COMPETENCY-BASED LEARNING MATERIAL

Sector: Qualification Title: Unit of Competency: Module Title:

CONSTRUCTION CARPENTRY NC II STAKE-OUT BUILDING LINES STAKING-OUT BUILDING LINES

Technical Education and Skills Development Authority Jacobo Z. Gonzales Memorial School of Arts and Trades San Antonio, Biñan City

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HOW TO USE THIS COMPETENCY BASED LEARNING MATERIAL
Welcome to the module in Staking out Building Lines. This module contains training materials and activities for you to complete. You are required to go through a series of learning activities in order to complete each learning outcome of the module. In each learning outcome are Information Sheets, Self-Checks, Operation Sheets and Job Sheets. Follow these activities on your own. If you have questions, don't hesitate to ask your facilitator for assistance. The goal of this course is the development of practical skills. To gain these skills, you must learn basic concepts and terminology. For the most part, you'll get this information from the Information Sheets and TESDA Website, www.tesda.gov.ph This module was prepared to help you achieve the required competency, in "Stake-out Building Lines". This will be the source of information for you to acquire knowledge and skills in this particular competency independently and at your own pace, with minimum supervision or help from your instructor. Remember to: Work through all the information and complete the activities in each section. Read information sheets and complete the self-check. Suggested references are included to supplement the materials provided in this module. Most probably your trainer will also be your supervisor or manager. He/she is there to support you and show you the correct way to do things. You will be given plenty of opportunity to ask questions and practice on the job. Make sure you practice your new skills during regular work shifts. This way you will improve both your speed and memory and also your confidence. Use the Self-checks, Operation Sheets or Job Sheets at the end of each section to test your own progress. When you feel confident that you have had sufficient practice, ask your Trainer to evaluate you. The results of your assessment will be recorded in your Progress Chart and Accomplishment Chart. You need to complete this module before proceeding to fabricating formwork components.

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MODULE CONTENT
UNIT OF COMPETENCY MODULE TITLE MODULE DESCRIPTOR : : Stake-out Building Line : Staking-out Building Line This module covers the knowledge, skills and attitude in preparing materials for stake-out building lines, setting batter boards, fixing building lines. : : : 24 hrs. NC II

NOMINAL DURATION CERTIFICATE LEVEL PREREQUISITE

LEARNING OUTCOMES: Upon completion of this module, the trainee/student must be able to: 1) Prepare materials for stake-out building lines 2) Stake-out and set batter boards 3) Fix building lines

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ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Plans and details are correctly interpreted and identified according to job requirements Materials, tools and equipment are identified consistent with job requirements Materials and tools are properly stored and freed from defects. Appropriate PPE are selected according to job requirements. Stakes are set out from pre-determined building lines Batter board materials are measured, laid out and cut according to specification Stakes are set 0.75-1.00 meter away from the pre-determined building lines Batter boards are properly secured with tolerance for dimensions at +- 5 mm, and levelness of +-3 mm. Building lines are squared with end tolerance of +- 3 mm

10) Building lines are measured and set

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LEARNING OUTCOME NO. 1

Prepare materials for stake-out building lines

CONTENTS: • Interpretation of Plans and Details • Material Specifications • Board Foot Computations • Tools, Materials and Equipment for Staking-out Building Lines • Company Rules and Regulation ASSESSMENT CRITERIA • Plans and details are correctly interpreted and identified according to job requirements • Materials, tools and equipment are identified consistent with job requirements • Materials and tools are properly stored and freed from defects. • Appropriate PPE are selected according to job requirements. CONDITIONS: You must be provided with the following: 1. WORKPLACE LOCATION 2. TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT Hammer Marking Tools Measuring Tools Steel Square Try-square 3. TRAINING MATERIALS Leaning Packages Bond paper Ball pens Manuals Related References ASSESSMENT METHOD Portfolio

Hand Saw Chalk Line Water Hose Level Plumb Bob PPE Circular Saw

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Learning Experience
PREPARE MATERIALS FOR STAKE-OUT BUILDING LINES • Learning Activities Read Information Sheet No. 1.1-1 on Interpretation of Plans and Details Answer Self-Check No. 1.1-1 Read Information Sheet No. 1.1-2 on Material Specifications Answer Self-Check No. 1.1-2 Read Information Sheet No. 1.1-3 on Board Foot Computations Answer Self-Check No. 1.1-3 Read Information Sheet No. 1.1-4 on Tools, Materials and Equipment for Staking-out Building Lines Answer Self-Check No. 1.1-4 Read Information Sheet No. 1.1-5 on Company Rules and Regulations Answer Self-Check No. 1.1-5 Special Instructions

• • • • • •

Compare your answer to the answer key

Compare your answer to the answer key

Compare your answer to the answer key

• • •

Compare your answer to the answer key

Compare your answer to the answer key

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INFORMATION SHEET NO. 1.1-1 INTERPRETATION OF PLANS AND DETAILS
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Upon completing this section, you should be able to RECOGNIZE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF DRAWINGS AND THEIR USES. CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS Generally, construction or "working" drawings furnish enough information for the Builder to complete an entire project and incorporate all three main groups of drawings-architectural, electrical, and mechanical. Normally, construction drawings include the detail drawings, assembly drawings, bill of materials, and the specifications. Construction drawings consist mostly of right-angle and perpendicular views prepared by draftsmen using standard technical drawing techniques, symbols, and other designations. The first section of the construction drawings consists of the site plan, plot plan, foundation plans, floor plans, and framing plans. General drawings consist of plans (views from above) and elevations (side or front views) drawn on a relatively small scale. Both types of drawings use a standard set of architectural symbols. Figure 1 illustrates the conventional symbols for the more common types of material used on structures. Figure 2 shows the more common symbols used for doors and windows. Study these symbols thoroughly before proceeding further in this chapter.

Figure 1. Architectural symbols for plans and elevations.

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Figure 2. Architectural symbols for doors and windows.

A.

Site Plan A site plan shows the contours, boundaries, roads, utilities, trees, structures, and any other significant physical features on or near the construction site. The locations of proposed structures are shown in outline.

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Figure 3. Site plan

B.

Plot Plan The plot plan shows the survey marks with the elevations and the grading requirements. The plot plan is used by the Engineering Aids to set up the corners and perimeter of the building using batter boards and line stakes, as shown in Figure 4. Thus, the plot plan furnishes the essential data for laying out the building.

Figure 4. Plot plan

C.

Foundation Plan A foundation plan is a plane view of a structure. That is, it looks as if it were projected onto a horizontal plane and passed through the structure. In the case of the foundation plan, the plane is slightly below the level of the top of the foundation wall. Carpentry NC II Stake-out Building Line
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Figure 5. Foundation plan

D.

Floor Plan An architectural or structural floor plan shows the structural characteristics of the building at the level of the plane of projection. A mechanical floor plan shows the plumbing and heating systems and any other mechanical components other than those that are electrical. An electrical floor plan shows the lighting system and any other electrical systems.

Figure 6. Shows the way a floor plan is developed: from elevation, to cutting plane, to floor plan

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Figure 7 is a floor plan showing the lengths, thicknesses, and character of the outside walls and partitions at the particular floor level. It also shows the number, dimensions, and arrangement of the rooms, the widths and locations of doors and windows, and the locations and character of bathroom, kitchen, and other utility features.

Figure 7. Floor plans Elevations The front, rear, and sides of a structure, as they would appear projected on vertical planes, are shown in elevations. Studying the elevation drawing gives you a working idea of the appearance and layout of the structure. E.

Figure 8. Elevations for a small

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F.

Framing Plans Framing plans show the size, number, and location of the structural members (steel or wood) that make up the building framework. Separate framing plans may be drawn for the floors, walls, and roof. • The floor framing plan must specify the sizes and spacing of joists, girders, and columns used to support the floor.

Figure 9. Floor framing plan

• Wall framing plans show the location and method of framing openings and ceiling heights so that studs and posts can be cut. • Roof framing plans show the construction of the rafters used to span the building and support the roof. Size, spacing, roof slope, and all details are shown. G. Sectional Views Sectional views, or sections, provide important information about the height, materials, fastening and support systems, and concealed features of a structure.
Figure 10. Typical small building cutting-plane A-A and section developed from the cutting plane Date Developed: April 1, 2011 Developed by: Glenn F. Salandanan Document No. Issued by:

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Typical sections represent the average condition throughout a structure and are used when construction features are repeated many times. Figure 11 shows typical wall section A-A of the foundation plan in Figure 5.

Figure 11. A typical section of a masonry building

H.

Details Details are large-scale drawings that show the builders of a structure how its various parts are to be connected and placed. Detail drawings are used whenever the information provided in elevations, plans, and sections is not clear enough for the constructors on the job. The construction of doors, windows, and eaves is customarily shown in detail drawings of buildings. Typical door and window details are shown in Figure 12.

Figure 12. Door and window details

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SELF- CHECK NO. 1.1-1
Check your mastery in interpretation of plans and details by completing the tasks below. MULTIPLE CHOICE: Identify the types of plans on the following statement. Choose the letter of the correct answer.

1. It shows the contours, boundaries, roads, utilities, trees, structures, and any other significant physical features on or near the construction site. a. Floor plan c. Plot plan b. Foundation plan d. Site plan 2. This plan shows the survey marks with the elevations and the grading requirements. It is used by the Engineering Aids to set up the corners and perimeter of the building using batter boards and line stakes. a. Floor plan c. Plot plan b. Foundation plan d. Site plan 3. It is a plane view of a structure. That is, it looks as if it were projected onto a horizontal plane and passed through the structure. a. Floor plan c. Plot plan b. Foundation plan d. Sectional view 4. This shows the structural characteristics of the building at the level of the plane of projection. a. Architectural/structural floor plan c. Elevation b. Details d. Sectional view 5. The front, rear, and sides of a structure, as they would appear projected on vertical planes, are shown in this drawing. This drawing gives you a working idea of the appearance and layout of the structure. a. Architectural/structural floor plan c. Elevation b. Details d. Sectional view 6. Plan showing the size, number, and location of the structural members (steel or wood) that make up the building framework. a. Architectural/structural floor plan c. Framing plan b. Elevation d. Sectional view 7. It provides important information about the height, materials, fastening and support systems, and concealed features of a structure. a. Architectural/structural floor plan c. Framing plan b. Elevation d. Sectional view 8. These are large-scale drawings that show the builders of a structure how its various parts are to be connected and placed. a. Details c. Framing plan b. Foundation plan d. Sectional view
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ANSWER KEY 1.1-1
Check your answer with the answer key below. If you fail to get it right, refer back to corresponding resources until you make it perfect. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. D C B A C C D A

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INFORMATION SHEET NO. 1.1-2 MATERIALS SPECIFICATIONS
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Upon completing this section, you should be able to KNOW the TYPES, STANDARD SIZES, and USES of LUMBER for CONSTRUCTION CARPENTRY. The primary components used in frame construction are lumber and hardware. This section includes information on the types and sizes of lumber as well as a description of various metal fasteners. A. Lumber Lumber varies greatly in structural characteristics. A carpenter must learn about lumber so that he can choose the most suitable material for each job. 1. GradesCompare your answer to the answer key Lumber, as it comes from the sawmill, is divided into three main classes: yard lumber, structural material and factory and shop lumber. It is classified on the basis of quality. The carpenter must choose a quality that is suitable for the intended purpose. At the same time, he must exercise economy by not choosing a better (and therefore more expensive) grade than is required. Lumber is subdivided into classifications of select lumber and common lumber. • Select Lumber - Select lumber is of good appearance and finishing. It is identified by the following grade names for comparison of quality: o Grade A is suitable for natural finishes and is practically clear. o Grade B is suitable for natural finishes, is of high quality, and is generally clear. o Grade C is suitable for high-quality paint finishes. o Grade D is suitable for paint finishes between high-finishing grades and common grades and has somewhat the nature of both. Common Lumber - Common lumber is suitable for general construction and utility purposes. It is identified by the following grade names for comparison of quality: Carpentry NC II Stake-out Building Line
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o o

o

o

o

No. 1 common is suitable for use without waste, it is sound and tight knotted, and it may be considered watertight lumber. No. 2 common is less restricted in quality than No. 1, but of the same general quality. It is used for framing, sheathing, and other structural forms where the stress or strain is not too great. No. 3 common permits some waste, and it is lower in quality than No. 2. It is used for such rough work as footing, guardrails, and rough flooring. No. 4 common permits waste, is of low quality, and may have coarse features such as decay and holes. It is used for sheathing, subfloors, and roof boards in the cheaper types of construction, but its most important industrial outlet is for boxes and crates. No. 5 common is not produced in some kinds of lumber. It is used for boxes, crates, and dunnage, for which the quality requirement is very low. CODE FOR SURFACED LUMBER Code Meaning
S1E S2E S1S S2S S1S1E S2SIE S1S2E S4S SURFACED SURFACED SURFACED SURFACED SURFACED SURFACED SURFACED SURFACED 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 4 EDGE EDGES SIDE SIDES SIDE AND EDGE SIDES AND 1 EDGE SIDE AND 2 EDGES SIDES

2. Uses of Lumber a. Frames. Building frames are the wood forms constructed to support the finished members of a structure. These include posts, girders (beams), scabs, joists, subfloors, sole plates, girts, knee braces, top plates, and rafters. No. 2 common lumber is used for framing. Heavy frame components, such as beams and girders, are made by combining several pieces of framing material. b. Walls. The exterior wall of a frame structure usually has three layers: sheathing, building paper, and siding. Sheathing and siding lumber are normally grade No. 2 common softwood, which is with solid knots, no voids. Siding is either vertically or horizontally applied. Theater construction may limit available material to lap siding for both horizontal and vertical surfaces. For local procurement, there are several types of drop and bevel siding, which is applied horizontally. Carpentry NC II Stake-out Building Line
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3. Sizes Lumber is usually sawed into standard dimensions (length, width, and thickness). This allows uniformity in planning structures and in ordering materials. Table 1 lists the common widths and thicknesses of wood in rough and in dressed dimensions in the US. Standards have been established for dimension differences between the quoted size of lumber and its standard sizes when dressed. Quoted size refers to dimensions prior to surfacing. These dimension differences must be taken into consideration. A good example of the dimension difference is the common 2 x 4. As shown in Table 1, the familiar quoted size 2 x 4 is the rough or nominal dimension, but the actual dressed size is 1 1/2 x 3 1/2 inches. Lumber is sawn in standard sizes used for light framing. • Thickness: 1, 2, and 4 inches. • Width: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 inches. • Length: 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 feet. The actual dimensions of dressed lumber are less than the sawn dimensions because of drying and planing (or finishing). For the relative difference between sawn (standard or nominal) dimensions and actual sizes of construction lumber, see Table 2-1. Table 1. Nominal and dressed sizes of lumber

Plywood is usually 4 x 8 feet and varies from 1/8 to 1 inch in thickness. Carpentry NC II Stake-out Building Line
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INFORMATION SHEET NO. 1.1-3 BOARD FOOT COMPUTATION
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Upon completing this section, you should be able to know the METHODS OF MEASURING LUMBER QUANTITIES IN TERMS OF BOARD FEET, which is the unit by which it is ordered. The amount of lumber required is measured in board feet. A board foot (BF) is a unit measure representing an area of 1 foot by 1 foot, 1 inch thick. Thus, a board that is 1 inch thick, 1 foot wide, and 1 foot long measures 1 board foot. A board that is 1 inch thick, 1 foot wide, and 12 feet long measures 12 board feet. A. Methods of computing BF 1. Rapid Estimate. You can estimate BF rapidly by using Table 2. For example, reading the table, you can see that if a 2-inch by 12-inch board is 16 feet long, your board feet would be 32. Table 2. Board feet

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2. Arithmetic Method. To determine the number of BF in one or more pieces of lumber use the following formula:

NOTE: If the unit of measure for length is in inches, divide by 144 instead of 12.

Sample Problem 1: Find the number of BF in a piece of lumber 2 inches thick, 10 inches wide, and 6 feet long (Figure 13).

Sample Problem 2: Find the number of BF in 10 pieces of lumber 2 inches thick, 10 inches wide, and 6 feet long.

Sample Problem 3: Find the number of BF in a piece of lumber 2 inches thick, 10 inches wide, and 18 inches long.

Figure 13. Lumber dimensions

3. Tabular Method. The standard Essex board measure table (Figure 14) is a quick aid in computing BF. It is located on the back of the blade of the framing square. In using the board measure table, make all Carpentry NC II Stake-out Building Line
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computations on the basis of 1-inch thickness. The inch markings along the outer edge of the blade represent the width of a board 1 inch thick. The third dimension (length) is provided in the vertical column of figures under the 12-inch mark.

Figure 14. Essex board measure table

Sample Problem: To compute the number of BF in a piece of lumber that is 8 inches wide, 14 feet long, and 4 inches thick1. Find the number 14 in the vertical column under the 12-inch mark. 2. Follow the guideline under number 14 laterally across the blade until it reaches the number on that line that is directly under the inch mark matching the width of the lumber. Example: Under the 8-inch mark on the guideline, moving left from 14, the numbers 9 and 4 appear (9 and 4 should be on the same line as 14). The number to the left of the vertical line represents feet; the number to the right represents inches. 3. The total number is 37 1/3 BF. BF will never appear in a decimal form. Example solution: 1" x 4" x 8' x 14' Feet Inches

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NOTE: 1" x 4" = Always multiply the number of pieces by the thickness and multiply the feet and inches by the sum of pieces and thickness.

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SELF- CHECK NO. 1.1-3
Check your mastery in board foot computation by completing the tasks below. A. Compute for the board foot of the given measurements. Board Foot Size (BF) 1. 1” x 4” x 6’ = ____ 2. 2” x 4” x 12’ = ____ 3. 1” x 10” x 8’ =____ 4. 2” x 6” x 16’ =____ 5. 4” x 4” x 8’ =____ 6. 6” x 6” x 6’ =____ Board Foot Size (BF) 7. 2” x 6” x 8’ =____ 8. 2” x 6” x 6’ =____ 9. 1” x 4” x 12’ =____ 10. 1” x 14” x 10’ =____ 11. 4” x 4” x 12’ =____ 12. 6” x 6” x 16’ =____

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ANSWER KEY 1.1-3
Check your answer with the answer key below. If you fail to get it right, refer back to corresponding resources until you make it perfect. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 2 sq.feet 8 sq.feet 6.67 or 7 sq.feet 48 sq.feet 10.67 or 11 sq.feet 18 sq.feet 8 sq.feet 6 sq.feet 4 sq.feet 11.67 or 12 sq.feet 16 sq.feet 48 sq.feet

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INFORMATION SHEET NO. 1.1-4 TOOLS, MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT FOR STAKING-OUT BUILDING LINES
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Upon completing this section, you should be able to know the DIFFERENT TYPES of TOOLS and MATERIALS USED in STAKING-OUT BUILDING LINES. It is very important to know that the name and proper use of each of the various tools we need in our works. In addition, application on their proper care and maintenance will give you the following advantages: efficiency of the work, quality speed and accomplishment and accuracy. A. Tools and Equipments Pencils For more accurate marking and a longer-lasting point, they can easily be sharpened to a chisel-point.

Figure 15. Pencils

Claw Hammer Although this tool is basically for nailing and extracting nails, it has also been widely used over the years by using the side of the head as an alternative to the wooden mallet. The claw is also used for a limited amount of leverage work, such as separating nailed boards, etc.
Figure 16. Claw Hammer

Water hose level It is used to determine the horizontal levelness of a particular object.

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Spirit Level This is an essential tool for plumbing and leveling operations. When checking or setting up a level or plumb position, be sure that the bubble is equally settled between the lines on the vial for accurate readings.
Figure 17. Spirit Level

Plumb bob It is a cone shaped metal suspended on a string used to check the verticalness of a particular object.

Figure 18. Plumb bob

Nylon string It is used to indicate the sides of the building.

Figure 19. Nylon

Tape Rule This is essential for fast, efficient measuring on site work. For this type of carrying-rule, sizes vary between 2 m and 10 m. Models with lockable, powerreturn blades and belt clips, one of 3.5 m and one of 8 m length are recommended.
Figure 20. Tape Rule

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Try square It is used like the steel square but in small works.

Figure 21. Try-square

Steel square It is a L-shaped with one arm forming a perfect right angle to the other. It used to check the squareness of a corner.

Figure 22. Steel square

Ripping/Wrecking bar This is used to pull out long nails. This may be straight or gooseneck. It has a nail slot for pulling out spikes and wedging apart nailed boards.

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Figure 23. Ripping/wrecking bar

Ax or Hatchet An ax or hatchet is used during the staking out operation to sharpen the ends of batter board posts and corner stakes.

Figure 24. Ax or hatchet

Crosscut Saw This is for cutting timber across the grain. When crosscutting, the saw should be at an approximate angle of 45° to the timber.

Figure 25. Crosscut Saw

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Bolo It is used to cut pegs for stake-out. Sledge hammer A sledge hammer or maul is needed to sink corner stakes or batter board posts. Posts or Stakes Batter board posts are made to the desired lengths from 2 by 4's or 4 by 4's. Corner stakes are made from 4 by 4's, and batter boards from 1 by 4's or 1 by 6's. Engineer's Transit or Leveling Instrument The engineer's transit or leveling instrument is used to establish a proper reference or grade line from which the builder may build up or down with consistent accuracy as to vertical level.

Figure 26. Engineers transit

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SELF-CHECK NO. 1.1-4
Check your mastery in types of tools and materials used in staking out building lines by completing the tasks below. Directions: Identify the tool materials asked for. Write your answer on the space provided before the number. ________________1. It is used to drive pegs for stake-out ________________2. It is used to check the verticalness ________________3. It is used to layout measurements ________________4. It is used to check squareness ________________5. It is used to drive and pull out nails ________________6. It is used to check the levelness ________________7. It is used to cut along the grain of wood ________________8. It is used to indicate the sides of a building ________________9. It is used to make pegs for stake-out ________________10. It is used for cutting across the grain of wood.

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ANSWER KEY NO. 1.1-4
Check your answer with the answer key below. if you fail to get it right, refer back to corresponding resources until you make it perfect. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. SLEDGE HAMMER PLUMB BOB TRY SQUARE PULL PUSH RULE CLAW HAMMER LEVEL BAR RIP SAW NYLON STRING BOLO CROSS CUT SAW

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INFORMATION SHEET NO. 1.1-5 COMPANY RULES AND REGULATIONS
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Upon completing this section, you should be able to know the COMPANY RULES AND REGULATIONS. To avoid headache and unnecessary expenses, make sure that all necessary permits are secured from local authorities concerned before any activity in the construction site. 1. Relocate the boundaries of the construction, especially lots without existing reference point or adjoining structures. This job is to be given to a geodetic engineer. 2. Clear all sites of any existing structures, trees and elements that will obstruct the construction activities. Cutting of trees requires permit from the Department of Energy and Natural Resources. 3. Allocate space for warehousing, workers’ quarter and construction office which are usually requirements in the construction embodied in the specification contract. 4. Apply and secure temporary electric power connections and water supply. 5. The site of the construction must be securely fenced to protect the construction activities from onlookers and passersby and to also protect the materials from pilferage both from the outside and the inside. 6. Determine the building set back from the road line. Install the stake on the ground at a reasonable spacing that will fit into the length of the batter board available.

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Carpentry NC II Stake-out Building Line

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SELF-CHECK NO. 1.1-5
Check your mastery in types of doors and window symbols by completing the tasks below. Directions: On a separate sheet of paper, answer the following questions: In securing the necessary permits needed before erecting a building, what local authorities can help you? 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) Building permit Electrical permit Sanitary and plumbing permit Zoning clearance Fencing permit Permit to cut trees Water installation permit Excavation and ground preparation permit Enclosure permit Mechanical permit Scaffolding permit Sidewalk construction permit

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ANSWER KEY NO. 1.1-5
Check your mastery in types of doors and window symbols by completing the tasks below. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) Engineering office Electric company Engineering office Registry of Deeds DENR Water district Engineering office Engineering office Engineering office Engineering office Engineering office Engineering office

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Carpentry NC II Stake-out Building Line

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LEARNING OUTCOME NO. 2 CONTENT/S: • Setting Batter Boards

Stake-out and set batter boards

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA • Stakes are set out from pre-determined building lines • Batter board materials are measured, laid out and cut according to specification • Stakes are set 0.75-1.00 meter away from the pre-determined building lines • Batter boards are properly secured with tolerance for dimensions at +- 5 mm, and levelness of +- 3 mm. • Appropriate PPE is used according to job requirements CONDITIONS: You must be provided with the following: 1. WORKPLACE LOCATION 2. TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT Hammer Marking Tools Measuring Tools Steel Square Try-square 3. TRAINING MATERIALS Leaning Packages Bond paper Ball pens Manuals Related References ASSESSMENT METHOD Portfolio

Hand Saw Chalk Line Water Hose Level Plumb Bob PPE Circular Saw

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Carpentry NC II Stake-out Building Line

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Learning Experience
STAKE-OUT AND SET BATTER BOARDS • • • Learning Activities Read Information Sheet No. 1.2-1 on Setting batterboards Answer Self-Check No. 1.2-1 Perform Job Sheet No. 1.2-1 on Installing Batter Boards Special Instructions

Compare your answer to the answer key

Evaluate your own work using the Performance Criteria Present your work to your trainer for evaluation Keep a copy of your work for the next activities Evaluate your own work using the Perform Operation Sheet No. 1.2-1a Layout Performance Criteria Present your work to your trainer for the (Rectangular) Site evaluation Keep a copy of your work for the next activities Evaluate your own work using the Perform Operation Sheet No. 1.2-1b on Set Performance Criteria Present your work to your trainer for and Stake Procedure evaluation Keep a copy of your work for the next activities Evaluate your own work using the Perform Operation Performance Criteria Sheet No. 1.2-1c on Determining the location Present your work to your trainer for of the batter boards and evaluation Keep a copy of your work for the next construct them activities

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INFORMATION SHEET NO. 1.2-1 SETTING BATTER BOARDS
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Upon completing this section, you should be able to STAKE BATTER BOARD. A. Batter boards are a temporary framework used to assist in locating corners when laying out a foundation. • Batter-board posts are made from 2 x 4 or 4 x 4 material • Corner stakes are made from 2 x 2s • Batter boards are made from 1 x 4 or 1 x 6 pieces B. Staking Procedures Corner stakes are driven to mark the exact corners of the project. Excavating for a foundation will disturb the stakes, so batter boards are set up outside the boundary established by the stakes to preserve definite and accurate building lines. Heavy cord or fine wire is stretched from one batter board to another to mark these lines.
Figure 23. Right-angle batter boards

C. Location of Batter Boards The illustration below shows how to locate batter boards. Right-angle batter boards are erected 3 or 4 feet outside of each corner stake. Straight batter boards are erected 3 or 4 feet outside of the line stakes.

Figure 24. Batter board

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Carpentry NC II Stake-out Building Line

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D. Construction of Batter Boards Right-angle batter boards should be fastened to the posts after the posts are sunk. Since the boards should be at the exact height of the top of the foundation, it may be desirable to adjust the height by nailing the boards to the stakes after the stakes have been sunk. Right-angle batter boards may be nailed close to perpendicular by using a framing square and should be leveled by means of a carpenter's level before they are secured. Then, angle saw cuts may be made or nails driven into the tops of the boards to hold the lines in place. Separate cuts or nails may be used for the building line, the foundation line, the footing line, and excavation lines. These grooves permit the removal and replacement of the lines in the correct position.
Figure 25. Construction of batter boards

E. EXTENDING LINES The following procedure applies to a simple layout as shown below, and must be amended to apply to different or more complex layout problems: Step 1. After locating and sinking stakes A and B. erect batter boards 1, 2, 3, and 4. Extend a chalk line (X) from batter board 1 to batter board 3, over stakes A and B. Step 2. After locating and sinking stake C, erect batter boards 5 and 6. Extend chalk line Y from batter board 2 over stakes A and C to batter board 6. Step 3. After locating and sinking stake D, erect batter boards 7 and 8. Extend chalk line Z from batter board 5 to batter board 7, over stakes C and D. Step 4. Extend line O from batter board 8 to batter board 4, over stakes D and B.

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Carpentry NC II Stake-out Building Line

Date Developed: April 1, 2011 Developed by: Glenn F. Salandanan

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Figure 26. Laying out building line

Where foundation walls are wide at the bottom and extend beyond the outside dimensions of the building, the excavation must be larger than the laid-out size. To lay out dimensions of this excavation, measure out as far as required from the building line on each batter board and stretch lines between these points, outside the first layout. The lines may be at a right angle where they cross the corner layout stakes, found by holding a plumb bob over the corner layout stakes and adjusting the lines until they touch the plumb-bob line. All lines should be checked with a line level or a carpenter's level.

JZGMSAT QA SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II Stake-out Building Line

Date Developed: April 1, 2011 Developed by: Glenn F. Salandanan

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JOB SHEET NO. 1.2-1
Title: Performance Objective: Supplies and Materials: Tools and Equipment: Install Batter Boards Given the necessary materials, you should be able to install batter boards Working Drawing/ Plan Lumber, plywood, fasteners
• • • • • • • Hammer Marking Tools Measuring Tools Nylon String Steel Square Try-square Hand Saw • • • • • • Chalk Line Water Hose Level Plumb Bob Hand Saw PPE Circular Saw

Steps/Procedure: a. Lay out the site (refer to Operation Sheet No. 1.2-1a on Laying out the Site) 1. Establish the maximum outer perimeter. 2. Establish the desired distance at which the project will parallel the established front line. 3. Establish the rear line. 4. Establish the sidelines. b. Set and stake batter boards. Drive the corner stakes to mark the exact corners of the project (refer to Operation Sheet No. 1.2-1b on Setting and Staking Batter Board) c. Locate and construct batter boards (refer to Operation Sheet No. 1.2-1c). 1. Drive the posts into the ground. 2. Fasten the right-angle batter boards with a framing square to ensure that the boards are perpendicular. 3. Use a carpenter's level to level the batter board before nailing. 4. Saw grooves or notches and run the string lines. d. Extend and square the lines (refer to Operation Sheet No.1.31 on Extending and Squaring the Lines) 1. Use the plumb bob over the corner layout stake and adjust the lines until the lines intersect or touch the plumb bob line. Carpentry NC II Stake-out Building Line
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2. Check all the lines for levelness by using a line level or carpenter's level. 3. Square the lines by using both the 6-8-10 and the diagonal method. Assessment Method: Portfolio Demonstration

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Carpentry NC II Stake-out Building Line

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PERFORMANCE CRITERIA CHECKLIST JOB SHEET NO. 1.2-1
Name of Trainee:_________________________________ Date: __________________ CRITERIA 1. Are the stakes set out from the pre-determined building lines? 2. Did I measure, laid out and cut batter board materials according to specifications? 3. Are the stakes set 0.75-1.00 meter away from the pre-determined building lines? 4. Did I secure all the batter boards properly with tolerance for dimensions at ± 5 mm, and levelness of ± 3 mm? YES NO

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Carpentry NC II Stake-out Building Line

Date Developed: April 1, 2011 Developed by: Glenn F. Salandanan

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OPERATION SHEET NO. 1.2-1a
Title: Performance Objective: Supplies and Materials: Tools and Equipment: Lay Out the Site (Rectangular) Given the necessary materials, you should be able to lay-out the rectangular site from the given drawing. Working Drawing/ Plan Lumber, plywood, fasteners • Hammer • Chalk Line • Marking Tools • Water Hose Level • Measuring Tools • Plumb Bob • Nylon String • Hand Saw • Steel Square • PPE • Try-square • Circular Saw • Hand Saw

Steps/Procedure: 1. Work from an established line (or front line), such as a road or property line, parallel to construction and establish the maximum outer perimeter (AB, CD, AC, BD) of the building area.

2. Measure away from the front line (AB) along the side lines (AC and Carpentry NC II Stake-out Building Line
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BD) the distances (AO and BO) to the desired dimensions of the project that is to run parallel to the front line. 3. Stretch a line from point O on the left-side dimension to point O on the right-side dimension. This marks the frontage of the project. 4. Measure in from lines AC and BD along line OO one half the difference between the length of line OO and the actual dimension of the project parallel to lines AB. This will designate the measurement for points X. Both points X represent the two front corners of the project. EXAMPLE: If line OO = 30 feet and if the actual dimension of the project parallel to lines AB = 20 then, 30 feet - 20 feet = 10 feet (difference between the OO and actual dimension of the project) 10 feet divided by 2 = 5 feet between the property line and the actual project on all sides 5. The two distances OX and XO establish distances E and F. Extend lines from the two front corner points X and X, parallel to lines AC and BD respectively, for the other required dimension of the rectangle or project. This provides sidelines XG and XH. 6. Join point G and H to provide the rear line of the rectangle or project (GH). 7. Drive stakes at each corner once each of the four-corner points (X, X, G, and H) have been located. Erect batter boards at this time. Assessment Method: Performance Criteria Checklist

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Carpentry NC II Stake-out Building Line

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PERFORMANCE CRITERIA CHECKLIST OPERATION SHEET NO. 1.2-1a
Name of Trainee:_________________________________ Date: __________________ CRITERIA 1. Are the plans and details correctly interpreted and identified according to job requirements? 2. Have I established the perimeter of the building area according to the drawing? 3. Did I locate and drive stakes at the four corners of the lot? YES NO

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Carpentry NC II Stake-out Building Line

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OPERATION SHEET NO. 1.2-1b
Title: Performance Objective: Supplies and Materials: Tools and Equipment: Set and Stake Procedure Given the necessary materials, you should be able to set and stake building line Working Drawing/ Plan Lumber, plywood, fasteners • Hammer • Chalk Line • Marking Tools • Water Hose Level • Measuring Tools • Plumb Bob • Nylon String • Hand Saw • Steel Square • PPE • Try-square • Circular Saw • Hand Saw

Steps/Procedure: 1. Set batter boards. a) Use 2- by 4-inch or 4- by 4-inch material to make batter board posts. b) Use 1- by 4-inch or 1- by 6-inch material to make batter boards. c) Use 2- by 2-inch material to make corner stakes. 2. Use the following staking procedures: a) Drive corner stakes to mark the exact corners of the project. b) Use batter boards to preserve definite and accurate building lines since corner stakes will be disturbed during excavation. Assessment Method: Performance Criteria Checklist

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Carpentry NC II Stake-out Building Line

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PERFORMANCE CRITERIA CHECKLIST OPERATION SHEET NO. 1.2-1b
Name of Trainee:_________________________________ Date: __________________ CRITERIA 1. Did I use the proper materials in setting batter boards? a. Did I use 2- by 4-inch or 4- by 4-inch material to make batter board posts? b. Did I use 1- by 4-inch or 1- by 6-inch material to make batter boards? c. Did I use 2- by 2-inch material to make corner stakes. YES NO

2. Did I follow the procedure in staking? 3. Are stakes set out at 0.75-1.00 meter away from the pre-determined building lines?

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Carpentry NC II Stake-out Building Line

Date Developed: April 1, 2011 Developed by: Glenn F. Salandanan

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OPERATION SHEET NO. 1.2-1c
Title: Performance Objective: Supplies and Materials: Tools and Equipment: Determine the location of the batter boards and construct them Given the necessary materials, you should be able to set and stake building line Working Drawing/ Plan Lumber, plywood, fasteners • Hammer • Chalk Line • Marking Tools • Water Hose Level • Measuring Tools • Plumb Bob • Nylon String • Hand Saw • Steel Square • PPE • Try-square • Circular Saw • Hand Saw

Steps/Procedure: 1. Determine the location of the batter boards. a) Erect right angle batter boards 3 feet to 4 feet outside of each corner stake. b) Stake straight batter boards 3 feet or 4 feet outside of the line stakes. c) Stretch heavy cord or fine wire from one batter board to another to mark the building lines. 2. Construct batter boards. a) Fasten right-angle batter boards to the posts after the posts are driven into the ground. b) Fasten batter boards at the exact height of the top of the foundation. c) Erect right angle batter boards by using a framing square to ensure that the boards are as close to perpendicular as possible. Ensure that the batter board is level by using a carpenter's level before nailing the batter board in place. d) Saw notches or grooves or drive nails into the top of the batter board to hold the lines in place. e) Use separate grooves or nails to indicate the building line, foundation line, footing line, or excavation line. The grooves permit removal of the line as needed and replacement of the lines in the correct position. Assessment Method: Performance Criteria Checklist Carpentry NC II Stake-out Building Line
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PERFORMANCE CRITERIA CHECKLIST OPERATION SHEET NO. 1.2-1c
Name of Trainee:_________________________________ Date: __________________ CRITERIA 1. Have I determined the correct location of the batter boards? 2. Are batter boards fastened to the exact height of the top of the foundation? 3. Are the right angle batter board perpendicular with each other as possible? 4. Did I make sure that batter boards are leveled? 5. Are all lines on top of the batter board secured and in placed? YES NO

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Carpentry NC II Stake-out Building Line

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LEARNING OUTCOME NO. 3 CONTENTS: • Squaring Lines

Fix Building Lines

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA • Stake-out building lines are properly secured for reference in excavating building foundation. • Marking lines are squared and plumbed from the batter board lines with tolerance of + 3mm on all measurements. • Worksite is cleaned and kept in safe state according to OSHC regulations. • Daily work report is accomplished in accordance with company rules and regulationss CONDITIONS: You must be provided with the following: 1. WORKPLACE LOCATION 2. TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT Hammer Marking Tools Measuring Tools Steel Square Try-square 3. TRAINING MATERIALS Leaning Packages Bond paper Ball pens Manuals Related References ASSESSMENT METHOD Portfolio

Hand Saw Chalk Line Water Hose Level Plumb Bob PPE Circular Saw

JZGMSAT QA SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II Stake-out Building Line

Date Developed: April 1, 2011 Developed by: Glenn F. Salandanan

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Learning Experience
Fix Building Lines • • • Learning Activities Read Information Sheet No. 1.3-1 on Squaring lines Answer Self-Check No. 1.3-1 Perform Operation Sheet No. 1.3-1 on Extending and squaring lines Special Instructions

Compare your answer to the answer key Evaluate your own work using the Performance Criteria Present your work to your trainer for evaluation Keep a copy of your work for the next activities

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Carpentry NC II Stake-out Building Line

Date Developed: April 1, 2011 Developed by: Glenn F. Salandanan

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INFORMATION SHEET NO. 1.3-1 SQUARING LINES
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Upon completing this section, you should be able to SQUARE LINES The two methods commonly used for squaring extended lines are the 6-8-10 method and the diagonal method. A. The 6-8-10 Method After extended lines are in place, measure line EF for a distance of 6 feet. Measure line EG for a distance of 8 feet. Adjust the lines (Y and X) until FG equals 10 feet. Multiples of 6-8-10 may be used for large layouts; for example, 12-16-20 for a layout 50 feet by 100 feet. For accuracy, never start with a measurement of less than 6 feet. B. The Diagonal Method If the layout is rectangular, cutting the rectangle from opposing corners, will form two triangles as shown below. If the rectangle is perfect, these lines will be equal in length and the corners perfectly square. If lines are not equal in length, adjust the corners by moving the lines right or left until H and are equal.

Figure 27. Squaring lines using diagonal method

JZGMSAT QA SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II Stake-out Building Line

Date Developed: April 1, 2011 Developed by: Glenn F. Salandanan

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OPERATION SHEET NO. 1.3-1
Title: Performance Objective: Supplies and Materials: Tools and Equipment: Extend and Square Lines Given the necessary materials, you should be able to extend and square lines Working Drawing/ Plan Lumber, plywood, fasteners • Hammer • Chalk Line • Marking Tools • Water Hose Level • Measuring Tools • Plumb Bob • Nylon String • Hand Saw • Steel Square • PPE • Try-square • Circular Saw • Hand Saw

Steps/Procedure: a. Perform a simple layout.

Step 1. Follow the placement of stakes A and B, erect batter boards number 1 through 4. Extend a chalk line (X) from the batter board numbers 1 to 3, over stakes A and B. Step 2. Follow the placement of stake C, erect batter boards number Carpentry NC II Stake-out Building Line
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5 and 6. Extend chalk line (Y) from batter boards number 2 and 6, over stakes A and C. Step 3. Follow the placement of stake D, erect batter boards number 7 and 8. Extend chalk line (Z) from batter board number 5 to 7, over stakes C and D. Step 4. Extend line (O) from batter boards number 8 to 4, over stakes D and B. 1. Lay out dimensions for excavation lines, footer lines, or reference lines other than building lines. Use the building line marks on the batter boards as a reference. Adjust the measurement as required to obtain the desired dimensions for the reference line. NOTE: Lines may cross and form right angles at the corner layout stakes. 2. Verify exact placement of the cross lines by holding a plumb bob over the corner layout stake. Adjust the lines until the lines intersect or touch the plumb bob line. 3. Use a line or carpenter's level to ensure that the lines are level. b. Square the lines using the following two methods: • 6-8-10 Method 1. Measure line EF for a distance of 6 feet. 2. Measure line EG for a distance of 8 feet. 3. Adjust lines (Y and X) until FG = 10 feet. • Diagonal method. Use the diagonal method for a rectangular or square shaped layout. 1. Measure diagonal lines H and I. 2. If lines H and I are equal in length, then the rectangle is perfect and the corners are square. 3. Adjust the corners by moving the lines left or right until lines H and I are equal, if lines H and I are not equal in length. Assessment Method: Performance Criteria Checklist

JZGMSAT QA SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II Stake-out Building Line

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PERFORMANCE CRITERIA CHECKLIST OPERATION SHEET NO. 1.3-1
Name of Trainee:_________________________________ Date: __________________ CRITERIA 1. Did I ensure that lines are at right angle with each other using the two method? a. Using 6-8-10 method YES NO

b. Using diagonal method 2. Did I made necessary adjustments to make sure that lines are at right angle?

JZGMSAT QA SYSTEM

Carpentry NC II Stake-out Building Line

Date Developed: April 1, 2011 Developed by: Glenn F. Salandanan

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