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Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau, Perlis

CHAPTER 2- QUADRATIC EQUATIONS

2.1 INTRODUCTION 1. General form of quadratic equation is ax 2 + bx + c = 0 where : (i) x is unknown (ii) a, b and c is constant (iii) a ≠ 0 (iv)The powers of x are positive integers up to a maximum value of 2. 2. Roots are the value of the unknown that satisfy the equation. Example 1:

x 2 − 2x − 3 = 0 ( x + 1)( x − 3) = 0 x + 1 = 0 or x − 3 = 0 x = −1 or x = 3

root

2.2 SOLVING QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 1. Factorization method Example 1:

x 2 − 2x − 3 = 0 ( x + 1)( x − 3) = 0 x + 1 = 0 or x − 3 = 0 x = −1 or x = 3

Example 2:

x 2 − 3x − 4 = 0 ( x + 1)( x − 4) = 0 x + 1 = 0 or x − 4 = 0 x = −1 or x = 4

Page | 20

For this example the coefficient of x is -2 so -2 is divided by 2 and become -1. 3.Chapter 2. x 2 − 2x − 3 = 0 x 2 − 2 x + ( −1) 2 − ( −1) 2 − 3 = 0 ( x − 1) 2 − 1 − 3 = 0 ( x − 1) 2 − 4 = 0 ( x − 1) 2 = 4 x − 1 = ±2 x − 1 = 2 or x − 1 = −2 x = −1 or x=3 (−1) 2 − (−1) 2 is added between term bx and c. If the coefficient of x is 6 so 6 is divided by 2 and become 3.Completing the square method Example: To solve the quadratic equation by completing the square method. If (−1) 2 − (−1) 2 . Perlis 2. If the coefficient of x is -4 so -4 is divided by 2 and become -2. By Using formula ax 2 + bx + c = 0 b c x2 + x + = 0 a a b b b c x 2 + x + ( )2 − ( )2 + = 0 a 2a 2a a 2 b b c (x + ) 2 − 2 + = 0 2a a 4a 2 b b c( 4a ) (x + ) 2 = 2 − 2a a( 4a ) 4a How to obtain the formula? To obtain the formula is by using completing the square method. we know that the solution is equal to zero. (x + b 2 b 2 − 4ac ) = 2a 4a 2 x+ b b 2 − 4ac =± 2a 4a 2 x+ b b 2 − 4ac =± 2a 4a 2 Page | 21 . So the equation will become like this x2 + 6x + (3)2 − (3)2 − 3=0. So the equation will become like this x2 − 4x + ( − 2)2 − ( − 2)2 − 3=0. The concept of completing the square method is the coefficient of x which is b is divided by 2 and the number is squared Part x − 2 x + (−1) is factorized and becomes 2 2 ( x − 1) 2 while − (−1) 2 − 3 = 0 is solved.Quadratic Equations Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau. the coefficient of x2 must be 1.

Quadratic Equations Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau. Give your answer correct to 2 decimal places. Factorize the following quadratic equations and hence. (a) x 2 − 5 x − 3 = 0 (b) 2 x 2 = 7 − 4 x 3. (a) x 2 − 5 x − 3 = 0 (b) 2 x 2 = 7 − 4 x Page | 22 . we can just substitute the value into the formula. Solution: From the equation. So. So convert the equation into two where the equation x = x= 2+4 2−4 x= or x = 2 2 x = 3 or x = −1 EXERCISE 2. x= − (−2) ± ( −2) 2 − 4(1)(−3) 2(1) x= x= 2 ± ( 4 + 12 2 2 ± (16 2 2±4 2 The value of ± 4 is 4 and -4. Perlis x+ b b 2 − 4ac =± 2a 2a b b 2 − 4ac ± 2a 2a 2 x=− This is the formula. We can just substitute the value of a. 2. Find the roots of the quadratic equation 2 x 2 = 4 x − 1 by using completing the square method. b = −2 and c = −3 .Chapter 2.2 2+4 and the other one 2 1. we know that a = 1 . state their roots. b and c from the equation based on the general form ax 2 + bx + c = 0 to find the values of x − b ± b − 4ac 2a Example: x= Example: Solve the equation x 2 − 2 x − 3 = 0 by using quadratic formula. Solve the following quadratic equation using the quadratic formula.

R ) + ( P. − 1 ( x + 1)( x − 4) = 0 x 2 + x − 4x − 4 = 0 x 2 − 3x − 4 = 0 = −4 The general form is x 2 − ( S .R) AND PRODUCT OF ROOTS (P. Solution: Make the equation in the general form 2x 2 − 4x + 1 = 0 1 x 2 − 2x + = 0 2 x 2 − ( S .O.O.3 FORMING QUADRATIC EQUATION FROM THE GIVEN ROOTS Given roots are − 1 and 4 . Write quadratic equations with roots 3 and 5.O.O.R) + ( P.R) If the roots are a and b. Sum of roots = 4 − 1 1 x = 4 or x = −1 2 =3 x − 4 = 0 or x + 1 = 0 Product of roots = 4 .R ) = 0 Substitute S. x = a or x = b x − a = 0 or x − b = 0 3 4 What is the general form? ( x − a )( x − b) = 0 x 2 − ax − bx + ab = 0 x 2 − (a + b ) + ab = 0 a and b is the roots so in the equation. This is because in the general form. the general form is x 2 − ( S . 2.R = 3 and P.Chapter 2.O.R) = 0 by divide all terms by 2.4 SUM OF ROOTS (S. Write quadratic equations with roots 1 and -2. a + b is the sum of roots and ab is the product of the roots Hence.Quadratic Equations Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau.O.O.O. Perlis 2. Page | 23 .O.R = − 4 x 2 − (3) x + (−4) = 0 x 2 − 3x − 4 = 0 EXERCISE 2. the value of a must be 1.O.R ) + ( P. Find the equation whose roots are 3m and 3n. 2.3 1. Form a quadratic equation whose roots are -3 and 3.R ) = 0 Example: The roots of the equation 2 x 2 − 4 x + 1 = 0 are m and n.

R = 3(2) =6 P. 3n = 9mn Substitute S.O.4 1. Perlis From the equation above.R = 3m + 3n 3 = 3(m +n) P.Quadratic Equations Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau. Compare 2 1 2 2 We know that the sum of roots of the equation is 2 and If the roots are 3m and 3n.O. find the value of a and p.O.O. find (a) the value of p (b) the two roots Page | 24 . 1 ) 2 9 2 the equation whose roots are 3m and 3n is 9 =0 2 2 x 2 − 12 x + 9 = 0 x 2 − 6x + We can leave the equation with x 2 − 6 x + 9 =0 2 but it is better to let the equation without fraction so we multiply all terms with 2.R = 2 Given the roots are m and n. 1 P. S. 3. One of the roots of the quadratic equation x 2 + px + 8 = 0 is half the value of the other root.Chapter 2. we know that S. EXERCISE 2.O.R = 2 General form is x 2 − ( S . Given that m 2 1 and n is the roots. so m + n = 2 and mn = 2 the product of roots of the equation is 4 into 3 and 2 into 4 . Hence. the equation is x 2 − 2 x + these two equations.R) = 0 . For this question. Given that a and 3 are roots of the quadratic equation px 2 + 3 x + 18 = 0 . Find the possible values of p.O.O.R= 3m . Given that the value of one root is 3 times the other for the quadratic equation 3 x 2 − 2 x + p = 0 . m+n=2 1 mn = 1 = 0 . 2.O.R) + ( P.R = 9( = 1 1 .

We can solve a quadratic equation by factorization if the value for b 2 − 4ac is a perfect square.O.If b 2 − 4ac = 0 . then the quadratic equation has two different roots(also known as two distinct roots) x 2 − 2x − 3 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = (−2) 2 − 4(1)(−3) = 16 ( x + 1)( x − 3) = 0 x + 1 = 0 or x − 3 = 0 x = −1 or x = 3 b 2 − 4ac > 0 2. Perlis 2.Chapter 2. Example 1: Given that 3 and k are roots of the quadratic equation x( x + 1) = 12 has two equal roots. then the quadratic equation has real roots. Types of root of Quadratic Equation 1.If b 2 − 4ac < 0 .Quadratic Equations Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau.From the formula x = − b ± b 2 − 4ac . 3. When compare the equation x 2 − ( S . Page | 25 x 2 + x − 12 = 0 .O.71 b 2 − 4ac < 0 4.R) + ( P. Find the value of h.R) = 0 and Solution: x 2 − (−1) x + (−12) = 0 . then the quadratic equation has two equal roots x 2 − 10 x + 25 = 0 ( x − 5)( x − 5) = 0 x−5 = 0 x=5 b 2 − 4ac = (−10) 2 − 4(1)(25) =0 b − 4ac = 0 2 3. then the quadratic equation has no real roots(or no roots) 2 x 2 − 3x + 10 = 0 b 2 − 4ac = (−3) 2 − 4(2)(10) = 9 – 80 = .5 CONDITIONS FOR THE TYPES OF ROOT OF QUADRATIC EQUATION 1.If b 2 − 4ac ≥ 0 .If b 2 − 4ac > 0 . we know that the part b 2 − 4ac is called the discriminant of 2a quadratic equation ax 2 + bx + c = 0 . 2. The value of the discriminate will determine the types of roots of a quadratic equation. we would know sum of roots and product of roots for the equation.

find the largest integer of k. This is because in this case.R are − 1 and − 12 respectively. k = 3k Hence.O.R = 12 We can choose other unknown to be the roots but it is better to do not put x as the roots. Solution: From the equation x 2 − 4 x + k + 1 = 0 . the largest integer of k is 2 Hence. S.O. b = −4 and c = k + 1 . k is less that 3 so the k= 2.O.R. Example 3: One of the roots of the equation x 2 + kx + 12 = 0 is thrice the value of the other.R and P.-1.R = − 1 P.O.R are k + 3 and 3k respectively.O. k + 3 = −1 or 3k = −12 k = −4 or k = −4 k = −4 Example 2: From the equation. Perlis x 2 − (−1) x + (−12) = 0 From the equation above.R = − k P. Given that the equation x 2 − 4 x + k + 1 = 0 has two different roots.Quadratic Equations Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau. Find the possible values of k.O. Two different roots: b 2 − 4ac > 0 (−4) 2 − 4(1)(k + 1) > 0 16 − 4(k + 1) > 0 16 − 4k − 4 > 0 − 4k > −12 k <3 Integer is a positive or negative number including 0.-2 and so on. But we cannot put k as the root. k acts as the S.R and P. we know that S.O.1.O. Hence. we know that a = 1 . Hence compare both of them to find the value of k. we know that S.0. Solution: x 2 + kx + 12 = 0 Let the roots be m and 3m. Page | 26 .Chapter 2.R = − 12 Given 3 and k are roots.R= 3 . From the equation.O. S.R= k + 3 P. From the given roots. we know that S. the largest integer of k is 2.O.O.

Hence compare both of them to find the value of k. From the given roots. Equal roots: b 2 − 4ac = 0 [−(5 + h)]2 − 4(1)(5 + h) = 0 (5 + h) 2 − 4(5 + h) = 0 h 2 + 10h + 25 − 20 − 4h = 0 h 2 + 6h + 5 = 0 (h + 5)(h + 1) = 0 h + 5 = 0 or h + 1 = 0 h = −5 or h = −1 Page | 27 .Chapter 2.R and 1 3m 2 = 12 m2 = 4 m = ±2 Substitute m = ±2 into 1 . we know that S. (i) m = 2 (ii) m = −2 P. we know that S. k = 4(2) k =8 So.O.R = 3m x m = 3m2 Hence. we know that a = 1 . find the values of h.O.R are 4m and 3m 2 respectively. Solution: x 2 − 5 x + 5 = hx − h x 2 − 5 x − hx + 5 + h = 0 x 2 − (5 + h) x + (5 + h) = 0 From the equation above. S. b = −(5 + h) and c = 5 + h . Perlis From the roots.O.O. k = ±8 Example 4: k = 4(−2) k = −8 Given that x 2 − 5 x + 5 = h( x − 1) has equal roots.O.R = 3m + m = 4m P.R are − k and 12 respectively.R and P. 4m = − k k = 4m From the equation.Quadratic Equations Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau.O.

Solution: kx 2 + (2k − 7) x + k = 0 Real roots: b 2 − 4ac ≥ 0 (2k − 7) 2 − 4(k )(k ) ≥ 0 4k 2 − 28k + 49 − 4k 2 ≥ 0 28k ≤ 49 3 k ≤1 4 The largest integer value of k is 1. 2 and so on. Fractions and decimals are not integer.Chapter 2. Page | 28 . In Form One. Such as 1. Perlis Example 5: Find the largest integer value of k if kx 2 + (2k − 7) x + k = 0 has real roots. Integer is a positive or negative number that is a whole number. We have learned about integer.Quadratic Equations Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau.

6. 10. 11. Given that α and β are roots of equation x 2 + kx + 3 = 0 . Given − 1 and 4 are roots of a quadratic equation state the equation in the form ax 2 + bx + c = 0 3 where a. 13. Determine the type of roots for the quadratic equation 2 x 2 − 3x + 3 = 0 14. 9. Given that equation 2 x 2 − 6 x = 2k − 1 has different roots. Perlis CHAPTER REVIEW EXERCISE 1. The quadratic equation x( x + 4) = 2 p − 3 has two distinct roots. Form a quadratic equation with roots p + 1 and q + 1 . The quadratic equation 2 x 2 + mx + k = 0 has roots − 7 and 4 . b and c are integers. 5. find the roots of the equation based on the larger value of k. Find the range of values of p. Given that the roots of the quadratic equation ( x − 2)( x + 5) = 0 are p and q. Form a quadratic equation with the roots − 2 and 1 . Calculate the possible values of k and m. Find the values of k such that equation (k − 1) x 2 − 3(k − 6) x + k − 6 = 0 has equal roots. 3. 4. Page | 29 .Chapter 2. Find (i) the values ok m and k (ii) the range of values of p so that 2 x 2 + mx + k = p does not have real roots 7. 8. find the possible values of m and n. Solve the equation 2 x 2 + 5 x = 6 . whereas 2α and 2β are roots of equation x 2 − 7 x + m = 0 . find the range of values of k.Quadratic Equations Additional Mathematics Module Form 4 SMK Agama Arau. 3 12. Hence. Given that the quadratic equation x 2 − 5mx + n 2 = 0 has two equal roots. Find the range of values of p of the equation x( x − 2) = p + 5 has two different roots. Find the value of h if the straight line x + y = k is a tangent to the curve y = 8 − x 2 . Express n in terms of m. 2. Given that m + 3 and n − 1 are roots of equation x 2 + 6 x = −5 .

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