N1 Sheet roof N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N Tile roof N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N2 Sheet roof N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N Tile roof 1. PIERS.7 10 13 15 8.3 5.2 3.9 7.1 9.2 10 13 16 19 N3 Sheet roof 2.  Standards Australia www.3 7.9 NET UPLIFT FORCE—BEARERS—SINGLE STOREY OR UPPER STOREY— TO COLUMNS.4 6.au .1 10 13 16 19 10 14 18 21 25 13 18 22 27 31 Tile roof 3.AS 1684.standards.5 8. STUMPS.4 6.5 8.8 3.

6 2.3 9.6 8.0 1.9 6.7 2.3 3.2 3.6 2.9 2.2 8. www.au  Standards Australia .175 AS 1684.2 2.0 2.10 NET UPLIFT FORCE—FLOOR JOISTS—SINGLE STOREY OR UPPER STOREY—TO SUPPORTS Uplift force (kN) Wind uplift load width ULW (mm) Fixing spacing (mm) Tile roof 450 600 1500 900 1200 1350 450 600 3000 900 1200 1350 450 600 4500 900 1200 1350 450 600 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Wind classification N1 Sheet roof N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N Tile roof N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N2 Sheet roof N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N Tile roof 0.2 4.3 4.7 3.2 0.9 7.1 2.1 8.2 3.96 1.68 0.5 12 14 N4 Sheet roof 1.1 5.7 4.7 7.4 3.6 4.3 9.4 4.6 10 11 4.5).6 3.1 12 16 18 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N 6000 900 1200 1350 450 600 7500 900 1200 1350 NOTES: 1 2 Interpolation within the Table is permitted.82 1.1 1.5 6.6 4.6 5.2—2006 TABLE 9.0 2.0 2.8 5.3 1.7 3.1 1.1 7.41 0.4 3.7 6.1 3.8 13 14 6.5 2.55 0.2 1.8 5.8 5.8 1.5 3.2 3.4 6.8 3.2 1.6 2.8 2.9 2.91 1.0 5.7 1.2 1.5 7.9 2.9 6. N = nominal (minimum) connection only (see Clause 9.82 1.4 3.3 1.org.8 2.6 2.standards.7 4.1 N3 Sheet roof 0.0 10 Tile roof 0.2 4.4 7.4 6.6 2.8 11 4.4 1.1 5.8 9.5 9.

76 0.5 9.96 1.4 N3 Sheet roof 0.2 4.0 Tile roof 0.85 1.2 1.2 1.8 2.9 6.org.5 1.3 9.82 1.1 5.41 0.1 1.6 10 4.1 2.11 NET UPLIFT FORCE—BOTTOM PLATES—SINGLE STOREY OR UPPER STOREY—TO FLOOR FRAME OR SLAB Uplift force (kN) Wind uplift load width ULW (mm) Fixing spacing (mm) Tile roof 450 1500 600 900 1200 450 3000 600 900 1200 450 4500 600 900 1200 450 6000 600 900 1200 450 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Wind classification N1 Sheet roof N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N Tile roof N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N2 Sheet roof 0.7 3.5 3.8 3.3 9.2 1. Fixing spacing = distance between bottom plate tie-down points.2 2.0 2.1 8.7 3.5 2.2 1.4 4.4 3.1 1.5).6 2.76 1.8 4.2 1.8 5.3 1.57 0.82 1.2 3.7 7.57 0.8 13 6.5 3.8 5.28 0.9 2.4 7.55 0.7 2.6 5.6 2.1 1.4 1.AS 1684. N = nominal (minimum) connection only (see Clause 9.91 1.2 3.9 6.5 0.7 Tile roof 0.8 1.4 3.1 7.2 1.2 3.au .68 0.5 12 N4 Sheet roof 1.9 2.standards.5 6.0 1.4 3.0 5.38 0.8 9.6 2.6 2.9 7.7 4.7 6.2—2006 176 TABLE 9.1 12 16 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N 7500 600 900 1200 NOTES: 1 2 3 Interpolation within the Table is permitted.1 0.8 2.  Standards Australia www.0 2.2 4.6 4.3 2.4 2.1 1.8 3.3 1.8 5.6 3.6 2.7 4.

9 7.9 2.0 4.6 3.au  Standards Australia .1 9.9 7.7 5.standards.5 3.4 12 15 18 14 18 23 28 18 25 31 37 N4 Sheet roof 5.1 5.3 7.5 10 12 15 10 13 16 20 N3 Sheet roof 3.7 9.5).3 4.1 3.9 11 7.9 4.3 2.0 2.5 Tile roof N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N2 Sheet roof 2.7 8.9 9.org.3 3.177 AS 1684.12 NET UPLIFT FORCE—UNDERPURLINS.5 11 14 10 14 17 21 14 19 23 28 Tile roof 4.0 5.6 11 11 15 19 23 17 23 28 34 23 30 38 46 N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N 1 2 3 Interpolation within the Table is permitted.1 7.9 7.8 9. RIDGEBOARDS.3 6.3 4.7 6. N = nominal (minimum) connection only (see Clause 9.9 5.0 5.5 4.0 6.1 4.2—2006 TABLE 9.9 9. Fixing spacing = distance between bottom plate tie-down points.7 7.6 7.5 1. AND HIP RAFTERS— TO TIE-DOWN WALLS OR FLOORS Uplift force (kN) Wind uplift load width ULW (mm) Fixing spacing (mm) Tile roof 1800 1500 2400 3000 3600 1800 3000 2400 3000 3600 1800 4500 2400 3000 3600 1800 6000 2400 3000 3600 NOTES: Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Wind classification N1 Sheet roof 1.4 9.7 3.7 5.2 7.3 10 7.1 1.9 10 13 15 Tile roof 2.7 6.5 4. www.

0 4.2—2006 178 TABLE 9.89 1.5 2.0 1.9 Tile roof N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N2 Sheet roof 0.8 11 15 17 23 39 N4 Sheet roof 1.5 4.3 7.9 2.3 3.1 3.6 7.7 7.8 2.standards.4 12 14 18 31 5.5 10 16 3.0 4.5 3.5 4.0 8.7 9.8 3.7 7.  Standards Australia www.0 5. FLOOR FRAME OR SLAB— SINGLE STOREY OR UPPER STOREY Uplift force (kN) Wind classification N1 Tile roof N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N Sheet roof 0.1 1.7 8.1 6.0 6.3 5.3 5.3 3.org. N = nominal (minimum) connection only (see Clause 9.6 7.8 3.59 0.5 5.89 1.6 3.1 4.0 5.9 9.3 2. BEAMS OR LINTELS TO WALL FRAME AND WALL PLATE TO STUDS.0 9.1 4.0 10 17 3.3 3.6 3.5 12 2.1 8. beams.2 8.9 3.8 2.5 5.9 2.1 1.1 9.3 3.AS 1684. lintels.7 7.8 5.13 NET UPLIFT FORCE—ON RAFTERS/TRUSSES.5 10 14 23 4.7 8.3 7.0 9.3 3.9 7.4 1. Where rafters or trusses require specific tie-down.67 1.4 5.84 1.79 1.0 4.8 2.5 4.5 1.5 5.6 2.2 7.6 1.3 3.7 6.6 2.8 2.7 7.3 2.5 2.7 6.7 2.9 13 2.4 10 14 23 4.5).7 11 15 17 23 38 7.59 0.0 3.5 3.8 2.6 3.1 11 2.5 4.4 5.1 1.1 1.9 8.5 5.9 0.7 7.2 1.6 3.0 1.9 9.3 2.3 5.9 11 13 17 29 Tile roof 1. each rafter/truss shall be tied down.4 1.5 4. the maximum tie-down fixing spacing in wall frames (top plate to bottom plate) shall be 1800 mm.3 5.2 9. Except for openings.2 1.5 2.79 0.50 0.7 2.1 1.3 9.9 0.90 1.4 9.2 9.0 2.3 1.7 7.8 4.9 2.3 5.9 1.3 1.5 3.30 0.4 15 3.2 1.3 1.6 14 19 21 28 48 Wind uplift load width ULW (mm) Fixing spacing (mm) 450 600 1500 900 1200 1350 1800 3000 450 600 900 3000 1200 1350 1800 3000 450 600 4500 900 1200 1350 1800 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 3000 450 600 900 6000 1200 1350 1800 3000 450 600 7500 900 1200 1350 1800 3000 NOTES: 1 2 3 Interpolation within the Table is permitted.5 3.63 0.0 6.7 5.au .1 1.6 4.0 2.5 4.6 11 13 17 28 5.7 5.6 1.9 1. stud or bottom plate fixing-spacing.9 4.7 5.9 1.8 7.9 16 Tile roof 0.7 7.0 6.6 11 19 4.5 2.4 12 20 N3 Sheet roof 0. Fixing spacing equals to rafter/truss.0 3.1 3.40 0.

50 0.15 0.0 1.4 0.22 0.49 0.73 0.85 1.5 1.53 0.2 1.23 0.09 0.52 0.3 3. General area also includes any roof area that is greater than 1200 mm away from the edges of a roof.88 1.0 1.33 0. permit use of lower strength connections.94 0.29 0.1 2.0 0.97 1.7 2.1 0.5 3.9 4.9 3.standards.3 1.28 0.3 1.29 0.7 2.0 1.au  Standards Australia .22 0.7 1.65 0.3 370 450 1200 600 750 900 1200 NOTES: 1 2 3 4 Tile roof also includes concrete or terracotta tiles.7 6.17 0.6 0.79 1.0 0.53 0.0 1.85 1.04 0.53 0.17 0.66 0.5 1.55 0.3 3.71 0.61 0.0 1.35 0.9 2.org.7 2.5 2.75 1.12 0.08 0.73 0.41 0.85 1.7 0.2—2006 TABLE 9.79 1.0 0.1 2. Sheet roof also includes metal or other ‘lightweight’ tiles or other sheet material.43 0.37 0. Roofing manufacturers may require batten spacings to be reduced at or near edges to reduce uplift forces and.26 0.64 0.6 0.06 0.1 0.18 0.98 0.5 4.1 1.11 0.9 2.2 0.44 0.35 0.30 0.44 0.0 1.79 1.0 1. hips.58 0. www.14 NET UPLIFT FORCE ON ROOF BATTENS Uplift force (kN) Rafter Batten or truss spacing spacing (mm) (mm) Wind classification N1 General area Edges N2 General area Edges N3 General area Edges N4 General area Edges Tile roof 450 600 900 1200 Sheet roof 370 450 600 600 750 900 1200 370 450 900 600 750 900 1200 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 330 330 330 330 0.59 0.59 0.1 1.71 0.75 1.66 0.0 1.2 1.61 0.9 2.35 0.29 0.1 1.50 0.70 0.46 0.24 0.2 1.47 0.49 0.9 2.4 1.1 1.0 2.27 0.46 0.4 1. fascias and barges.7 2.42 0.44 0.1 1.35 0.79 0.2 1.3 2.5 1.31 0.2 0.94 1.96 1.4 0.40 0.1 1.36 0.37 0.4 1.1 1.71 0.1 3.3 0.3 1. Interpolation within the Table is permitted.5 2.39 0.37 0.82 1.4 0.59 0.57 0.14 0.7 0.23 0.179 AS 1684.37 0.71 0.8 0.71 0.6 1.88 1.58 0.64 0.78 0.5 2.53 0.2 1. Edges include edges.71 0.83 1.86 1. therefore. ridges.0 1.21 0.18 0.1 4.6 3.53 0.3 3.97 1.

org. For timber with a joint group of JD2 or JD3. in general. TAS. or AS 1720.AS 1684. the values given in this Standard for J2 may be used.5 Joint group ‘Joint group’ shall mean a rating assigned to a piece or parcel of timber to indicate for purposes of joint design a design capacity grouping appropriate to that timber for a range of connectors (see AS 1720.1).standards. TABLE 9.2—2006 180 9.6). etc. Where timbers of differing joint groups are used in a single connection.15).15 JOINT GROUPS Species or species group Seasoned softwood (radiata. Where a timber joint is comprised of two or more different species.2.6. slash and other plantation pines) Australian hardwood (non-ash type from Qld. Joint group is designated in the form of a number preceded by the letters ‘J’ or ‘JD’ indicating unseasoned or seasoned timber respectively (see Table 9. recognition shall be given to the end or part of the connection that controls the strength of the joint (see Figure 9. etc. be that appropriate to the weakest material in that joint. NSW. WA.) Australian hardwoods (ash type eucalyptus from Vic. the joint group allocated to that joint shall.au .  Standards Australia www.) Cypress Douglas fir (Oregon) from North America Seasoned—Free of pith Seasoned—Pith-in Unseasoned Seasoned Unseasoned Seasoned Unseasoned Unseasoned Seasoned Unseasoned Seasoned Seasoned Seasoned Joint group JD4 JD5 J2 JD2 J3 JD3 J3 J4 JD4 J5 JD5 JD6 JD5 Douglas fir (Oregon) from elsewhere Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Spruce pine fir (SPF) Hem-fir NOTES: 1 2 The appropriate joint group for a single timber species can be determined by reference to Appendix H.

JD rating) shall be based on the weakest of either member as the design strength is controlled by the nails working in shear in both members (e) NOTE: Large arrows indicate direction of load. JD rating) shall be based on this member as design strength is controlled by the nails working in shear (a) Joint type 1 Joint group (J. JD rating) shall be based on the weakest of either member as design strength is controlled by shear or bearing of the bolt in both members (b) Joint type 2 Joint group (J.standards.org. JD rating) shall be based on the weakest of either member as the design strength is controlled by the nails or screws in shear in both members (d) Joint type 4 Joint group (J. JD rating) shall be based on this member as design strength is controlled by the shank of the nail or screw in withdrawal (c) Joint type 3 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Joint group (J.au  Standards Australia . FIGURE 9.2—2006 Joint group (J.6 JOINT GROUP SELECTION www.181 AS 1684.

piers (a) 6 mm rod cast into concrete stump and bent over bearer at top Uplift capacity (kN) Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber J2 J3 J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 1.16 UPLIFT CAPACITY OF BEARER TIE-DOWN CONNECTIONS Position of tie-down connection Bearers to stumps.7 7.4 11 14 20 3.8 mm G. 4 bolt dia.au .7 8.2—2006 182 TABLE 9.8 2 strap with 6 nails each end 23 17 12 17 14 10 (c) 70 mm min.0 1.1 13 17 26 5.0 (b) 2/2.0 1.3 9.9 5 8.5 6.AS 1684. Bolts as per table 70 mm min.3 7. 5 bolt dia.3 10 13 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 2 bolt dia.6 4.7 7.4 12 17 27 4.2 7.8 4.org. strap as per table nailed with 2.7) 1 strap with 4 nails each end 9.1 5.8 10 14 20 3.8 mm Æ nails 30 0.standards.4 12 9. 6 bolt dia.4 14 5.0 1. of bolts 1/M10 5.0 1.6 5.6 9.I. 1/M12 2/M10 2/M12 2/M16 T imber post (d) Nails or spikes may be required (see Clause 9.0 1. No.3 6.0 7. posts.8 mm Æ nails T imber post Nails or spike may be required (see Clause 9.4 1 strap with 6 nails each end 13 9.7) M12 cranked bolt through bearer with M12 bolt through stump 2 2 2 2 2 2 (continued)  Standards Australia www.4 2 strap with 4 nails each end 17 12 8.2 6.1 5.9 7.

0 5.2 15 16 5.4 10 3.6 4.) 1/M10 75 ´ 10 mm MS plate 4 mm CFW 7.7 5.5 6.au  Standards Australia .8 1 (g) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Bolt as per table Bolts M10 500 mm for M10 and M12.183 AS 1684.org. of bolts 1/M10 1/M12 2/M10 2/M12 18 27 36 54 18 27 36 54 18 26 36 52 15 20 30 40 12 16 24 32 9 12 18 24 No.6 3.2 1.4 2.standards.1 1. posts.0 11 12 3. of coach screw (75 mm min.16 (continued) Position of tie-down connection Bearers to stumps.6 3.0 1/M12 2/M10 2/M12 (continued) www.7) 2 2 2 2 2 (f) M10 ´ 50 mm coach screw or bolt Option: 50 ´ 4 mm MS bar tied to footing MS angle M10 bolt tied to footing or MS bar 5.2—2006 TABLE 9.0 4.5 3.2 7.2 6.5 8.2 8.7 4.0 9.0 7. 600 mm for M16 18 18 18 15 12 9 M12 27 27 26 20 16 12 Bolt tied to footing M16 50 50 46 35 28 21 (h) Bolts or coach screws as per table No.4 8. 2 bolts to stump Nails or spike may be required (see Clause 9. piers (e) J2 Uplift capacity (kN) Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber J3 J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 2 50 ´ 6 mm bent MS plate min.

5 15 16 16 5.6 16 12 8.1 13 18 26 27 8.1 13 18 26 27 8.9 6.3 12 17 20 20 7. 50 ´ 6 mm MS plate No.16 (continued) Position of tie-down connection Bearers to stumps. of bolts 1/M10 1/M12 2/M10 50 mm max.7 6.8 16 13 9.2 9.3 6.3 12 17 24 27 6.1 6.3 10 12 12 (continued)  Standards Australia www.3 12 17 24 27 6.7 10 8.2 4.1 8.6 7.2 9.4 7.standards.0 75 ´ 8 mm MS fishtail plate 500 mm for M10 and M12. 4/3.6 9.6 7.3 8.3 12 17 24 27 6.3 10 15 16 16 6.1 13 18 26 27 8.3 long coach screws as per 1/M12 13 12 table 2/M10 18 17 2/M12 2/M16 26 27 24 27 6.1 12 12 12 1/M12 2/M10 2/M12 2/M16 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 6 bolt dia.3 12 17 20 20 7.5 13 19 26 8.3 12 17 20 20 7.1 6.0 2/M10 15 12 8.2—2006 184 TABLE 9.3 10 12 12 (k) M12 bolt No.0 1/M16 16 12 8.6 9. 4 bolt dia.AS 1684.9 13 16 21 8.9 13 16 21 8.3 5.au .75 mm Æ nails or 5/3. 600 mm for M16 and M20 1/M12 10 8.1 12 12 12 2/M12 2/M16 50 ´ 6 mm bent MS plate T imber post No.3 12 17 20 20 7.2 5. of coach screws Bolts or 100 mm 1/M10 9. Bolt as per table Uplift capacity (kN) Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber J2 J3 J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 1/M10 7. of bolts 1/M10 20 ´ 3 mm fillet weld both sides 9. piers (i) Bolts 2 bolt dia. posts.9 2/M12 MS column 21 16 11 21 17 12 2/M16 (j) M12 bolt min.3 10 15 16 16 6.5 13 19 26 8. 5 bolt dia.3 8. Bolts or 100 mm long coach screws as per table Timber post 5 bolt dia.org.33 mm Æ nails 32 24 17 32 24 16 No. of coach screws 1/M10 1/M12 2/M10 2/M12 2/M16 9.5 15 16 16 5. 9.

of bolts J3 J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 2/M10 31 20 13 20 14 9. 6 bolt dia. piers (l) 50 ´ 6 mm Plate 2 bolt dia.185 AS 1684.au  Standards Australia .5 12 8.8 6. posts. Bolts as per table 5 bolt dia.2—2006 TABLE 9. 4 bolt dia.9 300 mm 75 ´ 6 mm MS stirrup M12 18 12 7.8 17 12 8 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] www.standards.org. of bolts Bolts as per table M10 14 9.1 M16 24 16 9.7 6.3 10 7. Uplift capacity (kN) Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber J2 No.3 4.8 2/M12 36 23 15 24 17 12 Timber post 2/M16 (m) 49 31 20 33 23 16 No.16 (continued) Position of tie-down connection Bearers to stumps. 5 bolt dia.

8 2.9 2.2 5.7 3.8 5/2.9 8.9 8.4 5. of framing anchors Framing anchors as per table.2—2006 186 TABLE 9.7 3.3 4.4 6. 2 3 4 1.2 (c) Nominal nailing 30 ´ 0.8 2.9 5.8 4/2.4 1.75 1.8 mm Æ nails 13 13 13 13 13 13 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Nails 3/2.5 4. of Glue-coated or deformed shank nails machine-driven nails shall be used.9 7. 4/2.5 5.8 mm strap with 3/2.55 0.8 (d) required for each end of looped strap: mm ∅ for J2 mm ∅ for J3 and JD4 mm ∅ for J4.9 6.50 0.8 mm G.5 5.77 1.2 0.7 3.9 2 12 8.9 8.AS 1684.05 mm skew nails as per table Uplift capacity (kN) Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber J2 J3 J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 No.6 2.9 8.0 1.standards.1 1.5 4.2 1.4 11 2.5 2.org.1 1. JD5 and JD6 No.2 6.au .0 0. looped strap 2.0 M10 cup-head bolt (continued)  Standards Australia www.8 mm Æ nails each end as per table No.4 11 2.2 3.5 0.I.3 12 15 3.9 4.0 5.36 0.17 UPLIFT CAPACITY OF FLOOR JOIST TIE-DOWN CONNECTIONS Position of tie-down connection Floor joists to bearers or top plates (a) Minimum 75 ´ 3.8 Æ nails in each leg 1 2 3 4 4.72 (b) 30 ´ 0.9 8.8 (e) 16 14 10 10 7.2 3.7 5. of straps Nominal nailing 1 6.

1 8.9 12 4.9 7. of bolts 5 mm Æ 4 mm Æ Uplift capacity (kN) Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber J3 J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 2/M10 2/M12 14 18 9.2 11 5.7 5.6 3.9 5.9 3.4 5.standards.9 7.0 10 12 7.4 3.9 6.8 6.6 2. joist hanger with 4 wings and 2.5 (g) No of nails per wing 3 4 G.2—2006 TABLE 9.1 8.4 3.8 mm Æ nails through each wing as per table 6.3 4.9 4.9 2.7 5.5 8.1 Coach screws 50 ´ 50 ´ 5 mm MS angle with bolts or screw each end as per table 2/M10 7 4.187 AS 1684.0 5 3.9 7.7 4.7 4.17 (continued) Position of tie-down connection Floor joists to bearers or top plates (f) J2 No.8 4.2 5 5.2 5 6 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] www.3 8.I.au  Standards Australia .3 9.org.

4 1.68 0. of Nails J2 Uplift capacity (kN) Unseasoned timber J3 J4 Seasoned timber JD4 JD5 JD6 2 Min.67 0. 40 mm penetration into flooring and/or joist 3. hammered or fired masonry nails 1.org.0 1. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Underbatten size (depth × breadth).standards.48 (b) Bolts as per table Bolts M10 cup-head M10 M12 16 18 27 14 18 27 10 18 26 10 15 20 7.2—2006 188 TABLE 9.95 0.0 12 16 5.05 nails as per table. (continued)  Standards Australia www. mm F5 70 × 70 90 × 70 90 × 70 120 × 70 140 × 70 190 × 70 F8 45 × 70 70 × 70 90 × 70 90 × 70 120 × 70 170 × 70 F14 45 × 70 70 × 70 70 × 70 70 × 70 90 × 70 140 × 70 F17 35 × 70 45 × 70 70 × 70 70 × 70 90 × 70 120 × 70 Bearer or underbatten 30 50 (c) Hardened.0 NOTE: Refer to manufacturer's recommendations on minimum edge distances and safety.1 0. driven through plate into joist 1.AS 1684.18 UPLIFT CAPACITY OF BOTTOM PLATE TIE-DOWN CONNECTIONS Position of tie-down connection Bottom plates to floor joists or slab (a) No.3 1.45 0.0 1.0 1.0 12 Axial load in bolt (kN) 6 10 15 20 100 mm max.0 0.0 1.9 1.0 1.6 1.au .32 3 1.0 9.

expansion or fired proprietary fasteners NOTE: Refer to manufacturer’s specifications.au  Standards Australia . www. 18 18 18 15 12 9.189 AS 1684.2—2006 TABLE 9. The strength of their proprietary fasteners with respect to the strength of the fastener in the timber bottom plate shall be considered. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] NOTE: Refer to manufacturer's recommendations on minimum edge distances and safety.org.standards.18 (continued) Position of tie-down connection Bottom plates to floor joists or slab (d) Bolts Cast in bolt Size as per table Uplift capacity (kN) Unseasoned timber J2 J3 J4 Seasoned timber JD4 JD5 JD6 M10 180 mm min.0 M12 27 27 26 20 16 12 (e) Chemical.

2/3.41 0.12 0.9 3.org.33 0.65 0.17 0.9 2.9 8.32 0.29 0.27 0.75 0. of nails 2 3 4 a 4.5 4.3 0.standards.66 0.4 0.22 0.8 4.78 0.48 0. Strap.2 0.1 0.9 0.9 6.33 1.98 1. (continued)  Standards Australia www.5 1.15 2/3.82 0.57 0. into end grain 40 mm min.23 Glue-coated or deformed shank machine-driven nail dia.5 1.11 0.08 0.29 0.6 0.15 2/3. 2/3.33 1.2 1. 2 through nails as per table. 2 skew nails as per table.9 8. 2.48 0.8 G.2—2006 190 TABLE 9.87 0.05 2/3.33 0.7 5.27 0.4 0. into side grain Glue-coated or deformed shank machine-driven nail dia.2 2.19 UPLIFT CAPACITY OF WALL FRAME TIE-DOWN CONNECTIONS Position of tie-down connection Studs to plates (a) 40 mm min.32 0.19 0.5 8.86 1.5 4. 2/3.7 5. penetration 2/3.4 0.77 0.36 0.10 J3 J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 Glue-coated or deformed shank machine-driven nail dia.9 6.4 2.78 0.7 1.1 1.7 5.56 0.71 0.24 0.05 2/3.41 0.17 0.69 0.I.9 3.5 3.14 (b) 40 mm min.29 2 skew nails as per table.34 0.2 1.43 30 mm min.37 0.26 0.48 0.8 0. 2/3.75 0. penetration Hand-driven nail dia.2 a 6 NOTE: a = 100 mm or longer to prevent splitting for number of nails used.2 5.34 (c) 30 mm min.15 2/3. penetration (d) 30 ´ 0.13 0.99 0. into end grain 40 mm min.32 0.0 0.97 1.53 0.8 Æ nails each end as noted No.97 0.3 4.43 0. penetration 2/3. penetration Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Hand-driven nail dia. penetration Uplift capacity (kN) Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber J2 Hand-driven nail dia.5 0.au .9 3.20 0.36 0.3 8.5 3.75 0.51 0.24 0.61 0.05 2/3.AS 1684.4 2.

3 5.5 2.191 AS 1684. Items (g). tie-down every 1200 mm. 4/2. of anchors No.2—2006 TABLE 9.standards.7 10.2 2/75 mm 2 8.5 2. Fastener spacing s (mm) 50 150 Uplift capacity (kN/rafter) 16.9 3. of screws J3 J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 No. (h) or (i) www.9 3.8 Æ nails to each leg 1/75 mm 1 4.5 3.2 5.4 Structural plywood bracing as per Table 8.au  Standards Australia .9 4.9 4. penetration Uplift capacity (kN) Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber J2 No.9 2. Minimum plywood panel width is 900 mm.7 (f) Bolt Bolts as per table M10 18 18 18 15 15 9.14 Type 17 screws as noted Framing anchor as noted.org.19 (continued) Position of tie-down connection Studs to plates (e) 30 mm min. Rafters shall be fixed a minimum of 300 mm away from stud at either end of sheathed section. Bottom plate to subfloor fixing capacity shall be at least 13 kN.0 M12 27 27 26 20 16 12 M16 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 50 50 46 35 28 21 (g) Plywood to plate fastener spacing s NOTES: 1 2 3 4 Suitable for rafter spacings of 600 mm.18. 900 mm or 1200 mm.

Number of nails as per table 6 nails each end of strap M12 bolt to floor 17 17 12 17 14 10 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Bolt to slab or floor frame 100 mm max.au . of nails as per table 100 mm max.standards.I.8 7. or the rafter/truss fixed directly to the lintel with a fixing of equivalent tie-down strength to that required for the rafter/truss. Bolt size as per table NOTE: The top plate shall be fixed or tied to the lintel within 100 mm of each rafter/truss.9 3.2—2006 192 TABLE 9.2 5.4 12 9. strap No.0 12 100 mm max.20 UPLIFT CAPACITY OF BEAM/LINTEL TIE-DOWN CONNECTIONS Uplift capacity (kN) Position of tie-down connection Unseasoned timber J2 Bolt or strap Seasoned timber JD4 JD5 JD6 Beams/lintels to studs/posts (a) Solid nogging J3 J4 4 nails each end of strap 8.9 4.5 8. or the rafter/truss fixed directly to the lintel with a fixing of equivalent tiedown strength to that required for the rafter/truss.8 mm G. or the rafter/truss fixed directly to the lintel with a fixing of equivalent tie-down strength to that required for the rafter/truss.2 30 ´ 0.org. strap. Solid nogging 250 mm M10 M12 18 27 18 27 18 26 15 20 12 16 9.8 mm G.4 (b) 100 mm max.9 5.3 5. 4 nails each end of strap M10 bolt to floor 17 12 8.4 5.I. NOTE: The top plate shall be fixed or tied to the lintel within 100 mm of each rafter/truss. Bolt (c) 100 mm max. M10 bolt or G. (continued)  Standards Australia www.7 250 mm 6 nails each end of strap Lintel 8. Bolt or strap 250 mm 250 mm Lintel 250 mm 2/30 ´ 0.9 8.9 4.4 6.I. NOTE: The top plate shall be fixed or tied to the lintel within 100 mm of each rafter/truss. strap to floor frame or slab 100 mm max.AS 1684.

standards. Lintel shall be designed to span between bolts Lintel shall be directly under the top plate and continued to the next common stud Where rafters/trusses are fixed to the top plate.20 (continued) Uplift capacity (kN) Position of tie-down connection Unseasoned timber J2 Bolt size 27 50 27 50 26 46 20 35 16 28 12 21 J3 J4 Seasoned timber JD4 JD5 JD6 Beams/lintels to studs/posts (d) NOTE: The top plate shall be fixed or tied to the lintel within 100 mm of M12 each rafter/truss. or the rafter/truss fixed directly to the lintel with a fixing M16 of equivalent tie-down strength to that required for the rafter/truss.org.8 mm Æ nails each leg.193 AS 1684. Bolt to floor frame or slab as per table Spacer nailed to stud 38 mm max.2—2006 TABLE 9. jamb studs shall be checked around lintel. 100 mm max. the top plate shall be fixed to the lintel within 100 mm using fixings of equivalent strength 100 mm max.au  Standards Australia Max. on each side of studs Jamb studs Common stud (continued) www.7 m Lintel . For lintels of thickness equal to depth of wall frame. wall frame height 2. Bolt shall pass through lintel For narrow lintels. one framing anchor (legs not bent) 6/2. Alternative detail (e) Bolt size 27 50 27 50 26 46 20 35 16 28 12 21 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] NOTE: The top plate shall be fixed or tied to the lintel within 100 mm of M12 each rafter/truss. or the rafter/truss fixed directly to the lintel with a fixing M16 of equivalent tie-down strength to that required for the rafter/truss.

AS 1684.14 Type 17 screws as per table.org. min.1 12 16 5. 180 mm (continued)  Standards Australia www.8 16 23 5.6 3.8 12 100 mm max.05 mm nails or 75 ´ No.6 11 4. Bolt as per table MS angle 150 ´ 90 ´ 10 mm Bolt as per table 5 bolt dia.2—2006 194 TABLE 9.7 8. 6 bolt dia. of screws to each stud 2 4 6 15 31 46 11 22 33 7. nails each end as per table No. 17 14 10 17 17 12 14 8.2 5.au .7 8.8 16 23 11 22 33 7.8 mm dia.8 7. (g) Bolts 2/M10 2/M12 17 17 15 17 9.8 mm G.2 9.7 11 17 4 nails each end of strap M10 bolt to floor 17 12 8.standards.2 8.3 7.4 12 9.1 No. of nails to each stud 4 6 8 8. 5 bolt dia.1 6.8 7.4 6 nails each end of strap NOTE: The uplift capacity of the detail will be governed by the lowest of the capacities at either the top or bottom of post or the bottom plate M12 bolt 17 17 12 to floor to floor frame or slab.I. 4 bolt dia. straps with 2.20 (continued) Uplift capacity (kN) Position of tie-down connection Unseasoned timber J2 J3 J4 Seasoned timber JD4 JD5 JD6 Beams/lintels to studs/posts (f) 75 ´ 3.5 5. 35 mm penetration into receiving member Bolt to floor or slab as per table 30 ´ 0.6 11 4.2 10 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 6 bolt dia.

2/M16 11 cup-head 6 bolt dia.3 9.2 5.1 8.standards.5 7.6 4.0 4.7 3.2—2006 TABLE 9. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 6 bolt dia.8 4.7 Bolts 2 bolt dia.9 3.9 5.7 4.5 3.0 12 21 Beams/lintels to studs/posts (h) Bolts with washer as noted Continue for overhang if required Beam Studs at sides full height Bolt taken to underside of floor joists or bearer or into concrete slab (i) 35 mm thick studs under post Plan No.6 2. 14 Type 17 screws (min.6 4.6 5.3 2.au  Standards Australia .8 cup-head 4 bolt dia.7 7.5 2.0 2.6 3.3 3.8 2. 1/M10 1/M12 1/M16 5.6 3.6 10 14 1.8 2.5 11 15 19 35 mm min.5 4.8 7.1 5. 5 bolt dia.7 15 5.6 Bolts as per table Column 2/M10 7.20 (continued) Uplift capacity (kN) Position of tie-down connection Unseasoned timber J2 Bolts M10 M12 M16 18 27 50 J3 18 27 50 J4 18 26 46 Seasoned timber JD4 JD5 JD6 15 20 35 12 16 28 9.9 3.9 8.9 7.2 6.7 cup-head 2/M12 8.1 12 1. 5 bolt dia.0 2.1 6.3 5.5 1.9 3.3 4.2 1.2 2.7 3.org.5 3.195 AS 1684.3 4.8 5.8 6.5 2.8 5.6 2.8 4.2 9.3 5.7 cup-head 2.1 6.3 2. 2 bolt dia.1 7. 35 mm penetration into receiving member) 2 4 35 mm min.9 7. 7.9 cup-head 1/M12 4.1 7.6 1.4 cup-head 1/M16 5. 2/M10 2/M12 2/M16 (continued) www.5 6.5 11 3. 4 bolt dia.0 4. 1/M10 3.1 2.5 11 3.6 9.8 2.

2 2/M12 29 18 12 20 14 10 2/M16 Bolts 38 24 15 28 19 13 (k) M12 bolt 75 ´ 8 mm MS saddle 1 or 2 bolts as per table 1/M12 2/M12 1/M16 22 43 38 76 20 39 35 71 16 32 27 53 20 39 35 71 17 34 30 60 15 30 24 49 NOTE: The same or an equivalent detail is required at the bottom of the post. (l) 2/M16 Bolts Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] MS plate: 75 ´ 10 mm for M10 75 ´ 12 mm for M12 75 ´ 25 mm for M16 2/M10 36 36 36 30 24 18 Continue for overhang if required 2/M12 54 54 52 40 32 24 2 bolts with plate as per table 2/M16 100 100 92 70 56 42 (m) Non-compressible packing to be installed just prior to inter nal lining being fixed 1/M12 bolt 106 100 ´ 8 mm MS Saddle 6 CFW both sides 75 ´ 75 ´ 4.9 8.1 1/M12 15 9.20 (continued) Uplift capacity (kN) Position of tie-down connection Unseasoned timber J2 Bolts 2 bolt Æ 4 bolt Æ 5 bolt Æ Column Bolts as per table 50 ´ 8 mm MS stirrup 150 mm min.0 mm SHS or 100 ´ 100 ´ 4.8 17 12 8.standards.6 6.1 2/M10 23 15 9.1 5. S12 rod 50 ´ 6 mm MS p late Column Bolts as per table 5 bolt Æ 6 bolt Æ Bearer Seasoned timber JD4 JD5 JD6 Beams/lintels to studs/posts (j) Bearer 50 ´ 6 mm MS p late Bolts as per table 5 bolt Æ 6 bolt Æ J3 J4 1/M10 5 bolt Æ 6 bolt Æ 6 bolt Æ 5 bolt Æ 11 7.8 10 7.2 5.AS 1684.6 4.org.2—2006 196 TABLE 9.0 mm SHS Continue for overhang if required 85 55 85 69 55 (continued)  Standards Australia www.1 4.au .

standards.au  Standards Australia .2—2006 TABLE 9.197 AS 1684.20 (continued) Uplift capacity (kN) Position of tie-down connection Unseasoned timber J2 Bolts J3 J4 Seasoned timber JD4 JD5 JD6 Beams/lintels to studs/posts (n) 2/M10 Bolt as per table 150 ´ 90 ´ 10 mm MS angle 23 21 16 24 21 18 2/M12 33 30 24 35 30 27 NOTE: The same or an equivalent detail is required at the bottom of the post.org. (p) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 2/M16 100 100 92 70 56 42 (Refer to manufacturers specifications) www. (o) 2/M16 57 53 40 62 53 43 Bolts Bolts as per table 150 ´ 90 ´ 10 mm MS angle 75 ´ 75 ´ 4 mm MS SHS 2/M10 36 36 36 30 24 18 2/M12 54 54 52 40 32 24 NOTE: The same or an equivalent detail is required at the bottom of the post.

75 1. nailed as per table 4.5 8. 4/2.9 2.5 2.5 4.AS 1684.2 (continued) 4 6  Standards Australia www.3 5.40 0.9 4.au .9 3.9 8.3 5.2 (d) No.2 5.9 3.3 0.66 0.8 2.97 0.8 G.9 2.5 2.5 2.I.4 6.05 The uplift capacities given in this Item are applicable to the joint.5 1.5 3. strap as per table No.9 3.4 6.7 3.15 0.97 0. strap over rafter.9 3.3 4.7 3.34 0.8 dia nails each end 2 3 30 ´ 0.2—2006 198 TABLE 9.2 6.8 mm Æ nails to each end 1.org.7 8.24 3.1 0. of 2.9 5.8 2.9 5.50 0.5 2.8 dia nails each end 1 2 4.3 5.82 0.3 4.2 8.99 0.8 mm G.60 0.87 0.7 No.9 3.4 5.standards.9 4.9 8.9 8.5 3.9 2.21 UPLIFT CAPACITY OF RAFTER AND TRUSS TIE-DOWN CONNECTIONS Uplift capacity (kN) Position of tie-down connection Unseasoned timber J2 J3 Seasoned timber Rafters/trusses to wall frame or floor frame (a) 2/75 mm skew nails as per table J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 Hand-driven nail dia.8 dia nails each end 1 2 A1 6.9 4.9 3.I.5 2.36 1.71 0. of straps with 2/2.7 30 ´ 0. not individual nails.2 5.51 0. 3.5 4.7 1. (b) Framing anchor as per table.77 0.7 3.7 3.29 Glue-coated or deformed shank machine-driven nail dia.5 3.4 5.9 12 8.1 0. of anchors 1 4.2 5.2 1.43 3.9 4.9 4.33 No.5 1.5 2. of straps with 3/2. 3.2 2 (c) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 8.9 4.

8 mm G. 2/M12 54 54 52 40 32 24 No. and JD6 13 13 13 13 13 13 2 25 25 25 25 25 25 (f) Cup-head bolt as per table 100 mm max. of looped straps 1 Nails required each end of looped strap: 3/2.0 12 21 18 M16 2/M10 36 Where bolts are connected to top plates. the top plate shall be designed for uplift. JD5.au  Standards Australia . (h) MS plate: 75 ´ 10 mm for M10 75 ´ 12 mm for M12 25 mm max.199 AS 1684.2—2006 TABLE 9.8 mm Æ for J3 and JD4 5/2.8 mm Æ for J2 4/2.8 mm for J4. looped strap No.org. 16 14 10 10 7 5 Min.standards.21 (continued) Uplift capacity (kN) Position of tie-down connection Unseasoned timber J2 J3 Seasoned timber Rafters/trusses to wall frame or floor frame A1 J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 (e) 30 ´ 0. of bolts 2/M10 36 36 36 30 24 18 Bolt as per table 2/M12 54 54 52 40 32 24 www. PFC M10 M12 Rafter Top plate 18 27 50 18 27 50 36 18 26 46 36 15 20 35 30 12 16 28 24 9. F8 and better: 38 × 50 (g) Bolt as per table Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] No. roof batten size—up to F7: 35 × 70. of bolts 100 mm max.I.

8 mm Æ nails each end 8.9 2.9 4.8 mm G. of bolts 1 16 14 10 10 7.5 2.9 3. JD6 13 13 13 13 13 13 2 25 25 25 25 25 25 (d) 30 ´ 0.3 5. strap as per table 4/2.0 M10 cup-head bolt adjacent or through rafter Min. 4/2.9 4.7 4 16 11 7.3 5.I.9 4.9 11 9.5 2.8 mm ´ for J2 4/2.org.8 mm ´ for J3.9 11 9.I.0 (c) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 30 ´ 0. of straps 1 30 ´ 0.9 4.2 5.AS 1684. looped strap as per table 450 mm No. of straps 1 Nails required for each end of looped strap: 3/2.7 2 16 11 7.0 (b) 450 mm No.standards.22 UPLIFT CAPACITY OF RAFTER TIE-DOWN CONNECTIONS Position of tie-down connection Rafters to beams. JD4 5/2. strap as per table.au .5 3. of framing anchors Uplift capacity (kN) Unseasoned Seasoned timber timber J2 J3 J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 1 4.1 7.9 3. verandah beams (a) No.8 mm ´ for J4.9 3.0 5.1 7.8 mm Æ nails each end 450 mm No.2 Framing anchors as noted.8 mm G.8 mm G. JD5. 4 nails each end of each anchor 2 8.2 5.2—2006 200 TABLE 9. roof batten size— Up to F7: 35 × 70 F8 and better: 38 × 50 (continued)  Standards Australia www. lintels.I.

I.201 AS 1684.9 5.0 5.2 5.22 (continued) Position of tie-down connection Rafters to beams.8 mm G.I.4 3.0 One M12 or M10 bolt.8 7.2 3.standards.1 (f) 75 mm 50 mm 23 2/M16 bolts through 150 ´ 90 ´ 8 mm angle bracket one side of rafter 50 ´ 10 mm Æ coach screws MS plate bent to shape 200 ´ 38 ´ 6 mm 15 9.8 mm G.8 7.2 5. 4/2.org.2 4. of bolts 2/M10 125 ´ 75 ´ 6 mm MS angle bracket one side 100 ´ 12 mm Æ coach screw or 1/M10 bolt 14 9.14 Type 17 screw each side of rafter 11 6.8 mm Æ nails each end 14 50 ´ 1.6 (continued)  Standards Australia www.6 5.8 18 18 18 15 12 9.2 17 12 8. strap 75 mm No. verandah beams (e) 38 mm Bolts as per table 75 mm Uplift capacity (kN) Unseasoned Seasoned timber timber J2 J3 J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 No. penetration into roof beam) as per table M12 bolt 27 27 26 20 16 12 (h) 30 ´ 0.9 2/M12 14 11 7.9 8.0 M12 bolt M12 bolt (g) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Coach screw or bolts 12 mm dia coach screw M10 bolt 11 7.2 6.0 8.4 8. strap. lintels. or 12 mm Æ coach screw (75 mm min.2—2006 TABLE 9.au .

9 3.6 2.3 2.9 4.9 8.1 2/40 mm 12 No.2 5.3 Bolt to rafter 1/M10 7.0 10 12 7.) rafter thickness M8 M10 5.2 7. (l) 38 ´ 5 mm MS plate in 75 m .AS 1684. verandah beams (i) Bolts Rafter thickness 35 mm min.8 11 3. 50 mm No.7 4.1 8.6 2.2 2.3 5.org.5 (k) Bolts 35 mm (min.3 5. M12 coach screw 100 mm long Ceiling lining 14 11 7 8.3 5.6 4.9 4. lintels. of screws 8.9 6.5 7.8 7.au .3 8.1 6.2 11 5.2 2.2 2.3 (j) 75 ´ 50 ´ 5 mm MS angle with 1/M10 bolt or 40 mm No.22 (continued) Position of tie-down connection Rafters to beams.1 Rafter thickness 35 mm min. 50 ´ 50 ´ 5 mm MS angle with bolts or Type 17 screws each end as per table Uplift capacity (kN) Unseasoned Seasoned timber timber J2 J3 J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 2/M10 2/M12 Screws 14 18 9.1 3.6 4.9 5.3 2. 14 Type 17 screws to rafter as per table 1 5.2 4.9 7.14 No.5 4.9 3.9 2.2—2006 202 TABLE 9.7 2 2. 14 Type 17 screws to beam as per table 2 12 8.6 5.2 8.6 8.1 4/75 mm long skew nails to each rafter M10 coach screws 50 mm long (continued)  Standards Australia www.3 5.8 4.5 3 4 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 75 ´ 50 ´ 5 mm MS angle with bolts into rafter and beam as per table M12 M16 Beam shall be a minimum of 70 mm thick for M16 bolts.6 4 5.3 5.9 4.standards.

6 2.I.3 5. 35 mm min.8 mm G.90 0.2 6.2 4.8 4.66 1.3 2.8 8.org. (n) 30 ´ 0.99 2.0 2.2 2.1 4/75 mm long skew nails to each rafter 70 mm 75 mm min.standards. www.4 5.3 3.2 1.0 1.203 AS 1684.14 Type 17 screws.1 0.8 3. Rafter Thickness 45 mm min. nails 2 3 1.5 6.5 2. or M10 coach screws as per table 25 mm min. 4 Type 17 screws 2/No14 3/No14 4/No14 5.77 1. No.0 1.3 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 4/75 mm long skew nails to each rafter (o) 30 ´ 0.2 8.au  Standards Australia . verandah beams (m) d = diameter of fixing Uplift capacity (kN) Unseasoned Seasoned timber timber J2 J3 J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 3.2—2006 TABLE 9.9 4.4 0.8 mm G.0 4.I.9 4.5 2.1 0.2 1.8 4.5 3.3 3.9 4.5 1.22 (continued) Position of tie-down connection Rafters to beams.0 5.6 2.4 5.0 1. lintels. strap 6/2. min.8 mm Æ nails each end M12 Rod 9.3 5d 5d 5d 3.05 mm Æ nails.2 1.2 1.9 2.2 3.2 2.3 2.3 Coach screws 2/M10 3/M10 8.2 7.2 Pre-drill if splitting occurs.2 8.1 6.8 8.2 6. strap 6/2.7 12 4.0 5.05 mm dia.2 12 5.8 mm Æ nails each end Rafter 3.

AS 1684.org.2—2006 204 TABLE 9.23 UPLIFT CAPACITY OF UNDERPURLIN TIE-DOWN CONNECTIONS Position of tie-down connection Underpurlins to strutting beams/walls Looped straps or bolts 1 looped strap 2 looped straps 1/M10 bolt 1/M12 bolt 13 25 18 27 13 25 18 27 13 25 18 26 13 25 15 20 13 25 12 16 13 25 9 12 J2 J3 Uplift capacity (kN) Unseasoned timber J4 Seasoned timber JD4 JD5 JD6 Rafter Underpurlin strapped to top plate or strutting beam as per table Alter native position of tie-down strap Strutting beam strapped or bolted as noted Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Nails 3/2.8 5/2.au .8 4/2.standards. JD5 and JD6 Top plate shall be tied down to floor frame  Standards Australia www.8 required for each end of looped strap: mm ∅ for J2 mm ∅ for J3 and JD4 mm ∅ for J4.

I. strap over the rafters.0 75 ´ 38 mm tie with 3/75 ´ 3.0 3.8 30 ´ 0.8 mm G.I.4 6.I.4 For N1 and N2.0 5. 14 Type 17 screws at max. strap under ridge with 4/2.8 mm G.au  Standards Australia .205 AS 1684.8 mm Æ nails each end (8 nails each end for JD5 timber) 9.8 mm G.0 4.8 mm Æ nails each end 7.I.8 www. strap with 6/2. strap with 6/2.6 8. 450 mm centres may be used in lieu of the G.8 4.standards.2 10 8. (c) 14 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 10 7.6 5.0 5. looped strap under ridge with 4/2.24(A) UPLIFT CAPACITY OF RAFTERS TO RAFTERS AT RIDGE TIE-DOWN CONNECTIONS Position of tie-down connection Rafters to rafters at ridge (a) Uplift capacity (kN) Unseasoned Seasoned timber timber J2 J3 J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 7.8 mm Æ nails each end 13 10 13 11.8 mm Æ nails each end (8 nails each end for JD5 timber) 13 30 ´ 0.2—2006 TABLE 9.0 7. a metal ridge cap screwed down with No.2 2/75 ´ 38 mm tie with 3/75 ´ 3. nails each end (d) 30 ´ 0.8 mm G. nails each end 5.05 mm dia.1 (b) 30 ´ 0.I.05 mm dia.org.2 3.

8 mm G.AS 1684.24(B) UPLIFT CAPACITY OF RIDGEBOARD AND HIP RAFTER TIE-DOWN CONNECTIONS Position of tie-down connection Ridgeboards and hip rafters to walls 1 looped strap Uplift capacity (kN) Unseasoned Seasoned timber timber J2 J3 J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 13 13 13 13 13 13 2 looped straps Bolt or 30 ´ 0.2—2006 206 TABLE 9.org.I.au . looped strap as per table. tied down to floor frame via inter nal walls or exter nal walls at gable ends 25 25 25 25 25 25 1/M10 bolt 18 18 18 15 12 9 Bolt welded to 50 ´ 6 mm bent MS flat with 50 ´ 4 mm FW 1/M12 bolt 27 27 26 20 16 12 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]  Standards Australia www.standards.

8 1.5 2.05 1/75 × 3.9 2.68 0. sides of batten 8.2—2006 TABLE 9.34 0.60 0.1 1.5 3.4 3.20 0.61 1.3 1.40 Plain shank 1/75 × 3.64 0.42 0.21 0.7 7.09 0.68 0.4 7.6 4.05 1/75 ×3.5 0.1 2.2 0.45 0.9 4.65 1.43 0.32 0.2 0.05 (b) 38 ´ 75 or 38 ´ 50 mm batten Nailed as per table 1.14 0.0 12 3.13 0.30 0.75 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 1/75 No.05 2/75 × 3.54 0.3 5.5 2.30 0.8∅ 25 ´ 50 mm batten Nails as per table Uplift capacity (kn) Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber J2 J3 J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 0.05∅ Deformed shank 1/65 ×3.15 0.48 0.20 1/65 × 2.72 Two nails shall be used only with 75 mm wide batten (c) 25 ´ 50 mm batten 2/75 × 3.43 0.65 0.2 Two screws shall be used only with 75 mm wide batten (e) Framing anchors 1 Framing anchors 4/2.standards.9 4.4 11 15 4.7 0.22 0.0 2.5 3.6 (d) 38 ´ 75 or 38 ´ 50 mm batten No.48 0.85 0.20 0.95 1.2 4.58 0.16 0.05∅ 1/75 × 3.4 5.45 0.4 4.6 5. 14 Type 17 screw 50 mm penetration into receiving member 7.60 0.32 0.8 6.44 0.9 3.4 11 2.4 2.2 6.86 1.2 0.0 0.2 5.81 0.2 2 placed on alt.32 0.05 2/75 × 3.4 0.56 0.8∅ 1/65 × 3. nails to each leg 4.9 3. 14 Type 17 screws as per table Screws (length) 1/75 mm long 1/90 mm long 2/75 mm long 2/90 mm long 5.8 mm dia.2 9.org.52 1.25 UPLIFT CAPACITY OF ROOF BATTEN TIE-DOWN CONNECTIONS Position of tie-down connection Roof battens to rafters/trusses (a) Plain shank 1/50 × 2.0 9.0 4.90 1.au  Standards Australia .0 0.28 0.05 0.2 5.30 Deformed shank 1.8 2.90 0.2 2.207 AS 1684.6 1.36 0.5 2.5 6.28 0.7 (continued) www.5 8.7 3.7 3.3 1.7 7.

7 5.7 1.0 3.3 4.06 mm 2.3 0.9 3.1 3.5 2.8 2.7 5.1 4.standards. strap with 2.I.8 mm G. strap 38 ´ 75 mm batten 19 mm lining 1/75 mm No.8 mm Æ nails each end of strap as per table Uplift capacity (kn) Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber J2 J3 J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 No.7 5. looped strap with nails as per table 13 13 13 13 13 13 Timber J2 J3 and JD4 J4.9 3.7 (g) 30 ´ 0. of 2.1 4.org.8 mm ∅ nails each end of strap 3 4 5 (h) 25 ´ 50 mm batten screwed as per table 25 ´ 50 mm counter batten 6 mm lining No.0 3.4 7.2 1.9 3. 14 Type 17 screws 1/90 mm long 1/100 mm long 4.5 8.AS 1684.8 2.0 0.72 (k) 30 ´ 1.1 (i) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] No.2—2006 208 TABLE 9.4 4.7 5.1 2.9 3.I.4 6.au . 14 Type 17 screws 38 ´ 75 mm batten 19 mm lining 1/100 mm long 6.4 4.25 (continued) Position of tie-down connection Roof battens to rafters/trusses (f) 30 ´ 0.3 4.5 2.6 2.8 2.86 0. JD5 and JD6 No.2  Standards Australia www.2 4.4 12 9.9 3. of nails each end of strap 3 4 6.8 mm G.14 Type 17 screw at each end 15 11 6.8 1.8 4.1 (j) 2/75 mm grooved nails 2/75 mm grooved nails as per table 38 ´ 75 mm or 38 ´ 50 mm batten 25 ´ 75 mm counter batten 19 mm lining Deformed shank nails 2/3.9 2.75 mm 2.1 1.8 mm G.6 2/3.I.

see Clause 9.7.28 and Table 9. nominal fixings only shall be provided in accordance with Table 9. 9.2 Bottom plate to concrete slab For wind classifications N1 to N3. walls or supporting stumps. Multiply this force by the projected height of the house (ridge to relevant floor level) and divide this by the number of lines of connection (bearers. see Clause 9. 9. piers etc.26 and 9.7. floor or subfloor are adequate to resist the shear forces. For wind classification N4.2 to 9. For masonry veneer construction for wind classifications up to N3. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] For wind classifications N3 and N4. NOTE: These additional connections are not required where connections provided for tie-down also provide the necessary shear capacity.4. and the connection of bracing walls to the ceiling. specific connections to resist shear forces are not required.7.4 Bearers to supports For wind classifications N1 and N2. bottom plates shall be fixed to concrete slabs using hammered.27.27.5 and Tables 9.7. The resultant value shall be resisted by one of the details given in Table 9. 9.1 General Shear forces (lateral wind forces) shall be resisted by connections at each level of the house to prevent ‘sliding’. For most other situations.standards.209 AS 1684.7.7.6.) across the width of the house.26 for the relevant joist spacing or bearer span. nominal fixings only shall be provided in accordance with Table 9. Where these connections are not adequate. screwed or expansion masonry anchors at 900 mm centres maximum along all bottom plates. www. fired. and Tables 9.5. 9.au  Standards Australia .4.7 SHEAR FORCES 9. NOTE: These additional connections are not required where connections provided for tie-down also provide the necessary shear capacity. nominal fixings only shall be provided in accordance with Table 9.4.7.29.7.org.26 and 9.7.3 Floor joists to bearers/walls For wind classifications N1 to N3. the provisions of nominal fixings and/or specific tie-down connections. For wind classification N4.5 Shear forces on joists and bearers The shear force required to be resisted by joists or bearers may be calculated using the following procedure: (a) (b) Determine the shear wind force at the floor line from Table 9. additional connections shall be provided in accordance with Clauses 9. (c) NOTE: An example of the application of this Clause is given in Appendix E.2—2006 9.

8 2400 3.6 2.au .0 7.8 7.AS 1684.42 0.6 2.9 5.4 2.6 2.1 1.5 1.9 7. TABLE 9.2 9.1 0.1 1. The same lateral strength applies. to the bearers or supports.4 5.4 4.4 4.90 1.2—2006 210 TABLE 9.3 J3 J4 Seasoned timber JD4 JD5 JD6 NOTES: 1 2 (b) Framing anchors as per table.63 0.5 3.05 skew nails as per table Shear capacity (kN) Unseasoned timber J2 No.7 2.1 2.8 7.6 2.4 4.5 6000 8.4 4.0 2.org. 75 ´ 3.95 600 0.2 9. (continued)  Standards Australia www.63 450 0. No.3 3.5 1800 2.2 4.0 3000 4.8 dia nails in each leg This connection does NOT provide rotational restraint to the top of the bearers.6 2.0 3.26 SHEAR FORCE OF PROJECTED HEIGHT AT THE FLOOR LINE Lateral load* (kN/m) of projected height at the floor line Wind classification 300 N3 N4 0. 4/2.66 1.6 2.0 1.8 2. of Nails 2 3 4 1. of framing anchors 1 2 3 4 2.8 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] NOTE: This connection does provide rotational restraint to the top of bearers.6 4500 6.3 3600 5.8 7.standards.2 6.2 1.8 7.1 0.27 SHEAR CONNECTIONS FOR FLOOR JOISTS Position of shear connection Floor joists to bearers or top plates (a) Min.77 1.4 13 * Interpolation is permitted.3 9.2 9.8 1.84 1. whether joists are strapped or not strapped.3 6.5 8.0 NOTE: This connection does provide rotational restraint to the top of bearers.4 4. (c) M10 cup-head bolt M10 cup-head 6.3 Joist spacings or bearer spans (mm) 1200 1.6 2.2 9.0 3.8 0.4 1.

5 4.3 4. No.9 6.4 NOTE: This connection does provide rotational restraint to the top of bearers.1 5.27 (continued) Position of shear connection Floor joists to bearers or top plates (d) 5Æ 4Æ Shear capacity (kN) Unseasoned timber J2 No. of nails per wing (e) G.3 8.211 AS 1684.4 5.9 7.3 5.au  Standards Australia .7 3.2—2006 TABLE 9.9 5.org.8 mm Æ nails through each wing as per table 3 6.9 4.7 3.2 5.9 4.8 4.1 J3 J4 Seasoned timber JD4 JD5 JD6 50 ´ 50 ´ 5 mm MS angle with bolts or screw each end as per table This connection does provide rotational restraint to the top of bearers.9 3.2 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] www.7 4.8 2.1 5 7.4 6.2 11 5. 6 12 8. of bolts 2/M10 2/M12 14 18 9.standards.9 8.9 7.0 10 12 7.9 4 8.I. Joist hanger with 4 wings and 2.7 5 9.

6 2.9 4. strap as per table.7 2.3 3.  Standards Australia www.5 0.4 1.I.6 12 12 12 4.90 0.au .4 1.5 4.3 Spike 1/M10 1/M12 1/M16 No. 4 bolt dia.9 6.0 1.8 1.2 5.8 Nails 2/75 × 3.1 4.1 5.6 (continued) Bolts as per table 2/M12 2/M16 NOTE: Values apply irrespective of joist connection.0 2.1 7. 5 bolt dia.8 mm Æ nails 30 0.3 2.5 0. T imber post 1.8 12 2.4 6.5 3.6 6.org.66 2.7 3.4 7.28 SHEAR CONNECTIONS FOR BEARERS Shear capacity (kN) Position of shear connection Unseasoned timber J2 J3 Seasoned timber Bearers to stumps.2 5.0 (b) 2/2.7 11 5.8 4/75 × 3.0 3.8 mm Æ nails Nail or spike as per table T imber post Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 2.33 3.5 6.0 4.1 2.4 1.6 4. (c) 2 bolt dia.8 NOTE: Values apply irrespective of joist connection.5 2.7 3.1 0. 6.3 8. 6 bolt dia.9 3.9 8.9 4.0 2.2 10 12 3.4 7.5 Bearer restrained by joist 3.3 2.2 9. nailed with 2.7 6.2—2006 212 TABLE 9.77 1.AS 1684.5 1.5 0.1 1.4 7.1 9.2 8.5 0.0 3. posts.1 0.05 2.standards. piers (a) J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 Bearer not restrained by joist 6 mm rod cast into concrete stump and bent over bearer at top 0.6 6. of bolts 1/M10 1/M12 2/M10 70 mm min.8 mm G.1 5.05 1.2 5.4 4/75 × 3.5 0.5 6.

standards.5 2.1 2.7 5.4 7.9 3.5 4/75 × 3.5 1.2—2006 TABLE 9.05 2.8 10.2 5.3 1.1 0.2 3.2 3.4 1.9 Bearer restrained by joist Bolts 1/M10 1/M12 1/M16 6.5 2.4 Nails or spikes may be required (see Clause 9.6 3.4 7.2 NOTE: Values apply irrespective of joist connection.1 0.2 3.8 Option: 50 ´ 4 mm MS bar tied to footing M10 bolt 9.au  Standards Australia .3 2.7) 1. (continued) www.28 (continued) Shear capacity (kN) Position of shear connection Unseasoned timber J2 J3 Seasoned timber Bearers to stumps.9 3.2 5.9 3.9 M12 cranked bolt through bearer with M12 bolt through stump 1/M12 1/M16 Bearer restrained by joist Spike 1/M10 1/M12 1/M16 6.4 1.9 4.2 2.6 2.2 3.1 2.5 4. piers (d) Nails J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 Bearer not restrained by joist 2/75 × 3.5 1.213 AS 1684.3 2.6 8.0 1.3 2.0 1.7 6.3 6.0 1.77 1.5 2.4 6.9 3.6 1. posts.8 4/75 × 3.3 Spike 1/M10 3.3 2.3 2.9 6.4 6.8 2.1 2.9 (e) Bolts Bearer not restrained by joist 1/M10 1/M12 1/M16 Nail or spike as per table 3.33 3.9 3.0 3.05 1.8 2.5 4.1 screw M10 ´ 50 mm coach screw or bolt MS angle M10 bolt tied to footing or MS bar 3.7 3.7 5. 2 bolts to stump (f) M10 coach 5.5 6.9 2.4 7.4 1.1 1.7 3.3 4.8 3.3 4.4 1.9 5.1 8.90 0.0 3.8 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 50 ´ 6 mm bent MS plate min.6 2.66 2.9 4.7 6.3 6.7 2.6 1.7 11 5.org.2 2.8 3.2 3.8 1.8 1.5 1.9 3.3 7.2 3.9 5.4 7.9 2.7 5.

4 5.2 2.5 2.2 5.4 6.5 2. Bolt as per table 1/M10 7.9 3.5 9 10 3.9 6.9 10 12 3. 600 mm for M16 4.3 5.5 4.1 Bolts (bearer restrained by joist) M10 M12 6.4 4.8 8.2 4.4 2. 4 bolt dia.2 5.9 3.5 2.AS 1684.9 9 3.2 2.8 5.8 5.6 3.org.5 6.8 4.3 5.7 8.5 4.8 7.2—2006 214 TABLE 9.7 13 15 5.8 16 13 9. 21 16 11 21 17 12 (continued)  Standards Australia www.5 6.4 7.9 3.8 4.4 7.2 3. piers (g) Bolt as per table J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 Bolts (bearer not restrained by joist) M10 M12 M16 M20 500 mm for M10 and M12.7 5.2 5.7 6.4 3.9 4.8 7.3 2.9 6.0 2/M10 MS column 15 12 8.7 2.3 6.8 10 12 3.6 6.2 4.0 3.2 3.5 4. 5 bolt dia.4 7.7 6.7 6.4 4.4 7.4 7.2 3.9 7.9 6.standards.0 2.2 5.0 1/M16 16 12 8.1 5.6 4.9 3.0 3.8 4.4 6.9 4.8 9 2.4 12 13 4.9 4.7 10 8.6 4.6 9.3 4.9 5.5 6. posts.3 4.au .9 3.1 5.6 16 12 8.28 (continued) Shear capacity (kN) Position of shear connection Unseasoned timber J2 J3 Seasoned timber Bearers to stumps.9 2/M12 or 2/M16 NOTE: Values apply irrespective of joist connection.7 Bolts (bearer restrained by joist) 1/M10 75 ´ 10 mm MS plate 4 mm CFW Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 6. 600 mm for M16 and M20 1/M12 10 8.0 75 ´ 8 mm MS fishtail plate 500 mm for M10 and M12.2 Bolt tied to footing M16 M20 (h) Bolts or coach screws as per table Bolts (bearer not restrained by joist) 1/M10 1/M12 2/M10 2/M12 4.0 2.3 1/M12 2/M10 2/M12 (i) Bolts 2 bolt dia.4 7.7 11 12 5.

au  Standards Australia .4 1.215 AS 1684.8 12 16 Bolts as per table T imber post NOTE: Values apply irrespective of joist connection.9 3.4 1.9 3.3 7.9 6.7 3.2 3.7 6.5 2.9 4.3 4.75 mm Æ nails or 5/3.2—2006 TABLE 9.3 2.2 3.2 3.0 3.8 12 6.4 5.7 11 5.0 1.4 7.8 3.3 1.4 6.9 4.5 1.0 3.9 3.0 1.3 5.3 4.33 Bolts 1/M10 3.9 6 bolt dia.9 3.7 6.6 1.9 3.4 7.5 2.5 2.5 10 12 7.8 4.8 2.1 2.2 5.7 2.77 1.2 2.standards.3 8. No.7 11 5. posts.9 5.8 (l) 50 ´ 6 mm Plate 2 bolt dia. of bolts 2/M10 2/M12 2/M16 31 36 49 20 23 31 13 15 20 20 24 33 14 17 23 9.4 6.8 3.5 4. dia.5 4.9 6.org.5 4.4 1. Bolts or 100 mm long coach screws as per table T imber post 5 bolt dia.4 2. No. 4. 24 16 9.2 5. dia.7 5.2 3.05 M12 bolt min.4 2.3 2.3 1.1 2.2 2.8 7.1 0.4 7.4 7.6 2.2 2.8 17 12 8 www.6 4. 5 4 6 5 bolt bolt bolt bolt dia.33 mm Æ nails 20 ´ 3 mm fillet weld both sides J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 Bearer not restrained by joist 1.9 6.1 0.05 4/75x3. piers (j) Nails 2/75x3.2 3.9 3.8 (k) M12 bolt Bolts (bearer not restrained by joist) M10 M12 50 mm max.9 4.9 M16 50 ´ 6 mm bent MS plate with bolts as noted Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Bolts or 100 mm long coach screws as per table T imber post Bolts (bearer restrained by joist) M10 M12 M16 6.1 1.8 1.1 M16 NOTE: Values apply irrespective of joist connection.9 3.5 4/75x3.90 0.7 4.7 5.66 2.28 (continued) Shear capacity (kN) Position of shear connection Unseasoned timber J2 J3 Seasoned timber Bearers to stumps.9 3. dia. 50 ´ 6 mm MS plate 1/M12 1/M16 Bolts (bearer restrained by joist) 1/M10 1/M12 1/M16 6.5 2.8 5. 4/3. of bolts (m) Bolts as per table 75 ´ 6 mm MS stirrup 300 mm M10 M12 14 18 9.1 2.9 2.

hanging or other roof beams or ceiling joists or ceiling battens or the like.standards.8 or where tie-down details are structurally adequate to also provide the lateral restraint.4 600 0.3 3.6 Shear forces on external non-loadbearing walls Non-loadbearing external walls such as gable end walls and verandah walls (where trusses are pitched off verandah beams or other beams) shall be restrained laterally at their tops at a maximum of 3000 mm (see Clause 6.7 2.56 0.7.  Standards Australia www.4 3. strutting.au .78 1.1. the walls shall be restrained laterally in accordance with Table 9.7 1200 1.org.2.30.2 3000 2.5).2 1.8 7. intersecting walls.3 3.42 0.AS 1684.29 SHEAR WIND FORCES AT THE TOP OF EXTERNAL WALLS UP TO 2700 mm HIGH Wind classification N1 N2 N3 N4 NOTES: 1 2 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Shear force per metre length of external wall (kN/m) 0.9 1.22 for the fixing of the top of bracing walls. where applicable. multiply the above values by 1.4 2400 2.0 9. For 3000 mm high external walls.58 0. or the relevant details given in Table 8.6 5.1 1.91.3 2.29 and Table 9. TABLE 9.8 2. multiply the above values by 0.0 3.1 4.6 2. Where lateral restraint for these walls is not provided by the usual means using binders.5.0 Shear resistance required (kN) Connections spacing along the wall (mm) 450 0.0 For 2400 mm high external walls.3.2—2006 216 9.85 1.6 1800 1.8 3.94 1.2 1.9 6. NOTE: Lateral restraint in accordance with this Clause is not required where bracing walls are connected to the ceiling or roof framing in accordance with Clause 8.8 900 0.

8 Additional capacity per block 2 nails per block To increase lateral resistance.0 7.5 1.2 4.6 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] www.0 3.90 0.5 3.0 5.0 2. extra blocking pieces may be installed between ceiling battens on both sides of the top plate and fixed as per table 2.0 3.5 2.5 1.7 1.0 5.9 2.8 1.2—2006 TABLE 9.7 2.standards.30 SHEAR SUPPORT FOR EXTERNAL NON-LOADBEARING WALLS Shear connection of external Non-loadbearing walls J2 Shear capacity (kN) Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber J3 J4 JD4 JD5 JD6 Capacity per batten fixing Truss bottom chord or ceiling joist Gap between top plate and truss 1 nail per batten 1 screw per batten 1.7 External wall Ceiling battens both sides of the top plate fixed as per table Truss bottom chord or ceiling joist 5.5 1.3 0.5 3.8 1.org.5 2.6 2.5 2.1 3 nails per block 4 nails per block 1 screw per block 3.6 3.au  Standards Australia .3 1.5 1.7 2.75 0.56 4.64 0.5 2.3 1.8 2 screws Spacing between nails in blocking shall be greater than 60 mm per block 9.6 7.5 3.8 3.217 AS 1684.90 0.8 3.

New Zealand and imported species A2 RELATED DOCUMENTS Attention is drawn to the following related documents: ABCB Building Code of Australia—Housing Provision FWPRDC NTDC MRTFC—Multi-residential Timber Framed Construction Manuals NTDC Guide Notes on the Use of the AS 1684 series.au PAA LP91 Low profile plywood floor system Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED]  Standards Australia www.org.au .org.standards.AS 1684.2—2006 218 APPENDIX A INFORMATIVE AND RELATED DOCUMENTS (Informative) A1 INFORMATIVE DOCUMENTS The following documents are referred to in this Standard for informative purposes: AS 2878 3600 AS/NZS 1148 Timber—Classification into strength groups Concrete structures Timber—Nomenclature—Australian. www.timber.

Paragraph B2 provides examples of the determination of roof masses. TABLE B1. roofing and ceiling battens.2—2006 APPENDIX B TYPICAL CONSTRUCTION MASS (Informative) B1 MASS OF ROOF MATERIALS Tables B1. sarking and lightweight insulation Steel sheet roofing 0. 19 mm hardwood ceiling lining.50 mm thick and battens Metal sheet tiles or medium gauge steel sheet roofing. battens. sarking and lightweight insulation Steel sheet roofing 0. roof and ceiling battens.au  Standards Australia . 13 mm plaster ceiling.2 may be used to determine the mass of roof and ceiling components with respect to the use of relevant Span Tables given in the Supplements.219 AS 1684. www.75 mm thick. sarking and insulation Terracotta or concrete tiles. 10 mm plasterboard. 12 mm softwood ceiling lining. sarking and insulation * The mass of the member being considered has been included in the calculations for the Span Tables in the Supplements. graded purlins and high density fibreboard ceiling lining Terracotta or concrete tiles and battens Terracotta or concrete tiles.1 and B1. battens. roofing and ceiling battens.1 MASS OF TYPICAL ROOF CONSTRUCTIONS Mass of roof* kg/m² 10 20 30† 40 60 75† 90 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Material Steel sheet roofing 0. † Interpolation within tables is required (see Section 1).75 mm thick.standards.org. purlins.

5 mm 50 mm low density 50 mm high density 4.5 10.0 2.5 10.2 GUIDE FOR DETERMINATION OF TYPICAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION MASS Material examples Roofing Steel sheet Aluminium sheet Tiles —0.0 mm 1.0 12.5 2.0 7.org.0 10.0 3.0 4.au .0 58.AS 1684.0 2.0 5.5 10.0 2.0 54.0 5.2 mm —Terracotta —Concrete —Metal sheet 5.5 mm 6.0 6.2—2006 220 TABLE B1.8 mm 5.0 20.0 6.0 2.5 19.5 Seasoned hardwood Seasoned softwood 35 × 42 at 900 mm spacing 90 × 35 at 600 mm spacing 32 90 38 38 × × × × 32 35 50 50 at at at at 330 900 450 600 mm mm mm mm spacing spacing spacing spacing Unseasoned softwood Boards and lining 150 × 38 at 900 mm spacing 200 × 50 at 1000 mm spacing Tongued and grooved lining boards/decking Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 12 19 35 12 19 mm mm mm mm mm softwood softwood softwood hardwood hardwood 6.0 4.0 12.75 mm —1.3 4.0 7.5 1.0 to 16.0 to 10.0 9.0 7.0 Plywood Plasterboard Hardboard Fibreboard Fibre cement sheet Insulation Lightweight insulation plus sarking 12 mm softwood 8 mm hardwood 10 mm 13 mm 4.standards.0  Standards Australia www.0 8.0 3.5 Approximate mass/unit area (kg/m 2 ) Battens or purlins Unseasoned hardwood 100 100 50 38 38 38 × × × × × × 38 50 25 50 50 75 at at at at at at 600 450 330 600 900 900 mm mm mm mm mm mm spacing spacing spacing spacing spacing spacing 7.50 mm —0.5 5.0 5.

www.0 Say 0. TABLE B2.2 (half value for 100 × 38 mm) Table B1.5 Source of information No input required Table B1. a mass of 75 kg/m² would be appropriate.5 Source of information Table B1.2—2006 B2 EXAMPLES The following examples provide guidance on the determination of roof mass: (a) Example 1 Determine the mass of roof input for a rafter supporting concrete tiles on 50 × 25 mm unseasoned hardwood battens (330 mm centres).1. TABLE B2.standards.5 7. using Table B1. 0. 13 mm plaster ceiling lining with 50 × 38 mm unseasoned hardwood ceiling battens at 600 mm centres. The masses are listed in Table B2. using Table B1.1 MASSES FOR EXAMPLE 1 Material Concrete tiles Tile battens Plaster ceiling Ceiling battens Sarking and insulation Total Mass (kg/m 2 ) 54.org.2 Adopt 10 kg/m 2 NOTE: Similarly.2 Table B1.5 1.2 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] MASSES FOR EXAMPLE 2 Material Rafters Battens Sheet roofing Sarking Total Mass (kg/m 2 ) — 2. a mass of 10 kg/m² would be appropriate.1.53 mm sheet roofing and reflective foil (RFL).2 Adopt 75 kg/m 2 NOTE: Similarly.1.0 10. (b) Example 2 Determine the mass of roof input for an underpurlin supporting unseasoned hardwood rafters with 35 × 90 mm seasoned softwood battens at 900 mm centres.2 Table B1.au  Standards Australia .0 72.0 3.2 Manufacturer’s specification Table B1.221 AS 1684.0 5. sarking (RFL) and bulk insulation. The masses are listed in Table B2.2 Table B1.2.0 4.

au . dryer.org.) or the lower risk of insect attack or the careful detailing of joints and application and maintenance of protective coatings may be such that a lower durability to that listed in Figure C1 could be used. In some situations.standards. FIGURE C1 SPECIES SELECTION FOR DURABILITY  Standards Australia www. the climatic conditions (colder. which could cause decay. etc. For specific guidance refer to Paragraph C7.2—2006 222 APPENDIX C DURABILITY (Informative) C1 DURABILITY Timber used for house construction should have the level of durability appropriate for the relevant climate and expected service life and conditions.AS 1684. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] NOTES: 1 2 External timbers are regarded as protected if they are covered by a roof projection (or similar) at 30° to the vertical and they are well detailed and maintained (painted or stained and kept well ventilated). Framing in extremely damp or unventilated locations should have the durability required for external above-ground situations. that is exposure to insect attack or to moisture. Figure C1 gives general guidance on the natural durability class or appropriate level of preservative treatment (hazard level) required to give an acceptable service life for various applications.

au  Standards Australia . landing steps. framing and decking Fence posts. TABLE C1 HAZARD CLASS SELECTION GUIDE Hazard class Exposure Specific service conditions Completely protected from the weather and well ventilated. house stumps. jetty cross-bracing. pergolas (above ground). flooring. sapwood can generally be treated with preservatives to increase its durability. Nil leaching Subject to periodic moderate wetting and leaching Subject to severe wetting and leaching Subject to extreme wetting and leaching and/or where the critical use requires a higher degree of protection Subject to prolonged immersion in sea water Biological hazard Typical uses H1 Inside. above ground Lyctid borers Susceptible framing. However. cooling tower fill Boat hulls.org. above ground Inside. piling. pergolas (in ground) and landscaping timbers Retaining walls. This number refers to the level of exposure (H1 for low hazards and H6 for high hazards) to service conditions and possible hazards particularly with respect to preservative treatment required (see to Table C1). garden wall less than 1 m high. in-ground contact with or in fresh water Marine waters H5 H6 NOTES: 1 2 3 Examples shown in this table are not exhaustive. Species are given an inground durability rating from class 1 (the most durable) through to class 4 (the least durable). Reference should be made to AS 1604.1. It is recommended that specifiers nominate the minimum hazard class level appropriate to the specific exposure and service conditions. borers and termites Marine wood borers and decay H3 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] H4 Outside. window joinery. The sapwood of all species is not durable (regarded as durability class 4). and similar H2 Borers and termites Moderate decay. building poles.1. Untreated sapwood should be protected from weather exposure and the ingress of moisture. interior joinery Framing. greenhouses. and a separate above-ground durability rating from class 1 (the most durable) through to class 4 (the least durable). and protected from termites Protected from wetting. www. furniture. fascia. and similar.223 AS 1684. marine piles. borers and termites Severe decay. used in dry situations Weatherboard. NOTE: See Appendix H for timber species durability ratings. The attention of specifiers and users of treated timber in a marine situation is especially drawn to the Section for hazard class 6 in AS 1604. borers and termites Very severe decay. C3 HAZARD LEVEL The level of exposure to insects or decay is classified by a hazard level and is given an H-number.standards. flooring. in-ground Outside. above ground Outside.2—2006 C2 NATURAL DURABILITY The heartwood of timber has natural durability characteristics.

Plantation softwoods contain a wide band of sapwood. C5 WEATHERING All timber should be protected against the weathering process by the application and proper maintenance of coatings such as paints. C6 SERVICE LIFE The service life of timber can be improved by reducing exposure to hazards. Building Timbers.g. Timber—Design for durability. 1. For detailed information on designing for durability refer to the following: (a) (b) National Association of Forest Industries. therefore. roof spaces and wall cavities should be ventilated (see Clause 3.3). Timber should be isolated from potential moisture sources (e. increase durability. The requirements of these Acts may be more stringent than those of the grading standards. water-repellent preservatives. stains. which protect it from fungal decay and insects. NOTE: Appendix I gives guidelines on the storage and handling of timber products. October 1991. Timber Datafile P4.org. DPI. screens. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Subfloor areas..2—2006 224 C4 PRESERVATIVE TREATMENT Preservative treatment of timber involves the introduction of chemicals into the cellular structure. External timber should be shielded from weather. Cypress sapwood cannot be effectively treated.standards. fascias and barges (see Figure C2).AS 1684. using roof overhangs. which can readily accept preservatives and. Queensland Forest Service. cost of failure and initial and ongoing maintenance costs) versus the hazards or natural environment conditions that have to be addressed in conjunction with the materials resistance to these. concrete and masonry). Attention is drawn to the consumer protection provisions of the Queensland Timber Utilisation and Marketing Act and the New South Wales Timber Marketing Act regarding the sale and use in those States of timber containing Lyctid-susceptible sapwood and which may limit Lyctid-Susceptible sapwood. Hardwood heartwood cannot be effectively treated and. Technical Pamphlet No. capping and flashing.  Standards Australia www. its natural durability cannot be increased. contact with ground. and the like. C7 SPECIFIC DURABILITY DESIGN Design for durability requires knowledge of the performance requirements of a particular application (structural reliability. Clear finishes may provide limited protection against weathering. causing aesthetic rather than structural problems. Hardwoods have a relatively narrow band of treatable sapwood. August 1989.au . therefore. as many finishes deteriorate when exposed to sunlight. Weathering is essentially a surface effect (not decay).

225 AS 1684.org.au .2—2006 (a) Screens and pergolas (reduce exposure and allow air circulation) (b) Above-ground posts (isolation from moisture and termites) (c) Flashings or DPC (isolation from moisture) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] (d) Beam capping (protecting horizontal surface and joints) (e) Protecting end grain Beams bevelled Posts sloped Joints lapped (not halved) (f) Reducing end grain exposure (g) Fascias and bargeboards (protecting end grain) FIGURE C2 IMPROVING DURABILITY  Standards Australia www.standards.

roof masses. spans.standards. intermediate to those listed. direct linear interpolation shall be permitted to obtain table values for spacings. D2 EXAMPLE Interpolate to obtain the permissible span and overhang for a rafter at a spacing of 600 mm.AS 1684.2—2006 226 APPENDIX D INTERPOLATION (Normative) D1 INTERPOLATION Throughout this Standard. stud heights. roof load width (RLW). and the like.au .org. 2 for a roof mass of 80 kg/m using MGP 10 seasoned pine (see Table D1). including the Span Tables in the Supplements. TABLE D1 RAFTERS—INTERPOLATION Beam size depth × breadth (mm) 140×35 Rafter spacing (mm) Mass of roof (kg/m 2 ) Span 10 20 40 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 450 600 900 1200 Maximum rafter span and overhang (mm) Overhang 1200 1200 1200 1200 Span 5000 4200 3400 3000 2730 2900 1100 2600 Overhang 1150 1150 1050 1000 930 900 2300 750 2100 650 Span 4300 3700 3000 2600 Overhang 900 900 850 800 Span 3800 3400 2700 2400 Overhang 800 800 750 700 5300 4500 3700 3300 60 80 90 The interpolation shall be as follows: Span required = 90 − 80 × (3000 − 2600) + 2600 = 2730 90 − 60 90 − 80 × (1000 − 900) + 900 = 930 90 − 60 Overhang =  Standards Australia www.

............5 =.9 kN...........................org.................... 9 × 0.......4 = 4..........5 = 4.......4............5 Q = 14..... www... Walls ..........6.....7 + 0....... Upper floor ..5 kN.......... (f) E2 EVEN DISTRIBUTION OF BRACING Figure E1 provides examples of how the strength of bracing should be approximately evenly distributed in proportion to the racking forces that occur on the house.........au  Standards Australia ...............................7 kN........ 9 m 2.....................................................7 + 9 = ......... The area of footing required................................................ 5 × 0..............6): A = P/180 = 23........................... 14....................................standards.............2—2006 APPENDIX E EXAMPLES (Informative) E1 FOUNDATION BEARING AREA Calculate the bearing area required for a stump supporting the following roof and floor areas for a Class M site. 5 m 2...... (e) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] (iii) Lower floor .........................................227 AS 1684............. Supported areas are as follows: (i) (ii) Area of tile roof supported .........9 = 4........6................. 410 mm diameter..5 kN....6....... (iii) Area of lower floor supported ...........5 × 18 = 14........................ A (m 2) is determined as follows (Clause 3.......5): P = G + 0.... (c) Total permanent loads (G) are determined as follows (see Clause 3..3 = 0.... Assume a two-storey house with the following criteria: (a) (b) The allowable bearing capacity determined from a geotechnical investigation of the site has been determined as 180 kPa..7/180 = 0..8 kN. (iv) (v) (d) Floor live load (Q) is determined as follows (see Clause 3............ 3 × 0............6. Permanent loads G.............................................. 3 m 2........ (9 + 3) × 0..... relevant to the area of elevation..0 kN.........2): (i) (ii) Roof ........................... Area of upper floor supported ............... 18........... Q (upper and lower floors)= (9 + 3) × 1.............4.3): The total load combination (P) is determined as follows (see Clause 3.. 23.....................13 m 2 .......7 kN..........

1 Example 1 Floor joists are spaced at 450 mm centres.6 = 3. JD4.95 × 3.42/4 = 0.AS 1684.au . The shear force is calculated as follows: Shear force = 0.org. FIGURE E1 EXAMPLE OF EVEN DISTRIBUTION OF BRACING E3 SHEAR FORCE Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] E3.  Standards Australia www. see Table 9.27).standards. The projected area of eaves up to 1000 mm wide may be ignored in the calculation of area of elevation. the shear force per joist connection is calculated as follows: Shear force = 3.05 dia. skew nails (1. in wind classification N4 area (see Figure E2).1kN capacity.2—2006 228 NOTES: 1 2 The sections of the house have been separated to illustrate the distribution required.86 (kN per joist connection) Need 2/3.42 (kN per joist) For joists connected to 4 rows of bearers.

standards.org.2—2006 E3.5 (kN per row of stumps) For bearers connected to 3 rows of stumps. the shear force per bearer connection is calculated as follows: Shear force = 31.au  Standards Australia .0 × 6. The shear force is calculated as follows: Shear force = 5.229 AS 1684.6 m FIGURE E2 SHEAR FORCE—EXAMPLE 1 FIGURE E3 SHEAR FORCE—EXAMPLE 2 www.5 (kN per bearer connection) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Projected height 3.3 m = 31.2 Example 2—Bearers to stumps Bearer spans 3600 mm. in wind classification N3 area (see Figure E3).5/3 = 10.

Milled products (flooring.au  Standards Australia . etc. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] See Paragraph F3 for guidance on the use of unseasoned timber and Appendix H for shrinkage rates of various timber species. Materials with different shrinkage characteristics are combined. joinery. Unseasoned timber is used in conjunction with seasoned timber or other non-timber products. In multi-residential timber-framed fire-rated construction. Structural timber may be either seasoned (moisture content 15% or lower) or unseasoned (moisture content greater than 15%). With the use of unseasoned timber.standards. At this point. Openings occur in external brick veneer. www. green or unseasoned timber will release moisture until it stabilizes at the EMC of the surrounding atmosphere.AS 1684. F2 DIMENSIONAL STABILITY Allowance should be made for timber movement.org.) should be seasoned. Wet. moisture content of the timber will only change (increase or decrease) if there is a change in the surrounding atmospheric humidity or temperature. In multistorey construction.2—2006 230 APPENDIX F MOISTURE CONTENT AND SHRINKAGE (Informative) F1 MOISTURE CONTENT Timber should have a moisture content appropriate to its use. TABLE F1 MOISTURE CONTENT OF FLOORING Climatic zone Coastal (Zone 3) Inland (Zones 1 and 2) Airconditioned Average indoor EMC Seasonal EMC range (%) (%) 12 9 9 10 to 15 7 to 12 7 to 12 Recommended average moisture content at installation 12 9 9 NOTE: For a map of climate zones. refer to the subfloor ventilation requirements in the Building Code of Australia. shrinkage can be expected to occur as the wood moisture content reduces. Table F1 lists the equilibrium moisture contents (EMC) likely to be encountered. Timber flooring should be installed at an average moisture content appropriate to the average internal equilibrium moisture content for the location. F3 ALLOWANCE FOR SHRINKAGE Allowance should be made for the effects of shrinkage where any one of the following conditions applies: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Unseasoned members are used.

Bolt holes in unseasoned timber should be 15% greater in diameter than the bolt diameter.2 16 Seasoned timber 0 0 0 0 Top plates Lintel (see Note 2) Bottom plate Floor joist NOTES: 1 2 2 at 35 1 at 250 2 at 45 1 at 200 The shrinkage values determined above are based on typical values for softwood of 4. Although this shrinkage can be regarded as insignificant in terms of the structural performance of timber framing members.231 AS 1684. Lintel shrinkage will be local to the position of the lintel and may not be reflected in total shrinkage for the full height of the building.standards. due consideration of the secondary effects of shrinkage (movement. and the like) is necessary.au  Standards Australia . Typical shrinkage rates are shown in Table F2. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] www. TABLE F2 TYPICAL SHRINKAGE RATES Typical shrinkage (see Note 1).6 8 Unseasoned hardwood 5. windowsill and floor framing (see Figure F1).2—2006 Clearance should be provided at lintels.0% and typical values for hardwood of 8%.6 20 7. Bolts that restrain timber across the grain should be avoided.org.8 10 3. moisture penetration. Unseasoned timber can be expected to shrink as its moisture content reduces. mm Member Depth (mm) Unseasoned softwood 2. eaves lining in brick veneer construction.

org. D D Seasoned beam Unseasoned purlins Unseasoned floor joists Steel bearers (e) Allowance for different shrinkage of unseasoned and seasoned members (f) Allowance for shrinkage of unseasoned timber in combined steel and timber construction FIGURE F1 ALLOWANCE FOR SHRINKAGE  Standards Australia www.AS 1684.standards. D /10 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Cleat Gap = D /10 min.2—2006 232 (a) Brick veneer to be kept clear of unseasoned framing (b) Clearance at door and window heads (c) Using material with different shrinkage characteristics cause uneven floors.au . etc. (d) Clearance at concrete patio Min.

For skillion roofs. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] www.3. see Section 8. Tables G1(A) to B2.standards.1 is permitted.1 for wind classifications N1 to N4 respectively may be used as an alternative to the racking forces derived from Clause 8. Interpolation of the values given in Tables G1(A) to B2.2—2006 APPENDIX G RACKING FORCESALTERNATIVE PROCEDURE (Normative) Racking forces determined from Tables G1(A) to B2.3 for hip or gable roofs only.au  Standards Australia .233 AS 1684. All the other provisions of Section 8 shall apply for the use of the racking forces determined from this Appendix.1 are only applicable to a maximum wall height of 2700 mm.org. For wall heights exceeding 2700 mm up to 3000 mm. the forces shall be increased by 15 %.

1800 mm off ground)  Standards Australia www.6 10 12 14 9. 1000 mm off ground) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Subfloor of single storey (max.7 11 14 18 21 9.3 11 14 19 23 29 10 16 22 29 36 44 52 11 17 24 31 39 47 56 13 20 27 35 43 52 62 18 28 38 49 60 72 84 19 29 40 51 63 75 88 25 4. 1800 mm off ground) Lower storey of two storeys or highset Subfloor of two storeys or highset (max.2 14 20 26 34 42 11 18 26 34 44 55 66 12 19 28 37 47 58 71 13 22 31 41 52 63 76 19 30 42 54 68 83 98 20 31 44 57 71 86 102 Single or upper storey Subfloor of single storey (max.1 6.4 7.9 6.au .AS 1684.9 12 16 21 27 33 10 16 23 31 39 47 56 11 18 25 33 42 51 61 13 20 28 37 46 56 66 18 28 39 51 62 75 88 19 30 41 53 66 79 93 30 4.1 14 18 23 27 32 36 10 15 20 25 31 36 41 12 17 23 29 35 41 46 17 26 34 43 51 60 68 18 27 36 45 54 64 73 5 3.standards.5 13 18 24 30 37 11 17 24 32 41 51 61 12 19 26 35 44 54 65 13 21 29 39 49 59 71 19 29 40 52 65 79 93 20 31 42 55 68 82 97 35 5.3 14 19 24 29 35 40 10 16 21 27 33 38 44 12 18 24 30 37 43 50 17 26 35 44 53 63 72 18 28 37 47 57 66 76 10 3. 1000 mm off ground) Subfloor of two storeys or highset (max.2 6.4 5.8 10 12 15 17 9.2—2006 234 TABLE G1(A) WIND CLASSIFICATION N1— WIND FORCE (kN) TO BE RESISTED BY GABLE ENDS Wind direction Wind direction Level of applied racking force Building width (m) 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Wind force to be resisted by gable ends (kN) Roof slope (degrees) 0 3.org.6 7.9 8.9 8.7 5.6 13 17 20 25 9.8 15 21 27 34 41 48 11 17 23 30 37 44 52 12 19 26 33 41 49 58 18 27 37 47 58 69 80 19 29 39 50 61 72 84 20 4.2 9.2 8.6 15 20 26 32 38 44 11 16 22 28 35 41 48 12 18 25 32 39 46 54 18 27 36 46 56 66 76 19 28 38 48 59 69 80 15 4.7 7.7 9.

2 14 19 24 30 35 41 10 15 21 26 32 38 45 12 18 24 30 36 43 17 26 35 43 52 61 71 18 27 37 46 55 65 75 20 4. 1800 mm off ground) Lower storey of two storeys or highset Subfloor of two storeys or highset (max.2—2006 TABLE G1(B) WIND CLASSIFICATION N1— WIND FORCE (kN) TO BE RESISTED BY HIP ENDS W id th Wind direction W id th Wind direction Level of applied racking force Building width (m) 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Wind force to be resisted by hip ends (kN) Roof slope (degrees) 0 3.4 7.4 7.standards.6 5.8 12 16 21 27 33 10 16 22 30 37 46 55 11 18 24 32 40 49 59 13 20 27 35 44 54 18 28 38 49 61 72 85 19 30 40 52 64 76 89 35 4.0 11 13 14 9.0 11 13 14 9. 1000 mm off ground) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Subfloor of single storey (max.2 9.9 8.1 14 18 23 27 32 36 10 15 20 25 31 36 41 12 17 23 29 35 41 17 26 34 43 51 60 68 18 27 36 45 54 64 73 5 3.5 7.6 13 17 21 25 9.6 5.6 9.235 AS 1684.7 5.6 5.1 14 18 23 27 32 36 10 15 20 25 31 36 41 12 17 23 29 35 41 17 26 34 43 51 60 68 18 27 36 45 54 64 73 10 3.7 8.4 7.6 13 19 25 32 39 10 17 24 32 41 51 61 11 18 26 34 44 54 65 13 20 29 38 47 58 18 28 39 51 64 77 91 19 30 41 54 67 81 95 Single or upper storey Subfloor of single storey (max.4 15 20 26 33 40 47 10 16 22 29 36 43 51 12 18 25 32 39 47 17 26 35 45 55 66 77 18 28 37 48 58 69 81 25 4. 1800 mm off ground) www.1 11 13 16 19 9.0 6.3 11 15 19 24 29 9. 1000 mm off ground) Subfloor of two storeys or highset (max.7 15 22 28 35 43 51 11 17 24 31 38 47 55 12 19 26 34 42 51 18 27 37 47 58 70 82 19 29 39 50 61 73 86 30 4.au  Standards Australia .1 14 18 23 27 32 36 10 15 21 26 31 36 41 12 17 23 29 35 41 17 26 34 43 52 60 69 18 27 36 46 55 64 73 15 3.2 9.org.6 7.0 11 13 14 9.2 9.

7 2.0 5.1 4.1 2.6 4.0 6.2 4.0 3.2 5.8 3.9 3.0 4.9 4.1 3.2 2.1 2.7 3.9 1.5 1.1 4.8 0.3 3.8 2.8 0.6 0.9 2.3 4.0 5.3 2.2 5.4  Standards Australia www.6 2.3 2.1 3.6 4.8 0.4 2.7 2.9 3.3 4.6 2. 1000 mm off ground) Subfloor of two storeys or highset (max.4 2.9 3.3 2.1 2.0 3.1 4.2 0.2 4.7 3.1 2.2 6.2 4.1 2.2—2006 236 TABLE G1(C) WIND CLASSIFICATION N1— WIND FORCE PER UNIT LENGTH (kN/m) TO BE RESISTED AT RIGHT ANGLES TO BUILDING LENGTH (HIP OR GABLE END BUILDINGS) Wind direction W id Level of applied racking force Building width (m) 4 6 8 10 12 14 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Wind Single or upper storey Subfloor of single storey (max.2 th Wind W id direction force to be resisted by building length (kN/m) total force = length (m) × force (kN/m) Roof slope (degrees) 10 15 20 25 30 0.7 3.0 6.4 2.3 2.3 4.5 3.7 2.5 0.2 1.2 5.9 2.9 3.1 2.2 4.0 4.2 4.2 4.9 5.7 2.5 3.1 3.8 0.4 2.1 2.3 2.3 2.8 2.1 2.2 4.6 2.7 2.6 4.6 7.1 4.8 3.2 4.4 5.4 5.3 2.7 6.0 4.8 2.2 2.9 5.6 3.6 3.5 2.1 4.9 4.6 th 35 1.4 3.2 4.3 2.7 6.9 3.2 5 0. 1800 mm off ground) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Lower storey of two storeys or highset Subfloor of two storeys or highset (max.9 3.8 3.2 4.9 4.8 4.3 6.2 2.6 3.3 1.8 1.0 3.4 5.2 4.3 5.8 2.7 2.1 2.7 3.3 2.5 1.9 3.9 3.8 2.4 4.2 1.1 4.7 2.9 3.AS 1684.2 1.7 5.0 1.1 4.7 3.7 3.0 4.9 3.6 3.au .7 2.4 2.3 2.7 2.7 2.8 0.3 2.7 2.0 6.8 1.9 2.2 5.5 2.9 3.standards.2 3.6 5.9 4.3 5.9 0.7 2.4 4.1 2.7 2.7 2.8 0.7 2.7 2.2 4.5 5.1 3.8 5.4 2.8 0.9 3.0 4.3 2.1 2.0 4.8 4.0 2.0 3.8 1.3 2.1 2.9 3.6 4.9 4.3 4.3 2.4 5.2 3.7 2.8 4.3 4. 1800 mm off ground) 0 0.2 4.1 4.1 2.1 2.0 1.5 5.2 6.5 2.9 2.8 4.1 2.9 4.7 2.4 3.1 2.0 7.9 3.9 6.8 0.7 3.4 2.0 4.8 0.2 2.3 2.3 2.1 2.0 2.4 4.7 4.4 0.6 4.2 4.1 1.4 2.4 2.8 6.9 3.9 3.0 5.4 4.6 5.1 2.0 4.8 0.2 5.7 5.2 4.2 4.3 2.4 2.8 5.0 6.3 2.7 2.3 3.2 4.2 3.8 1.2 5.4 2.7 1.5 3.8 0.5 2.4 2.2 4.2 5.8 2.7 2.6 2.6 3.0 4.3 2.9 3.2 2.6 5.8 0.2 4.5 3.6 3.2 6.2 4.9 3.4 5.7 2.8 1.2 4.9 4.9 4.2 4.5 2.0 5.8 2.4 4.2 4.3 4.1 4.1 3.0 4.7 5.1 2. 1000 mm off ground) Subfloor of single storey (max.6 3.3 2.5 5.1 2.4 4.4 5.6 3.8 3.org.3 4.7 3.7 7.1 2.9 3.8 3.6 5.2 2.2 4.1 2.2 3.4 3.9 4.2 3.4 1.1 2.

6 13 20 29 38 49 61 15 25 36 48 61 76 92 17 27 38 51 65 81 98 19 30 42 56 71 88 105 26 41 58 75 94 114 136 28 44 61 79 99 120 142 Single or upper storey Subfloor of single storey (max.9 13 17 21 25 30 13 20 28 36 44 52 61 15 23 31 39 48 57 67 17 26 35 44 54 64 75 24 37 50 63 77 91 105 26 39 53 67 81 96 111 15 6.1 12 18 26 34 43 54 15 24 34 45 57 70 84 16 26 37 49 61 75 90 18 29 41 53 67 82 98 26 40 56 72 90 109 129 27 43 59 76 95 114 135 35 7.3 8.7 14 19 24 30 36 14 21 29 38 47 56 66 15 23 32 41 51 61 72 17 26 36 46 57 68 80 25 38 51 65 80 95 110 26 40 54 69 84 100 116 20 6.org.0 7. 1000 mm off ground) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Subfloor of single storey (max. 1800 mm off ground) Lower storey of two storeys or highset Subfloor of two storeys or highset (max.2 11 14 18 21 25 13 20 27 34 41 48 56 14 22 29 37 45 53 61 16 25 33 42 51 60 69 24 36 49 61 74 87 100 25 38 52 65 78 92 106 10 5.237 AS 1684.standards.au  Standards Australia .6 8.2—2006 TABLE G2(A) WIND CLASSIFICATION N2— WIND FORCE (kN) TO BE RESISTED BY GABLE ENDS Wind direction Wind direction Level of applied racking force Building width (m) 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Wind force to be resisted by gable ends (kN) Roof slope (degrees) 0 5.5 10 12 15 17 20 13 19 25 32 38 44 50 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 24 36 47 59 71 83 95 25 38 50 63 75 88 101 5 5.0 9. 1000 mm off ground) Subfloor of two storeys or highset (max. 1800 mm off ground) www.7 11 17 23 30 38 47 14 23 32 42 53 65 78 16 25 35 46 58 70 84 18 28 39 51 64 77 92 25 39 54 70 86 104 122 27 42 57 74 91 109 128 30 7.3 10 15 21 27 34 41 14 22 31 40 50 61 72 15 24 34 44 54 66 78 17 27 37 48 60 73 86 25 39 53 68 83 99 116 26 41 56 71 87 104 122 25 6.

org.AS 1684.2—2006 238 TABLE G2(B) WIND CLASSIFICATION N2—WIND FORCE TO BE RESISTED BY HIP ENDS W id th Wind direction W id th Wind direction Wind force to be resisted by hip ends (kN) Level of applied racking force Building width (m) 0 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 5.0 7. 1000 mm off ground) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Subfloor of single storey (max.standards.5 10 12 15 17 20 13 19 25 32 38 44 50 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 24 36 47 59 71 83 95 25 38 50 63 75 88 101 10 5.8 12 18 26 34 44 54 14 23 33 44 57 70 85 16 25 36 47 60 75 90 18 28 39 52 66 81 97 25 39 54 71 88 107 127 27 42 57 74 92 111 132 Single or upper storey Subfloor of single storey (max.0 7.0 7.0 10 15 20 27 33 41 13 21 30 39 49 60 71 15 23 33 42 53 64 77 17 26 36 47 59 71 84 25 37 51 66 81 97 114 26 40 54 69 85 102 119 30 6.5 9.9 11 15 19 22 26 13 19 26 33 41 49 57 14 21 29 36 45 53 62 16 24 33 41 50 59 69 24 36 48 60 72 85 98 25 38 51 64 77 90 103 20 5.6 10 12 15 17 20 13 19 25 32 38 44 50 14 21 28 36 43 50 56 16 24 32 40 49 57 65 24 36 48 60 71 83 95 25 38 50 63 76 89 101 Roof slope (degrees) 15 5.1 13 18 23 28 34 13 20 28 36 45 55 65 14 22 31 40 49 59 70 16 25 34 44 54 65 77 24 36 49 63 77 91 106 25 38 52 66 81 96 112 25 6.5 10 12 15 17 20 13 19 25 32 38 44 50 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 24 36 47 59 71 83 95 25 38 50 63 75 88 101 5 5.4 11 16 22 29 37 45 14 22 31 41 52 63 76 16 24 34 44 56 68 81 17 27 38 49 61 74 88 25 39 53 68 84 100 118 27 41 56 72 88 105 123 35 6. 1000 mm off ground) Subfloor of two storeys or highset (max.au . 1800 mm off ground) Lower storey of two storeys or highset Subfloor of two storeys or highset (max. 1800 mm off ground)  Standards Australia www.1 7.

1 3.9 3.1 1.7 3.9 8.1 2.3 8.6 7.1 6.1 3.6 7.1 5.8 5.8 4.2 1.5 5.4 3.1 1.2 3.2 3.9 8.2 3.9 6.9 6.8 5.4 7.2 7.1 7.6 9.7 3.7 3.2 3.0 2.9 7.1 8.2 5.8 3.5 5.7 3.4 5.0 6.2 3.6 5.4 5.6 5.7 4.9 3.2 3.2 2.3 6.4 6.0 8.3 9.1 9.1 5.9 2.4 5.7 6.0 5.9 6.9 3.4 5.4 7.0 5.9 4.8 6.7 3.7 5.2 8.4 5.8 5.2 7.8 1.7 6.8 5.9 6.9 8.9 2.7 3.3 4.0 4.1 1.0 4.0 5.8 2.5 5.4 5.6 3.8 5.2 3.9 3.0 4.3 4.9 2.5 4.3 3.3 3.9 2.9 3.8 5.2 3.1 2.8 6.1 1.9 2.4 5.2 1.2 1.6 3.8 2.4 6.9 3.7 3.8 4.1 1.4 5.1 1.0 5.1 7.9 3.6 2.5 2.9 2.6 6.6 4.9 5.9 6.6 4.0 6.9 3.8 4.4 4.4 3. 1000 mm off ground) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Subfloor of single storey (max.1 5. 1800 mm off ground) Lower storey of two storeys or highset Subfloor of two storeys or highset (max.1 th 35 2.0 6.1 1.8 5.7 5.1 7.7 4.7 3.1 2.8 5.4 5.1 5.7 5.8 5.7 5.5 8.7 6.9 3.0 4.8 5 1.8 5.7 3.4 5.1 1.8 5.2 3.2 3.6 10 www.3 1.0 1. 1000 mm off ground) Subfloor of two storeys or highset (max.4 5.4 4.7 6.9 6.0 5.6 7.8 5.3 5.7 4.7 6.3 5.1 1.3 6.5 4.9 2.7 3.2 7.2 3.8 5.5 5.8 5.0 3.2 1.4 2.4 4.2 8.1 7.0 6.8 7.4 5.2 3.2 3.9 2.9 3.3 3.5 5.6 4.8 6.3 3.3 5.5 5.8 3.6 8.4 5.4 5.9 2.9 2.1 2.7 3.9 6.6 8.5 4.1 1.6 3.5 2.8 5.2 3.7 3.9 8.8 5.2 3.5 5.9 5.4 5.4 5.1 1.4 5.5 5.4 1.8 6.3 3.2 2.7 6.4 4.2 1.0 2. 1800 mm off ground) 0 1.7 4.1 5.5 2.1 1.8 th Wind W id direction force to be resisted by building length (kN/m) total force = length (m) × force (kN/m) Roof slope (degrees) 10 15 20 25 30 1.2 3.0 4.7 4.1 5.6 2.8 4.1 1.9 2.9 2.3 5.org.standards.8 5.3 3.7 6.3 3.4 5.2 4.3 3.9 2.6 9.9 2.9 2.au  Standards Australia .7 3.7 3.1 6.7 3.8 4.0 5.1 3.2—2006 TABLE G2(C) WIND CLASSIFICATION N2— WIND FORCE PER UNIT LENGTH (kN/m) TO BE RESISTED AT RIGHT ANGLES TO BUILDING LENGTH (HIP OR GABLE END BUILDING) Wind direction W id Level of applied racking force Building width (m) 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Wind Single or upper storey Subfloor of single storey (max.7 5.2 2.7 3.7 4.1 1.7 5.0 6.9 2.6 1.3 6.9 7.5 5.3 3.3 3.7 3.2 3.3 1.5 5.8 3.5 3.5 7.2 7.5 8.6 6.8 5.9 4.9 7.9 7.9 3.7 5.6 4.9 5.7 3.3 3.0 5.0 6.9 7.5 5.7 3.2 3.0 1.5 5.7 3.2 3.239 AS 1684.9 4.3 3.4 5.6 7.8 4.7 5.6 3.7 5.0 2.6 4.7 8.8 9.7 2.4 5.7 7.3 5.1 1.5 4.

1000 mm off ground) Subfloor of two storeys or highset (max.standards.9 16 24 33 42 53 65 22 34 48 62 78 95 112 24 38 52 68 85 103 122 27 42 58 76 94 113 134 39 60 82 106 130 155 181 41 64 87 111 137 163 191 25 10 18 26 36 48 60 74 22 36 50 66 83 102 122 25 39 55 72 90 110 131 28 44 61 79 99 121 143 40 62 85 109 135 162 191 42 65 89 115 142 170 200 30 11 19 29 40 53 68 84 23 37 53 70 89 110 132 25 40 57 76 96 118 141 28 45 63 83 105 128 153 40 63 87 113 141 170 201 43 66 92 119 148 178 210 35 12 21 32 45 60 77 96 24 39 56 74 95 118 143 26 42 60 80 102 126 153 29 47 66 88 111 137 165 41 65 90 118 147 179 212 43 68 95 123 154 187 222 Single or upper storey Subfloor of single storey (max.8 14 20 26 32 40 47 21 32 43 56 68 81 95 23 35 48 61 75 89 104 26 40 54 69 84 100 116 38 58 78 99 120 142 164 40 61 83 105 127 150 173 15 9. 1800 mm off ground) Lower storey of two storeys or highset Subfloor of two storeys or highset (max.AS 1684.2—2006 240 TABLE G3(A) WIND CLASSIFICATION N3— WIND FORCE (kN) TO BE RESISTED BY GABLE ENDS Wind direction Wind direction Level of applied racking force Building width (m) 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Wind force to be resisted by gable ends (kN) Roof slope (degrees) 0 7. 1800 mm off ground)  Standards Australia www.1000 mm off ground) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Subfloor of single storey (max.3 13 18 23 28 33 39 20 31 41 52 64 75 87 23 34 46 58 71 83 96 26 39 52 66 80 94 108 37 57 76 96 115 136 156 40 60 81 101 122 144 165 10 8.org.3 15 22 29 37 46 56 21 33 46 59 73 88 103 24 36 50 65 80 96 113 27 41 56 72 89 107 125 39 59 80 102 125 148 173 41 62 85 108 132 156 182 20 9.au .8 12 16 19 23 27 31 20 30 39 49 59 69 79 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 25 38 50 63 75 88 100 37 55 74 92 111 129 148 39 59 79 98 118 137 157 5 8.

6 14 21 28 36 44 53 20 32 44 57 71 86 101 23 35 48 62 77 93 109 26 39 53 69 85 102 120 38 57 77 98 120 142 166 40 60 81 103 126 150 174 25 9.standards.4 16 23 32 41 52 63 21 33 47 61 77 93 111 23 36 51 66 83 101 120 26 41 57 73 91 111 131 38 58 80 103 126 151 178 41 62 84 108 133 159 186 30 10 17 25 35 46 58 71 22 35 48 64 81 99 119 24 38 53 69 87 106 127 27 43 59 76 95 116 138 39 60 83 106 131 157 185 42 64 87 112 138 165 193 35 11 19 29 40 54 68 85 22 36 52 69 88 110 133 25 39 56 74 95 117 141 28 44 62 81 103 126 152 40 62 85 111 138 167 198 42 65 89 116 144 174 206 Single or upper storey Subfloor of single storey (max.8 12 16 19 23 27 31 20 30 39 49 59 69 79 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 25 38 50 63 75 88 100 37 55 74 92 111 129 148 39 59 79 98 118 137 157 5 7. 1800 mm off ground) Lower storey of two storeys or highset Subfloor of two storeys or highset (max. 1000 mm off ground) Subfloor of two storeys or highset (max. 1800 mm off ground) www.8 12 16 19 23 27 31 20 30 39 49 59 69 79 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 25 38 50 63 75 88 100 37 55 74 92 111 129 148 39 59 79 98 118 137 157 10 7. 1000 mm off ground) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Subfloor of single storey (max.0 12 18 23 29 35 41 20 30 40 52 64 76 89 22 33 45 57 70 83 97 25 38 51 64 78 93 108 37 56 75 94 113 133 154 39 59 79 99 120 140 162 20 8.241 AS 1684.org.au  Standards Australia .9 12 16 19 23 27 31 20 30 40 50 59 69 79 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 25 38 50 63 76 88 101 37 56 74 93 112 130 149 39 59 79 99 119 139 158 Roof slope (degrees) 15 8.2—2006 TABLE G3(B) WIND CLASSIFICATION N3—WIND FORCE TO BE RESISTED BY HIP ENDS W id th Wind direction W id th Wind direction Wind force to be resisted by hip ends (kN) Level of applied racking force Building width (m) 0 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 7.

7 5.5 8.6 6.3 10 12 13 9.2 10 12 13 9.0 5.0 5.0 5.2 7.8 8.0 9.8 8.0 1.0 9.7 9.8 1.8 4.4 9.3 3.5 4.2 10 11 8.6 5.3 5.8 11 12 6.1 9.8 5.org.1 5.5 10 5.3 9.0 9.1 9.7 8.8 2.9 9.5 8.2 7.8 1.0 6. 1800 mm off ground) 0 1.4 11 13 14 9.5 4.7 5.6 9.6 4.8 3.8 1.9 8.4 7.8 9.1 5.2 11 13 14 9.7 9.4 10 5. 1000 mm off ground) Subfloor of two storeys or highset (max.8 2.7 7.0 9.4 5.3 9.6 8.6 4.1 9.7 5.2 4. 1000 mm off ground) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Subfloor of single storey (max.6 1.1 9.8 7.5 8.5 8.3 1.6 8.9 6.0 5.0 7.7 5.4 4.3 1.8 8.7 7.2—2006 242 TABLE G3(C) WIND CLASSIFICATION N3— WIND FORCE PER UNIT LENGTH (kN/m) TO BE RESISTED AT RIGHT ANGLES TO BUILDING LENGTH (HIP OR GABLE END BUILDINGS) Wind direction W id Level of applied racking force Building width (m) 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Wind Single or upper storey Subfloor of single storey (max.8 5.5 9.0 9.5 3.2 6.9 4.5 8.8 2.5 8.3 6.5 8.5 5.8 6.7 5.7 5.standards.2 6.7 9.7 8.8 6.8 1.9 8.3 7.5 6.0 5.au .9 5.0 7.9 12 13 8.0 9.8 2.4 11 11 9.4 6.8 4.0 4.4 7.6 8.8 5.0 5.1 1.9 10 12 13 8.2 7.3 6.7 5.5 8.5 4.0 5 1.2 7.5 4.9 10 11 8.9 5.1 7.7 1.3 9.2 6.6 6.7 5.9 5.5 4.2 9.6 6.0 9.2 2.5 5.1 9.8 6.6 4.0 5.7 6.1 10 11 12 13 11 11 12 13 14 15 15 11 12 13 13 14 15 16  Standards Australia www.0 9.0 5.6 8.0 6.8 1.3 8.5 8.8 1.5 8.7 6.0 7.5 11 12 8.8 4.0 5.5 4.0 5.8 1.9 7.5 4.3 6.8 9.5 4.7 5.5 4.6 6.2 4.9 7. 1800 mm off ground) Lower storey of two storeys or highset Subfloor of two storeys or highset (max.1 11 11 8.5 5.6 8.0 th Wind W id direction force to be resisted by building length (kN/m) total force = length (m) × force (kN/m) Roof slope (degrees) 10 15 20 25 30 1.5 4.6 5.0 9.8 1.9 10 8.5 4.1 5.0 8.7 3.0 5.1 9.6 8.1 4.0 9.2 6.3 10 11 12 7.2 5.0 5.AS 1684.8 6.9 2.6 5.8 1.0 6.9 6.1 8.6 4.7 8.0 9.5 8.6 8.3 3.1 5.2 9.5 9.7 5.0 5.3 7.5 9.8 1.1 5.9 4.6 7.6 11 12 9.6 3.1 9.5 5.6 4.6 6.0 9.1 5.5 5.8 5.0 5.8 1.0 9.0 9.0 5.5 4.5 8.8 6.9 4.3 10 11 9.2 5.2 5.1 6.7 5.9 9.0 9.7 5.6 11 13 14 th 35 3.0 7.5 7.8 8.0 2.8 1.0 5.5 8.8 7.3 5.8 2.8 5.4 9.7 5.8 3.3 7.0 5.1 5.7 5.4 9.4 5.6 5.5 8.5 4.7 5.8 1.6 9.5 4.1 3.0 8.5 8.

243 AS 1684. 1000 mm off ground) Subfloor of two storeys or highset (max.au  Standards Australia .2—2006 TABLE G4(A) WIND CLASSIFICATION N4— WIND FORCE (kN) TO BE RESISTED BY GABLE ENDS Wind direction Wind direction Level of applied racking force Building width (m) 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Wind force to be resisted by gable ends (kN) Roof slope (degrees) 0 12 17 23 29 35 41 46 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 33 50 67 84 100 117 134 37 56 75 93 112 131 149 55 83 110 138 165 193 220 58 88 117 146 175 205 234 5 12 19 26 34 41 50 58 31 47 63 80 97 114 132 34 52 70 88 107 126 146 38 58 78 98 119 140 161 56 84 113 142 172 202 232 59 89 120 151 182 214 246 10 13 21 29 38 48 59 70 32 48 66 84 104 124 144 35 54 73 93 114 136 158 39 59 81 103 125 149 173 57 86 116 147 179 211 244 60 91 123 156 189 223 258 15 14 23 32 43 55 69 83 32 50 69 89 111 133 157 36 55 76 98 121 145 170 40 61 84 108 133 159 186 57 88 119 152 186 221 257 61 93 126 161 196 233 271 20 15 24 36 48 63 79 96 33 52 72 95 118 143 170 37 57 79 103 128 155 184 40 63 87 113 140 169 199 58 90 123 157 193 231 270 62 95 129 166 203 243 284 25 16 26 39 54 71 89 110 34 54 76 100 126 154 184 37 59 83 109 136 166 198 41 65 91 118 148 179 213 59 92 126 163 201 242 284 62 97 133 171 211 254 298 30 17 28 43 60 79 101 125 35 56 80 106 135 166 199 38 61 87 115 145 178 213 42 67 94 124 156 191 228 60 94 130 169 210 253 299 63 99 137 177 220 265 313 35 18 31 47 66 89 114 142 36 59 84 113 144 179 216 39 64 91 121 154 191 230 43 69 99 131 166 204 245 61 96 134 175 219 266 316 64 101 141 184 229 278 330 Single or upper storey Subfloor of single storey (max.standards. 1800 mm off ground) www. 1000 mm off ground) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Subfloor of single storey (max. 1800 mm off ground) Lower storey of two storeys or highset Subfloor of two storeys or highset (max.org.

1800 mm off ground)  Standards Australia www.org. 1000 mm off ground) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Subfloor of single storey (max. 1000 mm off ground) Subfloor of two storeys or highset (max.au .standards. 1800 mm off ground) Lower storey of two storeys or highset Subfloor of two storeys or highset (max.AS 1684.2—2006 244 TABLE G4(B) WIND CLASSIFICATION N4—WIND FORCE TO BE RESISTED BY HIP ENDS W id th Wind direction W id th Wind direction Wind force to be resisted by hip ends (kN) Level of applied racking force Building width (m) 0 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 12 17 23 29 35 41 46 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 33 50 67 84 100 117 134 37 56 75 93 112 131 149 55 83 110 138 165 193 220 58 88 117 146 175 205 234 5 12 17 23 29 35 41 46 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 33 50 67 84 100 117 134 37 56 75 93 112 131 149 55 83 110 138 165 193 220 58 88 117 146 175 205 234 10 12 18 23 29 35 41 46 30 45 61 75 90 105 120 34 50 67 84 101 118 134 37 56 75 94 113 131 150 55 83 111 138 166 194 222 59 88 117 147 177 206 236 Roof slope (degrees) 15 12 18 26 35 43 52 62 30 46 62 79 97 116 135 34 51 68 86 106 126 147 37 56 76 95 116 138 161 55 83 111 140 168 197 229 59 88 118 148 178 209 241 20 13 21 31 42 53 66 80 31 48 66 86 107 130 153 34 53 72 94 116 140 165 38 58 80 102 126 152 179 56 84 114 145 178 212 247 59 89 120 153 187 223 259 25 14 24 35 48 62 77 94 32 51 71 93 116 141 168 35 55 77 100 125 152 181 39 61 84 109 136 165 195 57 87 119 153 188 225 264 60 92 125 161 198 236 277 30 15 25 37 52 68 86 106 33 52 73 97 122 150 179 37 58 80 104 131 161 192 41 63 88 114 142 173 206 58 90 123 158 195 233 275 62 95 130 167 205 245 287 35 16 28 42 60 80 102 126 34 55 78 104 134 165 200 37 60 84 112 143 176 212 41 65 92 121 153 188 226 59 92 127 165 205 248 294 62 97 133 173 215 259 306 Single or upper storey Subfloor of single storey (max.

6 8.au  Standards Australia .1 4.7 2. 1000 mm off ground) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Subfloor of single storey (max.3 4.2 8.6 7.7 7.3 7.7 8.9 6.0 3.6 7.4 8.8 7.7 2.7 2.7 7.7 2.5 9.5 8.9 6.0 9.3 3.1 9.7 8.7 8.7 6.3 10 11 12 13 13 9.1 8.3 7.8 9.5 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 th Wind W id direction Wind force to be resisted by building length (kN/m) total force = length (m) × force (kN/m) Roof slope (degrees) W id th Single or upper storey Subfloor of single storey (max.8 7.9 6.9 6.1 4.4 9.2 5.6 8.5 9.6 5.7 7.8 4.7 7.5 8.2 10 11 12 13 14 15 10 11 112 13 14 15 16 11 12 13 13 14 15 16 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 16 17 18 19 20 20 21 35 5.5 5.8 10 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 16 14 14 14 15 15 16 17 25 4.7 2.0 6.7 9.9 7.5 8.7 2.7 2.3 8.8 7.7 10 11 8.9 6.2—2006 TABLE G4(C) WIND CLASSIFICATION N4—WIND FORCE PER UNIT LENGTH (kN/m) TO BE RESISTED AT RIGHT ANGLES TO BUILDING LENGTH (HIP OR GABLE END BUILDINGS) Wind direction Level of applied racking force Building width (m) 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 2.8 7.4 6.8 6.7 7.1 10 12 13 9.4 8.9 7.5 8.7 7.0 7.7 2.6 9.9 6.org.9 6.7 2.5 8.0 8.6 10 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 13 14 14 14 14 14 14 20 3.7 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 15 2.9 7.7 8.9 6.7 6.8 3.9 6.7 2.7 2.7 10 11 12 8.0 7.3 7.5 8.standards.7 7.7 7.2 9.9 4.7 2.5 8.0 9.7 2.9 6.5 9.9 5.7 8.245 AS 1684.9 7.7 2.5 8.9 6.9 6.7 2.4 10 11 12 13 13 14 10 11 12 13 13 14 15 15 15 16 17 18 18 19 16 16 17 17 18 19 20 30 4.0 7.5 8.5 8.9 6.7 6.7 7.8 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.8 7.5 7.5 8.9 8.3 6.9 8.6 8.4 3.0 8.1 9.6 8.9 9.5 8. 1000 mm off ground) Subfloor of two storeys or highset (max.5 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 10 2.7 2.4 10 9.7 2.9 6.9 8.1 8.7 8.8 6.5 8.5 11 12 13 15 16 18 10 12 13 14 15 17 18 11 12 14 15 16 18 19 16 17 18 19 20 22 23 17 18 19 20 21 22 24 www.1 7.7 7.1 6.8 7.7 2.7 8. 1800 mm off ground) 5 2.2 9.7 8.7 7. 1800 mm off ground) Lower storey of two storeys or highset Subfloor of two storeys or highset (max.

.. H (high) . the properties listed are based on that of the lowest rated species in the group...... 15 to 25......................3 Column 3—Strength group Strength Groups are given for unseasoned (U/S) and seasoned (S) timber in accordance with AS 2878....8 Column 8—Tangential shrinkage Average percentage shrinkage values for the tangential direction only are given as these are normally about double that of the radial shrinkage.2—2006 246 APPENDIX H TIMBER SPECIES AND PROPERTIES (Informative) H1 GENERAL Table H1 provides a range of the most common timber species available in Australia..... 25 and above...... H2..... It is measured in Nm but for the purpose of this Standard. up to 15....7 Column 7—Toughness Toughness is a measure of the timber’s ability to resist shocks and blows.........2.....5 Column 5—Density Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Density is given for unseasoned (U/S) and seasoned (S) timber. H2. and is synonymous with impact strength...........AS 1684..........2 should be taken to supersede the data cited herein... any changes to AS 1720......au ....... NOTE: The data given in Table H1 are taken from AS 1720........................  Standards Australia www......org..... A relationship between species density and joint group is given in Table H2.......................... H2. It has been provided only as a guide to determine the self-weight of an unseasoned member................ Specific toughness classifications are scheduled in AS 1720.... Shrinkage is the measure of the percentage reduction in dimension from the unseasoned to 12% moisture content condition.. The unseasoned density is approximate as it will depend on the moisture content at the time of measurement..... H2 NOTES TO THE TABLE H2....standards......2........ M (medium) . H2... H2... Where a species group has been included.............. It is measured in kN and is determined by the Janka hardness test.............. H2.2 Column 2—Botanical name The botanical names are defined in AS/NZS 1148...................6 Column 6—Hardness Hardness is a measure of a species’ resistance to indentation.... H2.1 Column 1—Standard trade name The Standard names are defined in AS/NZS 1148....... The seasoned density is based on a moisture content of 12%.............4 Column 4—Joint group The joint group is a classification of the strength of a species in joint design..................... the following simplified classifications have been adopted: (a) (b) (c) L (light) ...............

..... H2.. NOTE: The Lyctid susceptibility of alpine ash timber shows a consistent variation depending on its origin as Tasmania—S....12 Column 12—Termite-resistance of heartwood Termite resistance of heartwood is classified as follows (see also AS 5604): (a) (b) R — Resistant to termite........  Standards Australia www...247 AS 1684...org................... NR — Not resistant to termite... Victoria—NS............. NS—Not susceptible...... Smoke developed index ....... H2............. NOTES: 1 2 3 Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] As further reliable evidence becomes available...................... these ratings may require amending.... The heartwood of an individual piece of timber may vary from the species’ nominated classification.9 Column 9—Unit tangential movement (%) The unit tangential movement is the percentage dimensional change for each 1% moisture content change between about 3% moisture content and the fibre saturation point for the particular species.... Scale 0 – 10........11 Column 11—Lyctid susceptibility of sapwood Lyctid susceptibility of sapwood is classified as follows (see also AS 5604): (a) (b) S—Susceptible...............standards.. TABLE H2 NATURAL DURABILITY—PROBABLE LIFE EXPECTANCY* Class 1 2 3 4 * Probable in-ground life expectancy (years) Greater than 25 15 to 25 5 to 15 0 to 5 Probable above-ground life expectancy (years) Greater than 40 15 to 40 7 to 15 0 to 7 The ratings in this Table are based on expert opinions and the performance of the following test specimens: (a) (b) In-ground: 50 × 50 mm test specimens at four sites around Australia.......... NOTE: Consideration should be given to the fact that the classification is very broad and it is not intended to distinguish between the relative merits of species in the same classification.......... Scale 0 – 10.... New South Wales—S... or where there is no rating given (designated as ‘‘)......... Above-ground conditions equate to outside above-ground subject to periodic moderate wetting when ventilation and drainage are adequate..au ........ the timber should be regarded as susceptible.... If the origin of the timber is not known with certainty........ Spread of flame index ...... as given in Table H2 used both in ground and above ground (see AS 5604)..13 Column 13—Early fire hazard indices The early fire hazard is classified as follows: (a) (b) (c) Ignitability index ..... H2................. Other species not listed.............2—2006 H2. should be assumed to be not resistant to termite unless evidence to the contrary is provided.. Above-ground: 35 × 35 mm test specimens at eleven sites around Australia......10 Column 10—Natural durability class of heartwood The classification system is based on the average life expectancy (in years) for a species. H2.......... Scale 0 – 20.

16 Column 16—Availability This schedule provides guidance on availability. windowsills. Internal flooring Fully protected from the weather. P = pink. but clear of the ground and well ventilated. Specific advice should be sought from local Timber Advisory Services or timber suppliers. e.au . external joinery frames. The common uses of species is classified as follows: (a) (b) In-ground Conditions of use include in or on the ground. finishing and maintenance practices will be followed.standards. Internal joinery Fully protected from the weather.2—2006 248 H2. e. pale straw to light brown. The information here should be used as a general guide only.15 Column 15—Common uses This Column lists common uses of species and not necessarily all uses for which a species is suitable. Framing above-ground—Exposed Conditions of use include framing exposed to the weather (or not fully protected). Framing above-ground—Protected Fully protected from the weather and other dampness. The listing does not include uses where an individual species is used in a species mix. B = brown. as follows: (a) (b) (c) (d) W = white. mouldings.AS 1684. L = limited. Consideration may need to be given to species hardness and toughness relative to the specific application.g. and well ventilated. P = commonly used but preservative treated. It assumes that normal good design.  Standards Australia www. staircases.g. landscaping timber. to pink brown. door jambs. R = light to dark red. External joinery Exposed to the weather (or not fully protected). workmanship. Panelling Fully protected from the weather.g.g. Cladding Exposed to the weather and clear of the ground. (c) (d) (e) (f) Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] (g) (h) (i) Uses are indicated as follows: (A) (B) (C) O = commonly used. wall framing with weatherproof cladding.g. railings. S = commonly used but should be seasoned. embedded poles or posts. H2. the colour of sapwood is either a lighter shade of the heartwood or a white/cream colour. This will vary in local areas and with time. e. chocolate. verandah flooring. H2.org. mottled or streaky. subfloor framing to decks. yellow.14 Column 14—Colour The colour of seasoned heartwood can vary between species and often within a species.g. In most cases. or in persistently damp or badly ventilated situations. clear of the ground and well ventilated. Availability is indicated as follows: (a) (b) R = readily. e. Decking Exposed to weather. e. e.

9 M M 13.0 — 2 1 S NR — — — R — O O O O O O — — L — 850 — — — 5.5 0. crows Flindersia australis S2 SD3 J1 ash.org.37 2 1 NS R 13 7 3 W — O O O O O O — — R 1 2 3 4 Strength name Joint group Seasoned Seasoned Unseasoned ash.standards.0 249 JD3 1050 650 JD2 1100 850 balau (selangan batu) Shorea spp.35 4 3 * NR 14 8 3 W — — S — — O O — O R M M 4.3 0.2—2006 .au Decking Termite-resistance Panelling In-ground Lyctid susceptibility Hardness (seasoned) Ignitability Seasoned Seasoned Cladding Smoke development Outside above-ground In-ground contact % Unit tangential movement Tangential shrinkage % Internal joinery External joinery Internal flooring Framing aboveground.9 M M 7. exposure Spread of flame Unseasoned Unseasoned 5.36 4 3 NS NR 14 8 3 W — — — — — O O — O R 9.36 3 2 NS NR — — — W-P — — O — — — — — — L — — — 7. S2 SD3 J2 JD2 1150 900 Bangkirai Shorea laevifolia — SD3 — — beech. silvertop Eucalyptus sieberi S3 SD3 J2 Unseasoned Standard trade name Botanical name JD3 1050 650 JD1 1050 950 11.32 4 3 S NR — — — P — — O — O O O — O L 8.6 0.7 0.3 0.0 M M 8.2 — 1 1 S R — — — W — — — — — O — — — L 4. mountain Eucalyptus regnans S4 SD3 J3 ash.0 — 2 — S — — — — W P O — O — O O — — L 5. protected Framing aboveground.Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] TABLE H1 TIMBER SPECIES AND PROPERTIES 5 Density (Kg/m 3 ) Toughness Colour Common uses Availability Natural durability class Early fire hazard 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 www. myrtle Nothofagus cunninghamii S4 SD5 J3 JD3 1100 700 Blackbutt Eucalyptus pilularis S2 SD2 J2 JD2 1150 900  Standards Australia (continued) AS 1684.9 — — 4. alpine Eucalyptus delegatensis S4 SD4 J3 ash.8 M M 10.

au (continued) . grey.Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] TABLE H1 (continued) 5 Density (Kg/m 3 ) Toughness Colour Common uses Availability Natural durability class Early fire hazard 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 AS 1684.5 M M 11.36 2 1 S R — — — W — O O — — — — — — L 6.9 M L 12. exposure Spread of flame Unseasoned Unseasoned 9.2 M M 11.8 0.34 3 3 S NR — — — P — — O — — — — — — L — 350 — L L 3. coast Eucalyptus bosistoana S1 SD1 J1 Brownbarrell Eucalyptus fastigata S4 SD4 J3 Calantas (kalantas) Toona calantas S6 SD7 — Candlebark Eucalyptus rubida S5 SD5 J3 Unseasoned Standard trade name Botanical name JD2 1150 850 JD2 1100 850 JD3 1050 650 250 JD2 1100 900 JD1 1200 1100 13. western red Thuja plicata S7 SD8 — JD6 cedar.9 — — 3.standards.2—2006  Standards Australia Decking Termite-resistance Panelling In-ground Lyctid susceptibility Hardness (seasoned) Ignitability Seasoned Seasoned Cladding Smoke development Outside above-ground In-ground contact % Unit tangential movement Tangential shrinkage % Internal joinery External joinery Internal flooring Framing aboveground.0 — 2 1 S R — — — B — — S O O O O — — L 4. Eucalyptus patens S4 SD5 J2 Blackwood Acacia melanoxylan S4 SD4 J3 box.0 — 1 1 NS R — — — W — — — O — — — O — L 1 2 3 4 Strength name Joint group Seasoned Seasoned Unseasoned Blackbutt.2 0.1 JD3 1100 750 JD4 JD3 1100 750 cedar.27 3 — S — 13 9 3 B — — O O O O O — O R 9. Eucalyptus New England andrewsii S3 SD3 J2 Blackbutt. brush Lophosteman confertus S3 SD3 J2 box.9 L L 10.38 3 3 NS R 14 7 3 B — — O O O O O — — R H H 8. W. yellow Chamaecyparis S6 SD6 — nootkatensis — www.7 0.4 0.0 — 3 2 NS R 15 10 4 W-B — — — — O — O O O R 640 480 — L L 6.1 M M 9.9 0. protected Framing aboveground.42 1 1 S R — — — W O — — — — — — — — R 5.0 — 2 — S — — — — R — — — — — — O O O L 5.34 4 3 S NR — — — W — — O — — — — — — L — 500 — L L 7.2 0.org.A.

blue. red. protected Framing aboveground. exposure Spread of flame Unseasoned Unseasoned 710 550 3. mountain Eucalyptus cypellocarpa S3 SD2 J2 gum.31 2 1 S R — — — R O O O O O O O O — L 7. forest Eucalyptus tereticornis S3 SD4 J1 gum.5 0.0 0.6 0.35 3 2 S NR — — — P — — O O — O O — — R M M 7. southern Eucalyptus globulus S3 SD2 J2 gum.2—2006 .1 M M 9.Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] TABLE H1 (continued) 5 Density (Kg/m 3 ) Toughness Colour Common uses Availability Natural durability class Early fire hazard 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1 2 3 4 www.9 0.org. Douglas (oregon) Pseudotsuga menziesii S5 SD5 J4 gum.40 3 2 S NR — — — W — — O — — — — — — L 8. river Eucalyptus camaldulensis S5 SD5 J2 gum.0 — 1 1 NS R — — — R O O — — — — — — — R M M 11. grey Eucalyptus propinqua S1 SD2 J1 gum.standards. grey. blue.7 M L 8.0 — 4 4 NS NR 14 9 3 W — — O — — — O — O R M H 7.3 JD2 1100 800 JD3 1100 700 JD1 1150 1000 11.35 4 3 S NR — — — P — — O — — O — — O L M M 8.3 JD2 1150 900 JD2 1100 750  Standards Australia (continued) AS 1684.au Decking Termite-resistance Panelling In-ground Lyctid susceptibility Hardness (seasoned) Ignitability Seasoned Seasoned Cladding Smoke development Outside above-ground In-ground contact % Unit tangential movement Tangential shrinkage % Internal joinery External joinery Internal flooring Framing aboveground. manna Eucalyptus viminalis S4 SD4 J3 gum.30 3 2 NS NR — — — P — — O — — — — — — L Strength name Joint group Seasoned Seasoned Unseasoned fir.34 1 1 NS R — — — R O O O — O — — — — L 9.0 L L 4.3 M M 7.7 0.34 4 3 S NR — — — P — — — — — O O — O L 5. mountain Eucalyptus darympleana S4 SD5 J3 gum.5 0.0 251 JD2 1100 900 10. Sydney Eucalyptus saligna S3 SD3 J2 gum.9 0. rose Eucalyptus grandis S3 SD4 J2 Unseasoned Standard trade name Botanical name JD4 JD2 1150 1000 11.39 3 2 S NR — — — P — — — — — O O — O R 5. red.5 0.8 M M 12.7 M M 11.5 JD2 1100 850 JD1 1250 1050 14.

3 JD1 1200 1100 11.33 4 3 S NR — — — W — — O — — O — — — R H H 6.30 2 2 S R 13 6 3 R O O O O O O O O O R 5.4 L M 6.au (continued) .1 JD1 1150 950 252 JD4 JD1 1250 1100 16.Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] TABLE H1 (continued) 5 Density (Kg/m 3 ) Toughness Colour Common uses Availability Natural durability class Early fire hazard 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 AS 1684.38 2 1 S R 13 3 3 B — O O O O O — — — R — — — 6.9 JD2 1100 800 JD2 1100 750 JD2 1150 900 www.8 M M 9. protected Framing aboveground.4 0.5 0.39 1 1 NS R — — — WRB O O O O — — — — — R H M 6. exposure Spread of flame Unseasoned Unseasoned 5.3 0.37 1 1 S R — — — R O O — O — — — — — L 8. spotted Eucalyptus maculata S2 SD2 J1 Hardwood.4 0. shining Eucalyptus nitens S4 SD4 J3 gum. S3 SD4 J2 Karri Eucalyptus diversicolor S3 SD2 J2 Unseasoned Standard trade name Botanical name JD3 1100 700 JD1 1200 1100 10. Johnstone River Backhousia bancroftii S2 SD3 J1 Hemlock.1 0.40 3 2 NS NR 13 5 3 P — O O O — O O O O R 1 2 3 4 Strength name Joint group Seasoned Seasoned Unseasoned gum.org.9 0.4 0.standards.0 M M 9.0 — 4 4 NS NR 14 9 3 W — — O — — — O — O L H H 7.7 L L 5.5 L L 7.39 3 2 S NR — — — B — — — — O — — — L 800 500 2.0 — 3 2 NS NR 13 7 3 WPR — — O — — — — — — L 9. grey Eucalyptus paniculata S1 SD1 J1 Ironbark. western Tsuga heterophylla S6 SD6 J4 Ironbark. red Eucalyptus sideroxylon S2 SD3 J1 Jarrah Eucalyptus marginata S4 SD4 J2 Kapur Dryobalanops spp.2—2006  Standards Australia Decking Termite-resistance Panelling In-ground Lyctid susceptibility Hardness (seasoned) Ignitability Seasoned Seasoned Cladding Smoke development Outside above-ground In-ground contact % Unit tangential movement Tangential shrinkage % Internal joinery External joinery Internal flooring Framing aboveground.

S6 SD7 — JD4 Mahogany.4 — 4 3 S NR 14 9 4 P — — — — — — O — O R 7. southern Eucalyptus botryoides S2 SD3 J2 JD2 1100 900 Meranti. Philippine. S5 SD6 — JD3 253 Mahogany.0 Mahogany.3 0.5 — 3 3 S NR — — — R P P O — — — — — — L 8. red. S3 SD3 J2 Unseasoned Standard trade name Botanical name JD2 kwila (merbau) Intsia bijuga S2 SD3 J2 JD2 1150 850 Mahogany. exposure Spread of flame Unseasoned Unseasoned 950 750 4.8 0.36 3 3 S NR 13 5 3 W — — O — — O — O O R — 955 — — — 6. protected Framing aboveground.standards. dark Shorea spp.34 2 1 S R — — — R — O O — — — — — — L 9. Shorea spp.2—2006 (continued) .3 0. red Eucalyptus resinifera S2 SD3 J1 JD1 1200 950 12.4 M M 11.2 — — 4.5 — 4 4 S NR — — — W — — — — — — O — O R M M 6.Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] TABLE H1 (continued) 5 Density (Kg/m 3 ) Toughness Colour Common uses Availability Natural durability class Early fire hazard 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 www. Pentacme.au Decking Termite-resistance Panelling In-ground Lyctid susceptibility Hardness (seasoned) Ignitability Seasoned Seasoned Cladding Smoke development Outside above-ground In-ground contact % Unit tangential movement Tangential shrinkage % Internal joinery External joinery Internal flooring Framing aboveground.0 — 3 — S — — — — R — — — — — — — O O R — 550 2. Gympie Eucalyptus cloeziana S2 SD3 J1 JD1  Standards Australia AS 1684. light S6 SD7 — JD5 Messmate Eucalyptus obliqua S3 SD3 J3 JD3 1100 750 Messmate.4 — — 4.6 — — 6.0 — 1 1 NS R — — — W O O O O — — — — — L 1 2 3 4 Strength name Joint group Seasoned Seasoned Unseasoned Keruing Dipterocarpus spp.5 — 3 2 S R — — — R — O O O — O O — — L — 650 3. Parashorea spp.2 M M 9. red.37 3 2 NS R — — — R — — O — — O — — — L — 400 2. light Shorea. Philippine. red.6 H H 9.org.8 M M 2.

standards.2 0.5 L L 13. S4 SD4 — JD3 Satinay Syncarpia hillii S3 SD3 J2 JD2 1100 800 Stringybark.1 L L 2. white Callitris glaucophylla S5 SD6 J3 JD3 pine.8 0.26 2 1 NS R 13 8 3 WB — O O O O O O — — R 800 800 850 — 8.5 — 4 2 2 650 3.8 — — 5.3 — — — 7. celerytop Phyllodadus asplenifolius S4 SD5 J3 JD3 1050 650 cypress. radiata Pinus radiata S6 SD6 J4 JD4 pine. S6 SD6 — — Peppermint.5 0.19 4 2 NS R — — — W O O — O O — O — O L 850 700 6.2 0.36 4 3 S NR — — — P — — O — — — — — — L — 550 — — — 5.1 0.0 0. exposure Spread of flame Unseasoned Unseasoned — 750 — — — 5.0 M L 10. caribbean Pinus caribaea S6 SD6 J4 JD4 pine. American Quercus spp. slash Pinus elliottii S5 SD5 J4 JD4 Ramin Gonystylus spp.au (continued) .23 4 4 NS NR NR R NR R R 14 14 — 14 — — 7 8 — 7 — — 2 3 — 3 — — W W W W R B P P P — — — P P P — — O S S S — — O P P P — O — P P P — — — O O O O O — O O O O — — P P P — — — O O O O — — R R R L L L — 1000 1 2 3 4 Strength name Joint group Seasoned Seasoned Unseasoned Unseasoned Standard trade name Botanical name oak.2—2006  Standards Australia Decking Termite-resistance Panelling In-ground Lyctid susceptibility Hardness (seasoned) Ignitability Seasoned Seasoned Cladding Smoke development Outside above-ground In-ground contact % Unit tangential movement Tangential shrinkage % Internal joinery External joinery Internal flooring Framing aboveground.3 M L 5. hoop Araucaria cunninghamii S6 SD5 J4 JD4 pine.Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] TABLE H1 (continued) 5 Density (Kg/m 3 ) Toughness Colour Common uses Availability Natural durability class Early fire hazard 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 AS 1684.0 — 4 — S NR — — — W — — — — — O O — O L 7.5 — — 3.4 L L 3.1 0.org. protected Framing aboveground.35 — 650 5.4 L L 4. Blackdown Eucalyptus sphaerocarpa S3 SD3 J1 JD1 www. narrowleaved Eucalyptus australiana S4 SD4 J3 JD2 1100 800 254 pine.27 4 4 NS NS S NS NS 550 3.30 4 4 — 2 1 550 3.34 4 4 NS R — — — W P P S P P O O — — R 4.0 0.

white Eucalyptus eugenioides S3 SD3 J2 Stringbark. protected Framing aboveground.36 3 2 NS R — — — P — O O O — — — — — L 8.4 0.0 0.6 JD3 JD2 1050 950 11.5 — 3 2 S NR — — — R — — O — — O — — — R M M 13.6 M M 7.33 3 2 NS NR — — — B — — O — — — — — — L M M 10. exposure Spread of flame Unseasoned Unseasoned 7.37 1 1 S R 12 5 4 W O O O O O O — — — R — 700 — — — 5.6 (continued)  Standards Australia AS 1684.1 0. yellow Eucalyptus muellerana S3 SD3 J2 Tallowwood Eucalyptus microcorys S2 SD2 J1 Taun Pometia pinnata S4 SD4 — Turpentine Syncarpia glomulifera S3 SD3 J2 Unseasoned Standard trade name Botanical name JD2 1100 850 JD2 1100 1000 9.37 3 2 NS R — — — W — O O O — — — — — L M M 6.2—2006 .5 M M 10. brown Eucalyptus baxteri S3 SD3 J2 Stringbark.5 0.standards.au Decking Termite-resistance Panelling In-ground Lyctid susceptibility Hardness (seasoned) Ignitability Seasoned Seasoned Cladding Smoke development Outside above-ground In-ground contact % Unit tangential movement Tangential shrinkage % Internal joinery External joinery Internal flooring Framing aboveground.35 1 1 NS R — — — PB — — — O — O — — — L 1 2 3 4 Strength name Joint group Seasoned Seasoned Unseasoned Stringbark.org.0 JD2 1150 900 255 JD2 1200 1000 8.Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] TABLE H1 (continued) 5 Density (Kg/m 3 ) Toughness Colour Common uses Availability Natural durability class Early fire hazard 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 www.6 0.

au .2—2006  Standards Australia Decking Termite-resistance Panelling In-ground Lyctid susceptibility Hardness (seasoned) Ignitability Seasoned Seasoned Cladding Smoke development Outside above-ground In-ground contact % Unit tangential movement Tangential shrinkage % Internal joinery External joinery Internal flooring Framing aboveground. S4 SD4 J3 JD3 1050 650 256 Hardwood.org.standards. protected Framing aboveground.36 4 S — — — W — — O — — O O — O R — M M — — 3 S — — — WPR B — — — W W — O O O O O — — — R — 850 400 — L L — — 4 NS — — — L L — — 4 NS — — — — — — O O — — — — — — — — — — — — R R 850 550 — L L 4 NS — — — W — — O — — — — — — R — — — L L 4 NS — — — W — — O — — — — — — R 1 2 3 4 Strength name Joint group Seasoned Seasoned Unseasoned Unseasoned Standard trade name Botanical name Commercial species groups ash.3 0. mixed (Qld/Nth. Tasmanian Eucalyptus spp. S3 SD3 J2 JD2 1150 750 Hemfir — — SD7 — JD5 Softwoods. imported (unidentified) — S7 SD8 J6 JD6 Softwoods.Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] TABLE H1 (continued) 5 Density (Kg/m 3 ) Toughness Colour Common uses Availability Natural durability class Early fire hazard 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 AS 1684. mixed Australian grown pinus spp. Australian oak. exposure Spread of flame Unseasoned Unseasoned 4.9 M M 13. NSW) Eucalyptus spp. — — SD7 — JD4 Spruce pine fir (SPF) — SD7 — JD6 www. Victorian oak.

provided the site is reasonably level and timber is clear of any ponding water.au  Standards Australia . moulding and lining timbers. Seasoned or unseasoned framing materials should be stacked as shown in Figure I1.2—2006 APPENDIX I STORAGE AND HANDLING (Informative) Timber or timber products should be stored and handled in such manner as to allow for their satisfactory performance when fabricated into the building. Prefabricated wall frames and trusses should be stored at least 150 mm above the ground level on suitable bearers to prevent contact with ground or water. to protect the lower timbers from dirt and stains. or horizontally stacked with sufficient bearers (approximately 2.standards. Secure covering at sides but do not wrap under Impermeable covering Ventilation Clearance (see Note 1) 600mm for framing timbers 450mm for flooring. or alternatively stored under cover where they should be block-stacked on a flat surface or on closely spaced bearers (gluts).org. cladding.257 AS 1684. www. and the like. Unseasoned framing may be stacked on impervious sheeting if ground is reasonably level.0 m centres) to prevent bending of the trusses. such as flooring. moulding and lining timbers (a) Weather protection Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] (b) Stacking NOTES: 1 2 150 mm clearance for seasoned framing and flooring. FIGURE I1 STORAGE Seasoned milled products. Unseasoned scantling may be stacked on the ground on impervious sheeting. cladding. lining timbers. should not be delivered until they can be ‘built-in’. Trusses should be stored either— (a) (b) vertically and supported at truss points and prevented from overturning. moulding.

9.18.3. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] .1.14.14.21. 2.2. 8.2(B)(c).13. 6. 7.1.13.6. 9.2—2006 Amendment No. and Tables 8. 7. 7.AS 1684. Published on 16 November 2006.4.3.2—2006 258 AMENDMENT CONTROL SHEET AS 1684.1. Figures 2. 1 (2006) CORRECTION SUMMARY: This Amendment applies to Clause 7. and 9.

2—2006 .Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] 259 NOTES AS 1684.

2—2006 260 NOTES .Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] AS 1684.

This role is vital in assisting local industry to compete in international markets.standards.Standards Australia Standards Australia develops Australian Standards® and other documents of public benefit and national interest. Standards Australia also supports excellence in design and innovation through the Australian Design Awards. These Standards are developed through an open process of consultation and consensus. Standards Australia is recognized as Australia’s peak non-government national standards body. International Involvement Standards Australia is responsible for ensuring the Australian viewpoint is considered in the formulation of International Standards and that the latest international experience is incorporated in national Standards. They reflect the latest scientific and industry experience. . Australian Standards are kept under continuous review after publication and are updated regularly to take account of changing technology. The requirements or recommendations contained in published Standards are a consensus of the views of representative interests and also take account of comments received from other sources. Handbooks and other documents developed by Standards Australia are printed and distributed under license by SAI Global Limited. consumers and other relevant sectors prepare Australian Standards. governments. Standards Australia represents Australia at both the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). in which all interested parties are invited to participate. For further information visit www.au Australian Standards® Standards® Committees of experts from industry.org. Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] Sales and Distribution Australian Standards®. Through a Memorandum of Understanding with the Commonwealth Government.

Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] IS B N 0 -73 3 7 .70 94 -0 .

Accessed by UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND on 19 Sep 2011 [SUPERSEDED] .This document has expired. please go to your on-line service. and such storage is contrary to the licence under which the service is supplied.Please note that material accessed via our on-line subscription services is not intended for off-line storage. This page has been left intentionally blank. To access the current document.