Real Analysis
by
H. L. Royden
Contents
1 Set Theory 1
1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.3 Unions, intersections and complements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.4 Algebras of sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.5 The axiom of choice and inﬁnite direct products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.6 Countable sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.7 Relations and equivalences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.8 Partial orderings and the maximal principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.9 Well ordering and the countable ordinals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2 The Real Number System 5
2.1 Axioms for the real numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2 The natural and rational numbers as subsets of R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.3 The extended real numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.4 Sequences of real numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.5 Open and closed sets of real numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.6 Continuous functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.7 Borel sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3 Lebesgue Measure 13
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.2 Outer measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.3 Measurable sets and Lebesgue measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.4 A nonmeasurable set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.5 Measurable functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.6 Littlewood’s three principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4 The Lebesgue Integral 18
4.1 The Riemann integral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.2 The Lebesgue integral of a bounded function over a set of ﬁnite measure . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.3 The integral of a nonnegative function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.4 The general Lebesgue integral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.5 Convergence in measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
5 Diﬀerentiation and Integration 22
5.1 Diﬀerentiation of monotone functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
5.2 Functions of bounded variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.3 Diﬀerentiation of an integral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
5.4 Absolute continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
5.5 Convex functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
6 The Classical Banach Spaces 27
6.1 The L
p
spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
6.2 The Minkowski and H¨older inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
6.3 Convergence and completeness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
6.4 Approximation in L
p
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
6.5 Bounded linear functionals on the L
p
spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
7 Metric Spaces 30
7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
7.2 Open and closed sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
7.3 Continuous functions and homeomorphisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
7.4 Convergence and completeness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
7.5 Uniform continuity and uniformity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
7.6 Subspaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
7.7 Compact metric spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
7.8 Baire category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
7.9 Absolute G
δ
’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
7.10 The AscoliArzel´a Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
8 Topological Spaces 41
8.1 Fundamental notions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
8.2 Bases and countability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
8.3 The separation axioms and continuous realvalued functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
8.4 Connectedness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
8.5 Products and direct unions of topological spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
8.6 Topological and uniform properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
8.7 Nets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
9 Compact and Locally Compact Spaces 51
9.1 Compact spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
9.2 Countable compactness and the BolzanoWeierstrass property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
9.3 Products of compact spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
9.4 Locally compact spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
9.5 σcompact spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
9.6 Paracompact spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
9.7 Manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
9.8 The Stone
˘
Cech compactiﬁcation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
9.9 The StoneWeierstrass Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
10 Banach Spaces 60
ii
10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
10.2 Linear operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
10.3 Linear functionals and the HahnBanach Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
10.4 The Closed Graph Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
10.5 Topological vector spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
10.6 Weak topologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
10.7 Convexity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
10.8 Hilbert space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
11 Measure and Integration 73
11.1 Measure spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
11.2 Measurable functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
11.3 Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
11.4 General convergence theorems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
11.5 Signed measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
11.6 The RadonNikodym Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
11.7 The L
p
spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
12 Measure and Outer Measure 83
12.1 Outer measure and measurability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
12.2 The extension theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
12.3 The LebesgueStieltjes integral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
12.4 Product measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
12.5 Integral operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
12.6 Inner measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
12.7 Extension by sets of measure zero . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
12.8 Carath´eodory outer measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
12.9 Hausdorﬀ measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
13 Measure and Topology 92
13.1 Baire sets and Borel sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
iii
1 Set Theory
1.1 Introduction
1. If ¦x : x ,= x¦ , = ∅, then there exists x such that x ,= x. Contradiction.
2. ∅ ⊂ ¦greeneyed lions¦.
3. X (Y Z) = ¦¸x, ¸y, z))¦, (X Y ) Z = ¦¸¸x, y), z)¦; ¸x, ¸y, z)) ↔ ¸¸x, y), z) ↔ ¸x, y, z).
4. Suppose P(1) is true and P(n) ⇒ P(n +1) for all n. Suppose that ¦n ∈ N : P(n) is false¦ , = ∅. Then
it has a smallest element m. In particular, m > 1 and P(m) is false. But P(1) ⇒ P(2) ⇒ ⇒ P(m).
Contradiction.
5. Given a nonempty subset S of natural numbers, let P(n) be the proposition that if there exists m ∈ S
with m ≤ n, then S has a smallest element. P(1) is true since 1 will then be the smallest element of
S. Suppose that P(n) is true and that there exists m ∈ S with m ≤ n + 1. If m ≤ n, then S has a
smallest element by the induction hypothesis. If m = n+1, then either m is the smallest element of S or
there exists m
t
∈ S with m
t
< m = n + 1, in which case the induction hypothesis again gives a smallest
element.
1.2 Functions
6. (⇒) Suppose f is onetoone. For each y ∈ f[X], there exists a unique x
y
∈ X such that f(x
y
) = y.
Fix x
0
∈ X. Deﬁne g : Y → X such that g(y) = x
y
if y ∈ f[X] and g(y) = x
0
if y ∈ Y ¸ f[X]. Then g is
a welldeﬁned function and g ◦ f = id
X
.
(⇐) Suppose there exists g : Y → X such that g ◦ f = id
X
. If f(x
1
) = f(x
2
), then g(f(x
1
)) = g(f(x
2
)).
i.e. x
1
= x
2
. Thus f is onetoone.
7. (⇒) Suppose f is onto. For each y ∈ Y , there exists x
y
∈ X such that f(x
y
) = y. Deﬁne g : Y → X
such that g(y) = x
y
for all y ∈ Y . Then g is a welldeﬁned function and f ◦ g = id
Y
.
(⇐) Suppose there exists g : Y → X such that f ◦ g = id
Y
. Given y ∈ Y , g(y) ∈ X and f(g(y)) = y.
Thus f is onto.
8. Let P(n) be the proposition that for each n there is a unique ﬁnite sequence ¸x
(n)
1
, . . . , s
(n)
n
) with
x
(n)
1
= a and x
(n)
i+1
= f
i
(x
(n)
1
, . . . , x
(n)
i
). Clearly P(1) is true. Given P(n), we see that P(n + 1) is true
by letting x
(n+1)
i
= x
(n)
i
for 1 ≤ i ≤ n and letting x
(n+1)
n+1
= f
n
(x
(n+1)
1
, . . . , x
(n+1)
n
). By letting x
n
= x
(n)
n
for each n, we get a unique sequence ¸x
i
) from X such that x
1
= a and x
i+1
= f
i
(x
1
, . . . , x
i
).
1.3 Unions, intersections and complements
9. A ⊂ B ⇒ A ⊂ A ∩ B ⇒ A ∩ B = A ⇒ A ∪ B = (A ¸ B) ∪ (A ∩ B) ∪ (B ¸ A) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (B ¸ A) =
B ⇒ A ⊂ A∪ B = B.
10. x ∈ A∩(B∪C) ⇔ x ∈ A and x ∈ B or C ⇔ x ∈ A and B or x ∈ A and C ⇔ x ∈ (A∩B) ∪(A∩C).
Thus A∩(B∪C) = (A∩B) ∪(A∩C). x ∈ A∪(B∩C) ⇔ x ∈ A or x ∈ B and C ⇔ x ∈ A or B and x ∈
A or C ⇔ x ∈ (A∪ B) ∩ (A∪ C). Thus A∪ (B ∩ C) = (A∪ B) ∩ (A∪ C).
11. Suppose A ⊂ B. If x / ∈ B, then x / ∈ A. Thus B
c
⊂ A
c
. Conversely, if B
c
⊂ A
c
, then A = (A
c
)
c
⊂
(B
c
)
c
= B.
12a. A∆B = (A¸ B) ∪ (B ¸ A) = (B ¸ A) ∪ (A¸ B) = B∆A.
A∆(B∆C) = [A ¸ ((B ¸ C) ∪ (C ¸ B))] ∪ [((B ¸ C) ∪ (C ¸ B)) ¸ A] = [A ∩ ((B ¸ C) ∪ (C ¸ B))
c
] ∪ [((B ¸
C) ∪(C ¸ B)) ∩A
c
] = [A∩((B
c
∪C) ∩(C
c
∪B))] ∪[((B ∩C
c
) ∪(C ∩B
c
)) ∩A
c
] = [A∩(B
c
∪C) ∩(B ∪
C
c
)] ∪ (A
c
∩ B ∩ C
c
) ∪ (A
c
∩ B
c
∩ C) = (A∩ B
c
∩ C
c
) ∪ (A∩ B ∩ C) ∪ (A
c
∩ B ∩ C
c
) ∪ (A
c
∩ B
c
∩ C).
(A∆B)∆C = [((A¸ B) ∪(B¸ A)) ¸ C] ∪[C ¸ ((A¸ B) ∪(B¸ A))] = [((A¸ B) ∪(B¸ A)) ∩C
c
] ∪[C ∩((A¸
B) ∪ (B ¸ A))
c
] = [((A ∩ B
c
) ∪ (B ∩ A
c
)) ∩ C
c
] ∪ [C ∩ ((A
c
∪ B) ∩ (B
c
∪ A))] = (A ∩ B
c
∩ C
c
) ∪ (A
c
∩
B ∩ C
c
) ∪ (A
c
∩ B
c
∩ C) ∪ (A∩ B ∩ C).
Hence A∆(B∆C) = (A∆B)∆C.
12b. A∆B = ∅ ⇔ (A¸ B) ∪ (B ¸ A) = ∅ ⇔ A¸ B = ∅ and B ¸ A = ∅ ⇔ A ⊂ B andB ⊂ A ⇔ A = B.
1
12c. A∆B = X ⇔ (A¸ B) ∪ (B ¸ A) = X ⇔ A∩ B = ∅ and A∪ B = X ⇔ A = B
c
.
12d. A∆∅ = (A¸ ∅) ∪ (∅ ¸ A) = A∪ ∅ = A; A∆X = (A¸ X) ∪ (X ¸ A) = ∅ ∪ A
c
= A
c
.
12e. (A∆B) ∩E = ((A¸ B) ∪(B¸ A)) ∩E = ((A¸ B) ∩E) ∪((B¸ A) ∩E) = [(A∩E) ¸ (B∩E)] ∪[(B∩
E) ¸ (A∩ E)] = (A∩ E)∆(B ∩ E).
13. x ∈ (
A∈c
A)
c
⇔ x / ∈ A for any A ∈ ( ⇔ x ∈ A
c
for all A ∈ ( ⇔ x ∈
A∈c
A
c
.
x ∈ (
A∈c
A)
c
⇔ x / ∈
A∈c
A ⇔ x ∈ A
c
for some A ∈ ( ⇔ x ∈
A∈c
A
c
.
14. x ∈ B ∩ (
A∈c
A) ⇔ x ∈ B and x ∈ A for some A ∈ ( ⇔ x ∈ B ∩ A for some A ∈ ( ⇔ x ∈
A∈c
(B ∩ A). Thus B ∩ (
A∈c
A) =
A∈c
(B ∩ A).
15. (
A∈A
A) ∩ (
B∈B
B) =
B∈B
((
A∈A
A) ∩ B) =
B∈B
(
A∈A
(A∩ B)) =
A∈A
B∈B
(A∩ B).
16a. If x ∈
A
λ
, then x ∈ A
λ
0
for some λ
0
and f(x) ∈ f[A
λ
0
] ⊂
f[A
λ
]. Thus f[
A
λ
] ⊂
f[A
λ
].
Conversely, if y ∈
f[A
λ
], then y ∈ f[A
λ
0
] for some λ
0
so y ∈ f[
A
λ
]. Thus
f[A
λ
] ⊂ f[
A
λ
].
16b. If x ∈
A
λ
, then x ∈ A
λ
for all λ and f(x) ∈ f[A
λ
] for all λ. Thus f(x) ∈
f[A
λ
] and
f[
A
λ
] ⊂
f[A
λ
].
16c. Consider f : ¦1, 2, 3¦ → ¦1, 3¦ with f(1) = f(2) = 1 and f(3) = 3. Let A
1
= ¦1, 3¦ and A
2
= ¦2, 3¦.
Then f[A
1
∩ A
2
] = f[¦3¦] = ¦3¦ but f[A
1
] ∩ f[A
2
] = ¦1, 3¦.
17a. If x ∈ f
−1
[
B
λ
], then f(x) ∈ B
λ
0
for some λ
0
so x ∈ f
−1
[B
λ
0
] ⊂
f
−1
[B
λ
]. Thus f
−1
[
B
λ
] ⊂
f
−1
[B
λ
]. Conversely, if x ∈
f
−1
[B
λ
], then x ∈ f
−1
[B
λ
0
] for some λ
0
so f(x) ∈ B
λ
0
⊂
B
λ
and
x ∈ f
−1
[
B
λ
].
17b. If x ∈ f
−1
[
B
λ
], then f(x) ∈ B
λ
for all λ and x ∈ f
−1
[B
λ
] for all λ so x ∈
f
−1
[B
λ
]. Thus
f
−1
[
B
λ
] ⊂
f
−1
[B
λ
]. Conversely, if x ∈
f
−1
[B
λ
], then x ∈ f
−1
[B
λ
] for all λ and f(x) ∈
B
λ
so
x ∈ f
−1
[
B
λ
].
17c. If x ∈ f
−1
[B
c
], then f(x) / ∈ B so x / ∈ f
−1
[B]. i.e. x ∈ (f
−1
[B])
c
. Thus f
−1
[B
c
] ⊂ (f
−1
[B])
c
.
Conversely, if x ∈ (f
−1
[B])
c
, then x / ∈ f
−1
[B] so f(x) ∈ B
c
. i.e. x ∈ f
−1
[B
c
]. Thus (f
−1
[B])
c
⊂ f
−1
[B
c
].
18a. If y ∈ f[f
−1
[B]], then y = f(x) for some x ∈ f
−1
[B]. Since x ∈ f
−1
[B], f(x) ∈ B. i.e. y ∈ B.
Thus f[f
−1
[B]] ⊂ B. If x ∈ A, then f(x) ∈ f[A] so x ∈ f
−1
[f[A]]. Thus f
−1
[f[A]] ⊃ A.
18b. Consider f : ¦1, 2¦ → ¦1, 2¦ with f(1) = f(2) = 1. Let B = ¦1, 2¦. Then f[f
−1
[B]] = f[B] =
¦1¦ B. Let A = ¦1¦. Then f
−1
[f[A]] = f
−1
[¦1¦] = ¦1, 2¦ A.
18c. If y ∈ B, then there exists x ∈ X such that f(x) = y. In particular, x ∈ f
−1
[B] and y ∈ f[f
−1
[B]].
Thus B ⊂ f[f
−1
[B]]. This, together with the inequality in Q18a, gives equality.
1.4 Algebras of sets
19a. T(X) is a σalgebra containing (. Let T be the family of all σalgebras containing ( and let
/ =
¦B : B ∈ T¦. Then / is a σalgebra containing (. Furthermore, by deﬁnition, if B is a σalgebra
containing (, then B ⊃ /.
19b. Let B
1
be the σalgebra generated by ( and let B
2
be the σalgebra generated by /. B
1
, being
a σalgebra, is also an algebra so B
1
⊃ /. Thus B
1
⊃ B
2
. Conversely, since ( ⊂ /, B
1
⊂ B
2
. Hence
B
1
= B
2
.
20. Let /
t
be the union of all σalgebras generated by countable subsets of (. If E ∈ (, then E is in the
σalgebra generated by ¦E¦. Thus ( ⊂ /
t
. If E
1
, E
2
∈ /
t
, then E
1
is in some σalgebra generated by
some countable subset (
1
of ( and E
2
is in some σalgebra generated by some countable subset (
2
of (.
Then E
1
∪ E
2
is in the σalgebra generated by the countable subset (
1
∪ (
2
so E
1
∪ E
2
∈ /
t
. If F ∈ /
t
,
then F is in some σalgebra generated by some countable set and so is F
c
. Thus F
c
∈ /
t
. Furthermore,
if ¸E
i
) is a sequence in /
t
, then each E
i
is in some σalgebra generated by some countable subset (
i
of (. Then
E
i
is in the σalgebra generated by the countable subset
(
i
. Hence /
t
is a σalgebra
containing ( and it contains /.
1.5 The axiom of choice and inﬁnite direct products
21. For each y ∈ Y , let A
y
= f
−1
[¦y¦]. Consider the collection A = ¦A
y
: y ∈ Y ¦. Since f is onto,
A
y
,= ∅ for all y. By the axiom of choice, there is a function F on A such that F(A
y
) ∈ A
y
for all y ∈ Y .
2
i.e. F(A
y
) ∈ f
−1
[¦y¦] so f(F(A
y
)) = y. Deﬁne g : Y → X, y → F(A
y
). Then f ◦ g = id
Y
.
1.6 Countable sets
22. Let E = ¦x
1
, . . . , x
n
¦ be a ﬁnite set and let A ⊂ E. If A = ∅, then A is ﬁnite by deﬁnition. If A ,= ∅,
choose x ∈ A. Deﬁne a new sequence ¸y
1
, . . . , y
n
) by setting y
i
= x
i
if x
i
∈ A and y
i
= x if x
i
/ ∈ A. Then
A is the range of ¸y
1
, . . . , y
n
) and is therefore ﬁnite.
23. Consider the mapping ¸p, q, 1) → p/q, ¸p, q, 2) → −p/q, ¸1, 1, 3) → 0. Its domain is a subset of the
set of ﬁnite sequences from N, which is countable by Propositions 4 and 5. Thus its range, the set of
rational numbers, is countable.
24. Let f be a function from N to E. Then f(v) = ¸a
vn
)
∞
n=1
with a
vn
= 0 or 1 for each n. Let
b
v
= 1 −a
vv
for each v. Then ¸b
n
) ∈ E but ¸b
n
) ,= ¸a
vn
) for any v. Thus E cannot be the range of any
function from N and E is uncountable.
25. Let E = ¦x : x / ∈ f(x)¦ ⊂ X. If E is in the range of f, then E = f(x
0
) for some x
0
∈ X. Now if
x
0
/ ∈ E, then x
0
∈ f(x
0
) = E. Contradiction. Similarly when x
0
∈ E. Hence E is not in the range of f.
26. Let X be an inﬁnite set. By the axiom of choice, there is a choice function F : T(X) ¸ ¦∅¦ → X.
Pick a ∈ X. For each n ∈ N, let f
n
: X
n
→ X be deﬁned by f
n
(x
1
, . . . , x
n
) = F(X ¸ ¦x
1
, . . . , x
k
¦). By
the generalised principle of recursive deﬁnition, there exists a unique sequence ¸x
i
) from X such that
x
1
= a, x
i+1
= f
i
(x
1
, . . . , x
i
). In particular, x
i+1
= F(X ¸ ¦x
1
, . . . , x
i
¦) ∈ X ¸ ¦x
1
, . . . , x
i
¦ so x
i
,= x
j
if
i ,= j and the range of the sequence ¸x
i
) is a countably inﬁnite subset of X.
1.7 Relations and equivalences
27. Let F, G ∈ Q = X/ ≡. Choose x
1
, x
2
∈ F and y
1
, y
2
∈ G. Then x
1
≡ x
2
and y
1
≡ y
2
so
x
1
+x
2
≡ y
1
+y
2
. Thus y
1
+y
2
∈ E
x
1
+x
2
and E
x
1
+x
2
= E
y
1
+y
2
.
28. Suppose ≡ is compatible with +. Then x ≡ x
t
implies x + y ≡ x
t
+ y since y ≡ y. Conversely,
suppose x ≡ x
t
implies x + y ≡ x
t
+ y. Now suppose x ≡ x
t
and y ≡ y
t
. Then x + y ≡ x + y
t
and
x +y
t
≡ x
t
+y
t
so x +y ≡ x
t
+y
t
.
Let E
1
, E
2
, E
3
∈ Q = X/ ≡. Choose x
i
∈ E
i
for i = 1, 2, 3. Then (E
1
+ E
2
) + E
3
= E
x
1
+x
2
+
E
3
= E
(x
1
+x
2
)+x
3
and E
1
+ (E
2
+ E
2
) = E
1
+ E
x
2
+x
3
= E
x
1
+(x
2
+x
3
)
. Since X is a group under +,
(x
1
+ x
2
) + x
3
= x
1
+ (x
2
+ x
3
) so + is associative on Q. Let 0 be the identity of X. For any F ∈ Q,
choose x ∈ F. Then F + E
0
= E
x+0
= E
x
= F. Similarly for E
0
+ F. Thus E
0
is the identity of Q.
Let F ∈ Q and choose x ∈ F and let −x be the inverse of x in X. Then F + E
−x
= E
x+(−x)
= E
0
.
Similarly for E
−x
+ F. Thus E
−x
is the inverse of F in Q. Hence the induced operation + makes the
quotient space Q into a group.
1.8 Partial orderings and the maximal principle
29. Given a partial order ≺ on X, deﬁne x < y if x ≺ y and x ,= y. Also deﬁne x ≤ y if x ≺ y or
x = y. Then < is a strict partial order on X and ≤ is a reﬂexive partial order on X. Furthermore,
x ≺ y ⇔ x < y ⇔ x ≤ y for x ,= y. Uniqueness follows from the deﬁnitions.
30. Consider the set (0, 1] ∪ [2, 3) with the ordering ≺ given by x ≺ y if and only if either x, y ∈ (0, 1]
and x < y, or x, y ∈ [2, 3) and x < y. Then ≺ is a partial ordering on the set, 2 is the unique minimal
element and there is no smallest element.
1.9 Well ordering and the countable ordinals
31a. Let X be a wellordered set and let A ⊂ X. Any strict linear ordering on X is also a strict linear
ordering on A and every nonempty subset of A is also a nonempty subset of X. Thus any nonempty
subset of A has a smallest element.
31b. Let < be a partial order on X with the property that every nonempty subset has a least element.
For any two elements x, y ∈ X, the set ¦x, y¦ has a least element. If the least element is x, then x < y.
If the least element is y, then y < x. Thus < is a linear ordering on X with the property that every
3
nonempty subset has a least element and consequently a well ordering.
32. Let Y = ¦x : x < Ω¦ and let E be a countable subset of Y . Y is uncountable so Y ¸ E is nonempty.
If for every y ∈ Y ¸ E there exists x
y
∈ E such that y < x
y
, then y → x
y
deﬁnes a mapping from Y ¸ E
into the countable set E so Y ¸ E is countable. Contradiction. Thus there exists y ∈ Y ¸ E such that
x < y for all x ∈ E. i.e. E has an upper bound in Y . Consider the set of upper bounds of E in Y . This
is a nonempty subset of Y so it has a least element, which is then a least upper bound of E.
33. Let ¦S
λ
: λ ∈ Λ¦ be a collection of segments. Suppose
S
λ
,= X. Then each S
λ
is of the form
¦x ∈ X : x < y
λ
¦ for some y
λ
∈ X. X ¸
S
λ
is a nonempty subset of the wellordered set X so it
has a least element y
0
. If y
0
< y
λ
for some λ, then y
0
∈ S
λ
. Contradiction. Thus y
0
≥ y
λ
for all λ.
Clearly,
S
λ
⊂ ¦x ∈ X : x < y
0
¦. Conversely, if x < y
0
, then x / ∈ X ¸
S
λ
so x ∈
S
λ
. Hence
S
λ
= ¦x ∈ X : x < y
0
¦.
34a. Suppose f and g are distinct successorpreserving maps from X into Y . Then ¦x ∈ X : f(x) ,= g(x)¦
is a nonempty subset of X and has a least element x
0
. Now g
x
0
is the ﬁrst element of Y not in
g[¦z : z < x
0
¦] = f[¦z : z < x
0
¦] and so is f(x
0
). Thus f(x
0
) = g(x
0
). Contradiction. Hence there is at
most one successorpreserving map from X into Y .
34b. Let f be a successorpreserving map from X into Y . Suppose f[X] ,= Y . Then ¦y : y / ∈ f[X]¦ is a
nonempty subset of Y and has a least element y
0
. Clearly, ¦y : y < y
0
¦ ⊂ f[X]. Conversely, if y ∈ f[X],
then y = f(x) is the ﬁrst element not in f[¦z : z < x¦]. Since y
0
/ ∈ f[X] ⊃ f[¦z : z < x¦], y < y
0
. Thus
f[X] ⊂ ¦y : y < y
0
¦. Hence f[X] = ¦y : y < y
0
¦.
34c. Suppose f is successorpreserving. Let x, y ∈ X with x < y. f(y) is the ﬁrst element of Y
not in f[¦z : z < y¦] so f(y) ,= f(x). Furthermore, if f(y) < f(x), then f(y) ∈ f[¦z : z < x¦] and
y < x. Contradiction. Thus f(x) < f(y). Hence f is a onetoone order preserving map. Since f is
onetoone, f
−1
is deﬁned on f[X]. If f(x
1
) < f(x
2
), then x
1
< x
2
since f is order preserving. i.e.
f
−1
(f(x
1
)) < f
−1
(f(x
2
)). Thus f
−1
is order preserving.
34d. Let S = ¦z : z < x¦ be a segment of X and let z ∈ S. f[
S
(z) = f(z) is the ﬁrst element of Y not
in f[¦w : w < z¦]. Thus f[
S
(z) / ∈ f[
S
[¦w : w < z¦]. Suppose y < f[
S
(z). Then y ∈ f[¦w : w < z¦] so
y = f(w) for some w < z. Thus w ∈ S and y = f[
S
(w) ∈ f[
S
[¦w : w < z¦]. Hence f[
S
(z) is the ﬁrst
element of Y not in f[
S
[¦w : w < z¦].
34e. Consider the collection of all segments of X on which there is a successorpreserving map into
Y . Let S be the union of all such segments S
λ
and let f
λ
be the corresponding map on S
λ
. Given
s ∈ S, deﬁne f(s) = f
λ
(s) if s ∈ S
λ
. f is a welldeﬁned map because if s belongs to two segments S
λ
and S
µ
, we may assume S
λ
⊂ S
µ
so that f
µ
[
S
λ
= f
λ
by parts (d) and (a). Also, f(s) = f
λ
(s) is the
ﬁrst element of Y not in f
λ
[¦z : z < s¦] = f[¦z : z < s¦]. Thus f is a successorpreserving map from
S into Y . By Q33, S is a segment so either S = X or S = ¦x : x < x
0
¦ for some x
0
∈ X. In the
second case, suppose f[S] ,= Y . Then there is a least y
0
/ ∈ Y ¸ f[S]. Consider S ∪ ¦x
0
¦. If there is no
x ∈ X such that x > x
0
, then S ∪ ¦x
0
¦ = X. Otherwise, ¦x ∈ X : x > x
0
¦ has a least element x
t
and
S ∪ ¦x
0
¦ = ¦x : x < x
t
¦. Thus S ∪ ¦x
0
¦ is a segment of X. Deﬁne f(x
0
) = y
0
. Then f(x
0
) is the ﬁrst
element of Y not in f[¦x : x < x
0
¦]. Thus f is a successorpreserving map on the segment S ∪ ¦x
0
¦
so S ∪ ¦x
0
¦ ⊂ S. Contradiction. Hence f[S] = Y . Now if S = X, then by part (b), f[X] = f[S] is
a segment of Y . On the other hand, if f[S] = Y , then f
−1
is a successorpreserving map on Y and
f
−1
[Y ] = S is a segment of X.
34f. Let X be the wellordered set in Proposition 8 and let Y be an uncountable set wellordered by ≺
such that there is a last element Ω
Y
in Y and if y ∈ Y and y ,= Ω
Y
, then ¦z ∈ Y : z < y¦ is countable.
By part (e), we may assume there is a successorpreserving map f from X onto a segment of Y . If
f[X] = Y , then we are done. Otherwise, f[X] = ¦z : z < y
0
¦ for some y
0
∈ Y . If y
0
,= Ω
Y
, then f[X] is
countable and since f is onetoone, X is countable. Contradiction. If y
0
= Ω
Y
, then f(Ω
X
) < Ω
Y
and
f(Ω
X
) is the largest element in f[X]. i.e. f[X] = ¦z : z ≤ f(Ω
X
)¦, which is countable. Contradiction.
Hence f is an order preserving bijection from X onto Y .
4
2 The Real Number System
2.1 Axioms for the real numbers
1. Suppose 1 / ∈ P. Then −1 ∈ P. Now take x ∈ P. Then −x = (−1)x ∈ P so 0 = x + (−x) ∈ P.
Contradiction.
2. Let S be a nonempty set of real numbers with a lower bound. Then the set −S = ¦−s : s ∈ S¦ has
an upper bound and by Axiom C, it has a least upper bound b. −b is a lower bound for S and if a is
another lower bound for S, then −a is an upper bound for −S and b ≤ −a so −b ≥ a. Thus −b is a
greatest lower bound for S.
3. Let L and U be nonempty subsets of R with R = L ∪ U and such that for each l ∈ L and u ∈ U we
have l < u. L is bounded above so it has a least upper bound l
0
. Similarly, U is bounded below so it
has a greatest lower bound u
0
. If l
0
∈ L, then it is the greatest element in L. Otherwise, l
0
∈ U and
u
0
≤ l
0
. If u
0
< l
0
, then there exists l ∈ L with u
0
< l. Thus l is a lower bound for U and is greater
than u
0
. Contradiction. Hence u
0
= l
0
so u
0
∈ U and it is the least element in U.
4a.
x ≤ y ≤ z x ≤ z ≤ y y ≤ x ≤ z y ≤ z ≤ x z ≤ x ≤ y z ≤ y ≤ x
x ∧ y x x y y x y
y ∧ z y z y y z z
(x ∧ y) ∧ z x ∧ z = x x ∧ z = x y ∧ z = y y ∧ z = y x ∧ z = z y ∧ z = z
x ∧ (y ∧ z) x ∧ y = x x ∧ z = x x ∧ y = y x ∧ y = y x ∧ z = z x ∧ z = z
4b. Suppose x ≤ y. Then x ∧ y = x and x ∨ y = y so x ∧ y +x ∨ y = x +y. Similarly for y ≤ x.
4c. Suppose x ≤ y. Then −y ≤ −x so (−x) ∧ (−y) = −y = −(x ∨ y). Similarly for y ≤ x.
4d. Suppose x ≤ y. Then x +z ≤ y +z so x ∨ y +z = y +z = (x +z) ∨ (y +z). Similarly for y ≤ x.
4e. Suppose x ≤ y. Then zx ≤ zy if z ≥ 0 so z(x ∨ y) = zy = (zx) ∨ (zy). Similarly for y ≤ x.
5a. If x, y ≥ 0, then xy ≥ 0 so [xy[ = xy = [x[[y[. If x, y < 0, then xy > 0 so [xy[ = xy = (−x)(−y) =
[x[[y[. If x ≥ 0 and y < 0, then xy ≤ 0 so [xy[ = −xy = x(−y) = [x[[y[. Similarly when x < 0 and y ≥ 0.
5b. If x, y ≥ 0, then x + y ≥ 0 so [x + y[ = x + y = [x[ + [y[. If x, y < 0, then x + y < 0 so
[x + y[ = −x −y = [x[ +[y[. If x ≥ 0, y < 0 and x + y ≥ 0, then [x + y[ = x + y ≤ x −y = [x[ +[y[. If
x ≥ 0, y < 0 and x +y < 0, then [x +y[ = −x −y ≤ x −y = [x[ +[y[. Similarly when x < 0 and y ≥ 0.
5c. If x ≥ 0, then x ≥ −x so [x[ = x = x ∨ (−x). Similarly for x < 0.
5d. If x ≥ y, then x −y ≥ 0 so x ∨ y = x =
1
2
(x +y +x −y) =
1
2
(x +y +[x −y[). Similarly for y ≥ x.
5e. Suppose −y ≤ x ≤ y. If x ≥ 0, then [x[ = x ≤ y. If x < 0, then [x[ = −x ≤ y since −y ≤ x.
2.2 The natural and rational numbers as subsets of R
No problems
2.3 The extended real numbers
6. If E = ∅, then sup E = −∞ and inf E = ∞ so sup E < inf E. If E ,= ∅, say x ∈ E, then
inf E ≤ x ≤ sup E.
2.4 Sequences of real numbers
7. Suppose l
1
and l
2
are (ﬁnite) limits of a sequence ¸x
n
). Given ε > 0, there exist N
1
and N
2
such that
[x
n
−l
1
[ < ε for n ≥ N
1
and [x
n
−l
2
[ < ε for n ≥ N
2
. Then [l
1
−l
2
[ < 2ε for n ≥ max(N
1
, N
2
). Since ε
is arbitrary, [l
1
−l
2
[ = 0 and l
1
= l
2
. The cases where ∞ or −∞ is a limit are clear.
8. Suppose there is a subsequence ¸x
n
j
) that converges to l ∈ R. Then given ε > 0, there exists N
t
such
that [x
n
j
−l[ < ε for j ≥ N
t
. Given N, choose j ≥ N
t
such that n
j
≥ N. Then [x
n
j
−l[ < ε and l is a
cluster point of ¸x
n
). Conversely, suppose l ∈ R is a cluster point of ¸x
n
). Given ε > 0, there exists n
1
≥ 1
5
such that [x
n
1
− l[ < ε. Suppose x
n
1
, . . . , x
n
k
have been chosen. Choose n
k+1
≥ 1 + max(x
n
1
, . . . , x
n
k
)
such that [x
n
k+1
−l[ < ε. Then the subsequence ¸x
n
j
) converges to l. The cases where l is ∞ or −∞ are
similarly dealt with.
9a. Let l = limx
n
∈ R. Given ε > 0, there exists n
1
such that x
k
< l + ε for k ≥ n
1
. Also, there
exists k
1
≥ n
1
such that x
k
1
> l −ε. Thus [x
k
1
−l[ < ε. Suppose n
1
, . . . , n
j
and x
k
1
, . . . , x
k
j
have been
chosen. Choose n
j+1
> max(k
1
, . . . , k
j
). Then x
k
< l + ε for k ≥ n
j+1
. Also, there exists k
j+1
≥ n
j+1
such that x
k
j+1
> l − ε. Thus [x
k
j+1
− l[ < ε. Then the subsequence ¸x
k
j
) converges to l and l is a
cluster point of ¸x
n
). If l is ∞ or −∞, it follows from the deﬁnitions that l is a cluster point of ¸x
n
).
If l
t
is a cluster point of ¸x
n
) and l
t
> l, we may assume that l ∈ R. By deﬁnition, there exists N such
that sup
k≥N
x
k
< (l + l
t
)/2. If l
t
∈ R, then since it is a cluster point, there exists k ≥ N such that
[x
k
− l
t
[ < (l
t
− l)/2 so x
k
> (l + l
t
)/2. Contradiction. By deﬁnition again, there exists N
t
such that
sup
k≥N
x
k
< l + 1. If l
t
= ∞, then there exists k ≥ N
t
such that x
k
≥ l + 1. Contradiction. Hence l is
the largest cluster point of ¸x
n
). Similarly for limx
n
.
9b. Let ¸x
n
) be a bounded sequence. Then limx
n
≤ sup x
n
< ∞. Thus limx
n
is a ﬁnite real number
and by part (a), there is a subsequence converging to it.
10. If ¸x
n
) converges to l, then l is a cluster point. If l
t
,= l and l
t
is a cluster point, then there is
a subsequence of ¸x
n
) converging to l
t
. Contradiction. Thus l is the only cluster point. Conversely,
suppose there is exactly one extended real number x that is a cluster point of ¸x
n
). If x ∈ R, then
limx
n
= limx
n
= x. Given ε > 0, there exists N such that sup
k≥N
x
k
< x +ε and there exists N
t
such
that inf
k≥N
x
k
> x − ε. Thus [x
k
− x[ < ε for k ≥ max(N, N
t
) and ¸x
n
) converges to x. If x = ∞,
then limx
n
= ∞ so for any ∆ there exists N such that inf
k≥N
x
k
> ∆. i.e. x
k
> ∆ for k ≥ N. Thus
limx
n
= ∞. Similarly when x = −∞.
The statement does not hold when the word “extended” is removed. The sequence ¸1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 3, 1, 4, . . .)
has exactly one real number 1 that is a cluster point but it does not converge.
11a. Suppose ¸x
n
) converges to l ∈ R. Given ε > 0, there exists N such that [x
n
−l[ < ε/2 for n ≥ N.
Now if m, n ≥ N, [x
n
−x
m
[ ≤ [x
n
−l[ +[x
m
−l[ < ε. Thus ¸x
n
) is a Cauchy sequence.
11b. Let ¸x
n
) be a Cauchy sequence. Then there exists N such that [[x
n
[ −[x
m
[[ ≤ [x
n
− x
m
[ < 1 for
m, n ≥ N. In particular, [[x
n
[ −[x
N
[[ < 1 for n ≥ N. Thus the sequence ¸[x
n
[) is bounded above by
max([x
1
[, . . . , [x
N−1
[, [x
N
[ + 1) so the sequence ¸x
n
) is bounded.
11c. Suppose ¸x
n
) is a Cauchy sequence with a subsequence ¸x
n
k
) that converges to l. Given ε > 0,
there exists N such that [x
n
− x
m
[ < ε/2 for m, n ≥ N and [x
n
k
− l[ < ε/2 for n
k
≥ N. Now choose k
such that n
k
≥ N. Then [x
n
−l[ ≤ [x
n
−x
n
k
[ +[x
n
k
−l[ < ε for n ≥ N. Thus ¸x
n
) converges to l.
11d. If ¸x
n
) is a Cauchy sequence, then it is bounded by part (b) so it has a subsequence that converges
to a real number l by Q9b. By part (c), ¸x
n
) converges to l. The converse holds by part (a).
12. If x = limx
n
, then every subsequence of ¸x
n
) also converges to x. Conversely, suppose every
subsequence of ¸x
n
) has in turn a subsequence that converges to x. If x ∈ R and ¸x
n
) does not converge
to x, then there exists ε > 0 such that for all N, there exists n ≥ N with [x
n
−x[ ≥ ε. This gives rise to
a subsequence ¸x
n
k
) with [x
n
k
−x[ ≥ ε for all k. This subsequence will not have a further subsequence
that converges to x. If x = ∞ and limx
n
,= ∞, then there exists ∆ such that for all N, there exists
n ≥ N with x
n
< ∆. This gives rise to a subsequence ¸x
n
k
) with x
n
k
< ∆ for all k. This subsequence
will not have a further subsequence with limit ∞. Similarly when x = −∞.
13. Suppose l = limx
n
. Given ε, there exists n such that sup
k≥n
x
k
< l +ε so x
k
< l +ε for all k ≥ n.
Furthermore, given ε and n, sup
k≥n
x
k
> l − ε so there exists k ≥ n such that x
k
> l − ε. Conversely,
suppose conditions (i) and (ii) hold. By (ii), for any ε and n, sup
k≥n
x
k
≥ l −ε. Thus sup
k≥n
x
k
≥ l for
all n. Furthermore by (i), if l
t
> l, then there exists n such that x
k
< l
t
for all k ≥ n. i.e. sup
k≥n
x
k
≤ l
t
.
Hence l = inf
n
sup
k≥n
x
k
= limx
n
.
14. Suppose limx
n
= ∞. Then given ∆ and n, sup
k≥n
x
k
> ∆. Thus there exists k ≥ n such that
x
k
> ∆. Conversely, suppose that given ∆ and n, there exists k ≥ n such that x
k
> ∆. Let x
n
1
= x
1
and let n
k+1
> n
k
be chosen such that x
n
k+1
> x
n
k
. Then limx
n
k
= ∞ so limx
n
= ∞.
15. For all m < n, inf
k≥m
x
k
≤ inf
k≥n
x
k
≤ sup
k≥n
x
k
. Also, inf
k≥n
x
k
≤ sup
k≥n
x
k
≤ sup
k≥m
x
k
. Thus
inf
k≥m
x
k
≤ sup
k≥n
x
k
whenever m ,= n. Hence limx
n
= sup
n
inf
k≥n
x
k
≤ inf
n
sup
k≥n
x
k
= limx
n
.
If limx
n
= limx
n
= l, then the sequence has exactly one extended real number that is a cluster point
6
so it converges to l by Q10. Conversely, if l = limx
n
and limx
n
< limx
n
, then the sequence has a
subsequence converging to limx
n
and another subsequence converging to limx
n
. Contradiction. Thus
limx
n
= limx
n
= l.
16. For all n, x
k
+y
k
≤ sup
k≥n
x
k
+sup
k≥n
y
k
for k ≥ n. Thus sup
k≥n
(x
k
+y
k
) ≤ sup
k≥n
x
k
+sup
k≥n
y
k
for all n. Then inf
n
sup
k≥n
(x
k
+y
k
) ≤ inf
n
sup
k≥n
x
k
+inf
n
sup
k≥n
y
k
. i.e. lim(x
n
+y
n
) ≤ limx
n
+limy
n
.
Now limx
n
≤ lim(x
n
+y
n
) + lim(−y
n
) = lim(x
n
+y
n
) −limy
n
. Thus limx
n
+ limy
n
≤ lim(x
n
+y
n
).
17. For any n and any k ≥ n, x
k
y
k
≤ sup
k≥n
x
k
sup
k≥n
y
k
. Thus for all n, sup
k≥n
x
k
> 0 and
sup
k≥n
x
k
y
k
≤ sup
k≥n
x
k
sup
k≥n
y
k
. Now, taking limits, we get limx
n
y
n
≤ limx
n
limy
n
.
18. Since each x
v
≥ 0, the sequence ¸s
n
) is monotone increasing. If the sequence ¸s
n
) is bounded,
then lims
n
= sup s
n
∈ R so sup s
n
=
∞
v=1
x
v
. If the sequence ¸s
n
) is unbounded, then lims
n
= ∞ so
∞ =
∞
v=1
x
v
.
19. For each n, let t
n
=
n
v=1
[x
v
[. Since
∞
v=1
[x
v
[ < ∞, the sequence ¸t
n
) is a Cauchy sequence so
given ε, there exists N such that [t
n
− t
m
[ < ε for n > m ≥ N. Then [s
n
− s
m
[ = [x
m+1
+ + x
n
[ ≤
[x
m+1
[ + + [x
n
[ = [t
n
− t
m
[ < ε for n > m ≥ N. Thus the sequence ¸s
n
) is a Cauchy sequence so it
converges and ¸x
n
) has a sum.
20. x
1
+
∞
v=1
(x
v+1
−x
v
) = x
1
+ lim
n
n
v=1
(x
v+1
−x
v
) = lim
n
[x
1
+
n
v=1
(x
v+1
−x
v
)] = lim
n
x
n+1
=
lim
n
x
n
. Thus x = lim
n
x
n
if and only if x = x
1
+
∞
v=1
(x
v+1
−x
v
).
21a. Suppose
x∈E
x < ∞. For each n, let E
n
= ¦x ∈ E : x ≥ 1/n¦. Then each E
n
is a ﬁnite subset of
E. Otherwise, if E
n
0
is an inﬁnite set for some n
0
, then letting F
k
be a subset of E
n
0
with kn
0
elements
for each k ∈ N, s
F
k
≥ k. Then
x∈E
x ≥ s
F
k
≥ k for each k. Contradiction. Now E =
E
n
so E is
countable.
21b. Clearly, ¦x
1
, . . . , x
n
¦ ∈ T for all n. Thus sup s
n
≤ sup
F∈J
s
F
. On the other hand, given
F ∈ T, there exists n such that F ⊂ ¦x
1
, . . . , x
n
¦ so s
F
≤ s
n
and sup
F∈J
s
F
≤ sup s
n
. Hence
x∈E
x = sup
F∈J
s
F
= sup s
n
=
∞
n=1
x
n
.
22. Given x ∈ R, let a
1
be the largest integer such that 0 ≤ a
1
< p and a
1
/p ≤ x. Suppose a
1
, . . . , a
n
have
been chosen. Let a
n+1
be the largest integer such that 0 ≤ a
n+1
< p and a
n+1
/p
n+1
≤ x −
n
k=1
a
k
/p
k
.
This gives rise to a sequence ¸a
n
) of integers with 0 ≤ a
n
< p and x −
n
k=1
a
k
/p
k
< 1/p
n
for all n.
Now given ε, there exists N such that 1/p
N
< ε. Then [x −
n
k=1
a
n
/p
n
[ < 1/p
N
< ε for n ≥ N. Thus
x =
∞
n=1
a
n
/p
n
. This sequence is unique by construction. When x = q/p
n
with q ∈ ¦1, . . . , p −1¦, the
sequence ¸a
n
) obtained in this way is such that a
n
= q and a
m
= 0 for m ,= n. However the sequence
¸b
n
) with b
m
= 0 for m < n, b
n
= q −1 and b
m
= p −1 for m > n also satisﬁes x =
∞
n=1
b
n
.
Conversely, if ¸a
n
) is a sequence of integers with 0 ≤ a
n
< p, let s
n
=
n
k=1
a
k
/p
k
. Then 0 ≤ s
n
≤
(p − 1)
∞
k=1
1/p
k
= 1 for all n. Thus ¸s
n
) is a bounded monotone increasing sequence so it converges.
Furthermore, since 0 ≤ s
n
≤ 1 for all n, the sequence converges to a real number x with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1.
23. Given a real number x with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1, form its binary expansion (by taking p = 2 in Q22), which
we may regard as unique by ﬁxing a way of representing those numbers of the form q/2
n
. By Q22, this
gives a bijection from [0, 1] to the set of inﬁnite sequences from ¦0, 1¦, which is uncountable by Q1.24.
Thus [0, 1] is uncountable and since R ⊃ [0, 1], R is uncountable.
2.5 Open and closed sets of real numbers
24. The set of rational numbers is neither open nor closed. For each x ∈ Q
c
and for each δ > 0, there is
a rational number r with x < r < x + δ so Q
c
is not open and Q is not closed. On the other hand, for
each x ∈ Q and for each δ > 0, there is an irrational number s with x < s < x +δ so Q is not open.
(*) Given x, y ∈ R with x < y, there exists r ∈ Q such that x/
√
2 < r < y/
√
2. We may assume 0 / ∈ (x, y)
by taking x = 0 if necessary. Then r ,= 0 so r
√
2 is irrational and x < r
√
2 < y.
25. ∅ and R are both open and closed. Suppose X is a nonempty subset of R that is both open and
closed. Take x ∈ X. Since X is open, there exists δ > 0 such that (x − δ, x + δ) ⊂ X. Thus the set
S = ¦y : [x, y) ⊂ X¦ is nonempty. Suppose [x, y) ,⊂ X for some y > x. Then S is bounded above. Let
b = sup S. Then b ∈ S and b is a point of closure of X so b ∈ X since X is closed. But since X is open,
there exists δ
t
> 0 such that (b −δ
t
, b +δ
t
) ⊂ X. Then [x, b +δ
t
) = [x, b) ∪[b, b +δ
t
) ⊂ X. Contradiction.
Thus [x, y) ⊂ X for all y > x. Similarly, (z, x] ⊂ X for all z < x. Hence X = R.
7
26. Let A = (−1, 0) and B = (0, 1). Then A∩ B = ∅ but
¯
A∩
¯
B = [−1, 0] ∩ [0, 1] = ¦0¦.
27. Suppose x is a point of closure of E. Then for every n, there exists y
n
∈ E with [y
n
− x[ < 1/n.
Given ε > 0, choose N such that 1/N < ε. Then [y
n
− x[ < 1/N < ε for n ≥ N so ¸y
n
) is a sequence
in E with x = limy
n
. Conversely, suppose there is a sequence ¸y
n
) in E with x = limy
n
. Then for any
δ > 0, there exists N such that [x −y
n
[ < δ for n ≥ N. In particular, [x −y
N
[ < δ. Thus x is a point of
closure of E.
28. Let x be a point of closure of E
t
. Given δ > 0, there exists y ∈ E
t
such that [x − y[ < δ. If y = x,
then x ∈ E
t
and we are done. Suppose y ,= x. We may assume y > x. Let δ
t
= min(y − x, x + δ − y).
Then x / ∈ (y −δ
t
, y +δ
t
) and (y −δ
t
, y +δ
t
) ⊂ (x −δ, x +δ). Since y ∈ E
t
, there exists z ∈ E ¸ ¦y¦ such
that z ∈ (y −δ
t
, y +δ
t
). In particular, z ∈ E ¸ ¦x¦ and [z −x[ < δ. Thus x ∈ E
t
. Hence E
t
is closed.
29. Clearly E ⊂
¯
E and E
t
⊂
¯
E so E ∪ E
t
⊂
¯
E. Conversely, let x ∈
¯
E and suppose x / ∈ E. Then given
δ > 0, there exists y ∈ E such that [y −x[ < δ. Since x / ∈ E, y ∈ E ¸ ¦x¦. Thus x ∈ E
t
and
¯
E ⊂ E ∪E
t
.
30. Let E be an isolated set of real numbers. For any x ∈ E, there exists δ
x
> 0 such that [y −x[ ≥ δ
x
for all y ∈ E¸¦x¦. We may take each δ
x
to be rational and let I
x
= ¦y : [y −x[ < δ
x
¦. Then ¦I
x
: x ∈ E¦
is a countable collection of open intervals, each I
x
contains only one element of E, namely x, and
E ⊂
x∈E
I
x
. If E is uncountable, then I
x
0
will contain two elements of E for some x
0
. Contradiction.
Thus E is countable.
31. Let x ∈ R. Given δ > 0, there exists r ∈ Q such that x < r < x + δ. Thus x is an accumulation
point of Q. Hence Q
t
= R and
¯
Q = R.
32. Let F
1
and F
2
be closed sets. Then F
c
1
and F
c
2
are open so F
c
1
∩F
c
2
is open. i.e. (F
1
∪F
2
)
c
is open.
Thus F
1
∪ F
2
is closed. Let ( be a collection of closed sets. Then F
c
is open for any F ∈ ( so
F∈J
F
c
is open. i.e. (
F∈c
F)
c
is open. Thus
F∈c
F is closed.
33. Let O
1
and O
2
be open sets. Then O
c
1
and O
c
2
are closed so O
c
1
∪ O
c
2
is closed. i.e. (O
1
∩ O
2
)
c
is
closed. Thus O
1
∩ O
2
is open. Let ( be a collection of open sets. Then O
c
is closed for any O ∈ ( so
O∈c
O
c
is closed. i.e. (
O∈c
O)
c
is closed. Thus
O∈c
O is open.
34a. Clearly A
◦
⊂ A for any set A. A is open if and only if for any x ∈ A, there exists δ > 0 such that
¦y : [y −x[ < δ¦ ⊂ A if and only if every point of A is an interior point of A. Thus A is open if and only
if A = A
◦
.
34b. Suppose x ∈ A
◦
. Then there exists δ > 0 such that (x −δ, x + δ) ⊂ A. In particular, x / ∈ A
c
and
x / ∈ (A
c
)
t
. Thus x ∈ (A
c
)
c
. Conversely, suppose x ∈ (A
c
)
c
. Then x ∈ A and x is not an accumulation
point of A
c
. Thus there exists δ > 0 such that [y−x[ ≥ δ for all y ∈ A
c
¸¦x¦ = A
c
. Hence (x−δ, x+δ) ⊂ A
so x ∈ A
◦
.
35. Let ( be a collection of closed sets of real numbers such that every ﬁnite subcollection of ( has
nonempty intersection and suppose one of the sets F ∈ ( is bounded. Suppose
F∈c
F = ∅. Then
F∈c
F
c
= R ⊃ F. By the HeineBorel Theorem, there is a ﬁnite subcollection ¦F
1
, . . . , F
n
¦ ⊂ ( such
that F ⊂
n
i=1
F
c
i
. Then F ∩
n
i=1
F
i
= ∅. Contradiction. Hence
F∈c
F ,= ∅.
36. Let ¸F
n
) be a sequence of nonempty closed sets of real numbers with F
n+1
⊂ F
n
. Then for any ﬁnite
subcollection ¦F
n
1
, . . . , F
n
k
¦ with n
1
< < n
k
,
k
i=1
F
n
i
= F
n
k
,= ∅. If one of the sets F
n
is bounded,
then by Proposition 16,
∞
i=1
F
i
,= ∅.
For each n, let F
n
= [n, ∞). Then ¸F
n
) is a sequence of nonempty closed sets of real numbers with
F
n+1
⊂ F
n
but none of the sets F
n
is bounded. Now
∞
n=1
F
n
= ¦x : x ≥ n for all n¦ = ∅.
37. Removing the middle third (1/3, 2/3) corresponds to removing all numbers in [0, 1] with unique
ternary expansion ¸a
n
) such that a
1
= 1. Removing the middle third (1/9, 2/9) of [0, 1/3] corresponds
to removing all numbers with unique ternary expansion such that a
1
= 0 and a
2
= 1 and removing the
middle third (7/9, 8/9) of [2/3, 1] corresponds to removing all numbers with unique ternary expansion
such that a
1
= 2 and a
2
= 1. Suppose the middle thirds have been removed up to the nth stage, then
removing the middle thirds of the remaining intervals corresponds to removing all numbers with unique
ternary expansion such that a
i
= 0 or 2 for i ≤ n and a
n+1
= 1. Each stage of removing middle thirds
results in a closed set and C is the intersection of all these closed sets so C is closed.
38. Given an element in the Cantor ternary set with (unique) ternary expansion ¸a
n
) such that a
n
,= 1
for all n, let ¸b
n
) be the sequence obtained by replacing all 2’s in the ternary expansion by 1’s. Then
¸b
n
) may be regarded as the binary expansion of a number in [0, 1]. This gives a onetoone mapping
8
from the Cantor ternary set into [0, 1]. This mapping is also onto since given a number in [0, 1], we can
take its binary expansion and replace all 1’s by 2’s to get a sequence consisting of only 0’s and 2’s, which
we may then regard as the ternary expansion of a number in the Cantor ternary set.
39. Since the Cantor ternary set C is closed, C
t
⊂ C. Conversely, given x ∈ C, let ¸a
n
) be its ternary
expansion with a
n
,= 1 for all n. Given δ > 0, choose N such that 1/3
N
< δ. Now let ¸b
n
) be the sequence
with b
N+1
= [a
N+1
−2[ and b
n
= a
n
for n ,= N + 1. Let y be the number with ternary expansion ¸b
n
).
Then y ∈ C ¸ ¦x¦ and [x −y[ = 2/3
N+1
< 1/3
N
< δ. Thus x ∈ C
t
. Hence C = C
t
.
2.6 Continuous functions
40. Since F is closed, F
c
is open and it is the union of a countable collection of disjoint open intervals.
Take g to be linear on each of these open intervals and take g(x) = f(x) for x ∈ F. Then g is deﬁned
and continuous on R and g(x) = f(x) for all x ∈ F.
41. Suppose f is continuous on E. Let O be an open set and let x ∈ f
−1
[O]. Then f(x) ∈ O so
there exists ε
x
> 0 such that (f(x) − ε
x
, f(x) + ε
x
) ⊂ O. Since f is continuous, there exists δ
x
> 0
such that [f(y) − f(x)[ < ε
x
when y ∈ E and [y − x[ < δ
x
. Hence (x − δ
x
, x + δ
x
) ∩ E ⊂ f
−1
[O]. Let
U =
x∈f
−1
[O]
(x − δ
x
, x + δ
x
). Then U is open and f
−1
[O] = E ∩ U. Conversely, suppose that for
each open set O, there is an open set U such that f
−1
[O] = E ∩ U. Let x ∈ E and let ε > 0. Then
O = (f(x) −ε, f(x) +ε) is open so there is an open set U such that f
−1
[O] = E ∩U. Now x ∈ U and U
is open so there exists δ > 0 such that (x −δ, x +δ) ⊂ U. Thus E ∩ (x −δ, x +δ) ⊂ f
−1
[O]. i.e. for any
y ∈ E with [y −x[ < δ, [f(y) −f(x)[ < ε. Thus f is continuous on E.
42. Suppose ¸f
n
) is a sequence of continuous functions on E and that ¸f
n
) converges uniformly to f on
E. Given ε > 0, there exists N such that for all x ∈ E and n ≥ N, [f
n
(x) − f(x)[ < ε/3. Also, there
exists δ > 0 such that [f
N
(y) − f
N
(x)[ < ε/3 if y ∈ E and [y − x[ < δ. Now if y ∈ E and [y − x[ < δ,
then [f(y) −f(x)[ ≤ [f(y) −f
N
(y)[ +[f
N
(y) −f
N
(x)[ +[f
N
(x) −f(x)[ < ε. Thus f is continuous on E.
*43. f is discontinuous at the nonzero rationals:
Given a nonzero rational q, let ε = [f(q) − q[ > 0. If q > 0, given any δ > 0, pick an irrational
x ∈ (q, q +δ). Then [f(x) −f(q)[ = x −f(q) > q −f(q) = ε. If q < 0, given any δ > 0, pick an irrational
x ∈ (q −δ, q). Then [f(x) −f(q)[ = f(q) −x > f(q) −q = ε.
f is continuous at 0:
Given ε > 0, let δ = ε. Then when [x[ < δ, [f(x)[ ≤ [x[ < ε.
f is continuous at each irrational:
Let x be irrational. First we show that for any M, there exists δ > 0 such that q ≥ M for any
rational p/q ∈ (x − δ, x + δ). Otherwise, there exists M such that for any n, there exists a rational
p
n
/q
n
∈ (x −1/n, x + 1/n) with q
n
< M. Then [p
n
[ ≤ max([x −1[, [x + 1[)q
n
< M max([x −1[, [x + 1[)
for all n. Thus there are only ﬁnitely many choices of p
n
and q
n
for each n. This implies that there
exists a rational p/q in (x −1/n, x + 1/n) for inﬁnitely many n. Contradiction.
Given ε > 0, choose M such that M
2
> max([x + 1[, [x − 1[)/6ε. Then choose δ > 0 such that
δ < min(1, ε) and q ≥ M for any rational p/q ∈ (x − δ, x + δ). Suppose [x − y[ < δ. If y is irrational,
then [f(x) − f(y)[ = [x − y[ < δ < ε. If y = p/q is rational, then [f(y) − f(x)[ ≤ [f(y) − y[ + [y − x[ =
[p[[1/q−sin(1/q)[+[y−x[ < [p[/6q
3
+δ < max([x+1[, [x−1[)/6q
2
+δ ≤ max([x+1[, [x−1[)/6M
2
+δ < 2ε.
(*) Note that sin x < x for all x > 0 and x < sin x for all x < 0. Also, [x − sin x[ < x
3
/6 for all x ,= 0
(by Taylor’s Theorem for example).
44a. Let f and g be continuous functions. Given ε > 0, choose δ > 0 such that [f(x) −f(y)[ < ε/2 and
[g(x) −g(y)[ < ε/2 whenever [x −y[ < δ. Then [(f +g)(x) −(f +g)(y)[ = [f(x) −f(y) +g(x) −g(y)[ ≤
[f(x) −f(y)[ +[g(x) −g(y)[ < ε whenever [x −y[ < δ. Thus f +g is continuous at x. Now choose δ
t
> 0
such that [g(x) − g(y)[ < ε/2[f(x)[ and [f(x) − f(y)[ < ε/2 max([g(x) − ε/2[f(x)[[, [g(x) + ε/2[f(x)[[)
whenever [x − y[ < δ
t
. Then [(fg)(x) − (fg)(y)[ = [f(x)g(x) − f(x)g(y) + f(x)g(y) − f(y)g(y)[ ≤
[f(x)[[g(x) −g(y)[ +[f(x) −f(y)[[g(y)[ < ε whenever [x −y[ < δ
t
. Thus fg is continuous at x.
44b. Let f and g be continuous functions. Given ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that [f(a) − f(b)[ < ε
whenever [a − b[ < δ. There also exists δ
t
> 0 such that [g(x) − g(y)[ < δ whenever [x − y[ < δ
t
. Thus
[(f ◦ g)(x) −(f ◦ g)(y)[ = [f(g(x)) −f(g(y))[ < ε when [x −y[ < δ
t
. Thus f ◦ g is continuous at x.
9
44c. Let f and g be continuous functions. Given ε > 0, choose δ > 0 such that [f(x) −f(y)[ < ε/2 and
[g(x) −g(y)[ < ε/2 whenever [x−y[ < δ. Now [(f ∨g)(x) −(f ∨g)(y)[ ≤ [f(x) −f(y)[ +[g(x) −g(y)[ < ε.
Thus f ∨ g is continuous at x. Furthermore, f ∧ g = f +g −(f ∨ g) so f ∧ g is continuous at x.
44d. Let f be a continuous function. Then [f[ = (f ∨ 0) −(f ∧ 0) so f is continuous.
45. Let f be a continuous realvalued function on [a, b] and suppose that f(a) ≤ γ ≤ f(b). Let
S = ¦x ∈ [a, b] : f(x) ≤ γ¦. Then S ,= ∅ since a ∈ S and S is bounded. Let c = sup S. Then c ∈ [a, b]. If
f(c) < γ, there exists δ > 0 such that δ < b − c and [f(x) − f(c)[ < γ − f(c) whenever [x − c[ < δ. In
particular, [f(c + δ/2) − f(c)[ < γ − f(c). Then f(c + δ/2) < γ so c + δ/2 ∈ S. Contradiction. On the
other hand, if f(c) > γ, there exists δ
t
> 0 such that δ
t
< c − a and [f(x) − f(c)[ < f(c) − γ whenever
[x − c[ < δ
t
. Then [f(x) − f(c)[ < f(c) − γ for all x ∈ (c − δ
t
, c] so f(x) > γ and x / ∈ S for all such x.
Contradiction. Hence f(c) = γ.
46. Let f be a continuous function on [a, b]. Suppose f is strictly monotone. We may assume f
is strictly monotone increasing. Then f is onetoone. Also, by the Intermediate Value Theorem, f
maps [a, b] onto [f(a), f(b)]. Let g = f
−1
: [f(a), f(b)] → [a, b]. Then g(f(x)) = x for all x ∈ [a, b].
Let y ∈ [f(a), f(b)]. Then y = f(x) for some x ∈ [a, b]. Given ε > 0, choose δ > 0 such that
δ < min(f(x) − f(x − ε), f(x + ε) − f(x)). When [y − z[ < δ, z = f(x
t
) for some x
t
∈ [a, b] with
[g(y) − g(z)[ = [g(f(x)) − g(f(x
t
))[ = [x
t
− x[ < ε. Thus g is continuous on [f(a), f(b)]. Conversely,
suppose there is a continuous function g such that g(f(x)) = x for all x ∈ [a, b]. If x, y ∈ [a, b] with x < y,
then g(f(x)) < g(f(y)) so f(x) ,= f(y). We may assume x ,= a and f(a) < f(b). If f(x) < f(a), then
by the Intermediate Value Theorem, f(a) = f(x
t
) for some x
t
∈ [x, b] and a = g(f(a)) = g(f(x
t
)) = x
t
.
Contradiction. Thus f(a) < f(x). Now if f(x) ≥ f(y), then f(a) < f(y) ≤ f(x) so f(y) = f(x
tt
) for
some x
tt
∈ [a, x] and y = g(f(y)) = g(f(x
tt
)) = x
tt
. Contradiction. Thus f(x) < f(y). Hence f is strictly
monotone increasing.
47. Let f be a continuous function on [a, b] and ε a positive number. Then f is uniformly continuous
so there exists δ > 0 such that [f(x) − f(y)[ < ε/2 whenever x, y ∈ [a, b] and [x − y[ < δ. Choose N
such that (b − a)/N < δ and let x
i
= a + i(b − a)/N for i = 1, . . . , N. Now deﬁne ϕ on [a, b] to be
linear on each [x
i
, x
i+1
] with ϕ(x
i
) = f(x
i
) for each i so that ϕ is polygonal on [a, b]. Let x ∈ [a, b].
Then x ∈ [x
i
, x
i+1
] for some i. We may assume f(x
i
) ≤ f(x
i+1
). Then ϕ(x
i
) ≤ ϕ(x) ≤ ϕ(x
i+1
) and
[ϕ(x) −f(x)[ ≤ [ϕ(x) −ϕ(x
i
)[ +[ϕ(x
i
) −f(x)[ ≤ [ϕ(x
i+1
) −ϕ(x
i
)[ +[f(x
i
) −f(x)[ < ε.
48. Suppose x ∈ [0, 1] is of the form q/3
n
0
with q = 1 or 2. Then x has two ternary expansions
¸a
n
) and ¸a
t
n
) where a
n
0
= q, a
n
= 0 for n ,= n
0
, a
t
n
0
= q − 1, a
t
n
= 0 for n < n
0
and a
t
n
= 2 for
n > n
0
. If q = 1, then from the ﬁrst expansion we get N = n
0
, b
N
= 1 and b
n
= 0 for n < N so
N
n=1
b
n
/2
n
= 1/2
n
0
. From the second expansion we get N = ∞, b
n
= 0 for n < n
0
and b
n
= 1 for
n > n
0
so
N
n=1
b
n
/2
n
=
∞
n=n
0
+1
1/2
n
= 1/2
n
0
. If q = 2, then from the ﬁrst expansion we get N = ∞,
b
n
0
= 1 and b
n
= 0 for n ,= n
0
so
N
n=1
b
n
/2
n
=
∞
n=1
b
n
/2
n
= 1/2
n
0
. From the second expansion we
get N = n
0
, b
N
= 1 and b
n
= 0 for n < N so
N
n=1
b
n
/2
n
= 1/2
n
0
. Hence the sum is independent of
the ternary expansion of x.
Let f(x) =
N
n=1
b
n
/2
n
. Given x, y ∈ [0, 1] with ternary expansions ¸a
n
) and ¸a
t
n
) respectively, suppose
x < y and let n
0
be the smallest value of n such that a
n
0
,= a
t
n
0
. Then a
n
0
< a
t
n
0
and b
n
0
≤ b
t
n
0
. Thus
f(x) =
N
x
n=1
b
n
/2
n
≤
N
y
n=1
b
t
n
/2
n
= f(y). Given x ∈ [0, 1] and ε > 0, choose M such that 1/2
M
< ε.
Now choose δ > 0 such that δ < 1/3
M+2
. Then when [x−y[ < δ, [f(x) −f(y)[ < ε. Hence f is monotone
and continuous on [0, 1].
Each interval contained in the complement of the Cantor ternary set consists of elements with ternary
expansions containing 1. Furthermore, for any x, y in the same interval and having ternary expansions
¸a
n
) and ¸a
t
n
) respectively, the smallest n such that a
n
= 1 is also the smallest such that a
t
n
= 1. Hence f
is constant on each such interval. For any y ∈ [0, 1], let ¸b
n
) be its binary expansion. Take x ∈ [0, 1] with
ternary expansion ¸a
n
) such that a
n
= 2b
n
for all n. Then x is in the Cantor ternary set and f(x) = y.
Thus f maps the Cantor ternary set onto [0, 1].
49a. Suppose lim
x→y
f(x) ≤ A. Given ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that sup
0<]x−y]<δ
f(x) < A + ε.
Thus for all x with 0 < [x − y[ < δ, f(x) ≤ A + ε. Conversely, suppose there exists for any ε > 0
some δ > 0 such that f(x) ≤ A + ε for all x with 0 < [x − y[ < δ. Then for each n, there exists
10
δ
n
> 0 such that f(x) ≤ A + 1/n for all x with 0 < [x − y[ < δ
n
so sup
0<]x−y]<δ
n
f(x) ≤ A + 1/n. Thus
lim
x→y
f(x) = inf
δ>0
sup
0<]x−y]<δ
f(x) ≤ inf
n
sup
0<]x−y]<δ
n
f(x) ≤ A+ 1/n for all n so lim
x→y
f(x) ≤ A.
49b. Suppose lim
x→y
f(x) ≥ A. Given ε > 0 and δ > 0, sup
0<]x−y]<δ
f(x) > A −ε so there exists x such that
0 < [x − y[ < δ and f(x) ≥ A − ε. Conversely, suppose that given ε > 0 and δ > 0, there exists x such
that 0 < [x −y[ < δ and f(x) ≥ A−ε. Then for each n, there exists x
n
such that 0 < [x
n
−y[ < δ and
f(x
n
) ≥ A−1/n. Thus for each δ > 0, sup
0<]x−y]<δ
f(x) ≥ A−1/n for all n so sup
0<]x−y]<δ
f(x) ≥ A. Hence
lim
x→y
f(x) = inf
δ>0
sup
0<]x−y]<δ
f(x) ≥ A.
49c. For any δ
1
, δ
2
> 0, if δ
1
< δ
2
, then inf
0<]x−y]<δ
2
f(x) ≤ inf
0<]x−y]<δ
1
f(x) ≤ sup
0<]x−y]<δ
1
f(x) ≤
sup
0<]x−y]<δ
2
f(x). In particular, inf
0<]x−y]<δ
1
f(x) ≤ sup
0<]x−y]<δ
2
f(x) and inf
0<]x−y]<δ
2
f(x) ≤ sup
0<]x−y]<δ
1
f(x).
Hence sup
δ>0
inf
0<]x−y]<δ
f(x) ≤ sup
0<]x−y]<δ
0
f(x) for any δ
0
> 0 so sup
δ>0
inf
0<]x−y]<δ
f(x) ≤ inf
δ>0
sup
0<]x−y]<δ
f(x). i.e.
lim
x→y
f(x) ≤ lim
x→y
f(x).
Suppose lim
x→y
f(x) = lim
x→y
f(x) with limf ,= ±∞. Let L be the common value. Given ε > 0, there exists
δ
1
> 0 such that sup
0<]x−y]<δ
1
f(x) < L + ε. i.e. f(x) < L + ε whenever 0 < [x − y[ < δ
1
. There also
exists δ
2
> 0 such that inf
0<]x−y]<δ
2
f(x) > L − ε. i.e. f(x) > L − ε whenever 0 < [x − y[ < δ
2
. Let
δ = min(δ
2
, δ
2
). Then when 0 < [x − y[ < δ, [f(x) − L[ < ε so lim
x→y
f(x) exists. Conversely, suppose
lim
x→y
f(x) exists and let L be its value. Given ε, there exists δ > 0 such that [f(x) − L[ < ε whenever
0 < [x − y[ < δ. By part (a), lim
x→y
f(x) ≤ L. Similarly, lim
x→y
f(x) ≥ L. i.e. lim
x→y
f(x) ≤ lim
x→y
f(x). Thus
equality holds.
49d. Suppose lim
x→y
f(x) = A and ¸x
n
) is a sequence with x
n
,= y such that y = limx
n
. For any δ > 0,
there exists N
δ
such that 0 < [x
n
−y[ < δ for n ≥ N
δ
. Thus for any δ > 0, inf
N
sup
n≥N
f(x
n
) ≤ sup
n≥N
δ
f(x
n
) ≤
sup
0<]x−y]<δ
f(x) so inf
N
sup
n≥N
f(x
n
) ≤ inf
δ>0
sup
0<]x−y]<δ
f(x). i.e. limf(x
n
) ≤ lim
x→y
f(x) = A.
49e. Suppose lim
x→y
f(x) = A. By part (a), for each n, there exists δ
n
> 0 such that f(x) < A + 1/n
whenever 0 < [x − y[ < δ
n
. By part (b), there exists x
n
such that 0 < [x
n
− y[ < min(δ
n
, 1/n) and
f(x
n
) > A − 1/n. Thus 0 < [x
n
− y[ < 1/n and [f(x
n
) − A[ < 1/n for each n. i.e. ¸x
n
) is a sequence
with x
n
,= y such that y = limx
n
and A = limf(x
n
).
49f. Suppose l = lim
x→y
f(x) and let ¸x
n
) be a sequence with x
n
,= y and y = limx
n
. Given ε > 0,
there exists δ > 0 such that [f(x) − l[ < ε whenever 0 < [x − y[ < δ. Also there exists N such that
0 < [x
n
− y[ < δ for n ≥ N. Thus for n ≥ N, [f(x
n
) − l[ < ε. i.e. l = limf(x
n
). Conversely, suppose
l ,= lim
x→y
f(x). Then there exists ε > 0 such that for each n there exists x
n
with 0 < [x
n
−y[ < 1/n and
[f(x
n
) −l[ ≥ ε. Thus ¸x
n
) is a sequence with x
n
,= y and y = limx
n
but l ,= limf(x
n
).
50a. Let f(y) be ﬁnite. Then f is lower semicontinuous at y if and only if −f is upper semicontinuous
at y if and only if −f(y) ≥ lim
x→y
(−f(x)) if and only if given ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that
−f(x) ≤ −f(y) + ε whenever 0 < [x − y[ < δ if and only if given ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that
−f(x) ≤ −f(y) + ε whenever [x − y[ < δ if and only if given ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that
f(y) ≤ f(x) +ε whenever [x −y[ < δ.
50b. Suppose f is both upper and lower semicontinuous at y. Then lim
x→y
f(x) ≤ f(y) ≤ lim
x→y
f(x). Thus
lim
x→y
f(x) exists and equals f(y) so f is continuous at y. Conversely, if f is continuous at y, then lim
x→y
f(x)
exists and equals f(y). Thus lim
x→y
f(x) = lim
x→y
f(x) = f(y) so f is both upper and lower semicontinuous
11
at y. The result for intervals follows from the result for points.
50c. Let f be a realvalued function. Suppose f is lower semicontinuous on [a, b]. For λ ∈ R, consider
the set S = ¦x ∈ [a, b] : f(x) ≤ λ¦. Let y be a point of closure of S. Then there is a sequence ¸x
n
) with
x
n
∈ S and y = limx
n
. Thus f(y) ≤ limf(x
n
) ≤ λ so y ∈ S. Hence S is closed so ¦x ∈ [a, b] : f(x) > λ¦
is open (in [a, b]). Conversely, suppose ¦x ∈ [a, b] : f(x) > λ¦ is open (in [a, b]) for each λ ∈ R. Let
y ∈ [a, b]. Given ε > 0, the set ¦x ∈ [a, b] : f(x) > f(y) − ε¦ is open so there exists δ > 0 such that
f(x) > f(y) −ε whenever [x −y[ < δ. i.e. f(y) < f(x) +ε whenever [x −y[ < δ. By part (a), f is lower
semicontinuous at y. Since y is arbitrarily chosen from [a, b], f is lower semicontinuous on [a, b].
50d. Let f and g be lower semicontinuous functions. Let y be in the domain of f and g. Given ε > 0,
there exists δ > 0 such that f(y) ≤ f(x) + ε/2 and g(y) ≤ g(x) + ε/2 whenever [x − y[ < δ. Thus
(f ∨g)(y) ≤ (f ∨g)(x) +ε and (f +g)(y) ≤ (f +g)(x) +ε whenever [x −y[ < δ. By part (a), f ∨g and
f +g are lower semicontinuous.
50e. Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of lower semicontinuous functions and deﬁne f(x) = sup
n
f
n
(x). Given
ε > 0, f(y) − ε/2 < f
n
(y) for some n. There also exists δ > 0 such that f
n
(y) ≤ f
n
(x) + ε/2 whenever
[x −y[ < δ. Thus f(y) ≤ f
n
(x) +ε ≤ f(x) +ε whenever [x −y[ < δ. Hence f is lower semicontinuous.
50f. Let ϕ : [a, b] → R be a step function. Suppose ϕ is lower semicontinuous. Let c
i
and c
i+1
be the
values assumed by ϕ in (x
i−1
, x
i
) and (x
i
, x
i+1
) respectively. For each n, there exists δ > 0 such that
ϕ(x
i
) ≤ ϕ(x)+1/n whenever [x−x
i
[ < δ. In particular, ϕ(x
i
) ≤ c
i
+1/n and ϕ(x
i
) ≤ c
i+1
+1/n for each
n. Thus ϕ(x
i
) ≤ min(c
i
, c
i+1
). Conversely, suppose ϕ(x
i
) ≤ min(c
i
, c
i+1
) for each i. Let ε > 0 and let
y ∈ [a, b]. If y = x
i
for some i, let δ = min(x
i
−x
i−1
, x
i+1
−x
i
). Then f(y) = f(x
i
) ≤ f(x) +ε whenever
[x −y[ < δ. If y ∈ (x
i
, x
i+1
) for some i, let δ = min(y −x
i
, x
i+1
−y). Then f(y) < f(y) +ε = f(x) +ε
whenever [x −y[ < δ. Thus ϕ is lower semicontinuous.
*50g. Let f be a function deﬁned on [a, b]. Suppose there is a monotone increasing sequence ¸ϕ
n
) of
lower semicontinuous step functions on [a, b] such that for each x ∈ [a, b] we have f(x) = limϕ
n
(x).
Since ¸ϕ
n
) is monotone increasing, for each x ∈ [a, b] we have f(x) = sup
n
ϕ
n
(x). By part (e), f is lower
semicontinuous. Conversely, suppose that f is lower semicontinuous. The sets ¦x ∈ [a, b] : f(x) > c¦
with c ∈ Z form an open covering of [a, b] so by the HeineBorel Theorem, there is a ﬁnite subcovering.
Thus there exists c ∈ Z such that f(x) > c for all x ∈ [a, b]. Now for each n, let x
(n)
k
= a+k(b−a)/2
n
and
let I
(n)
k
= (x
(n)
k−1
, x
(n)
k
) for k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , 2
n
. Deﬁne ϕ
n
(x) = inf
x∈I
(n)
k
f(x) if x ∈ I
(n)
k
and ϕ
n
(x
(n)
k
) =
min(c
(n)
k
, c
(n)
k+1
, f(x
(n)
k
)) where c
(n)
k
= inf
x∈I
(n)
k
f(x) and c
(n)
k+1
= inf
x∈I
(n)
k+1
f(x). Then each ϕ
n
is a lower
semicontinuous step function on [a, b] by part (f) and f ≥ ϕ
n+1
≥ ϕ
n
for each n. Let y ∈ [a, b]. Given
ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that f(y) ≤ f(x) +ε whenever [x −y[ < δ. Choose N such that 1/2
N
< δ.
For n ≥ N, if y ∈ I
(n)
k
for some k, then ϕ
n
(y) = inf
x∈I
(n)
k
f(x) ≥ f(y) − ε since I
(n)
k
⊂ (y − δ, y + δ).
Thus f(y) −ϕ
n
(y) ≤ ε. If y = x
(n)
k
for some k, then ϕ
n
(y) =≥ f(y) −ε since I
(n)
k
∪I
(n)
k+1
⊂ (y −δ, y +δ).
Thus f(y) −ϕ
n
(y) ≤ ε. Hence f(y) = limϕ
n
(y).
*50h. Let f be a function deﬁned on [a, b]. Suppose there is a monotone increasing sequence ¸ψ
n
)
of continuous functions on [a, b] such that for each x ∈ [a, b] we have f(x) = limψ
n
(x). Then each
ψ
n
is lower semicontinuous by part (b) and f(x) = sup
n
ψ
n
(x). By part (e), f is lower semicontinuous.
Conversely, suppose that f is lower semicontinuous. By part (g), there is a monotone increasing sequence
¸ϕ
n
) of lower semicontinuous step functions on [a, b] with f(x) = limϕ
n
(x) for each x ∈ [a, b]. For each
n, deﬁne ψ
n
by linearising ϕ
n
at a neighbourhood of each partition point such that ψ
n
≤ ψ
n+1
and
0 ≤ ϕ
n
(x) −ψ
n
(x) < ε/2 for each x ∈ [a, b]. Then ¸ψ
n
) is a monotone increasing sequence of continuous
functions on [a, b] and f(x) = limψ
n
(x) for each x ∈ [a, b].
(*) More rigorous proof: Deﬁne ψ
n
by ψ
n
(x) = inf¦f(t) +n[t −x[ : t ∈ [a, b]¦. Then ψ
n
(x) ≤ inf¦f(t) +
n[t − y[ + n[y − x[ : t ∈ [a, b]¦ = ψ
n
(y) + n[y − x[. Thus ψ
n
is (uniformly) continuous on [a, b]. Also
ψ
n
≤ ψ
n+1
≤ f for all n. In particular, f(x) is an upper bound for ¦ψ
n
(x) : n ∈ N¦. Now if α < f(x),
then there exists δ > 0 such that α ≤ f(y) ≤ f(y) +n[y −x[ whenever [y −x[ < δ. On the other hand,
when [y −x[ ≥ δ, we have α ≤ f(y) +nδ ≤ f(y) +n[y −x[ for suﬃciently large n. Thus α ≤ ψ
n
(x) for
suﬃciently large n. Hence f(x) = sup ψ
n
(x) = limψ
n
(x).
50i. Let f be a lower semicontinuous function on [a, b]. The sets ¦x ∈ [a, b] : f(x) > c¦ with c ∈ Z form
an open covering of [a, b] so by the HeineBorel Theorem, there is a ﬁnite subcovering. Thus there exists
c ∈ Z such that f(x) > c for all x ∈ [a, b]. Hence f is bounded from below. Let m = inf
x∈[a,b]
f(x), which
12
is ﬁnite since f is bounded from below. Suppose f(x) > m for all x ∈ [a, b]. For each x ∈ [a, b], there exists
δ
x
> 0 such that f(x) ≤ f(y) +m−f(x) for y ∈ I
x
= (x−δ
x
, x+δ
x
). The open intervals ¦I
x
: x ∈ [a, b]¦
form an open covering of [a, b] so by the HeineBorel Theorem, there is a ﬁnite subcovering ¦I
x
1
, . . . , I
x
n
¦.
Let c = min(f(x
1
), . . . , f(x
n
)). Each y ∈ [a, b] belongs to some I
x
k
so f(y) ≥ 2f(x
k
) −m ≥ 2c−m. Thus
2c − m is a lower bound for f on [a, b] but 2c − m > m. Contradiction. Hence there exists x
0
∈ [a, b]
such that m = f(x
0
).
51a. Let x ∈ [a, b]. Then inf
]y−x]<δ
f(y) ≤ f(x) ≤ sup
]y−x]<δ
f(y) for any δ > 0. Hence we have g(x) =
sup
δ>0
inf
]y−x]<δ
f(y) ≤ f(x) ≤ inf
δ>0
sup
]y−x]<δ
f(y) = h(x). Suppose g(x) = f(x). Then given ε > 0, there exists
δ > 0 such that f(x) − ε = g(x) − ε < inf
]y−x]<δ
f(y). Thus f(x) − ε < f(y) whenever [y − x[ < δ and
f is lower semicontinuous at x. Conversely, suppose f is lower semicontinuous at x. f(x) is an upper
bound for ¦ inf
]x−y]<δ
f(y) : δ > 0¦ and given ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that f(x) −ε ≤ f(y) whenever
[x − y[ < δ. Thus f(x) − ε ≤ inf
]x−y]<δ
f(y) so f(x) = sup
δ>0
inf
]x−y]<δ
f(y) = g(x). By a similar argument,
f(x) = h(x) if and only if f is upper semicontinuous at x. Thus f is continuous at x if and only if f is
both upper semicontinuous and lower semicontinuous at x if and only if f(x) = h(x) and g(x) = f(x) if
and only if g(x) = h(x).
51b. Let λ ∈ R. Suppose g(x) > λ. Then there exists δ > 0 such that f(y) > λ whenever [x − y[ < δ.
Hence ¦x : g(x) > λ¦ is open in [a, b] and g is lower semicontinuous. Suppose h(x) < λ. Then there
exists δ > 0 such that f(y) < λ whenever [x − y[ < δ. Hence ¦x : h(x) < λ¦ is open in [a, b] and h is
upper semicontinuous.
51c. Let ϕ be a lower semicontinuous function such that ϕ(x) ≤ f(x) for all x ∈ [a, b]. Suppose
ϕ(x) > g(x) for some x ∈ [a, b]. Then there exists δ > 0 such that ϕ(x) ≤ ϕ(y) + ϕ(x) −g(x) whenever
[x − y[ < δ. i.e. g(x) ≤ ϕ(y) whenever [x − y[ < δ. In particular, g(x) ≤ ϕ(x). Contradiction. Hence
ϕ(x) ≤ g(x) for all x ∈ [a, b].
2.7 Borel sets
52. Let f be a lower semicontinuous function on R. Then ¦x : f(x) > α¦ is open. ¦x : f(x) ≥
α¦ =
n
¦x : f(x) > α − 1/n¦ so it is a G
δ
set. ¦x : f(x) ≤ α¦ = ¦x : f(x) > α¦
c
is closed.
¦x : f(x) < α¦ = ¦x : f(x) ≥ α¦
c
so it is an F
σ
set. ¦x : f(x) = α¦ = ¦x : f(x) ≥ α¦ ∩ ¦x : f(x) ≤ α¦ is
the intersection of a G
δ
set with a closed set so it is a G
δ
set.
53. Let f be a realvalued function deﬁned on R. Let S be the set of points at which f is continuous.
If f is continuous at x, then for each n, there exists δ
n,x
> 0 such that [f(x) − f(y)[ < 1/n whenever
[x − y[ < δ
n,x
. Consider G
n
=
x∈S
(x − δ
n,x
/2, x + δ
n,x
/2) and G =
n
G
n
. Then x ∈ G for every
x ∈ S. Conversely, suppose x
0
∈ G for some x
0
/ ∈ S. There exists ε > 0 such that for every δ > 0, there
exists y with [y −x
0
[ < δ and [f(x
0
) −f(y)[ ≥ ε. Choose N such that 1/N < ε/2. There exists y with
[y −x
0
[ < δ
N,x
/2 and [f(y) −f(x
0
)[ ≥ ε. On the other hand, x
0
∈ G
N
=
x∈S
(x−δ
N,x
/2, x+δ
N,x
/2) so
x
0
∈ (x−δ
N,x
/2, x+δ
N,x
/2) for some x ∈ S. Thus [f(x) −f(x
0
)[ < 1/N < ε/2. Also, [y −x[ ≤ [y −x
0
[ +
[x
0
−x[ < δ
N,x
so [f(y) −f(x)[ < 1/N < ε/2. Thus [f(y) −f(x
0
)[ ≤ [f(y) −f(x)[ +[f(x) −f(x
0
)[ < ε.
Contradiction. Hence G = S and S is a G
δ
set.
54. Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of continuous functions on R and let C be the set of points where the
sequence converges. If x ∈ C, then for any m, there exists n such that [f
k
(x) − f
n
(x)[ ≤ 1/m for all
k ≥ n. Consider F
n,m
= ¦x : [f
k
(x) − f
n
(x)[ ≤ 1/m for k ≥ n¦. Now C ⊂
m
n
F
n,m
. Conversely,
if x ∈
m
n
F
n,m
, then given ε > 0, choose M such that 1/M < ε. Now x ∈
n
F
n,M
so there exists
N such that [f
k
(x) − f
N
(x)[ ≤ 1/M < ε for k ≥ N. Thus ¸f
n
(x)) converges so
m
n
F
n,m
⊂ C. By
continuity of each f
k
, each F
n,m
is closed. Hence C is an F
σδ
set.
3 Lebesgue Measure
3.1 Introduction
1. Let A and B be two sets in M with A ⊂ B. Then mA ≤ mA+m(B ¸ A) = mB.
13
2. Let ¸E
n
) be a sequence of sets in M. Let F
1
= E
1
and let F
n+1
= E
n+1
¸
n
k=1
E
k
. Then F
m
∩F
n
= ∅
for m ,= n, F
n
⊂ E
n
for each n and
E
n
=
F
n
. Thus m(
E
n
) = m(
F
n
) =
mF
n
≤
mE
n
.
3. Suppose there is a set A in M with mA < ∞. Then mA = m(A∪ ∅) = mA+m∅ so m∅ = 0.
4. Clearly n is translation invariant and deﬁned for all sets of real numbers. Let ¸E
k
) be a sequence of
disjoint sets of real numbers. We may assume E
k
,= ∅ for all k since n∅ = 0. If some E
k
is an inﬁnite
set, then so is
E
k
. Thus n(
E
k
) = ∞ =
nE
k
. If all E
k
’s are ﬁnite sets and ¦E
k
: k ∈ N¦ is a ﬁnite
set, then
E
k
is a ﬁnite set and since the E
k
’s are disjoint, n(
E
k
) =
nE
k
. On the other hand,
if all E
k
’s are ﬁnite sets and ¦E
k
: k ∈ N¦ is an inﬁnite set, then
E
k
is a countably inﬁnite set so
n(
E
k
) = ∞ and since nE
k
≥ 1 for all k,
nE
k
= ∞.
3.2 Outer measure
5. Let A be the set of rational numbers between 0 and 1. Also let ¦I
n
¦ be a ﬁnite collection of open
intervals covering A. Then 1 = m
∗
([0, 1]) = m
∗
A ≤ m
∗
(
I
n
) = m
∗
(
I
n
) ≤
m
∗
I
n
=
l(I
n
) =
l(I
n
).
6. Given any set A and any ε > 0, there is a countable collection ¦I
n
¦ of open intervals covering
A such that
l(I
n
) ≤ m
∗
A + ε. Let O =
I
n
. Then O is an open set such that A ⊂ O and
m
∗
O ≤
m
∗
I
n
=
l(I
n
) ≤ m
∗
A +ε. Now for each n, there is an open set O
n
such that A ⊂ O
n
and
m
∗
O
n
≤ m
∗
A+ 1/n. Let G =
O
n
. Then G is a G
δ
set such that A ⊂ G and m
∗
G = m
∗
A.
7. Let E be a set of real numbers and let y ∈ R. If ¦I
n
¦ is a countable collection of open intervals such
that E ⊂
I
n
, then E+y ⊂
(I
n
+y) so m
∗
(E+y) ≤
l(I
n
+y) =
l(I
n
). Thus m
∗
(E+y) ≤ m
∗
E.
Conversely, by a similar argument, m
∗
E ≤ m
∗
(E +y). Hence m
∗
(E +y) = m
∗
E.
8. Suppose m
∗
A = 0. Then m
∗
(A ∪ B) ≤ m
∗
A + m
∗
B = m
∗
B. Conversely, since B ⊂ A ∪ B,
m
∗
B ≤ m
∗
(A∪ B). Hence m
∗
(A∪ B) = m
∗
B.
3.3 Measurable sets and Lebesgue measure
9. Let E be a measurable set, let A be any set and let y ∈ R. Then m
∗
A = m
∗
(A−y) = m
∗
((A−y)∩E)+
m
∗
((A−y)∩E
c
) = m
∗
(((A−y)∩E)+y)+m
∗
(((A−y)∩E
c
)+y) = m
∗
(A∩(E+y))+m
∗
(A∩(E
c
+y)) =
m
∗
(A∩ (E +y)) +m
∗
(A∩ (E +y)
c
). Thus E +y is a measurable set.
10. Suppose E
1
and E
2
are measurable. Then m(E
1
∪E
2
) +m(E
1
∩E
2
) = mE
1
+m(E
2
¸ E
1
) +m(E
1
∩
E
2
) = mE
1
+mE
2
.
11. For each n, let E
n
= (n, ∞). Then E
n+1
⊂ E
n
for each n,
E
n
= ∅ and mE
n
= ∞ for each n.
12. Let ¸E
i
) be a sequence of disjoint measurable sets and let A be any set. Then m
∗
(A ∩
∞
i=1
E
i
) =
m
∗
(
∞
i=1
(A ∩ E
i
)) ≤
∞
i=1
m
∗
(A ∩ E
i
) by countable subadditivity. Conversely, m
∗
(A ∩
∞
i=1
E
i
) ≥
m
∗
(A∩
n
i=1
E
i
) =
n
i=1
m
∗
(A∩E
i
) for all n by Lemma 9. Thus m
∗
(A∩
∞
i=1
E
i
) ≥
∞
i=1
m
∗
(A∩E
i
).
Hence m
∗
(A∩
∞
i=1
E
i
) =
∞
i=1
m
∗
(A∩ E
i
).
13a. Suppose m
∗
E < ∞.
(i) ⇒ (ii). Suppose E is measurable. Given ε > 0, there is a countable collection ¦I
n
¦ of open intervals
such that E ⊂
I
n
and
l(I
n
) < m
∗
E + ε. Let O =
I
n
. Then O is an open set, E ⊂ O and
m
∗
(O ¸ E) = m(O ¸ E) = m(
I
n
) −mE = m
∗
(
I
n
) −m
∗
E ≤
l(I
n
) −m
∗
E < ε.
(ii) ⇒ (vi). Given ε > 0, there is an open set O such that E ⊂ O and m
∗
(O ¸ E) < ε/2. O is the union
of a countable collection of disjoint open intervals ¦I
n
¦ so
l(I
n
) = m(
I
n
) < mE + ε/2. Thus there
exists N such that
∞
n=N+1
l(I
n
) < ε/2. Let U =
N
n=1
I
n
. Then m
∗
(U∆E) = m
∗
(U ¸E)+m
∗
(E¸U) ≤
m
∗
(O ¸ E) +m
∗
(O ¸ U) < ε/2 +ε/2 = ε.
(vi) ⇒ (ii). Given ε > 0, there is a ﬁnite union U of open intervals such that m
∗
(U∆E) < ε/3. Also
there is an open set O such that E ¸ U ⊂ O and m
∗
O ≤ m
∗
(E ¸ U) + ε/3. Then E ⊂ U ∪ O and
m
∗
((U ∪ O) ¸ E) = m
∗
((U ¸ E) ∪ (O ¸ E)) ≤ m
∗
((O ¸ (E ¸ U)) ∪ (E ¸ U) ∪ (U ¸ E)) < ε.
13b. (i) ⇒ (ii). Suppose E is measurable. The case where m
∗
E < ∞ was proven in part (a). Suppose
m
∗
E = ∞. For each n, let E
n
= [−n, n] ∩ E. By part (a), for each n, there exists an open set O
n
⊃ E
n
such that m
∗
(O
n
¸ E
n
) < ε/2
n
. Let O =
O
n
. Then E ⊂ O and m
∗
(O ¸ E) = m
∗
(
O
n
¸
E
n
) ≤
m
∗
(
(O
n
¸ E
n
)) < ε.
14
(ii) ⇒ (iv). For each n, there exists an open set O
n
such that E ⊂ O
n
and m
∗
(O
n
¸ E) < 1/n. Let
G =
O
n
. Then E ⊂ G and m
∗
(G¸ E) ≤ m
∗
(O
n
¸ E) < 1/n for all n. Thus m
∗
(G¸ E) = 0.
(iv) ⇒ (i). There exists a G
δ
set G such that E ⊂ G and m
∗
(G ¸ E) = 0. Now G and G ¸ E are
measurable sets so E = G¸ (G¸ E) is a measurable set.
13c. (i) ⇒ (iii). Suppose E is measurable. Then E
c
is measurable. By part (b), given ε > 0, there is
an open set O such that E
c
⊂ O and m
∗
(O ¸ E
c
) < ε. i.e. m
∗
(O ∩ E) < ε. Let F = O
c
. Then F is
closed, F ⊂ E and m
∗
(E ¸ F) = m
∗
(E ¸ O
c
) = m
∗
(E ∩ O) < ε.
(iii) ⇒ (v). For each n, there is a closed set F
n
such that F
n
⊂ E and m
∗
(E¸F
n
) < 1/n. Let F =
F
n
.
Then F ⊂ E and m
∗
(E ¸ F) ≤ m
∗
(E ¸ F
n
) < 1/n for all n. Thus m
∗
(E ¸ F) = 0.
(v) ⇒ (i). There exists an F
σ
set F such that F ⊂ E and m
∗
(E ¸ F) = 0. Now F and E ¸ F are
measurable sets so E = F ∪ (E ¸ F) is a measurable set.
14a. For each n, let E
n
be the union of the intervals removed in the nth step. Then mE
n
= 2
n−1
/3
n
so
m(
E
n
) =
mE
n
= 1. Thus mC = m([0, 1]) −m(
E
n
) = 0.
14b. Each step of removing open intervals results in a closed set and F is the intersection of all these
closed sets so F is closed. Let x ∈ [0, 1] ¸ F
c
. Note that removing intervals in the nth step results in
2
n
disjoint intervals, each of length less than 1/2
n
. Given δ > 0, choose N such that 1/2
N
< 2δ. Then
(x−δ, x+δ) must intersect one of the intervals removed in step N. i.e. there exists y ∈ (x−δ, x+δ)∩F
c
.
Thus F
c
is dense in [0, 1]. Finally, mF = m([0, 1]) −
α2
n−1
/3
n
= 1 −α.
3.4 A nonmeasurable set
15. Let E be a measurable set with E ⊂ P. For each i, let E
i
= E
◦
+r
i
. Since E
i
⊂ P
i
for each i, ¸E
i
) is
a disjoint sequence of measurable sets with mE
i
= mE. Thus
mE
i
= m(
E
i
) ≤ m([0, 1)) = 1. Since
mE
i
=
mE, we must have mE = 0.
16. Let A be any set with m
∗
A > 0. If A ⊂ [0, 1), let ¸r
i
)
∞
i=0
be an enumeration of Q ∩ [−1, 1). For
each i, let P
i
= P +r
i
. Then [0, 1) ⊂
P
i
since for any x ∈ [0, 1), there exists y ∈ P such that x and y
diﬀer by some rational r
i
. Also, P
i
∩ P
j
= ∅ if i ,= j since if p
i
+ r
i
= p
j
+ r
j
, then p
i
∼ p
j
and since
P contains exactly one element from each equivalence class, p
i
= p
j
and r
i
= r
j
. Now let E
i
= A ∩ P
i
for each i. If each E
i
is measurable, then mE
i
= m(A ∩ P
i
) = m((A − r
i
) ∩ P) = 0 for each i by Q15.
On the other hand,
m
∗
E
i
≥ m
∗
(
E
i
) ≥ m
∗
(A ∩ [0, 1)) = m
∗
A > 0. Hence E
i
0
is nonmeasurable for
some i
0
and E
i
0
⊂ A. Similarly, if A ⊂ [n, n+1) where n ∈ Z, then there is a nonmeasurable set E ⊂ A.
In general, A = A ∩
n∈Z
[n, n + 1) and 0 < m
∗
A ≤
n∈Z
m
∗
(A ∩ [n, n + 1)) so m
∗
(A ∩ [n, n + 1)) > 0
for some n ∈ Z and there is a nonmeasurable set E ⊂ A∩ [n, n + 1) ⊂ A.
17a. Let ¸r
i
)
∞
i=0
be an enumeration of Q∩[−1, 1) and let P
i
= P +r
i
for each i. Then ¸P
i
) is a disjoint
sequence of sets with m
∗
(
P
i
) ≤ m
∗
[−1, 2) = 3 and
m
∗
P
i
=
m
∗
P = ∞. Thus m
∗
(
P
i
) <
m
∗
P
i
.
17b. For each i, let P
i
be as deﬁned in part (a) and let E
i
=
n≥i
P
n
. Then ¸E
i
) is a sequence with
E
i
⊃ E
i+1
for each i and m
∗
E
i
≤ m
∗
(
P
n
) < ∞ for each i. Furthermore,
E
i
= ∅ since if x ∈ P
k
, then
x / ∈
n≥k+1
P
n
so m
∗
(
E
i
) = 0. On the other hand, P
i
⊂ E
i
for each i so 0 < m
∗
P = m
∗
P
i
≤ m
∗
E
i
for each i and limm
∗
E
i
≥ m
∗
P > 0 = m
∗
(
E
i
).
3.5 Measurable functions
18. Let E be the nonmeasurable set deﬁned in Section 3.4. Let f be deﬁned on [0, 1] with f(x) = x +1
if x ∈ E and f(x) = −x if x / ∈ E. Then f takes each value at most once so ¦x : f(x) = α¦ has at most
one element for each α ∈ R and each of these sets is measurable. However, ¦x : f(x) > 0¦ = E, which is
nonmeasurable.
19. Let D be a dense set of real numbers and let f be an extended realvalued function on R such that
¦x : f(x) > α¦ is measurable for each α ∈ D. Let β ∈ R. For each n, there exists α
n
∈ D such that
β < α
n
< β +1/n. Now ¦x : f(x) > β¦ =
¦x : f(x) ≥ β +1/n¦ =
¦x : f(x) > α
n
¦ so ¦x : f(x) > β¦
is measurable and f is measurable.
20. Let ϕ
1
=
n
1
i=1
α
i
χ
A
i
and let ϕ
2
=
n
2
i=1
β
i
χ
B
i
. Then ϕ
1
+ ϕ
2
=
n
1
i=1
α
i
χ
A
i
+
n
2
i=1
β
i
χ
B
i
is a
15
simple function. Also ϕ
1
ϕ
2
=
i,j
α
i
β
j
χ
A
i
χ
B
j
is a simple function. χ
A∩B
(x) = 1 if and only if x ∈ A
and x ∈ B if and only if χ
A
(x) = 1 = χ
B
(x). Thus χ
A∩B
= χ
A
χ
B
. If χ
A∪B
(x) = 1, then x ∈ A ∪ B. If
x ∈ A∩B, then χ
A
(x) +χ
B
(x) +χ
A
χ
B
(x) = 1 +1 −1 = 1. If x / ∈ A∩B, then x ∈ A¸ B or x ∈ B¸ A so
χ
A
(x)+χ
B
(x) = 1 and χ
A
χ
B
(x) = 0. If χ
A∪B
(x) = 0, then x / ∈ A∪B so χ
A
(x) = χ
B
(x) = χ
A
χ
B
(x) = 0.
Hence χ
A∪B
= χ
A
+χ
B
+χ
A
χ
B
. If χ
A
c (x) = 1, then x / ∈ A so χ
A
(x) = 0. If χ
A
c (x) = 0, then x ∈ A so
χ
A
(x) = 1. Hence χ
A
c = 1 −χ
A
.
21a. Let D and E be measurable sets and f a function with domain D ∪ E. Suppose f is measurable.
Since D and E are measurable subsets of D∪E, f[
D
and f[
E
are measurable. Conversely, suppose f[
D
and
f[
E
are measurable. Then for any α ∈ R, ¦x : f(x) > α¦ = ¦x ∈ D : f[
D
(x) > α¦∪¦x ∈ E : f[
E
(x) > α¦.
Each set on the right is measurable so ¦x : f(x) > α¦ is measurable and f is measurable.
21b. Let f be a function with measurable domain D. Let g be deﬁned by g(x) = f(x) if x ∈ D and
g(x) = 0 if x / ∈ D. Suppose f is measurable. If α ≥ 0, then ¦x : g(x) > α¦ = ¦x : f(x) > α¦, which
is measurable. If α < 0, then ¦x : g(x) > α¦ = ¦x : f(x) > α¦ ∪ D
c
, which is measurable. Hence
g is measurable. Conversely, suppose g is measurable. Then f = g[
D
and since D is measurable, f is
measurable.
22a. Let f be an extended realvalued function with measurable domain D and let D
1
= ¦x : f(x) =
∞¦, D
2
= ¦x : f(x) = −∞¦. Suppose f is measurable. Then D
1
and D
2
are measurable by Proposition
18. Now D¸(D
1
∪D
2
) is a measurable subset of D so the restriction of f to D¸(D
1
∪D
2
) is measurable.
Conversely, suppose D
1
and D
2
are measurable and the restriction of f to D¸ (D
1
∪D
2
) is measurable.
For α ∈ R, ¦x : f(x) > α¦ = D
1
∪¦x : f[
D\(D
1
∪D
2
)
(x) > α¦, which is measurable. Hence f is measurable.
22b. Let f and g be measurable extended realvalued functions deﬁned on D. D
1
= ¦fg = ∞¦ =
¦f = ∞, g > 0¦ ∪ ¦f = −∞, g < 0¦ ∪ ¦f > 0, g = ∞¦ ∪ ¦f < 0, g = −∞¦, which is measurable.
D
2
= ¦fg = −∞¦ = ¦f = ∞, g < 0¦ ∪ ¦f = −∞, g > 0¦ ∪ ¦f > 0, g = −∞¦ ∪ ¦f < 0, g = ∞¦,
which is measurable. Let h = fg[
D\(D
1
∪D
2
)
and let α ∈ R. If α ≥ 0, then ¦x : h(x) > α¦ = ¦x :
f[
D\¦x:f(x)=±∞]
(x) g[
D\¦x:g(x)=±∞]
(x) > α¦, which is measurable. If α < 0, then ¦x : h(x) > α¦ = ¦x :
f(x) = 0¦ ∪ ¦x : g(x) = 0¦ ∪ ¦x : f[
D\¦f=±∞]
(x) g[
D\¦g=±∞]
(x) > α¦, which is measurable. Hence fg
is measurable.
22c. Let f and g be measurable extended realvalued functions deﬁned on D and α a ﬁxed number.
Deﬁne f +g to be α whenever it is of the form ∞−∞or −∞+∞. D
1
= ¦f +g = ∞¦ = ¦f ∈ R, g = ∞¦∪
¦f = g = ∞¦ ∪ ¦f = ∞, g ∈ R¦, which is measurable. D
2
= ¦f +g = −∞¦ = ¦f ∈ R, g = −∞¦ ∪ ¦f =
g = −∞¦ ∪ ¦f = −∞, g ∈ R¦, which is measurable. Let h = (f +g)[
D\(D
1
∪D
2
)
and let β ∈ R. If β ≥ α,
then ¦x : h(x) > β¦ = ¦x : f[
D\¦f=±∞]
(x) + g[
D\¦g=±∞]
(x) > β¦, which is measurable. If β < α, then
¦x : h(x) > β¦ = ¦f = ∞, g = −∞¦ ∪ ¦f = −∞, g = ∞¦ ∪ ¦x : f[
D\¦f=±∞]
(x) + g[
D\¦g=±∞]
(x) > β¦,
which is measurable. Hence f +g is measurable.
22d. Let f and g be measurable extended realvalued functions that are ﬁnite a.e. Then the sets
D
1
, D
2
, ¦x : h(x) > β¦ can be written as unions of sets as in part (c), possibly with an additional set of
measure zero. Thus these sets are measurable and f +g is measurable.
23a. Let f be a measurable function on [a, b] that takes the values ±∞ only on a set of measure zero
and let ε > 0. For each n, let E
n
= ¦x ∈ [a, b] : [f(x)[ > n¦. Each E
n
is measurable and E
n+1
⊂ E
n
for each n. Also, mE
1
≤ b − a < ∞. Thus limmE
n
= m(
E
n
) = 0. Thus there exists M such that
mE
M
< ε/3. i.e. [f[ ≤ M except on a set of measure less than ε/3.
23b. Let f be a measurable function on [a, b]. Let ε > 0 and M be given. Choose N such that M/N < ε.
For each k ∈ ¦−N, −N + 1, . . . , N − 1¦, let E
k
= ¦x ∈ [a, b] : kM/N ≤ f(x) < (k + 1)M/N¦. Each E
k
is measurable. Deﬁne ϕ by ϕ =
N−1
k=−N
(kM/N)χ
E
k
. Then ϕ is a simple function. If x ∈ [a, b] such
that [f(x)[ < M, then x ∈ E
k
for some k. i.e. kM/N ≤ f(x) < (k + 1)M/N and ϕ(x) = kM/N. Thus
[f(x) − ϕ(x)[ < M/N < ε. If m ≤ f ≤ M, we may take ϕ so that m ≤ ϕ ≤ M by replacing M/N by
(M −m)/N < ε in the preceding argument.
23c. Let ϕ be a simple function on [a, b] and let ε > 0 be given. Let ϕ =
n
i=1
a
i
χ
A
i
. For each i, there
is a ﬁnite union U
i
=
N
i
k=1
I
i,k
of (disjoint) open intervals such that m(U
i
∆A
i
) < ε/3n. Deﬁne g by
g =
n
i=1
a
i
χ
U
i
\
i−1
m=1
U
m
. Then g is a step function on [a, b]. If g(x) ,= ϕ(x), then either g(x) = a
i
,= ϕ(x),
or g(x) = 0 and ϕ(x) = a
i
. In the ﬁrst case, x ∈ U
i
¸ A
i
. In the second case, x ∈ A
i
¸ U
i
. Thus
¦x ∈ [a, b] : ϕ(x) ,= g(x)¦ ⊂
n
i=1
((U
i
¸ A
i
) ∪ (A
i
¸ U
i
)) =
n
i=1
(U
i
∆A
i
) so it has measure less than ε/3.
If m ≤ ϕ ≤ M, we may take g so that m ≤ g ≤ M since both g and ϕ take values in ¦a
1
, . . . , a
n
¦.
16
23d. Let g be a step function on [a, b] and let ε > 0 be given. Let x
0
, . . . , x
n
be the partition points
corresponding to g. Let d = min¦x
i
−x
i−1
: i = 1, . . . , n¦. For each i, let I
i
be an open interval of length
less than min(ε/3(n + 1), d/2) centred at x
i
. Deﬁne h by linearising g in each I
i
. Then h is continuous
and ¦x ∈ [a, b] : g(x) ,= h(x)¦ ⊂
n
i=0
I
i
, which has measure less than ε/3. If m ≤ g ≤ M, we may take
h so that m ≤ h ≤ M by construction.
24. Let f be measurable and B a Borel set. Let ( be the collection of sets E such that f
−1
[E] is
measurable. Suppose E ∈ (. Then f
−1
[E
c
] = (f
−1
[E])
c
, which is measurable, so E
c
∈ (. Suppose ¸E
i
)
is a sequence of sets in (. Then f
−1
[
E
i
] =
f
−1
[E
i
], which is measurable, so
E
i
∈ (. Thus ( is
a σalgebra. Now for any a, b ∈ R with a < b, ¦x : f(x) > a¦ and ¦x : f(x) < b¦ are measurable. i.e.
(a, ∞) and (−∞, b) are in (. Thus (a, b) ∈ ( and ( is a σalgebra containing all the open intervals so it
contains all the Borel sets. Hence f
−1
[B] is measurable.
25. Let f be a measurable realvalued function and g a continuous function deﬁned on (−∞, ∞). Then
g is also measurable. For any α ∈ R, ¦x : (g ◦ f)(x) > α¦ = (g ◦ f)
−1
[(α, ∞)] = f
−1
[g
−1
[(α, ∞)]], which
is measurable by Q24. Hence g ◦ f is measurable.
26. Propositions 18 and 19 and Theorem 20 follow from arguments similar to those in the original proofs
and the fact that the collection of Borel sets is a σalgebra. If f is a Borel measurable function, then
for any α ∈ R, the set ¦x : f(x) > α¦ is a Borel set so it is Lebesgue measurable. Thus f is Lebesgue
measurable. If f is Borel measurable and B is a Borel set, then consider the collection ( of sets E such
that f
−1
[E] is a Borel set. By a similar argument to that in Q24, ( is a σalgebra containing all the
open intervals. Thus ( contains all the Borel sets. Hence f
−1
[B] is a Borel set. If f and g are Borel
measurable, then for α ∈ R, ¦x : (f ◦g)(x) > α¦ = (f ◦g)
−1
[(α, ∞)] = g
−1
[f
−1
[(α, ∞)]], which is a Borel
set. Thus f ◦ g is Borel measurable. If f is Borel measurable and g is Lebesgue measurable, then for
any α ∈ R, f
−1
[(α, ∞)] is a Borel set and g
−1
[f
−1
[(α, ∞)]] is Lebesgue measurable by Q24. Thus f ◦ g
is Lebesgue measurable.
27. Call a function Ameasurable if for each α ∈ R the set ¦x : f(x) > α¦ is in A. Propositions 18
and 19 and Theorem 20 still hold. An Ameasurable function need not be Lebesgue measurable. For
example, let A be the σalgebra generated by the nonmeasurable set P deﬁned in Section 4. Then χ
P
is A
measurable but not Lebesgue measurable. There exists a Lebesgue measurable function g and a Lebesgue
measurable set A such that g
−1
[A] is nonmeasurable (see Q28). If f and g are Lebesgue measurable, f ◦g
may not be Lebesgue measurable. For example, take g and A to be Lebesgue measurable with g
−1
[A]
nonmeasurable. Let f = χ
A
so that f is Lebesgue measurable. Then ¦x : (f ◦ g)(x) > 1/2¦ = g
−1
[A],
which is nonmeasurable. This is also a counterexample for the last statement.
28a. Let f be deﬁned by f(x) = f
1
(x) + x for x ∈ [0, 1]. By Q2.48, f
1
is continuous and monotone on
[0, 1] so f is continuous and strictly monotone on [0, 1] and f maps [0, 1] onto [0, 2]. By Q2.46, f has a
continuous inverse so it is a homeomorphism of [0, 1] onto [0, 2].
28b. By Q2.48, f
1
is constant on each interval contained in the complement of the Cantor set. Thus f
maps each of these intervals onto an interval of the same length. Thus m(f[[0, 1] ¸C]) = m([0, 1] ¸C) = 1
and since f is a bijection of [0, 1] onto [0, 2], mF = m(f[C]) = m([0, 2]) −1 = 1.
28c. Let g = f
−1
: [0, 2] → [0, 1]. Then g is measurable. Since mF = 1 > 0, there is a nonmeasurable set
E ⊂ F. Let A = f
−1
[E]. Then A ⊂ C so it has outer measure zero and is measurable but g
−1
[A] = E
so it is nonmeasurable.
28d. The function g = f
−1
is continuous and the function h = χ
A
is measurable, where A is as deﬁned
in part (c). However the set ¦x : (h ◦ g)(x) > 1/2¦ = g
−1
[A] is nonmeasurable. Thus h ◦ g is not
measurable.
28e. The set A in part (c) is measurable but by Q24, it is not a Borel set since g
−1
[A] is nonmeasurable.
3.6 Littlewood’s three principles
29. Let E = R and let f
n
= χ
[n,∞)
for each n. Then f
n
(x) → 0 for each x ∈ E. For any measurable set
A ⊂ E with mA < 1 and any integer N, pick x ≥ N such that x / ∈ A. Then [f
N
(x) −0[ ≥ 1.
30. Egoroﬀ’s Theorem: Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of measurable functions that converges to a realvalued
function f a.e. on a measurable set E of ﬁnite measure. Let η > 0 be given. For each n, there exists
A
n
⊂ E with mA
n
< η/2
n
and there exists N
n
such that for all x / ∈ A
n
and k ≥ N
n
, [f
k
(x)−f(x)[ < 1/n.
17
Let A =
A
n
. Then A ⊂ E and mA <
η/2
n
= η. Choose n
0
such that 1/n
0
< η. If x / ∈ A and
k ≥ N
n
0
, we have [f
k
(x) −f(x)[ < 1/n
0
< η. Thus f
n
converges to f uniformly on E ¸ A.
31. Lusin’s Theorem: Let f be a measurable realvalued function on [a, b] and let δ > 0 be given. For
each n, there is a continuous function h
n
on [a, b] such that m¦x : [h
n
(x) − f(x)[ ≥ δ/2
n+2
¦ < δ/2
n+2
.
Let E
n
= ¦x : [h
n
(x)−f(x)[ ≥ δ/2
n+2
¦. Then [h
n
(x)−f(x)[ < δ/2
n+2
for x ∈ [a, b] ¸E
n
. Let E =
E
n
.
Then mE < δ/4 and ¸h
n
) is a sequence of continuous, thus measurable, functions that converges to f on
[a, b] ¸ E. By Egoroﬀ’s Theorem, there is a subset A ⊂ [a, b] ¸ E such that mA < δ/4 and h
n
converges
uniformly to f on [a, b] ¸(E∪A). Thus f is continuous on [a, b] ¸(E∪A) with m(E∪A) < δ/2. Now there
is an open set O such that O ⊃ (E ∪ A) and m(O ¸ (E ∪ A)) < δ/2. Then f is continuous on [a, b] ¸ O,
which is closed, and mO < δ. By Q2.40, there is a function ϕ that is continuous on (−∞, ∞) such that
f = ϕ on [a, b] ¸ O. In particular, ϕ is continuous on [a, b] and m¦x ∈ [a, b] : f(x) ,= ϕ(x)¦ = mO < δ.
If f is deﬁned on (−∞, ∞), let δ
t
= min(δ/2
n+3
, 1/2). Then for each n, there is a continuous function
ϕ
n
on [n + δ
t
, n + 1 − δ
t
] such that m¦x ∈ [n + δ
t
, n + 1 − δ
t
] : f(x) ,= ϕ
n
(x)¦ < δ/2
n+2
. Similarly for
[−n−1 +δ
t
, −n−δ
t
]. Linearise in each interval [n−δ
t
, n+δ
t
]. Similarly for intervals [−n−δ
t
, −n+δ
t
].
Then we have a continuous function ϕ deﬁned on (−∞, ∞) with m¦x : f(x) ,= ϕ(x)¦ < 4
δ/2
n+2
= δ.
*32. For t ∈ [0, 1) with 1/2
i+1
≤ t < 1/2
i
, deﬁne f
t
: [0, 1) → R by f
t
(x) = 1 if x ∈ P
i
= P + r
i
and x = 2
i+1
t − 1, and f
t
(x) = 0 otherwise. For each t, there is at most one x such that f
t
(x) = 1
so each f
t
is measurable. For each x, x ∈ P
i(x)
for some i(x). Let t(x) = (x + 1)/2
i(x)+1
. Then
1/2
i(x)+1
≤ t(x) < 1/2
i(x)
and f
t(x)
(x) = 1. This is the only t such that f
t
(x) = 1. Thus for each x,
f
t
(x) → 0 as t → 0. Note that any measurable subset of [0, 1) with positive measure intersects inﬁnitely
many of the sets P
i
. Thus for any measurable set A ⊂ [0, 1) with mA < 1/2, m([0, 1) ¸ A) ≥ 1/2 so
there exists x ∈ [0, 1) ¸ A with i(x) arbitrarily large and so with t(x) arbitrarily small. i.e. there exist
an x ∈ [0, 1) ¸ A and arbitrarily small t such that f
t
(x) ≥ 1/2.
(*) Any measurable set A ⊂ [0, 1) with positive measure intersects inﬁnitely many of the sets P
i
:
Suppose A intersects only ﬁnitely many of the sets P
i
. i.e. A ⊂
n
i=1
P
q
i
, where P
q
i
= P + q
i
. Choose
r
1
∈ Q∩[−1, 1] such that r
1
,= q
i
−q
j
for all i, j. Suppose r
1
, . . . , r
n
have been chosen. Choose r
n+1
such
that r
n+1
,= q
i
−q
j
+r
k
for all i, j and k ≤ n. Now the measurable sets A+r
i
are disjoint by the deﬁnition
of P and the construction of the sequence ¸r
i
). Then m(
n
i=1
(A + r
i
)) =
n
i=1
m(A + r
i
) = nmA for
each n. Since
n
i=1
(A+r
i
) ⊂ [−1, 2], nmA ≤ 3 for all n and mA = 0.
4 The Lebesgue Integral
4.1 The Riemann integral
1a. Let f be deﬁned by f(x) = 0 if x is irrational and f(x) = 1 if x is rational. For any subdivision
a = ξ
0
< ξ
1
< < ξ
n
= b of [a, b], M
i
= sup
ξ
i−1
<x≤ξ
i
f(x) = 1 and m
i
= inf
ξ
i−1
<x≤ξ
i
f(x) = 0 for each
i. Thus S =
n
i=1
(ξ
i
− ξ
i−1
)M
i
= b − a and s =
n
i=1
(ξ
i
− ξ
i−1
)m
i
= 0 for any subdivision of [a, b].
Hence R
_ b
a
f(x) = b −a and R
_
b
a
f(x) = 0.
1b. Let ¸r
n
) be an enumeration of Q∩[a, b]. For each n, let f
n
= χ
¦r
1
,...,r
n
]
. Then ¸f
n
) is a sequence of
nonnegative Riemann integrable functions increasing monotonically to f. Thus the limit of a sequence
of Riemann integrable functions may not be Riemann integrable so in general we cannot interchange the
order of integration and the limiting process.
4.2 The Lebesgue integral of a bounded function over a set of ﬁnite measure
2a. Let f be a bounded function on [a, b] and let h be the upper envelope of f. i.e. h(y) = inf
δ>0
sup
]y−x]<δ
f(x).
Since f is bounded, h is upper semicontinuous by Q2.51b and h is bounded. For any α ∈ R, the set
¦x : h(x) < α¦ is open. Thus h is measurable. Let ϕ be a step function on [a, b] such that ϕ ≥ f.
Then ϕ ≥ h except at a ﬁnite number of points (the partition points). Thus R
_ b
a
f = inf
ϕ≥f
_
b
a
ϕ ≥
_
b
a
h.
Conversely, there exists a monotone decreasing sequence ¸ϕ
n
) of step functions such that h(x) = limϕ
n
(x)
for each x ∈ [a, b]. Thus
_
b
a
h = lim
_
b
a
ϕ
n
≥ R
_ b
a
f. Hence R
_ b
a
f =
_
b
a
h.
18
2b. Let f be a bounded function on [a, b] and let E be the set of discontinuities of f. Let g be the
lower envelope of f. By a similar argument as in part (a), R
_
b
a
f =
_
b
a
g. Suppose E has measure zero.
Then g = h a.e. so R
_
b
a
f =
_
b
a
g =
_
b
a
h = R
_ b
a
f so f is Riemann integrable. Conversely, suppose f is
Riemann integrable. Then
_
b
a
g =
_
b
a
h. Thus
_
b
a
[g −h[ = 0 so g = h a.e. since
_
b
a
[g −h[ ≥ (1/n)m¦x :
[g(x) −h(x)[ > 1/n¦ for all n. Hence f is continuous a.e. and mE = 0.
4.3 The integral of a nonnegative function
3. Let f be a nonnegative measurable function and suppose inf f = 0. Let E = ¦x : f(x) > 0¦. Then
E =
E
n
where E
n
= ¦x : f(x) ≥ 1/n¦. Now
_
f ≥ (1/n)mE
n
for each n so mE
n
= 0 for each n and
mE = 0. Thus f = 0 a.e.
4a. Let f be a nonnegative measurable function. For n = 1, 2, . . ., let E
n,i
= f
−1
[(i −1)2
−n
, i2
−n
) where
i = 1, . . . , n2
n
and let E
n,0
= f
−1
[n, ∞). Deﬁne ϕ
n
=
n2
n
i=1
(i − 1)2
−n
χ
(E
n,i
∩[−n,n])
+ nχ
(E
n,0
∩[−n,n])
.
Then each ϕ
n
is a nonnegative simple function vanishing outside a set of ﬁnite measure and ϕ
n
≤ ϕ
n+1
for each n. Furthermore, for suﬃciently large n, f
n
(x) −ϕ
n
(x) ≤ 2
−n
if x ∈ [−n, n] and f(x) < n. Thus
ϕ
n
(x) → f(x) when f(x) < ∞. Also, for suﬃciently large n, ϕ
n
(x) = n → ∞ if f(x) = ∞.
4b. Let f be a nonnegative measurable function. Then by part (a), there is an increasing sequence ¸ϕ
n
)
of simple functions such that f = limϕ
n
. By the Monotone Convergence Theorem,
_
f = lim
_
ϕ
n
=
sup
_
ϕ
n
. Thus
_
f ≤ sup
_
ϕ over all simple functions ϕ ≤ f. On the other hand,
_
f ≥
_
ϕ for all
simple functions ϕ ≤ f. Thus
_
f ≥ sup
_
ϕ over all simple functions ϕ ≤ f. Hence
_
f = sup
_
ϕ over
all simple functions ϕ ≤ f.
5. Let f be a nonnegative integrable function and let F(x) =
_
x
−∞
f. For each n, let f
n
= fχ
(−∞,x−1/n]
.
Then ¸f
n
) is an increasing sequence of nonnegative measurable functions with fχ
(−∞,x]
= limf
n
. By
the Monotone Convergence Theorem, limF(x − 1/n) = lim
_
f
n
=
_
fχ
(−∞,x]
= F(x). Now for each
n, let g
n
= fχ
(x+1/n,∞)
. Then ¸g
n
) is an increasing sequence of nonnegative measurable functions with
fχ
(x,∞)
= limg
n
. By the Monotone Convergence Theorem, lim
_
g
n
=
_
fχ
(x,∞)
. i.e. lim
_
∞
x+1/n
f =
_
∞
x
f. Since f is integrable, we have lim(
_
f −
_
x+1/n
−∞
f) =
_
f −
_
x
−∞
f so lim
_
x+1/n
−∞
f =
_
x
−∞
f.
i.e. limF(x + 1/n) = F(x). Now given ε > 0, there exists N such that F(x) − F(x − 1/n) < ε and
F(x+1/n) −F(x) < ε whenever n ≥ N. Choose δ < 1/N. Then [F(y) −F(x)[ < ε whenever [x−y[ < δ.
Hence F is continuous.
6. Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of nonnegative measurable functions converging to f and suppose f
n
≤ f for
each n. By Fatou’s Lemma,
_
f ≤ lim
_
f
n
. On the other hand,
_
f ≥ lim
_
f
n
since f ≥ f
n
for each n.
Hence
_
f = lim
_
f
n
.
7a. For each n, let f
n
= χ
[n,n+1)
. Then ¸f
n
) is a sequence of nonnegative measurable functions with
limf
n
= 0. Now
_
0 = 0 < 1 = lim
_
f
n
and we have strict inequality in Fatou’s Lemma.
7b. For each n, let f
n
= χ
[n,∞)
. Then ¸f
n
) is a decreasing sequence of nonnegative measurable functions
with limf
n
= 0. Now
_
0 = 0 < ∞ = lim
_
f
n
so the Monotone Convergence Theorem does not hold.
8. Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of nonnegative measurable functions. For each n, let h
n
= inf
k≥n
f
k
. Then
each h
n
is a nonnegative measurable function with h
n
≤ f
n
. By Fatou’s Lemma,
_
limf
n
=
_
limh
n
≤
lim
_
h
n
≤ lim
_
f
n
.
9. Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of nonnegative measurable functions such that f
n
→ f a.e. and suppose
that
_
f
n
→
_
f < ∞. Then for any measurable set E, ¸f
n
χ
E
) is a sequence of nonnegative measurable
functions with f
n
χ
E
→ fχ
E
a.e. By Fatou’s Lemma,
_
E
f ≤ lim
_
E
f
n
. Now fχ
E
is integrable since
fχ
E
≤ f. Also, f
n
is integrable for suﬃciently large n so f
n
χ
E
is integrable for suﬃciently large n. By
Fatou’s Lemma,
_
(f −fχ
E
) ≤ lim
_
(f
n
−f
n
χ
E
). i.e.
_
f −
_
E
f ≤ lim
_
f
n
−lim
_
E
f
n
=
_
f −lim
_
E
f
n
.
Thus lim
_
E
f
n
≤
_
E
f and we have
_
E
f
n
→
_
E
f.
4.4 The general Lebesgue integral
10a. If f is integrable over E, then so are f
+
and f
−
. Thus [f[ = f
+
+ f
−
is integrable over E and
[
_
E
f[ = [
_
E
f
+
−
_
E
f
−
[ ≤ [
_
E
f
+
[ +[
_
E
f
−
[ =
_
E
f
+
+
_
E
f
−
=
_
E
[f[. Conversely, if [f[ is integrable
19
over E, then
_
E
f
+
≤
_
E
[f[ < ∞ and
_
E
f
−
≤
_
E
[f[ < ∞ so f
+
and f
−
are integrable over E and f is
integrable over E.
10b. f(x) = sin x/x is not Lebesgue integrable on [0, ∞] although R
_
∞
0
f(x) = π/2 (by contour
integration for example). In general, suppose f is Lebesgue integrable and the Riemann integral R
_
b
a
f
exists with improper lower limit a. If a is ﬁnite, let f
n
= fχ
[a+1/n,b]
. Then f
n
→ f on [a, b] and [f
n
[ ≤ [f[
so R
_
b
a
f = limR
_
b
a+1/n
f = lim
_
f
n
=
_
b
a
f. If a = −∞, let g
n
= fχ
[−n,b]
. Then g
n
→ f on [a, b]
and [g
n
[ ≤ [f[ so R
_
b
a
f = limR
_
b
−n
f = lim
_
g
n
=
_
b
a
f. The cases where the Riemann integral has
improper upper limit are similar.
11. Let ϕ =
n
i=1
a
i
χ
A
i
be a simple function with canonical representation. Let S+ = ¦i : a
i
≥ 0¦
and let S− = ¦i : a
i
< 0¦. Then ϕ
+
=
i∈S+
a
i
χ
A
i
and ϕ
−
= −
i∈S−
a
i
χ
A
i
. Clearly ϕ
+
and ϕ
−
are simple functions. Then
_
ϕ
+
=
i∈S+
a
i
mA
i
and
_
ϕ
−
= −
i∈S−
a
i
mA
i
so
_
ϕ =
_
ϕ
+
−
_
ϕ
−
=
n
i=1
a
i
mA
i
.
12. Let g be an integrable function on a set E and suppose that ¸f
n
) is a sequence of measurable
functions with [f
n
[ ≤ g a.e. on E. Then ¸f
n
+ g) is a sequence of nonnegative measurable functions on
E. Thus
_
limf
n
+
_
g ≤
_
lim(f
n
+ g) ≤ lim
_
(f
n
+ g) ≤ lim
_
f
n
+
_
g so
_
limf
n
≤ lim
_
f
n
. Also,
¸g−f
n
) is a sequence of nonnegative measurable functions on E. Thus
_
g+
_
lim(−f
n
) ≤
_
lim(g−f
n
) ≤
lim
_
(g −f
n
) ≤
_
g + lim(−
_
f
n
) so
_
lim(−f
n
) ≤ lim(−
_
f
n
). i.e. lim
_
f
n
≤
_
limf
n
. Hence we have
_
limf
n
≤ lim
_
f
n
≤ lim
_
f
n
≤
_
limf
n
.
13. Let h be an integrable function and ¸f
n
) a sequence of measurable functions with f
n
≥ −h and
limf
n
= f. For each n, f
n
+ h is a nonnegative measurable function. Since h is integrable,
_
f
n
=
_
(f
n
+ h) −
_
h. Similarly,
_
f =
_
(f + h) −
_
h. Now
_
f +
_
h ≤
_
lim(f
n
+ h) ≤ lim
_
f
n
+
_
h so
_
f ≤ lim
_
f
n
.
14a. Let ¸g
n
) be a sequence of integrable functions which converges a.e. to an integrable function
g and let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of measurable functions such that [f
n
[ ≤ g
n
and ¸f
n
) converges to f
a.e. Suppose
_
g = lim
_
g
n
. Since [f
n
[ ≤ g
n
, [f[ ≤ g. Thus [f
n
− f[ ≤ [f
n
[ + [f[ ≤ g
n
+ g and
¸g
n
+ g − [f
n
− f[) is a sequence of nonnegative measurable functions. By Fatou’s Lemma,
_
lim(g
n
+
g − [f
n
− f[) ≤ lim
_
(g
n
+ g − [f
n
− f[). i.e.
_
2g ≤
_
2g + lim(−
_
[f
n
− f[) =
_
2g − lim
_
[f
n
− f[.
Hence lim
_
[f
n
−f[ ≤ 0 ≤ lim
_
[f
n
−f[ and we have
_
[f
n
−f[ → 0.
14b. Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of integrable functions such that f
n
→ f a.e. with f integrable. If
_
[f
n
− f[ → 0, then
¸
¸
_
[f
n
[ −
_
[f[
¸
¸
≤
_
[[f
n
[ −[f[[ ≤
_
[f
n
− f[ → 0. Thus
_
[f
n
[ →
_
[f[. Conversely,
suppose
_
[f
n
[ →
_
[f[. By part (a), with [f
n
[ in place of g
n
and [f[ in place of g, we have
_
[f
n
−f[ → 0.
15a. Let f be integrable over E and let ε > 0 be given. By Q4, there is a simple function ψ ≤ f
+
such
that
_
E
f
+
− ε/2 <
_
E
ψ. Also, there is a simple function ψ
t
≤ f
−
such that
_
E
f
−
− ε/2 <
_
E
ψ
t
. Let
ϕ = ψ−ψ
t
. Then ϕ is a simple function and
_
E
[f−ϕ[ =
_
E
[f
+
−ψ−f
−
+ψ
t
[ ≤
_
E
[f
+
−ψ[+
_
E
[f
−
−ψ
t
[ =
_
E
(f
+
−ψ) +
_
E
(f
−
−ψ
t
) < ε.
15b. Let f
n
= fχ
[−n,n]
. Then f
n
→ f and [f
n
[ ≤ [f[. By Lebesgue’s Dominated Convergence Theorem,
_
E
[f − fχ
[−n,n]
[ → 0. i.e.
_
E∩[−n,n]
c
[f[ → 0. Thus there exists N such that
_
E∩[−N,N]
c
[f[ < ε/3.
By part (a), there is a simple function ϕ such that
_
E
[f − ϕ[ < ε/3. By Proposition 3.22, there
is a step function ψ on [−N, N] such that [ϕ − ψ[ < ε/12NM except on a set of measure less than
ε/12NM, where M ≥ max([ϕ[, [ψ[) + 1. We may regard ψ as a function on R taking the value 0
outside [−N, N]. Then
_
N
−N
[ϕ − ψ[ < ε/3 so
_
E
[f − ψ[ =
_
E∩[−N,N]
[f − ψ[ +
_
E∩[−N,N]
c
[f − ψ[ ≤
_
E∩[−N,N]
[f −ϕ[ +
_
E∩[−N,N]
[ϕ−ψ[ +
_
E∩[−N,N]
c
[f −ψ[ ≤
_
E
[f −ϕ[ +
_
N
−N
[ϕ−ψ[ +
_
E∩[−N,N]
c
[f[ < ε.
15c. By part (b), there is a step function ψ such that
_
E
[f −ψ[ < ε/2. Suppose ψ is deﬁned on [a, b].
We may regard ψ as a function on R taking the value 0 outside [a, b]. By linearising ψ at each partition
point, we get a continuous function g vanishing outside a ﬁnite interval such that ψ = g except on a set
of measure less than ε/4M, where M ≥ [ψ[. Then
_
E
[f −g[ ≤
_
E
[f −ψ[ +
_
E
[ψ −g[ < ε.
16. RiemannLebesgue Theorem: Suppose f is integrable on (−∞, ∞). By Q15, given ε > 0,
there is a step function ψ such that
_
[f − ψ[ < ε/2. Now [
_
f(x) cos nxdx[ ≤
_
[f(x) cos nx[ dx ≤
_
[(f(x) −ψ(x)) cos nx[ dx +
_
[ψ(x) cos nx[ dx < ε/2 +
_
[ψ(x) cos nx[ dx. Integrating [ψ(x) cos nx[ over
each interval on which ψ is constant, we see that
_
[ψ(x) cos nx[ dx → 0 as n → ∞. Thus there
exists N such that
_
[ψ(x) cos nx[ dx < ε/2 for n ≥ N so [
_
f(x) cos nxdx[ < ε for n ≥ N. i.e.
20
lim
n→∞
_
f(x) cos nxdx = 0.
17a. Let f be integrable over (−∞, ∞). Then f
+
and f
−
are nonnegative integrable functions. There
exists an increasing sequence ¸ϕ
n
) of nonnegative simple functions such that f
+
= limϕ
n
. Now since
_
χ
E
(x) dx = mE = m(E − t) =
_
χ
E
(x + t) dx for any measurable set E, we have
_
ϕ
n
(x) dx =
_
ϕ
n
(x+t) dx for all n. By the Monotone Convergence Theorem,
_
f
+
(x) dx =
_
f
+
(x+t) dx. Similarly
for f
−
. Thus
_
f(x) dx =
_
f(x +t) dx.
17b. Let g be a bounded measurable function and let M be such that [g[ ≤ M. Since f is integrable, given
ε > 0, there is a continuous function h vanishing outside a ﬁnite interval [a, b] such that
_
[f −h[ < ε/4M.
Now
_
[g(x)[f(x) −f(x +t)][ ≤
_
[g(x)[h(x) −h(x +t)][ +
_
[g(x)[(f −h)(x) −(f −h)(x +t)][. Now h is
uniformly continuous on [a, b] so there exists δ > 0 such that [h(x)−h(x+t)[ < ε/2M(b−a) whenever [t[ <
δ. Then
_
[g(x)[f(x)−f(x+t)][ ≤ ε/2+M
__
[(f −h)(x)[ +
_
[(f −h)(x +t)[
_
= ε/2+2M
_
[f −h[ < ε
whenever [t[ < δ. i.e. lim
t→0
_
[g(x)[f(x) −f(x +t)][ = 0.
18. Let f be a function of 2 variables ¸x, t) deﬁned on the square Q = [0, 1] [0, 1] and which is a
measurable function of x for each ﬁxed t. Suppose that lim
t→0
f(x, t) = f(x) and that for all t we have
[f(x, t)[ ≤ g(x) where g is an integrable function on [0, 1]. Let ¸t
n
) be a sequence such that t
n
,= 0 for all
n and lim
n
t
n
= 0. Then lim
n
f(x, t
n
) = f(x). For each n, h
n
(x) = f(x, t
n
) is measurable and [h
n
[ ≤ g.
By Lebesgue’s Dominated Convergence Theorem, lim
n
_
h
n
=
_
f. i.e. lim
t→0
_
f(x, t) dx =
_
f(x) dx.
Suppose further that f(x, t) is continuous in t for each x and let h(t) =
_
f(x, t) dx. Let ¸t
n
) be a
sequence converging to t. Then limf(x, t
n
) = f(x, t) for each x. By Lebesgue’s Dominated Convergence
Theorem, lim
_
f(x, t
n
) dx =
_
f(x, t) dx. i.e. limh(t
n
) = h(t). Hence h is a continuous function of t.
19. Let f be a function deﬁned and bounded in the square Q = [0, 1] [0, 1] and suppose that for each
ﬁxed t the function f is a measurable function of x. For each ¸x, t) in Q, let the partial derivative ∂f/∂t
exist. Suppose that ∂f/∂t is bounded in Q. Let ¸s
n
) be a sequence such that s
n
,= 0 for all n and
lim
n
s
n
= 0. Then lim
n
[f(x, t + s
n
) − f(x, t)]/s
n
→ ∂f/∂t. Since ∂f/∂t is bounded, there exists M
such that [[f(x, t + s
n
) − f(x, t)]/s
n
[ ≤ M + 1 for suﬃciently large n. For each ﬁxed t, f is a bounded
measurable function of x so [
_
1
0
f(x, t+s
n
) dx−
_
1
0
f(x, t) dx]/s
n
=
_
1
0
([f(x, t+s
n
)−f(x, t)]/s
n
) dx. Thus
d
dt
_
1
0
f(x, t) dx = lim
n
[
_
1
0
f(x, t + s
n
) dx −
_
1
0
f(x, t) dx]/s
n
= lim
n
_
1
0
([f(x, t + s
n
) − f(x, t)]/s
n
) dx =
_
1
0
∂f
∂t
dx, the last equality following from Lebesgue’s Dominated Convergence Theorem.
4.5 Convergence in measure
20. Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence that converges to f in measure. Then given ε > 0, there exists N such that
m¦x : [f
n
(x) − f(x)[ ≥ ε¦ < ε for n ≥ N. For any subsequence ¸f
n
k
), choose M such that n
k
≥ N for
k ≥ M. Then m¦x : [f
n
k
(x) −f(x)[ ≥ ε¦ < ε for k ≥ M. Thus ¸f
n
k
) converges to f in measure.
21. Fatou’s Lemma: Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of nonnegative measurable functions that converges in
measure to f on E. Then there is a subsequence ¸f
n
k
) such that lim
_
E
f
n
k
= lim
_
E
f
n
. By Q20, ¸f
n
k
)
converges in measure to f on E so it in turn has a subsequence ¸f
n
k
j
) that converges to f a.e. Thus
_
E
f ≤ lim
_
E
f
n
k
j
= lim
_
E
f
n
k
= lim
_
E
f
n
.
Monotone Convergence Theorem: Let ¸f
n
) be an increasing sequence of nonnegative measurable functions
that converges in measure to f. Any subsequence ¸f
n
k
) also converges in measure to f so it in turn has
a subsequence ¸f
n
k
j
) that converges to f a.e. Thus
_
f = lim
_
f
n
k
j
. By Q2.12,
_
f = lim
_
f
n
.
Lebesgue’s Dominated Convergence Theorem: Let g be integrable over E and let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of
measurable functions such that [f
n
[ ≤ g on E and converges in measure to f on E. Any subsequence
¸f
n
k
) also converges in measure to f so it in turn has a subsequence ¸f
n
k
j
) that converges to f a.e. Thus
_
f = lim
_
f
n
k
j
. By Q2.12,
_
f = lim
_
f
n
.
22. Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of measurable functions on a set E of ﬁnite measure. If ¸f
n
) converges to
f in measure, then so does any subsequence ¸f
n
k
). Thus any subsequence of ¸f
n
k
) also converges to f
in measure. Conversely, if ¸f
n
) does not converge in measure to f, then there exists ε > 0 such that for
any N there exists n ≥ N with m¦x : [f
n
(x) − f(x)[ ≥ ε¦ ≥ ε. This gives rise to a subsequence ¸f
n
k
)
such that m¦x : [f
n
k
(x) −f(x) ≥ ε¦ ≥ ε for all k. This subsequence will not have a further subsequence
that converges in measure to f.
23. Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of measurable functions on a set E of ﬁnite measure. If ¸f
n
) converges to f
21
in measure, then so does any subsequence ¸f
n
k
). Thus ¸f
n
k
) has in turn a subsequence that converges to
f a.e. Conversely, if every subsequence ¸f
n
k
) has in turn a subsequence ¸f
n
k
j
) that converges to f a.e.,
then ¸f
n
k
j
) converges to f in measure so by Q22, ¸f
n
) converges to f in measure.
24. Suppose that f
n
→ f in measure and that there is an integrable function g such that [f
n
[ ≤ g for
all n. Let ε > 0 be given. Now [f
n
−f[ is integrable for each n and [f
n
−f[χ
[−k,k]
converges to [f
n
−f[.
By Lebesgue’s Dominated Convergence Theorem,
_
k
−k
[f
n
−f[ converges to
_
[f
n
−f[. Thus there exists
N such that
_
]x]≥N
[f
n
− f[ < ε/3. By Proposition 14, for each n, given ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such
that for any set A with mA < δ,
_
A
[f
n
− f[ < ε/3. We may assume δ < ε/6N. There also exists N
t
such that m¦x : [f
n
(x) − f(x)[ ≥ δ¦ < δ for all n ≥ N
t
. Let A = ¦x : [f
n
(x) − f(x)[ ≥ δ¦. Then
_
[f
n
− f[ =
_
]x]≥N
[f
n
− f[ +
_
A∩[−N,N]
[f
n
− f[ +
_
A
c
∩[−N,N]
[f
n
− f[ < ε/3 + ε/3 + 2Nδ < ε for all
n ≥ N
t
. i.e.
_
[f
n
−f[ → 0.
25. Let ¸f
n
) be a Cauchy sequence in measure. Then we may choose n
v+1
> n
v
such that m¦x :
[f
n
v+1
(x) − f
n
v
(x)[ ≥ 1/2
v
¦ < 1/2
v
. Let E
v
= ¦x : [f
n
v+1
(x) − f
n
v
(x)[ ≥ 1/2
v
¦ and let F
k
=
v≥k
E
v
.
Then m(
k
F
k
) ≤ m(
v≥k
E
v
) ≤ 1/2
k−1
for all k so m(
k
F
k
) = 0. If x / ∈
k
F
k
, then x / ∈ F
k
for
some k so [f
n
v+1
(x) − f
n
v
(x)[ < 1/2
v
for all v ≥ k and [f
n
w
(x) − f
n
v
(x)[ < 1/2
v−1
for w ≥ v ≥ k.
Thus the series
(f
n
v+1
− f
n
v
) converges a.e. to a function g. Let f = g + f
n
1
. Then f
n
v
→ f in
measure since the partial sums of the series are of the form f
n
v
−f
n
1
. Given ε > 0, choose N such that
m¦x : [f
n
(x) − f
r
(x)[ ≥ ε/2¦ < ε/2 for all n, r ≥ N and m¦x : [f
n
v
(x) − f(x)[ ≥ ε/2¦ < ε/2 for all
v ≥ N. Now ¦x : [f
n
(x) −f(x)[ ≥ ε¦ ⊂ ¦x : [f
n
(x) −f
n
v
(x)[ ≥ ε/2¦ ∪ ¦x : [f
n
v
(x) −f(x)[ ≥ ε/2¦ for all
n, v ≥ N. Thus m¦x : [f
n
(x) −f(x)[ ≥ ε¦ < ε for all n ≥ N. i.e. f
n
→ f in measure.
5 Diﬀerentiation and Integration
5.1 Diﬀerentiation of monotone functions
1. Let f be deﬁned by f(0) = 0 and f(x) = xsin(1/x) for x ,= 0. Then D
+
f(0) = lim
h→0
+
f(0+h)−f(0)
h
=
lim
h→0
+ sin(1/h) = 1. Similarly, D
−
f(0) = 1, D
+
f(0) = D
−
f(0) = −1.
2a. D
+
[−f(x)] = lim
h→0
+
[−f(x+h)]−[−f(x)]
h
= −lim
h→0
+
f(x+h)−f(x)
h
= −D
+
f(x).
2b. Let g(x) = f(−x). Then D
+
g(x) = lim
h→0
+
g(x+h)−g(x)
h
= lim
h→0
+
f(−x−h)−f(−x)
h
= lim
h→0
+ −
f(−x)−f(−x−h)
h
= −lim
h→0
+
f(−x)−f(−x−h)
h
= −D
−
f(−x).
3a. Suppose f is continuous on [a, b] and assumes a local maximum at c ∈ (a, b). Now there exists
δ > 0 such that f(c + h) < f(c) for 0 < h < δ. Then
f(c+h)−f(c)
h
< 0 for 0 < h < δ. Thus
D
+
f(c) = lim
h→0
+
f(c+h)−f(c)
h
≤ 0. Similarly, there exists δ
t
> 0 such that f(c) > f(c − h) for 0 <
h < δ
t
. Then
f(c)−f(c−h)
h
> 0 for 0 < h < δ
t
. Thus D
−
f(c) = lim
h→0
+
f(c)−f(c−h)
h
≥ 0. Hence
D
+
f(c) ≤ D
+
f(c) ≤ 0 ≤ D
−
f(c) ≤ D
−
f(c).
(*) Note error in book.
3b. If f has a local maximum at a, then D
+
f(a) ≤ D
+
f(a) ≤ 0. If f has a local maximum at b, then
0 ≤ D
−
f(b) ≤ D
−
f(b).
4. Suppose f is continuous on [a, b] and one of its derivates, say D
+
f, is everywhere nonnegative on
(a, b). First consider a function g such that D
+
g(x) ≥ ε > 0 for all x ∈ (a, b). Suppose there exist
x, y ∈ [a, b] with x < y and g(x) > g(y). Since D
+
g(x) > 0 for all x ∈ (a, b), g has no local maximum in
(a, b) by Q3. Thus g is decreasing on (a, y] and D
+
g(c) ≤ 0 for all c ∈ (a, y). Contradiction. Hence g is
nondecreasing on [a, b]. Now for any ε > 0, D
+
(f(x) +εx) ≥ ε on (a, b) so f(x) +εx is nondecreasing on
[a, b]. Let x < y. Then f(x)+εx ≤ f(y)+εy. Suppose f(x) > f(y). Then 0 < f(x)−f(y) ≤ ε(y −x). In
particular, choosing ε = (f(x) −f(y))/(2(y −x)), we have f(x) −f(y) ≤ (f(x) −f(y))/2. Contradiction.
Hence f is nondecreasing on [a, b].
The case where D
−
f is everywhere nonnegative on (a, b) follows from a similar argument and the cases
where D
+
f or D
−
f is everywhere nonnegative on (a, b) follow from the previous cases.
5a. For any x, D
+
(f + g)(x) = lim
h→0
+
(f+g)(x+h)−(f+g)(x)
h
= lim
h→0
+(
f(x+h)−f(x)
h
+
g(x+h)−g(x)
h
) ≤
lim
h→0
+
f(x+h)−f(x)
h
+ lim
h→0
+
g(x+h)−g(x)
h
= D
+
f(x) +D
+
g(x).
22
5b. For any x, D
+
(f + g)(x) = lim
h→0
+
(f+g)(x+h)−(f+g)(x)
h
= lim
h→0
+(
f(x+h)−f(x)
h
+
g(x+h)−g(x)
h
) ≤
lim
h→0
+
f(x+h)−f(x)
h
+ lim
h→0
+
g(x+h)−g(x)
h
= D
+
f(x) +D
+
g(x).
Similarly, D
−
(f +g) ≤ D
−
f +D
−
g and D
−
(f +g) ≤ D
−
f +D
−
g.
5c. Let f and g be nonnegative and continuous at c. Then D
+
(fg)(c) = lim
h→0
+
(fg)(c+h)−(fg)(c)
h
=
lim
h→0
+
f(c+h)g(c+h)−f(c)g(c)
h
= lim
h→0
+
(f(c+h)−f(c))g(c+h)+f(c)(g(c+h)−g(c))
h
≤ g(c)lim
h→0
+
f(c+h)−f(c)
h
+
f(c)lim
h→0
+
g(c+h)−g(c)
h
= f(c)D
+
g(c) +g(c)D
+
f(c).
*6a. Let f be deﬁned on [a, b] and g a continuous function on [α, β] that is diﬀerentiable at γ with
g(γ) = c ∈ (a, b). Suppose g
t
(γ) > 0. Note that if D
+
(f ◦ g)(γ) = ±∞, then D
+
f(c) = ±∞. Now
suppose D
+
f(c) < ∞. Let ε > 0 be given and let ε
1
= min(1,
ε
g
(γ)+1+D
+
f(c)
). There exists δ
1
> 0 such
that [
g(γ+h)−g(γ)
h
−g
t
(γ)[ < ε
1
for 0 < h < δ
1
. There exists δ
2
> 0 such that
f(c+h
)−f(c)
h
−D
+
f(c) < ε
1
for 0 < h
t
< δ
2
so that f(c+h
t
)−f(c)−h
t
D
+
f(c) < ε
1
h
t
. By continuity of g, there exists δ
3
> 0 such that
g(γ+h
tt
)−g(γ) < δ
2
for 0 < h
tt
< δ
3
. Now let δ = min(δ
1
, δ
3
). When 0 < h < δ, [
g(γ+h)−g(γ)
h
−g
t
(γ)[ < ε
1
and f(g(γ + h)) −f(g(γ)) −(g(γ + h) −g(γ))D
+
f(c) < ε
1
(g(γ + h) −g(γ)). Hence
f(g(γ+h))−f(g(γ))
h
−
D
+
f(c)g
t
(γ) =
f(g(γ+h))−f(g(γ))−D
+
f(c)(g(γ+h)−g(γ))
h
+
D
+
f(c)(g(γ+h)−g(γ))−hD
+
f(c)g
(γ)
h
< ε
1
g(γ+h)−g(γ)
h
+
D
+
f(c)(
g(γ+h)−g(γ)
h
− g
t
(γ)) < ε
1
(g
t
(γ) + 1) + ε
1
D
+
f(c) < ε. Thus D
+
(f ◦ g)(γ) ≤ D
+
f(c)g
t
(γ) and
similarly, it can be shown that D
+
(f ◦ g)(γ) ≥ D
+
f(c)g
t
(γ). Hence D
+
(f ◦ g)(γ) = D
+
f(c)g
t
(γ).
*6b. Suppose g
t
(γ) < 0. Note that if D
+
(f ◦ g)(γ) = ±∞, then D
−
f(c)g
t
(γ) = ∓∞. Also note that
there exists δ > 0 such that g(γ + h) − g(γ) < 0 for 0 < h < δ. By a similar argument to that in part
(a), D
+
(f ◦ g)(γ) = D
−
f(c)g
t
(γ).
*6c. Suppose g
t
(γ) = 0 and all the derivates of f at c are ﬁnite. By a similar argument to that in part
(a), D
+
(f ◦ g)(γ) = 0.
5.2 Functions of bounded variation
7a. Let f be of bounded variation on [a, b]. Then f = g − h where g and h are monotone increasing
functions on [a, b]. Let c ∈ (a, b). Also let A = sup
x∈[a,c)
g(x) and let B = sup
x∈[a,c)
h(x). Note that
A, B < ∞. Given ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that A−ε/2 < g(c−δ) ≤ A and B−ε/2 < h(c−δ) ≤ B.
Then for x ∈ (c − δ, c), A − ε/2 < g(x) ≤ A and B − ε/2 < h(x) ≤ B. i.e. 0 ≤ A − g(x) < ε/2 and
0 ≤ B − h(x) < ε/2. Now 0 ≤ [A − B − f(x)[ ≤ (A − g(x)) + (B − h(x)) < ε for x ∈ (c − δ, c). Hence
f(c−) exists. Similarly f(c+) exists. Let g be a monotone function and let E be the set of discontinuities
of g. Now for c ∈ E, g(c−) < g(c+) so there is a rational r
c
such that g(c−) < r
c
< g(c+). Note that
if x
1
< x
2
, then g(x
1
+) ≤ g(x
2
−) so r
x
1
,= r
x
2
. Thus we have a bijection between E and a subset of Q
so E is countable. Since a function f of bounded variation is a diﬀerence of two monotone functions, f
also has only a countable number of discontinuities.
7b. Let ¸x
n
) be an enumeration of Q ∩ [0, 1]. Deﬁne f on [0, 1] by f(x) =
x
n
<x
2
−n
. Then f is
monotone. Also, at each x
n
, for any δ > 0, there exists x ∈ (x
n
, x
n
+δ) such that f(x) −f(x
n
) > 2
−n−1
so f is discontinuous at each x
n
.
8a. Suppose a ≤ c ≤ b. Let a = x
0
< x
1
< < x
n
= b be a subdivision of [a, b]. If c = x
k
for
some k, then
n
1
[f(x
i
) − f(x
i−1
)[ =
k
1
[f(x
i
) − f(x
i−1
)[ +
n
k+1
[f(x
i
) − f(x
i−1
)[ ≤ T
c
a
(f) + T
b
c
(f).
Thus T
b
a
(f) ≤ T
c
a
(f) + T
b
c
(f). The case where c ∈ (x
k
, x
k+1
) for some k is similar. Conversely, let
a = x
0
< x
1
< < x
n
= c be a subdivision of [a, c] and let c = y
0
< y
1
< < y
m
= b be a
subdivision of [c, b]. Then a = x
0
< x
1
< < x
n
= c < y
1
< < y
m
= b is a subdivision of [a, b] and
n
1
[f(x
i
) − f(x
i−1
)[ +
m
1
[f(y
i
) − f(y
i−1
)[ ≤ T
b
a
(f). It follows that T
c
a
(f) + T
b
c
(f) ≤ T
b
a
(f). Hence
T
b
a
(f) = T
c
a
(f) +T
b
c
(f) and T
c
a
(f) ≤ T
b
a
(f).
8b. Let a = x
0
< x
1
< < x
n
= b be a subdivision of [a, b]. Then
n
1
[(f +g)(x
i
) −(f +g)(x
i−1
)[ ≤
n
1
[f(x
i
)−f(x
i−1
)[+
n
1
[g(x
i
)−g(x
i−1
)[ ≤ T
b
a
(f)+T
b
a
(g). Hence T
b
a
(f +g) ≤ T
b
a
(f)+T
b
a
(g). Let c ∈ R.
If c = 0, then T
b
a
(cf) = 0 = [c[T
b
a
(f). If c ,= 0, then
n
1
[cf(x
i
) −cf(x
i−1
)[ = [c[
n
1
[f(x
i
) −f(x
i−1
)[ ≤
[c[T
b
a
(f). Thus T
b
a
(cf) ≤ [c[T
b
a
(f). On the other hand,
n
1
[f(x
i
) − f(x
i−1
)[ = [c[
−1
n
1
[cf(x
i
) −
cf(x
i−1
)[ ≤ [c[
−1
T
b
a
(cf). Thus T
b
a
(f) ≤ [c[
−1
T
b
a
(cf) so [c[T
b
a
(f) ≤ T
b
a
(cf). Hence T
b
a
(cf) = [c[T
b
a
(f).
9. Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of functions on [a, b] that converges at each point of [a, b] to f. Let a =
x
0
< x
1
< < x
n
= b be a subdivision of [a, b] and let ε > 0. Then there exists N such that
23
n
1
[f(x
i
)−f(x
i−1
)[ ≤
n
1
[f(x
i
)−f
n
(x
i
)[+
n
1
[f(x
i−1
)−f
n
(x
i−1
)[+
n
1
[f
n
(x
i
)−f
n
(x
i−1
)[ < ε+T
b
a
(f
n
)
for n ≥ N. Thus T
b
a
(f) ≤ ε + T
b
a
(f
n
) for n ≥ N so T
b
a
(f) ≤ ε + limT
b
a
(f
n
). Since ε is arbitrary,
T
b
a
(f) ≤ limT
b
a
(f
n
).
10a. Let f be deﬁned by f(0) = 0 and f(x) = x
2
sin(1/x
2
) for x ,= 0. Consider the subdivision
−1 <
_
2/nπ <
_
2/(n −1)π < <
_
2/π < 1 of [−1, 1]. Note that t
b
a
(f) → ∞ as n → ∞. Thus f is
not of bounded variation on [−1, 1].
10b. Let g be deﬁned by g(0) = 0 and g(x) = x
2
sin(1/x) for x ,= 0. Note that g is diﬀerentiable
on [−1, 1] and [g
t
(x)[ ≤ 3 on [−1, 1]. Thus for any subdivision a = x
0
< x
1
< < x
n
= b of [a, b],
n
1
[g(x
i
−g(x
i−1
)[ ≤ 4
n
1
[x
i
−x
i−1
[ = 3(g(1) −g(−1)). Hence T
1
−1
(g) ≤ 3(g(−1) −g(1)) < ∞.
11. Let f be of bounded variation on [a, b]. For any x ∈ [a, b], f(x) = P
x
a
(f) − N
x
a
(f) − f(a) so
f
t
(x) =
d
dx
P
x
a
(f) −
d
dx
N
x
a
(f) a.e. in [a, b]. Thus [f
t
[ ≤
d
dx
P
x
a
(f) +
d
dx
N
x
a
(f) =
d
dx
T
x
a
(f) a.e. in [a, b] and
_
b
a
[f
t
[ ≤
_
b
a
d
dx
T
x
a
(f) ≤ T
b
a
(f) −T
a
a
(f) = T
b
a
(f).
5.3 Diﬀerentiation of an integral
No problems
5.4 Absolute continuity
*12. The function f deﬁned by f(0) = 0 and f(x) = x
2
sin(1/x
2
) for x ,= 0 is absolutely continuous on
[ε, 1] for ε > 0, continuous at 0 but not of bounded variation on [0, 1], thus not absolutely continuous on
[0, 1].
Suppose f is absolutely continuous on [η, 1] for η > 0, continuous at 0 and of bounded variation on [0, 1].
For η ∈ (0, 1], let 0 = x
0
< x
1
< < x
n
= η be a subdivision of [0, η]. Then since f is continuous at 0,
n
1
[f(x
i
)−f(x
i−1
)[ → 0 as η → 0
+
. Thus T
η
0
(f) → 0 as η → 0
+
. Given ε > 0, there exists η ∈ (0, 1] such
that T
η
0
(f) < ε/2. Since f is absolutely continuous on [η, 1], there exists δ > 0 such that for any ﬁnite
collection ¦(x
i
, x
t
i
)¦
n
1
of disjoint intervals in [η, 1] with
n
1
[x
t
i
−x
i
[ < δ, we have
n
1
[f(x
t
i
)−f(x
i
)[ < ε/2.
Now let ¦(y
i
, y
t
i
)¦
n
1
be a ﬁnite collection of disjoint intervals in [0, 1] with
n
1
[y
t
i
−y
i
[ < δ. If η ∈ [y
t
k
, y
k+1
]
for some k, then
n
1
[f(y
t
i
) − f(y
i
)[ ≤
k
1
[f(y
t
i
) − f(y
i
)[ +
n
k+1
[f(y
t
i
) − f(y
i
)[ < T
η
0
(f) + ε/2 < ε. If
η ∈ (y
k
, y
t
k
) for some k, then
n
1
[f(y
t
i
) −f(y
i
)[ ≤
k−1
1
[f(y
t
i
) −f(y
i
)[ +[f(η) −f(y
k
)[ +[f(y
t
k
) −f(η)[ +
n
k+1
[f(y
t
i
) −f(y
i
)[ < T
η
0
(f) +ε/2 < ε. Hence f is absolutely continuous on [0, 1].
13. Let f be absolutely continuous on [a, b]. Then f is of bounded variation on [a, b] so by Q11,
_
b
a
[f
t
[ ≤ T
b
a
(f). Conversely, since f is absolutely continuous on [a, b], for any subdivision a = x
0
<
x
1
< < x
n
= b of [a, b],
n
1
[f(x
i
) − f(x
i−1
)[ =
n
1
[
_
x
i
x
i−1
f
t
[ ≤
n
1
_
x
i
x
i−1
[f
t
[ =
_
b
a
[f
t
[. Thus
T
b
a
(f) ≤
_
b
a
[f
t
[. Hence T
b
a
(f) =
_
b
a
[f
t
[.
For any x ∈ [a, b], f(x) = P
x
a
(f) − N
x
a
(f) − f(a) so f
t
(x) =
d
dx
P
x
a
(f) −
d
dx
N
x
a
(f) a.e. in [a, b]. Thus
(f
t
)
+
≤ (
d
dx
P
x
a
(f))
+
+(
d
dx
N
x
a
(f))
−
=
d
dx
P
x
a
(f). Thus
_
b
a
(f
t
)
+
≤
_
b
a
d
dx
P
x
a
(f) ≤ P
b
a
(f) −P
a
a
(f) = P
b
a
(f).
Conversely, for any subdivision a = x
0
< x
1
< < x
n
= b of [a, b],
n
1
(f(x
i
) − f(x
i−1
))
+
=
n
1
(
_
x
i
x
i−1
f
t
)
+
≤
n
1
_
x
i
x
i−1
(f
t
)
+
=
_
b
a
(f
t
)
+
. Thus P
b
a
(f) ≤
_
b
a
(f
t
)
+
. Hence P
b
a
(f) =
_
b
a
(f
t
)
+
.
(*) If
_
g < 0, then (
_
g)
+
= 0 ≤
_
g
+
. If
_
g ≥ 0, then (
_
g)
+
=
_
g ≤
_
g
+
.
14a. Let f and g be two absolutely continuous functions on [a, b]. Given ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such
that
n
1
[f(x
t
i
) −f(x
i
)[ < ε/2 and
n
1
[g(x
t
i
) −g(x
i
)[ < ε/2 for any ﬁnite collection ¦(x
i
, x
t
i
)¦
n
1
of disjoint
intervals in [a, b] with
n
1
[x
t
i
− x
i
[ < δ. Then
n
1
[(f ± g)(x
t
i
) − (f ± g)(x
i
)[ ≤
n
1
[f(x
t
i
) − f(x
i
)[ +
n
1
[g(x
t
i
) −g(x
i
)[ < ε. Thus f +g and f −g are absolutely continuous.
14b. Let f and g be two absolutely continuous functions on [a, b]. There exists M such that [f(x)[ ≤ M
and [g(x)[ ≤ M for any x ∈ [a, b]. Given ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that
n
1
[f(x
t
i
) −f(x
i
)[ < ε/2M
and
n
1
[g(x
t
i
) − g(x
i
)[ < ε/2M for any ﬁnite collection ¦(x
i
, x
t
i
)¦ of disjoint intervals in [a, b] with
n
1
[x
t
i
−x
i
[ < δ. Then
n
1
[(fg)(x
t
i
)−(fg)(x
i
)[ ≤
n
1
[f(x
t
i
)[[g(x
t
i
)−g(x
i
)[+
n
1
[g(x
i
)[[f(x
t
i
)−f(x
i
)[ < ε.
Thus fg is absolutely continuous.
14c. Suppose f is absolutely continuous on [a, b] and is never zero there. Let g = 1/f. There exists M
such that [f(x)[ ≥ M for x ∈ [a, b]. Given ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that
n
1
[f(x
t
i
) −f(x
i
)[ < εM
2
24
for any ﬁnite collection ¦(x
i
, x
t
i
)¦ of disjoint intervals in [a, b] with
n
1
[x
t
i
−x
i
[ < δ. Then [g(x
t
i
)−g(x
i
)[ =
]f(x
i
)−f(x
i
)]
]f(x
i
)f(x
i
)]
< ε. Thus g is absolutely continuous.
15. Let f be the Cantor ternary function. By Q2.48, f is continuous and monotone on [0, 1]. Note
that f
t
= 0 a.e. on [0, 1] since f is constant on each interval in the complement of the Cantor set and
the Cantor set has measure zero. If f is absolutely continuous, then 1 = f(1) =
_
1
0
f
t
+ f(0) = 0.
Contradiction. Thus f is not absolutely continuous.
16a. Let f be a monotone increasing function on [a, b]. Let g be deﬁned by g(x) =
_
x
a
f
t
and let
h = f − g. Then g is absolutely continuous, h
t
(x) = f
t
(x) −
d
dx
_
x
a
f
t
= 0 a.e. so h is singular, and
f = g +h.
16b. Let f be a nondecreasing singular function on [a, b]. Let ε, δ > 0 be given. Since f is singular on
[a, b], for each x ∈ [a, b], there is an arbitrarily small interval [x, x+h] ⊂ [a, b] such that [f(x+h)−f(x)[ <
εh/(b −a). Then there exists a ﬁnite collection ¦[x
k
, y
k
]¦ of nonoverlapping intervals of this sort which
cover all of [a, b] except for a set of measure less than δ. Labelling x
k
such that x
k
≤ x
k+1
, we have
y
0
= a ≤ x
1
< y
1
≤ x
2
< ≤ y
n
≤ b = x
n+1
. Then
n
0
[x
k+1
− y
k
[ < δ and
n
1
[f(y
k
) − f(x
k
)[ < ε.
Since f is nondecreasing,
n
0
[f(x
k+1
) −f(y
k
)[ > f(b) −f(a) −ε.
16c. Let f be a nondecreasing function on [a, b] with property (S). i.e. Given ε, δ > 0, there is a ﬁnite
collection ¦[y
k
, x
k
]¦ of nonoverlapping intervals in [a, b] such that
n
1
[x
k
− y
k
[ < δ and
n
1
(f(x
k
) −
f(y
k
)) > f(b) − f(a) − ε. By part (a), f = g + h where g =
_
x
a
f
t
and h is singular. It suﬃces to show
that g = 0 a.e. Letting x
0
= a and y
n+1
= b, we have
n
1
(f(y
k+1
) −f(x
k
)) < ε. We may choose δ such
that
_
n
1
[y
k
,x
k
]
f
t
< ε. Then
_
b
a
f
t
< 2ε so
_
b
a
f
t
= 0 and g = 0.
16d. Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of nondecreasing singular functions on [a, b] such that the function f(x) =
f
n
(x) is everywhere ﬁnite. Let ε, δ > 0 be given. Now f(b) − f(a) =
(f
n
(b) − f
n
(a)) < ∞ so
there exists N such that
∞
N+1
(f
n
(b) −f
n
(a)) < ε/2. Let F(x) =
N
1
f
n
(x). Then F is nondecreasing
and singular. By part (b), there exists a ﬁnite collection ¦[y
k
, x
k
]¦ of nonoverlapping intervals such that
[x
k
−y
k
[ < δ and
(F(y
k
)−F(x
k
)) > F(b)−F(a)−ε/2. Now
(f(y
k
)−f(x
k
)) ≥
(F(y
k
)−F(x
k
)) >
F(b) − F(a) − ε/2 = f(b) − f(a) −
∞
N+1
(f
n
(b) − f
n
(a)) − ε/2 > f(b) − f(a) − ε. By part (c), f is
singular.
*16e. Let C be the Cantor ternary function on [0, 1]. Extend C to R by deﬁning C(x) = 0 for x < 0 and
C(x) = 1 for x > 1. For each n, deﬁne f
n
by f
n
(x) = 2
−n
C(
x−a
n
b
n
−a
n
) where ¦[a
n
, b
n
]¦ is an enumeration of
the intervals with rational endpoints in [0, 1]. Then each f
n
is a nondecreasing singular function on [0, 1].
Deﬁne f(x) =
f
n
(x). Then f is everywhere ﬁnite, strictly increasing and by part (d), f is singular.
17a. Let F be absolutely continuous on [c, d]. Let g be monotone and absolutely continuous on [a, b]
with c ≤ g ≤ d. Given ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that for any ﬁnite collection ¦(y
i
, y
t
i
)¦ of disjoint
intervals with
n
1
[y
t
i
− y
i
[ < δ, we have
n
1
[F(y
t
i
) − F(y
i
)[ < ε. Now there exists δ
t
> 0 such that for
any ﬁnite collection ¦(x
i
, x
t
i
)¦ of disjoint intervals with
n
1
[x
t
i
−x
i
[ < δ
t
, we have
n
1
[g(x
t
i
) −g(x
i
)[ < δ.
Now ¦(g(x
i
), g(x
t
i
))¦ is a ﬁnite collection of disjoint intervals so
n
1
[F(g(x
t
i
)) − F(g(x
i
))[ < ε. Hence
F ◦ g is absolutely continuous.
(*) Additional assumption that g is monotone. Counterexample: Consider f(x) =
√
x for x ∈ [0, 1] and
g(0) = 0, g(x) = (xsin x
−1
)
2
for x ∈ (0, 1]. Then (f ◦ g)(0) = 0 and (f ◦ g)(x) = xsin x
−1
for x ∈ (0, 1].
f and g are absolutely continuous but not f ◦ g.
*17b. Let E = ¦x : g
t
(x) = 0¦. Note that [g(x) − g(a)[ = [
_
x
a
g
t
[ ≤
_
x
a
[g
t
[ for all x ∈ [a, b]. Let ε > 0.
There exists δ > 0 such that
_
A
[g
t
[ < ε/2 whenever mA < δ. Let η = ε/4(b − a). For any x ∈ E,
there exists h
x
> 0 such that [g(x + h) − g(x)[ < ηh for 0 < h ≤ h
x
. Deﬁne V = ¦[x, x + h
x
] : x ∈
E, [g(y) −g(x)[ < η(y −x) for y ∈ (x, x +h
x
]¦. Then V is a Vitali covering for E so there exists a ﬁnite
disjoint collection ¦I
1
, . . . , I
N
¦ of intervals in V such that m(E¸
N
n=1
I
n
) < δ. Now let O be an open set
such that O ⊃ E ¸
N
n=1
I
n
and mO < δ. Then O is a countable union of disjoint open intervals J
m
and
g[E ¸
N
n=1
I
n
] ⊂
g[J
m
]. Thus m(g[E ¸
N
n=1
I
n
)] ≤
m(g[J
m
]) ≤
_
J
m
[g
t
[ =
_
O
[g
t
[ < ε/2. Also,
g[E ∩
N
n=1
I
n
] ⊂
N
n=1
g[I
n
] so m(g[E ∩
N
n=1
I
n
)] ≤
2h
x
n
η < 2(b − a)η = ε/2. Hence m(g[E]) < ε.
Since ε is arbitrary, m(g[E]) = 0.
18. Let g be an absolutely continuous monotone function on [0, 1] and E a set of measure zero. Let
ε > 0. There is an open set O ⊃ E such that mO = m(O¸E) < δ where δ is given by absolute continuity
25
of g. Now O is a countable union
I
n
of disjoint open intervals so
l(I
n
) < δ and
l(g[I
n
∩[0, 1]]) < ε.
Now g[E] ⊂
g[I
n
∩ [0, 1]] so m(g[E]) < ε. Since ε is arbitrary, m(g[E]) = 0.
19a. Let G be the complement of a generalised Cantor set of positive measure and let g =
_
x
0
χ
G
. Then
g is absolutely continuous and strictly monotone on [0, 1]. Also, g
t
= χ
G
= 0 on G
c
.
19b. Since ¦x : g
t
(x) = 0¦ has positive measure, it has a nonmeasurable subset F. By Q17(b),
m(g[F]) = 0. Also, g
−1
[g[F]] = F is nonmeasurable.
20a. Suppose f is Lipschitz. There exists M such that [f(x) − f(y)[ ≤ M[x − y[ for all x, y. Given
ε > 0, let δ = ε/M. For any ﬁnite collection ¦(x
i
, x
t
i
)¦ of nonoverlapping intervals with
n
1
[x
t
i
−x
i
[ < δ,
we have
n
1
[f(x
t
i
) −f(x
i
)[ ≤ M
n
1
[x
t
i
−x
i
[ < ε. Thus f is absolutely continuous.
20b. Let f be absolutely continuous. Suppose f is Lipschitz. Now f
t
(x) = lim
y→x
f(y)−f(x)
y−x
so [f
t
(x)[ =
lim
y→x
[
f(y)−f(x)
y−x
[ ≤ M for all x. Conversely, if f is not Lipschitz, then for any M, there exist x and y
such that [f(x) −f(y)[ > M[x −y[. Then [f
t
(c)[ > M for some c ∈ (x, y) by the Mean Value Theorem.
Thus for any M, there exists c such that [f
t
(c)[ > M so [f
t
[ is unbounded.
*20c.
21a. Let O be an open set in [c, d]. Then O is a countable union
I
n
of disjoint open intervals. Now
for each n, I
n
= (g(c
n
), g(d
n
)) for some c
n
, d
n
∈ [c, d]. Also, g
−1
[O] =
g
−1
[I
n
] =
(c
n
, d
n
). Thus
mO =
l(I
n
) =
(g(d
n
) −g(c
n
)) =
_
d
n
c
n
g
t
=
_
g
−1
[O]
g
t
.
21b. Let H = ¦x : g
t
(x) ,= 0¦. Let E ⊂ [c, d] with mE = 0 and let δ > 0. Then there exists an open
set O ⊃ E with mO < δ. By part (a),
_
g
−1
[O]
g
t
< δ. Thus
_
g
−1
[E]∩H
g
t
=
_
g
−1
[E]
g
t
< δ. Since δ > 0 is
arbitrary,
_
g
−1
[E]∩H
g
t
= 0. Since g
t
> 0 on g
−1
[E] ∩ H, the set g
−1
[E] ∩ H has measure zero.
21c. Let E be a measurable subset of [c, d] and let F = g
−1
[E] ∩H. Since g is absolutely continuous, it
is continuous and thus measurable so g
−1
[E] is measurable. Also, g
t
is measurable so H is measurable.
Thus F = g
−1
[E] ∩ H is measurable.
There exists a G
δ
set G ⊃ E with m(G¸ E) = 0. We may assume G ⊂ [c, d]. By part (b), m((g
−1
[G] ¸
g
−1
[E]) ∩ H) = 0 so
_
g
−1
[G]∩H
g
t
=
_
g
−1
[E]∩H
g
t
. Now G is a countable intersection
O
n
of open sets.
Let G
k
=
k
n=1
O
n
. Then G
1
⊃ G
2
⊃ so limmG
k
= m(
G
k
) = mG. Now mE = mG = limmG
k
=
lim
_
g
−1
[G
k
]∩H
g
t
= lim
_
k
n=1
g
−1
[O
n
]∩H
g
t
=
_
g
−1
[O
n
]∩H
g
t
=
_
g
−1
[G]∩H
g
t
=
_
g
−1
[E]∩H
g
t
=
_
F
g
t
. Also,
_
F
g
t
=
_
g
−1
[E]
g
t
=
_
b
a
χ
E
(g(x))g
t
(x) dx.
21d. Let f be a nonnegative measurable function on [c, d]. Then there is an increasing sequence
¸ϕ
n
) of simple functions on [c, d] with limϕ
n
= f so limϕ
n
(g(x))g
t
(x) = f(g(x))g
t
(x). Since each
(ϕ
n
◦g)g
t
is measurable, (f ◦g)g
t
is measurable. Now
_
b
a
ϕ
n
(g(x))g
t
(x) dx =
_
b
a
c
k
χ
E
k
(g(x))g
t
(x) dx =
c
k
mE
k
=
_
d
c
ϕ
n
(y) dy. By the Monotone Convergence Theorem, lim
_
ϕ
n
=
_
f. Thus
_
d
c
f(y) dy =
lim
_
d
c
ϕ
n
(y) dy = lim
_
b
a
ϕ
n
(g(x))g
t
(x) dx =
_
b
a
f(g(x))g
t
(x) dx.
22a. F is absolutely continuous on [c, d], g is monotone and absolutely continuous on [a, b] with c ≤ g ≤ d.
By Q17(a), H = F ◦ g is absolutely continuous. Whenever H
t
and g
t
exist with g
t
(x) ,= 0, we have
D
+
F(g(x)) = D
+
F(g(x)) = D
−
F(g(x)) = D
−
F(g(x)) = H
t
(x)/g
t
(x) by Q6a so F
t
(g(x)) exists. Now
H
t
and g
t
exist a.e. so H
t
(x) = F
t
(g(x))g
t
(x) a.e. except on E = ¦x : g
t
(x) = 0¦.
22b. Let f
0
be deﬁned by f
0
(y) = f(y) if y / ∈ g[E] and f
0
(y) = 0 if y ∈ g[E]. By Q17b, m(g[E]) = 0 so
f
0
= f a.e. Hence H
t
(x) = f(g(x))g
t
(x) = f
0
(g(x))g
t
(x) a.e.
*22c.
*22d.
5.5 Convex functions
23a. Let ϕ be convex on a ﬁnite interval [a, b). Let x
0
∈ (a, b) and let f(x) = m(x −x
0
) +ϕ(x
0
) be the
equation of a supporting line at x
0
. Then ϕ(x) ≥ f(x) for all x ∈ (a, b). Since ϕ is continuous at a, we
have ϕ(x) ≥ f(x) ≥ min(f(a), f(b)) for all x ∈ [a, b). Hence ϕ is bounded from below.
23b. Suppose ϕ is convex on (a, b). If ϕ is monotone on (a, b), then ϕ(x) has limits (possibly inﬁnite)
as it approaches a and b respectively from within (a, b). If ϕ is not monotone, then there exists c ∈ (a, b)
26
such that D
+
ϕ(x) ≤ 0 on (a, c] and D
+
ϕ(x) ≥ 0 on [c, b) since the righthand derivative of ϕ is increasing
on (a, b). Thus ϕ is monotone on (a, c] and on [c, b) and it follows that the righthand and lefthand
limits exist at a and b respectively. If a (or b) is ﬁnite, then by part (a), the limits at a (or b) cannot be
−∞.
23c. Let ϕ be continuous on an interval I (open, closed, halfopen) and convex in the interior of I.
Then ϕ(tx + (1 − t)y) ≤ tϕ(x) + (1 − t)ϕ(y) for all x, y in the interior of I and all t ∈ [0, 1]. Since ϕ is
continuous, the inequality also holds at the included endpoints.
24. Let ϕ have a second derivative at each point of (a, b). If ϕ
tt
(x) ≥ 0 for all x ∈ (a, b), then ϕ
t
is
increasing on (a, b). Also, ϕ is continuous on (a, b). Hence ϕ is convex on (a, b). Conversely, if ϕ is convex
on (a, b), then its left and righthand derivatives are monotone increasing on (a, b) so ϕ
t
is monotone
increasing on (a, b). Hence ϕ
tt
(x) ≥ 0 for all x ∈ (a, b).
25a. Suppose a ≥ 0 and b > 0. Let ϕ(t) = (a + bt)
p
. Then ϕ is continuous on [0, ∞) for all p. For
p = 1, ϕ(t) = a + bt so ϕ
tt
(t) = 0. For 1 < p < ∞, ϕ
tt
(t) = b
2
p(p − 1)(a + bt)
p−2
> 0. For 0 < p < 1,
−ϕ
tt
(t) = −b
2
p(p − 1)(a + bt)
p−2
> 0. Hence, by Q24, ϕ is convex for 1 ≤ p < ∞ and concave for
0 < p ≤ 1.
25b. For p > 1, ϕ
tt
(t) > 0 for all t ∈ (0, ∞) so ϕ
t
is strictly increasing on (0, ∞). Now for x < y,
ϕ(λx+(1−λ)y)−ϕ(x)
(1−λ)(y−x)
= ϕ
t
(ξ
1
) for some ξ
1
∈ (x, λx+(1−λ)y). Also,
ϕ(y)−ϕ(λ(x)+(1−λ)(y))
λ(y−x)
= ϕ
t
(ξ
2
) for some
ξ
2
∈ (λx + (1 − λ)y, y). Since ϕ
t
(ξ
1
) < ϕ
t
(ξ
2
),
ϕ(λx+(1−λ)y)−ϕ(x)
(1−λ)(y−x)
<
ϕ(y)−ϕ(λ(x)+(1−λ)(y))
λ(y−x)
. Equivalently,
ϕ(λx + (1 − λ)y) < λϕ(x) + (1 − λ)ϕ(y). Hence ϕ is strictly convex for p > 1. Similarly, ϕ is strictly
concave for 0 < p < 1.
*26. Let α =
_
f(t) dt and let g(x) = m(x − α) + exp(α) be the equation of a supporting line at α.
Equality holds when
_
exp(f(t)) dt = exp(α). Now
_
exp(f(t)) dt − exp(α) =
_
exp(f(t)) dt − g(α) =
_
exp(f(t)) dt − g(
_
f(t) dt) =
_
(exp(f(t)) − g(f(t))) dt. Since exp(f(t)) − g(f(t)) ≥ 0, the integral is
zero only when exp(f(t)) −g(f(t)) = 0 a.e. and this can happen only when f(t) = α a.e.
27. Let ¸α
n
) be a sequence of nonnegative numbers whose sum is 1 and let ¸ξ
n
) be a sequence of positive
numbers. Deﬁne f on [0, 1] by f(x) = log ξ
n
if x ∈ [
k−1
n=1
α
n
,
k
n=1
α
n
). For each k,
k
n=1
ξ
α
n
n
=
exp(
k
n=1
α
n
log ξ
n
) = exp(
_
k
n=1
α
n
0
f(t) dt). Thus
k
n=1
ξ
α
n
n
≤
_
k
n=1
α
n
0
exp(f(t)) dt =
k
n=1
α
n
ξ
n
.
Letting k → ∞, we have
∞
n=1
ξ
α
n
n
≤
∞
n=1
α
n
ξ
n
.
28. Let g be a nonnegative measurable function on [0, 1]. Since log is concave,
_
−log(g(t)) dt ≥
−log(
_
g(t) dt) by Jensen’s inequality. Hence log(
_
g(t) dt) ≥
_
log(g(t)) dt.
6 The Classical Banach Spaces
6.1 The L
p
spaces
1. If [f(t)[ ≤ M
1
a.e. and [g(t)[ ≤ M
2
a.e., then [f(t) +g(t)[ ≤ M
1
+M
2
a.e. so [[f +g[[
∞
≤ M
1
+M
2
.
Note that [f(t)[ ≤ [[f[[
∞
a.e. and [g(t)[ ≤ [[g[[
∞
a.e. Thus [[f +g[[
∞
≤ [[f[[
∞
+[[g[[
∞
.
2. Let f be a bounded measurable function on [0, 1]. Now [[f[[
p
= (
_
1
0
[f[
p
)
1/p
≤ (
_
1
0
[[f[[
p
∞
)
1/p
= [[f[[
∞
.
Thus lim
p→∞
[[f[[
p
≤ [[f[[
∞
. Let ε > 0 and let E = ¦x ∈ [0, 1] : [f(x)[ > [[f[[
∞
− ε¦. Then [[f[[
p
=
(
_
1
0
[f[
p
)
1/p
≥ (
_
E
[f[
p
)
1/p
≥ ([[f[[
∞
− ε)(mE)
1/p
. If mE = 0, then [[f[[
∞
≤ [[f[[
∞
− ε. Contradiction.
Thus mE > 0 and lim
p→∞
[[f[[
p
≥ [[f[[
∞
− ε. Since ε > 0 is arbitrary, lim
p→∞
[[f[[
p
≥ [[f[[
∞
. Hence
lim
p→0
[[f[[
p
= [[f[[
∞
.
3. [[f +g[[
1
=
_
1
0
[f +g[ ≤
_
1
0
([f[ +[g[) =
_
1
0
[f[ +
_
1
0
[g[ = [[f[[
1
+[[g[[
1
.
4. Suppose f ∈ L
1
and g ∈ L
∞
. Then
_
[fg[ ≤
_
[f[[[g[[
∞
= [[g[[
∞
_
[f[ = [[f[[
1
[[g[[
∞
.
6.2 The Minkowski and H¨ older inequalities
5a. Let f and g be two nonnegative functions in L
p
with 0 < p < 1. We may assume [[f[[
p
> 0 and
[[g[[
p
> 0. Let α = [[f[[
p
and β = [[g[[
p
so f = αf
0
and g = βg
0
where [[f
0
[[
p
= [[g
0
[[
p
= 1. Set
λ = α/(α + β). Then 1 − λ = β/(α + β) and [f + g[
p
= (f + g)
p
= (αf
0
+ βg
0
)
p
= (α + β)
p
(λf
0
+
(1 − λ)g
0
)
p
≥ (α + β)
p
(λf
p
0
+ (1 − λ)g
p
0
) by concavity of the function ϕ(t) = t
p
for 0 < p < 1. Thus
27
[[f +g[[
p
p
≥ (α+β)
p
(λ[[f
0
[[
p
p
+(1−λ)[[g
0
[[
p
p
) = (α+β)
p
= ([[f[[
p
+[[g[[
p
)
p
. Hence [[f +g[[
p
≥ [[f[[
p
+[[g[[
p
.
5b. Suppose f ∈ L
p
and g ∈ L
p
. For 1 ≤ p ≤ ∞, f +g ∈ L
p
by the Minkowski inequality. For 0 < p < 1,
[[f +g[[
p
p
≤ [[2 max(f, g)[[
p
p
= 2
p
[[ max(f, g)[[
p
p
≤ 2
p
([[f[[
p
p
+[[g[[
p
p
). Thus f +g ∈ L
p
.
*6. Suppose 0 < p < 1. Let p
t
= 1/p so p
t
> 1. Let q be such that 1/p + 1/q = 1. Note that
q = pp
t
/(1 − p
t
). Let u = (fg)
p
and let v = g
−p
. Then fg = u
p
, f
p
= uv and g
q
= v
p
/(p
−1)
.
Let q
t
be such that 1/p
t
+ 1/q
t
= 1. By the H¨older inequality,
_
[uv[ ≤ [[u[[
p
[[v[[
q
. i.e.
_
[f[
p
≤
(
_
[fg[
pp
)
1/p
(
_
[g[
pp
/(1−p
)
)
(p
−1)/p
= (
_
[fg[)
p
(
_
[g[
q
)
1−p
. Hence
_
[fg[ ≥ (
_
[f[
p
)
1/p
(
_
[g[
q
)
1/q
=
[[f[[
p
[[g[[
q
.
7a. For p = ∞, [[¸ξ
v
+η
v
)[[
∞
= sup [ξ
v
+η
v
[ ≤ sup([ξ
v
[ +[η
v
[) ≤ sup [ξ
v
[ +sup [η
v
[ = [[¸ξ
v
)[[
∞
+[[¸η
v
)[[
∞
.
For 1 ≤ p < ∞, let α = [[¸ξ
v
)[[
p
and β = [[¸η
v
)[[
p
so ¸ξ
v
) = α¸ξ
t
v
) and ¸η
v
) = β¸η
t
v
) where [[ξ
t
v
[[
p
=
[[η
t
v
[[
p
= 1. Set λ = α/(α + β). Then 1 − λ = β/(α + β) and [[¸ξ
v
+ η
v
)[[
p
= (
[ξ
v
+ η
v
[
p
)
1/p
≤
(
([ξ
v
[ +[η
v
[)
p
)
1/p
= (
(α[ξ
t
v
[ +β[η
t
v
[)
p
)
1/p
= (
(α+β)
p
[λ[ξ
t
v
[ +(1−λ)[η
t
v
[]
p
)
1/p
≤ (
(α+β)
p
[λ[ξ
t
v
[
p
+
(1 −λ)[η
t
v
[
p
])
1/p
= α +β = [[¸ξ
v
)[[
p
+[[¸η
v
)[[
p
.
7b. For p = 1, q = ∞,
[ξ
v
η
v
[ ≤ sup [η
v
[
[ξ
v
[ = [[¸ξ
v
)[[
1
[[¸η
v
)[[
∞
.
For 1 < p < ∞, let α
v
= [η
v
[
q/p
. Then [η
v
[ = α
p−1
v
and pt[ξ
v
[[η
v
[ = pt[ξ
v
[α
p−1
v
≤ (α
v
+t[ξ
v
[)
p
−α
p
v
. Thus
pt[ξ
v
[[η
v
[ ≤
(α
v
+ t[ξ
v
[)
p
−
α
p
v
= [[¸α
v
+ t[ξ
v
[)[[
p
p
− [[¸α
v
)[[
p
p
≤ ([[¸α
v
)[[
p
+ t[[¸ξ
v
)[[
p
)
p
− [[¸α
v
)[[
p
p
.
Diﬀerentiating with respect to t at t = 0, we get p
[ξ
v
[[η
v
[ ≤ p[[¸ξ
v
)[[
p
[[¸α
v
)[[
p−1
p
= p[[¸ξ
v
)[[
p
[[¸η
v
)[[
q
.
Hence
[ξ
v
[[η
v
[ ≤ [[¸ξ
v
)[[
p
[[¸η
v
)[[
q
.
8a. Let a, b be nonnegative, 1 < p < ∞, 1/p +1/q = 1. Consider the graph of the function f(x) = x
p−1
.
The area of the rectangle bounded by the xaxis, the yaxis, x = a and y = b is ab. The area of the
region bounded by f(x), the xaxis and x = a is
_
a
0
x
p−1
dx =
a
p
p
. The area of the region bounded by
f(x), the yaxis and y = b is
_
b
0
y
1/(p−1)
dy =
b
p/(p−q)
p/(p−q)
=
b
q
q
. By comparing these areas, we see that
ab ≤
a
p
p
+
b
q
q
.
8b. We may assume that [[f[[
p
> 0 and [[g[[
q
> 0. By part (a),
_
]f]
]]f]]
p
]g]
]]g]]
q
≤
_
]f]
p
p]]f]]
p
p
+
]g]
q
q]]g]]
q
q
=
1
p
+
1
q
= 1.
Hence
_
[fg[ ≤ [[f[[
p
[[g[[
q
. Equality holds in part (a) if and only if b = a
p−1
. Thus equality holds here if
and only if [[f[[
p−1
p
[g[ = [[g[[
q
[f[
p−1
. Equivalently, [[f[[
p
p
[g[
q
= [[g[[
q
q
[f[
p
.
8c. Suppose 0 < p < 1 and 1/p + 1/q = 1. Let p
t
= 1/p and q
t
= −q/p. Then p
t
> 1, q
t
> 1 and
1/p
t
+ 1/q
t
= 1. Thus (ab)
p
b
−p
≤
(ab)
pp
p
+
b
−pq
q
= pab −
pb
q
q
so a
p
≤ pab −
pb
q
q
and ab ≥
a
p
p
+
b
q
q
.
8d. By a similar argument as part (b),
_
[fg[ ≥ [[f[[
p
[[g[[
q
.
6.3 Convergence and completeness
9. Let ¸f
n
) be a convergent sequence in L
p
. There exists f ∈ L
p
such that for any ε > 0, there exists N
such that [[f
n
− f[[
p
< ε/2 for n ≥ N. Now for n, m ≥ N, [[f
n
− f
m
[[
p
≤ [[f
n
− f[[
p
+ [[f
m
− f[[
p
< ε.
Thus ¸f
n
) is a Cauchy sequence.
10. Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of functions in L
∞
. Suppose [[f
n
−f[[
∞
→ 0. Given ε > 0, there exists N such
that inf¦M : m¦t : [f
n
(t)−f(t)[ > M¦ = 0¦ < ε for n ≥ N. Thus m¦t : [f
n
(t)−f(t)[ ≥ ε¦ = 0 for n ≥ N.
Let E = ¦t : [f
n
(t) − f(t)[ ≥ ε¦. Then mE = 0 and ¸f
n
) converges uniformly to f on E
c
. Conversely,
suppose there exists a set E with mE = 0 and ¸f
n
) converges uniformly to f on E
c
. Given ε > 0, there
exists N such that [f
n
(t) − f(t)[ < ε/2 for n ≥ N and t ∈ E
c
. Thus ¦t : [f
n
(t) − f(t)[ > ε/2¦ ⊂ E for
n ≥ N. Hence inf¦M : m¦t : [f
n
(t) −f(t)[ > M¦ = 0¦ < ε for n ≥ N. i.e. [[f
n
−f[[
∞
→ 0.
11. Let ¸f
n
) be a Cauchy sequence in L
∞
. Given ε > 0, there exists N such that inf¦M : m¦t :
[f
n
(t) −f
m
(t)[ > M¦ = 0¦ = [[f
n
−f
m
[[
∞
< ε/2 for n, m ≥ N. Thus for n, m ≥ N, there exists M < ε/2
such that m¦t : [f
n
(t) −f
m
(t)[ > M¦ = 0 so m¦t : [f
n
(t) −f
m
(t)[ > ε/2¦ = 0. Then ¸f
n
) converges a.e.
to a function f and [f
n
− f[ < ε/2 a.e. for n ≥ N so [f[ ≤ [f
N
[ + ε/2 a.e. and f ∈ L
∞
. Furthermore,
inf¦M : m¦t : [f
n
(t) −f(t)[ > M¦ = 0¦ < ε for n ≥ N. i.e. [[f
n
−f[[
∞
→ 0.
12. Let 1 ≤ p < ∞ and let ¸ξ
(n)
v
) be a Cauchy sequence in
p
. Given ε > 0, there exists N such that
[ξ
(n)
v
−ξ
(m)
v
[
p
< ε
p
for n, m ≥ N. In particular, [ξ
(n)
v
−ξ
(m)
v
[
p
< ε
p
for n, m ≥ N and each v. Thus for
each v, ¸ξ
(n)
v
) is Cauchy in R so it converges to some ξ
v
. Consider ¸ξ
v
). Then
k
v=1
[ξ
(n)
v
−ξ
v
[
p
< ε
p
for
each k and each n ≥ N so
[ξ
(n)
v
−ξ
v
[
p
< ε
p
for n ≥ N. Thus ¸ξ
(n)
v
−ξ
v
) ∈
p
for n ≥ N so ¸ξ
v
) ∈
p
28
and [[¸ξ
(n)
v
) −¸ξ
v
)[[
p
→ 0.
13. Let C = C[0, 1] be the space of all continuous functions on [0, 1] and deﬁne [[f[[ = max [f(x)[ for
f ∈ C. It is straightforward to check that [[ [[ is a norm on C. Let ¸f
n
) be a Cauchy sequence in C.
Given ε > 0, there exists N such that max [f
n
(x) − f
m
(x)[ < ε for n, m ≥ N so [f
n
(x) − f
m
(x)[ < ε
for n, m ≥ N and x ∈ [0, 1]. Thus ¸f
n
(x)) converges to some f(x) for each x ∈ [0, 1]. Furthermore, the
convergence is uniform. Thus f ∈ C. Also, max [f
n
(x) −f(x)[ < ε for n ≥ N. i.e. [[f
n
−f[[ → 0.
14. It is straightforward to check that [[ [[
∞
is a norm on
∞
. Let ¸ξ
(n)
v
) be a Cauchy sequence in
∞
.
Given ε > 0, there exists N such that sup [ξ
(n)
v
− ξ
(m)
v
[ < ε for n, m ≥ N. Then [ξ
(n)
v
− ξ
(m)
v
[ < ε for
each v and n, m ≥ N. Thus ¸ξ
(n)
v
) converges to some ξ
v
for each v and [ξ
(n)
v
−ξ
v
[ < ε for n ≥ N. Then
[ξ
v
[ ≤ [ξ
(N)
v
[ +ε for each v and ¸ξ
v
) ∈
∞
. Also, sup [ξ
(n)
v
−ξ
v
[ < ε for n ≥ N. i.e. [[¸ξ
(n)
v
) −¸ξ
v
)[[
∞
→ 0.
15. Let c be the space of all convergent sequences of real numbers and let c
0
be the space of all sequences
which converge to 0. It is straightforward to check that [[ [[
∞
is a norm on c and c
0
. Let ¸ξ
(n)
v
) be a
Cauchy sequence in c. Given ε > 0, there exists N such that sup [ξ
(n)
v
− ξ
(m)
v
[ < ε for n, m ≥ N. Then
[ξ
(n)
v
−ξ
(m)
v
[ < ε for each v and n, m ≥ N. Thus ¸ξ
(n)
v
) converges to some ξ
v
for each v. Now for each v
and v
t
, there exists N
t
such that [ξ
v
−ξ
v
[ ≤ [ξ
v
−ξ
(N
)
v
[ +[ξ
(N
)
v
−ξ
(N
)
v
[ +[ξ
v
−ξ
(N
)
v
[ < ε. Thus ¸ξ
v
)
is Cauchy in R. Hence ¸ξ
v
) ∈ c and sup [ξ
(n)
v
−ξ
v
[ < ε. i.e. [[¸ξ
(n)
v
) −¸ξ
v
)[[
∞
→ 0. If ¸ξ
(n)
v
) is a Cauchy
sequence in c
0
, then ¸ξ
v
) converges to 0 since [ξ
v
[ ≤ [ξ
(n)
v
−ξ
v
[ +[ξ
(n)
v
[.
16. Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence in L
p
, 1 ≤ p < ∞, which converges a.e. to a function f in L
p
. Suppose
[[f
n
− f[[
p
→ 0. Then [[f
n
[[
p
→ [[f[[
p
since [ [[f
n
[[
p
− [[f[[
p
[ ≤ [[f
n
− f[[
p
. Conversely, suppose
[[f
n
[[
p
→ [[f[[
p
. Now 2
p
([f
n
[
p
+ [f[
p
) − [f
n
− f[
p
≥ 0 for each n so by Fatou’s Lemma,
_
2
p+1
[f[
p
≤
lim
_
2
p
([f
n
[
p
+[f[
p
) −[f
n
−f[
p
=
_
2
p+1
[f[
p
−lim
_
[f
n
−f[
p
. Thus lim
_
[f
n
−f[
p
≤ 0 ≤ lim
_
[f
n
−f[
p
.
Hence [[f
n
−f[[
p
→ 0.
17. Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence in L
p
, 1 < p < ∞, which converges a.e. to a function f in L
p
. Suppose there
is a constant M such that [[f
n
[[
p
≤ M for all n. Let g ∈ L
q
. Given ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that
_
E
[g[
q
< (ε/4M)
q
whenever mE < δ. By Egoroﬀ’s Theorem, there exists E such that mE < δ and ¸f
n
)
converges uniformly to f on E
c
. Thus there exists N such that [f
n
(x) − f(x)[ < ε/(2(mE
c
)
1/p
[[g[[
q
)
for n ≥ N and x ∈ E
c
. Now [
_
f
n
g −
_
fg[ ≤
_
[f
n
− f[[g[ ≤ (
_
E
[f
n
− f[
p
)
1/p
(
_
E
[g[
q
)
1/q
+ (
_
E
c
[f
n
−
f[
p
)
1/p
(
_
E
c
[g[
q
)
1/q
≤ 2M(ε/4m) + (ε/(2(mE
c
)
1/p
[[g[[
q
))(mE
c
)
1/p
[[g[[
q
= ε for n ≥ N. i.e.
_
fg =
lim
_
f
n
g.
For p = 1, it is not true. Let f
n
= nχ
[0,1/n]
for each n. Then f
n
→ 0 and [[f
n
[[
1
= 1 for each n. Let
g = χ
[0,1]
∈ L
∞
. Then
_
fg = 0 but
_
f
n
g =
_
f
n
= 1 for each n.
18. Let f
n
→ f in L
p
, 1 ≤ p < ∞ and let ¸g
n
) be a sequence of measurable functions such that [g
n
[ ≤ M
for all n and g
n
→ g a.e. Given ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that
_
E
[f[
p
< (ε/8M)
p
whenever
mE < δ. By Egoroﬀ’s Theorem, there exists E such that mE < δ and ¸g
n
) converges uniformly to
g on E
c
. Thus there exists N such that [[f
n
− f[[
p
< ε/2M and [g
n
(x) − g(x)[ < ε/(4(mE
c
)
1/p
[[f[[
p
)
for n ≥ N and x ∈ E
c
. Now [[g
n
f
n
− gf[[
p
≤ [[g
n
f
n
− g
n
f[[
p
+ [[g
n
f − gf[[
p
= (
_
[g
n
[
p
[f
n
− f[
p
)
1/p
+
(
_
[g
n
−g[
p
[f[
p
)
1/p
≤ M[[f
n
−f[[
p
+(
_
E
[g
n
−g[
p
[f[
p
)
1/p
+(
_
E
c
[g
n
−g[
p
[f[
p
)
1/p
< ε/2 +(ε/8M)(2M) +
ε/(4(mE
c
)
1/p
[[f[[
p
)(mE
c
)
1/p
[[f[[
p
= ε for n ≥ N. Thus [[g
n
f
n
−gf[[
p
→ 0.
6.4 Approximation in L
p
*19. [[T
∆
(f)[[
p
p
= [[
m−1
k=0
1
ξ
k+1
−ξ
k
(
_
ξ
k+1
ξ
k
f)χ
[ξ
k
,ξ
k+1
)
[[
p
p
≤
m−1
k=0
[[
1
ξ
k+1
−ξ
k
(
_
ξ
k+1
ξ
k
f)χ
[ξ
k
,ξ
k+1
)
[[
p
p
. Now
[[
1
ξ
k+1
−ξ
k
(
_
ξ
k+1
ξ
k
f)χ
[ξ
k
,ξ
k+1
)
[[
p
p
=
_
b
a
[
1
ξ
k+1
−ξ
k
(
_
ξ
k+1
ξ
k
f)χ
[ξ
k
,ξ
k+1
)
[
p
=
_
ξ
k+1
ξ
k
1
(ξ
k+1
−ξ
k
)
p
[
_
ξ
k+1
ξ
k
f[
p
. By the
H¨older inequality, [
_
ξ
k+1
ξ
k
f[
p
≤
_
ξ
k+1
ξ
k
[f[
p
(
_
ξ
k+1
ξ
k
1)
p/q
=
_
ξ
k+1
ξ
k
[f[
p
(
_
ξ
k+1
ξ
k
1)
p−1
. Thus [[T
∆
(f)[[
p
p
≤
m−1
k=0
_
ξ
k+1
ξ
k
_
1
(ξ
k+1
−ξ
k
)
p
_
ξ
k+1
ξ
k
[f[
p
(
_
ξ
k+1
ξ
k
1)
p−1
_
=
m−1
k=0
1
(ξ
k+1
−ξ
k
)
p−1
_
ξ
k+1
ξ
k
[f[
p
(ξ
k+1
−ξ
k
)
p−1
=
_
b
a
[f[
p
.
Hence [[T
∆
(f)[[
p
p
≤ [[f[[
p
p
and [[T
∆
(f)[[
p
≤ [[f[[
p
.
*20. By Chebyshev’s inequality, for any ε > 0,
_
[ϕ
∆
− f[
p
≥ ε
p
m¦x : [ϕ
∆
(x) − f(x)[
p
> ε
p
¦. Thus
m¦x : [ϕ
∆
(x) −f(x)[ > ε¦ = m¦x : [ϕ
∆
(x) −f(x)[
p
> ε
p
¦ ≤ ε
−p
[[ϕ
∆
−f[[
p
p
< ε for suﬃciently small δ.
29
6.5 Bounded linear functionals on the L
p
spaces
21a. Let g be an integrable function on [0, 1]. If [[g[[
1
,= 0, let f = sgn(g). Then f is a bounded
measurable function, [[f[[
∞
= 1 and
_
fg =
_
[g[ = [[g[[
1
[[f[[
∞
. If [[g[[
1
= 0, then g = 0 a.e. Let f = 1.
Then f is a bounded measurable function, [[f[[
∞
= 1 and
_
fg =
_
g = 0 = [[g[[
1
[[f[[
∞
.
21b. Let g be a bounded measurable function. Given ε > 0, let E = ¦x : g(x) > [[g[[
∞
− ε¦ and let
f = χ
E
. Then
_
fg =
_
E
g ≥ ([[g[[
∞
−ε)mE = ([[g[[
∞
−ε)[[f[[
1
.
22. Let F be a bounded linear functional on
p
. For each v, let e
v
be the sequence with 1 in the
vth entry and 0 elsewhere. For p = 1, note that [[¸ξ
v
) −
n
v=1
ξ
v
e
v
[[
1
→ 0 for each ¸ξ
v
) ∈
1
so
F(¸ξ
v
)) =
ξ
v
F(e
v
) by linearity and continuity of F. Now [F(e
v
)[ = [F(e
v
)[/[[e
v
[[
1
≤ [[F[[ for all v so
¸F(e
v
)) ∈
∞
and [[¸F(e
v
))[[
∞
≤ [[F[[. Conversely, [F(¸ξ
v
))[ = [
ξ
v
F(e
v
)[ ≤ [[¸ξ
v
)[[
1
[[¸F(e
v
))[[
∞
so
[[¸F(e
v
))[[
∞
≥ [F(¸ξ
v
))[/[[¸ξ
v
)[[
1
for all nonzero ¸ξ
v
) ∈
1
. Thus [[¸F(e
v
))[[
∞
≥ [[F[[.
For 1 < p < ∞, note that [[¸ξ
v
) −
n
v=1
ξ
v
e
v
[[
p
→ 0 for each ¸ξ
v
) ∈
p
so F(¸ξ
v
)) =
ξ
v
F(e
v
)
by linearity and continuity of F. For each v, let x
v
= [F(e
v
)[
q
/F(e
v
) = [F(e
v
)[
q−1
sgn(F(e
v
)) and let
x = ¸x
1
, . . . , x
n
, 0, 0, . . .). Then F(x) =
n
v=1
x
v
F(e
v
) =
n
v=1
[F(e
v
)[
q
. Now [[x[[
p
= (
n
v=1
[x
v
[
p
)
1/p
=
(
n
v=1
[F(e
v
)[
p(q−1)
)
1/p
= (
n
v=1
[F(e
v
)[
q
)
1/p
so (
n
v=1
[F(e
v
)[
q
)
1/q
=
n
v=1
]F(e
v
)]
q
(
n
v=1
]F(e
v
)]
q
)
1/p
=
]F(x)]
]]x]]
p
≤
[[F[[ for all n. Thus ¸F(e
v
)) ∈
q
and [[¸F(e
v
))[[
q
≤ [[F[[. Conversely, [F(¸ξ
v
))[ = [
ξ
v
F(e
v
)[ ≤
[[¸ξ
v
)[[
p
[[¸F(e
v
))[[
q
so [[¸F(e
v
))[[
q
≥ [F(¸ξ
v
))[/[[¸ξ
v
)[[
p
for all nonzero ¸ξ
v
) ∈
p
. Thus [[¸F(e
v
))[[
q
≥ [[F[[.
23. Note that [[¸ξ
v
) −
n
v=1
ξ
v
e
v
−
∞
v=n+1
ξe
v
[[
∞
→ 0 for each ¸ξ
v
) ∈ c with limξ
v
= ξ so F(¸ξ
v
)) =
ξ
v
F(e
v
) by linearity and continuity of F. For each v, let x
v
= sgn(F(e
v
)) and let x be deﬁned as
before. Then F(x) =
n
v=1
x
v
F(e
v
) =
n
v=1
[F(e
v
)[ so
n
v=1
[F(e
v
)[ = [F(x)[/[[x[[
∞
≤ [[F[[ for all n.
Thus ¸F(e
v
)) ∈
1
and [[¸F(e
v
))[[
1
≤ [[F[[. Conversely, [F(¸ξ
v
))[ = [
ξ
v
F(e
v
)[ ≤ [[¸ξ
v
)[[
∞
[[¸F(e
v
))[[
1
so [[¸F(e
v
))[[
1
≥ [F(¸ξ
v
))[/[[¸ξ
v
)[[
∞
for all nonzero ¸ξ
v
) ∈ c. Thus [[¸F(e
v
))[[
1
≥ [[F[[. Similarly for c
0
.
*24. Let F be a bounded linear functional on L
p
, 1 ≤ p < ∞, and suppose there exist functions g and
h in L
q
such that F(f) =
_
fg =
_
fh for all f ∈ L
p
. For p > 1, choose f = [g − h[
q−2
(g − h). Then
[f[
p
= [g −h[
p(q−1)
= [g −h[
q
so f ∈ L
p
. Now
_
[g −h[
q−2
(g −h)g =
_
[g −h[
q−2
(g −h)h so
_
[g −h[
q
= 0.
Thus g = h a.e. For p = 1, choose f = sgn(g −h). Then f ∈ L
1
and f(g −h) = [g −h[. Now
_
fg =
_
fh
so
_
[g −h[ =
_
f(g −h) = 0. Thus g = h a.e.
7 Metric Spaces
7.1 Introduction
1a. Clearly, ρ
∗
(x, y) ≥ 0 for all x, y. Now ρ
∗
(x, y) = 0 if and only if [x
i
−y
i
[ = 0 for all i if and only if
x
i
= y
i
for all i if and only if x = y. Since [x
i
− y
i
[ = [y
i
− x
i
[ for each i, ρ
∗
(x, y) = ρ
∗
(y, x). Finally,
ρ
∗
(x, y) =
n
i=1
[x
i
−y
i
[ ≤
n
i=1
([x
i
−z
i
[ +[z
i
−y
i
[) =
n
i=1
[x
i
−z
i
[ +
n
i=1
[z
i
−y
i
[ = ρ
∗
(x, z)+ρ
∗
(z, y).
The argument for ρ
+
is similar except for the last property. For any x
j
, y
j
, z
j
, [x
j
− y
j
[ ≤ [x
j
− z
j
[ +
[z
j
−y
j
[ ≤ max
i
[x
i
−z
i
[ + max
i
[z
i
−y
i
[ = ρ
+
(x, z) +ρ
+
(z, y). Thus ρ
+
(x, y) ≤ ρ
+
(x, z) +ρ
+
(z, y).
1b. For n = 2 (resp. n = 3), ¦x : ρ(x, y) < 1¦ is the interior of the circle (resp. sphere) with center
y and radius 1. ¦x : ρ
∗
(x, y) < 1¦ is the interior of the diamond (resp. bipyramid) with center y with
height and width 2. ¦x : ρ
+
(x, y) < 1¦ is the interior of the square (resp. cube) with center y and sides
of length 1.
2. Suppose 0 < ε < δ − ρ(x, z) and y ∈ S
z,ε
. Then ρ(z, y) < ε < δ − ρ(x, z). Hence ρ(x, y) ≤
ρ(x, z) +ρ(z, y) < δ so y ∈ S
x,δ
.
3a. For any x, ρ(x, x) = 0. If ρ(x, y) = 0, then ρ(y, x) = ρ(x, y) = 0. If ρ(x, z) = 0 and ρ(z, y) = 0,
then 0 ≤ ρ(x, y) ≤ ρ(x, z) + ρ(z, y) = 0 so ρ(x, y) = 0. Thus ρ(x, y) = 0 is an equivalence relation. Let
X
∗
be the set of equivalence classes under this relation. Suppose x and x
t
are in the same equivalence
class. Also suppose that y and y
t
are in the same equivalence class. Then ρ(x, y) ≤ ρ(x, x
t
) +ρ(x
t
, y) =
ρ(x
t
, y) ≤ ρ(x
t
, y
t
) + ρ(y
t
, y) = ρ(x
t
, y
t
). If ρ(x, y) = 0, then x and y are in the same equivalence class.
Thus ρ deﬁnes a metric on X
∗
.
3b. Let ρ be an extended metric on X. For any x, ρ(x, x) = 0 < ∞. If ρ(x, y) < ∞, then ρ(y, x) =
ρ(x, y) < ∞. If ρ(x, z) < ∞and ρ(z, y) < ∞, then ρ(x, y) ≤ ρ(x, z)+ρ(z, y) < ∞. Thus ρ(x, y) < ∞is an
equivalence relation. Let X
α
0
be a part of the extended metric space (X, ρ) and let x be a representative
30
of X
α
0
. If y ∈ X
α
0
, then for any z ∈ S
y,δ
with δ > 0, ρ(x, z) ≤ ρ(x, y) + ρ(y, z) < ∞ so z ∈ X
α
0
. i.e.
S
y,δ
⊂ X
α
0
. Thus X
α
0
is open. Now X =
X
α
so X
α
0
= X ¸
α,=α
0
X
α
. Since the union is open, X
α
0
is closed.
7.2 Open and closed sets
4a. Since continuous functions on [0, 1] are bounded, C ⊂ L
∞
. By Q6.3.13, C is complete. Let g be
a point of closure of C. For every n, there exists f
n
∈ C such that [[f
n
− g[[
∞
< 1/n. Then ¸f
n
) is a
Cauchy sequence in C and it converges to g so g ∈ C. Thus C is a closed subset of L
∞
.
4b. Let g be a point of closure of the set of integrable functions that vanish for 0 ≤ t < 1/2. For each
n, there exists f
n
in the set such that [[f
n
− g[[
1
< 1/n. Then
_
1/2
0
[g[ ≤
_
1/2
0
[f
n
− g[ +
_
1/2
0
[f
n
[ ≤
_
1
0
[f
n
− g[ < 1/n for all n. Hence g vanishes a.e. and the set of integrable functions that vanish for
0 ≤ t < 1/2 is closed in L
1
.
4c. Let x(t) be a measurable function with
_
x < 1. Let δ = 1 −
_
x. For any y ∈ S
x,δ
,
_
[y −x[ < δ so
_
y =
_
(y −x) +
_
x < δ +
_
x < 1. Hence the set of measurable functions x(t) with
_
x < 1 is open in
L
1
.
5. If E ⊂ F and F is closed, then
¯
E ⊂
¯
F = F. Thus
¯
E ⊂
E⊂F
F for closed sets F. Conversely, since
¯
E is a closed set containing E,
E⊂F
F ⊂
¯
E.
5a. From the deﬁnition, E
◦
is an open subset of E so E
◦
⊂
O⊂E
O. Conversely, for any open subset
O ⊂ E and y ∈ O, there exists δ > 0 such that x ∈ O ⊂ E for all x with ρ(x, y) < δ. Thus O ⊂ E
◦
for
any open subset O ⊂ E so
O⊂E
⊂ E
◦
.
5b. (
¯
E)
c
= (
E⊂F
F)
c
=
E⊂F
F
c
=
F
c
⊂E
c
F
c
= (E
c
)
◦
.
6a. Consider the ball S
y,δ
= ¦x : ρ(x, y) < δ¦. For any x ∈ S
y,δ
, let 0 < ε < δ − ρ(x, y). By Q2,
S
x,ε
⊂ S
y,δ
so S
y,δ
is open.
6b. Consider the set S = ¦x : ρ(x, y) ≤ δ¦. Take x ∈ S
c
. Then ρ(x, y) > δ. Let δ
t
= ρ(x, y) − δ. For
any z ∈ S
x,δ
, ρ(z, y) ≥ ρ(x, y) −ρ(x, z) > ρ(x, y) −δ
t
= δ so z ∈ S
c
. Thus S
c
is open and S is closed.
6c. The set in part (b) is not always the closure of the ball ¦x : ρ(x, y) < δ¦. For example, let X be any
metric space with [X[ > 1 and ρ being the discrete metric. i.e. ρ(x, y) = 1 if x ,= y and ρ(x, y) = 0 if
x = y. Then ¦x : ρ(x, y) < 1¦ = ¦y¦, ¦x : ρ(x, y) < 1¦ = ¦y¦ and ¦x : ρ(x, y) ≤ 1¦ = X.
*7. R
n
is separable with the set of ntuples of rational numbers being a countable dense subset. C is
separable with the set of polynomials on [0, 1] with rational coeﬃcients being a countable dense subset
(Weierstrass approximation theorem).
L
∞
is not separable. Consider χ
[0,x]
and χ
[0,y]
where x, y ∈ [0, 1]. Then [[χ
[0,x]
−χ
[0,y]
[[
∞
= 1 if x ,= y.
If there exists a countable dense subset D, then there exists d ∈ D and x, y ∈ [0, 1] with x ,= y such that
[[χ
[0,x]
−d[[
∞
< 1/2 and [[χ
[0,y]
−d[[
∞
< 1/2. Then [[χ
[0,x]
−χ
[0,y]
[[
∞
< 1. Contradiction.
L
1
is separable. By Proposition 6.8, given f ∈ L
1
and ε > 0, there exists a step function ϕ such that
[[f − ϕ[[
1
< ε. We may further approximate ϕ by a step function where the partition intervals have
rational endpoints and the coeﬃcients are rational to get a countable dense subset.
7.3 Continuous functions and homeomorphisms
8. Let h be the function on [0, 1) given by h(x) = x/(1 −x). The function h, being a rational function,
is continuous on [0, 1). If h(x) = h(y), then x(1 −y) = y(1 −x) so x = y. Thus h is onetoone. For any
y ∈ [0, ∞), let x = y/(1 + y). Then x ∈ [0, 1) and h(x) = y. Thus h is onto. The inverse function h
−1
is given by h
−1
(x) = x/(1 + x), which is continuous. Hence h is a homeomorphism between [0, 1) and
[0, ∞).
9a. For a ﬁxed set E, let f(x) = ρ(x, E) = inf
y∈E
ρ(x, y). Given ε > 0, let δ = ε. When ρ(x, z) < δ,
take any y ∈ E. Then f(x) = ρ(x, E) ≤ ρ(x, y) ≤ ρ(x, z) + ρ(z, y) < δ + ρ(z, E) ≤ ε + f(z). Thus
f(x) −f(z) < ε. Similarly, by interchanging x and z, f(z) −f(x) < ε. Thus [f(x) −f(z)[ < ε and f is
continuous.
9b. If ρ(x, E) = 0, then for any δ > 0, there exists y ∈ E such that ρ(x, y) < δ so x ∈
¯
E. Conversely, if
ρ(x, E) > 0, say ρ(x, E) = α, then ρ(x, y) > α/2 for all y ∈ E so x / ∈
¯
E. Hence ¦x : ρ(x, E) = 0¦ =
¯
E.
31
10a. Suppose ρ and σ are equivalent metrics on X. The identity mapping is a homeomorphism between
(X, ρ) and (X, σ). Thus given x ∈ X and ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that if ρ(x, y) < δ, then
σ(x, y) < ε. By considering the inverse function, we see that if σ(x, y) < δ, then ρ(x, y) < ε. Conversely,
the two implications show that the identity mapping is continuous from (X, ρ) to (X, σ) as well as from
(X, σ) to (X, ρ). Since the identity mapping is clearly bijective, it is a homeomorphism so ρ and σ are
equivalent metrics.
10b. Given ε > 0, let δ = ε/n. When ρ
+
(x, y) < δ, ρ
∗
(x, y) < nδ = ε. When ρ
∗
(x, y) < δ, ρ
+
(x, y) <
δ < ε. Thus ρ
+
and ρ
∗
are equivalent metrics. When ρ
+
(x, y) < δ, ρ(x, y) < (nδ
2
)
1/2
= (ε
2
/n)
1/2
< ε.
When ρ(x, y) < δ, (ρ
+
(x, y))
2
< δ
2
so ρ
+
(x, y) < δ < ε. Thus ρ
+
and ρ are equivalent metrics. There
exists δ
t
> 0 with δ
t
< ε/
√
n such that ρ
∗
(x, y) < δ
t
implies ρ
+
(x, y) < δ. Then when ρ
∗
(x, y) < δ
t
,
ρ(x, y) < ε. When ρ(x, y) < δ
t
, ρ
∗
(x, y) ≤ ρ(x, y)
√
n < ε. Thus ρ and ρ
∗
are equivalent metrics.
10c. Consider the discrete metric ψ. Let x = (0, . . . , 0). For any δ > 0, we can choose y ,= x such that
ρ(x, y) < δ but ψ(x, y) = 1. Similarly for ρ
∗
and ρ
+
. Thus ψ is not equivalent to the metrics in part (b).
11a. Let ρ be a metric on a set X and let σ = ρ/(1 + ρ). Clearly, σ(x, y) ≥ 0 with σ(x, y) = 0 if and
only if x = y. Also, σ(x, y) = σ(y, x). Now σ(x, y) =
ρ(x,y)
1+ρ(x,y)
= 1 −
1
1+ρ(x,y)
≤ 1 −
1
1+ρ(x,z)+ρ(z,y)
=
ρ(x,z)+ρ(z,y)
1+ρ(x,z)+ρ(z,y)
≤ σ(x, z) + σ(z, y). Hence σ is a metric on X. Note that ρ(x, y) =
σ(x,y)
1−σ(x,y)
= h(σ(x, y))
where h is the function in Q8. Since h is continuous at 0, given ε > 0, there exists δ
t
> 0 such
that h(σ(x, y)) < ε when σ(x, y) < δ
t
. Now given ε > 0, let δ < min(δ
t
, ε). When ρ(x, y) < δ,
σ(x, y) < ρ(x, y) < δ < ε. When σ(x, y) < δ, ρ(x, y) = h(σ(x, y)) < ε. Hence σ and ρ are equivalent
metrics for X. Furthermore, σ(x, y) ≤ 1 for all x, y ∈ X so (X, σ) is a bounded metric space.
11b. If ρ is an extended metric (resp. pseudometric), then σ is an extended metric (resp. pseudometric).
The rest of the argument in part (a) follows.
7.4 Convergence and completeness
12. Suppose the sequence ¸x
n
) has x as a cluster point. There exists n
1
≥ 1 such that ρ(x, x
n
1
) < 1.
Suppose x
n
1
, . . . , x
n
k
have been chosen. There exists n
k+1
≥ n
k
such that ρ(x, x
n
k+1
) < 1/(k + 1). The
subsequence ¸x
n
k
) converges to x. Conversely, suppose there is a subsequence ¸x
n
k
) that converges to
x. Given ε > 0 and given N, there exists N
t
such that ρ(x, x
n
k
) < ε for k ≥ N
t
. Pick k ≥ max(N, N
t
).
Then n
k
≥ k ≥ N and ρ(x, x
n
k
) < ε. Thus x is a cluster point of the sequence ¸x
n
).
13. Suppose the sequence ¸x
n
) converges to x. Then every subsequence of ¸x
n
) also converges to x
and so has x as a cluster point. Conversely, suppose ¸x
n
) does not converge to x. There exists ε > 0
such that for each N, there exists n ≥ N with ρ(x, x
n
) ≥ ε. Pick n
1
such that ρ(x, x
n
1
) ≥ ε. Suppose
x
n
1
, . . . , x
n
k
have been chosen. Then pick n
k+1
≥ n
k
such that ρ(x, x
n
k+1
) ≥ ε. The subsequence ¸x
n
k
)
does not have x as a cluster point.
If every subsequence of ¸x
n
) has in turn a subsequence that converges to x, then every subsequence of
¸x
n
) has x as a cluster point by Q12. Hence the sequence ¸x
n
) converges to x.
14. Let E be a set in a metric space X. If x is a cluster point of a sequence from E, then given ε > 0,
there exists n such that ρ(x, x
n
) < ε. Since x
n
∈ E, x ∈
¯
E. On the other hand, if x ∈
¯
E, then for each
n, there exists x
n
∈ E with ρ(x, x
n
) < 1/n. The sequence ¸x
n
) converges to x.
15. Suppose a Cauchy sequence ¸x
n
) in a metric space has a cluster point x. By Q12, there is a
subsequence ¸x
n
k
) that converges to x. Given ε > 0, there exists N such that ρ(x, x
n
k
) < ε/2 for k ≥ N
and ρ(x
n
, x
m
) < ε/2 for n, m ≥ N. Now for k ≥ N, ρ(x, x
k
) ≤ ρ(x, x
n
k
) + ρ(x
n
k
, x
k
) < ε. Thus ¸x
n
)
converges to x.
16. Let X and Y be metric spaces and f a mapping from X to Y . Suppose f is continuous at x and let
¸x
n
) be a sequence in X that converges to x. Given ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that σ(f(x), f(y)) < ε
if ρ(x, y) < δ. There also exists N such that ρ(x, x
n
) < δ for n ≥ N. Thus σ(f(x), f(x
n
)) < ε for n ≥ N
so the sequence ¸f(x
n
)) converges to f(x) in Y . Conversely, suppose f is not continuous at x. Then
there exists ε > 0 such that for every n, there exists x
n
with ρ(x, x
n
) < 1/n but σ(f(x), f(x
n
)) ≥ ε. The
sequence ¸x
n
) converges to x but ¸f(x
n
)) does not converge to f(x).
17a. Let ¸x
n
) and ¸y
n
) be Cauchy sequences from a metric space X. Given ε > 0, there exists N such that
ρ(x
n
, x
m
) < ε/2 and ρ(y
n
, y
m
) < ε/2 for n, m ≥ N. Now ρ(x
n
, y
n
) ≤ ρ(x
n
, x
m
)+ρ(x
m
, y
m
)+ρ(y
m
, y
n
) so
32
ρ(x
n
, y
n
) −ρ(x
m
, y
m
) ≤ ρ(x
n
, x
m
) +ρ(y
n
, y
m
). Similarly, ρ(x
m
, y
m
) −ρ(x
n
, y
n
) ≤ ρ(x
n
, x
m
) +ρ(y
n
, y
m
).
Thus [ρ(x
n
, y
n
) −ρ(x
m
, y
m
)[ ≤ ρ(x
n
, x
m
) +ρ(y
n
, y
m
) < ε for n, m ≥ N. Hence the sequence ¸ρ(x
n
, y
n
))
is Cauchy in R and thus converges.
17b. Deﬁne ρ
∗
(¸x
n
), ¸y
n
)) = limρ(x
n
, y
n
) for Cauchy sequences ¸x
n
) and ¸y
n
). Then ρ
∗
(¸x
n
), ¸y
n
)) ≥ 0
since ρ(x
n
, y
n
) ≥ 0 for each n. Also, ρ
∗
(¸x
n
), ¸x
n
)) = limρ(x
n
, x
n
) = 0. Furthermore, ρ
∗
(¸x
n
), ¸y
n
)) =
limρ(x
n
, y
n
) = limρ(y
n
, x
n
) = ρ
∗
(¸y
n
), ¸x
n
)). Finally, ρ
∗
(¸x
n
), ¸y
n
)) = limρ(x
n
, y
n
) ≤ limρ(x
n
, z
n
) +
limρ(z
n
, y
n
) = ρ
∗
(¸x
n
), ¸z
n
)) +ρ
∗
(¸z
n
), ¸y
n
)). Hence the set of all Cauchy sequences from a metric space
becomes a pseudometric space under ρ
∗
.
17c. Deﬁne ¸x
n
) to be equivalent to ¸y
n
) (written as ¸x
n
) ∼ ¸y
n
)) if ρ
∗
(¸x
n
), ¸y
n
)) = 0. If ¸x
n
) ∼
¸x
t
n
) and ¸y
n
) ∼ ¸y
t
n
), then [ρ
∗
(¸x
n
), ¸y
n
)) − ρ
∗
(¸x
t
n
), ¸y
t
n
))[ ≤ ρ
∗
(¸x
n
), ¸x
t
n
)) + ρ
∗
(¸y
n
), ¸y
t
n
)) = 0 so
ρ
∗
(¸x
n
), ¸y
n
)) = ρ
∗
(¸x
t
n
), ¸y
t
n
)). If ρ
∗
(¸x
n
), ¸y
n
)) = 0, then ¸x
n
) ∼ ¸y
n
) so they are equal in X
∗
. Thus
the pseudometric space becomes a metric space.
Associate each x ∈ X with the equivalence class in X
∗
containing the constant sequence ¸x, x, . . .). This
deﬁnes a mapping T from X onto T[X]. Since ρ
∗
(Tx, Ty) = limρ(x, y) = ρ(x, y), if Tx = Ty, then
ρ(x, y) = 0 so x = y. Thus T is onetoone. Also, T is continuous on X and its inverse is continuous on
T[X]. Hence T is an isometry between X and T[X] ⊂ X
∗
. Furthermore, T[X] is dense in X
∗
.
17d. If ¸x
n
) is a Cauchy sequence from X, we may assume (by taking a subsequence) that ρ(x
n
, x
n+1
) <
2
−n
. Let ¸¸x
n,m
)
∞
n=1
)
∞
m=1
be a sequence of such Cauchy sequences which represents a Cauchy se
quence in X
∗
. Given ε > 0, there exists N such that for m, m
t
≥ N, ρ
∗
(¸x
n,m
), ¸x
n,m
)) < ε/2.
i.e. lim
n
ρ(x
n,m
, x
n,m
) < ε/2. We may assume that for n ≥ N, ρ(x
n,m
, x
n,m
) < ε/2. In particular,
ρ(x
m,m
, x
m,m
) < ε/2. We may also assume that ρ(x
m,m
, x
m
,m
) < ε/2 since the sequence ¸x
n,m
)
∞
n=1
is Cauchy in X. Thus ρ(x
m,m
, x
m
,m
) < ε for m, m
t
≥ N so the sequence ¸x
n,n
) is Cauchy in X and
represents the limit of the Cauchy sequence in X
∗
.
*17e. T is an isometry from X onto T[X] and T
−1
is an isometry from T[X] onto X. Thus there is a
unique isometry T
t
from
¯
X ∩ Y onto X
∗
that extends T. Similarly, there is a unique isometry T
tt
from
X
∗
onto
¯
X ∩ Y that extends T
−1
. Then T
t
[
X
= T and T
tt
[
T[X]
= T
−1
so (T
t
◦ T
tt
)[
T[X]
= id
T[X]
and
(T
tt
◦ T
t
)[
X
= id
X
. Since T[X] is dense in X
∗
and X is dense in
¯
X ∩ Y , we have T
t
◦ T
tt
= id
X
∗ and
T
tt
◦ T
t
= id ¯
X∩Y
so (T
t
= T
tt
)
−1
. Hence X
∗
is isometric with the closure of X in Y .
18. Let (X, ρ) and (Y, σ) be two complete metric spaces. Let ¸(x
n
, y
n
)) be a Cauchy sequence in XY .
Since ρ(x
n
, x
m
) ≤ (ρ(x
n
, x
m
)
2
+ σ(y
n
, y
m
)
2
)
1/2
= τ((x
n
, y
n
), (x
m
, y
m
)), the sequence ¸x
n
) is Cauchy in
X. Similarly, the sequence ¸y
n
) is Cauchy in Y . Since X is complete, ¸x
n
) converges to some x ∈ X.
Similarly, ¸y
n
) converges to some y ∈ Y . Given ε > 0, there exists N such that ρ(x
n
, x) < ε/2 and
σ(y
n
, y) < ε/2 for n ≥ N. Then τ((x
n
, y
n
), (x, y)) = (ρ(x
n
, x)
2
+σ(y
n
, y)
2
)
1/2
< ε for n ≥ N. Hence the
sequence ¸(x
n
, y
n
)) converges to (x, y) ∈ X Y and X Y is complete.
7.5 Uniform continuity and uniformity
19. ρ
1
(¸x, y), ¸x
t
, y
t
)) = ρ(x, x
t
) + σ(y, y
t
) ≥ 0. ρ
1
(¸x, y), ¸x
t
, y
t
)) = 0 if and only if ρ(x, x
t
) = 0 and
σ(y, y
t
) = 0 if and only if x = x
t
and y = y
t
if and only if ¸x, y) = ¸x
t
, y
t
). ρ
1
(¸x, y), ¸x
t
, y
t
)) =
ρ(x, x
t
) + σ(y, y
t
) = ρ(x
t
, x) + σ(y
t
, y) = ρ
1
(¸x
t
, y
t
), ¸x, y)). ρ
1
(¸x, y), ¸x
t
, y
t
)) = ρ(x, x
t
) + σ(y, y
t
) ≤
ρ(x, x
tt
) + ρ(x
tt
, x
t
) + σ(y, y
tt
) + σ(y
tt
, y
t
) = ρ
1
(¸x, y), ¸x
tt
, y
tt
)) + ρ
1
(¸x
tt
, y
tt
), ¸x
t
, y
t
)). Hence ρ
1
is a
metric. Similarly, ρ
∞
is a metric.
Given ε > 0, let δ = ε/2. When τ(¸x, y), ¸x
t
, y
t
)) < δ, ρ(x, x
t
)
2
< ε
2
/4 and σ(y, y
t
)
2
< ε
2
/4 so
ρ
1
(¸x, y), ¸x
t
, y
t
)) = ρ(x, x
t
) + σ(y, y
t
) < ε. Also, ρ
∞
(¸x, y), ¸x
t
, y
t
)) = max(ρ(x, x
t
), σ(y, y
t
)) < ε. When
ρ
1
(¸x, y), ¸x
t
, y
t
)) < δ, ρ(x, x
t
) < ε/2 and σ(y, y
t
) < ε/2 so τ(¸x, y), ¸x
t
, y
t
)) <
_
ε
2
/4 +ε
2
/4 < ε. When
ρ
∞
< δ, ρ(x, x
t
) < ε/2 and σ(y, y
t
) < ε/2 so τ(¸x, y), ¸x
t
, y
t
)) <
_
ε
2
/4 +ε
2
/4 < ε. Hence ρ
1
and ρ
∞
are uniformly equivalent to the usual product metric τ.
20. Let f be a uniformly continuous mapping of a metric space X into a metric space Y and let ¸x
n
) be
a Cauchy sequence in X. Given ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that ρ(x, y) < δ implies σ(f(x), f(y)) < ε.
There exists N such that ρ(x
n
, x
m
) < δ for n, m ≥ N. Thus σ(f(x
n
), f(x
m
)) < ε for n, m ≥ N. Hence
¸f(x
n
)) is a Cauchy sequence in Y .
21a. Let ¸x
n
) be a sequence from E that converges to a point x ∈
¯
E. Then ¸x
n
) is Cauchy in X so
¸f(x
n
)) is Cauchy in Y . Since Y is complete, ¸f(x
n
)) converges to some y ∈ Y .
33
21b. Suppose ¸x
n
) and ¸x
t
n
) both converge to x. Suppose ¸f(x
n
)) converges to y and ¸f(x
t
n
)) converges to
y
t
with y ,= y
t
. Let ε = σ(y, y
t
)/4 > 0. There exists δ > 0 such that ρ(x, x
t
) < δ implies σ(f(x), f(x
t
)) <
ε. There also exists N such that ρ(x
n
, x) < δ/2 and ρ(x
t
n
, x) < δ/2 for n ≥ N. Thus ρ(x
n
, x
t
m
) < δ
for n, m ≥ N so σ(f(x
n
), f(x
t
m
)) < ε for n, m ≥ N. We may assume that σ(f(x
n
), y) < ε and
σ(f(x
t
n
), y
t
) < ε for n ≥ N. Then σ(y, y
t
) ≤ σ(y, f(x
n
)) + σ(f(x
n
), f(x
t
n
)) + σ(f(x
t
n
), y
t
) < 3ε =
3σ(y, y
t
)/4. Contradiction. Hence ¸f(x
n
)) and ¸f(x
t
n
)) converge to the same point. By deﬁning y = g(x),
we get a function on
¯
E extending f.
21c. Given ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that ρ(x, x
t
) < δ implies σ(f(x), f(x
t
)) < ε/3 for x, x
t
∈ E.
Suppose ρ(¯ x, ¯ x
t
) < δ/3 with ¯ x, ¯ x
t
∈
¯
E. Let ¸x
n
) be a sequence in E converging to ¯ x and let ¸x
t
n
) be a
sequence in E converging to ¯ x
t
. There exists N such that ρ(x
n
, ¯ x) < δ/3 and ρ(x
t
n
, ¯ x
t
) < δ/3 for n ≥ N.
Then ρ(x
n
, x
t
n
) < δ for n ≥ N so σ(f(x
n
), f(x
t
n
)) < ε/3 for n ≥ N. Also, ¸f(x
n
)) converges to some
y = g(¯ x) ∈ Y and ¸f(x
t
n
)) converges to some y
t
= g(¯ x
t
) ∈ Y . We may assume σ(f(x
n
), g(¯ x)) < ε/3 and
σ(f(x
t
n
), g(¯ x
t
)) < ε/3 for n ≥ N. Thus σ(g(¯ x), g(¯ x
t
)) < ε. Hence g is uniformly continuous on
¯
E.
21d. Let h be a continuous function from
¯
E to Y that agrees with f on E. Let x ∈
¯
E and let ¸x
n
) be
a sequence in E converging to x. Then ¸h(x
n
)) converges to h(x) and ¸g(x
n
)) converges to g(x). Since
h(x
n
) = g(x
n
) for all n, g(x) = h(x). Hence h ≡ g.
22a. Given ε > 0, let δ = ε/n. When ρ
+
(x, y) < δ, ρ
∗
(x, y) < nδ = ε. When ρ
∗
(x, y) < δ, ρ
+
(x, y) <
δ < ε. Thus ρ
+
and ρ
∗
are uniformly equivalent metrics. When ρ
+
(x, y) < δ, ρ(x, y) < (nδ
2
)
1/2
=
(ε
2
/n)
1/2
< ε. When ρ(x, y) < δ, (ρ
+
(x, y))
2
< δ
2
so ρ
+
(x, y) < δ < ε. Thus ρ
+
and ρ are uniformly
equivalent metrics. There exists δ
t
> 0 with δ
t
< ε/sqrtn such that ρ
∗
(x, y) < δ
t
implies ρ
+
(x, y) < δ.
Then when ρ
∗
(x, y) < δ
t
, ρ(x, y) < ε. When ρ(x, y) < δ
t
, ρ
∗
(x, y) ≤ ρ(x, y)
√
n < ε. Thus ρ and ρ
∗
are
uniformly equivalent metrics.
*22b. Deﬁne ρ
t
(x, y) = [x
3
1
− y
3
1
[ +
n
i=2
[x
i
− y
i
[. Then ρ
t
is a metric on the set of ntuples of real
numbers. Given x ∈ R
n
and ε > 0, choose δ < min(1, [x
1
[, ε/3n[x
1
+ 1[
2
, ε/3n[x
1
− 1[
2
, ε/n, 3ε[x
1
−
1[
2
/n, 3ε[x
1
+ 1[
2
/n). When ρ
∗
(x, y) < δ, [x
i
− y
i
[ < δ for each i and [x
3
1
− y
3
1
[ = [3ξ
2
[[x
1
− y
1
[ for
some ξ ∈ (x
1
− δ, x
1
+ δ). Thus [x
3
1
− y
3
1
[ < 3 max([x
1
+ 1[, [x
1
− 1[)
2
δ < ε/n and ρ
t
(x, y) < ε. When
ρ
t
(x, y) < δ, [x
i
− y
i
[ < ε/n for i = 2, . . . , n and [x
3
1
− y
3
1
[ < δ. Then [x
1
− y
1
[ = [x
3
1
− y
3
1
[/[3ξ
2
[ < ε/n.
Thus ρ
∗
(x, y) < ε. Hence ρ
t
and ρ
∗
are equivalent metrics and since ρ
∗
and ρ are equivalent metrics, ρ
t
and ρ are equivalent metrics.
However ρ and ρ
t
are not uniformly equivalent metrics. Let ε = 1. Given δ > 0, choose n large
enough so that 3n
2
δ > 1. Let x = ¸n, 0, . . . , 0) and let y = ¸n + δ, 0, . . . , 0). Then ρ(x, y) = δ and
ρ
t
(x, y) = (n +δ)
3
−n
3
> 3n
2
δ > 1.
22c. Note that ρ(x, y) =
σ(x,y)
1−σ(x,y)
= h(σ(x, y)) where h is the function in Q8. Since h is continuous at
0, given ε > 0, there exists δ
t
> 0 such that h(σ(x, y)) < ε when σ(x, y) < δ
t
. Now given ε > 0, let
δ < min(δ
t
, ε). When ρ(x, y) < δ, σ(x, y) < ρ(x, y) < δ < ε. When σ(x, y) < δ, ρ(x, y) = h(σ(x, y)) < ε.
Hence σ and ρ are uniformly equivalent metrics for X. (c.f. Q11a)
23a. [0, ∞) with the usual metric ρ is an unbounded metric space. By Q22c, the metric σ = ρ/(1 +ρ) is
uniformly equivalent to ρ so there is a uniform homeomorphism between ([0, ∞), ρ) and ([0, ∞), σ). By
Q11a, ([0, ∞), σ) is a bounded metric space. Hence boundedness is not a uniform property.
23b. Let (X, ρ) and (Y, σ) be metric spaces with X totally bounded. Let f : (X, ρ) → (Y, σ) be a uniform
homeomorphism. Given ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that ρ(x, x
t
) < δ implies σ(f(x), f(x
t
)) < ε. There
exist ﬁnitely many balls S
x
n
,δ
that cover X. i.e. X =
k
n=1
S
x
n
,δ
. Take y ∈ Y . Then y = f(x) for some
x ∈ X. Now x ∈ S
x
n
,δ
for some n so ρ(x, x
n
) < δ and σ(f(x), f(x
n
)) < ε. Hence Y =
k
n=1
S
f(x
n
),ε
so
Y is totally bounded. Thus total boundedness is a uniform property.
23c. By Q8, the function h(x) = x/(1 − x) is a homeomorphism between [0, 1) and [0, ∞). Let ε > 0
be given. Choose N such that N > 2/ε and let x
n
= (n − 1)/N for n = 1, . . . , N. The intervals
(x
n
− 1/N, x
n
+ 1/N) ∩ [0, 1) are balls of radius ε that cover [0, 1). Thus [0, 1) is totally bounded.
Suppose [0, ∞) is totally bounded. Then there are a ﬁnite number of balls of radius 1 that cover [0, ∞),
say [0, ∞) =
k
n=1
S
x
n
,1
. We may assume that x
1
, . . . , x
k
are arranged in increasing order. But then
x
k
+ 2 is not in any of the balls S
x
n
,1
. Contradiction. Hence [0, ∞) is not totally bounded. Thus total
boundedness is not a topological property.
23d. Let (X, ρ) be a totally bounded metric space. For each n, there are a ﬁnite number of balls of
34
radius 1/n that cover X. Let S
n
be the set of the centres of these balls. Then each S
n
is a ﬁnite
set and S =
S
n
is a countable set. Given ε > 0, choose N such that N > 1/ε. For any x ∈ X,
ρ(x, x
t
) < 1/N < ε for some x
t
∈ S
N
⊂ S. Thus S is a dense subset of X. Hence X is separable.
24a. Let ¸X
k
, ρ
k
) be a sequence of metric spaces and deﬁne their direct product Z =
∞
k=1
X
k
. Deﬁne
τ(x, y) =
∞
k=1
2
−k
ρ
∗
k
(x
k
, y
k
) where ρ
∗
k
= ρ
k
/(1 + ρ
k
). Then τ(x, y) ≥ 0 since ρ
∗
k
(x
k
, y
k
) ≥ 0 for all k.
Also, τ(x, y) = 0 if and only if ρ
∗
k
(x
k
, y
k
) = 0 for all k if and only if x
k
= y
k
for all k if and only if
x = y. Furthermore, τ(x, y) = τ(y, x) since ρ
∗
k
(x
k
, y
k
) = ρ
∗
k
(y
k
, x
k
) for all k. Now for each n, τ(x, y) =
n
k=1
2
−k
ρ
∗
k
(x, y) ≤
n
k=1
2
−k
ρ
∗
k
(x, z) +
n
k=1
2
−k
ρ
∗
k
(z, y) ≤
∞
k=1
2
−k
ρ
∗
k
(x, z) +
∞
k=1
2
−k
ρ
∗
k
(z, y) =
τ(x, z) +τ(z, y). Hence τ(x, y) ≤ τ(x, z) +τ(z, y). Thus τ is a metric on Z.
Suppose a sequence ¸x
(n)
) in Z converges to x ∈ Z. Given ε > 0, let ε
t
= min(2
−k−1
ε, 2
−k−2
). There
exists N such that τ(x
(n)
, x) < ε
t
for n ≥ N. i.e.
∞
k=1
2
−k
ρ
∗
k
(x
(n)
k
, x
k
) < ε
t
for n ≥ N. Then
ρ
k
0
(x
(n)
k
0
, x
k
0
) < 2
k
0
ε
t
(1 +ρ
k
0
(x
(n)
k
0
, x
k
0
)) for n ≥ N so (1 −2
k
0
ε
t
)ρ
k
0
(x
(n)
k
0
, x
k
0
) < 2
k
0
ε
t
for n ≥ N. Since
2
k
0
ε
t
= min(ε/2, 1/4), we have 3ρ
k
0
(x
(n)
k
0
, x
k
0
)/4 < 2
k
0
ε
t
< ε/2 for n ≥ N. Hence ρ
k
0
(x
(n)
k
0
, x
k
0
) < ε for
n ≥ N and ¸x
(n)
k
) converges to x
k
for each k.
Conversely, suppose ¸x
(n)
k
) converges to x
k
for each k. Then given ε > 0, there exists N such that
∞
k=N+1
2
−k
ρ
∗
k
(x
k
, x
k
) < ε/2. For k = 1, . . . , N, there exists M such that ρ
k
(x
(n)
k
, x
k
) < ε/2 for n ≥ M.
Thus τ(x
(n)
, x) =
N
k=1
2
−k
ρ
∗
k
(x
k
, x
k
) +
∞
k=N+1
2
−k
ρ
∗
k
(x
k
, x
k
) <
N
k=1
ε/2
k+1
+ ε/2 < ε for n ≥ M.
Hence ¸x
(n)
) converges to x.
24b. Suppose each (X
k
, ρ
k
) is complete. Let ¸x
(n)
) be a Cauchy sequence in (Z, τ). Then for each k,
¸x
(n)
k
) is a Cauchy sequence in (X
k
, ρ
k
) so it converges to x
k
∈ X
k
. By part (a), ¸x
(n)
) converges to
¸x
k
) ∈ Z. Hence (Z, τ) is complete.
24c. Suppose that for each k, the spaces (X
k
, ρ
k
) and (Y
k
, σ
k
) are homeomorphic with f
k
: X
k
→ Y
k
a
homeomorphism. Deﬁne f :
∞
k=1
X
k
→
∞
k=1
Y
k
by f(¸x
k
)) = ¸f(x
k
)). Then f is bijective since each f
k
is. Also, note that f is continuous if and only if p
Y
k
◦ f is continuous for each k, where p
Y
k
:
∞
k=1
→ Y
k
is the projection map. Now p
Y
k
◦f = f
k
◦p
X
k
so it is continuous. Thus f is continuous. Similarly, f
−1
is
continuous since p
X
k
◦ f
−1
= f
−1
k
◦ p
Y
k
is continuous for each k. Hence f is a homeomorphism between
∞
k=1
X
k
and
∞
k=1
Y
k
.
24d. If for each k, the spaces (X
k
, ρ
k
) and (Y
k
, σ
k
) are uniformly homeomorphic, then by a similar
argument as part (c), the spaces
∞
k=1
X
k
and
∞
k=1
Y
k
are uniformly homeomorphic.
7.6 Subspaces
25. Let A be a complete subset of a metric space X. Let x ∈
¯
A. Then by Q14, there is a sequence from
A that converges to x. Since A is complete, x ∈ A. Thus A is closed. Now suppose B is a closed subset
of a complete metric space Y . Let ¸y
n
) be a Cauchy sequence in B. Then it is a Cauchy sequence in Y
so it converges to some y ∈ Y . Now y ∈
¯
B = B so B is complete.
*26. Let O be an open subset of a complete metric space (X, ρ). Let ϕ(x) = ρ(x, O
c
) for each x ∈ O.
Then S = ¦¸x, y) : x ∈ O, y = ϕ(x)¦ is closed in X R. Since X R is complete, S is complete.
Consider f : (O, ρ) → (S, ρ
∞
) with f(x) = ¸x, ϕ(x)). Since ρ
∞
is uniformly equivalent to the usual
product metric by Q19, S is complete under the metric ρ
∞
. Now f is bijective. Given ε > 0, there
exists δ > 0 such that [ϕ(x) − ϕ(y)[ < ε/2 when ρ(x, y) < δ. Let δ
t
= min(δ, ε/2). When ρ(x, y) < δ
t
,
ρ
∞
(f(x), f(y)) = ρ(x, y) +[ϕ(x) −ϕ(y)[ < ε. When ρ
∞
(¸x, ϕ(x)), ¸y, ϕ(y))) < δ
t
, ρ(x, y) < δ
t
< ε. Thus
f is a uniform homeomorphism and (O, ρ) is complete. Let σ = ρ/(1 + ρ). By Q22c, σ is uniformly
equivalent to ρ. Hence σ is a bounded metric for which (O, σ) is a complete metric space.
7.7 Compact metric spaces
27. Let X be a metric space, K a compact subset and F a closed subset. Consider the function
f(x) = ρ(x, F) = inf
y∈F
ρ(x, y). By Q9b, ¦x : ρ(x, F) = 0¦ =
¯
F = F. Thus if F ∩ K = ∅, then
ρ(x, F) > 0 for all x ∈ K. The function f[
K
is continuous on a compact set so it attains a minimum
δ > 0. Thus ρ(x, y) > δ for all x ∈ K and all y ∈ F. Conversely, if F ∩ K ,= ∅, then there exists x ∈ K
and y ∈ F such that ρ(x, y) = 0 so ρ(F, K) = 0.
35
28a. Let X be a totally bounded metric space and let f : X → Y be a uniformly continuous map onto
Y . Given ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that ρ(x, x
t
) < δ implies σ(f(x), f(x
t
)) < ε. There exist ﬁnitely
many balls ¦B
x
n
,δ
¦
k
n=2
that cover X. Take y ∈ Y . Then y = f(x) for some x ∈ X. Now x ∈ B
x
n
,δ
for
some n so ρ(x, x
n
) < δ and σ(f(x), f(x
n
)) < ε. Hence the balls ¦B
f(x
n
),ε
¦
k
n=1
cover Y and Y is totally
bounded.
28b. The function h(x) = x/(1−x) is a continuous map from [0, 1) onto [0, ∞). [0, 1) is totally bounded
but [0, ∞) is not.
29a. We may assume X / ∈ U. Set ϕ(x) = sup¦r : ∃O ∈ U with B
x,r
⊂ O¦. For each x ∈ X, there exists
O ∈ U such that x ∈ O. Since O is open, there exists r such that B
x,r
⊂ O. Thus ϕ(x) > 0. Since X is
compact, it is bounded so ϕ(x) < ∞.
29b. Suppose B
x,r
⊂ O for some O ∈ U. If 0 < r
t
< r − ρ(x, y), then B
y,r
⊂ B
x,r
⊂ O. If
ϕ(y) < ϕ(x) − ρ(x, y), then there exists r > ϕ(y) + ρ(x, y) such that B
x,r
⊂ O for some O ∈ U. Now
ϕ(y) < r − ρ(x, y) so taking r
t
= ϕ(y) + (r − ρ(x, y) − ϕ(y))/2, we have ϕ(y) < r
t
< r − ρ(x, y) and
B
y,r
⊂ O. Contradiction. Hence ϕ(y) ≥ ϕ(x) −ρ(x, y).
29c. Given ε > 0, let δ = ε. When ρ(x, y) < δ, [ϕ(x) − ϕ(y)[ ≤ ρ(x, y) < ε by part (b). Thus ϕ is
continuous on X.
29d. If X is sequentially compact, ϕ attains its minimum on X. Let ε = inf ϕ. Then ε > 0 since
ϕ(x) > 0 for all x.
29e. Let ε be as deﬁned in part (d). For any x ∈ X and δ < ε, δ < ϕ(x) so there exists r > δ such that
B
x,r
⊂ O for some O ∈ U. Then B
x,δ
⊂ B
x,r
⊂ O.
*30a. Let Z =
∞
k=1
X
k
. Suppose each X
k
is totally bounded. Given ε > 0, choose N such that
2
N
> 2/ε. For k > N, pick p
k
∈ X
k
. For each k ≤ N, there exists A
k
= ¦x
(k)
1
, . . . , x
(k)
M
k
¦ such that for
any x ∈ X
k
, there exists x
(k)
j
∈ A
k
with ρ
k
(x, x
(k)
j
) < ε/2. Let A = ¦¸x
n
) : x
k
∈ A
k
for k ≤ N, x
k
=
p
k
for k > N¦. Then [A[ = M
1
M
N
. If ¸x
n
) ∈ Z, for each k ≤ N, there exists x
(k)
j
∈ A
k
such
that ρ
k
(x
k
, x
(k)
j
) < ε/2. Let y
k
= x
(k)
j
for k ≤ N and let y
k
= p
k
for k > N. Then ¸y
n
) ∈ A and
τ(x, y) =
n
k=1
2
−k
ρ
k
(x
k
,y
k
)
1+ρ
k
(x
k
,y
k
)
<
N
k=1
2
−k ε
2
+
∞
k=N+1
2
−k
<
ε
2
+
1
2
N
< ε.
30b. Suppose each X
k
is compact. Then each X
k
is complete and totally bounded. By part (a), Z is
totally bounded and by Q24b, Z is complete. Hence Z is compact.
7.8 Baire category
31a. Suppose a closed set F is nowhere dense. Then F
c
is dense. Thus any open set contains a point
in F
c
so any open set cannot be contained in F. Conversely, suppose a closed set contains no open set.
Then any open set contains a point in F
c
so F
c
is dense and F is nowhere dense.
31b. Suppose E is nowhere dense and let O be a nonempty open set. Then O contains a point x in
¯
E
c
.
Now O ¸
¯
E is open so there is a ball centred at x and contained in O ¸
¯
E ⊂ O ¸ E. Conversely, suppose
that for any nonempty open set O there is a ball contained in O ¸ E. Let the centre of the ball be x. If
x ∈
¯
E, then the ball contains a point y ∈ E. Contradiction. Thus x ∈
¯
E
c
. Hence any nonempty open
set contains a point in
¯
E
c
and E is nowhere dense.
32a. Suppose that E is of the ﬁrst category and A ⊂ E. Then E =
E
n
where each E
n
is nowhere
dense and A =
(A ∩ E
n
). Now (A∩ E
n
)
c
⊃ (
¯
A ∩
¯
E
n
)
c
=
¯
A
c
∪
¯
E
n
c
for each n. Since
¯
E
n
c
is dense for
each n, (A∩ E
n
)
c
is dense for each n. Hence A is of the ﬁrst category.
32b. Suppose that ¸E
n
) is a sequence of sets of the ﬁrst category. Then E
n
=
k
E
n,k
for each n,
where each E
n,k
is nowhere dense. Now
E
n
=
n
k
E
n,k
=
n,k
E
n,k
, which is a countable union of
nowhere dense sets. Hence
E
n
is of the ﬁrst category.
33a. By Q3.14b, the generalised Cantor set constructed from [0, 1] by removing intervals of length
1/(n3
n
) at the nth step is closed, nowhere dense, and has Lebesgue measure 1 −1/n.
33b. By part (a), for each n, there is a nowhere dense closed set F
n
⊂ [0, 1] with mF
n
= 1 − 1/n. Let
E =
F
n
⊂ [0, 1]. Then E is of the ﬁrst category and 1 −1/n ≤ mE ≤ 1 for each n so mE = 1.
34. Suppose O is open and F is closed. If
¯
O¸ O contains an open set O
t
, then O
t
contains a point in O.
Contradiction. Thus
¯
O ¸ O is a closed set containing no open sets. By Q31a,
¯
O ¸ O is nowhere dense. If
36
F ¸ F
◦
contains an open set O
tt
, then for any point x ∈ O
tt
, there is a ball centred at x and contained
in O
tt
so x ∈ F
◦
. Contradiction. Thus F ¸ F
◦
is a closed set containing no open sets. By Q31a, F ¸ F
◦
is nowhere dense.
If F is closed and of the ﬁrst category in a complete metric space, then F
◦
is of the ﬁrst category. By
the Baire category theorem, F
circ
is empty. Thus F = F ¸ F
◦
is nowhere dense.
35. Let E be a subset of a complete metric space. If E is residual, then E
c
is of the ﬁrst category so
E
c
=
E
n
where each E
n
is nowhere dense. Thus E =
E
c
n
⊃
(
¯
E
n
)
c
. Since each (
¯
E
n
)
c
is dense and
the metric space is complete,
(
¯
E
n
)
c
is dense so E contains a dense G
δ
. Conversely, suppose E contains
a dense G
δ
, say E ⊃
O
n
. Then E
c
⊂
O
c
n
. Since
O
n
is dense, each O
n
is dense so O
c
n
is nowhere
dense and E
c
is of the ﬁrst category. Hence E is residual.
A subset E of a complete metric space is of the ﬁrst category if and only if E
c
is a residual subset of a
complete metric space if and only if E
c
contains a dense G
δ
if and only if E is contained in an F
σ
whose
complement is dense.
36a. Let X be a complete metric space without isolated points. Suppose X has a countable number of
points x
1
, x
2
, . . .. Then X =
¦x
n
¦ where each ¦x
n
¦ is nowhere dense and X is of the ﬁrst category,
contradicting the Baire category theorem. Hence X has an uncountable number of points.
36b. [0, 1] is complete since it is a closed subspace of the complete metric space R. Also, [0, 1] has no
isolated points. By part (a), [0, 1] is uncountable.
37a. Let E be a subset of a complete metric space. Suppose E
c
is dense and F is a closed set contained
in E. Then F
c
⊃ E
c
so F
c
is dense and F is nowhere dense.
37b. Suppose E and E
c
are both dense in a complete metric space X. Also suppose that E and E
c
are
both F
σ
’s, say E =
F
n
and E
c
=
F
t
n
where each F
n
and F
t
n
is closed. By part (a), each F
n
and F
t
n
is nowhere dense. Then X =
F
n
∪
F
t
n
so X is of the ﬁrst category, contradicting the Baire category
theorem. Hence at most one of the sets E and E
c
is an F
σ
.
37c. The set of rational numbers in [0, 1] is an F
σ
. Since the set of rational numbers in [0, 1] and the
set of irrational numbers in [0, 1] are both dense in the complete metric space [0, 1], the set of irrational
numbers in [0, 1] is not an F
σ
by part (b). Hence its complement, the set of rational numbers in [0, 1],
is not a G
δ
.
37d. If f is a realvalued function on [0, 1] which is continuous on the rationals and discontinuous on
the irrationals, then the set of points of continuity of f is a G
δ
. i.e. the set of rationals in [0, 1] is a G
δ
,
contradicting part (c). Hence there is no such function.
*38a. Let C = C[0, 1] and set F
n
= ¦f : ∃x
0
with 0 ≤ x
0
≤ 1 − 1/n and [f(x) − f(x
0
)[ ≤ n(x −
x
0
) for all x, x
0
≤ x < 1¦. Suppose [[f
k
− f[[ → 0 where f
k
∈ F
n
. For each k, there exists x
k
with
0 ≤ x
k
≤ 1 − 1/n and [f
k
(x) − f
k
(x
k
)[ ≤ n(x − x
k
) for x
k
≤ x < 1. Since x
k
∈ [0, 1 − 1/n] for all
k and [0, 1 − 1/n] is compact, we may assume that ¸x
k
) converges to some x
0
∈ [0, 1 − 1/n]. Then
[f(x) −f(x
0
)[ ≤ n(x −x
0
) so f ∈ F
n
.
*38b. By Q2.47, for any g ∈ C and any ε > 0, there exists a polygonal function ϕ such that [g(x) −
ϕ(x)[ < ε/2 for all x ∈ [0, 1]. There also exists a polygonal function ψ whose righthand derivative is
everywhere greater than n in absolute value and [ϕ(x) −ψ(x)[ < ε/2 for all x ∈ [0, 1]. Then ψ ∈ F
c
n
and
[g(x) −ψ(x)[ < ε for all x ∈ [0, 1]. Hence F
n
is nowhere dense.
38c. The set D of continuous functions which have a ﬁnite derivative on the right for at least one point
of [0, 1] is the union of the F
n
’s so D is of the ﬁrst category in C.
38d. Since D is of the ﬁrst category in the complete metric space C, D ,= C so there is a function in
C ¸ D, that is, a nowhere diﬀerentiable continuous function on [0, 1].
39. Let F be a family of realvalued continuous functions on a complete metric space X, and suppose
that for each x ∈ X there is a number M
x
such that [f(x)[ ≤ M
x
for all f ∈ F. For each m, let
E
m,f
= ¦x : [f(x)[ ≤ m¦, and let E
m
=
F
E
m,f
. Since each f is continuous, E
m,f
is closed and so E
m
is closed. For each x ∈ X, there exists m such that [f(x)[ ≤ m for all f ∈ F. Hence X =
E
m
. Then
O =
E
◦
m
⊂ X is a dense open set and for each x ∈ O, x ∈ E
◦
m
for some m so there is a neighbourhood
U of x such that U ⊂ E
◦
m
. In particular, F is uniformly bounded on U.
40a. Suppose that given ε > 0, there exist N and a neighbourhood U of x such that σ(f
n
(x
t
), f(x)) < ε
for n ≥ N and all x
t
∈ U. Let ¸x
n
) be a sequence with x = limx
n
. We may assume that x
n
∈ U for
37
all n ≥ N so σ(f
n
(x
n
), f(x)) < ε for n ≥ N and ¸f
n
) converges continuously to f at x. Conversely,
suppose there exists ε > 0 such that for any N and any neighbourhood U of x, there exists n ≥ N and
x
t
∈ U with σ(f
n
(x
t
), f(x)) ≥ ε. For each n, let U
n
= B
x,1/n
. There exists n
1
≥ 1 and x
n
1
∈ U
1
with
σ(f
n
1
(x
n
1
), f(x)) ≥ ε. Suppose x
n
1
, . . . , x
n
k
have been chosen. There exists n
k+1
≥ n
k
and x
n
k
∈ U
k
with σ(f
n
k+1
(x
n
k+1
), f(x)) ≥ ε. Then x = limx
n
k
by construction but f(x) ,= limf
n
k
(x
n
k
) so ¸f
n
) does
not converge continuously to f.
40b. Let Z = ¦1/n¦ ∪ ¦0¦. Deﬁne g : X Z → Y by g(x, 1/n) = f
n
(x) and g(x, 0) = f(x). Suppose
g is continuous at ¸x
0
, 0) in the product metric. Let ¸x
n
) be a sequence with x
0
= limx
n
. Then
¸x
0
, 0) = lim¸x
n
, 1/n) and f(x) = g(x
0
, 0) = limg(x
n
, 1/n) = limf
n
(x
n
) so ¸f
n
) converges continuously
to f at x
0
. Conversely, suppose ¸f
n
) converges continuously to f at x
0
. Let ¸(x
n
, z
n
)) be a sequence
in X Z converging to ¸x
0
, 0). Then x
0
= limx
n
, 0 = limz
n
and f(x
0
) = limf
n
(x
n
). i.e. g(x
0
, 0) =
limg(x
n
, 1/n). Since 0 = limz
n
, it follows that g(x
0
, 0) = limg(x
n
, z
n
) so g is continuous at ¸x
0
, 0).
40c. Let ¸f
n
) converge continuously to f at x. By part (b), the function g is continuous at ¸x, 0). If ¸x
n
)
is a sequence converging to x, then f(x) = g(x, 0) = limg(x
n
, 0) = limf(x
n
). Hence f is continuous at
x.
*40d. Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of continuous maps. Suppose ¸f
n
) converges continuously to f at x. By part
(a), given ε > 0, there exists N and a neighbourhood U of x such that σ(f
n
(x
t
), f(x)) < ε/2 for n ≥ N
and x
t
∈ U. By part (c), f is continuous at x so we may assume that σ(f(x
t
), f(x)) < ε/2 for x
t
∈ U.
Thus σ(f
n
(x
t
), f(x
t
)) < ε for n ≥ N and x
t
∈ U. Conversely, suppose that given ε > 0, there exist N
and a neighbourhood U of x such that σ(f
n
(x
t
), f(x
t
)) < ε/4 for all n ≥ N and all x
t
∈ U. In particular,
σ(f
N
(x), f(x)) < ε/4. Let ¸x
k
) be a sequence with x = limx
k
. We may assume that x
k
∈ U for all k
and σ(f
N
(x
k
), f
N
(x)) < ε/4 for k ≥ N. Then σ(f(x
k
), f(x)) ≤ σ(f(x
k
), f
N
(x
k
)) + σ(f
N
(x
k
), f
N
(x)) +
σ(f
N
(x), f(x)) < 3ε/4 for k ≥ N. Thus σ(f
k
(x
k
), f(x)) ≤ σ(f
k
(x
k
), f(x
k
)) + σ(f(x
k
), f(x)) < ε for
k ≥ N so f(x) = limf
k
(x
k
) and ¸f
n
) converges continuously to f at x.
40e. Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of continous maps. Suppose ¸f
n
) converges continuously to f on X. For
each x ∈ X and each ε > 0, there exists N
x
and a neighbourhood U
x
of x such that σ(f
n
(x
t
), f(x
t
)) < ε
for each n ≥ N
x
and x
t
∈ U
x
. Then X =
U
x
so for any compact subset K ⊂ X, K ⊂
m
i=1
U
x
i
for
some x
1
, . . . , x
m
. Thus for n ≥ max N
x
i
and x
t
∈ K, we have σ(f
n
(x
t
), f(x
t
)) < ε so ¸f
n
) converges
uniformly to f on K. Conversely, suppose ¸f
n
) converges uniformly to f on each compact subset of
X. Then ¸f
n
) converges uniformly to f on ¦x¦ for each x ∈ X. Given ε > 0, there exists N such that
σ(f
n
(x), f(x)) < ε/3 for n ≥ N. Since each f
n
is continuous, f is also continuous. Then there exists
a neighbourhood U of x such that σ(f
n
(x
t
), f
n
(x)) < ε/3 and σ(f(x
t
), f(x)) < ε/3 for x
t
∈ U. Thus
σ(f
n
(x
t
), f(x
t
)) < ε for n ≥ N and x
t
∈ U. Hence ¸f
n
) converges continuously to f on X.
40f. Let X be a complete metric space and ¸f
n
) a sequence of continuous maps of X into a met
ric space Y such that f(x) = limf
n
(x) for each x ∈ X. For m, n ∈ N, deﬁne F
m,n
= ¦x ∈ X :
σ(f
k
(x), f
l
(x)) ≤ 1/m for all k, l ≥ n¦. Let x
t
be a point of closure of F
m,n
. There is a sequence ¸x
i
)
in F
m,n
converging to x
t
. For any ε > 0 and k, l ≥ n, there exists δ > 0 such that ρ(x, x
t
) < δ implies
σ(f
k
(x), f
k
(x
t
)) < ε and σ(f
l
(x), f
l
(x
t
)) < ε. Then there exists N such that ρ(x
i
, x
t
) < δ for i ≥ N.
Thus σ(f
k
(x
t
), f
l
(x
t
)) ≤ σ(f
k
(x
t
), f
k
(x
N
)) + σ(f
k
(x
N
), f
l
(x
N
)) + σ(f
l
(x
N
), f
l
(x
t
)) < 2ε + 1/m. Since ε
is arbitrary, σ(f
k
(x
t
), f
l
(x
t
)) ≤ 1/m and x
t
∈ F
m,n
so F
m,n
is closed.
For any x ∈ X, there exists n such that σ(f
k
(x), f(x)) < 1/2m for k ≥ n. Then for k, l ≥ n,
σ(f
k
(x), f
l
(x)) ≤ σ(f
k
(x), f(x)) +σ(f(x), f
l
(x)) < 1/m so x ∈ F
m,n
. Hence X =
n
F
m,n
. By Proposi
tion 31, O
m
=
n
F
◦
m,n
is open and since X is complete, O
m
is also dense.
40g. Let x ∈ O
m
. Then x ∈ F
◦
m,n
for some n. Thus there exists a neighbourhood U of x such
that U ⊂ F
m,n
. It follows that for any k, l ≥ n and any x
t
∈ U, σ(f
k
(x
t
), f
l
(x
t
)) ≤ 1/m. Since
f(x
t
) = limf
l
(x
t
), we have σ(f
k
(x
t
), f(x
t
)) ≤ 1/m for any k ≥ n and x
t
∈ U.
40h. Let E =
O
m
. Since each O
m
is open and dense, E is a dense G
δ
by Baire’s theorem. If x ∈ E,
then x ∈ O
m
for all m. Given ε > 0, choose m > 1/ε. There exists a neighbourhood U of x and an n
such that σ(f
k
(x
t
), f(x
t
)) ≤ 1/m < ε for any k ≥ n and x
t
∈ U.
40i. Let X be a complete metric space and ¸f
n
) a sequence of continuous functions of X into a metric
space Y . Suppose ¸f
n
) converges pointwise to f. By parts (f), (g), (h) and (a), there exists a dense G
δ
in X on which ¸f
n
) converges continuously to f.
41a. Let (X, ρ) and (Y, σ) be complete metric spaces and f : X Y → Z be a mapping into a metric
38
space (Z, τ) that is continuous in each variable. Fix y
0
∈ Y . Set F
m,n
= ¦x ∈ X : τ[f(x, y), f(x, y
0
)] ≤
1/m for all y with σ(y, y
0
) ≤ 1/n¦. Let x
t
be a point of closure of F
m,n
. There is a sequence ¸x
k
) in F
m,n
converging to x
t
. For each k and any y with σ(y, y
0
) ≤ 1/n, τ[f(x
k
, y), f(x
k
, y
0
)] ≤ 1/m. Given ε > 0,
there exists δ > 0 such that ρ(x, x
t
) < δ implies τ[f(x, y), f(x
t
, y)] < ε and τ[f(x, y
0
), f(x
t
, y
0
)] < ε. Then
there exists N such that ρ(x
k
, x
t
) < δ for k ≥ N. Thus τ[f(x
t
, y), f(x
t
, y
0
)] ≤ τ[f(x
t
, y), f(x
N
, y)] +
τ[f(x
N
, y), f(x
N
, y
0
)]+τ[f(x
N
, y
0
), f(x
t
, y
0
)] < 2ε+1/m. Since ε is arbitrary, τ[f(x
t
, y), f(x
t
, y
0
)] ≤ 1/m
and x
t
∈ F
m,n
so F
m,n
is closed.
For any x ∈ X and m, there exists δ > 0 such that σ(y, y
0
) < δ implies τ[f(x, y), f(x, y
0
)] < 1/m.
Choose n > 1/δ. Then for any y with σ(y, y
0
) < 1/n, τ[f(x, y), f(x, y
0
)] < 1/m so x ∈ F
m,n
. Hence
X =
n
F
m,n
.
41b. Let O
m
=
n
F
◦
m,n
. By Proposition 31, O
m
is open and since X is complete, O
m
is also dense. Let
x ∈ O
m
. Then x ∈ F
◦
m,n
for some n. Thus there exists a neighbourhood U
t
of x such that U
t
⊂ F
m,n
.
For any y with σ(y, y
0
) ≤ 1/n and any x
t
∈ U
t
, τ[f(x
t
, y), f(x
t
, y
0
)] ≤ 1/m. We may assume that
τ[f(x
t
, y
0
), f(x, y
0
)] ≤ 1/m for x
t
∈ U
t
by continuity. Then τ[f(x
t
, y), f(x, y
0
)] ≤ 2/m for x
t
∈ U
t
.
Hence there is a neighbourhood U of ¸x, y
0
) in X Y such that τ[f(p), f(x, y
0
)] ≤ 2/m for all p ∈ U.
41c. Let G =
O
m
. Since each O
m
is open and dense, G is a dense G
δ
by Baire’s theorem. If x ∈ G,
then x ∈ O
m
for each m. Given ε > 0, choose m > 2/ε. There exists a neighbourhood U of ¸x, y
0
) such
that τ[f(p), f(x, y
0
)] ≤ 2/m < ε for p ∈ U. Hence f is continuous at ¸x, y
0
) for each x ∈ G.
41d. Let E ⊂ X Y be the set of points at which f is continuous. If f is continuous at z ∈ X Y ,
then for each n, there exists δ
n,z
> 0 such that f[B
z,δ
n,z
] ⊂ B
f(z),1/n
. Let E
n
=
z∈S
B
z,δ
z,1/n
/2
. Then
E =
n
E
n
(c.f. Q2.7.53) and E is a G
δ
set. Take ¸x
0
, y
0
) ∈ X Y and let ε > 0 be given. By part (c),
there exists a dense G
δ
set G ⊂ X such that f is continuous at ¸x, y
0
) for each x ∈ G. Since G is dense,
there exists x
1
∈ G such that ρ(x
0
, x
1
) < ε. Then ¸x
1
, y
0
) ∈ E and τ
t
(¸x
1
, y
0
), ¸x
0
, y
0
)) = ρ(x
1
, x
0
) < ε.
Thus E is dense in X Y .
41e. Given a ﬁnite product X
1
X
p
of complete metric spaces, we may regard the product as
(X
1
X
p−1
) X
n
where X
1
X
p−1
is a complete metric space. Let f : X
1
X
p
→ Z be
a mapping into a metric space Z that is continuous in each variable. By a similar argument as in part
(d), there exists a dense G
δ
⊂ X
1
X
p
on which f is continuous.
42a. Let X and Y be complete metric spaces. Also let G ⊂ X and H ⊂ Y be dense G
δ
’s. Then
G =
G
n
and H =
H
n
where each G
n
and H
n
is open. Thus GH =
G
n
H
n
=
(G
n
H
n
)
where each G
n
H
n
is open in XY . Hence GH is a G
δ
in XY . Given ε > 0 and ¸x, y) ∈ XY ,
there exist x
0
∈ G and y
0
∈ H such that ρ(x, x
0
) < ε/2 and σ(y, y
0
) < ε/2. Then τ(¸x, y), ¸x
0
, y
0
)) < ε.
Hence GH is dense in X Y .
*42b.
42c. Let E be a dense G
δ
in X Y . Then E =
O
n
where each O
n
is a dense open set in X Y .
By part (b), for each n, there exists a dense G
δ
set G
n
⊂ X such that ¦y : ¸x, y) ∈ O
n
¦ is a dense open
subset of Y for each x ∈ G
n
. Let G =
G
n
. Then G is still a countable intersection of dense open sets
in X. Thus G is a dense G
δ
set in X such that ¦y : ¸x, y) ∈ E¦ =
¦y : ¸x, y) ∈ O
n
¦ is a dense G
δ
for
each x ∈ G.
*42d.
*43. Let (X, ρ) be a complete metric space and f : X →R be an upper semicontinuous function. Let E
be the set of points at which f is continuous. Then E is a G
δ
. Suppose f is discontinuous at x. Then f
is not lower semicontinuous at x so f(x) > lim
y→x
f(y). There exists q ∈ Q such that f(x) ≥ q > lim
y→x
f(y).
Let F
q
= ¦x : f(x) ≥ q¦. Then x ∈ F
q
¸F
◦
q
. Conversely, if x ∈ F
q
¸F
◦
q
for some q ∈ Q, then f(x) ≥ q and
for any δ > 0, there exists y with ρ(x, y) < δ and f(y) < q so f(x) > lim
y→x
f(y). Thus E
c
=
q∈Q
F
q
¸ F
◦
q
.
Since each F
q
¸ F
◦
q
is nowhere dense, E
c
is of the ﬁrst category and E is residual. Hence E is a dense
G
δ
in X
7.9 Absolute G
δ
’s
44. Let σ =
2
−n
σ
n
. Then σ(x, y) =
2
−n
σ
n
(x, y) ≤
2
−n
= 1 for all x, y ∈ E. Since σ
n
≥ 0
for all n, σ ≥ 0. Also, σ(x, y) = 0 if and only if σ
n
(x, y) = 0 for all n if and only if x = y. Since
39
σ
n
(x, y) = σ
n
(y, x) for all n, σ(x, y) = σ(y, x). Also, σ(x, y) =
2
−n
σ
n
(x, y) ≤
2
−n
σ
n
(x, z) +
2
−n
σ
n
(z, y) = σ(x, z) +σ(z, y). Thus σ is a metric on E.
Let ε > 0 and ﬁx x ∈ E. For each n, there exists δ
n
> 0 such that σ
n
(x, y) < δ
n
implies ρ(x, y) < ε/2
and ρ(x, y) < δ
n
implies σ
n
(x, y) < ε/2. There exists N such that
∞
n=N+1
2
−n
< ε/2. Let δ =
min(δ
1
/2, . . . , δ
N
/2
N
). If ρ(x, y) < δ, then σ
n
(x, y) < ε/2 for n = 1, . . . , N so
N
n=1
2
−n
σ
n
(x, y) < ε/2
and σ(x, y) < ε. If σ(x, y) < δ, then σ
1
(x, y) < 2δ ≤ δ
1
so ρ(x, y) < ε. Hence σ is equivalent to ρ on E.
If each σ
n
is uniformly equivalent to ρ, then σ is uniformly equivalent to ρ.
45. Let A ⊂ B ⊂
¯
A be subsets of a metric space and let g and h be continuous maps of B into a metric
space X. Suppose g(u) = h(u) for all u ∈ A. Let u ∈ B. Then u ∈
¯
A so there is a sequence ¸u
n
) in
A converging to u. Since g and h are continuous on B, ¸g(u
n
)) and ¸h(u
n
)) converge to f(u) and g(u)
respectively. But g(u
n
) = h(u
n
) for all n so g(u) = h(u). Hence g ≡ h.
*46a.
46b. Starting from E, let I
1
, I
2
, . . . be disjoint open intervals satisfying the conditions of part (a) with
ε = 1/2. For E
I
j
= E ∩ I
j
, repeat the process with ε = 1/4, getting intervals I
j,1
, I
j,2
, . . .. Continuing,
at the nth stage getting intervals I
j,k,...,l
with ε = 2
−n
. Given x ∈ E, there is a unique integer k
1
such
that x ∈ I
k
1
. Then x ∈ E
I
k
1
and there is a unique integer k
2
such that x ∈ I
k
1
,k
2
and so on. Thus there
is a unique sequence of integers k
1
, k
2
, . . . such that for each n we have x ∈ I
k
1
,...,k
n
.
46c. Given a sequence of integers k
1
, k
2
, . . ., suppose there are x, y ∈ E such that x, y ∈ I
k
1
,...,k
n
for all
n. By construction, the diameter of I
k
1
,...,k
n
is less than 2
−n
for each n. Thus σ(x, y) < 2
−n
for all n so
σ(x, y) = 0 and x = y.
46d. Let N
ω
be the space of inﬁnite sequences of integers and make N into a metric space by set
ting ρ(i, j) = δ
ij
. Let τ be the product metric on N
ω
. Given ε > 0, choose N such that 2
−N
<
ε. Let δ < 2
−N
. When σ(x, y) < δ, k
n
(x) = k
n
(y) for n = 1, . . . , N so τ(¸k
n
(x)), ¸k
n
(y))) ≤
∞
i=N+1
2
−i
ρ
∗
(k
n
(x), k
n
(y)) ≤ 2
−N
< ε. When τ(¸k
n
(x)), ¸k
n
(y))) < δ, k
n
(x) = k
n
(y) for n = 1, . . . , N.
Then x, y ∈ I
k
1
(x),...,k
N
(x)
so σ(x, y) < 2
−N
< ε. Hence the correspondence between N
ω
and E given by
parts (b) and (c) is a uniform homeomorphism between (N
ω
, τ) and (E, σ).
*46e. By parts (a)(d), any dense G
δ
E in (0, 1) whose complement is dense is uniformly homeomorphic
to N
ω
, which is in turn homeomorphic to the set of irrationals in (0, 1) by the continued fraction expansion.
Hence E is homeomorphic to the set of irrationals in (0, 1).
7.10 The AscoliArzel´a Theorem
47. Let X be a metric space. Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of continuous functions from X to a metric
space Y which converge to a function f uniformly on each compact subset K of X. Let x ∈ X and let
¸x
k
) be a sequence in X converging to x. Then K = ¦x
k
¦
∞
k=1
∪ ¦x¦ is a compact subset of X. Given
ε > 0, there exists N such that σ(f
N
(x
t
), f(x
t
)) < ε/3 for any x
t
∈ K. Also, there exists N
t
such
that σ(f
N
(x
k
), f
N
(x)) < ε/3 for k ≥ N
t
. Thus σ(f(x
k
), f(x)) ≤ σ(f(x
k
), f
N
(x
k
)) +σ(f
N
(x
k
), f
N
(x)) +
σ(f
N
(x), f(x)) < ε for k ≥ N
t
. Hence f is continuous on X.
48a. Let X be a separable, locally compact metric space, and (Y, σ) any metric space. Let ¦x
n
¦ be a
countable dense subset of X. For each n, there is an open set U
n
such that x
n
∈ U
n
and U
n
is compact.
Then X = ¦x
n
¦ ⊂
U
n
so X =
U
n
. For each n and any x ∈ U
n
, there is an open set V
x
containing
x with V
x
compact. Then U
n
⊂
x∈U
n
V
x
and since U
n
is compact, there is a ﬁnite number of V
x
’s
covering U
n
. Let O
n
be the union of the ﬁnite number of V
x
’s. Then X =
O
n
.
48b. Let σ
∗
(f, g) =
2
−n
σ
∗
n
(f, g) where σ
∗
n
(f, g) = sup
O
n
σ(f(x),g(x))
1+σ(f(x),g(x))
. Since σ
∗
n
(f, g) ≤ 1 for all
n, σ
∗
(f, g) ≤ 1 < ∞ and since σ
∗
n
(f, g) ≥ 0 for all n, σ
∗
(f, g) ≥ 0. Since σ
∗
n
(f, g) = σ
∗
n
(g, f) for
all n, σ
∗
(f, g) = σ
∗
(g, f). For each n, σ
∗
n
(f, g) = sup
O
n
σ(f(x),g(x))
1+σ(f(x),g(x))
= sup
O
n
[1 −
1
1+σ(f(x),g(x))
] ≤
sup
O
n
[1 −
1
1+σ(f(x),h(x))+σ(h(x),g(x))
] = sup
O
n
σ(f(x),h(x))+σ(h(x),g(x))
1+σ(f(x),h(x))+σ(h(x),g(x))
≤ σ
∗
n
(f, h) + σ
∗
n
(h, g). Thus
σ
∗
(f, g) ≤ σ
∗
(f, h) + σ
∗
(h, g). Hence the set of functions from X into Y becomes a metric space
under σ
∗
.
49. Let F be an equicontinuous family of functions from X to Y , and let F
+
be the family of all
pointwise limits of functions in F, that is of f for which there is a sequence ¸f
n
) from F such that
40
f(x) = limf
n
(x) for each x ∈ X. Given x ∈ X and ε > 0, there is an open set O containing x such that
σ(f(x), f(y)) < ε/3 for all y ∈ O and f ∈ F. Now if f ∈ F
+
and y ∈ O, then there is a sequence ¸f
n
) from
F such that f(x) = limf
n
(x) so there is an N such that σ(f
N
(x), f(x)) < ε/3 and σ(f
N
(y), f(y)) < ε/3.
Then σ(f(x), f(y)) ≤ σ(f(x), f
N
(x)) + σ(f
N
(x), f
N
(y)) + σ(f
N
(y), f(y)) < ε. Hence F
+
is also an
equicontinuous family of functions.
50. Let 0 < α ≤ 1 and let F = ¦f : [[f[[
α
≤ 1¦. If f ∈ F, then max [f(x)[ +sup [f(x)−f(y)[/[x−y[
α
≤ 1.
In particular, [f(x) −f(y)[ ≤ [x −y[
α
for all x, y. Thus f ∈ C[0, 1]. Also, F is an equicontinuous family
of functions on the separable space [0, 1] and each f ∈ F is bounded. By the AscoliArzel´a Theorem,
each sequence ¸f
n
) in F has a subsequence that converges pointwise to a continuous function. Hence F
is a sequentially compact, and thus compact, subset of C[0, 1].
*51a. Let F be the family of functions that are holomorphic on the unit disk ∆ = ¦z : [z[ < 1¦ with
[f(z)[ ≤ 1. Let f ∈ F and ﬁx z
t
∈ ∆. Let U be an open ball of radius min([z
t
[, 1 − [z
t
[) centred
at z
t
. Then U ⊂ ∆. Let C be the circle of radius r/2 centred at z
t
. For every z within r/4 of z
t
,
f(z) − f(z
t
) =
1
2πi
_
C
[
f(w) dw
w−z
−
f(w) dw
w−z
] =
z−z
2πi
_
C
f(w) dw
(w−z)(w−z
)
by Cauchy’s integral formula. Since
[f(z)[ ≤ 1 for all f ∈ F and all z ∈ ∆, [f(z) − f(z
t
)[ ≤ 4r
−1
[z − z
t
[ for all f ∈ F. It follows that F is
equicontinuous.
*51b. By the AscoliArzel´a Theorem, any sequence ¸f
n
) in F has a subsequence that converges uniformly
to a function f on each compact subset of ∆. Furthermore f is holomorphic on ∆.
*51c. Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of holomorphic functions on ∆ such that f
n
(z) → f(z) for all z ∈ ∆. For
each z ∈ ∆, there is an M
z
such that [f
n
(z)[ ≤ M
z
for all n. Let E
m
=
n
E
m,n
where E
m,n
= ¦z :
[f
n
(z)[ ≤ m¦. Then E
m
is closed and ∆ =
m
E
m
. There is an E
m
that is not nowhere dense so it has
nonempty interior. Then O =
m
E
◦
m
is a dense open subset of ∆ and ¸f
n
) is locally bounded on O.
By an argument similar to that in part (a), ¸f
n
) is equicontinuous on O so there is a subsequence that
converges uniformly to a function f on each compact subset of O. Furthermore, f is holomorphic on O.
8 Topological Spaces
8.1 Fundamental notions
1a. Given a set X, deﬁne ρ on X X by ρ(x, y) = 0 if x = y and ρ(x, y) = 1 otherwise. Then for any
set A ⊂ X, A =
x∈A
B
x,1/2
so A is open. Thus the associated topological space is discrete. If X has
more than one point, then there is no metric on X such that the associated topological space is trivial
because in a metric space, any two distinct points can be enclosed in disjoint open sets.
1b. Let X be a space with a trivial topology. If f is a continuous mapping of X into R, then f
−1
[I] is
either ∅ or X for any open interval I. Take c ∈ R. Then f
−1
[c] = f
−1
[(c − ε, c + ε)] is either ∅ or X.
Thus f must be a constant function. Conversely, if f(x) = c for all x ∈ X, then for any open interval
I, f
−1
[I] = ∅ if c / ∈ I and f
−1
[I] = X if c ∈ I. Since any open set of real numbers is a countable union
of disjoint open intervals, it follows that f is continuous. Hence the only continuous mappings from X
into R are the constant functions.
1c. Let X be a space with a discrete topology. Let f be a mapping of X into R. Since f
−1
[O] ⊂ X for
any open set O ⊂ R, f is continuous. Hence all mappings of X into R are continuous.
2.
¯
E is the intersection of all closed sets containing E so E ⊂
¯
E. Also,
¯
E ⊂
¯
¯
E. On the other hand,
¯
¯
E is
the intersection of all closed sets containing
¯
E, one of which is
¯
E itself, so
¯
¯
E ⊂
¯
E. Thus
¯
¯
E =
¯
E.
¯
A∪
¯
B is a closed set containing A∪B so A∪ B ⊂
¯
A∪
¯
B. On the other hand, A ⊂ A∪B and B ⊂ A∪B
so
¯
A ⊂ A∪ B and
¯
B ⊂ A∪ B. Thus
¯
A∪
¯
B ⊂ A∪ B. Hence A∪ B ⊂
¯
A∪
¯
B.
If F is closed, then F is a closed set containing F so
¯
F ⊂ F. Since we always have F ⊂
¯
F, F =
¯
F.
Conversely, if F =
¯
F, then since
¯
F is closed, F is closed.
If x ∈
¯
E, then x is in every closed set containing E. Let O be an open set containing x. If O ∩ E = ∅,
then E ⊂ O
c
. Since O
c
is closed, x ∈ O
c
. Contradiction. Hence O ∩ E ,= ∅ and x is a point of closure
of E. Conversely, suppose x is a point of closure of E. If x / ∈
¯
E, then x is not in some closed set F
containing E so x ∈ F
c
. Since F
c
is an open set containing x, F
c
∩E ,= ∅. Contradiction. Hence x ∈
¯
E.
E
◦
is the union of all open sets contained in E so E
◦
⊂ E. Also, E
◦◦
⊂ E
◦
. On the other hand, E
◦◦
is
41
the union of all open sets contained in E
◦
, one of which is E
◦
itself, so E
◦
⊂ E
◦◦
. Thus E
◦◦
= E
◦
.
A
◦
∩ B
◦
is an open set contained in A∩ B so A
◦
∩ B
◦
⊂ (A∩ B)
◦
. On the other hand, A∩ B ⊂ A and
A∩B ⊂ B so (A∩B)
◦
⊂ A
◦
and (A∩B)
◦
⊂ B
◦
. Thus (A∩B)
◦
⊂ A
◦
∩B
◦
. Hence (A∩B)
◦
= A
◦
∩B
◦
.
If x ∈ E
◦
, then x is in some open set O contained in E so x is an interior point of E. Conversely, if x is
an interior point of E, then x ∈ O ⊂ E for some open set O so x ∈ E
◦
.
If x ∈ (E
c
)
◦
, then x is in some open set O ⊂ E
c
so x / ∈ O
c
⊃ E and thus x ∈
¯
E
c
. Conversely, if x ∈
¯
E
c
,
then x is not in some closed set F ⊃ E so x ∈ F
c
⊂ E
c
and thus x ∈ (E
c
)
◦
. Hence (E
c
)
◦
=
¯
E
c
.
3. Suppose A ⊂ X is open. Then given x ∈ A, x ∈ O ⊂ A with O = A. Conversely, suppose that given
x ∈ A, there is an open set O
x
such that x ∈ O
x
⊂ A. Then A =
x∈A
O
x
, which is open.
4. Let f be a mapping of X into Y . Suppose f is continuous. For any closed set F, f
−1
[F
c
] is open.
But f
−1
[F
c
] = (f
−1
[F])
c
so f
−1
[F] is closed. Conversely, suppose the inverse image of every closed set
is closed. For any open set O, f
−1
[O
c
] is closed. But f
−1
[O
c
] = (f
−1
[O])
c
so f
−1
[O] is open. Thus f is
continuous.
5. Suppose f is a continuous mapping of X into Y and g is a continuous mapping of Y into Z. For
any open set O ⊂ Z, g
−1
[O] is open in Y so f
−1
[g
−1
[O]] is open in X. But f
−1
[g
−1
[O]] = (g ◦ f)
−1
[O].
Hence g ◦ f is a continuous mapping of X into Z.
6. Let f and g be two realvalued continuous functions on X and let x ∈ X. Given ε > 0, there is an
open set O containing x such that [f(x) − f(y)[ < ε/2 and [g(x) − g(y)[ < ε/2 whenever y ∈ O. Then
[(f + g)(x) − (f + g)(y)[ = [f(x) − f(y) + g(x) − g(y)[ ≤ [f(x) − f(y)[ + [g(x) − g(y)[ < ε whenever
y ∈ O. Thus f + g is continuous at x. There is an open set O
t
such that [g(x) − g(y)[ < ε/2[f(x)[ and
[f(x)−f(y)[ < ε/2 max([g(x)−ε/2[f(x)[[, [g(x)+ε/2[f(x)[[) whenever y ∈ O
t
. Then [(fg)(x)−(fg)(y)[ =
[f(x)g(x)−f(x)g(y)+f(x)g(y)−f(y)g(y)[ ≤ [f(x)[[g(x)−g(y)[+[f(x)−f(y)[[g(y)[ < ε whenever y ∈ O
t
.
Thus fg is continuous at x.
7a. Let F be a closed subset of a topological space and ¸x
n
) a sequence of points from F. If x is a
cluster point of ¸x
n
), then for any open set O containing x and any N, there exists n ≥ N such that
x
n
∈ O. Suppose x / ∈ F. Then x is in the open set F
c
so there exists x
n
∈ F
c
. Contradiction. Hence
x ∈ F.
7b. Suppose f is continuous and x = limx
n
. For any open set U containing f(x), there is an open set
O containing x such that f[O] ⊂ U. There also exists N such that x
n
∈ O for n ≥ N so f(x
n
) ∈ U for
n ≥ N. Hence f(x) = limf(x
n
).
7c. Suppose f is continuous and x is a cluster point of ¸x
n
). For any open set U containing f(x), there
is an open set O containing x such that f[O] ⊂ U. For any N, there exists n ≥ N such that x
n
∈ O so
f(x
n
) ∈ U. Hence f(x) is a cluster point of ¸f(x
n
)).
*8a. Let E be an arbitrary set in a topological space X. (E
◦
)
◦
is the intersection of all closed sets
containing (E
◦
)
◦
, one of which is E
◦
, so (E
◦
)
◦
⊂ E
◦
. On the other hand, E
◦
is the intersection of
all closed sets containing E
◦
, one of which is (E
◦
)
◦
since E
◦
= E
◦◦
⊂ (E
◦
)
◦
, so E
◦
⊂ (E
◦
)
◦
. Hence
(E
◦
)
◦
= E
◦
.
Now since
¯
¯
E =
¯
E and (E
c
)
c
= E, new sets can only be obtained if the operations are performed
alternately. Also, (
¯
E)
c
= (E
c
)
◦
so
_
_
(E)
c
_
c
_
c
=
_
(E)
c
_
◦
=
_
(E
c
)
◦
_
◦
= (E
c
)
◦
= (E)
c
. Hence the
distinct sets that can be obtained are at most E,
¯
E, (E)
c
, (E)
c
,
_
(E)
c
_
c
,
_
(E)
c
_
c
,
_
_
(E)
c
_
c
_
c
, E
c
,
E
c
, (E
c
)
c
, (E
c
)
c
,
_
(E
c
)
c
_
c
,
_
(E
c
)
c
_
c
,
_
_
(E
c
)
c
_
c
_
c
.
*8b. Let E = ¦(0, 0)¦ ∪¦z : 1 < [z[ < 2¦ ∪¦z : 2 < [z[ < 3¦ ∪¦z : 4 < [z[ < 5 and z = (p, q) where p, q ∈
Q¦ ⊂ R
2
. Then E gives 14 diﬀerent sets by repeated use of complementation and closure.
9. Let f be a function from a topological space X to a topological space Y . Suppose f is continuous
and let x ∈ X. For any open set U containing f(x), f
−1
[U] is open and x ∈ f
−1
[U]. If y ∈ f
−1
[U], then
f(y) ∈ U. Thus f is continuous at x. Conversely, suppose f is not continuous. There exists an open set
O such that f
−1
[O] is not open. By Q3, there exists x ∈ f
−1
[O] such that U is not a subset of f
−1
[O]
for any open set U containing x. Then O is an open set containing f(x) and f[U] is not a subset of O
42
for any open set U containing x. Hence f is not continuous at x.
10a. Let the subset A of a topological space X be the union of two sets A
1
and A
2
both of which
are closed (resp. both of which are open). Let f be a map of A into a topological space Y such
that the restrictions f[
A
1
and f[
A
2
are each continuous. For any closed (resp. open) set E ⊂ Y ,
f
−1
[E] = (f
−1
[E] ∩ A
1
) ∪ (f
−1
[E] ∩ A
2
) = f[
−1
A
1
[E] ∪ f[
−1
A
2
[E] = (A
1
∩ F) ∪ (A
2
∩ F
t
) for some closed
(resp. open) sets F, F
t
⊂ A. Hence f
−1
[E] is closed (resp. open) and f is continuous.
10b. Consider the subset (0, 2] of R. Then (0, 2] is the union of (0, 1), which is open, and [1, 2], which
is closed. Let f be the map deﬁned by f(x) = x on (0, 1) and f(x) = x + 1 on [1, 2]. Then f[
(0,1)
and
f[
[1,2]
are each continuous but f is not continuous (at 1).
*10c. Suppose A = A
1
∪ A
2
, A
1
¸ A
2
∩ (A
2
¸ A
1
) = ∅ and A
2
¸ A
1
∩ (A
1
¸ A
2
) = ∅. Let f be a map
of A into a topological space Y such that the restrictions f[
A
1
and f[
A
2
are each continuous. Let F
be a closed subset of Y and let F
t
= f
−1
[F] ⊂ A. Then F
t
= F
t
∩ (A
1
¸ A
2
∪ (A
1
∩ A
2
) ∪ A
2
¸ A
1
) =
F
t
∩ (A
1
¸ A
2
)∪F
t
∩ A
1
∩ A
2
∪F
t
∩ (A
2
¸ A
1
). Note that F
t
∩ (A
1
¸ A
2
) ⊂ A
1
and F
t
∩ (A
2
¸ A
1
) ⊂ A
2
.
Thus f[F
t
] = f[F
t
∩ (A
1
¸ A
2
)] ∪f[F
t
∩ A
1
∩ A
2
] ∪f[F
t
∩ (A
2
¸ A
1
)] = f[F
t
] ⊂ F and F
t
⊂ f
−1
[F] = F
t
.
Hence F
t
= f
−1
[F] is closed and f is continuous.
8.2 Bases and countability
11a. Let B be a base for the topological space (X, T ). If x ∈
¯
E, then for every B ∈ B with x ∈ B,
since B is open, B ∩ E ,= ∅. i.e. there is a y ∈ B ∩ E. Conversely, suppose that for every B ∈ B with
x ∈ B there is a y ∈ B ∩ E. For each open set O in X with x ∈ O, there is a B ∈ B with x ∈ B ⊂ O.
Then there is a y ∈ B ∩ E ⊂ O ∩ E. Thus x ∈
¯
E.
11b. Let X satisfy the ﬁrst axiom of countability. If there is a sequence ¸x
n
) in E converging to x, then
for any open set O containing x, there exists N such that x
n
∈ O for n ≥ N. Thus O∩E ,= ∅ so x ∈
¯
E.
Conversely, suppose x ∈
¯
E. There is a countable base ¸B
n
) at x. By considering B
1
, B
1
∩B
2
, B
1
∩B
2
∩
B
3
, . . ., we may assume B
1
⊃ B
2
⊃ B
3
. Now each B
n
contains an x
n
∈ E. For any open set O
containing x, O ⊃ B
N
⊃ B
N+1
⊃ for some N so x
n
∈ O for n ≥ N and ¸x
n
) is a sequence in E
converging to x.
11c. Let X satisfy the ﬁrst axiom of countability and let ¸x
n
) be a sequence from X. If ¸x
n
) has a
subsequence converging to x, it follows from the deﬁnition that x is a cluster point of ¸x
n
). Conversely,
suppose x is a cluster point of ¸x
n
). There is a countable base ¸B
n
) at x. We may assume B
1
⊃ B
2
⊃ .
Since B
1
is open and contains x, x
n
1
∈ B
1
for some n
1
≥ 1. Suppose x
n
1
, . . . , x
n
k
have been chosen. Then
there exists n
k+1
≥ n
k
such that x
n
k+1
∈ B
k+1
. For any open set O containing x, O ⊃ B
N
⊃ B
N+1
for some N so x
n
k
∈ O for k ≥ N and the subsequence ¸x
n
k
) converges to x.
12a. See Q9.
12b. Let B
x
be a base at x and C
y
be a base at y = f(x). Suppose f is continuous at x. For each
C ∈ C
y
, since C is open and contains f(x), there is an open set U containing x such that U ⊂ f
−1
[C].
Then there exists B ∈ B
x
such that B ⊂ U ⊂ f
−1
[C]. Conversely, suppose that for each C ∈ C
y
there
exists B ∈ B
x
such that B ⊂ f
−1
[C]. For any open set O containing f(x), there exists C ∈ C
y
such that
C ⊂ O. Then there exists B ∈ B
x
such that B ⊂ f
−1
[C] ⊂ f
−1
[O]. Hence f is continuous at x.
13. Let C be any collection of subsets of X. Let B consist of X and all ﬁnite intersections of sets in C.
By Proposition 5, B is a base for some topology o on X. For any topology T on X containing C, we
have B ⊂ T . Since any set in o is a union of sets in B, o ⊂ T . Hence o is the weakest topology on X
containing C.
14. Let X be an uncountable set of points and let T consist of the empty set and all subsets of X
whose complement is ﬁnite. Then X ∈ T since X
c
= ∅, which is ﬁnite. If O
1
, O
2
∈ T , then we may
assume O
1
, O
2
,= ∅ so (O
1
∩ O
2
)
c
= O
c
1
∪ O
c
2
, which is ﬁnite. Thus O
1
∩ O
2
∈ T . If O
α
∈ T , then
(
O
α
)
c
=
O
c
α
, which is ﬁnite. Thus
O
α
∈ T . Hence T is a topology for X.
Suppose (X, T ) satisﬁes the ﬁrst axiom of countability. Take x ∈ X. There is a countable base ¸B
n
) at
x. Note that B
c
n
is ﬁnite for all n so
B
c
n
is countable. Thus there exists y ∈ (
B
c
n
)
c
=
B
n
with
y ,= x since (
B
c
n
)
c
is uncountable. Now X ¸ ¦y¦ is open and contains x so there exists B
N
⊂ X ¸ ¦y¦.
But y ∈ B
N
⊂ X ¸ ¦y¦. Contradiction. Hence (X, T ) does not satisfy the ﬁrst axiom of countability.
43
15. Let X be the set of real numbers and let B be the set of all intervals of the form [a, b). For any
x ∈ X, we have x ∈ [x, x + 1). If x ∈ [a, b) ∩ [c, d), then x ∈ [c, b) (or [a, d)). Hence B is a base of a
topology T (the halfopen interval topology) for X.
For any x ∈ X, let B
x,q
= [x, x + q) where q is a positive rational number. Then ¦B
x,q
¦ is a countable
base at x. Thus (X, T) satisﬁes the ﬁrst axiom of countability. Let B be a base for (X, T). For any
x ∈ X, there exist B
x
∈ B such that x ∈ B
x
⊂ [x, x + 1). If x ,= y, then B
x
,= B
y
. Thus ¦B
x
¦
is uncountable and (X, T) does not satisfy the second axiom of countability. For any x ∈ X and any
open set O containing x, there is an interval [a, b) ⊂ O containing x. Furthermore, there is a rational
q ∈ [a, b). Thus the rationals are dense in (X, T ). Now (X, T ) is not metrizable because it is separable
and a separable metric space satisﬁes the second axiom of countability.
16. Suppose X is second countable. Let B be a countable base for the topology on X and let  be an
open cover of X. For each x ∈ X, there exists U
x
∈ , such that x ∈ U
x
. Then there exists B
x
∈ B such
that x ∈ B
x
⊂ U
x
. Thus X =
x∈X
B
x
. Since B is countable, we may choose countably many U
x
’s to
form a countable subcover of . Hence X is Lindel¨of.
17a. Let X
1
= N N and take X = X
1
∪ ¦ω¦. For each sequence s = ¸m
k
) of natural numbers deﬁne
B
s,n
= ¦ω¦∪¦¸j, k) : j ≥ m
k
if k ≥ n¦. Clearly, any x ∈ X is in some B
s,n
or ¦¸j, k)¦. If x ∈ B
s,n
∩B
s
,n
,
then either x = ω or x = ¸j, k). If x = ¸j, k), then ¦¸j, k)¦ ⊂ B
s,n
∩B
s
n
. If x = ω, let s
tt
= ¸m
tt
k
) be the
sequence where m
tt
k
= max(m
k
, m
t
k
) for all k and let n
tt
= min(n, n
t
). Then ω ∈ B
s
,n
⊂ B
s,n
∩ B
s
,n
.
Other possible intersections are similarly dealt with. Hence the sets B
s,n
together with the sets ¦¸j, k)¦
form a base for a topology on X.
*17b. For any open set O containing ω, there is some B
s,n
such that ω ∈ B
s,n
⊂ O. Since B
s,n
contains
some ¸j, k) ∈ X
1
, so does O. Thus ω is a point of closure of X
1
.
17c. X is countable so it is separable. If it satisﬁes the ﬁrst axiom of countability, then since ω is a
point of closure of X
1
, by Q11b, there is a sequence from X
1
converging to ω and by Q11c, ω is a cluster
point of that sequence, contradicting part (b). Hence X does not satisfy the ﬁrst axiom of countability
and thus it also does not satisfy the second axiom of countability.
17d. X is countable so it is Lindel¨of.
8.3 The separation axioms and continuous realvalued functions
18a. Given two distinct points x, y in a metric space (X, ρ), let r = ρ(x, y)/2. Then the open balls B
x,r
and B
y,r
are disjoint open sets with x ∈ B
x,r
and y ∈ B
y,r
. Hence every metric space is Hausdorﬀ.
18b. Given two disjoint closed sets F
1
, F
2
in a metric space (X, ρ), let O
1
= ¦x : ρ(x, F
1
) < ρ(x, F
2
)¦
and let O
2
= ¦x : ρ(x, F
2
) < ρ(x, F
1
)¦. The sets O
1
and O
2
are open since the functions f(x) = ρ(x, F
1
)
and g(x) = ρ(x, F
2
) are continuous. Thus O
1
and O
2
are disjoint open sets with F
1
⊂ O
1
and F
2
⊂ O
2
.
Hence every metric space is normal.
19. Let X consist of [0, 1] and an element 0
t
. Consider the sets (α, β), [0, β), (α, 1] and ¦0
t
¦∪(0, β) where
α, β ∈ [0, 1]. Clearly, any x ∈ [0, 1] belongs to one of the sets. Note that (α, β) ⊂ [0, β) ∩ (α, 1]. If x ∈
(α, β)∩[0, β
t
), then x ∈ (α, min(β, β
t
)) ⊂ (α, β)∩[0, β
t
). If x ∈ (α, β)∩(α
t
, 1], then x ∈ (max(α, α
t
), β) ⊂
(α, β) ∩ (α
t
, 1]. If x ∈ (α, β) ∩ (¦0
t
¦ ∪ (0, β
t
)), then x ∈ (α, min(β, β
t
)) ⊂ (α, β) ∩ (¦0
t
¦ ∪ (0, β
t
)). If
x ∈ [0, β) ∩(¦0
t
¦∪(0, β
t
)), then x ∈ (0, min(β, β
t
)) ⊂ [0, β) ∩(¦0
t
¦∪(0, β
t
)). If x ∈ (α, 1] ∩(¦0
t
¦∪(0, β)),
then x ∈ (α, β) ⊂ (α, 1] ∩ (¦0
t
¦ ∪ (0, β)). Hence the sets form a base for a topology on X.
Given two distinct points x, y ∈ X, if neither of them is 0’, then [0, (x +y)/2) is an open set containing
one but not the other. If y = 0
t
, then ¦0
t
¦ ∪ (0, x/2) is an open set containing y but not x. Hence X
is T
1
. Consider the distinct points 0 and 0’. If O is an open set containing 0 and O
t
is an open set
containing 0’, then 0 ∈ [0, β) ⊂ O and 0
t
∈ ¦0
t
¦ ∪ (0, β
t
) ⊂ O
t
for some β, β
t
. Since [0, β) ∩ (0, β
t
) ,= ∅,
O ∩ O
t
,= ∅. Hence X is not Hausdorﬀ.
20. Let f be a realvalued function on a topological space X. Suppose f is continuous. Then for any
real number a, ¦x : f(x) < a¦ = f
−1
[(−∞, a)] and ¦x : f(x) > a¦ = f
−1
[(a, ∞)]. Since (−∞, a) and
(a, ∞) are open, the sets ¦x : f(x) < a¦ and ¦x : f(x) > a¦ are open. Conversely, suppose the sets
¦x : f(x) < a¦ and ¦x : f(x) > a¦ are open for any real number a. Since any open set O ⊂ R is a union
of open intervals and any open interval is an intersection of at most two of the sets, f
−1
[O] is open so f
is continuous.
44
Since ¦x : f(x) ≥ a¦
c
= ¦x : f(x) < a¦, we also have f is continuous if and only if for any real number
a, the set ¦x : f(x) > a¦ is open and the set ¦x : f(x) ≥ a¦ is closed.
21. Suppose f and g are continuous realvalued functions on a topological space X. For any real
number a, ¦x : f(x) + g(x) < a¦ =
q∈Q
(¦x : g(x) < q¦ ∩ ¦x : f(x) < a − q¦), which is open, and
¦x : f(x) +g(x) > a¦ =
q∈Q
(¦x : g(x) > q¦ ∩¦x : f(x) > a −q¦), which is open, so f +g is continuous.
¦x : f(x)g(x) < a¦ =
q∈Q
(¦x : g(x) < q¦) ∩ ¦x : f(x) < a/q¦, which is open, and ¦x : f(x)g(x) > a¦ =
q∈Q
(¦x : g(x) > q¦) ∩ ¦x : f(x) > a/q¦, which is open, so fg is continuous. ¦x : (f ∨ g)(x) < a¦ = ¦x :
f(x) < a¦ ∩ ¦x : g(x) < a¦, which is open, and ¦x : (f ∨ g)(x) > a¦ = ¦x : f(x) > a¦ ∪ ¦x : g(x) > a¦,
which is open, so f ∨ g is continuous. ¦x : (f ∧ g)(x) < a¦ = ¦x : f(x) < a¦ ∪ ¦x : g(x) < a¦, which is
open, and ¦x : (f ∧ g)(x) > a¦ = ¦x : f(x) > a¦ ∩ ¦x : g(x) > a¦, which is open, so f ∧ g is continuous.
22. Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of continuous functions from a topological space X to a metric space Y .
Suppose ¸f
n
) converges uniformly to a function f. Let ε > 0 and let x ∈ X. There exists N such
that ρ(f
n
(x), f(x)) < ε/3 for all n ≥ N and all x ∈ X. Since f
N
is continuous, there is an open
set O containing x such that f
N
[O] ⊂ B
f
N
(x),ε/3
. If y ∈ O, then ρ(f(y), f(x)) ≤ ρ(f(y), f
N
(y)) +
ρ(f
N
(y), f
N
(x)) + ρ(f
N
(x), f(x)) < ε. Thus f[O] ⊂ B
f(x),ε
. Since any open set in Y is a union of open
balls, f is continuous.
23a. Let X be a Hausdorﬀ space. Suppose X is normal. Given a closed set F and an open set O
containing F, there exist disjoint open sets U and V such that F ⊂ U and O
c
⊂ V . Now
¯
U is disjoint
from O
c
since if y ∈ O
c
, then V is an open set containing y that is disjoint from U. Thus
¯
U ⊂ O.
Conversely, suppose that given a closed set F and an open set O containing F, there is an open set U
such that F ⊂ U and
¯
U ⊂ O. Let F and G be disjoint closed sets. Then F ⊂ G
c
and there is an open
set U such that F ⊂ U and
¯
U ⊂ G
c
. Equivalently, F ⊂ U and G ⊂
¯
U
c
. Since U and
¯
U
c
are disjoint
open sets, X is normal.
*23b. Let F be a closed subset of a normal space contained in an open set O. Arrange the rationals
in (0, 1) of the form r = p2
−n
in a sequence ¸r
n
). Let U
1
= O. By part (a), there exists an open set
U
0
such that F ⊂ U
0
and U
0
⊂ O = U
1
. Let P
n
be the set containing the ﬁrst n terms of the sequence.
Since U
0
⊂ U
1
, there exists an open set U
r
1
such that U
0
⊂ U
r
1
and U
r
1
⊂ U
1
. Suppose open sets U
r
have been deﬁned for rationals r in P
n
such that U
p
⊂ U
q
whenever p < q. Now r
n+1
has an immediate
predecessor r
i
and an immediate successor r
j
(under the usual order relation) in P
n+1
∪ ¦0, 1¦. Note
that U
r
i
⊂ U
r
j
. Thus there is an open set U
r
n+1
such that U
r
i
⊂ U
r
n+1
and U
r
n+1
⊂ U
r
j
. Now if r ∈ P
n
,
then either r ≤ r
i
, in which case U
r
⊂ U
r
i
⊂ U
r
n+1
, or r ≥ r
j
, in which case U
r
n+1
⊂ U
r
j
⊂ U
r
. By
induction, we have a sequence ¦U
r
¦ of open sets, one corresponding to each rational in (0, 1) of the form
p = r2
−n
, such that F ⊂ U
r
⊂ O and U
r
⊂ U
s
for r < s.
23c. Let ¦U
r
¦ be the family constructed in part (b) with U
1
= X. Let f be the realvalued function on
X deﬁned by f(x) = inf¦r : x ∈ U
r
¦. Clearly, 0 ≤ f ≤ 1. If x ∈ F, then x ∈ U
r
for all r so f(x) = 0.
If x ∈ O
c
, then x / ∈ U
r
for any r < 1 so f(x) = 1. Given x ∈ X and an open interval (c, d) containing
f(x), choose rationals r
1
and r
2
of the form p2
−n
such that c < r
1
< f(x) < r
2
< d. Consider the open
set U = U
r
2
¸ U
r
1
. Since f(x) < r
2
, x ∈ U
r
⊂ U
r
2
for some r < r
2
. If x ∈ U
r
1
, then x ∈ U
r
for all r > r
1
so f(x) ≤ r
1
. Since f(x) > r
1
, x / ∈ U
r
1
. Thus x ∈ U. If y ∈ U, then y ∈ U
r
2
so f(y) ≤ r
2
< d. Also,
y / ∈ U
r
1
so f(y) ≥ r
1
> c. Thus f[U] ⊂ (c, d). Hence f is continuous.
23d. Let X be a Hausdorﬀ space. Suppose X is normal. For any pair of disjoint closed sets A and B
on X, B
c
is an open set containing A. By the constructions in parts (b) and (c), there is a continuous
realvalued function f on X such that 0 ≤ f ≤ 1, f ≡ 0 on A and f ≡ 1 on (B
c
)
c
= B.
(*) Proof of Urysohn’s Lemma.
24a. Let A be a closed subset of a normal topological space X and let f be a continuous realvalued
function on A. Let h = f/(1 +[f[). Then [h[ = [f[/(1 +[f[) < 1.
24b. Let B = ¦x : h(x) ≤ −1/3¦ and let C = ¦x : h(x) ≥ 1/3¦. By Urysohn’s Lemma, there is a
continuous function h
1
which is −1/3 on B and 1/3 on C while [h
1
(x)[ ≤ 1/3 for all x ∈ X. Then
[h(x) −h
1
(x)[ ≤ 2/3 for all x ∈ A.
24c. Suppose we have continuous functions h
n
on X such that [h
n
(x)[ < 2
n−1
/3
n
for all x ∈ X and
[h(x) −
n
i=1
h
i
(x)[ < 2
n
/3
n
for all x ∈ A. Let B
t
= ¦x : h(x) −
n
i=1
h
i
(x) ≤ −2
n
/3
n+1
¦ and
let C
t
= ¦x : h(x) −
n
i=1
h
i
(x) ≥ 2
n
/3
n+1
¦. By Urysohn’s Lemma, there is a continuous function
h
n+1
which is −2
n
/3
n+1
on B
t
and 2
n
/3
n+1
on C
t
while [h
n+1
(x)[ ≤ 2
n
/3
n+1
for all x ∈ X. Then
45
[h(x) −
n+1
i=1
h
i
(x)[ < 2
n+1
/3
n+1
for all x ∈ A.
24d. Let k
n
=
n
i=1
h
i
. Then each k
n
is continuous and [h(x) − k
n
(x)[ < 2
n
/3
n
for all x ∈ A. Also,
[k
n
(x) −k
n−1
(x)[ < 2
n−1
/3
n
for all n and all x ∈ X. If m > n, then [k
m
(x) −k
n
(x)[ = [
m
i=n+1
h
i
(x)[ ≤
m
i=n+1
2
i−1
/3
i
< (2/3)
n
. Let k(x) =
∞
i=1
h
i
(x). Then [k(x) − k
n
(x)[ ≤ (2/3)
n
for all x ∈ X. Thus
¸k
n
) converges uniformly to k. i.e. ¸h
n
) is uniformly summable to k and since each k
n
is continuous, k is
continuous. Also, since [k
n
[ ≤ 1 for each n, [k[ ≤ 1. Now [h(x) −k
n
(x)[ < 2
n
/3
n
for all n and all x ∈ A
so letting n → ∞, [h(x) −k(x)[ = 0 for all x ∈ A. i.e. k = h on A.
24e. Since [k[ = [h[ < 1 on A, A and ¦x : k(x) = 1¦ are disjoint closed sets. By Urysohn’s Lemma,
there is a continuous function ϕ on X which is 1 on A and 0 on ¦x : k(x) = 1¦.
24f. Set g = ϕk/(1 −[ϕk[). Then g is continuous and g = k/(1 −[k[) = h/(1 −[h[) = f on A.
(*) Proof of Tietze’s Extension Theorem.
25. Let F be a family of realvalued functions on a set X. Consider the sets of the form ¦x : [f
i
(x) −
f
i
(y)[ < ε for some ε > 0, some y ∈ X, and some ﬁnite set f
1
, . . . , f
n
of functions in F¦. The weak
topology on X generated by F has ¦f
−1
[O] : f ∈ F, O open in R¦ as a base. Now if x
t
∈ f
−1
[O] for
some f ∈ F and O open in R, we may assume O is an open interval (c, d). If x ∈ ¦x : [f(x) − f(x
t
)[ <
min(f(x
t
) − c, d − f(x
t
))¦, then f(x) ∈ (c, d). i.e. x ∈ f
−1
[O]. Thus x
t
∈ ¦x : [f(x) − f(x
t
)[ <
min(f(x
t
) − c, d − f(x
t
))¦ ⊂ f
−1
[O]. Hence the sets of the form ¦x : [f
i
(x) − f
i
(y)[ < ε for some ε >
0, some y ∈ X, and some ﬁnite set f
1
, . . . , f
n
of functions in F¦ is a base for the weak topology on X
generated by F.
Suppose this topology is Hausdorﬀ. For any pair ¦x, y¦ of distinct points in X, there are disjoint open sets
O
x
and O
y
such that x ∈ O
x
and y ∈ O
y
. Then there are sets B
x
and B
y
of the form ¦x : [f
i
(x)−f
i
(z)[ <
ε for some ε > 0, some z ∈ X, and some ﬁnite set f
1
, . . . , f
n
of functions in F¦ such that x ∈ B
x
⊂ O
x
and y ∈ B
y
⊂ O
y
. Suppose f(x) = f(y) for all f ∈ F. Then x, y ∈ B
x
∩ B
y
. Contradiction. Hence
there is a function f ∈ F such that f(x) ,= f(y). Conversely, suppose that for each pair ¦x, y¦ of distinct
points in X there exists f ∈ F such that f(x) ,= f(y). Then x ∈ ¦x
t
: [f(x
t
) −f(x)[ < [f(y) − f(x)[/2¦
and y ∈ ¦x
t
: [f(x
t
) − f(y)[ < [f(y) − f(x)[/2¦ with the two sets being disjoint open sets. Hence the
topology is Hausdorﬀ.
26. Let F be a family of realvalued continuous functions on a topological space (X, T ). Since f is
continuous for each f ∈ F, the weak topology generated by F is contained in T . Suppose that for each
closed set F and each x / ∈ F there is an f ∈ F such that f(x) = 1 and f ≡ 0 on F. Then for each O ∈ T
and each x ∈ O, there is an f ∈ F such that f(x) = 1 and f ≡ 0 on O
c
. i.e. x ∈ f
−1
[(1/2, 3/2)] ⊂ O.
Thus O is in the weak topology generated by F.
27. Let X be a completely regular space. Given a closed set F and x / ∈ F, there is a function f ∈ C(X)
such that f(x) = 1 and f ≡ 0 on F. Then F ⊂ f
−1
[(−∞, 1/2)], x ∈ f
−1
[(1/2, ∞)], and the sets
f
−1
[(−∞, 1/2)] and f
−1
[(1/2, ∞)] are disjoint open sets. Hence X is regular.
28. Let X be a Hausdorﬀ space and let Y be a subset of X. Given two distinct points x and y in Y ,
there are disjoint open sets O
1
and O
2
in X such that x ∈ O
1
and y ∈ O
2
. Then x ∈ O
1
∩ Y and
y ∈ O
2
∩ Y , with O
1
∩ Y and O
2
∩ Y being disjoint open sets in Y . Hence Y is Hausdorﬀ.
*29. In R
n
let B be the family of sets ¦x : p(x) ,= 0¦ where p is a polynomial in n variables. Let T be
the family of all ﬁnite intersections O = B
1
∩ ∩B
k
from B. By considering the constant polynomials,
we see that ∅ and X are in T . It is also clear that if O
1
, O
2
∈ T , then O
1
∩ O
2
∈ T . Now if O
α
∈ T ,
Given two distinct points x, y ∈ R
n
, say x = ¸x
1
, . . . , x
n
) and y = ¸y
1
, . . . , y
n
), let p be the polynomial
n
i=1
(X
i
−x
i
)
2
. Then p(x) = 0 and p(y) ,= 0. Thus there is an open set containing y but not x. Hence
T is T
1
.
Any two open sets are not disjoint since for any ﬁnite collection of polynomials there is an x that is not
a root of any of the polynomials. Hence T is not T
2
.
30. Let A ⊂ B ⊂
¯
A be subsets of a topological space, and let f and g be two continuous maps of B into a
Hausdorﬀ space X with f(u) = g(u) for all u ∈ A. For any v ∈ B, we have v ∈
¯
A. Suppose f(v) ,= g(v).
Then there are disjoint open sets O
1
and O
2
such that f(v) ∈ O
1
and g(v) ∈ O
2
. Since f and g are
continuous, there are open sets U
1
and U
2
such that v ∈ U
1
, f[U
1
] ⊂ O
1
, v ∈ U
2
, g[U
2
] ⊂ O
2
. Now
there exists u ∈ A with u ∈ U
1
∩ U
2
. Then f(u) ∈ O
1
and g(u) ∈ O
2
but f(u) = g(u) so O
1
∩ O
2
,= ∅.
Contradiction. Hence f(v) = g(v). i.e. f ≡ g on B.
46
31. Omitted.
8.4 Connectedness
32. Let ¦C
α
¦ be a collection of connected sets and suppose that any two of them have a point in
common. Let G =
C
α
. Suppose O
1
and O
2
is a separation of G. For any pair C
α
and C
α
, there is
a p ∈ C
α
∩ C
α
. Then p ∈ O
1
or p ∈ O
2
. Suppose p ∈ O
1
. Since C
α
is connected and p ∈ C
α
, we have
C
α
⊂ O
1
. Now any other C
α
has a point in common with C
α
so by the same argument, C
α
⊂ O
1
.
Thus G ⊂ O
1
, contradicting O
2
,= ∅. Hence G is connected.
33. Let A be a connected subset of a topological space and suppose that A ⊂ B ⊂
¯
A. Suppose O
1
and
O
2
is a separation of B. Since A ⊂ B = O
1
∪O
2
and A is connected, we may assume that A ⊂ O
1
. Then
B = B ∩
¯
A ⊂ B ∩ O
1
= O
1
, contradicting O
2
,= ∅. Hence B is connected.
34a. Let E be a connected subset of R having more than one point. Suppose x, y ∈ E with x < y.
Suppose there exists z ∈ (x, y) such that z / ∈ E. Then E∩(−∞, z) and E∩(z, ∞) are a separation of E,
contradicting the connectedness of E. Thus [x, y] ⊂ E. Let a = inf E and b = sup E. Clearly, E ⊂ [a, b].
If z ∈ (a, b), then there exists z
t
∈ E such that a ≤ z
t
< z and there exists z
tt
∈ E such that z < z
tt
≤ b
so that z ∈ E. Thus (a, b) ⊂ E ⊂ [a, b]. Hence E is an interval.
34b. Let I = (a, b) and let O be a subset of I that is both open and closed in I. Clearly sup¦y : (a, y) ⊂
O¦ ≤ b. Suppose d = sup¦y : (a, y) ⊂ O¦ < b. If d ∈ O, then (d −ε, d +ε) ⊂ O ⊂ I for some ε > 0 since
O is open. There exists z > d − ε such that (a, z) ⊂ O. Then (a, d + ε) = (a, z) ∪ (d − ε, d + ε) ⊂ O.
Contradiction. If d / ∈ O, then (d − ε, d + ε) ⊂ O
c
for some ε > 0 since O
c
is open. But there exists
z > d −ε such that (d −ε, z) ⊂ (a, z) ⊂ O. Contradiction. Hence d = b. Thus for any c < b, there exists
c
t
> c such that (a, c
t
) ⊂ O. i.e. c ∈ O. Hence O = I and I is connected. It follows from Q33 that
intervals of the form (a, b], [a, b), [a, b] are also connected.
35a. Let X be an arcwise connected space. Suppose O
1
and O
2
is a separation of X. Take x ∈ O
1
and y ∈ O
2
. There is a continuous function f : [0, 1] → X with f(0) = x and f(1) = y. Since [0, 1] is
connected, f[0, 1] is connected so we may assume f[0, 1] ⊂ O
1
. Then y ∈ O
1
∩O
2
. Contradiction. Hence
X is connected.
*35b. Consider X = ¦¸x, y) : x = 0, −1 ≤ y ≤ 1¦ ∪ ¦¸x, y) : y = sin(1/x), 0 < x ≤ 1¦. Let
I = ¦¸x, y) : x = 0, −1 ≤ y ≤ 1¦ and S = ¦¸x, y) : y = sin(1/x), 0 < x ≤ 1¦. Since S is the image of (0, 1]
under a continuous map, S is connected. Let ¸0, y) ∈ I. Given ε > 0, choose n such that 1/2nπ < ε.
Since sin
1
2
(4n + 1)π = 1 and sin
1
2
(4n + 3)π = −1, sin(1/x) takes on every value between 1 and 1 in
the interval [2/(4n + 3)π, 2/(4n + 1)π]. In particular, sin(1/x
0
) = y for some x
0
in the interval. Then
ρ[¸0, y), ¸x
0
, y)] = x
0
< ε so ¸x
0
, y) ∈ B
¸0,y),ε
∩ S. Hence I ⊂
¯
S and by Q33, X = I ∪ S is connected.
Suppose X is arcwise connected. Then there is a path f from ¸0, 0) to some point of S. The set of t such
that f(t) ∈ I is closed so it has a largest element. We may assume that t = 0. Let f(t) = ¸x(t), y(t)).
Then x(0) = 0 while x(t) > 0 and y(t) = sin(1/x(t)) for t > 0. For each n, choose u with 0 < u < x(1/n)
such that sin(1/u) = (−1)
n
. Then there exists t
n
∈ (0, 1/n) such that x(t
n
) = u. Now ¸t
n
) converges to
0 but ¸y(t
n
)) does not converge, contradicting the continuity of f. Hence X is not arcwise connected.
(*) (Closed) topologist’s sine curve
35c. Let G be a connected open set in R
n
. Let x ∈ G and let H be the set of points in G that can be
connected to x by a path. There exists δ > 0 such that B
x,δ
⊂ G. For y ∈ B
x,δ
, f(t) = (1 −t)x +ty is a
path connecting x and y. Thus H ,= ∅. For each y ∈ H, there exists δ
t
> 0 such that B
y,δ
⊂ G. There
is a path f connecting y to x. For each z ∈ B
y,δ
, there is a path g connecting z to y. Then h given
by h(t) = g(2t) for t ∈ [0, 1/2] and h(t) = f(2t − 1) for t ∈ [1/2, 1] is a path connecting z to x. Thus
B
y,δ
⊂ H and H is open. If y ∈
¯
H, then y ∈ B
y,δ
⊂ G for some δ > 0 and B
y,δ
contains a point z of
H. Now there is a path connecting z to x and there is a path connecting y to z. Thus there is a path
connecting y to x so y ∈ H and H is closed. Hence H = G. Since x is arbitrary, G is arcwise connected.
36. Let X be a locally connected space and let C be a component of X. If x ∈ C, then there is a
connected basic set B such that x ∈ B. Since B is connected, B ⊂ C. Thus C is open.
*37. Let X be as in Q35b. Suﬃciently small balls centred at ¸0, 0) do not contain connected open sets
so X is not locally connected.
47
8.5 Products and direct unions of topological spaces
38a. Let Z =
◦
X
α
. Suppose f : Z → Y is continuous. For any open set O ⊂ Y , f
−1
[O] is open in Z
so f
−1
[O] ∩ X
α
is open in X
α
for each α. i.e. f[
−1
X
α
[O] is open in X
α
for each α. Thus each restriction
f[
X
α
is continuous. Conversely, suppose each restriction f[
X
α
is continuous. For any open set O ⊂ Y ,
f
−1
[O] =
f[
−1
X
α
[O]. Each of the sets f[
−1
X
α
[O] is open so f
−1
[O] is open and f is continuous.
38b. F ⊂ Z is closed if and only if F
c
is open if and only if F
c
∩ X
α
is open in X
α
for each α if and
only if F ∩ X
α
is closed in X
α
for each α.
38c. Suppose Z is Hausdorﬀ. Given x, y ∈ X
α
, x, y ∈ Z so there are disjoint open sets O
1
, O
2
⊂ Z
such that x ∈ O
1
and y ∈ O
2
. Then O
1
∩ X
α
and O
2
∩ X
α
are disjoint open sets in X
α
containing x
and y respectively. Thus X
α
is Hausdorﬀ. Conversely, suppose each X
α
is Hausdorﬀ. Given x, y ∈ Z,
x ∈ X
α
and y ∈ X
β
for some α and β. If α = β, then since X
α
is Hausdorﬀ, there are disjoint open sets
O
1
, O
2
⊂ X
α
such that x ∈ O
1
and y ∈ O
2
. The sets O
1
and O
2
are also open in Z so it follows that Z
is Hausdorﬀ. If α ,= β, then since X
α
∩ X
β
= ∅ and the sets X
α
and X
β
are open in Z, it follows that
Z is Hausdorﬀ.
38d. Suppose Z is normal. Given disjoint closed sets F
1
, F
2
⊂ X
α
, F
1
and F
2
are closed in Z so there are
disjoint open sets O
1
, O
2
⊂ Z such that F
1
⊂ O
1
and F
2
⊂ O
2
. Then F
1
⊂ O
1
∩ X
α
and F
2
⊂ O
2
∩ X
α
with O
1
∩X
α
and O
2
∩X
α
being disjoint open sets in X
α
. Thus X
α
is normal. Conversely, suppose each
X
α
is normal. Given disjoint closed sets F
1
, F
2
⊂ Z, the sets F
1
∩ X
α
and F
2
∩ X
α
are closed in X
α
for
each α so there are disjoint open sets O
1,α
, O
2,α
⊂ X
α
such that F
1
∩ X
α
⊂ O
1,α
and F
2
∩ X
α
⊂ O
2,α
.
Then F
1
⊂
O
1,α
and F
2
⊂
O
2,α
with
O
1,α
and
O
2,α
being disjoint open sets in Z. Hence Z is
normal.
39a. Let X
1
⊂ X be a direct summand. Then it follows from the deﬁnition that X
1
is open. Let X
2
be
another direct summand. Then X
2
is open and X
1
⊂ X
c
2
. Now X
c
2
is closed so X
1
= X
c
2
∩ X
1
is closed.
39b. Let X
1
be a subset of X that is both open and closed. Let X
2
= X ¸ X
1
. Then X
2
is open,
X
1
∩ X
2
= ∅ and X = X
1
∪ X
2
. If O is open in X, then O ∩ X
i
is open in X
i
for i = 1, 2. On the
other hand, if O is open in X
1
◦
∪ X
2
, then O ∩ X
i
is open in X
i
for i = 1, 2 and thus open in X. Then
O = (O ∩ X
1
) ∪ (O ∩ X
2
) is open in X. Hence X = X
1
◦
∪ X
2
.
*40a. If X has a base, each element being Tychonoﬀ, let x, y be distinct points in X. There is a basic
element B containing x. Since B is Tychonoﬀ, there exists O open in B such that x ∈ O but y / ∈ O.
Then O is also open in X so X is Tychonoﬀ.
Consider E = R¦0, 1¦/ ∼ where ∼ is the smallest equivalence relation with ¸x, 0) ¸x, 1) for x ∈ R¸¦0¦.
Let q : R¦0, 1¦ → E be the quotient map and consider the base q[(a, b) ¦e¦] for a < b and e ∈ ¦0, 1¦.
Then E is not Hausdorﬀ and thus not regular and not completely regular but the elements in the base
are.
(*) Error in book.
*40b.
*40c.
41. Let (X, ρ) be a metric space with an extended realvalued metric and X
α
its parts. i.e. equivalence
classes under the equivalence relation ρ(x, y) < ∞. Then X is the disjoint union of its parts and by
Q7.3b, each part is open (and closed). Thus X is the direct union X =
◦
X
α
.
42. Let ¸X
α
, T
α
) be a family of Hausdorﬀ spaces. Given distinct points x, y ∈
α
X
α
, we have x
α
,= y
α
for some α. Since X
α
is Hausdorﬀ, there are disjoint open sets O
1
, O
2
⊂ X
α
such that x ∈ O
1
and
y ∈ O
2
. Then π
−1
α
[O
1
] and π
−1
α
[O
2
] are disjoint open sets in
α
X
α
containing x and y respectively.
43. Note that
α
X
α
is a basic element. If x ∈ B
1
∩B
2
where B
i
=
α
O
α,i
, then x
α
∈ O
α,1
∩O
α,2
for
each α. Now each O
t
α
= O
α,1
∩ O
α,2
is open in X
α
and only ﬁnitely many of them are not X
α
. Thus
x ∈
α
O
t
α
⊂ B
1
∩ B
2
.
Let (X, ρ) and (Y, σ) be two metric spaces. Since ρ
∞
is equivalent to the usual product metric, we
consider (X Y, ρ
∞
). The open ball B
¸x,y),ε
is the same as B
x,ε
B
y,ε
so B
¸x,y),ε
is open in the
product topology. For any U V with U open in X and V open in Y , given ¸x, y) ∈ U V , there
are open balls B
x,ε
and B
y,δ
such that x ∈ B
x,ε
⊂ U and y ∈ B
y,δ
⊂ V . Let η = min(ε, δ). Then
48
B
¸x,y),η
⊂ B
x,ε
B
y,δ
⊂ U V . Thus U V is open in the metric topology. Hence the product topology
on X Y is the same as the topology induced by the product metric.
44. By deﬁnition, X
A
=
α∈A
X
α
. We may identify each x ∈
α∈A
X
α
with the function f : A →
X given by f(α) = x
α
. We may then also identify each basic element
α∈A
O
α
with ¦f : f(α) ∈
O
α
for each α¦. But since all but ﬁnitely many of the sets O
α
are X
α
, we only need to consider the sets
¦f : f(α
1
) ∈ O
1
, . . . , f(α
n
) ∈ O
n
¦ where ¦α
1
, . . . , α
n
¦ is some ﬁnite subset of A and ¦O
1
, . . . , O
n
¦ is a
ﬁnite collection of open subsets of X.
Suppose a sequence ¸f
n
) converges to f in X
A
. Then we may regard this as a sequence ¸x
n
) converging
to x under the identiﬁcation described above. Now since π
α
is continuous, ¸π
α
(x
n
)) converges to π
α
(x).
i.e. ¸x
n,α
) converges to x
α
for each α. Under the identiﬁcation again, ¸f
n
(α)) converges to f(α) for each
α. Conversely, suppose ¸f
n
(α)) converges to f(α) for each α. Let B be a basic element containing f.
Then f(α
i
) ∈ O
i
for some ﬁnite subset ¦α
1
, . . . , α
m
¦ ⊂ A and some ﬁnite collection ¦O
1
, . . . , O
m
¦ of
open subsets of X. Then there exists N such that f
n
(α
i
) ∈ O
i
for n ≥ N and i = 1, . . . , m. Thus f
n
∈ B
for n ≥ N and ¸f
n
) converges to f in X
A
.
45. Suppose X is metrizable and A is countable. We may enumerate A as ¦α
1
, α
2
, . . .¦. Then by
Q7.11a, X can be given an equivalent metric ρ that is bounded by 1. Deﬁne σ on X
A
by σ(x, y) =
n
2
−n
ρ(x
α
n
, y
α
n
). Then σ is a metric on X
A
so X
A
is metrizable.
46. Given an open set O
α
0
⊂ X
α
0
, π
−1
α
[O
α
0
] = ¦x ∈
α
X
α
: x
α
0
∈ O
α
0
¦, which is open in
α
X
α
.
Hence each π
α
is continuous. If T is a topology on X
A
such that each π
α
is continuous, then each basic
element in the product topology is a ﬁnite intersection of preimages under some π
α
of open sets in X.
Thus each basic element in the product topology is in T and thus the product topology is contained in
T . Hence the product topology is the weakest topology such that each π
α
is continuous.
47. The ternary expansion of numbers gives a homeomorphism between 2
ω
and the Cantor ternary set.
48a. Each x ∈ X can be identiﬁed with the element in I
F
with fth coordinate f(x). Let F be the
mapping of X onto its image in I
F
. Suppose each f ∈ F is continuous. Given a basic element
f
O
f
⊂ I
F
,
F
−1
[
f
O
f
] = ¦x : F(x) ∈
f
O
f
¦ = ¦x : f(x) ∈ O
f
for each f¦ =
f
−1
[O
f
]. The intersection is in
fact a ﬁnite intersection since all but ﬁnitely many of the sets O
f
are I. Thus F
−1
[
f
O
f
] is open and
F is continuous. Further suppose that given a closed set F and x / ∈ F there is f ∈ F such that f[F] = 0
and f(x) = 1. Let U be open in X and let y ∈ F[U]. Now y = F(x) for some x ∈ U and there is f ∈ F
such that f[U
c
] = 0 and f(x) = 1. Let V = π
−1
f
[(0, ∞)] and let W = V ∩ F[X]. Then W is open. Also,
π
f
(y) = f(x) = 1 so y ∈ W. If z ∈ W, then z = F(x) for some x ∈ X with f(x) > 0 so x ∈ U. Thus
W ⊂ F[U]. Thus F[U] is open in I
F
. Hence F is a homeomorphism.
*48b. Suppose X is a normal space satisfying the second axiom of countability. Let ¦B
n
¦ be a countable
base for X. For each pair of indices n, m such that B
n
⊂ B
m
, by Urysohn’s Lemma, there exists a
continuous function g
n,m
on X such that g
n,m
≡ 1 on B
n
and g
n,m
≡ 0 on B
c
m
. Given a closed set F
and x / ∈ F, choose a basic element B
m
such that x ∈ B
m
⊂ F
c
. By Q23a, there exists B
n
such that
x ∈ B
n
and B
n
⊂ B
m
. Then g
n,m
is deﬁned with g
n,m
(x) = 1 and g
n,m
[F] = 0. Furthermore the family
¦g
n,m
¦ is countable.
48c. Suppose X is a normal space satisfying the second axiom of countability. By part (b), there is a
countable family F of continuous functions with the property in part (a). Then there is a homeomorphism
between X and I
F
. By Q45, I
F
is metrizable and thus X is metrizable.
*49. First we consider ﬁnite products of connected spaces. Suppose X and Y are connected and choose
¸a, b) ∈ X Y . The subspaces X ¦b¦ and ¦x¦ Y are connected, being homeomorphic to X and Y
respectively. Thus T
x
= (X ¦b¦) ∪(¦x¦ Y ) is connected for each x ∈ X. Then
x∈X
T
x
is the union
of a collection of connected spaces having the point ¸a, b) in common so it is connected. But this union
is X Y so X Y is connected. The result for any ﬁnite product follows by induction.
Let ¦X
α
¦
α∈A
be a collection of connected spaces and let X =
α
X
α
. Fix a point a ∈ X. For any ﬁnite
subset K ⊂ A, let X
K
be the subspace consisting of points x such that x
α
= a
α
for α / ∈ K. Then X
K
is homeomorphic to the ﬁnite product
α∈K
X
α
so it is connected. Let Y be the union of the sets X
K
.
Since any two of them have a point in common, by Q32, Y is connected. Let x ∈ X and let U =
α
O
α
be a basic element containing x. Now O
α
= X
α
for all but ﬁnitely many α so let K be that ﬁnite set.
Let y be the element with y
α
= x
α
for α ∈ K and y
α
= a
α
for α / ∈ K. Then y ∈ X
K
⊂ Y and y ∈ U.
Hence X =
¯
Y so X is connected.
49
8.6 Topological and uniform properties
50a. Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of continuous maps from a topological space X to a metric space (Y, σ) that
converges uniformly to a map f. Given ε > 0, there exists N such that σ(f
n
(x), f(x)) < ε/3 for n ≥ N
and x ∈ X. Given x ∈ X, there is an open set O containing x such that σ(f
N
(x), f
N
(y)) < ε/3 for
y ∈ O. Then σ(f(x), f(y)) ≤ σ(f(x), f
N
(x)) +σ(f
N
(x), f
N
(y)) +σ(f
N
(y), f(y)) < ε for y ∈ O. Hence f
is continuous.
50b. Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of continuous maps from a topological space X to a metric space (Y, σ)
that is uniformly Cauchy. Suppose Y is complete. For each x ∈ X, the sequence ¸f
n
(x)) is Cauchy
so it converges since Y is complete. Let f(x) be the limit of the sequence. Then ¸f
n
) converges to
f. Given ε > 0, there exists N such that σ(f
n
(x), f
m
(x)) < ε/2 for n, m ≥ N and x ∈ X. For each
x ∈ X, there exists N
x
≥ N such that σ(f
N
x
(x), f(x)) < ε/2. Then for n ≥ N and x ∈ X, we have
σ(f
n
(x), f(x)) ≤ σ(f
n
(x), f
N
x
(x)) + σ(f
N
x
(x), f(x)) < ε. Thus ¸f
n
) converges uniformly to f and by
part (a), f is continuous.
51. The proofs of Lemmas 7.3739 remain valid when X is a separable topological space. Thus the
AscoliArzel´ a Theorem and its corollary are still true.
8.7 Nets
52. Suppose X is Hausdorﬀ and suppose a net ¸x
α
) in X has two limits x, y. Then there are disjoint
open sets U and V such that x ∈ U and y ∈ V . Since x and y are limits, there exist α
0
and α
1
such
that x
α
∈ U for α ~ α
0
and x
α
∈ V for α ~ α
1
. Choose α
t
such that α
t
~ α
0
and α
t
~ α
1
. Then
x
α
∈ U ∩V for α ~ α
t
. Contradiction. Hence every net in X has at most one limit. Conversely, suppose
X is not Hausdorﬀ. Let x, y be two points that cannot be separated and let the directed system be the
collection of all pairs ¸A, B) of open sets with x ∈ A, y ∈ B. Choose x
¸A,B)
∈ A ∩ B. Let O be an
open set containing x and let O
t
be an open set containing y. For ¸A, B) ~ ¸O, O
t
), we have A ⊂ O and
B ⊂ O
t
so x
¸A,B)
∈ A∩ B ⊂ O ∩ O
t
. Thus both x and y are limits.
53. Suppose f is continuous. Let ¸x
α
) be a net that converges to x. For any open set O containing f(x),
we have x ∈ f
−1
[O], which is open. There exists α
0
such that x
α
∈ f
−1
[O] for α ~ α
0
. Then f(x
α
) ∈ O
for α ~ α
0
. Hence ¸f(x
α
)) converges to f(x). Conversely, suppose that for each net ¸x
α
) converging to
x the net ¸f(x
α
)) converges to f(x). Then in particular the statement holds for all sequences. It follows
that f is continuous.
*54. Let X be any set and f a realvalued function on X. Let A be the system consisting of all ﬁnite
subsets of X, with F ≺ G meaning F ⊂ G. For each F ∈ A, let y
F
=
x∈F
f(x). Suppose that f(x) = 0
except for x in a countable subset ¦x
n
¦ and
[f(x
n
)[ < ∞. Given ε > 0, there exists N such that
∞
n=N+1
[f(x
n
)[ < ε. Let y =
f(x
n
). For any open interval (y −ε, y +ε), let F
0
= ¦x
1
, . . . , x
N
¦. For
F ~ F
0
, [y −y
F
[ ≤
∞
n=N+1
[f(x
n
)[ < ε so y
F
∈ (y −ε, y +ε). Thus limy
F
= y. Conversely, if f(x) ,= 0
on an uncountable set G, then for some n, [f(x)[ > 1/n for uncountably many x. Thus by considering
arbitrarily large ﬁnite subsets of G, we see that ¸y
F
) does not converge. Hence f(x) = 0 except on a
countable set. Now if
[f(x
n
)[ = ∞, then we only have
f(x
n
) < ∞ and it follows that the limit is
not unique. Hence
[f(x
n
)[ < ∞.
55. Let X =
α
X
α
. Suppose a net ¸x
β
) in X converges to x. Since each projection is continuous, each
coordinate of x
β
converges to the corresponding coordinate of x. Conversely, suppose each coordinate of
x
β
converges to the corresponding coordinate of x. Let
α
O
α
be a basic element containing x. Then
π
α
(x) ∈ O
α
for each α. For each α, there exists β
α
such that π
α
(x
β
) ∈ O
α
for β ~ β
α
. Since all but
ﬁnitely many of the O
α
are X
α
, we only need to consider a ﬁnite set β
α
1
, . . . , β
α
n
. In particular, we may
choose β
0
such that β
0
~ β
α
i
for all i. For β ~ β
0
, we have π
α
i
(x
β
) ∈ O
α
i
. For α ,= α
i
, we also have
π
α
(x
β
) ∈ O
α
= X
α
. Thus x
β
∈
α
O
α
for β ~ β
0
. Hence the net ¸x
β
) converges to x.
50
9 Compact and Locally Compact Spaces
9.1 Compact spaces
1. Suppose X is compact. Then every open cover has a ﬁnite subcovering. In particular, it has a ﬁnite
reﬁnement. Conversely, suppose every open cover has a ﬁnite reﬁnement. Since every element in the
reﬁnement is a subset of an element in the open cover, the open cover has a ﬁnite subcovering so X is
compact.
*2. Let ¸K
n
) be a decreasing sequence of compact sets with K
0
Hausdorﬀ. Let O be an open set
with
K
n
⊂ O. Suppose K
n
is not a subset of O for any n. Then K
n
¸ O is nonempty and closed
in K
n
. Since K
n
is a compact subset of the Hausdorﬀ space K
0
, K
n
is closed in K
0
so K
n
¸ O is
closed in K
0
. Also, ¸K
n
¸ O) is a decreasing sequence so it has the ﬁnite intersection property. Now
∅ , = (
K
n
) ¸ O =
(K
n
¸ O) ⊂
K
n
⊂ O. Contradiction. Hence K
n
⊂ O for some n.
(*) Assume K
0
is Hausdorﬀ.
3. Suppose X is a compact Hausdorﬀ space. Let F be a closed subset and let x / ∈ F. For each y ∈ F,
there are disjoint open sets U
y
and V
y
with x ∈ U
y
and y ∈ V
y
. Now F is compact and ¦V
y
: y ∈ F¦ is an
open cover for F. Thus there is a ﬁnite subcovering ¦V
y
1
, . . . , V
y
n
¦. Let U =
n
i=1
U
y
i
and V =
n
i=1
V
y
i
.
Then U and V are disjoint open sets with x ∈ U and F ⊂ V . Hence X is regular.
4. Suppose X is a compact Hausdorﬀ space. Let F and G be disjoint closed subsets. By Q3, for each
y ∈ G, there are disjoint open sets U
y
and V
y
such that F ⊂ U
y
and y ∈ V
y
. Now G is compact and
¦V
y
: y ∈ G¦ is an open cover for G. Thus there is a ﬁnite subcovering ¦V
y
1
, . . . , V
y
n
¦. Let U
t
=
n
i=1
U
y
i
and V
t
=
n
i=1
V
y
i
. Then U
t
and V
t
are disjoint open sets with F ⊂ U
t
and G ⊂ V
t
. Hence X is normal.
5a. If (X, T ) is a compact space, then for T
∞
weaker than T , any open cover from T
1
is an open cover
from T so it has a ﬁnite subcovering. Thus (X, T
1
) is compact.
5b. If (X, T ) is a Hausdorﬀ space, then for T
∈
stronger than T , any two distinct points in X can be
separated by disjoint sets in T , which are also sets in T
∈
. Thus (X, T
2
) is Hausdorﬀ.
5c. Suppose (X, T ) is a compact Hausdorﬀ space. If T
1
is a weaker topology, then id : (X, T ) → (X, T
1
)
is a continuous bijection. If (X, T
1
) is Hausdorﬀ, then id is a homeomorphism. Contradiction. Hence
(X, T
1
) is not Hausdorﬀ. If T
2
is a stronger topology, then id : (X, T
2
) → (X, T ) is a continuous bijection.
If (X, T
2
) is compact, then id is a homeomorphism. Contradiction. Hence (X, T
2
) is not compact.
6. Let X be a compact space and F an equicontinuous family of maps from X to a metric space (Y, σ).
Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence from F such that f
n
(x) → f(x) for all x ∈ X. For each x ∈ X, given ε > 0,
there exists N
x
such that σ(f
n
(x), f(x)) < ε/3 for n ≥ N
x
. Also, there exists an open set O
x
containing
x such that σ(f
n
(x), f
n
(y)) < ε/3 for y ∈ O
x
and all n. Then we also have σ(f(x), f(y)) < ε/3 for
y ∈ O
x
. Now ¦O
x
: x ∈ X¦ is an open cover for X so there is a ﬁnite subcovering ¦O
x
1
, . . . , O
x
k
¦. Let
N = max
1≤i≤k
N
x
i
. For n ≥ N, σ(f
n
(x
i
), f(x
i
)) < ε/3 for 1 ≤ i ≤ k. For each x ∈ X, x ∈ O
x
i
for
some i so σ(f
n
(x), f(x)) ≤ σ(f
n
(x), f
n
(x
i
)) + σ(f
n
(x
i
), f(x
i
)) + σ(f(x
i
), f(x)) < ε for n ≥ N. Hence
¸f
n
) converges uniformly to f on X.
*7. Let X be a Hausdorﬀ space and ¸C
n
) a decreasing sequence of compact and connected sets. Let
C =
C
n
. For any open cover  of C,  is an open cover of some C
n
by Q2. Thus it has a ﬁnite
subcovering, which also covers C. Hence C is compact.
Suppose C is disconnected with A and B being a separation for C. Then A and B are nonempty disjoint
closed subsets of C. Since C is an intersection of closed sets, C is closed. Thus A and B are closed in
C
0
. Since C
0
is compact and Hausdorﬀ, it is normal. Thus there are disjoint open sets U, V ⊂ C
0
such
that A ⊂ U and B ⊂ V . Then C = A ∪ B ⊂ U ∪ V . By Q2, C
n
⊂ U ∪ V for some n. Hence C
n
is
disconnected. Contradiction. Hence C is connected.
(*) Assume X is Hausdorﬀ
8a. Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of maps from X to Y that converge in the compactopen topology to f.
For x ∈ X, let O be an open set containing f(x). Then N
¦x],O
is open in the compactopen topology
and contains f. There exists N
t
such that f
n
∈ N
¦x],O
for n ≥ N
t
. i.e. f
n
(x) ∈ O for n ≥ N
t
. Hence
f(x) = limf
n
(x).
*8b. Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of continuous maps from a topological space X to a metric space (Y, σ).
Suppose ¸f
n
) converges to f uniformly on each compact subset C of X. Let N
K,O
be a subbasic element
51
containing f. Then f[K] is a compact set disjoint from O
c
so σ(f[K], O
c
) > 0. Let ε = σ(f[K], O
c
).
There exists N
t
such that σ(f
n
(x), f(x)) < ε for n ≥ N
t
and x ∈ K. Then f
n
(x) ∈ O for n ≥ N
t
and
x ∈ K. i.e. f
n
∈ N
K,O
for n ≥ N
t
. Hence ¸f
n
) converges to f in the compactopen topology.
Conversely, suppose ¸f
n
) converges to f in the compactopen topology. Let C be a compact subset
of X and let ε > 0 be given. Since C is compact and f is continuous, f[C] is compact. Thus there
exist x
1
, . . . , x
n
∈ C such that the open balls B
f(x
1
),ε/4
, . . . , B
f(x
n
),ε/4
cover f[C]. For each i, let
C
i
= C∩f
−1
[B
f(x
i
),ε/4
] and O
i
= B
f(x
i
),ε/4
. Then C
i
is compact and f[C
i
] ⊂ O
i
. Thus f ∈
n
i=1
N
C
i
,O
i
.
There exists N
t
such that f
n
∈
n
i=1
N
C
i
,O
i
for n ≥ N
t
. For any x ∈ C, x ∈ C
i
for some i so
σ(f(x
i
), f(x)) < ε/4. Also, f
n
(x) ∈ O
i
for n ≥ N
t
so σ(f
n
(x), f(x
i
)) < ε/4 for n ≥ N
t
. Thus
σ(f
n
(x), f(x)) < ε for n ≥ N
t
and x ∈ C. Hence ¸f
n
) converges uniformly to f on C.
(*) Assume f to be continuous.
9.2 Countable compactness and the BolzanoWeierstrass property
9a. A realvalued function f on X is continuous if and only if ¦x : f(x) < α¦ and ¦x : f(x) > α¦ are
open for any real number α if and only if f is both upper semicontinuous and lower semicontinuous.
9b. Suppose f and g are upper semicontinuous. Then ¦x : f(x) < α¦ and ¦x : g(x) < α¦ are open for
any real number α. Now for any real number α, ¦x : f(x) + g(x) < α¦ =
q∈Q
[¦x : g(x) < q¦ ∩ ¦x :
f(x) < α −q¦], which is open. Hence f +g is upper semicontinuous.
9c. Let ¸f
n
) be a decreasing sequence of upper semicontinuous functions which converge pointwise to a
realvalued function f. If f(x) < α, then there exists N such that f
n
(x) − f(x) < α − f(x) for n ≥ N.
i.e. f
n
(x) < α for n ≥ N. On the other hand, if f
n
(x) < α for some n, then f(x) ≤ f
n
(x) < α. Thus
¦x : f(x) < α¦ =
n
¦x : f
n
(x) < α¦, which is open. Hence f is upper semicontinuous.
9d. Let ¸f
n
) be a decreasing sequence of upper semicontinuous functions on a countably compact space,
and suppose that limf
n
(x) = f(x) where f is a lower semicontinuous realvalued function. By part (c),
f is also upper semicontinuous so f is continuous. Now ¸f
n
−f) is a sequence of upper semicontinuous
functions on a countably compact space such that for each x, ¸f
n
(x) −f(x)) decreases to zero. Thus by
Proposition 11 (Dini), ¸f
n
−f) converges to zero uniformly. i.e. ¸f
n
) converges to f uniformly.
9e. Suppose a sequence ¸f
n
) of upper semicontinuous functions converges uniformly to a function f.
Fix y ∈ X. Given ε > 0, there exists N such that [f
N
(x) − f(x)[ < ε/3 for all x ∈ X. Since
¦x : f
N
(x) < f
N
(y) +ε/3¦ is open, there exists δ > 0 such that [x−y[ < δ implies f
N
(x) −f
N
(y) < ε/3.
Now if [x − y[ < δ, then f(x) − f(y) = [f(x) − f
N
(x)] + [f
N
(x) − f
N
(y)] + [f
N
(y) − f(y)] < ε. Given
α ∈ R, pick y ∈ ¦x : f(x) < α¦. There exists δ > 0 such that [x −y[ < δ implies f(x) −f(y) < α−f(y).
i.e. f(x) < α. Hence ¦x : f(x) < α¦ is open and f is upper semicontinuous.
*10 (i) ⇒ (iii) by Proposition 9. Suppose that every bounded continuous realvalued function on X
assumes its maximum. Let f be a continuous function and suppose it is unbounded. We may assume,
by taking max(1, f), that f ≥ 1. Then −1/f is a bounded continuous function with no maximum.
Thus (iii) ⇒ (ii). Suppose X is no countably compact. Then it does not have the BolzanoWeierstrass
property. There is a sequence ¸x
n
) in X with no cluster point. Thus the sequence has no limit points.
Let A = ¦x
n
¦. Then A is closed and since all subsets of A are also closed, A is discrete. Deﬁne f(x
n
) = n
for x
n
∈ A. Then f is continuous on the closed set A and since X is normal, by Tietze’s Extension
Theorem, there is a continuous function g on X such that g[
A
= f. Then g is an unbounded continuous
function on X. Thus (ii) ⇒ (i).
11a. Let X be the set of ordinals less than the ﬁrst uncountable ordinal and let B be the collection of
sets of the form ¦x : x < a¦, ¦x : a < x < b¦, ¦x : a < x¦. For any x
0
∈ X, x
0
∈ ¦x : x < x
0
+ 1¦. Now
¦x : x < b¦ ∩ ¦x : a < x¦ = ¦x : a < x < b¦, ¦x : x < c¦ ∩ ¦x : a < x < b¦ = ¦x : a < x < min(b, c)¦,
¦x : max(a, c) < x < b¦ = ¦x : a < x < b¦ ∩ ¦x : c < x¦. Hence B is a base for a topology on X.
*11b. For any sequence ¸x
n
) in X, let x
0
= sup x
n
. Then x
n
< x
0
+1 for all n. i.e. x
n
∈ ¦x : x < x
0
+1¦
for all n so the sequence converges to x
0
. Hence X is sequentially compact. The sets ¦x : x < a¦ form
an open cover for X. If it has a ﬁnite subcovering, then there exists a ∈ X such that x < a for all x ∈ X.
Contradiction. Hence X is not compact.
*11c. Let f be a continuous realvalued function on X. We ﬁrst show the existence of a sequence ¸x
n
)
in X such that [f(y) −f(x
n
)[ < 1/n for y > x
n
. If no such sequence exists, we may construct for some
52
N an increasing sequence ¸z
n
) such that [f(z
n
) −f(z
n−1
)[ ≥ 1/N for each n. Then ¸z
n
) converges to its
supremum but ¸f(z
n
)) does not converge, contradicting the continuity of f. Now let x
0
= sup x
n
. Then
f(x) = f(x
0
) for x ≥ x
0
.
12a. Similar argument as Q11a.
*12b. Let  be an open cover for Y consisting of basic sets. Let L
a
= ¦x : x < a¦ and U
b
= ¦x : b < x¦.
Then ω
1
∈ U
b
for some U
b
∈ . Also, 0 ∈ L
a
for some L
a
∈ . Let a
0
= sup¦a : L
a
∈ ¦. Then a
0
∈ U
b
0
for some U
b
0
∈  so b
0
< a
0
. Then there exists a
1
> b
0
such that L
a
1
∈ . Since y > b
0
or y < a
1
for
any y ∈ Y , ¦L
a
1
, U
b
0
¦ is a ﬁnite subcovering of  that covers Y . Hence Y is compact.
Let D be a countable subset of Y . Then y = sup D exists and y ∈ Y . Now ¦x : y < x¦ is an open set
in Y that does not intersect D. Thus D is not dense in Y and Y is not separable. Suppose there is a
countable base ¦U
n
¦ at ω
1
. Then each U
n
is of the form ¦x : x > a
n
¦. There exists a < ω
1
such that
a > a
n
for all n. Then the open set ¦x : x > a¦ does not contain any U
n
. Contradiction. Thus Y is not
ﬁrst countable.
9.3 Products of compact spaces
13. Each closed and bounded subset X of R
n
is contained in a cube I
n
where I = [a, b]. Each I is
compact in R so I
n
is compact in R
n
by Tychonoﬀ’s Theorem. Now X is closed in I
n
so X is compact.
*14. Suppose X is compact and I is a closed interval. Let  be an open cover of X I and let t ∈ I.
Since X ¦t¦ is homeomorphic to X, X ¦t¦ is compact so there is a ﬁnite subcovering ¦U
1
, . . . , U
n
¦
of  such that U =
n
i=1
U
i
⊃ X ¦t¦. Now X ¦t¦ can be covered by ﬁnitely many basic sets
A
1
B
1
, . . . , A
k
B
k
⊂ U. Then B = B
1
∩ ∩ B
k
is an open set containing t. If ¸x, y) ∈ X B,
then ¸x, t) ∈ A
j
B
j
for some j so x ∈ A
j
and y ∈
n
i=1
B
i
⊂ B
j
. Thus ¸x, y) ∈ A
j
B
j
and
XB ⊂
n
i=1
(A
i
B
i
) ⊂ U. Thus for each t ∈ I, there is an open set B
t
containing t such that XB
t
can be covered by ﬁnitely many elements of . The collection of the sets B
t
forms an open cover of X so
there is a ﬁnite subcollection ¦B
t
1
, . . . , B
t
m
¦ covering X. Now X I =
m
i=1
(B
t
i
I), which can then
be covered by ﬁnitely many elements of .
15. Let ¸X
n
) be a countable collection of sequentially compact spaces and let X =
X
n
. Given a
sequence ¸x
n
) in X, there is a subsequence ¸x
(1)
n
) whose ﬁrst coordinate converges. Then there is a
subsequence ¸x
(2)
n
) of ¸x
(1)
n
) whose second coordinate converges. Consider the diagonal sequence ¸x
(n)
n
).
Each coordinate of this sequence converges so the sequence converges in X. Hence X is sequentially
compact.
16. Let X be a compact Hausdorﬀ space. Let F be the family of continuous realvalued functions on
X with values in [0, 1]. Let Q =
f∈F
I
f
. Consider the mapping g of X into Q mapping x to the
point whose fth coordinate is f(x). If x ,= y, then since X is compact Hausdorﬀ, and thus normal, by
Urysohn’s Lemma, there exists f ∈ F such that f(x) = 0 and f(y) = 1. Thus g is onetoone. Since
f is continuous for each f ∈ F, g is continuous. Now g[X] is a compact subset of the Hausdorﬀ space
Q so g[X] is closed in Q. Furthermore, g is a continuous bijection from the compact space X onto the
Hausdorﬀ space g[X] so X is homeomorphic to g[X].
*17. Let Q = I
A
be a cube and let f be a continuous realvalued function on Q. Given ε > 0, cover
f[Q] by ﬁnitely many open intervals I
1
, . . . , I
n
of length ε. Consider f
−1
[I
j
] for j = 1, . . . , n. These sets
cover Q and we may assume each of them is a basic set, that is, f
−1
[I
j
] =
α
U
(j)
α
where U
(j)
α
is open in
I and all but ﬁnitely many of the U
(j)
α
are I. For each j, let F
j
= ¦α : U
(j)
α
,= I¦ and let F =
n
j=1
F
j
,
which is a ﬁnite set. Deﬁne h : Q → Q by π
α
h(x) = x
α
for α ∈ F and 0 otherwise. Deﬁne g = f ◦ h.
Then g depends only on F and [f −g[ < ε.
9.4 Locally compact spaces
18. Let X be a locally compact space and K a compact subset of X. For each x ∈ K, there is an open
set O
x
containing x with O
x
compact. Since K is compact, there is a ﬁnite subcollection ¦O
x
1
, . . . , O
x
n
¦
that covers K. Let O =
n
i=1
O
x
i
. Then O ⊃ K and
¯
O =
n
i=1
O
x
i
is compact.
*19a. Let X be a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space and K a compact subset. Then K is closed in
53
X
∗
. By Q8.23a, there exists a closed set D containing ω with D ∩ K = ∅. By Urysohn’s Lemma,
there is a continuous function g on X
∗
with 0 ≤ g ≤ 1 that is 1 on K and 0 on D. Deﬁne f(x) =
min(2(g(x) −1/2), 0). Then ¦x : f(x) > 0¦ = ¦x : g(x) > 1/2¦, which is compact because g is continuous
on X
∗
.
(*) Alternatively, use Q16 to regard K as a closed subset of the compact Hausdorﬀ space Q.
*19b. Let K be a compact subset of a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space X. Then by Q18, there is an
open set O ⊃ K with
¯
O compact. Now X
∗
¸ O and K are disjoint closed subsets of X
∗
so by Urysohn’s
Lemma, there is a continuous function g on X
∗
with 0 ≤ g ≤ 1 that is 1 on K and 0 on X
∗
¸ O. Then
f = g[
X
is the required function.
20a. Let X
∗
be the Alexandroﬀ onepoint compactiﬁcation of a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space X.
Consider the collection of open sets of X and complements of compact subsets of X. Then ∅ and X
∗
are
in the collection. If U
1
and U
2
are open in X, then so is U
1
∩ U
2
. If K
1
and K
2
are compact subsets of
X, then (X
∗
¸ K
1
) ∩ (X
∗
¸ K
2
) = X
∗
¸ (K
1
∪ K
2
) where K
1
∪ K
2
is compact. Also, U
1
∩ (X
∗
¸ K
1
) =
U
1
∩(X¸ K
1
), which is open in X. Thus the collection of sets is closed under ﬁnite intersection. If ¦U
α
¦
is a collection of open sets in X, then
U
α
is open in X. If ¦K
β
¦ is a collection of compact subsets
of X, then
(X
∗
¸ K
β
) = X
∗
¸
K
β
. Since each K
β
is compact in the Hausdorﬀ space X, each K
β
is closed in X and
K
β
is closed in X. Thus
K
β
is closed in each K
β
so
K
β
is compact. Finally,
U
α
∪
(X
∗
¸ K
β
) = U ∪ (X
∗
¸ K) = X
∗
¸ (K ¸ U), where U =
U
α
and K =
K
β
. Since K ¸ U
is closed in the compact set K, K ¸ U is compact. Thus the collection of sets is closed under arbitrary
union. Hence the collection of sets forms a topology for X
∗
.
20b. Let id be the identity mapping from X to X
∗
¸ ¦ω¦. Clearly id is a bijection. If U is open in
X
∗
¸ ¦ω¦, then U = (X
∗
¸ ¦ω¦) ∩ U
t
for some U
t
open in X
∗
. If U
t
is open in X, then U = U
t
so
U is open in X. If U
t
= X
∗
¸ K for some compact K ⊂ X, then U = X ¸ K, which is open in X.
Thus id is continuous. Also, any open set in X is open in X
∗
so id is an open mapping. Hence id is a
homeomorphism.
20c. Let  be an open cover of X
∗
. Then  contains a set of the form X
∗
¸K for some compact K ⊂ X.
Take the other elements of  and intersect each of them with X to get an open cover of K. Then there
is a ﬁnite subcollection that covers K. The corresponding ﬁnite subcollection of  together with X
∗
¸ K
then covers X
∗
. Hence X
∗
is compact.
Let x, y be distinct points in X
∗
. If x, y ∈ X, then there are disjoint open sets in X, and thus in X
∗
,
that separate x and y. If x ∈ X and y = ω, then there is an open set O containing x with
¯
O compact.
The sets O and X
∗
¸
¯
O are disjoint open sets in X
∗
separating x and y. Hence X
∗
is Hausdorﬀ.
*21a. Let S
n
denote the unit sphere in R
n+1
. Let p = ¸0, . . . , 0, 1) ∈ R
n+1
. Deﬁne f : S
n
− p → R
n
by f(x) =
1
1−x
n+1
¸x
1
, . . . , x
n
). The map g : R
n
→ S
n
−p deﬁned by g(y) = ¸t(y)y
1
, . . . , t(y)y
n
, 1 −t(y))
where t(y) = 2/(1+[[y[[
2
) is the inverse of f. Thus R
n
is homeomorphic to S
n
−p and the Alexandroﬀ one
point compactiﬁcation of R
n
is homeomorphic to the Alexandroﬀ onepoint compactiﬁcation of S
n
−p,
which is S
n
.
21b. Let X be the space in Q11 and Y be the space in Q12. Deﬁne f : X
∗
→ Y by f(x) = x for x ∈ X
and f(ω) = ω
1
. Then f is clearly a bijection. Consider the basic sets in Y . Now f
−1
[¦x : x < a¦] =
¦x : x < a¦, which is open in X and thus open in X
∗
. Similarly for sets of the form ¦x : a < x < b¦.
Also, f
−1
[¦x : a < x¦] = ¦x ∈ X : a < x¦ ∪ ¦ω¦, whose complement ¦x : x ≤ a¦ is compact. Thus
f
−1
[¦x : a < x¦] is open in X
∗
. Since f is a continuous bijection from the compact space X
∗
to the
Hausdorﬀ space Y , f is a homeomorphism. Hence the onepoint compactiﬁcation of X is Y .
22a. Let O be an open subset of a compact Hausdorﬀ space X. By Q8.23a, for any x ∈ O, there is an
open set U such that x ∈ U and
¯
U ⊂ O. Then the closure of U in X is the same as the closure of U in
O and
¯
U is compact, being closed in a compact space. Hence O is locally compact.
22b. Let O be an open subset of a compact Hausdorﬀ space X. Consider the mapping f of X to the
onepoint compactiﬁcation of O which is identity on O and takes each point in X ¸ O to ω. If U is open
in O, then f
−1
[U] = U is open in X. If K ⊂ O is compact, then f
−1
[O
∗
¸ K] = X ¸ K, which is open in
X. Hence f is continuous.
23. Let X and Y be locally compact Hausdorﬀ spaces, and f a continuous mapping of X into Y . Let
X
∗
and Y
∗
be the onepoint compactiﬁcations of X and Y , and f
∗
the mapping of X
∗
into Y
∗
whose
restriction to X is f and which takes the point at inﬁnity in X
∗
to the point at inﬁnity in Y
∗
. Suppose
54
f is proper. If U is open in Y , then (f
∗
)
−1
[U] = f
−1
[U], which is open in X and thus open in X
∗
. If
K ⊂ Y is compact, then (f
∗
)
−1
[Y
∗
¸ K] = f
−1
[Y ¸ K] ∪¦ω
X
¦ = X
∗
¸ f
−1
[K], which is open in X
∗
since
f
−1
[K] ⊂ X is compact. Hence f
∗
is continuous. Conversely, suppose f
∗
is continuous. Then f = f
∗
[
X
is continuous. Also, for any compact set K ⊂ Y , (f
∗
)
−1
[Y
∗
¸ K] = X
∗
¸ f
−1
[K] is open in X
∗
. Hence
f
−1
[K] ⊂ X is compact.
*24a. Let X be a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space. Suppose F is a closed subset of X. For each closed
compact set K, F ∩ K is closed. Conversely, suppose F is not closed. Take x ∈
¯
F ¸ F. There is an
open set O containing x with
¯
O compact. For any open set U containing x, (O ∩ U) ∩ F ,= ∅. Thus
U ∩ (F ∩
¯
O) ,= ∅. Then x ∈ F ∩
¯
O ¸ (F ∩
¯
O) so F ∩
¯
O is not closed.
*24b. Let X be a Hausdorﬀ space satisfying the ﬁrst axiom of countability. Suppose F is a closed subset
of X. For each closed compact set K, F∩K is closed. Conversely, suppose F is not closed. Take x ∈
¯
F¸F.
Since X is ﬁrst countable, there is a sequence ¸x
n
) in F converging to x. Let K = ¦x
n
: n ∈ N¦ ∪ ¦x¦.
Then K is compact in the Hausdorﬀ space X and thus closed. Now F ∩K = ¦x
n
: n ∈ N¦ is not closed.
25. Let F be a family of realvalued continuous functions on a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space X, and
suppose that F has the following properties: (i) If f, g ∈ F, then f +g ∈ F. (ii) If f, g ∈ F, then f/g ∈ F
provided that supportf ⊂ ¦x ∈ X : g(x) ,= 0¦. (iii) Given an open set O ⊂ X and x
0
∈ O, there is an
f ∈ F with f(x
0
) = 1, 0 ≤ f ≤ 1 and supportf ⊂ O.
Let ¦O
λ
¦ be an open covering of a compact subset K of a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space X. Let O be an
open set with K ⊂ O and
¯
O compact. For each x
0
∈ K, there is an f
x
0
∈ F with f
x
0
(x
0
) = 1, 0 ≤ f
x
0
≤ 1
and supportf
x
0
⊂ O∩O
λ
for some λ. For each x
0
∈
¯
O¸K, there is a g
x
0
∈ F with g
x
0
(x
0
) = 1, 0 ≤ g
x
0
≤ 1
and supportg
x
0
⊂ K
c
. By compactness of
¯
O, we may choose a ﬁnite number f
1
, . . . , f
n
, g
1
, . . . , g
m
of
these functions such that the sets where they are positive cover
¯
O. Set f =
n
i=1
f
i
and g =
m
i=1
g
i
.
Then f, g ∈ F, f > 0 on K, supportf ⊂ O, f + g > 0 on
¯
O and g ≡ 0 on K. Thus f/(f + g) ∈ F is
continuous and ≡ 1 on K. The functions ϕ
i
= f
i
/(f + g) ∈ F, i = 1, . . . , n form a ﬁnite collection of
functions subordinate to the collection ¦O
λ
¦ and such that ϕ
1
+ ϕ
n
≡ 1 on K.
*26. Lemma: Let X be a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space and U be an open set containing x ∈ X.
Then there is an open set V containing x such that
¯
V is compact and
¯
V ⊂ U.
Proof: There is an open set O ⊂ X containing x such that
¯
O is compact. Then U ∩ O is open in
¯
O
and contains x. Thus there is an open set O
t
⊂
¯
O such that x ∈ O
t
and
¯
O
t
¯
O
⊂ U ∩ O. Note that
¯
O
t
¯
O
=
¯
O ∩
¯
O
t
=
¯
O
t
. Thus
¯
O
t
⊂ U ∩ O. Let V = O ∩ O
t
. Then x ∈ V . Furthermore, since O
t
is open in
¯
O, it is open in O and thus open in X so V is open in X. Also,
¯
V ⊂
¯
O
t
⊂ U ∩O ⊂ U. Since
¯
V is closed
in
¯
O,
¯
V is compact.
Let X be a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space and ¦O
n
¦ a countable collection of dense open sets. Given an
open set U, let x
1
be a point in O
1
∩U. Let V
1
be an open set containing x
1
such that V
1
is compact and
V
1
⊂ O
1
∩ U. Suppose x
1
, . . . , x
n
and V
1
, . . . , V
n
have been chosen. Let x
n+1
∈ O
n+1
∩ V
n
and let V
n+1
be an open set containing x
n+1
such that V
n+1
is compact and V
n+1
⊂ O
n+1
∩ V
n
. Then V
1
⊃ V
2
⊃
is a decreasing sequence of closed sets in the compact set V
1
. This collection of closed sets has the ﬁnite
intersection property so
V
n
,= ∅. Let y ∈
V
n
. Then y ∈
O
n
∩ U. Hence
O
n
is dense in X.
(*) Assume that X is Hausdorﬀ.
*27. Let X be a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space and let O be an open subset contained in a countable
union
F
n
of closed sets. Note that O is a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space (see Q29b). Also, O =
(O ∩ F
n
), which is a union of sets closed in O. If
(O ∩ F
n
)
◦
= ∅, then (O ∩ F
n
)
◦
= ∅ for all n (with
the interior taken in O) so O ¸ F
n
is dense and open in O for all n. By Q26,
(O ¸ F
n
) is dense in O.
But
(O¸ F
n
) = O¸ (
F
n
)
c
= ∅. Contradiction. Hence
(O∩F
n
)
◦
,= ∅. Now O∩
F
◦
n
⊃
(O∩F
n
)
◦
so O ∩
F
◦
n
,= ∅ and
F
◦
n
is an open set dense in O.
(*) Assume that X is Hausdorﬀ.
*28. Let Y be a dense subset of a Hausdorﬀ space X, and suppose that Y with its subspace topology is
locally compact. Given y ∈ Y , there is an open set U ⊂ Y containing y with
¯
U
Y
= Y ∩
¯
U compact. Since
X is Hausdorﬀ, Y ∩
¯
U is closed. Then since U ⊂ Y ∩
¯
U, we have
¯
U ⊂ Y ∩
¯
U ⊂ Y . Now U = V ∩Y for some
open set V ⊂ X. Note that since Y is dense,
¯
V = V ∩ Y . Then x ∈ V and V ⊂
¯
V = V ∩ Y =
¯
U ⊂ Y .
Hence Y is open in X.
29a. Suppose F is closed in a locally compact space X. Given x ∈ F, there is an open set O ⊂ X
55
containing x with
¯
O compact. Then O ∩ F is an open set in F containing y and O ∩ F
F
= F ∩ O ∩ F
is closed in
¯
O and thus compact. Hence F is locally compact.
*29b. Suppose O is open in a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space X. Take x ∈ O. By the lemma in Q26,
there is an open set U containing x such that
¯
U is compact and
¯
U ⊂ O. Now U ∩O is an open set in O
containing x with U ∩ O
O
= O ∩ U ∩ O = U ∩ O being compact since it is closed in the compact set
¯
U.
Hence O is locally compact.
29c. Suppose a subset Y of a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space X is locally compact in its subspace
topology. Then Y is dense in the Hausdorﬀ space
¯
Y . By Q28, Y is open in
¯
Y . Conversely, suppose Y is
open in
¯
Y . By part (a),
¯
Y is locally compact since
¯
Y is closed in X. By part (b), Y is locally compact
since Y is open in
¯
Y .
9.5 σcompact spaces
30. Let X be a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space. Suppose there is a sequence ¸O
n
) of open sets with
O
n
compact, O
n
⊂ O
n+1
and X =
O
n
. For each n, let ϕ
n
be a continuous realvalued function with
ϕ
n
≡ 1 on O
n−1
and supportϕ
n
⊂ O
n
. Deﬁne ϕ : X → [0, ∞) by ϕ =
(1 −ϕ
n
).
Given y ∈ X and ε > 0, y ∈ O
N
for some N and thus y ∈ O
n
for n ≥ N. There exists N
t
such that
ϕ(y) −
N
n=1
(1 − ϕ
n
(y)) < ε/2. Let N
tt
= max(N, N
t
). Take x ∈ O
N
. Then ϕ
N
+1
(x) = 1. In fact,
ϕ
n
(x) = 1 for n ≥ N
tt
+1 so ϕ(x) =
N
n=1
(1 −ϕ
n
(x)). For each n = 1, . . . , N
tt
, there is an open set U
n
containing y such that [ϕ
n
(y)−ϕ
n
(x)[ < ε/2N
tt
for x ∈ U
n
. Let U =
N
n=1
U
n
∩O
N
. Then U is an open
set containing y and for x ∈ U, [ϕ(y) −ϕ(x)[ ≤ [ϕ(y) −
N
n=1
(1 −ϕ
n
(y))] +[
N
n=1
(1 −ϕ
n
(y)) −ϕ(x)[ ≤
[ϕ(y) −
N
n=1
(1 −ϕ
n
(y))] +
N
n=1
[ϕ
n
(y) −ϕ
n
(x)[ < ε. Hence ϕ is continuous.
To show that ϕ is proper, we consider closed bounded intervals in [0, ∞). By considering O
N
−1
and
open sets V
n
with V
n
compact and V
n
⊂ U
n
, we then apply a similar argument as above.
31a. Let (X, ρ) be a proper locally compact metric space. If K is a compact subset, then K is closed
and bounded by Proposition 7.22. Conversely, suppose a subset K is closed and bounded. Since X is
proper, the closed balls ¦x : ρ(x, x
0
) ≤ a¦ are compact for some x
0
and all a ∈ (0, ∞). Since K is
bounded, there exist x
1
and b such that ρ(x, x
1
) ≤ b for all x ∈ K. Then ρ(x, x
0
) ≤ b +ρ(x
1
, x
0
) for all
x ∈ K. Thus K is a closed subset of the compact set ¦x : ρ(x, x
0
) ≤ b +ρ(x
1
, x
0
)¦ so K is compact.
31b. Let (X, ρ) be a proper locally compact metric space. Then the closed balls ¦x : ρ(x, x
0
) ≤ a¦ are
compact for some x
0
and all x ∈ (0, ∞). Note that a compact subset K ⊂ [0, ∞) is closed and bounded.
Also, the function f(x) = ρ(x, x
0
) is continuous from X to [0, ∞). Now f
−1
[K] is bounded since K is
bounded and closed since f is continuous and K is closed. Thus by part (a), f
−1
[K] is compact. Hence
f : X → [0, ∞) is a proper continuous map and X is σcompact.
31c. Let (X, ρ) be a σcompact and locally compact metric space. Then there is a proper continuous
map ϕ : X → [0, ∞). Deﬁne ρ
∗
(x, y) = ρ(x, y) +[ϕ(x) −ϕ(y)[. Then ρ
∗
is a metric on X. Given x ∈ X
and ε > 0, there exists δ
t
> 0 such that ρ(x, y) < δ
t
implies [ϕ(x)−ϕ(y)[ < ε/2. Choose δ < min(δ
t
, ε/2).
When ρ(x, y) < δ, ρ
∗
(x, y) < ε/2 + ε/2 = ε and when ρ
∗
(x, y) < δ, ρ(x, y) ≤ ρ
∗
(x, y) < ε. Thus ρ and
ρ
∗
are equivalent metrics. For a ﬁxed x
0
∈ X and any a ∈ (0, ∞), ¦x : ρ
∗
(x, x
0
) ≤ a¦ ⊂ ¦x : ϕ(x) ≤
a +ϕ(x
0
)¦, which is compact. Thus ¦x : ρ(x, x
0
) ≤ a¦ is compact. Hence ρ
∗
is a proper metric.
9.6 Paracompact spaces
32. Let ¦E
λ
¦ be a locally ﬁnite collection of subsets of a topological space X, and set E =
E
λ
. Since
E
λ
⊂ E for all λ, E
λ
⊂
¯
E for all λ. Thus
E
λ
⊂
¯
E. If x ∈
¯
E, then there is an open set containing x
that meets only a ﬁnite number of sets E
λ
1
, . . . , E
λ
n
so x ∈
n
i=1
E
λ
i
⊂
E
λ
. Thus
¯
E ⊂
E
λ
. Hence
¯
E =
E
λ
.
(*) Proof of Lemma 22.
33. Let ¦E
λ
¦ be a locally ﬁnite collection of subsets of X and K a compact subset of X. For each
x ∈ X, there is an open set O
x
containing x that meets only a ﬁnite number of sets in ¦E
λ
¦. Now
K ⊂
x∈K
O
x
so K ⊂
n
i=1
O
x
i
for some x
1
, . . . , x
n
∈ K. Since each O
x
i
meets only a ﬁnite number of
sets in ¦E
λ
¦, so does K.
56
(*) Proof of Lemma 23.
34a. Let X be a paracompact Hausdorﬀ space. Let F be a closed subset and let x / ∈ F. For each y ∈ F,
there are disjoint open sets U
y
and V
y
with x ∈ U
y
and y ∈ V
y
. Now X ¸ F ∪ ¦V
y
: y ∈ F¦ is an open
cover for X so it has a locally ﬁnite open reﬁnement ¦E
λ
¦. Let E =
¦E
λ
: E
λ
∩F ,= ∅¦. Then E is an
open set containing F. Also, there is an open set U containing x that meets only a ﬁnite number of sets
E
λ
1
, . . . , E
λ
n
in ¦E
λ
¦. Each of these sets must lie in some V
y
i
where y
i
∈ F. Consider O = U ∩
n
i=1
U
y
i
.
Then O is an open set containing x and O ∩ E = ∅. Hence X is regular.
34b. Let X be a paracompact Hausdorﬀ space. Let F and G be disjoint closed subsets. By part (a), for
each y ∈ G, there are disjoint open sets U
y
and V
y
such that F ⊂ U
y
and y ∈ V
y
. Now X¸G∪¦V
y
: y ∈ G¦
is an open cover for X so it has a locally ﬁnite open reﬁnement ¦E
λ
¦. Let E =
¦E
λ
: E
λ
∩ F ,= ∅¦.
Then E is an open set containing F. For each y ∈ G, there is an open set O
y
that meets only a ﬁnite
number of sets E
λ
1
, . . . , E
λ
n
in ¦E
λ
¦. Each of these sets must lie in some V
y
i
where y
i
∈ G. Let
O
t
y
= O
y
∩
n
i=1
U
y
i
. Then O
t
y
is an open set containing y and O
t
y
∩ E = ∅. Let O =
y∈G
O
t
y
. Then O
is an open set containing G and O ∩ E = ∅.
35. Let (X, ρ) be a locally compact metrizable space. Suppose it can be metrized by a proper extended
metric ρ
∗
. By Q8.41, X is the direct union of its parts X
α
. Now (X
α
, ρ
∗
[
X
α
) is a proper locally compact
metric space for each α so by Q31b, each X
α
is σcompact. Hence X is the direct union of σcompact
spaces so it is paracompact. Conversely, suppose X is paracompact. Then X is the direct union of
σcompact spaces X
β
. Each (X
β
, ρ[
X
β
) is a σcompact and locally compact metric space so by Q31c,
each X
β
can be metrized by a proper metric ρ
β
. Now deﬁne ρ
∗∗
(x, y) = ρ
β
(x, y) if x, y ∈ X
β
and
ρ
∗∗
(x, y) = ∞ if x ∈ X
β
1
and y ∈ X
β
2
with β
1
,= β
2
. Then ρ
∗∗
is a proper extended metric on X.
9.7 Manifolds
36. Let X = (−1, 1) ∪ [2, 3), and make X into a topological space by taking as a base all open intervals
(a, b) ⊂ X and all sets of the form (−ε, 0) ∪[2, 2 +ε) for 0 < ε < 1. Clearly all open intervals (a, b) ⊂ X
are open balls in R. Also, sets of the form (−ε, 0) ∪ [2, 2 +ε) are homeomorphic to (−ε, ε). Hence X is
locally Euclidean. There are no disjoint basic sets that separate 0 and 2 so X is not Hausdorﬀ.
37a. A not necessarily connected manifold X is the disjoint union of its components. By Q8.36, since
X is locally connected, each component of X is open. Thus X is the direct union of its components.
Also, its components are Hausdorﬀ and locally Euclidean. Hence X is the direct union of (connected)
manifolds.
37b. For a not necessarily connected manifold, statements (ii), (iii), (v), (vi), (vii) are equivalent. Also,
statements (i) and (iv) are equivalent. The ﬁrst set of statements imply the second set of statements.
*38a.
9.8 The Stone
˘
Cech compactiﬁcation
39a. Let f be a bounded continuous realvalued function on X with [f[ ≤ 1. The restriction to X of
the projection π
f
on β(X) is f and π
f
is continuous on β(X) since β(X) is a subspace of the product
space I
F
.
*39b. Suppose X is a dense open subset of a compact Hausdorﬀ space Y . Then Y is a subset of I
G
where G is the space of continuous g on Y with [g[ ≤ 1. The inclusion i : X → Y induces a continuous
function F : I
F
→ I
G
as follows. If g ∈ G, then g◦i ∈ F. so deﬁne F(¸t
f
)) = ¸(t
g◦i
)
g
). Since π
g
◦F = π
g◦i
is continuous for each g, F is continuous. Now F[β(X)] ⊂ F[E] ⊂ Y . Let ϕ = F[
β(X)
. Then ϕ is a
continuous mapping of β(X) onto Y with ϕ(x) = x for all x ∈ X. Also, ϕ is unique as a map to a
Hausdorﬀ space is determined by its values on a dense subset.
39c. Suppose Z is a space with the same properties. By part (b), there is a unique continuous mapping
ψ of β(X) onto Z with ψ(x) = x for all x ∈ X. Also, there is a unique continuous mapping ϕ of Z onto
β(X) with ϕ(x) = x for all x ∈ X. Thus ϕ ◦ ψ = id[
X
so ϕ and ψ are homeomorphisms.
*40. Let X be the set of ordinals less than the ﬁrst uncountable ordinal and let Y be the set of ordinals
less than or equal to the ﬁrst uncountable ordinal. Then X is dense in the compact Hausdorﬀ space Y .
By Q11, every continuous realvalued function on X is eventually constant so it extends to a continuous
57
function on Y .
*41. If A ⊂ N, deﬁne f : N → [0, 1] by f(x) = 0 if x ∈ A and f(x) = 1 if x / ∈ A. Now f is continuous
so it extends to a continuous function
ˆ
f on β(N). Then
¯
A∪ N ¸ A = β(N). It follows that
ˆ
f
−1
[¦1¦] =
¯
A
and
ˆ
f
−1
[¦0¦] = N ¸ A. Thus
¯
A∩ N ¸ A = ∅ and
¯
A is open.
If B ⊂ N and A∩ B = ∅, then B ⊂ N ¸ A and
¯
A∩
¯
B = ∅.
If V is an open subset of β(N), then V ∩ N is an open subset of β(N). Now if x ∈
¯
V and W is an open
neighbourhood of x, then W ∩ V ∩ N ,= ∅ so x ∈ V ∩ N. Thus
¯
V = V ∩ N and
¯
V is open (β(N) is
extremally disconnected).
Let Y be a subset of β(N) with at least two distinct points x and y. Since β(N) is Hausdorﬀ, there is an
open set U ⊂ β(N) such that x ∈ U and y / ∈
¯
U. Then Y = (Y ∩
¯
U) ∪ (Y ¸
¯
U) is a separation of Y so Y
is not connected. Hence β(N) is totally disconnected.
Clearly, if a sequence in N converges in N, then it converges in β(N). Conversely, if it converges in
β(N) ¸ N, then consider a function f : N → [0, 1] with f(x
2n
) = 0 and f(x
2n+1
) = 1 for all n. Now f is
continuous since N is discrete so it has a continuous extension to β(N). This is a contradiction as the
sequence ¸g(x
n
)) does not converge.
Hence β(N) is compact but not sequentially compact as the sequence x
n
= n does not have a convergent
subsequence.
9.9 The StoneWeierstrass Theorem
42. Let A be the set of ﬁnite Fourier series ϕ given by ϕ(x) = a
0
+
N
n=1
(a
n
cos nx +b
n
sin nx), N ∈ N.
Then A is a linear space of functions in C(X) where X is taken to be the unit circle in C. From the
trigonometric identities cos mxcos nx =
1
2
[cos(m−n)x +cos(m+n)x], sin mxcos nx =
1
2
[sin(m+n)x +
sin(m−n)x] and sin mxsin nx =
1
2
[cos(m−n)x −cos(m+n)x], we see that A is a subalgebra of C(X).
Furthermore A separates the points of X and contains the constant functions. By the StoneWeierstrass
Theorem, given any continuous periodic realvalued function f on R with period 2π and any ε > 0, there
is a ﬁnite Fourier series ϕ such that [ϕ(x) −f(x)[ < ε for all x.
*43. Let A be an algebra of continuous realvalued functions on a compact space X, and assume that
A separates the points of X. If for each x ∈ X there is an f
x
∈ A with f
x
(x) ,= 0, then by continuity,
there is an open neighbourhood O
x
of x such that f
x
(y) ,= 0 for y ∈ O
x
. The sets ¦O
x
¦ cover X so by
compactness, ﬁnitely many of them cover X, say ¦O
x
1
, . . . , O
x
n
¦. Let g = f
2
x
1
+ + f
2
x
n
. Then g ∈ A
and g ,= 0 everywhere. The closure of the range of g is a compact set K not containing 0. The function h
given by h(t) = 1/t for t ∈ K and h(0) = 0 is continuous on K∪¦0¦ so it can be uniformly approximated
by polynomials h
n
so that h
n
◦ g ∈ A and h
n
◦ g → 1/g. Note that if h
n
is uniformly within ε/2 of h,
then [h
n
(0)[ < ε/2 but h
n
(0) is the constant term of h
n
so subtracting the constant term results in a
polynomial still within ε of h. Thus we may assume that the polynomials h
n
have no constant term.
Thus 1/g ∈
¯
A so 1 ∈
¯
A and
¯
A contains the constant functions. Hence
¯
A = C(X).
44. Let F be a family of continuous realvalued functions on a compact Hausdorﬀ space X, and suppose
that F separates the points of X. Let A be the set of polynomials in a ﬁnite number of functions of F.
Then A is a subalgebra of C(X) that separates the points of X and contains the constant functions. By
the StoneWeierstrass Theorem, A is dense in C(X). Hence every continuous realvalued function on X
can be uniformly approximated by a polynomial in a ﬁnite number of functions of F.
45a. Let X be a topological space and A a set of realvalued functions on X. Deﬁne x ≡ y if f(x) = f(y)
for all f ∈ A. Clearly, x ≡ x for all x ∈ X and y ≡ x if x ≡ y. If x ≡ y and y ≡ z, then f(x) = f(y) = f(z)
for all f ∈ A so x ≡ z. Hence ≡ is an equivalence relation.
45b. Let
¯
X be the set of equivalence classes of ≡ and ϕ the natural map of X into
¯
X. Given f ∈ A,
deﬁne
˜
f on
¯
X by
˜
f(˜ x) = f(x). If ˜ x = ˜ y, then x ≡ y so f(x) = f(y) and
˜
f(˜ x) =
˜
f(˜ y). Thus
˜
f is
welldeﬁned and it is the unique function such that f =
˜
f ◦ ϕ.
45c. Let
¯
X have the weak topology generated by the functions
˜
f in part (b). Consider a basic set
˜
f
−1
[O]. Now ϕ
−1
[
˜
f
−1
[O]] = ¦x :
˜
f(ϕ(x)) ∈ O¦ = ¦x : f(x) ∈ O¦ = f
−1
[O], which is open since f is
continuous. Hence ϕ is continuous.
45d. Since ϕ is continuous and maps X onto
¯
X, if X is compact, then so is
¯
X. By deﬁnition of the
58
weak topology on
¯
X, the functions
˜
f are continuous.
*45e. Let X be a compact space and A a closed subalgebra of C(X) containing the constant functions.
Deﬁne
¯
X and ϕ as above. If ˜ x and ˜ y are distinct points in
¯
X, then f(x) ,= f(y) for some f ∈ A so
there are disjoint open sets O
x
and O
y
in R with f(x) ∈ O
x
and f(y) ∈ O
y
. Then ˜ x ∈
˜
f
−1
[O
x
] and
˜ y ∈
˜
f
−1
[O
y
]. Thus
¯
X is a compact Hausdorﬀ space. Furthermore, ϕ induces a (continuous) mapping
of ϕ
∗
: A → C(
¯
X), f →
˜
f, where f =
˜
f ◦ ϕ. The image of A in C(
¯
X) is a subalgebra containing the
constant functions and separating the points of
¯
X. Suppose ¸ ˜ g
n
) is a sequence in ϕ
∗
[A] that converges
to ˜ g in C(
¯
X). Then the sequence ¸g
n
), where g
n
= ˜ g
n
◦ϕ, converges to ˜ g ◦ϕ. Since each g
n
∈ A and A is
closed, ˜ g ◦ ϕ ∈ A so ˜ g ∈ ϕ
∗
[A] by uniqueness. Thus ϕ
∗
[A] is closed. By the StoneWeierstrass Theorem,
the image of A is C(
¯
X). Hence A is the set of all functions of the form
˜
f ◦ ϕ with
˜
f ∈ C(
¯
X).
46. Let X and Y be compact spaces. The set of ﬁnite sums of functions of the form f(x)g(y) where
f ∈ C(X) and g ∈ C(Y ) is an algebra of continuous realvalued functions on X Y that contains the
constant functions and separates points in X Y . By the StoneWeierstrass Theorem, this set is dense
in C(X Y ). Thus for each continuous realvalued function f on X Y and each ε > 0, there exist
continuous functions g
1
, . . . , g
n
on X and h
1
, . . . , h
n
on Y such that [f(x, y) −
n
i=1
g
i
(x)h
i
(y)[ < ε for
all ¸x, y) ∈ X Y .
47. The functions of norm 1 in the algebra A give a mapping of X into the inﬁnitedimensional cube
¦I
f
: f ∈ A, [[f[[ = 1¦. By the Tietze Extension Theorem, each continuous function f on the image
of X can be extended to a continuous function g on the cube and by Q17, g can be approximated by a
continuous function h of only a ﬁnite number of coordinates. Then h can be regarded as a continuous
function on a cube in R
n
, which can be uniformly approximated by a polynomial in (a ﬁnite number of)
the coordinate functions.
48a. Let ϕ be the polynomial deﬁned by ϕ(x) = x + x(1 −2x)(1 −x). Then ϕ
t
(x) = 6x
2
−6x + 2 > 0
for all x. Thus ϕ is monotone increasing and its ﬁxed points are 0,
1
2
, 1.
*48b. Choose ε > 0. Note that ϕ(x) > x on (0,
1
2
) and ϕ(x) < x on (
1
2
, 1). Let [a
n
, b
n
] = ϕ
n
[ε, 1 −ε] for
each n where ϕ
n
is an iterate of ϕ. Then a
n
= ϕ
n
(ε) increases to some a and b
n
= ϕ
n
(1 −ε) decreases
to some b. Furthermore, ε ≤ a ≤ b ≤ 1 −ε and a, b are ﬁxed points of ϕ. Thus a = b =
1
2
. Hence some
iterate ϕ
n
is a polynomial with integral coeﬃcients that is monotone increasing on [0, 1] and such that
[ϕ
n
(x) −
1
2
[ < ε for x ∈ [ε, 1 −ε].
*48c. Given α with 0 < α < 1 and any ε > 0, it suﬃces to consider the case where α is a rational
number
a
b
. Deﬁne ϕ(x) = x +x(a −bx)(1 −x). Then α is a ﬁxed point of ϕ. By parts (a) and (b), some
iterate ψ = ϕ
n
is a polynomial with integral coeﬃcients (and no constant term) such that 0 ≤ ψ(x) ≤ 1
in [0, 1] and [ψ(x) −α[ < ε for all x ∈ [ε, 1 −ε].
*48d. Let P be a polynomial with integral coeﬃcients, and suppose that P(−1) = P(0) = P(1) = 0.
Let β be any real number. We may assume that 0 < β < 1. For any ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that
[P(x)[ < ε/2 for x ∈ (−δ, δ), x ∈ (1 − δ, 1] and x ∈ [−1, −1 + δ). We may assume that δ < ε/[[P[[. By
part (c), there is a polynomial ψ with integral coeﬃcients and no constant term such that [ψ(x
2
)−β[ < δ
for all x ∈ [δ, 1 −δ]. Then [P(x)ψ(x
2
) −βP(x)[ < δ[[P[[ < ε for all x ∈ [−1, 1].
*48e. Let I = [−1, 1] and f a continuous realvalued function on I such that f(−1), f(0), f(1) are
integers and f(1) ≡ f(−1) mod 2. Let f(−1) = a, f(0) = b, f(1) = a+2c, where a, b, c are integers. Let
Q(x) = (a − b + c)x
2
+ cx + b. Replacing f by f − Q, we may assume that a = b = c = 0. Then use
the StoneWeierstrass Theorem to approximate f by a polynomial R with rational coeﬃcients such that
R(−1) = R(0) = R(1) = 0. Let N be the least common multiple of the denominators of the coeﬃcients
of R so that NR has integral coeﬃcients and vanishes at 1,0,1. Let β = 1/N and apply part (d) to the
polynomial NR so that R, and thus f, can be approximated by a polynomial P with integral coeﬃcients.
*49a.
*49b.
*50a.
*50b.
59
10 Banach Spaces
10.1 Introduction
1. Suppose x
n
→ x. Then [ [[x
n
[[ −[[x[[ [ ≤ [[x
n
−x[[ → 0. Hence [[x
n
[[ → [[x[[.
2. The metric ρ(x, y) = [
n
i=1
(x
i
− y
i
)
2
]
1/2
is derived from the norm [[x[[ = (
n
i=1
x
2
i
)
1/2
. The metric
ρ
∗
(x, y) =
n
i=1
[x
i
−y
i
[ is derived from the norm [[x[[
∗
=
n
i=1
[x
i
[. The metric ρ
+
(x, y) = max [x
i
−y
i
[
is derived from the norm [[x[[
+
= max [x
i
[. Now n
−1
[[x[[
+
≤ [[x[[
+
≤ [[x[[
∗
≤ n[[x[[
+
so [[x[[
∗
and [[x[[
+
are equivalent. Also, (
√
n)
−1
[[x[[
+
≤ [[x[[
+
≤ [[x[[ ≤ (n([[x[[
+
)
2
)
1/2
=
√
n[[x[[
+
so [[x[[ and [[x[[
+
are
equivalent. Thus [[x[[ and [[x[[
∗
are also equivalent.
3. Consider + as a function from XX into X. Since [[(x
1
+y
1
)−(x
2
+y
2
)[[ ≤ [[x
1
−x
2
[[ +[[y
1
−y
2
[[, +
is continuous. Consider as a function from RX into X. Since [[cx−cy[[ = [c[ [[x−y[[, is continuous.
4. Let M be a nonempty set. Then M ⊂ M +M since m = m+θ for all m, where θ is the zero vector.
Also, M ⊂ λM since m = 1 m for all m. If M is a linear manifold, then M +M ⊂ M and λM ⊂ M for
each λ so M +M = M and λM = M. Conversely, suppose M +M = M and λM = M. Then λx ∈ M
for each λ ∈ R and x ∈ M. Thus also λ
1
x
1
+ λ
2
x
2
∈ M for λ
1
, λ
2
∈ R and x
1
, x
2
∈ M. Hence M is a
linear manifold.
5a. Let ¦M
i
: i ∈ I¦ be a family of linear manifolds and let M =
M
i
. For any λ
1
, λ
2
∈ R and
x
1
, x
2
∈ M, we have x
1
, x
2
∈ M
i
for all i. Since each M
i
is a linear manifold, λ
1
x
1
+λ
2
x
2
∈ M
i
for each
i. i.e. λ
1
x
1
+λ
2
x
2
∈ M. Hence M is a linear manifold.
5b. Given a set A in a vector space X, X is a linear manifold containing A. Consider the family of
linear manifolds containing A. The intersection ¦A¦ of this family is a linear manifold containing A and
it is the smallest such linear manifold.
5c. Consider the set M of all ﬁnite linear combinations of the form λ
1
x
1
+ +λ
n
x
n
with x
i
∈ A. Then
M is a linear manifold containing A. Also, any linear manifold containing A will contain M. Hence M
is the smallest linear manifold containing A. i.e. ¦A¦ = M.
6a. Let M and N be linear manifolds. For λ
1
, λ
2
∈ R, m
1
, m
2
∈ M and n
1
, n
2
∈ N, λ
1
(m
1
+ n
1
) +
λ
2
(m
2
+n
2
) = (λ
1
m
1
+λ
2
m
2
) +(λ
1
n
1
+λ
2
n
2
) ∈ M +N. Hence M +N is a linear manifold. Note that
M ⊂ M + N and N ⊂ M + N so M + N contains M ∪ N. Also, any manifold containing M ∪ N will
also contain M +N. Hence M +N = ¦M ∪ N¦.
6b. Let M be a linear manifold. For λ
1
, λ
2
∈ R, x
1
, x
2
∈
¯
M and δ > 0, there exist y
1
, y
2
∈ M such that
[[x
1
−y
1
[[ < δ/2λ
1
and [[x
2
−y
2
[[ < δ/2λ
2
(We may assume λ
1
, λ
2
,= 0). Then [[(λ
1
x
1
+λ
2
x
2
) −(λ
1
y
1
+
λ
2
y
2
)[[ ≤ [λ
1
[ [[x
1
−y
1
[[ +[λ
2
[ [[x
2
−y
2
[[ < δ. Thus λ
1
x
1
+λ
2
x
2
∈
¯
M so
¯
M is a linear manifold.
7. Let P be the set of all polynomials on [0, 1]. Then P ⊂ C[0, 1]. For λ
1
, λ
2
∈ R and p
1
, p
2
∈ P,
λ
1
p
1
+ λ
2
p
2
is still a polynomial on [0, 1] so λ
1
p
1
+ λ
2
p
2
∈ P. Thus P is a linear manifold in C[0, 1].
The set P is not closed in C[0, 1] because by the Weierstrass Approximation Theorem, every continuous
function on [0, 1] can be uniformly approximated by polynomials on [0, 1]. i.e.
¯
P contains a continuous
function that is not a polynomial.
The set of continuous functions f with f(0) = 0 is a closed linear manifold in C[0, 1].
8. Let M be a ﬁnitedimensional linear manifold in a normed vector space X with M = ¦x
1
, . . . , x
n
¦.
Each x ∈ X can be written as a unique linear combination λ
1
x
1
+ + λ
n
x
n
. We may deﬁne a norm
[[x[[
1
=
n
i=1
[λ
i
[ and see that [[ [[
1
is equivalent to the original norm on X. Thus convergence under the
original norm on X is equivalent to convergence of each sequence of coeﬃcients in R. Let ¸
n
i=1
λ
(k)
i
x
i
)
k
be a sequence in M converging to x ∈ X. Let λ
i
= lim
k
λ
(k)
i
for each i. By continuity of addition and
scalar multiplication, x = lim
k
n
i=1
λ
(k)
i
x
i
=
n
i=1
λ
i
x
i
∈ M. Hence M is closed.
9. Let S = ¦x : [[x[[ < 1¦. Given x ∈ S, let δ = (1 − [[x[[)/2. When [[y − x[[ < δ, we have
[[y[[ ≤ [[y − x[[ + [[x[[ < (1 − [[x[[)/2 + [[x[[ < 1 so y ∈ S. Hence S is open. For any sequence ¸x
n
) in
S that converges to some x, we have [[x
n
[[ → [[x[[ so [[x[[ ≤ 1. Thus
¯
S ⊂ ¦x : [[x[[ ≤ 1¦. On the other
hand, if [[x[[ = 1 and δ > 0, let λ = max(1 −δ/2, 0). Then [[λx[[ ∈ S and [[x −λx[[ = [1 −λ[ < δ. Thus
x ∈
¯
S and ¦x : [[x[[ ≤ 1¦ ⊂
¯
S. Hence
¯
S = ¦x : [[x[[ ≤ 1¦.
10. Deﬁne x ≡ y if [[x − y[[ = 0. Then x ≡ x since [[0x[[ = 0[[x[[ = 0. Also, x ≡ y implies
y ≡ x since [[y − x[[ = [[ − (x − y)[[ = [ − 1[ [[x − y[[ = [[x − y[[. Finally, if x ≡ y and y ≡ z, then
60
[[x −z[[ ≤ [[x −y[[ +[[y −z[[ = 0 so x ≡ z. Thus ≡ is an equivalence relation. If x
1
≡ y
1
and x
2
≡ y
2
,
then [[(x
1
+ x
2
) − (y
1
+ y
2
)[[ ≤ [[x
1
− y
1
[[ + [[x
2
− y
2
[[ = 0 so x
1
+ x
2
≡ y
1
+ y
2
. If x ≡ y, then
[[cx − cy[[ = [c[ [[x − y[[ = 0 so cx ≡ cy for c ∈ R. Hence ≡ is compatible with addition and scalar
multiplication. If x ≡ y, then [ [[x[[ −[[y[[ [ ≤ [[x −y[[ = 0 so [[x[[ = [[y[[.
Let X
t
be the set of equivalence classes under ≡. Deﬁne αx
t
+βy
t
as the (unique) equivalence class which
contains αx + βy for x ∈ x
t
and y ∈ y
t
and deﬁne [[x
t
[[ = [[x[[ for x ∈ x
t
. Then X
t
becomes a normed
vector space. The mapping ϕ of X onto X
t
that takes each element of X into the equivalence class to
which it belongs is a homomorphism of X onto X
t
since ϕ(αx +βy) = αx
t
+βy
t
= αϕ(x) +βϕ(y). The
kernel of ϕ consists of the elements of X that belong to the equivalence class containing the zero vector
θ. These are the elements x with [[x[[ = 0.
On the L
p
spaces on [0, 1] we have the pseudonorm [[f[[
p
=
_
_
1
0
[f[
p
_
1/2
. Then f ≡ g if
_
1
0
[f −g[
p
= 0.
i.e. f = g a.e. The kernel of the mapping ϕ consists of the functions that are 0 a.e.
11. Let X be a normed linear space (with norm [[ [[) and M a linear manifold in X. Let [[x[[
1
=
inf
m∈M
[[x − m[[. Since [[x − m[[ ≥ 0 for all x ∈ X and m ∈ M, [[x[[
1
≥ 0 for all x ∈ X. For x, y ∈ X
and ε > 0, there exist m, n ∈ M such that [[x − m[[ < [[x[[
1
+ ε/2 and [[y − m[[ < [[y[[
1
+ ε/2. Then
[[x + y[[
1
≤ [[(x + y) −(m + n)[[ < [[x[[
1
+[[y[[
1
+ ε. Since ε > 0 is arbitrary, [[x + y[[
1
≤ [[x[[
1
+[[y[[
1
.
Also, for x ∈ X and α ∈ R, [[αx[[
1
= inf
m∈M
[[αx −m[[ = [α[ inf
m∈M
[[x −m[[ = [α[ [[x[[
1
. Hence [[ [[
1
is a pseudonorm on X.
Let X
t
be the normed linear space derived from X and the pseudonorm [[ [[
1
using the process in
Q10. The natural mapping ϕ of X onto X
t
has kernel
¯
M since it consists of the elements x with
[[x[[
1
= inf
m∈M
[[x − m[[ = 0. Let O be an open set in X. Take x ∈ O. Then there exists δ > 0 such
that y ∈ O if [[y −x[[
1
< δ. Now if [[z −ϕ(x)[[ < δ, where z = ϕ(y) for some y ∈ X, then [[y −x[[
1
< δ
so y ∈ O and z ∈ ϕ[O]. Hence ϕ[O] is open. i.e. ϕ maps open sets into open sets.
12. Suppose X is complete and M is a closed linear manifold in X. Let ¸ϕ(x
n
)) be an absolutely
summable sequence in X/M. Then
[[ϕ(x
n
)[[ < ∞ so
[[x
n
[[
1
< ∞. Given ε > 0, for each n, there
exists m
n
∈ M such that [[x
n
−m
n
[[ < [[x
n
[[
1
+2
−n
. Then
[[x
n
−m
n
[[ ≤
[[x
n
[[
1
+1 < ∞. Since X
is complete, the sequence ¸x
n
−m
n
) is summable in X, say
(x
n
−m
n
) = x. Now ϕ is continuous since
[[ϕ(x)[[ = [[x[[
1
≤ [[x[[. Also, M is the kernel of ϕ. Thus
ϕ(x
n
) =
ϕ(x
n
−m
n
) = ϕ(
(x
n
−m
n
)) =
ϕ(x) ∈ X/M. Since any absolutely summable sequence in X/M is summable, X/M is complete.
10.2 Linear operators
13. Suppose A
n
→ A and x
n
→ x. Then [[A
n
− A[[ → 0 and [[x
n
− x[[ → 0. Since [[A
n
x
n
− Ax[[ ≤
[[A
n
x
n
−Ax
n
[[ +[[Ax
n
−Ax[[ ≤ [[A
n
−A[[ [[x
n
[[ +[[A[[ [[x
n
−x[[ and [[x
n
[[ is bounded, [[A
n
x
n
−Ax[[ → 0.
i.e. A
n
x
n
→ Ax.
14. Let A be a linear operator and ker A = ¦x : Ax = θ¦. If x, y ∈ ker A and α, β ∈ R, then
A(αx +βy) = αAx +βAy = θ so αx +βy ∈ ker A. Thus ker A is a linear manifold.
Suppose A is continuous. Let ¸x
n
) be a sequence in ker A converging to some x. Since A is continuous,
¸Ax
n
) converges to Ax. Now Ax
n
= θ for all n so Ax = θ and x ∈ ker A. Thus ker A is closed.
15a. Let X be a normed linear space and M a closed linear manifold. Let ϕ be the natural homomor
phism of X onto X/M. Now [[ϕ(x)[[ = [[x[[
1
≤ [[x[[, where [[[[
1
is the pseudonorm in Q11. Thus [[ϕ[[ ≤ 1.
Given ε > 0 and x ∈ X, there exists m ∈ M such that [[x−m[[ < [[x[[
1
+ε = [[ϕ(x)[[+ε = [[ϕ(x−m)[[+ε.
Let y = (x−m)/[[x−m[[. Then 1 = [[y[[ < [[ϕ(y)[[+ε. i.e. [[ϕ(y)[[ > 1−ε. Since [[ϕ[[ = sup
]]x]]=1
[[ϕ(x)[[,
we have [[ϕ[[ > 1 −ε for all ε > 0. Thus [[ϕ[[ ≥ 1.
15b. Let X and Y be normed linear spaces and A a bounded linear operator from X into Y whose kernel
is M. Deﬁne a mapping B from X/M into Y by Bx
t
= Ax where x
t
is the equivalence class containing
x. If x
t
= y
t
, then [[x − y[[
1
= 0. Thus for any ε > 0, there exists m ∈ M such that [[x − y − m[[ < ε.
Then [[Ax − Ay[[ = [[A(x − y − m)[[ ≤ [[A[[ε. Since ε > 0 is arbitrary, [[Ax − Ay[[ = 0. i.e. Ax = Ay.
Thus B is welldeﬁned and A = B ◦ ϕ. Furthermore, it is the unique such mapping. If x
t
, y
t
∈ X/M
and α, β ∈ R, then B(αx
t
+βy
t
) = A(αx +βy) = αAx +βAy = αBx
t
+βBy
t
so B is a linear operator.
Also, [[Bx
t
[[ = [[Ax[[ ≤ [[A[[ [[x[[ = [[A[[ [[x − m[[ for all m ∈ M. Thus [[Bx
t
[[ ≤ [[A[[ [[x[[
1
= [[A[[ [[x
t
[[
so [[B[[ ≤ [[A[[ and B is bounded. For any ε > 0, there exists x ∈ X with [[x[[ = 1 and [[Ax[[ > [[A[[ −ε.
61
Then [[x
t
[[ ≤ 1 and [[Bx
t
[[ > [[A[[ − ε. Since [[B[[ = sup
]]x
]]≤1
[[Bx
t
[[, we have [[B[[ ≥ [[A[[. Hence
[[A[[ = [[B[[.
16. Let X be a metric space and Y the space of realvalued functions f on X vanishing at a ﬁxed
point x
0
∈ X and satisfying [f(x) − f(y)[ ≤ Mρ(x, y) for some M (depending on f). Deﬁne [[f[[ =
sup
]f(x)−f(y)]
ρ(x,y)
. Clearly [[f[[ ≥ 0. Also, [[f[[ = 0 if and only if f(x) = f(y) for all x, y ∈ X if and only if f is
the zero function. Furthermore, [[f+g[[ ≤ [[f[[+[[g[[ since [(f+g)x−(f+g)y[ ≤ [f(x)−f(y)[+[g(x)−g(y)[
and sup A+B ≤ sup A+ sup B. Similarly, [[αf[[ = [α[ [[f[[. Thus [[ [[ deﬁnes a norm on Y .
For each x ∈ X, deﬁne the functional F
x
by F
x
(f) = f(x). Then F
x
(αf + βg) = αf(x) + βg(x) =
αF
x
(f)+βF
x
(g) so F
x
is a linear functional on Y . Also, [[F
x
(f)[[ = [f(x)[ = [f(x)−f(x
0
)[ ≤ ρ(x, x
0
)[[f[[
so F
x
is bounded. Furthermore, [[F
x
[[ ≤ ρ(x, x
0
) so [[F
x
−F
y
[[ ≤ ρ(x, x
0
) +ρ(y, x
0
) ≤ ρ(x, y). If [[f[[ = 1
and ε > 0, then there exist x, y ∈ X such that
]f(x)−f(y)]
ρ(x,y)
> 1 − ε. i.e. [f(x) − f(y)[ > (1 − ε)ρ(x, y).
Since [[F
x
−F
y
[[ = sup
]]f]]=1
[(F
x
−F
y
)f[ = sup
]]f]]=1
[f(x) −f(y)[ > (1 −ε)ρ(x, y) for all ε > 0, we have
[[F
x
−F
y
[[ ≥ ρ(x, y). Hence [[F
x
−F
y
[[ = ρ(x, y).
Thus X is isometric to a subset of the space Y
∗
of bounded linear operators from Y to R. Since Y
∗
is
complete, the closure of this subset gives a completion of X.
10.3 Linear functionals and the HahnBanach Theorem
17. Let f be a linear functional on a normed linear space. If f is bounded, then it is uniformly
continuous and by Q14, its kernel is closed. Conversely, if f is unbounded, then there is a sequence ¸x
n
)
with [[x
n
[[ ≤ 1 for all n and f(x
n
) → ∞. Take x / ∈ ker f and consider y
n
= x − (f(x)/f(x
n
))x
n
. Each
y
n
is in ker f and y
n
→ x. Thus ker f is not closed.
18. Let T be a linear subspace of a normed linear space X and y a given element of X. If y ∈ T, then
inf
t∈T
[[y − t[[ = 0 = sup¦f(y) : [[f[[ = 1, f(t) = 0 for all t ∈ T¦. Thus we may assume y / ∈ T. Let
δ = inf
t∈T
[[y − t[[. Then [[y − t[[ ≥ δ for all t ∈ T. There is a bounded linear functional f on X such
that [[f[[ = 1, f(y) = δ and f(t) = 0 for all t ∈ T. Thus δ ≤ sup¦f(y) : [[f[[ = 1, f(t) = 0 for all t ∈ T¦.
If δ < sup¦f(y) : [[f[[ = 1, f(t) = 0 for all t ∈ T¦, then there exists f with [[f[[ = 1 and f(t) = 0 for t ∈ T
such that f(y) > δ so there exists t ∈ T such that f(y) > [[y − t[[. But then [[y − t[[ = [[f[[ [[y − t[[ ≥
f(y − t) = f(y) > [[y − t[[. Contradiction. Thus δ ≥ sup¦f(y) : [[f[[ = 1, f(t) = 0 for all t ∈ T¦. Hence
inf
t∈T
[[y −t[[ = sup¦f(y) : [[f[[ = 1, f(t) = 0 for all t ∈ T¦.
19. Let T be a linear subspace of a normed linear space X and y an element of X whose distance to T
is at least δ. Let S be the subspace consisting of multiples of y. Deﬁne f(λy) = λδ. Then f is a linear
functional on S. Let p(x) = inf
t∈T
[[x − t[[. Then f(λy) = λδ ≤ λp(y) ≤ p(λy). By the HahnBanach
Theorem, we may extend f to all of X so that f(x) ≤ p(x) for all x ∈ X. In particular, f(y) = δ and
f(t) = 0 for all t ∈ T. Also, f(x) ≤ p(x) = inf
t∈T
[[x −t[[ ≤ [[x[[ so [[f[[ ≤ 1.
20. Let
∞
be the space of all bounded sequences and let S be the subspace consisting of the constant
sequences. Let G be the Abelian semigroup of operators generated by the shift operator A given by
A[¸ξ
n
)] = ¸ξ
n+1
). If ¸ξ
n
) ∈ S, say ξ
n
= ξ for all n, deﬁne f[¸ξ
n
)] = ξ. Then f is a linear functional on
S. Deﬁne p[¸ξ
n
)] = limξ
n
. Then f[¸ξ
n
)] = p[¸ξ
n
)] on S. Also, p(A
n
x) = p(x) for all x ∈ X. If ¸ξ
n
) ∈ S,
then A
n
[¸ξ
n
)] = ¸ξ
n
) ∈ S and f(A
n
[¸ξ
n
)]) = f[¸ξ
n
)]. By Proposition 5, there is an extension F of f to a
linear functional on X such that F(x) ≤ p(x) and F(Ax) = F(x) for all x ∈ X.
In particular, F[¸ξ
n
)] ≤ limξ
n
. Also, −F[¸ξ
n
)] = F[¸−ξ
n
)] ≤ lim(−ξ
n
) = −limξ
n
so limξ
n
≤ F[¸ξ
n
)]. By
linearity, F[¸ξ
n
+η
n
)] = F[¸ξ
n
) +¸η
n
)] = F[¸ξ
n
)] +F[¸η
n
)] and F[¸αξ
n
)] = F[α¸ξ
n
)] = αF[¸ξ
n
)]. Finally,
if η
n
= ξ
n+1
, then F[¸η
n
)] = F[A[¸ξ
n
)]] = F[¸ξ
n
)].
(*) The functional F is called a Banach limit and is often denoted by Lim.
*21. Let X be the space of bounded realvalued functions on the unit circle and let S be the subspace
of bounded Lebesgue measurable functions on the unit circle. For s ∈ S, deﬁne f(s) =
_
s. Also deﬁne
p(x) = inf
x≤s
f(s). Then f is a linear functional on S with f ≤ p on S. Let G consist of the rotations
so that it is an Abelian semigroup of operators on X such that for every A ∈ G we have p(Ax) ≤ p(x)
for x ∈ X while for s ∈ S we have As ∈ S and f(As) = f(s). Then there is an extension of f to a linear
functional F on X such that F(x) ≤ p(x) and F(Ax) = F(x) for x ∈ X. For a subset P of the unit
circle, let µ(P) = F(χ
P
). This will be a rotationally invariant measure on [0, 2π]. Then extend it to the
62
bounded subsets of R to get the required set function.
22. Let X be a Banach space. Suppose X
∗
is reﬂexive. If X is not reﬂexive, then there is a nonzero
function y ∈ X
∗∗∗
such that y(x
t
) = 0 for all x
t
∈ ϕ[X]. But there exists x
∗
∈ X
∗
such that y = ϕ
∗
(x
∗
).
If x ∈ X, then 0 = y(ϕ(x)) = (ϕ
∗
(x
∗
))(ϕ(x)) = (ϕ(x))(x
∗
) = x
∗
(x). Thus x
∗
= 0 and so y = 0.
Contradiction. Thus X is reﬂexive. Conversely, suppose X is reﬂexive. Let x
∗∗∗
∈ X
∗∗∗
. Deﬁne x
∗
∈ X
∗
by x
∗
(x) = x
∗∗∗
(ϕ(x)). Then ϕ
∗
(x
∗
)(x
∗∗
) = x
∗∗
(x
∗
) = (ϕ(x))(x
∗
) = x
∗
(x) = x
∗∗∗
(ϕ(x)) = x
∗∗∗
(x
∗∗
).
Thus X
∗
is reﬂexive.
23a. If x, y ∈ S
◦
and α, β ∈ R, then (αx + βy)(s) = αx(s) + βy(s) = 0 for all s ∈ S so S
◦
is a linear
subspace of X
∗
. Let ¸y
n
) be a sequence in S
◦
that converges to some y ∈ X
∗
. By Q13, for each s ∈ S,
y
n
(s) → y(s). Since y
n
(s) = 0 for all n, we have y(s) = 0. Thus y ∈ S
◦
and S
◦
is closed.
*23b. If x ∈
¯
S, then there is a sequence ¸s
n
) in S converging to x. Let y ∈ S
◦
. Then y(s
n
) = 0 for
all n so y(x) = 0. Thus
¯
S ⊂ S
◦◦
. Suppose there exists x ∈ S
◦◦
¸
¯
S. Then there is a linear functional
f with [[f[[ ≤ 1, f(x) = inf
t∈
¯
S
[[x − t[[ > 0 and f(t) = 0 for t ∈
¯
S. Thus f ∈ (
¯
S)
◦
= S
◦
so f(x) = 0.
Contradiction. Hence S
◦◦
=
¯
S.
23c. Let S be a closed subspace of X and let ϕ : X
∗
→ X
∗
/S
◦
be the natural homomorphism. Deﬁne
A : X
∗
→ S
∗
by Ay = y[
S
. Then A is a bounded linear operator with kernel S
◦
. By Q15b, there is a
unique bounded linear operator B : X
∗
/S
◦
→ S
∗
such that A = B ◦ ϕ. By the HahnBanach Theorem,
A is onto. Thus so is B. If y[
S
= z[
S
, then y −z ∈ S
◦
so ϕ(y) = ϕ(z) and B is onetoone. Hence B is
an isomorphism between S
∗
and X
∗
/S
◦
.
23d. Let S be a closed subspace of a reﬂexive Banach space X. Let ϕ : X → X
∗∗
be the natural
isomorphism and deﬁne A : X
∗
→ S
∗
by Ay = y[
S
. Let s
∗∗
∈ S
∗∗
. Then s
∗∗
◦A ∈ X
∗∗
so s
∗∗
◦A = ϕ(x)
for some x ∈ X. If x / ∈ S, then there exists x
∗
∈ X
∗
such that x
∗
(x) > 0 and x
∗
(s) = 0 for s ∈ S.
Then A(x
∗
) = 0 so x
∗
(x) = (ϕ(x))(x
∗
) = (s
∗∗
◦ A)(x
∗
) = 0. Contradiction. Thus x ∈ S. Now for any
s
∗
∈ S
∗
, there exists x
∗
∈ X
∗
such that A(x
∗
) = s
∗
. Then s
∗∗
(s
∗
) = (s
∗∗
◦ A)(x
∗
) = (ϕ(x))(x
∗
) =
x
∗
(x) = s
∗
(x) = (ϕ
S
(x))(s
∗
). i.e. s
∗∗
= ϕ
S
(x). Hence S is reﬂexive.
24. Let X be a vector space and P a subset of X such that x, y ∈ P implies x +y ∈ P and αx ∈ P for
α > 0. Deﬁne a partial order in X by deﬁning x ≤ y to mean y −x ∈ P. A linear functional f on X is
said to be positive (with respect to P) if f(x) ≥ 0 for all x ∈ P. Let S be any subspace of X with the
property that for each x ∈ X there is an s ∈ S with x ≤ s. Let f be a positive linear functional on S.
The family of positive linear functionals on S is partially ordered by setting f ≺ g if g is an extension of
f. By the Hausdorﬀ Maximal Principle, there is a maximal linearly ordered subfamily ¦g
α
¦ containing
f. Deﬁne a functional F on the union of the domains of the g
α
by setting F(x) = g
α
(x) if x is in the
domain of g
α
. Since the subfamily is linearly ordered, F is welldeﬁned. Also, F is a positive linear
functional extending f. Furthermore, F is a maximal extension since if G is any extension of F, then
g
α
≺ F ≺ G implies that G must belong to ¦g
α
¦ by maximality of ¦g
α
¦. Thus G ≺ F so G = F.
Let T be a proper subspace of X with the property that for each x ∈ X there is a t ∈ T with x ≤ t. We
show that each positive linear functional g on T has a proper extension h. Let y ∈ X ¸ T and let U be
the subspace spanned by T and y. If h is an extension of g, then h(λy +t) = λh(y) +h(t) = λh(y) +g(t).
There exists t
t
∈ T with y ≤ t
t
. i.e. t
t
−y ∈ T. Then λ(t
t
−y) + t ∈ T and g(λ(t
t
−y) + t) ≥ 0. Deﬁne
h(y) = g(t
t
−y). Then h(λy +t) = λh(y) +g(t) = g(λ(t
t
−y)) +g(t) = g(λ(t
t
−y) +t) ≥ 0. Thus h is a
proper extension of g. Since F is a maximal extension, it follows that F is deﬁned on X.
*25. Let f be a mapping of the unit ball S = ¦x : [[x[[ ≤ 1¦ into R such that f(αx+βy) = αf(x)+βf(y)
whenever x, y and αx + βy are in S. Deﬁne g(x) = [[x[[f(
x
]]x]]
). If [[x[[ ≤ 1, then g(x) = [[x[[
1
]]x]]
f(x) =
f(x). If x, y ∈ X, then g(x + y) = [[x + y[[f(
x+y
]]x+y]]
) = [[x + y[[f(
]]x]]
]]x+y]]
x
]]x]]
+
]]y]]
]]x+y]]
y
]]y]]
) = [[x +
y[[[
]]x]]
]]x+y]]
f(
x
]]x]]
) +
]]y]]
]]x+y]]
f(
y
]]y]]
)] = [[x[[f(
x
]]x]]
) + [[y[[f(
y
]]y]]
) = g(x) + g(y). If α ∈ R and x ∈ X, then
g(αx) = [[αx[[f(
αx
]]αx]]
) = [α[ [[x[[f(
αx
]α] ]]x]]
) = [α[ [[x[[
α
]α]
f(
x
]]x]]
) = αg(x). Thus g is a linear functional on
X extending f.
10.4 The Closed Graph Theorem
26. Let ¸T
n
) be a sequence of continuous linear operators from a Banach space X to a normed vector
space Y . Suppose that for each x ∈ X the sequence ¸T
n
x) converges to a value Tx. Now for each
63
x ∈ X there exists M
x
such that [[T
n
x[[ ≤ M
x
for all n. Thus there exists M such that [[T
n
[[ ≤ M
for all n. Given ε > 0, for each x ∈ X, there exists N such that [[T
N
x − Tx[[ < ε. Then [[Tx[[ ≤
[[T
N
x − Tx[[ + [[T
N
x[[ < ε + M[[x[[. Thus [[Tx[[ ≤ M[[x[[ for all x ∈ X. i.e. T is a bounded linear
operator.
27. Let A be a bounded linear transformation from a Banach space X to a Banach space Y , and let M
be the kernel and S the range of A. Suppose S is isomorphic to X/M. Since X is complete and M is
closed, X/M is complete by Q12. Thus X/M is closed and since S is isomorphic to X/M, S is also closed.
Conversely, suppose S is closed. Then since Y is complete, so is S. Let ϕ be the natural homomorphism
from X to X/M. There is a unique bounded linear operator B : X/M → S such that A = B◦ϕ. Since A
and ϕ are onto, so is B. Thus B is an open mapping. It remains to show that B is onetoone. Suppose
Bx
t
= By
t
. Then x
t
= ϕ(x) and y
t
= ϕ(y) for some x, y ∈ X so B(ϕ(x)) = B(ϕ(y)). Then Ax = Ay so
x −y ∈ M and x
t
= y
t
. Hence B is onetoone and is thus an isomorphism.
28a. Let S be a linear subspace of C[0, 1] that is closed as a subspace of L
2
[0, 1]. Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence
in S converging to f in C[0, 1]. i.e. [[f
n
− f[[
∞
→ 0. Then since [[f
n
− f[[
2
≤ [[f
n
− f[[
∞
, we have
[[f
n
−f[[
2
→ 0. Thus f ∈ S. Hence S is closed as a subspace of C[0, 1].
28b. For any f ∈ S, we have [[f[[
2
= (
_
f
2
)
1/2
≤ (
_
[[f[[
2
∞
)
1/2
= [[f[[
∞
. Since S is closed in both C[0, 1]
and L
2
[0, 1], it is complete in both norms. Thus there exists M such that [[f[[
∞
≤ M[[f[[
2
.
*28c. Let y ∈ [0, 1] and deﬁne F(f) = f(y). Then F is a linear functional on L
2
[0, 1]. Also, [F(f)[ =
[f(y)[ ≤ [[f[[
∞
≤ M[[f[[
2
so F is bounded. By the Riesz Representation Theorem, there exists k
y
∈ L
2
such that f(y) = F(f) =
_
k
y
(x)f(x) dx.
*29a. Let Y = C[0, 1] and let X be the subspace of functions which have a continuous derivative. Let A
be the diﬀerential operator. Let x
n
(t) = t
n
. Then [[x
n
[[ = 1 and Ax
n
(t) = nt
n−1
so [[Ax
n
[[ = n. Thus
A is unbounded and thus discontinuous. Let x
n
∈ X such that x
n
→ x and x
t
n
= Ax
n
→ y. Since we
have uniform convergence,
_
y =
_
limx
t
n
= lim
_
x
t
n
= x(t) − x(0) so x(t) = x(0) +
_
y. Thus x ∈ X
and Ax = x
t
= y. Hence A has a closed graph.
*29b. Consider A : R → R given by A(x) = 1/x if x ,= 0 and A(0) = 0. Then A is a discontinuous
operator from a Banach space to a normed linear space with a closed graph.
10.5 Topological vector spaces
30a. Let B be a collection of subsets containing θ. Suppose B is a base at θ for a translation invariant
topology. By deﬁnition of a base, if U, V ∈ B, there exists W ∈ B such that W ⊂ U ∩ V so (i) holds. If
U ∈ B and x ∈ U, then U −x is open so there exists V ∈ B such that V ⊂ U −x. Then x + V ⊂ U so
(ii) holds.
Conversely, suppose (i) and (ii) hold. Let T = ¦O : x ∈ O ⇒ ∃y ∈ X and U ∈ B such that x ∈ y+U ⊂ O¦.
It follows that T contains ∅ and X, and is closed under union. If x ∈ O
1
∩O
2
, then there exist y
1
, y
2
∈ X
and U
1
, U
2
∈ B such that x ∈ y
i
+U
i
∈ O
i
, i = 1, 2. Now x −y
i
∈ U
i
so by (ii), there exists V
i
∈ B such
that x −y
i
+V
i
⊂ U
i
. i.e. x +V
i
⊂ y
i
+U
i
⊂ O
i
. Now by (i), there exists W ∈ B such that W ⊂ V
1
∩V
2
so x ∈ x + W ⊂ O
1
∩ O
2
. Thus T is closed under ﬁnite intersection. If O ∈ T and y ∈ x + O, then
y −x ∈ O so there exists z ∈ X and U ∈ B such that y −x ∈ z +U ⊂ O. Thus y ∈ x+z +U ⊂ x+O so
x + O ∈ T . Hence T is a translation invariant topology. Furthermore, if θ ∈ O, then there exist x ∈ X
and U ∈ B such that θ ∈ x + U ⊂ O. Thus −x ∈ U so there exists V ∈ B such that −x + V ⊂ U. i.e.
V ⊂ x +U. Then θ ∈ V ⊂ O. Thus B is a base at θ.
30b. Let B be a base at θ for a translation invariant topology. Suppose addition is continuous from
XX to X. In particular, addition is continuous at ¸θ, θ). Thus for each U ∈ B, there exists V
1
, V
2
∈ B
such that V
1
+V
2
⊂ U. Take V ∈ B with V ⊂ V
1
∩V
2
. Then V +V ⊂ U. Conversely, suppose (iii) holds.
For x
0
, y
0
∈ X, ¦x
0
+ y
0
+ U : U ∈ B¦ is a base at x
0
+ y
0
. Now for each U ∈ B, pick V ∈ B such that
V +V ⊂ U. If x ∈ x
0
+V and y ∈ y
0
+V , then x +y ∈ x
0
+y
0
+U. Thus addition is continuous from
X X to X.
30c. Suppose scalar multiplication is continuous (at ¸0, θ)) from RX to X. Given U ∈ B and x ∈ X,
there exist ε > 0 and V ∈ B such that β(x + V ) ⊂ U for [β[ < ε. Let α = 2/ε. Then
1
α
(x + V ) ⊂ U so
x +V ⊂ αU. In particular, x ∈ αU.
30d. Let X be a topological vector space and let B be the family of all open sets U that contain θ and
64
such that αU ⊂ U for all α with [α[ < 1. If O is an open set containing θ, then continuity of scalar
multiplication implies that there is an open set V containing θ and an ε > 0 such that λV ⊂ O for all
[λ[ < ε. Let U =
]λ]<ε
λV . Then V is open, θ ∈ U ⊂ O, and αU ⊂ U for α with [α[ < 1. Thus B is a
local base for the topology and it satisﬁes (v) by its deﬁnition.
*30e. Suppose B satisﬁes the conditions of the proposition. By part (a), B is a base at θ for a translation
invariant topology and by part (b), addition is continuous. Given U ∈ B, there exists V ∈ B such that
V + V ⊂ U. Now given x ∈ X, there exists α ∈ R such that x ∈ αV . Let ε = 1/[α[. If [λ[ < min(ε, 1),
then λ(x + V ) ⊂ U since λx ∈ λαV ⊂ V and λV ⊂ V . Thus scalar multiplication is continuous at
¸0, x). Given U ∈ B and α ∈ R, let β be such that 0 < [β[ ≤ 1 and choose n such that [β[
−n
> [α[. Let
ε = [β[
n
−[α[. Now when [λ −α[ < ε, we have [λ[ < [β[
−n
since [α[ = max(α, −α). Then β
n
U ∈ B and
λβ
n
U ⊂ U. Thus scalar multiplication is continuous at ¸α, θ). Now given U ∈ B, there exists V ∈ B
such that V +V ⊂ U.
Since scalar multiplication is continuous at ¸0, x) and ¸α, θ), given α
0
∈ R and x
0
∈ X, there exist ε > 0
and W, W
t
∈ B such that α(x
0
+ W) ⊂ V when [α[ < ε and αW
t
⊂ V when [α − α
0
[ < ε. Then
αx − α
0
x
0
= α(x − x
0
) + (α − α
0
)x
0
∈ V + V ⊂ U when [α − α
0
[ < ε and x ∈ x
0
+ W
t
. Hence scalar
multiplication is continuous from R X to X.
30f. Suppose X is T
1
. If x ,= θ and x ∈
¦U ∈ B¦, then any open set containing θ will also contain x.
Contradiction. Hence (vi) holds. Conversely, suppose (vi) holds. Given two distinct points x and y, there
exists U ∈ B such that x−y / ∈ U. Also, there exists V ∈ B such that V +V ⊂ U. If (x+V )∩(y+V ) ,= ∅,
then x −y ∈ V −V . By (v), −V ⊂ V so x −y ∈ V +V ⊂ U. Contradiction. Thus x +V and y +V are
disjoint open sets separating x and y so X is Hausdorﬀ.
(*) Proof of Proposition 14
31a. Suppose a linear transformation f from one topological vector space X to a topological vector
space Y is continuous at one point. We may assume f is continuous at the origin. Let O be an open set
containing the origin in Y . There exists an open set U containing the origin in X such that f[U] ⊂ O.
Since f is linear, for any x ∈ X, f[x +U] = f(x) +f[U] ⊂ f(x) +O. Hence f is uniformly continuous.
*31b. Let f be a linear functional on a topological vector space X. Suppose f is continuous. Let I be
a bounded open interval containing 0. There exists an open set O containing the origin in X such that
f[O] ⊂ I. Thus f[O] ,= R. Conversely, suppose there is a nonempty open set O such that f[O] ,= R.
Take x ∈ O. Then O −x is an open neighbourhood of θ so there is an open neighbourhood U of θ such
that U ⊂ O −x and αU ⊂ U for α with [α[ < 1. Now f[U] ,= R and αf[U] = f[αU] ⊂ f[U] if [α[ < 1 so
f[U] is a bounded interval. Thus f is continuous at θ and thus continuous everywhere.
32. Let X be a topological vector space and M a closed linear subspace. Let ϕ be the natural homo
morphism of X onto X/M, and deﬁne a topology on X/M by taking O to be open if and only if ϕ
−1
[O]
is open in X. Clearly, ϕ is continuous. If U is open in X, then ϕ
−1
[ϕ[U]] =
m∈M
(m + U), which is
open so ϕ[U] is open. Now let O be an open set containing x
t
+ y
t
∈ X/M. Then ϕ
−1
[O] is an open
set containing x + y ∈ X. There exist open sets U and V containing x and y respectively such that
U + V ⊂ ϕ
−1
[O]. Since ϕ is open, ϕ[U] and ϕ[V ] are open sets containing x
t
and y
t
respectively. Then
ϕ[U] +ϕ[V ] ⊂ ϕ[ϕ
−1
[O]] = O. Thus addition is continuous from X/MX/M to X/M. Now let O be an
open set containing cx
t
∈ X/M. Then ϕ
−1
[O] is an open set containing cx ∈ X. There exist open sets
U and V containing c and x respectively such that UV ⊂ ϕ
−1
[O]. Since ϕ is open, ϕ[V ] is an open set
containing x
t
. Then Uϕ[V ] ⊂ ϕ[ϕ
−1
[O]] = O. Thus scalar multiplication is continuous from R X/M
to X/M. Hence X/M is a topological vector space.
33a. Suppose X is ﬁnite dimensional topological vector space. Let x
1
, . . . , x
n
be a vector space basis of X
and let e
1
, . . . , e
n
be the standard basis of R
n
. Deﬁne a linear map ϕ of R
n
to X so that ϕ(
n
i=1
a
i
e
i
) =
n
i=1
a
i
x
i
. Then ϕ is onetoone and thus onto. If a sequence ¸
a
(j)
i
e
i
) in R
n
converges to
a
i
e
i
,
then ¸a
(j)
i
) converges to a
i
for each i. Since addition and scalar multiplication are continuous on X, the
sequence ¸
a
(j)
i
x
i
) converges to
a
i
x
i
. Thus ϕ is continuous.
33b. Suppose X is Hausdorﬀ. Let S and B be the subsets of R
n
deﬁned by S = ¦y : [[y[[ = 1¦ and
B = ¦y : [[y[[ < 1¦. Since S is compact and ϕ is continuous, ϕ[S] is compact in X and thus closed. Then
X ¸ ϕ[S] is open.
33c. Let B be a base at θ satisfying the conditions of Proposition 14. Since X ¸ ϕ[S] is an open set
65
containing θ, there exists U ∈ B such that U ⊂ X ¸ ϕ[S]. Furthermore, αU ⊂ U for each [α[ < 1 by
condition (v) of Proposition 14.
33d. Suppose u = ϕ(y) ∈ U for some y with [[y[[ > 1. Then
1
]]y]]
< 1 so
1
]]y]]
u ∈ U but
1
]]y]]
u =
1
]]y]]
ϕ(y) = ϕ(
y
]]y]]
) where [[
y
]]y]]
[[ = 1 so
1
]]y]]
u ∈ ϕ[S]. Contradiction. Hence U ⊂ ϕ[B]. Thus ϕ[B] is
open and ϕ
−1
is continuous.
(*) Proof of Proposition 15.
34. Let M be a ﬁnite dimensional subspace of a Hausdorﬀ topological vector space X. If x / ∈ M, let N
be the ﬁnite dimensional subspace spanned by x and M. Then N has the usual topology so x is not a
point of closure of M. Hence M is closed.
35. Let A be a linear mapping of a ﬁnite dimensional Hausdorﬀ vector space X into a topological vector
space Y . The range of A is a ﬁnite dimensional subspace of Y so it has the usual topology. If x
n
→ x in
X where x
n
=
a
(n)
i
e
i
and x =
a
i
e
i
, then a
(n)
i
→ a
i
for each i. Since the range of A has the usual
topology, Ax
n
=
a
(n)
i
Ae
i
→
a
i
Ae
i
= Ax. Hence A is continuous.
*36. Let A be a linear mapping from a topological vector space X to a ﬁnite dimensional topological
space Y . If A is continuous, then its kernel M is closed by Q14. Conversely, suppose M is closed. There
is a unique linear mapping B : X/M → Y such that A = B ◦ ϕ where ϕ : X → X/M is the natural
homomorphism, which is a continuous open map by Q32. Then ker ϕ is closed and ϕ is an open map so
X/M is a Hausdorﬀ topological vector space. Furthermore, B is onetoone and Y is ﬁnite dimensional
so X/M is ﬁnite dimensional. By Q35, B is continuous. Hence A is continuous.
*37. Let X be a locally compact Hausdorﬀ vector space. Let V be a neighbourhood of θ with
¯
V compact
and αV ⊂ V for each α with [α[ < 1. The set ¦x+
1
3
V : x ∈
¯
V ¦ is an open cover of
¯
V so
¯
V can be covered
by a ﬁnite number of translates x
1
+
1
3
V, . . . , x
n
+
1
3
V . To show that x
1
, . . . , x
n
span X, it suﬃces to
show that they span V . Let x ∈ V . Then x = x
k
1
+
1
3
u
1
for some k
1
∈ ¦1, . . . , n¦ and u
1
∈ U. Now
1
3
U
is covered by
1
3
(x
1
+
1
3
V ), . . . ,
1
3
(x
n
+
1
3
V ) so x = x
k
1
+
1
3
x
k
2
+
1
9
u
2
. Continuing in this way, we have
x ∈ x
k
1
+
1
3
x
k
2
+ +
1
3
r−2
x
k
r
+
1
3
r
U for each r. Let y
r
= x
k
1
+
1
3
x
k
2
+ +
1
3
r−2
x
k
r
. Then y
r
is in the
span of S, which is ﬁnite dimensional and thus closed by Q34.
Now for each y ∈
¯
V , there exists ε
y
> 0 and an open neighbourhood U
y
of y such that δU
y
⊂ V whenever
[δ[ < ε
y
since scalar multiplication is continuous at ¸0, y). The open sets U
y
cover
¯
V so
¯
V ⊂ U
y
1
∪ ∪U
y
n
.
Then δ
¯
V ⊂ V whenever [δ[ < min
1≤k≤n
ε
y
k
.
Choose N such that δ
0
¯
V ⊂ V whenever [δ
0
[ < 3
−N
. Let δ > 0 be given. Choose M such that
3
−M
δ
−1
< 3
−N
. When m ≥ M, we have 3
−m
δ
−1
< 3
−N
so 3
−m
δ
−1
¯
V ⊂ V . i.e. 3
−m
¯
V ⊂ δV . Thus
x − y
m
∈ δV for m ≥ M. Thus x − y
m
→ θ and y
m
→ x. Hence x is in the span of S. It follows that
x
1
, . . . , x
n
span X so X is ﬁnite dimensional.
10.6 Weak topologies
38a. Suppose x
n
→ x weakly. Then f(x
n
) → f(x) for each f ∈ X
∗
. Thus [f(x
n
)[ ≤ C
f
for each f ∈ X
∗
and each n. Now let ϕ : X → X
∗∗
be the natural homomorphism so that ϕ(x
n
)(f) = f(x
n
). Then
[ϕ(x
n
)(f)[ ≤ C
f
for each f ∈ X
∗
and each n. Since X
∗
is a Banach space, ¸[[ϕ(x
n
)[[) is bounded but
[[ϕ(x
n
)[[ = [[x
n
[[ so ¸[[x
n
[[) is bounded.
*38b. Let ¸x
n
) be a sequence in
p
, 1 < p < ∞, and let x
n
= ¸ξ
m,n
)
∞
m=1
. Suppose ¸x
n
) converges
weakly to x = ¸ξ
m
). By part (a), ¸[[x
n
[[) is bounded. Each bounded linear functional F on
p
is given by
F(x
n
) =
m
ξ
m,n
η
m
for some ¸η
m
) ∈
q
. Conversely, taking the mth term to be 1 and the remaining
terms to be 0 gives a sequence ¸η
m
) ∈
q
so that F(x
n
) =
ξ
m,n
η
m
= ξ
m,n
is a bounded linear functional
on
p
. Thus ¸F(x
n
)) converges to F(x). i.e. ¸ξ
m,n
)
∞
m=1
converges to ξ
m
.
Conversely, suppose ¸[[x
n
[[) is bounded and for each m we have ξ
m,n
→ ξ
m
. Then [[x
n
[[ ≤ C and
[[x[[ ≤ C for some C. Let F ∈ (
p
)
∗
=
q
. Let e
n
be the sequence having 1 as the nth term and
0 elsewhere. Then span¦e
n
¦ is dense in
q
so there exists ¸F
n
) with F
n
∈ span¦e
n
¦ and F
n
→ F.
Given ε > 0, there exists N such that [[F
N
− F[[ < ε/3C. Since F
N
∈ span¦e
n
¦ and ξ
m,n
→ ξ
m
for each n, there is an M such that [F
N
(x
n
) − F
N
(x)[ < ε/3 for n ≥ M. Thus for n ≥ M, we have
[F(x
n
) − F(x)[ ≤ [F(x
n
) − F
N
(x
n
)[ + [F
N
(x
n
) − F
N
(x)[ + [F
N
(x) − F(x)[ < ε. Hence ¸x
n
) converges
weakly to x.
66
38c. Let ¸x
n
) be a sequence in L
p
[0, 1], 1 < p < ∞. Suppose ¸[[x
n
[[) is bounded and ¸x
n
) converges to
x in measure. By Corollary 4.19, every subsequence of ¸x
n
) has in turn a subsequence that converges
a.e. to x. By Q6.17, every subsequence of ¸x
n
) has in turn a subsequence ¸x
n
k
j
) such that for each
y ∈ L
q
[0, 1] we have
_
x
n
k
j
y →
_
xy. Now for each bounded linear functional F on L
p
[0, 1], we have
F(x) =
_
xy for some y ∈ L
q
[0, 1]. Thus every subsequence of ¸x
n
) has in turn a subsequence ¸x
n
k
j
)
such that F(x
n
k
j
) → F(x). By Q2.12, F(x
n
) → F(x). Hence ¸x
n
) converges weakly to x.
38d. Let x
n
= nχ
[0,1/n]
for each n. Then x
n
→ 0 and [[x
n
[[
1
= 1 for all n. In particular, ¸x
n
) is
a sequence in L
1
[0, 1] converging to 0 in measure. Let y = χ
[0,1]
∈ L
∞
[0, 1]. Then F(x) =
_
xy is a
bounded linear functional on L
1
[0, 1] and F(0) = 0 while F(x
n
) = [[x
n
[[
1
= 1 for each n so F(x
n
) does
not converge to F(0). Hence ¸x
n
) does not converge weakly to 0.
(*) See Q6.17
38e. In
p
, 1 < p < ∞, let x
n
be the sequence whose nth term is one and whose remaining terms are
zero. For any bounded linear functional F on
p
, there exists ¸y
n
) ∈
q
such that F(x
n
) = y
n
. Then
F(x
n
) = y
n
→ 0 since ¸y
n
) ∈
q
. Thus x
n
→ 0 in the weak topology. If ¸x
n
) converges in the strong
topology, then it must converge to 0 but [[x
n
[[
p
= 1 for all n so it does not converge to 0 and thus does
not converge in the strong topology.
38f. Let x
n
be as in part (e), and deﬁne y
n,m
= x
n
+ nx
m
. Let F = ¦y
n,m
: m > n¦. Note that
the distance between any two points in F is at least 1 so there are no nonconstant sequences in F that
converge in the strong topology. Any sequence in F that converges must be a constant sequence so its
limit is in F. Hence F is strongly closed.
38g. Let F be as in part (f). The sets ¦x : [f
i
(x)[ < ε, i = 1, . . . , n¦ where ε > 0 and f
1
, . . . , f
n
∈ (
p
)
∗
form a base at θ for the weak topology. Given ε > 0 and f
1
, . . . , f
n
∈ (
p
)
∗
, f
i
(y
m,n
) is of the form
ξ
i
n
+ nξ
i
m
where ¸ξ
i
n
) ∈
q
. Choose n such that [ξ
i
n
[ < ε/2 for all i. Then choose m > n such that
[ξ
i
m
[ < ε/2n for all i. Then [f
i
(y
m,n
)[ ≤ [ξ
i
n
[ + n[ξ
i
m
[ < ε. Thus F ∩ ¦x : [f
i
(x)[ < ε, i = 1, . . . , n¦ ,= ∅
and θ is a weak closure point of F.
Suppose ¸z
k
) = ¸y
m
k
,n
k
) = ¸x
n
k
+ n
k
x
m
k
) is a sequence from F that converges weakly to zero. Given
ε > 0 and ¸ξ
n
) ∈
q
, there exists N such that [ξ
n
k
+ n
k
ξ
m
k
[ < ε for k ≥ N. Suppose ¦m
k
¦ is bounded
above. Then some m is repeated inﬁnitely many times. Let ξ
m
= 1 and ξ
n
= 0 otherwise. For each N
there exists k ≥ N such that m
k
= m so [ξ
n
k
+ n
k
ξ
m
k
[ = [n
k
[ ≥ 1. Thus ¦m
k
¦ is not bounded above
and we may assume the sequence ¸m
k
) is strictly increasing. Now suppose ¦n
k
¦ is bounded above. Then
some n is repeated inﬁnitely many times. Let ξ
n
= 1 and ξ
m
= 0 otherwise. For each N there exists
k ≥ N such that n
k
= n so [ξ
n
k
+ n
k
ξ
m
k
[ = 1. Thus ¦n
k
¦ is not bounded above and we may assume
the sequence ¸n
k
) is strictly increasing. Now let ξ
m
k
= 1/n
k
for each k and ξ
m
= 0 if m ,= m
k
for any
k. Then ¸ξ
n
) ∈
q
and [ξ
n
k
+n
k
ξ
m
k
[ ≥ 1 for all k. Contradiction. Hence there is no sequence ¸z
k
) from
F that converges weakly to zero.
38h. The weak topology of
1
is the weakest topology such that all functionals in (
1
)
∗
=
∞
are
continuous. A base at θ is given by the sets ¦x ∈
1
: [f
i
(x)[ < ε, i = 1, . . . , n¦ where ε > 0 and
f
1
, . . . , f
n
∈
∞
. A net ¸(x
(α)
n
)) in
1
converges weakly to (x
n
) ∈
1
if and only if
n
x
(α)
n
y
n
converges
to
n
x
n
y
n
for each (y
n
) ∈
∞
.
If a net ¸(x
(α)
n
)) in
1
converges weakly to (x
n
) ∈
1
, then for each n, taking (y
n
) ∈
∞
where y
n
= 1 and
y
m
= 0 for m ,= n, we have x
(α)
n
converging to x
n
for each n.
If the net ¸(x
(α)
n
)) in
1
is bounded, say by M, and x
(α)
n
converges to x
n
for each n, then
n
[x
n
[ ≤
n
[x
(α)
n
−x
n
[+
n
[x
(α)
n
[ ≤ M so (x
n
) ∈
1
. If (y
n
) ∈
∞
, then [
n
(x
(α)
n
−x
n
)y
n
[ ≤ [[(y
n
)[[
∞
n
[x
(α)
n
−
x
n
[ → 0 so
n
x
(α)
n
y
n
converges to
n
x
n
y
n
and ¸(x
(α)
n
)) converges weakly to (x
n
).
For k ∈ N, let (x
(k)
n
) ∈
1
where x
(k)
k
= k and x
(k)
n
= 0 if n ,= k. Then the sequence ¸(x
(k)
n
)) is not
bounded and x
(k)
n
converges to 0 for each n. However, taking (y
n
) ∈
∞
where y
n
= 1 for all n, we have
n
x
(k)
n
y
n
= k, which does not converge to 0 so ¸(x
(k)
n
)) does not converge weakly to θ.
The weak* topology on
1
as the dual of c
0
is the weakest topology such that all functionals in ϕ[c
0
] ⊂
∞
are continuous. A base at θ is given by the sets ¦f ∈
1
: [f(x
i
)[ < ε, i = 1, . . . , n¦ where ε > 0 and
x
1
, . . . , x
n
∈ c
0
. A net ¸(x
(α)
n
)) in
1
is weak* convergent to (x
n
) ∈
1
if and only if
n
x
(α)
n
y
n
converges
67
to
n
x
n
y
n
for all (y
n
) ∈ c
0
.
Using the same arguments as above and replacing
∞
by c
0
, we see that if a net ¸(x
(α)
n
)) in
1
is weak*
convergent to (x
n
) ∈
1
, then x
(α)
n
converges to x
n
for each n. We also see that if the net is bounded
and x
(α)
n
converges to x
n
, then the net is weak* convergent to (x
n
).
For k ∈ N, let (x
(k)
n
) ∈
1
where x
(k)
k
= k and x
(k)
n
= 0 if n ,= k. Then the sequence ¸(x
(k)
n
)) is not
bounded and x
(k)
n
converges to 0 for each n. However, taking (y
n
) ∈ c
0
where y
n
= 1/n for all n, we
have
n
x
(k)
n
y
n
= 1, which does not converge to 0 so ¸(x
(k)
n
)) is not weak* convergent to θ.
39a. Let X = c
0
, T =
1
and T
0
the set of sequences with ﬁnitely many nonzero terms, which is dense
in
1
. Consider the sequence ¸(x
(k)
n
)) in c
0
where x
(k)
k
= k
2
and x
(k)
n
= 0 if n ,= k. For any sequence
(y
n
) ∈ T
0
, we have
n
x
(k)
n
y
n
= k
2
y
k
→ 0. Thus the sequence ¸(x
(k)
n
)) converges to zero in the weak
topology generated by T
0
. Now if the sequence ¸(x
(k)
n
)) converges in the weak topology generated by T,
the weak limit must then be zero. Let (z
n
) be the sequence in T where z
n
= 1/n
2
for each n. Then
n
x
(k)
n
z
n
= 1. Thus the sequence ¸(x
(k)
n
)) does not converge in the weak topology generated by T.
Hence T and T
0
generate diﬀerent weak topologies for X.
Now suppose S is a bounded subset of X. We may assume that S contains θ. Let T be a set of functionals
in X
∗
and let T
0
be a dense subset of T (in the norm topology on X
∗
). Note that in general, the weak
topology generated by T
0
is weaker than the weak topology generated by T. A base at θ for the weak
topology on S generated by T is given by the sets ¦x ∈ S : [f
i
(x)[ < ε, i = 1, . . . , n¦ where ε > 0 and
f
1
, . . . , f
n
∈ T. A set in a base at θ for the weak topology on S generated by T
0
is also in a base at θ
for the weak topology generated by T. Suppose x ∈ S so that [[x[[ ≤ M and [f
i
(x)[ < ε for some ε > 0
and f
1
, . . . , f
n
∈ T. For each i, there exists g
i
∈ T
0
such that [[f
i
− g
i
[[ < ε/2M. If [g
i
(x)[ < ε/2 for
i = 1, . . . , n, then [f
i
(x)[ ≤ [f
i
(x) − g
i
(x)[ + [g
i
(x)[ ≤ [[f
i
− g
i
[[ [[x[[ + [g
i
(x)[ < ε for i = 1, . . . , n. Thus
any set in a base at θ for the weak topology on S generated by T contains a set in a base at θ for the
weak topology generated by T
0
. Hence the two weak topologies are the same on S.
*39b. Let S
∗
be the unit sphere in the dual X
∗
of a separable Banach space X. Let ¦x
n
¦ be a countable
dense subset of X. Then ¦ϕ(x
n
)¦ is a countable dense subset of ϕ[X]. By part (a), ¦ϕ(x
n
)¦ generates
the same weak topology on S
∗
as ϕ[X]. i.e. ¦ϕ(x
n
)¦ generates the weak* topology on S
∗
. Now deﬁne
ρ(f, g) =
2
−n
]f(x
n
)−g(x
n
)]
1+]f(x
n
)−g(x
n
)]
. Then ρ is a metric on S
∗
. Furthermore ρ(f
n
, f) → 0 if and only if
[f
n
(x
k
) −f(x
k
)[ → 0 for each k (see Q7.24a) if and only if [ϕ(x
k
)(f
n
) −ϕ(x
k
)(f)[ → 0 for each k if and
only if f
n
→ f in the weak* topology. Hence S
∗
is metrizable.
40. Suppose X is a weakly compact set. Every x
∗
∈ X
∗
is continuous so x
∗
[X] is compact in R, and
thus bounded, for each x
∗
∈ X
∗
. For each x ∈ X and x
∗
∈ X
∗
, there is a constant M
x
∗ such that
[ϕ(x)(x
∗
)[ = [x
∗
(x)[ ≤ M
x
∗. Thus ¦[[ϕ(x)[[ : x ∈ X¦ is bounded. Since [[ϕ(x)[[ = [[x[[ for each x, we
have ¦[[x[[ : x ∈ X¦ is bounded.
41a. Let S be the linear subspace of C[0, 1] given in Q28 (S is closed as a subspace of L
2
[0, 1]. Suppose
¸f
n
) is a sequence in S such that f
n
→ f weakly in L
2
. By Q28c, for each y ∈ [0, 1], there exists
k
y
∈ L
2
such that for all f ∈ S we have f(y) =
_
k
y
f. Now
_
f
n
k
y
→
_
fk
y
for each y ∈ [0, 1] since
k
y
∈ L
2
= (L
2
)
∗
. Thus f
n
(y) → f(y) for each y ∈ [0, 1].
41b. Suppose ¸f
n
) is a sequence in S such that f
n
→ f weakly in L
2
. By Q38a, ¸[[f
n
[[
2
) is bounded.
By Q28b, there exists M such that [[f[[
∞
≤ M[[f[[
2
for all f ∈ S. In particular, [[f
n
[[
∞
≤ M[[f
n
[[
2
for
all n. Hence ¸[[f
n
[[
∞
) is bounded. Now ¸f
2
n
) is a sequence of measurable functions with [f
n
[
2
≤ M
t
on
[0, 1] and f
2
n
(y) → f
2
(y) for each y ∈ [0, 1] as a consequence of part (a). By the Lebesgue Convergence
Theorem, [[f
n
[[
2
2
→ [[f[[
2
2
and so [[f
n
[[
2
→ [[f[[
2
. By Q6.16, f
n
→ f strongly in L
2
.
*41c. Since L
2
is reﬂexive and S is a closed linear subspace, S is a reﬂexive Banach space by Q23d. By
Alaoglu’s Theorem, the unit ball of S
∗∗
is weak* compact. Then the unit ball of S is weakly compact
since the weak* topology on S
∗∗
induces the weak topology on S when S is regarded as a subspace of
S
∗∗
. By part (b), the unit ball of S is compact. Thus S is locally compact Hausdorﬀ so by Q37, S is
ﬁnite dimensional.
68
10.7 Convexity
42. Let A be a linear operator from the vector space X to the vector space Y . Let K be a convex set in
X. If x, y ∈ X and 0 ≤ λ ≤ 1, then λAx+(1 −λ)Ay = A(λx) +A((1 −λ)y) = A(λx+(1 −λ)y) ∈ A[X].
Thus A[X] is a convex set in Y . Let K
t
be a convex set in Y . If x, y ∈ A
−1
[K
t
], then Ax, Ay ∈ K
t
so if
0 ≤ λ ≤ 1, then λAx+(1−λ)Ay ∈ K
t
. Now λAx+(1−λ)Ay = A(λx+(1−λ)y) so λx+(1−λ)y ∈ A
−1
[K
t
].
Thus A
−1
[K
t
] is a convex set in X. By using the linearity of A, it can be shown that a similar result
holds when “convex set” is replaced by “linear manifold”.
Deﬁne the linear operator A : R
2
→R by A(¸x, y)) = x+y. Take the nonconvex set ¦¸0, 1), ¸1, 0)¦ ⊂ R
2
.
Its image under A is the conves set ¦1¦ ⊂ R.
43. Let K be a convex set in a topological vector space. Let x, y ∈
¯
K and 0 ≤ λ ≤ 1. Let O be an open
set containing λx+(1−λ)y. Since addition and scalar multiplication are continuous, there are open sets
U and V containing x and y respectively, as well as ε > 0, such that µU +ηV ⊂ O whenever [µ−λ[ < ε
and [η −(1 −λ)[ < ε. Now there exist x
t
∈ K∩U and y
t
∈ K∩V . Then λx
t
+(1 −λ)y
t
∈ K∩O. Hence
λx + (1 −λ)y ∈
¯
K and
¯
K is convex.
44a. Let x
0
be an interior point of a subset K of a topological vector space X. There is an open set
O such that x
0
∈ O ⊂ K. Let x ∈ X. By continuity of addition at ¸x
0
, θ), there exists an open set U
containing θ such that x
0
+ U ⊂ O. By continuity of scalar multiplication at ¸0, x), there exists ε > 0
such that λx ∈ U whenever [λ[ < ε. Thus x
0
+λx ∈ O ⊂ K whenever [λ[ < ε and x
0
is an internal point
of K.
44b. In R, a convex set must be an interval and an internal point must not be an endpoint of the
interval so it is an interior point. In R
n
for n ≥ 2, let ¦e
i
: i = 1, . . . , n¦ be the standard basis.
Suppose x = ¸x
1
, . . . , x
n
) is an internal point of a convex set K. For each i, there exists ε
i
> 0 such
that x + λe
i
∈ K if [λ[ < ε
i
. Let ε = min
1≤i≤n
ε
i
. If [λ[ < ε, then x + λe
i
∈ K for all i. Now
suppose [[y − x[[ < ε/n. Then [y
i
− x
i
[ < ε/n for all i so x + n(y
i
− x
i
)e
i
∈ K for all i. Note that
y =
n
i=1
1
n
(x +n(y
i
−x
i
)e
i
), which belongs to K since K is convex. Thus there is an open ball centred
at x and contained in K so x is an interior point of K.
*44c. Consider K = B
¸0,1),1
∪ B
¸0,−1),1
∪ ¦¸x, 0) : [x[ < 1¦ ⊂ R
2
. Then ¸0, 0) is an internal point of K
but not an interior point.
44d. Suppose a convex set K in a topological vector space has an interior point x. Let y be an internal
point of K. There exists ε > 0 such that y+
ε
2
(y−x) ∈ K. Now there is an open set O such that x ∈ O ⊂
K. Let λ = ε/2. Then y =
λ
1+λ
x+
1
1+λ
[y +λ(y −x)] ∈
λ
1+λ
O+
1
1+λ
[y +λ(y −x)] ⊂
λ
1+λ
K +
1
1+λ
K ⊂ K.
Since
λ
1+λ
O +
1
1+λ
[y +λ(y −x)] is an open neighbourhood of y contained in K, y is an interior point of
K.
*44e. Let X be a topological vector space that is of second Baire category with respect to itself. Suppose
a closed convex subset K of X has an internal point y. Let X
n
= ¦x ∈ X : y+tx ∈ C for all t ∈ [0, 1/n]¦.
Each X
n
is a closed subset of X since addition and scalar multiplication are continuous and C is closed.
Now X =
X
n
so some X
n
has an interior point x. Then x ∈ O ⊂ X
n
for some open set O. Thus
y +
1
n
x ∈ y +
1
n
O ⊂ C so y +
1
n
x is an interior point of C.
(*) Assumption of convexity not necessary?
45. Let K be a convex set containing θ and suppose that x is an internal point of K. Since x is an
internal point, there exists ε > 0 such that x + µx ∈ K for [µ[ < ε. Choose λ such that 0 < λ < 1 and
(1 −λ)
−1
x ∈ K. Note that 0 < 1 −λ < 1. For y ∈ K, x +λy = (1 −λ)[(1 −λ)
−1
x] +λy ∈ K since K is
convex.
46. Let ^ be a family of convex sets (containing θ) in a vector space X. Suppose ^ satisﬁes (i), (ii)
and (iii). To show that the translates of sets in ^ form a base for a topology that makes X into a locally
convex topological vector space, it suﬃces to show that ^ is a base at θ. If N
1
, N
2
∈ ^, there is an
N
3
∈ ^ with N
3
⊂ N
1
∩ N
2
. Thus condition (i) of Proposition 14 is satisﬁed. If N ∈ ^ and x ∈ N,
then x is internal. By Q45, there exists λ with 0 < λ < 1 and x + λN ⊂ N. Note that λN ∈ ^.
Thus condition (ii) of Proposition 14 is satisﬁed. If N ∈ ^, then
1
2
N +
1
2
N ⊂ N. Note that
1
2
N ∈ ^.
Thus condition (iii) of Proposition 14 is satisﬁed. If N ∈ ^ and x ∈ X, then λx ∈ N for some λ ∈ R
since θ ∈ N and θ is internal. Now x ∈
1
λ
N so condition (iv) of Proposition 14 is satisﬁed. If N ∈ ^
and 0 < [α[ < 1, then αN ⊂ N since θinN and N is convex. Also, αN ∈ ^. Thus condition (v) of
69
Proposition 14 is satisﬁed. Hence ^ is a base at θ for a topology that makes X into a (locally convex)
topological vector space.
Conversely, if X is a locally convex topological vector space, then there is a base for the topology
consisting of convex sets. Consider the family ^ consisting of all sets N in the base containing θ
together with αN for 0 < [α[ < 1. Then ^ is a base at θ. If N ∈ ^, then each point of N is interior
and thus internal by Q. If N
1
, N
2
∈ ^, there is an N
3
∈ ^ with N
3
⊂ N
1
∩N
2
since N
1
∩N
2
is an open
set containing θ. Condition (iii) is satisﬁed by the deﬁnition of ^.
(*) Proof of Proposition 21.
*47.
48a. In L
p
[0, 1], 1 < p < ∞, suppose [[x[[ = 1. If x = λy + (1 − λ)z with [[y[[ ≤ 1 and [[z[[ ≤ 1, then
1 = [[x[[ = [[λy +(1−λ)z[[ ≤ λ[[y[[ +(1−λ)[[z[[ ≤ 1 so equality holds in the Minkowski inequality. Thus
λy and (1 −λ)z are collinear. i.e. λy = α(1 −λ)z for some α. Also, [[y[[ = [[z[[ = 1. Then y = z. Hence
x is an extreme point of the unit sphere S = ¦x : [[x[[ ≤ 1¦.
(*) Note that an extreme point of the unit sphere of any normed space must have norm one. Otherwise
if 0 < [[x[[ < 1, then x = [[x[[
x
]]x]]
+ (1 −[[x[[)θ so x cannot be an extreme point of the unit sphere.
*48b.
*48c. Let x ∈ L
1
[0, 1] with [[x[[ = 1. Choose t ∈ [0, 1] such that
_
t
0
[x(t)[ dt =
1
2
. Deﬁne y(s) = 2x(s)
if s ≤ t and y(s) = 0 otherwise. Also deﬁne z(s) = 2x(s) if s ≥ t and z(s) = 0 otherwise. Now
y, z ∈ L
1
[0, 1], [[y[[ = [[z[[ = 1 and x =
1
2
(y + z) so x is not an extreme point of the unit sphere. Since
any point with norm one in L
1
[0, 1] is not an extreme point of the unit sphere, the unit sphere has no
extreme points.
48d. If L
1
[0, 1] is the dual of some normed space, then its unit sphere is weak* compact and convex so
it has extreme points, contradicting part (c). Hence L
1
[0, 1] is not the dual of any normed space.
48e. For 1 < p < ∞, every ¸x
i
) with [[¸x
i
)[[ = 1 is an extreme point of the unit sphere of
p
by a similar
argument as in part (a).
Let ¸x
i
) ∈
1
with [[¸x
i
)[[ = 1. We may assume [x
1
[ ≥ [x
2
[ > 0. Let y
1
= (sgn x
1
)([x
1
[ − [x
2
[) and
y
2
= 2x
2
. Also, let z
1
= x
1
+ (sgn x
1
)[x
2
[ and z
2
= 0. Then y
1
+ z
1
= 2x
1
and y
2
+ z
2
= 2x
2
. Also,
[y
1
[+[y
2
[ = [x
1
[+[x
2
[ and [z
1
[+[z
2
[ ≤ [x
1
[+[x
2
[. For i > 2, deﬁne y
i
= z
i
= x
i
. Then ¸x
i
) =
1
2
(¸y
i
)+¸z
i
))
with ¸y
i
), ¸z
i
) ∈ S. Thus the unit sphere in
1
has no extreme points.
Let ¸x
i
) ∈
∞
with [x
i
[ = 1 for all i. If 1 = x
i
= λy
i
+ (1 − λ)z
i
with [y
i
[ ≤ 1, [z
i
[ ≤ 1 and 0 < λ < 1,
then y
i
= z
i
= 1. Similarly, if −1 = x
i
= λy
i
+ (1 − λ)z
i
with [y
i
[ ≤ 1, [z
i
[ ≤ 1 and 0 < λ < 1, then
y
i
= z
i
= −1. Thus ¸x
i
) is an extreme point of the unit sphere in
∞
. If [x
N
[ < 1 for some N, then deﬁne
y
i
= x
i
+
1−]x
i
]
2
and z
i
= x
i
−
1−]x
i
]
2
for all i so that ¸x
i
) =
1
2
(¸y
i
) + ¸z
i
)). Furthermore, ¸y
i
), ¸z
i
) ∈ S.
Hence the extreme points of the unit sphere in
∞
are those ¸x
i
) with [x
i
[ = 1 for all i.
*48f. The constant functions ±1 are extreme points of the unit sphere in C(X) where X is a compact
Hausdorﬀ space. Let f ∈ C(X) with [[f[[ = 1 and suppose [f(x
0
)[ < 1 for some x
0
∈ X. Fix ε > 0
such that 0 < [f(x
0
)[ − ε and [f(x
0
)[ + ε < 1. Let A = ¦x : [f(x)[ = [f(x
0
)[¦ and B = ¦x : [f(x)[ ∈
[0, f(x
0
) −ε] ∪ [f(x
0
) +ε, 1]¦. Then A and B are disjoint closed subsets of the compact Hausdorﬀ (and
thus normal) space X so by Urysohn’s Lemma, there exists g ∈ C(X) such that 0 ≤ g ≤ ε, g ≡ 0 on
B and g ≡ ε on A. Now [[f + g[[ ≤ 1, [[f − g[[ ≤ 1 and f =
1
2
[(f + g) + (f − g)]. Thus f is not an
extreme point of the unit sphere in C(X). Hence the extreme points of the unit sphere are those f where
[f(x)[ = 1 for all x ∈ X and by continuity, these are the constant functions ±1.
The only extreme points of the unit sphere in C[0, 1] are the constant functions ±1. If C[0, 1] is the dual of
some normed space, then its unit sphere is a weak* compact convex set so by the KreinMilman Theorem,
it is the closed convex hull of its extreme points and contains only constant functions. Contradiction.
Hence C[0, 1] is not the dual of any normed space.
49a. Let X be the vector space of all measurable realvalued functions on [0, 1] with addition and
scalar multiplication deﬁned in the usual way. Deﬁne σ(x) =
_
1
0
]x(t)]
1+]x(t)]
dt. Since
]x(t)+y(t)]
1+]x(t)+y(t)]
=
1 −
1
1+]x(t)+y(t)]
≤ 1 −
1
1+]x(t)]+]y(t)]
=
]x(t)]+]y(t)]
1+]x(t)]+]y(t)]
≤
]x(t)]
1+]x(t)]
+
]y(t)]
1+]y(t)]
, we have σ(x +y) ≤ σ(x) +σ(y).
By deﬁning ρ(x, y) = σ(x −y), we have a metric for X.
49b. Suppose x
n
→ x in measure. Given ε > 0, there exists N such that for all n ≥ N we have m¦t :
70
[x
n
(t) −x(t)[ ≥ ε/2¦ < ε/2. Then for n ≥ N, ρ(x
n
, x) =
_
1
0
]x
n
(t)−x(t)]
1+]x
n
(t)−x(t)]
dt ≤
_
¦t:]x
n
(t)−x(t)]≥ε/2]
1 dt +
_
¦t:]x
n
(t)−x(t)]<ε/2]
[x
n
(t) − x(t)[ dt < ε. Thus x
n
→ x in the metric ρ. Conversely, suppose ¸x
n
)
does not converge to x in measure. There exists ε > 0 such that for all N there is n ≥ N with
m¦t : [x
n
(t) −x(t)[ ≥ ε¦ ≥ ε. Thus there is a subsequence ¸x
n
k
) such that m¦t : [x
n
k
(t) −x(t)[ ≥ ε¦ ≥ ε
for all k. Now ρ(x
n
k
, x) =
_
1
0
]x
n
k
(t)−x(t)]
1+]x
n
k
(t)−x(t)]
dt ≥
_
¦]x
n
k
−x]≥ε]
]x
n
k
(t)−x(t)]
1+]x
n
k
(t)−x(t)]
dt ≥
ε
2
1+ε
for all k so the
subsequence ¸x
n
k
) does not converge to x in the metric ρ. Hence ¸x
n
) does not converge to x in the
metric ρ.
49c. Let ¸x
n
) be Cauchy in the metric ρ. Suppose ¸x
n
) is not Cauchy in measure. There exists
ε > 0 such that for all N there is n, m ≥ N with m¦t : [x
n
(t) − x
m
(t)[ ≥ ε¦ ≥ ε. Thus there is
a subsequence ¸x
n
k
) such that m¦t : [x
n
2k−1
(t) − x
n
2k
(t)[ ≥ ε¦ ≥ ε for all k. Now ρ(x
n
2k−1
, x
n
2k
) =
_
1
0
]x
n
2k−1
(t)−x
n
2k
(t)]
1+]x
n
2k−1
(t)−x
n
2k
(t)]
dt ≥
_
¦]x
n
2k−1
−x
n
2k
]≥ε]
]x
n
2k−1
(t)−x
n
2k
(t)]
1+]x
n
2k−1
(t)−x
n
2k
(t)]
dt ≥
ε
2
1+ε
for all k so the subsequence
¸x
n
k
) is not Cauchy in the metric ρ. Contradiction. Hence ¸x
n
) is Cauchy in measure. By Q4.25, ¸x
n
)
converges in measure and by part (b), it converges in the metric ρ. Hence X is a complete metric space.
49d. Given ε > 0, let δ = ε/2. When τ(¸x, y), ¸x
t
, y
t
)) < δ, we have ρ(x, x
t
) < δ and ρ(y, y
t
) < δ. Now
ρ(x +y, x
t
+y
t
) = σ(x −x
t
+y −y
t
) ≤ σ(x −x
t
) +σ(y −y
t
) = ρ(x, x
t
) +ρ(y, y
t
) < ε. Hence addition is
a continuous mapping of X X into X.
49e. Given a ∈ R, x ∈ X and ε > 0, by Q3.23a, there exists M such that [x[ ≤ M except on a set of
measure less than ε/3. Let δ = min(1, ε/3([a[ +1), ε/3M). When τ(¸a, x), ¸c, x
t
)) < δ, we have [c−a[ < δ
and ρ(x, x
t
) < δ. Now ρ(ax, cx
t
) =
_
1
0
]ax(t)−cx
(t)]
1+]ax(t)−cx
(t)]
dt ≤
_
1
0
]a−c] ]x(t)]
1+]a−c] ]x(t)]
dt +
_
1
0
]c] ]x(t)−x
(t)]
1+]c] ]x(t)−x
(t)]
dt <
Mδ +ε/3 + ([a[ +δ)δ < ε. Hence scalar multiplication is a continuous mapping of R X to X.
49f. Given x ∈ X and ε > 0, there is a step function s such that [x − s[ < ε/2 except on a set of
measure less than ε/2. i.e. m¦t : [x(t) − s(t)[ ≥ ε/2¦ < ε/2. Now ρ(x, s) =
_
1
0
]x(t)−s(t)]
1+]x(t)−s(t)]
dt =
_
¦]x−s]<ε/2]
]x(t)−s(t)]
1+]x(t)−s(t)]
dt +
_
¦]x−s]≥ε/2]
]x(t)−s(t)]
1+]x(t)−s(t)]
dt <
_
1
0
ε/2 dt +
_
¦]x−s]≥ε/2]
1 dt < ε. Hence the
set of step functions is dense in X.
*49g.
49h. By parts (d) and (e), X is a topological vector space. Since there are no nonzero continuous linear
functionals on X by part (g), X cannot be locally convex.
49i. Let s be the space of all sequences of real numbers and deﬁne σ(¸ξ
v
)) =
2
−v
]ξ
v
]
1+]ξ
v
]
.
Analogues of parts (a) and (c) follow from Q7.24. The analogue of part (d) follows from the same
argument as above. For the analogue of part (e), suppose a ∈ R, ¸ξ
v
) ∈ s and ε > 0 are given.
Let δ = min(1, ε/2[a[, ε/2(σ(¸ξ
v
)) + 1)). When τ(¸a, ¸ξ
v
)), ¸c, ¸η
v
))) < δ, we have [c − a[ < δ and
σ(¸ξ
v
) − ¸η
v
)) < δ. Now σ(a¸ξ
v
) − c¸η
v
)) =
2
−v
]aξ
v
−cη
v
]
1+]aξ
v
−cη
v
]
≤
2
−v
]a] ]ξ
v
−η
v
]
1+]a] ]ξ
v
−η
v
]
+
2
−v
]a−c] ]η
v
]
1+]a−c] ]η
v
]
=
[a[σ(¸ξ
v
) −¸η
v
)) +[a −c[σ(¸η
v
)) < [a[δ +(σ(¸ξ
v
)) +δ)δ < ε. Hence scalar multiplication is a continuous
mapping of R s into s.
Let f be a continuous linear functional on s. For each v, let e
v
be the sequence where the vth entry
is 1 and all other entries are 0. Now any sequence ¸ξ
v
) ∈ s can be expressed as
ξ
v
e
v
so f(¸ξ
v
)) =
f(
ξ
v
e
v
) =
ξ
v
f(e
v
) since f is continuous and linear. Since the series converges for each sequence
¸ξ
v
), there exists N such that f(e
v
) = 0 for v > N. Thus f(¸ξ
v
)) =
N
v=1
ξ
v
f(e
v
).
10.8 Hilbert space
50. Suppose x
n
→ x and y
n
→ y. Then there exists M such that [[x
n
[[ ≤ M for all n. Given ε > 0,
choose N such that [[y
n
− y[[ < ε/2M and [[x
n
− x[[ < ε/2[[y[[ for n ≥ N. Now [(x
n
, y
n
) − (x, y)[ ≤
[(x
n
, y
n
−y)[ +[(x
n
−x, y)[ ≤ [[x
n
[[ [[y
n
−y[[ +[[x
n
−x[[ [[y[[ < ε for n ≥ N. Hence (x
n
, y
n
) → (x, y).
*51a. The use of trigonometric identities shows that ¦
1
√
2π
,
cos vt
√
π
,
sin vt
√
π
¦ is an orthonormal system for
L
2
[0, 2π]. Suppose x ∈ L
2
[0, 2π] such that (x,
cos vt
√
π
) = 0 and (x,
sin vt
√
π
) = 0 for all v. Let ε > 0. By Propo
sition 6.8 and Q9.42, there is a ﬁnite Fourier series ϕ = a
0
+
N
n=1
a
n
cos nt +
N
n=1
b
v
sin nt such that
[[x−ϕ[[ < ε. Now [[ϕ[[
2
= (ϕ, ϕ) = 2πa
2
0
+π
N
n=1
(a
2
n
+b
2
n
) and
v
[(ϕ, ϕ
v
)[
2
= 2πa
2
0
+
N
n=1
((
a
n
√
π
π)
2
+
(
b
n
√
π
π)
2
) so [[ϕ[[
2
=
v
[(ϕ, ϕ
v
)[
2
. Thus there exists M such that [ [[ϕ[[
2
−
n
v=−n
[(ϕ, ϕ
v
)[
2
[ < ε
2
71
for n ≥ M. Now [[ϕ −
n
v=−n
(ϕ, ϕ
v
)ϕ
v
[[
2
= [[ϕ[[
2
−
n
v=−n
[(ϕ, ϕ
v
)[
2
< ε
2
for n ≥ M. Also,
[[
n
v=−n
(ϕ, ϕ
v
)ϕ
v
−
n
v=−n
(x, ϕ
v
)ϕ
v
[[
2
=
n
v=−n
[(ϕ − x, ϕ
v
)[
2
≤ [[ϕ − x[[
2
< ε
2
for n ≥ M. Thus
[[x −
n
v=−n
(x, ϕ
v
)ϕ
v
[[ ≤ [[x −ϕ[[ +[[ϕ−
n
v=−n
(ϕ, ϕ
v
)ϕ
v
[[ +[[
n
v=−n
(ϕ−x, ϕ
v
)ϕ
v
[[ < 3ε for n ≥ M.
Hence x =
v
(x, ϕ
v
)ϕ
v
and [[x[[
2
=
v
[(x, ϕ
v
)[
2
= 0 so x = 0. Hence ¦
1
√
2π
,
cos vt
√
π
,
sin vt
√
π
¦ is a complete
orthonormal system for L
2
[0, 2π].
51b. By part (a) and Proposition 27, every function in L
2
[0, 2π] is the limit in mean (of order 2) of its
Fourier series. i.e. the Fourier series converges to the function in L
2
[0, 2π].
52a. Let x ∈ H and let ¦ϕ
v
¦ be an orthonormal system. Note that ¦v : a
v
,= 0¦ =
n
¦v : a
v
≥ 1/n¦.
By Bessel’s inequality, we have
v
[a
v
[
2
≤ [[x[[
2
< ∞ so ¦v : a
v
≥ 1/n¦ is ﬁnite for each n. Hence
¦v : a
v
,= 0¦ is countable.
*52b. Let H be a Hilbert space and ¦ϕ
v
¦ a complete orthonormal system. By part (a), only countably
many Fourier coeﬃcients a
v
are nonzero so we may list them as a sequence ¸a
v
). By Bessel’s inequality,
v
[a
v
[
2
≤ [[x[[
2
< ∞ so given ε > 0, there exists N such that
∞
v=N+1
[a
v
[
2
< ε
2
. For m > n ≥ N, we
have [[
m
v=n
a
v
ϕ
v
[[
2
=
m
v=n
[a
2
v
< ε
2
so the sequence of partial sums is Cauchy in H and thus converges
in H. i.e.
v
a
v
ϕ
v
∈ H. Now (x −
v
a
v
ϕ
v
, ϕ
v
) = (x, ϕ
v
) − a
v
= 0 for all v so x −
v
a
v
ϕ
v
= 0. i.e.
x =
v
a
v
ϕ
v
.
If a complete orthonormal system in H is countable, say ¸ϕ
v
), then x =
v
a
v
ϕ
v
and x is a cluster point
of the set of linear combinations of ϕ
v
, which contains the countable dense set of linear combinations of
ϕ
v
with rational coeﬃcients so H is separable. Thus a complete orthonormal system in a nonseparable
Hilbert space is uncountable.
*52c. Let f be a bounded linear functional on H. Let K = ker f. Since f is continuous, K is a closed
linear subspace of H. We may assume K
⊥
,= ¦0¦ so there exists x
0
∈ K
⊥
with f(x
0
) = 1. Deﬁne
y = x
0
/[[x
0
[[
2
. Then 0 = (x −f(x)x
0
, x
0
) = (x, x
0
) −f(x)[[x
0
[[
2
for all x ∈ H. i.e. f(x) = (x, y) for all
x ∈ H. If y
t
∈ H such that (x, y) = (x, y
t
) for all x ∈ H, then y − y
t
∈ H
⊥
. In particular, [[y − y
t
[[
2
=
(y −y
t
, y −y
t
) = 0 so y = y
t
. This proves the uniqueness of y. Since [f(x)[ = [(x, y)[ ≤ [[x[[ [[y[[, we have
[[f[[ ≤ [[y[[. Furthermore, since f(y/[[y[[) = (y/[[y[[, y) = [[y[[, we have [[f[[ = [[y[[.
52d. Let H be an inﬁnite dimensional Hilbert space. If ¦ϕ
v
¦ is a complete orthonormal system in
H, then the set of ﬁnite linear combinations of ϕ
v
is a dense subset of H. Now if [¦ϕ
v
¦[ = n, then
[¦ﬁnite linear combinations of ϕ
v
¦[ = nℵ
0
= n so there is a dense subset of H with cardinality n. If
S is a dense subset of H, then for each ϕ
v
, there exists x
v
∈ S with [[x
v
− ϕ
v
[[ < 1/
√
2. If v ,= u,
then [[x
v
− x
u
[[ ≥ [[ϕ
v
− ϕ
u
[[ − [[x
v
− ϕ
v
[[ − [[x
u
− ϕ
u
[[ >
√
2 − 1/
√
2 − 1/
√
2 = 0 so x
v
,= x
u
. Thus
[S[ ≥ [¦ϕ
v
¦[. Hence the number of elements in a complete orthonormal system in H is the smallest
cardinal n such that there is a dense subset of H with n elements. Furthermore, this proves that every
complete orthonormal system in H has the same number of elements.
*52e. Suppose two Hilbert spaces H and H
t
are isomorphic with an isomorphism Φ : H → H
t
. If
¦ϕ
v
¦ is a complete orthonormal system in H, then ¦Φ(ϕ
v
)¦ is a complete orthonormal system in H
t
.
Similarly for Φ
−1
. Thus dimH = dimH
t
. Conversely, suppose dimH = dimH
t
. Let c be a complete
orthonormal system in H. Consider the Hilbert space
2
(c) = ¦(f : c → R) :
e∈L
[f(e)[
2
< ∞¦. If
x ∈ H, deﬁne ˆ x : c →R by ˆ x(e) = (x, e). Then
e∈L
[ˆ x(e)[
2
=
e∈L
[(x, e)[
2
= [[x[[
2
< ∞ so ˆ x ∈
2
(c).
Furthermore, [[x[[ = [[ˆ x[[. Deﬁne Φ : H →
2
(c) by Φ(x) = ˆ x. Then Φ is a linear isometry. Now the
range of Φ contains functions f such that f(e) = 0 for all but ﬁnitely many e ∈ c and is closed since Φ
is an isometry. Hence Φ is an isomorphism. If T is a complete orthonormal system in H
t
, then [c[ = [T[
so
2
(c) and
2
(T) must be isomorphic. Hence H and H
t
are isomorphic.
*52f. Let A be a nonempty set and let
2
(A) = ¦(f : A → R) :
a∈A
[f(a)[
2
< ∞¦. Then
2
(A) is a
Hilbert space with (f, g) =
a∈A
f(a)g(a). For each a ∈ A, let χ
a
be the characteristic function of ¦a¦.
Then χ
a
∈
2
(A) for each a ∈ A. Furthermore ¦χ
a
: a ∈ A¦ is a complete orthonormal system in
2
(A).
Thus dim
2
(A) = [¦χ
a
: a ∈ A¦[ = [A[. Hence there is a Hilbert space of each dimension.
53a. Let P be a subset of H. Suppose y
n
∈ P
⊥
and y
n
→ y. Then for each x ∈ P, we have
(x, y
n
) → (x, y). Since (x, y
n
) = 0 for each n, we have (x, y) = 0 so y ∈ P
⊥
. Thus P
⊥
is closed. If
a, b ∈ R and y, z ∈ P
⊥
, then for each x ∈ P, we have (ay +bz, x) = a(y, x) +b(z, x) = 0 so ay +bz ∈ P
⊥
and P
⊥
is a linear manifold.
*53b. If x ∈ P, then (x, y) = 0 for all y ∈ P
⊥
. Thus P
⊥⊥
is a closed linear manifold containing
P. Suppose P ⊂ Q where Q is a closed linear manifold. Then Q
⊥
⊂ P
⊥
and P
⊥⊥
⊂ Q
⊥⊥
. Now
72
if Q is a proper subset of Q
⊥⊥
, pick x ∈ Q
⊥⊥
¸ Q. Then there exists y
0
∈ Q such that [[x − y
0
[[ =
inf¦[[x − y[[ : y ∈ Q¦ = δ. Let z = x − y
0
. For any a ∈ R and y
1
∈ Q, we have δ
2
≤ [[z − ay
1
[[
2
=
[[z[[
2
− 2a(z, y
1
) + a
2
[[y
1
[[
2
= δ
2
− 2a(z, y
1
) + a
2
[[y
1
[[
2
so a
2
[[y
1
[[
2
− 2a(z, y
1
) ≥ 0. Thus 4(z, y
1
)
2
≤ 0
and it follows that (z, y
1
) = 0. i.e. z⊥Q. Thus z ∈ Q
⊥⊥
∩ Q
⊥
so z = 0 i.e. x = y
0
∈ Q. Contradiction.
Hence Q = Q
⊥⊥
so P
⊥⊥
⊂ Q.
53c. Let M be a closed linear manifold. Given x ∈ H, there exists y ∈ M such that x − y⊥M. Then
x = y + z where z = x − y ∈ M
⊥
. If x = y + z = y
t
+ z
t
where y, y
t
∈ M and z, z
t
∈ M
⊥
, then
y −y
t
= z −z
t
so y −y
t
, z −z
t
∈ M∩M
⊥
. Hence y = y
t
and z = z
t
. Furthermore [[x[[
2
= (y +z, y +z) =
[[y[[
2
+[[z[[
2
+ 2(y, z) = [[y[[
2
+[[z[[
2
since z⊥y.
54. Let ¸x
n
) be a bounded sequence of elements in a separable Hilbert space H. Suppose [[x
n
[[ ≤ M for
all n and let ¸ϕ
n
) be a complete orthonormal system in H. Now [(x
n
, ϕ
1
)[ ≤ M for all n so there is a sub
sequence ¸(x
n
k
, ϕ
1
)) that converges. Then [(x
n
k
, ϕ
2
)[ ≤ M for all k so there is a subsequence ¸(x
n
k
l
, ϕ
2
))
that converges. Furthermore, ¸(x
n
k
l
, ϕ
1
)) also converges. Continuing the process, we obtain the diagonal
sequence ¸x
n
n
) such that ¸(x
n
n
, ϕ
k
)) converges for any k. For any bounded linear functional f on H,
there is a unique y ∈ H such that f(x) = (x, y) for all x ∈ H. Furthermore, y =
k
(y, ϕ
k
)ϕ
k
. Now
(x
n
n
, y) = (x
n
n
,
k
(y, ϕ
k
)ϕ
k
) =
k
(x
n
n
, ϕ
k
)(y, ϕ
k
). Since ¸(x
n
n
, ϕ
k
)) converges for each k, ¸(x
n
n
, y))
converges. i.e. ¸x
n
) has a subsequence which converges weakly.
55. Let S be a subspace of L
2
[0, 1] and suppose that there is a constant K such that [f(x)[ ≤ K[[f[[
for all x ∈ [0, 1]. If ¸f
1
, . . . , f
n
) is any ﬁnite orthonormal sequence in S, then for any a
1
, . . . , a
n
∈ R,
we have (
n
i=1
a
i
f
i
(x))
2
≤ K
2
[[
n
i=1
a
i
f
i
[[
2
= K
2
(
n
i=1
a
i
f
i
,
n
i=1
a
i
f
i
) = K
2
n
i=1
a
2
i
for all x ∈ [0, 1].
Fix x ∈ [0, 1]. For each i, let a
i
=
f
i
(x)
√
n
i=1
f
i
(x)
2
. Then (
n
i=1
a
i
f
i
(x))
2
=
n
i=1
f
i
(x)
2
and
n
i=1
a
2
i
= 1.
Thus
n
i=1
f
i
(x)
2
≤ K
2
for all x ∈ [0, 1] and n =
n
i=1
[[f
i
[[
2
=
_
1
0
(
n
i=1
f
i
(x)
2
) ≤
_
1
0
K
2
= K
2
. Hence
the dimension of S is at most K
2
.
11 Measure and Integration
11.1 Measure spaces
1. Let ¦A
n
¦ be a collection of measurable sets. Let B
1
= A
1
and B
k
= A
k
¸
k−1
n=1
A
n
for k > 1.
Then ¦B
n
¦ is a collection of pairwise disjoint measurable sets such that
A
n
=
B
n
. Now µ(
A
k
) =
µ(
B
k
) =
µ(B
k
) = lim
n
n
k=1
µ(B
k
) = lim
n
µ(
n
k=1
B
k
) = lim
n
µ(
n
k=1
A
k
).
2a. Let ¦(X
α
, B
α
, µ
α
)¦ be a collection of measure spaces, and suppose that the sets ¦X
α
¦ are disjoint.
Deﬁne X =
X
α
, B = ¦B : ∀α B ∩ X
α
∈ B
α
¦ and µ(B) =
µ
α
(B ∩ X
α
). Now ∅ ∈ B since
∅ ∩ X
α
= ∅ ∈ B
α
for all α. If B ∈ B, then B ∩ X
α
∈ B
α
for all α so B
c
∩ X
α
= X
α
¸ (B ∩ X
α
) ∈ B
α
for all α. Thus B
c
∈ B. If ¸B
n
) is a sequence in B, then for each n, B
n
∩ X
α
∈ B
α
for all α so
B
n
∩ X
α
=
(B
n
∩ X
α
) ∈ B
α
for each α. Thus
B
n
∈ B. Hence B is a σalgebra.
2b. µ(∅) =
µ
α
(∅ ∩ X
α
) =
µ
α
(∅) = 0. For any sequence of disjoint sets B
i
∈ B, we have
µ(
B
i
) =
µ
α
(
B
i
∩ X
α
) =
α
i
µ
α
(B
i
∩ X
α
) =
i
α
µ
α
(B
i
∩ X
α
) =
i
µ(B
i
). Hence µ is a
measure.
2c. Suppose that all but a countable number of the µ
α
are zero and the remainder are σﬁnite. Let
¸µ
n
) be the countably many µ
α
that are nonzero and σﬁnite. Then for each n, X
n
=
k
X
n,k
where
X
n,k
∈ B
n
and µ
n
(X
n,k
) < ∞. In particular, X
n,k
∈ B for all n, k. Let A = ¦α : µ
α
is zero¦. Then
X =
n
X
n
∪
α∈A
X
α
=
n,k
X
n,k
∪
α∈A
X
α
. Since
α∈A
X
α
∩ X
α
= X
α
∈ B
α
if α ∈ A and
α∈A
X
α
∩ X
α
= ∅ ∈ B
α
if α / ∈ A, we have
α∈A
X
α
∈ B. Also, µ(
α∈A
X
α
) =
µ
α
(
α∈A
∩X
α
) =
α∈A
µ
α
X
α
= 0 < ∞. Hence µ is σﬁnite.
Conversely, suppose µ is σﬁnite. Then X =
n
Y
n
where Y
n
∈ B and µ(Y
n
) < ∞ for each n. We
may assume that the Y
n
are disjoint. Now for each n,
µ
α
(Y
n
∩ X
α
) = µ(Y
n
∩
α
X
α
) = µ(Y
n
) < ∞
so ¦α : µ
α
(Y
n
∩ X
α
) > 0¦ is countable. Thus
n
¦α : µ
α
(Y
n
∩ X
α
) > 0¦ is countable. For each α,
µ
α
(X
α
) = µ
α
(X
α
∩
n
Y
n
) =
n
µ
α
(X
α
∩ Y
n
). If µ
α
(X
α
) > 0, then µ
α
(X
α
∩ Y
n
) > 0 for some n.
Hence ¦α : µ
α
(X
α
) > 0¦ is countable. i.e. all but a countable number of the µ
α
are zero. Furthermore,
X
α
=
n
(X
α
∩ Y
n
) where X
α
∩ Y
n
∈ B
α
and µ
α
(X
α
∩ Y
n
) ≤
µ
α
(X
α
∩ Y
n
) = µ(Y
n
) < ∞ for each n.
Hence the remaining µ
α
are σﬁnite.
73
(*) Union of measure spaces
3a. Suppose E
1
, E
2
∈ B and µ(E
1
∆E
2
) = 0. Then µ(E
1
¸ E
2
) = µ(E
2
¸ E
1
) = 0. Hence µ(E
1
) =
µ(E
1
¸ E
2
) +µ(E
1
∩ E
2
) = µ(E
2
¸ E
1
) +µ(E
1
∩ E
2
) = µ(E
2
).
3b. Suppose µ is complete, E
1
∈ B and µ(E
1
∆E
2
) = 0. Then E
2
¸ E
1
∈ B since E
2
¸ E
1
⊂ E
1
∆E
2
.
Also, E
1
∩ E
2
= E
1
¸ (E
1
¸ E
2
) ∈ B. Hence E
2
= (E
2
¸ E
1
) ∪ (E
1
∩ E
2
) ∈ B.
4. Let (X, B, µ) be a measure space and Y ∈ B. Let B
Y
consist of those sets of B that are contained
in Y . Set µ
Y
E = µE if E ∈ B
Y
. Clearly ∅ ∈ B
Y
. If B ∈ B
Y
, then B ∈ B and B ⊂ Y . Thus Y ¸ B ∈ B
and Y ¸ B ⊂ Y so Y ¸ B ∈ B
Y
. If ¸B
n
) is a sequence of sets in B
Y
, then B
n
∈ B and B
n
⊂ Y for all n.
Thus
B
n
∈ B and
B
n
⊂ Y so
B
n
∈ B
Y
. Furthermore, µ
Y
(∅) = µ(∅) = 0 and if ¸B
n
) is a sequence
of disjoint sets in B
Y
, then µ
Y
(
B
n
) = µ(
B
n
) =
µ(B
n
) =
µ
Y
(B
n
). Hence (Y, B
Y
, µ
Y
) is a
measure space.
(*) Restriction of measure to measurable subset
5a. Let (X, B) be a measurable space. Suppose µ and ν are measures deﬁned on B and deﬁne the set
function λE = µE +νE on B. Then λ(∅) = µ(∅) +ν(∅) = 0. Also, if ¸E
n
) is a sequence of disjoint sets
in B, then λ(
E
n
) = µ(
E
n
) +ν(
E
n
) =
µE
n
+
νE
n
=
λE
n
. Hence λ is also a measure.
*5b. Suppose µ and ν are measures on B and µ ≥ ν. Note that µ −ν is a measure when restricted to
measurable sets with ﬁnite νmeasure. Deﬁne λ(E) = sup
F⊂E,ν(F)<∞
(µ(F)−ν(F)). Clearly λ(∅) = 0. If
E
1
, E
2
∈ Bwith E
1
∩E
2
= ∅, then for any F ⊂ E
1
∪E
2
with ν(F) < ∞, we have µ(F)−ν(F) = (µ−ν)(F∩
E
1
)+(µ−ν)(F ∩E
2
) ≤ λ(E
1
)+λ(E
2
). Thus λ(E
1
∪E
2
) ≤ λ(E
1
)+λ(E
2
). On the other hand, if F
1
⊂ E
1
and F
2
⊂ E
2
with ν(F
1
), ν(F
2
) < ∞, we have (µ−ν)(F
1
) +(µ−ν)(F
2
) = (µ−ν)(F
1
∪F
2
) ≤ λ(E
1
∪E
2
).
Thus λ(E
1
) +λ(E
2
) ≤ λ(E
1
∪ E
2
). Hence λ is ﬁnitely additive.
Now suppose ¸E
n
) is a sequence of disjoint sets in B. If F ⊂
E
n
with ν(F) < ∞, then (µ −ν)(F) =
(µ − ν)(F ∩ E
n
) ≤
λ(E
n
). Thus λ(
E
n
) ≤
λ(E
n
). On the other hand, for any N, we have
N
n=1
λ(E
n
) = λ(
N
n=1
E
n
) ≤ λ(
E
n
). Thus
λE
n
≤ λ(
E
n
). Hence λ is countably additive.
If ν(E) = ∞, then µ(E) = ∞ so ν(E) + λ(E) = µ(E) and if ν(E) < ∞, then ν(E) + λ(E) = ν(E) +
(µ(E) −ν(E)) = µ(E). Hence µ = ν +λ.
5c. Suppose µ = ν + η for some measure η. If ν is ﬁnite, then η = µ − ν = λ. Suppose ν is σ
ﬁnite. Then X =
X
n
where X
n
∈ B and ν(X
n
) < ∞ for each n. We may assume that the X
n
are disjoint. Now for any set E ∈ B, we have η(E ∩ X
n
) = λ(E ∩ X
n
) since ν(E ∩ X
n
) < ∞. Then
η(E) = η(
(E ∩ X
n
)) =
η(E ∩ X
n
) =
λ(E ∩ X
n
) = λ(
(E ∩ X
n
)) = λ(E). Hence λ in part (b) is
the unique such measure.
*5d. If µ = ν + λ = ν + λ
t
, then λ(F) = λ
t
(F) for any set F with ν(F) < ∞. Given E ∈ B, for any
F ⊂ E with ν(F) < ∞, we have µ(F) − ν(F) = λ(F) = λ
t
(F) ≤ λ
t
(E). Hence λ(E) ≤ λ
t
(E) and λ in
part (b) is the smallest such measure.
6a. Let µ be a σﬁnite measure so X =
X
n
where µ(X
n
) < ∞ for each n. For any measurable set E
of inﬁnite measure, we have ∞ = µ(
(E ∩ X
n
)) = lim
k
µ(
k
n=1
(E ∩ X
n
)). Thus for any N, there exists
k such that N < µ(
k
n=1
(E ∩ X
n
)) < ∞. Hence µ is semiﬁnite.
6b. Given a measure µ, deﬁne µ
1
(E) = sup
F⊂E,µ(F)<∞
µ(F). Then µ
1
(∅) = µ(∅) = 0. If ¸E
n
) is
a sequence of disjoint measurable sets, then for any F ⊂
E
n
with µ(F) < ∞, we have µ(F) =
µ(F ∩ E
n
) ≤
µ
1
(E
n
). Thus µ
1
(
E
n
) ≤
µ
1
(E
n
). Conversely, if F
1
⊂ E
1
and F
2
⊂ E
2
with
µ(F
1
), µ(F
2
) < ∞, then µ(F
1
) +µ(F
2
) = µ(F
1
∪F
2
) ≤ µ
1
(E
1
∪E
2
) so µ
1
(E
1
) +µ
1
(E
2
) ≤ µ
1
(E
1
∪E
2
). It
follows that for any k,
k
n=1
µ
1
(E
n
) ≤ µ
1
(
k
n=1
E
n
) ≤ µ
1
(
E
n
). Thus
µ
1
(E
n
) ≤ µ
1
(
E
n
). Hence
µ
1
is a measure. Furthermore, if µ
1
(E) = ∞, then for any N, there exists F ⊂ E with N < µ(F) < ∞.
Then N < µ
1
(F) < ∞. Hence µ
1
is semiﬁnite.
Now deﬁne µ
2
(E) = sup
F⊂E,µ
1
(F)<∞
(µ(F) − µ
1
(F)). Then µ
2
is a measure (c.f. Q5b). If µ(F) < ∞
for all F ⊂ E with µ
1
(F) < ∞, then µ(F) = µ
1
(F) for all F ⊂ E with µ
1
(F) < ∞ so µ
2
(E) = 0. If
µ(F) = ∞ for some F ⊂ E with µ
1
(F) < ∞, then µ(F) − µ
1
(F) = ∞ so µ
2
(E) = ∞. Hence µ
2
only
assumes the values 0 and ∞.
*6c.
7. Given a measure space (X, B, µ), let B
0
be the collection of sets A∪ B where A ∈ B and B ⊂ C for
some C ∈ B with µ(C) = 0. Clearly ∅ ∈ B
0
. If ¸E
n
) is a sequence in B
0
, then E
n
= A
n
∪ B
n
for each
74
n where A
n
∈ B and B
n
⊂ C
n
for some C
n
∈ B with µ(C
n
) = 0. Now
E
n
=
A
n
∪
B
n
where
A
n
∈ B and
B
n
⊂
C
n
with µ(
C
n
) = 0. If E ∈ B
0
, then E = A ∪ B where A ∈ B and B ⊂ C
for some C ∈ B with µ(C) = 0. Then E
c
= A
c
∩ B
c
= A
c
∩ (C ¸ (C ¸ B))
c
= A
c
∩ (C
c
∪ (C ¸ B)) =
(A
c
∩ C
c
) ∪ (A
c
∩ (C ¸ B)) where A
c
∩ C
c
∈ B and A
c
∩ (C ¸ B) ⊂ C with µ(C) = 0. Hence B
0
is a
σalgebra. Furthermore B ⊂ B
0
.
If E ∈ B
0
with E = A ∪ B = A
t
∪ B
t
with A, A
t
∈ B, B ⊂ C and B
t
⊂ C
t
for some C, C
t
∈ B
with µ(C) = µ(C
t
) = 0, then A ∪ B ∪ C ∪ C
t
= A
t
∪ B
t
∪ C ∪ C
t
so A ∪ C ∪ C
t
= A
t
∪ C ∪ C
t
.
Now µ(A) ≤ µ(A ∪ C ∪ C
t
) ≤ µ(A) + µ(C) + µ(C
t
) = µ(A). Thus µ(A) = µ(A ∪ C ∪ C
t
). Similarly,
µ(A
t
) = µ(A
t
∪ C ∪ C
t
). Hence µ(A) = µ(A
t
).
For E ∈ B
0
, deﬁne µ
0
(E) = µ(A). Then µ
0
is welldeﬁned. Clearly, µ
0
(∅) = 0. If ¸E
n
) is a sequence of
disjoint sets in B
0
, then
E
n
=
A
n
∪
B
n
so µ
0
(
E
n
) = µ(
A
n
) =
µ(A
n
) =
µ
0
(E
n
). Thus
µ
0
is a measure. Furthermore, if E ∈ B, then µ
0
(E) = µ(E).
If µ
0
(A∪B) = 0 and E ⊂ A∪B, then E = A∪(E∩A) where E∩A ⊂ B ⊂ C with µ(C) = 0 so E ∈ B
0
.
Hence (X, B
0
, µ
0
) is a complete measure space extending (X, B, µ).
8a. Let µ be a σﬁnite measure. If E is locally measurable, then E ∩ B ∈ B for each B ∈ B with
µ(B) < ∞. Now X =
X
n
with X
n
∈ B and µ(X
n
) < ∞ for all n. Thus E =
(E ∩ X
n
) where
E ∩ X
n
∈ B for all n. Thus E ∈ B. i.e. E is measurable. Hence µ is saturated.
8b. Let C be the collection of locally measurable sets. Clearly ∅ ∈ C. If C ∈ C, then C ∩B ∈ B for each
B ∈ B with µ(B) < ∞. Now for any such set B, C
c
∩ B = B ¸ (C ∩ B) ∈ B. Thus C
c
∈ C. If ¸C
n
)
is a sequence of sets in C, then C
n
∩ B ∈ B for each B ∈ B with µ(B) < ∞. Now for any such set B,
C
n
∩ B =
(C
n
∩ B) ∈ B. Thus
C
n
∈ C. Hence C is a σalgebra.
8c. Let (X, B, µ) be a measure space and C the σalgebra of locally measurable sets. For E ∈ C, set
¯ µE = µE if E ∈ B and ¯ µE = ∞ if E / ∈ B. Clearly ¯ µ(∅) = 0. If ¸E
n
) is a sequence of disjoint sets in
C, then we consider a few cases. If
E
n
/ ∈ B, then ¯ µ(
E
n
) = ∞. Furthermore, E
n
/ ∈ B for some n so
¯ µ(E
n
) = ∞ = ¯ µ(
E
n
). Now suppose
E
n
∈ B. If µ(
E
n
) < ∞, then E
n
= E
n
∩
E
n
∈ B for
each n so ¯ µ(
E
n
) = µ(
E
n
) =
µ(E
n
) =
¯ µ(E
n
). If µ(
E
n
) = ∞, then either E
n
∈ B for all n, so
¯ µ(E
n
) =
µ(E
n
) = µ(
E
n
) = ∞ = ¯ µ(
E
n
), or E
n
/ ∈ B for some n, so
¯ µ(E
n
) = ∞ = ¯ µ(
E
n
).
Hence ¯ µ is a measure on C.
Let E be a locally measurable set in (X, C, ¯ µ). Then E ∩ C ∈ C for any C ∈ C with ¯ µ(C) < ∞. i.e.
E ∩ C ∈ C for any C ∈ B with µ(C) < ∞. Thus E ∩ C ∈ B for any C ∈ B with µ(C) < ∞ and E is a
locally measurable set in (X, B, µ) so E ∈ C. Hence (X, C, ¯ µ) is a saturated measure space.
*8d. Suppose µ is semiﬁnite and E ∈ C. Set µ(E) = sup¦µ(B) : B ∈ B, B ⊂ E¦. Clearly ¯ µ(∅) = 0.
If ¸E
n
) is a sequence of disjoint sets in C, for any B ∈ B with B ⊂
E
n
, provided µ(B) < ∞, we
have µ(B) = µ(
(B ∩ E
n
)) =
µ(B ∩ E
n
) ≤
µ(E
n
). On the other hand, if µ(B) = ∞, then
µ(
E
n
) = ∞. Thus µ(
E
n
) ≤
µ(E
n
). If E
1
, E
2
∈ C with E
1
∩ E
2
= ∅ and B
1
, B
2
∈ B with
B
1
⊂ E
1
and B
2
⊂ E
2
, then µ(E
1
) +µ(E
2
) ≤ µ(B
1
) +µ(B
2
) = µ(B
1
∪ B
2
) ≤ µ(E
1
∪ E
2
). Now for any
N, we have
N
n=1
µ(E
n
) ≤ µ(
N
n=1
E
n
) ≤ µ(
E
n
). Thus
µ(E
n
) ≤ µ(
E
n
). Hence µ is a measure
on C.
Let E be a locally measurable set in (X, C, µ). Then E∩C ∈ C for any C ∈ C with µ(C) < ∞. If B ∈ B
with µ(B) < ∞, then B ∈ C with µ(B) = µ(B) < ∞. Thus E ∩ B ∈ C. It follows that E ∩ B ∈ B so
E ∈ C. Hence (X, C, µ) is a saturated measure space. Furthermore, µ is an extension of µ.
9a. Let R be a σring that is not a σalgebra. Let B be the smallest σalgebra containing R and set
R
t
= ¦E : E
c
∈ R¦. Note that ∅ ∈ R ⊂ R∪ R
t
. If A ∈ R∪ R
t
, then either A ∈ R so A
c
∈ R
t
⊂ R∪ R
t
or A ∈ R
t
so A
c
∈ R ⊂ R∪R
t
. If ¸A
n
) is a sequence in R∪R
t
, then
A
n
=
¦A
n
: A
n
∈ R¦ ∪
¦A
n
:
A
n
∈ R
t
¦ ∈ R∪R
t
. If A is a σalgebra containing R, then A also contains R
t
. Thus A ⊃ R∪R
t
. Hence
R∪ R
t
= B. Furthermore, if E ∈ R∩ R
t
, then E, E
c
∈ R so X = E ∪ E
c
∈ R and R is a σalgebra.
Contradiction. Hence R∩ R
t
= ∅.
9b. If µ is a measure on R, deﬁne ¯ µ on B by ¯ µ(E) = µ(E) if E ∈ R and ¯ µ(E) = ∞ if E ∈ R
t
. Clearly
¯ µ(∅) = µ(∅) = 0. Let ¸E
n
) be a sequence of disjoint sets in B. If E
1
∈ R and E
2
∈ R
t
, then (E
2
)
c
∈ R
so (E
1
)
c
∩ (E
2
)
c
= (E
2
)
c
¸ E
1
∈ R. Thus E
1
∪ E
2
∈ R
t
so ¯ µ(E
1
∪ E
2
) = ∞ = ¯ µ(E
1
) + ¯ µ(E
2
). If E
n
∈ R
for all n, then
E
n
∈ R. Similarly, if E
n
∈ R
t
for all n, then
E
n
∈ R
t
. In both cases we have
¯ µ(
E
n
) =
¯ µ(E
n
). Thus in general, ¯ µ(
E
n
) = ¯ µ(
¦E
n
: E
n
∈ R¦ ∪
¦E
n
: E
n
∈ R
t
¦) = ¯ µ(
¦E
n
:
E
n
∈ R¦) + ¯ µ(
¦E
n
: E
n
∈ R
t
¦) =
E
n
∈R
¯ µ(E
n
) +
E
n
∈R
¯ µ(E
n
) =
¯ µ(E
n
). Hence ¯ µ is a measure
75
on B.
9c. Deﬁne µ on B by µ(E) = µ(E) if E ∈ R and µ(E) = sup¦µ(A) : A ⊂ E, A ∈ R¦ if E ∈ R
t
. Clearly
µ(∅) = µ(∅) = 0. Let ¸E
n
) be a sequence of disjoint sets in B. Note that if E
n
∈ R for all n or E
n
∈ R
t
for all n, then µ(
E
n
) =
µ(E
n
). It follows that in general µ(
E
n
) =
µ(E
n
). Hence µ is a measure
on B.
*9d.
*9e.
11.2 Measurable functions
10. Let f be a nonnegative measurable function. For each pair ¸n, k) of integers, set E
n,k
= ¦x : k2
−n
≤
f(x) < (k + 1)2
−n
¦ and set ϕ
n
= 2
−n
2
2n
k=0
kχ
E
n,k
+ (2
2n
+ 1)2
−n
χ
¦f≥(2
2n
+1)2
−n
]
. Then each E
n,k
is measurable and each ϕ
n
is a simple function. Note that E
n,k
= E
n+1,2k
∪ E
n+1,2k+1
for all ¸n, k).
Suppose x ∈ E
n,k
. Then ϕ
n
(x) = k2
−n
. If x ∈ E
n+1,2k
, then ϕ
n+1
(x) = (2k)2
−(n+1)
= k2
−n
= ϕ
n
(x).
If x ∈ E
n+1,2k+1
, then ϕ
n+1
(x) = (2k + 1)2
−(n+1)
> (2k)2
−(n+1)
ϕ
n
(x). Also, if f(x) ≥ (2
2n
+ 1)2
−n
,
then ϕ
n
(x) = (2
2n
+ 1)2
−n
≤ ϕ
n+1
(x). Thus ϕ
n
≤ ϕ
n+1
. For x ∈ X, if f(x) < ∞, then for suﬃciently
large n, f(x) −ϕ
n
(x) ≤ 2
−n
. If f(x) = ∞, then ϕ
n
(x) = (2
2n
+ 1)2
−n
> 2
n
→ ∞. Thus f = limϕ
n
at
each point of X.
If f is deﬁned on a σﬁnite measure space (X, B, µ), then X =
X
n
where µ(X
n
) < ∞ for each n.
Deﬁne ϕ
n
== 2
−n
2
2n
k=0
kχ
E
n,k
∩
n
m=1
X
m
+ (2
2n
+ 1)2
−n
χ
¦f≥(2
2n
+1)2
−n
]∩
n
m=1
X
m
. Then ϕ
n+1
≥ ϕ
n
and f = limϕ
n
. Furthermore, each ϕ
n
vanishes outside
n
m=1
X
m
, a set of ﬁnite measure.
(*) Proof of Proposition 7
11. Suppose µ is a complete measure and f be a measurable function. Suppose f = g a.e. Then
¦x : g(x) < α¦ = ¦x : f = g, f(x) < α¦ ∪ ¦x : f ,= g, g(x) < α¦ = (¦x : f(x) < α¦ ¸ ¦x : f ,= g, f(x) <
α¦) ∪ ¦x : f ,= g, g(x) < α¦. Now ¦x : f ,= g, f(x) < α¦ and ¦x : f ,= g, g(x) < α¦ are subsets of a set of
measure zero so they are measurable. Also, ¦x : f(x) < α¦ is measurable since f is measurable. Hence
¦x : g(x) < α¦ is measurable for any α and g is measurable.
Q3.28 gives an example of a set A of Lebesgue measure zero that is not a Borel set so Lebesgue measures
restricted to the σalgebra of Borel sets is not complete. Now χ
A
is not measurable since ¦x : χ
A
(x) >
1/2¦ = A but m(A) = 0 so χ
A
= 0 a.e. and the constant zero function is measurable.
(*) Proof of Proposition 8
12. Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of measurable functions that converge to a function f except at the points of a
set E of measure zero. Suppose µ is complete. Given α, ¦x : f(x) > α¦ = ¦x / ∈ E : limf
n
(x) > α¦∪¦x ∈
E : f(x) > α¦. Since µ(E) = 0, ¦x ∈ E : f(x) > α¦ is measurable. Also, ¦x / ∈ E : limf
n
(x) > α¦ =
E
c
∩ ¦x : limf
n
(x) > α¦ so it is measurable. Hence ¦x : f(x) > α¦ is measurable and f is measurable.
Note: If f
n
(x) → f(x) for all x, then completeness is not required.
13a. Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of measurable realvalued functions that converge to f in measure. For
any k, there exists n
k
and a measurable set E
k
with µ(E
k
) < 2
−k
such that [f
n
k
(x) − f(x)[ < 2
−k
for x / ∈ E
k
. If x / ∈
∞
k=m
E
k
, then [f
n
k
(x) − f(x)[ < 2
−k
for k ≥ m. Thus if x / ∈
m
∞
k=m
E
k
,
then for some m, we have [f
n
k
(x) − f(x)[ < 2
−k
for k ≥ m so ¸f
n
k
) converges to f. Furthermore,
µ(
m
∞
k=m
E
k
) ≤ µ(
∞
k=m
E
k
) ≤
∞
k=m
µ(E
k
) <
∞
k=m
2
−k
= 2
−m+1
for all m so µ(
m
∞
k=m
E
k
) =
0 and ¸f
n
k
) converges to f a.e.
(c.f. Proposition 4.18)
13b. Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of measurable functions each of which vanishes outside a ﬁxed measurable set
A with µ(A) < ∞. Suppose that f
n
(x) → f(x) for almost all x, say except on a set B of measure zero. If
x ∈ A
c
¸B, then f
n
(x) = 0 for all n so f(x) = 0. Given ε > 0, let G
n
= ¦x ∈ A¸B : [f
n
(x)−f(x)[ ≥ ε¦ and
let E
N
=
∞
n=N
G
n
. Note that E
N+1
⊂ E
N
. If x ∈ A¸B, then there exists N such that [f
n
(x)−f(x)[ < ε
for n ≥ N. i.e. x / ∈ E
N
for some N. Thus
E
N
= ∅ and limµ(E
N
) = 0 so there exists N such that
µ(E
N
) < ε. Furthermore, µ(E
N
∪ B) < ε and if x / ∈ E
N
∪ B, then either x ∈ A and x / ∈ G
c
n
for all
n ≥ N so [f
n
(x) −f(x)[ < ε for all n ≥ N or x / ∈ A so [f
n
(x) −f(x)[ = 0 for all n. Hence ¸f
n
) converges
to f in measure.
76
13c. Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence that is Cauchy in measure. We may choose n
k+1
> n
k
such that µ¦x :
[f
n
k+1
(x) − f
n
k
(x)[ ≥ 2
−k
¦ < 2
−k
. Let E
k
= ¦x : [f
n
k+1
(x) − f
n
k
(x)[ ≥ 2
−k
¦ and let F
m
=
∞
k=m
E
k
.
Then µ(
F
m
) ≤ µ(
∞
k=m
E
k
) ≤ 2
−k+1
for all k so µ(
F
m
) = 0. If x / ∈
F
m
, then x / ∈ F
m
for some m
so [f
n
k+1
(x) −f
n
k
(x)[ < 2
−k
for all k ≥ m and [f
n
l
(x) −f
n
k
(x)[ < 2
−k+1
for l ≥ k ≥ m. Thus the series
(f
n
k+1
−f
n
k
) converges a.e. to a function g. Let f = g+f
n
1
. Then f
n
k
→ f in measure since the partial
sums are of the form f
n
k
− f
n
1
. Given ε > 0, choose N such that µ¦x : [f
n
(x) − f
m
(x)[ ≥ ε/2¦ < ε/2
for n > m ≥ N and µ¦x : [f
n
k
(x) −f(x)[ ≥ ε/2¦ < ε/2 for k ≥ N. Then ¦x : [f
n
(x) −f(x)[ ≥ ε¦ ⊂ ¦x :
[f
n
(x) −f
n
k
(x)[ ≥ ε/2¦∪¦x : [f
n
k
(x) −f(x)[ ≥ ε/2¦ for all n, k ≥ N. Thus µ¦x : [f
n
(x) −f(x)[ ≥ ε¦ < ε
for all n ≥ N and ¸f
n
) converges to f in measure.
(c.f. Q4.25)
14. Let (X, B, µ) be a measure space and (X, B
0
, µ
0
) its completion. Suppose g is measurable with
respect to B and there is a set E ∈ B with µ(E) = 0 and f = g on X¸E. For any α, ¦x : g(x) < α¦ ∈ B.
Now ¦x : f(x) < α¦ = ¦x ∈ X ¸ E : g(x) < α¦ ∪ ¦x ∈ E : f(x) < α¦ where ¦x ∈ X ¸ E : g(x) < α¦ ∈ B
and ¦x ∈ E : f(x) < α¦ ⊂ E. Thus ¦x : f(x) < α¦ ∈ B
0
and f is measurable with respect to B
0
.
For the converse, ﬁrst consider the case of characteristic functions. Suppose χ
A
is measurable with
respect to B
0
. Then A ∈ B
0
so A = A
t
∪ B
t
where A
t
∈ B and B
t
⊂ C
t
with C
t
∈ B and µ(C
t
) = 0.
Deﬁne f(x) = χ
A
(x) if x / ∈ C
t
and f(x) = 1 if x ∈ C
t
. If α < 0, then ¦x : f(x) > α¦ = X. If α ≥ 1,
then ¦x : f(x) > α¦ = ∅. If 0 ≤ α < 1, then ¦x : f(x) > α¦ = ¦x : f(x) = 1¦ = A ∪ C
t
= A
t
∪ C
t
.
Thus ¦x : f(x) > α¦ ∈ B for all α and f is measurable with respect to B. Next consider the case
of simple functions. Suppose g =
n
i=1
c
i
χ
A
i
is measurable with respect to B
0
. Then each χ
A
i
is
measurable with respect to B
0
. For each i, there is a function h
i
measurable with respect to B and
a set E
i
∈ B with µ(E
i
) = 0 and χ
A
i
= h
i
on X ¸ E
i
. Then g =
n
i=1
c
i
h
i
on X ¸
n
i=1
E
i
where
n
i=1
E
i
∈ B and µ(
n
i=1
E
i
) = 0. Furthermore,
n
i=1
c
i
h
i
is measurable with respect to B. Now for
a nonnegative measurable function f, there is a sequence of simple functions ¸ϕ
n
) converging pointwise
to f on X. For each n, there is a function ψ
n
measurable with respect to B and a set E
n
∈ B with
µ(E
n
) = 0 and ϕ
n
= ψ
n
on X ¸ E
n
. Then f = limψ
n
on X ¸
E
n
where
E
n
∈ B and µ(
E
n
) = 0.
Furthermore, limψ
n
is measurable with respect to B. Finally, for general a measurable function f, we
have f = f
+
− f
−
where f
+
and f
−
are nonnegative measurable functions and the result follows from
the previous case.
15. Let D be the rationals. Suppose that to each β ∈ D there is assigned a B
β
∈ B such that
B
α
⊂ B
β
for α < β. Then there is a unique measurable function f on X such that f ≤ β on B
β
and
f ≥ β on X ¸ B
β
. Now ¦x : f(x) < α¦ =
β<α
B
β
and ¦x : f(x) ≤ α¦ =
γ>α
β<γ
B
β
. Similarly,
¦x : f(x) > α¦ = X ¸
β>α
B
β
and ¦x : f(x) ≥ α¦ =
γ<α
(X ¸
β>γ
B
β
). Also, ¦x : f(x) = α¦ =
γ>α
β<γ
B
β
∩
γ<α
(X ¸
β>γ
B
β
).
16. Egoroﬀ’s Theorem: Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of measurable functions each of which vanishes outside
a ﬁxed measurable set A of ﬁnite measure. Suppose that f
n
(x) → f(x) for almost all x. By Q13b, ¸f
n
)
converges to f in measure. Given ε > 0 and n, there exist N
n
and a measurable set E
n
with µ(E
n
) < ε2
−n
such that [f
n
(x) −f(x)[ < 1/n for n ≥ N
n
and x / ∈ E
n
. Let E =
E
n
. Then µ(
E
n
) ≤
µ(E
n
) < ε.
Choose n
0
such that 1/n
0
< ε. If x / ∈ E and n ≥ N
n
0
, we have [f
n
(x) − f(x)[ < 1/n
0
< ε. Thus f
n
converges uniformly to f on X ¸ E.
11.3 Integration
17. Let f and g be measurable functions and E a measurable set.
(i) For a constant c
1
, note that if c
1
≥ 0, then (c
1
f)
+
= c
1
f
+
and (c
1
f)
−
= c
1
f
−
so
_
E
c
1
f =
_
E
c
1
f
+
−
_
E
c
1
f
−
= c
1
_
E
f
+
−c
1
_
E
f
−
= c
1
_
E
f. On the other hand, if c
1
< 0, then (c
1
f)
+
= −c
1
f
−
and (c
1
f)
−
= −c
1
f
+
so
_
E
c
1
f =
_
E
(−c
1
f
−
) −
_
E
(−c
1
f
+
) = −c
1
_
E
f
−
−(−c
1
)
_
E
f
+
= c
1
_
E
f. Note
that if f = f
1
− f
2
where f
1
, f
2
are nonnegative integrable functions, then f
+
+ f
2
= f
−
+ f
1
so
_
f
+
+
_
f
2
=
_
f
−
+
_
f
1
and
_
f =
_
f
+
−
_
f
−
=
_
f
1
−
_
f
2
. Now since f and g are integrable, so
are f
+
+g
+
and f
−
+g
−
. Furthermore, f +g = (f
+
+g
+
) −(f
−
+g
−
). Thus
_
(f +g) =
_
(f
+
+g
+
) −
_
(f
−
+g
−
) =
_
f
+
+
_
g
+
−
_
f
−
−
_
g
−
=
_
f +
_
g. Together, we have
_
E
(c
1
f +c
2
g) = c
1
_
E
f +c
2
_
E
g.
(ii) Suppose [h[ ≤ [f[ and h is measurable. Since f is integrable, so are f
+
and f
−
. Thus [f[ = f
+
+f
−
is integrable. By (iii), we have
_
h ≤
_
[h[ ≤
_
[f[ < ∞. Thus h is integrable.
77
(iii) Suppose f ≥ g a.e. Then f −g ≥ 0 a.e. and
_
(f −g) ≥ 0. By (i), we have
_
(f −g) =
_
f −
_
g so
_
f −
_
g ≥ 0. i.e.
_
f ≥
_
g.
(*) Proof of Proposition 15
18. Suppose that µ is not complete. Deﬁne a bounded function f to be integrable over a set E of ﬁnite
measure if sup
ϕ≤f
_
E
ϕ dµ = inf
ψ≥f
_
E
ψ dµ for all simple functions ϕ and ψ. If f is integrable, then
given n, there are simple functions ϕ
n
and ψ
n
such that ϕ
n
≤ f ≤ ψ
n
and
_
ψ
n
dµ −
_
ϕ
n
dµ < 1/n.
Then the functions ψ
∗
= inf ψ
n
and ϕ
∗
= sup ϕ
n
are measurable and ϕ
∗
≤ f ≤ ψ
∗
. Now the set
∆ = ¦x : ϕ
∗
(x) < ψ
∗
(x)¦ is the union of the sets ∆
v
= ¦x : ϕ
∗
(x) < ψ
∗
(x) −1/v¦. Each ∆
v
is contained
in the set ¦x : ϕ
n
(x) < ψ
n
(x) −1/v¦, which has measure less than v/n. Since n is arbitrary, µ(∆
v
) = 0
so µ(∆) = 0. Thus ϕ
∗
= f = ψ
∗
except on a set of measure zero. Hence f is measurable with respect to
the completion of µ by Q14.
Conversely, if f is measurable with respect to the completion of µ, then by Q14, f = g on X ¸ E
where g is measurable with respect to µ and µ(E) = 0. We may assume that g is bounded by M. By
considering the sets E
k
= ¦x : kM/n ≥ g(x) ≥ (k − 1)M/n¦, −n ≤ k ≤ n, and the simple functions
ψ
n
= (M/n)
n
k=−n
kχ
E
k
and ϕ
n
= (M/n)
n
k=−n
(k − 1)χ
E
k
, we see that g is integrable. Note that
sup
ϕ≤g
_
E
ϕ dµ = sup
ϕ≤f
_
E
ϕ dµ and inf
ψ≥g
_
E
ψ dµ = inf
ψ≥f
_
E
ψ dµ. It follows that f is integrable.
19. Let f be an integrable function on the measure space (X, B, µ). Let ε > 0 be given. Suppose f is
nonnegative and bounded by M. If µ(E) < ε/M, then
_
E
f < ε. In particular, the result holds for all
simple functions. If f is nonnegative, there is an increasing sequence ¸ϕ
n
) of nonnegative simple functions
converging to f on X. By the Monotone Convergence Theorem, we have
_
f = lim
_
ϕ
n
so there exists
N such that
_
(f −f
N
) < ε/2. Choose δ < ε/2 sup [ϕ
N
[. If µ(E) < δ, then
_
E
f =
_
E
(f −f
N
) +
_
E
f
N
<
ε/2 + ε/2 = ε so the result holds for nonnegative measurable functions. For an integrable function f,
there exists δ > 0 such that if µ(E) < δ, then
_
E
[f[ < ε. Thus [
_
E
f[ ≤
_
E
[f[ < ε.
20. Fatou’s Lemma: Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of nonnegative measurable functions that converge in
measure on a set E to a function f. There is a subsequence ¸f
n
k
) such that lim
_
E
f
n
k
= lim
_
E
f
n
. Now
¸f
n
k
) converges to f in measure on E so by Q13a it has a subsequence ¸f
n
k
j
) that converges to f almost
everywhere on E. Thus
_
E
f ≤ lim
_
E
f
n
k
j
= lim
_
E
f
n
k
= lim
_
E
f
n
.
Monotone Convergence Theorem: Let ¸f
n
) be a sequence of nonnegative measurable functions which
converge in measure to a function f and suppose that f
n
≤ f for all n. Since f
n
≤ f, we have
_
f
n
≤
_
f.
By Fatou’s Lemma, we have
_
f ≤ lim
_
f
n
≤ lim
_
f
n
≤
_
f so equality holds and
_
f = lim
_
f
n
.
Lebesgue Convergence Theorem: Let g be integrable over E and suppose that ¸f
n
) is a sequence of
measurable functions such that on E we have [f
n
(x)[ ≤ g(x) and such that ¸f
n
) converges in measure
to f almost everywhere on E. The functions g −f
n
are nonnegative so by Fatou’s Lemma,
_
E
(g −f) ≤
lim
_
E
(g −f
n
). There is a subsequence ¸f
n
k
) that converges to f almost everywhere on E so [f[ ≤ [g[ on
E and f integrable. Thus
_
E
g −
_
E
f ≤
_
E
g −lim
_
E
f
n
and lim
_
E
f
n
≤
_
E
f. Similarly, by considering
the functions g +f
n
, we have
_
E
f ≤ lim
_
E
f
n
. Thus equality holds and
_
E
f = lim
_
E
f
n
.
21a. Suppose f is integrable. Then [f[ is integrable. Now ¦x : f(x) ,= 0¦ = ¦x : [f(x)[ > 0¦ =
¦x : [f(x)[ ≥ 1/n¦. Each of the sets ¦x : [f(x)[ ≥ 1/n¦ is measurable. If µ¦x : [f(x)[ ≥ 1/n¦ = ∞
for some n, then
_
[f[ ≥
_
¦x:]f(x)]≥1/n]
[f[ ≥ (1/n)µ¦x : [f(x)[ ≥ 1/n¦ = ∞. Contradiction. Thus
µ¦x : [f(x)[ ≥ 1/n¦ < ∞ for all n and ¦x : f(x) ,= 0¦ is of σﬁnite measure.
21b. Suppose f is integrable and f ≥ 0. There is an increasing sequence ¸ϕ
n
) of simple functions such
that f = limϕ
n
. We may redeﬁne each ϕ
n
to be zero on ¦x : f(x) = 0¦. Since ¦x : f(x) ,= 0¦ is σﬁnite,
we may further redeﬁne each ϕ
n
to vanish outside a set of ﬁnite measure by Proposition 7 (c.f. Q10).
21c. Suppose f is integrable with respect to µ. Then f
+
and f
−
are nonnegative integrable functions
so by part (b), there are increasing sequences ¸ϕ
n
) and ¸ψ
n
) of simple functions each of which vanishes
outside a set of ﬁnite measure such that limϕ
n
= f
+
and limψ
n
= f
−
. By the Monotone Convergence
Theorem,
_
f
+
dµ = lim
_
ϕ
n
dµ and
_
f
−
dµ = lim
_
ψ
n
dµ. Given ε > 0, there is a simple function ϕ
N
such that
_
f
+
dµ−
_
ϕ
n
dµ < ε/2 and there is a simple function ψ
N
such that
_
f
−
dµ−
_
ψ
N
dµ < ε/2.
Let ϕ = ϕ
N
− ψ
N
. Then ϕ is a simple function and
_
[f − ϕ[ dµ =
_
[f
+
− ϕ
N
− f
−
+ ψ
N
[ dµ ≤
_
[f
+
−ϕ
N
[ dµ +
_
[f
−
−ψ
N
[ dµ = (
_
f
+
dµ −
_
ϕ
N
dµ) + (
_
f
−
dµ −
_
ψ
N
dµ) < ε.
22a. Let (X, B, µ) be a measure space and g a nonnegative measurable function on X. Set ν(E) =
_
E
g dµ. Clearly ν(∅) = 0. Let ¸E
n
) be a sequence of disjoint sets in B. Then ν(
E
n
) =
_
E
n
g dµ =
78
_
gχ
E
n
dµ =
_
gχ
E
n
dµ =
_
gχ
E
n
dµ =
_
E
n
g dµ =
ν(E
n
). Hence ν is a measure on B.
22b. Let f be a nonnegative measurable function on X. If ϕ is a simple function given by
n
i=1
c
i
χ
E
i
.
Then
_
ϕ dν =
n
i=1
c
i
ν(E
i
) =
n
i=1
c
i
_
E
i
g dµ =
n
i=1
c
i
_
gχ
E
i
dµ =
_
n
i=1
c
i
gχ
E
i
dµ =
_
ϕg dµ.
Now if f is a nonnegative measurable function, there is an increasing sequence ¸ϕ
n
) of simple functions
such that f = limϕ
n
. Then ¸ϕ
n
g) is an increasing sequence of nonnegative measurable functions such
that fg = limϕ
n
g. By the Monotone Convergence Theorem, we have
_
fg dµ = lim
_
ϕ
n
g dµ =
lim
_
ϕ
n
dν =
_
f dν.
23a. Let (X, B, µ) be a measure space. Suppose f is locally measurable. For any α and any E ∈ B
with µ(E) < ∞, ¦x : f(x) > α¦ ∩ E = ¦x : fχ
E
(x) > α¦ if α ≥ 0 and ¦x : f(x) > α¦ ∩ E = ¦x :
fχ
E
(x) > 0¦ ∪ (¦x : fχ
E
(x) = 0¦ ∩ E) ∪ ¦x : 0 > fχ
E
(x) > α¦ if α < 0. Thus ¦x : f(x) > α¦ ∩ E is
measurable so ¦x : f(x) > α¦ is locally measurable and f is measurable with respect to the σalgebra of
locally measurable sets.
Conversely, suppose f is measurable with respect to the σalgebra of locally measurable sets. For
any α and any E ∈ B with µ(E) < ∞, ¦x : fχ
E
(x) > α¦ = ¦x : f(x) > α¦ ∩ E if α ≥ 0 and
¦x : fχ
E
(x) > α¦ = (¦x : f(x) > α¦ ∩ E) ∪ E
c
if α < 0. Thus ¦x : fχ
E
(x) > α¦ is measurable and f is
locally measurable.
23b. Let µ be a σﬁnite measure. Deﬁne integration for nonnegative locally measurable functions f by
taking
_
f to be the supremum of
_
ϕ as ϕ ranges over all simple functions less than f. For a simple
function ϕ =
n
i=1
c
i
χ
E
i
, we have
_
ϕ =
n
i=1
c
i
µ(E
i
) =
n
i=1
c
i
µ(E
i
) =
_
ϕ dµ.
Let X =
X
n
where each X
n
is measurable and µ(X
n
) < ∞. Then
_
f =
_
fχ
X
n
=
_
n
fχ
X
n
.
Now fχ
X
n
is measurable for each n so there is an increasing sequence ¸ϕ
(n)
k
) of simple functions con
verging to fχ
X
n
. Thus
_
f =
_
n
fχ
X
n
=
n
_
fχ
X
n
=
n
lim
k
_
ϕ
(n)
k
=
n
lim
k
_
ϕ
(n)
k
dµ =
n
_
fχ
X
n
dµ =
_
n
fχ
X
n
dµ =
_
fχ
X
n
dµ =
_
f dµ.
11.4 General convergence theorems
24. Let (X, B) be a measurable space and ¸µ
n
) a sequence of measures on B such that for each E ∈ B,
µ
n+1
(E) ≥ µ
n
(E). Let µ(E) = limµ
n
(E). Clearly µ(∅) = 0. Let ¸E
k
) be a sequence of disjoint sets
in B. Then µ(
k
E
k
) = lim
n
µ
n
(
k
E
k
) = lim
n
k
µ
n
(E
k
) =
k
lim
n
µ
n
(E
k
) =
k
µ(E
k
) where the
interchanging of the limit and the summation is valid because µ
n
(E
k
) is increasing in n for each k. Hence
µ is a measure.
*25. Let m be Lebesgue measure. For each n, deﬁne µ
n
by µ
n
(E) = m(E)2
−n
. Then ¸µ
n
) is a
decreasing sequence of measures. Note that R =
k∈Z
[k, k +1). Now µ(
k
[k, k +1) = lim
n
µ
n
(
k
[k, k +
1)) = lim
n
m(R)2
−n
= ∞ but
k
µ([k, k + 1)) =
k
lim
n
µ
n
([k, k + 1)) =
k
lim
n
m([k, k + 1))2
−n
=
k
lim
n
2
−n
= 0. Hence µ is not a measure.
*26. Let (X, B) be a measurable space and ¸µ
n
) a sequence of measures on Bthat converge setwise to to
a set function µ. Clearly µ(∅) = 0. If E
1
, E
2
∈ B and E
1
∩E
2
= ∅, then µ(E
1
∪E
2
) = limµ
n
(E
1
∪E
2
) =
lim(µ
n
(E
1
)+µ
n
(E
2
)) = limµ
n
(E
1
)+limµ
n
(E
2
) = µ(E
1
)+µ(E
2
). Thus µ is ﬁnitely additive. If µ is not
a measure, then it is not ∅continuous. i.e. there is a decreasing sequence ¸E
n
) of set in B with
E
n
= ∅
and limµ(E
n
) = ε > 0. Deﬁne α
1
= β
1
= 1. If α
j
and β
j
have been deﬁned for j ≤ k, let α
k+1
> α
k
such
that µ
α
k+1
(E
β
k
) ≥ 7ε/8. Then let β
k+1
> β
k
such that ε/8 ≥ µ
α
k+1
(E
β
k+1
). Deﬁne F
n
= E
β
n
¸ E
β
n+1
.
Then µ
α
n+1
(F
n
) ≥ 3ε/4. Now for j odd and 1 ≤ k < j, we have µ
α
j
(
n even,n≥k
F
n
) ≥ 3ε/4 so for
k ≥ 1, we have µ(
n even,n≥k
F
n
) ≥ 3ε/4. This inequality is also true for odd n. Thus for k ≥ 1, we
have µ(E
β
k
) = µ(
F
n
) ≥ 3ε/2. Contradiction. Hence µ is a measure.
11.5 Signed measures
27a. Let ν be a signed measure on a measurable space (X, B) and let ¦A, B¦ be a Hahn decomposition
for ν. Let N be a null set and consider ¦A ∪ N, B ¸ N¦. Note that (A ∪ N) ∪ (B ¸ N) = A ∪ B =
X and (A ∪ N) ∩ (B ¸ N) = A ∩ (B ¸ N) = ∅. For any measurable subset E of A ∪ N, we have
ν(E) = ν(E ∩ A) + ν(E ∩ (N ¸ A)) = ν(E ∩ A) ≥ 0. For any measurable subset E
t
of B ¸ N, we have
ν(E
t
) = ν(E
t
∩B) −ν(E
t
∩B∩N) = ν(E
t
∩B) ≤ 0. Thus ¦A∪N, B¸ N¦ is also a Hahn decomposition
for ν.
79
Consider a set ¦a, b, c¦ with the σalgebra being its power set. Deﬁne ν(¦a¦) = −1, ν(¦b¦) = 0, ν(¦c¦) = 1
and extend it to a signed measure on ¦a, b, c¦ in the natural way. Then ¦¦a, b¦, ¦c¦¦ and ¦¦a¦, ¦b, c¦¦
are both Hahn decompositions for ν.
27b. Suppose ¦A, B¦ and ¦A
t
, B
t
¦ are Hahn decompositions for ν. Then A¸ A
t
= A∩ B
t
and A
t
¸ A =
A
t
∩B. Thus A¸ A
t
and A
t
¸ A are null sets. Since A∆A
t
= (A¸ A
t
) ∪(A
t
¸ A), A∆A
t
is also a null set.
Similarly, B∆B
t
is a null set. Hence the Hahn decomposition is unique except for null sets.
28. Let ¦A, B¦ be a Hahn decomposition for ν. Suppose ν = ν
+
− ν
−
= µ
1
− µ
2
where µ
1
⊥µ
2
. There
are disjoint measurable sets A
t
, B
t
such that X = A
t
∪ B
t
and µ
1
(B
t
) = µ
2
(A
t
) = 0. If E ⊂ A
t
, then
ν(E) = µ
1
(E) −µ
2
(E) = µ
1
(E) ≥ 0. If E ⊂ B
t
, then ν(E) = −µ
2
(E) ≤ 0. Thus ¦A
t
, B
t
¦ is also a Hahn
decomposition for ν. Now for any measurable set E, we have ν
+
(E) = ν(E∩A) = ν(E∩A∩A
t
)+ν(E∩(A¸
A
t
)) = ν(E∩A∩A
t
)+ν(E∩(A
t
¸A)) = µ
1
(E∩A∩A
t
)+µ
1
(E∩(A
t
¸A)) = µ
1
(E∩A
t
)+µ
1
(E∩B
t
) = µ
1
(E).
Similarly, ν
−
(E) = µ
2
(E).
29. Let ¦A, B¦ be a Hahn decomposition for ν and let E be any measurable set. Since ν
2
(E) ≥ 0, we
have ν(E) = ν
+
(E) − ν
−
(E) ≤ ν
+
(E). Since ν
1
(E) ≥ 0, we have −ν
−
(E) ≤ ν
+
(E) − ν
−
(E) = ν(E).
Thus −ν
−
(E) ≤ ν(E) ≤ ν
+
(E).
Now ν(E) ≤ ν
+
(E) ≤ ν
+
(E) +ν
−
(E) = [ν[(E) and −ν(E) ≤ ν
−
(E) ≤ ν
+
(E) +ν
−
(E) = [ν[(E). Hence
[ν(E)[ ≤ [ν[(E).
30. Let ν
1
and ν
2
be ﬁnite signed measures and let α, β ∈ R. Then αν
1
+βν
2
is a signed measure. Then
αν
1
+βν
2
is a ﬁnite signed measure since (αν
1
+βν
2
)(
E
n
) = αν
1
(
E
n
) +βν
2
(
E
n
) = α
ν
1
(E
n
) +
β
ν
2
(E
n
) =
(αν
1
(E
n
) + βν
2
(E
n
)) for any sequence ¸E
n
) of disjoint measurable sets where the last
series converges absolutely.
Let ¦A, B¦ be a Hahn decomposition for ν. Suppose α ≥ 0. Then [αν[(E) = (αν)
+
(E) + (αν)
−
(E) =
αν
+
(E) + αν
−
(E) = [α[ [ν[(E) since αν = αν
+
− αν
−
and αν
+
⊥αν
−
as αν
+
(B) = 0 = αν
−
(A).
Suppose α < 0. Then [αν[(E) = (αν)
+
(E) + (αν)
−
(E) = −αν
−
(E) − αν
+
(E) = [α[ [ν[(E) since
αν = αν
+
− αν
−
= −αν
−
− (−αν
+
) and −αν
+
⊥ − αν
−
as −αν
+
(B) = 0 = −αν
−
(A). Hence
[αν[ = [α[ [ν[.
Also, [ν
1
+ν
2
[(E) = [ν
1
(E) +ν
2
(E)[ ≤ [ν
1
(E)[ +[ν
2
(E)[ = [ν
1
[(E) +[ν
2
[(E). Hence [ν
1
+ν
2
[ ≤ [ν
1
[ +[ν
2
[.
31. Deﬁne integration with respect to a signed measure ν by deﬁning
_
f dν =
_
f dν
+
−
_
f dν
−
.
Suppose [f[ ≤ M. Then [
_
E
f dν[ = [
_
E
f dν
+
−
_
E
f dν
−
[ ≤ [
_
E
f dν
+
[ + [
_
E
f dν
−
[ ≤
_
E
[f[ dν
+
+
_
E
[f[ dν
−
≤ Mν
+
(E) +Mν
−
(E) = M[ν[(E).
Let ¦A, B¦ be a Hahn decomposition for ν. Then
_
E
(χ
E∩A
− χ
E∩B
) dν =
_
E∩A
1 dν −
_
E∩B
1 dν =
[ν
+
(E∩A)−ν
−
(E∩A)] −[ν
+
(E∩B)−ν
−
(E∩B)] = ν
+
(E∩A)+ν
−
(E∩A)+ν
+
(E∩B)+ν
−
(E∩B) =
ν
+
(E) +ν
−
(E) = [ν[(E) where χ
E∩A
−χ
E∩B
is measurable and [χ
E∩A
−χ
E∩B
[ ≤ 1.
32a. Let µ and ν be ﬁnite signed measures. Deﬁne µ ∧ ν by (µ ∧ ν)(E) = min(µ(E), ν(E)). Note that
µ ∧ ν =
1
2
(µ + ν − [µ − ν[) so µ ∧ ν is a ﬁnite signed measure by Q30 and it is smaller than µ and ν.
Furthermore, if η is a signed measure smaller than µ and ν, then η ≤ µ ∧ ν.
32b. Deﬁne µ ∨ ν by (µ ∨ ν)(E) = max(µ(E), ν(E)). Note that µ ∨ ν =
1
2
(µ +ν +[µ −ν[) so µ ∨ ν is a
ﬁnite signed measure by Q30 and it is larger than µ and ν. Furthermore, if η is a signed measure larger
than µ and ν, then η ≥ µ ∨ ν. Also, µ ∨ ν +µ ∧ ν = max(µ, ν) + min(µ, ν) = µ +ν.
32c. Suppose µ and ν are positive measures. If µ⊥ν, then there are disjoint measurable sets A and
B such that X = A ∪ B and µ(B) = 0 = ν(A). For any measurable set E, we have (µ ∧ ν)(E) =
(µ ∧ν(E ∩A) +(µ ∧ν)(E ∩B) = min(µ(E ∩A), ν(E ∩A)) +min(µ(E ∩B), ν(E ∩B)) = 0. Conversely,
suppose µ ∧ ν = 0. If µ(E) = ν(E) = 0 for all measurable sets, then µ = ν = 0 and µ⊥ν. Thus we may
assume that µ(E) = 0 < ν(E) for some E. If ν(E
c
) = 0, it follows that µ⊥ν. On the other hand, if
ν(E
c
) > 0, then µ(E
c
) = 0 so µ(X) = µ(E) +µ(E
c
) = 0. Thus µ = 0 and we still have µ⊥ν.
11.6 The RadonNikodym Theorem
33a. Let (X, B, µ) be a σﬁnite measure space and let ν be a measure on B which is absolutely
continuous with respect to µ. Let X =
X
i
with µ(X
i
) < ∞ for each i. We may assume the X
i
are
pairwise disjoint. For each i, let B
i
= ¦E ∈ B : E ⊂ E
i
¦, µ
i
= µ[
B
i
and ν
i
= ν[
B
i
. Then (X
i
, B
i
, µ
i
) is a
ﬁnite measure space and ν
i
<< µ
i
. Thus for each i there is a nonnegative µ
i
measurable function f
i
such
80
that ν
i
(E) =
_
E
f
i
dµ
i
for all E ∈ B
i
. Deﬁne f by f(x) = f
i
(x) if x ∈ X
i
. If E ⊂ X, then E ∩ X
i
∈ B
i
for each i. Thus ν(E) =
ν(E ∩ X
i
) =
ν
i
(E ∩ X
i
) =
_
E∩X
i
f
i
dµ
i
=
_
E∩X
i
f dµ =
_
E
f dµ.
33b. If f and g are nonnegative measurable functions such that ν(E) =
_
E
f dµ =
_
E
g dµ for any
measurable set E, then
_
f dµ =
_
g dµ so f = g a.e.
34a. RadonNikodym derivatives: Suppose ν << µ and f is a nonnegative measurable function. For
a nonnegative simple function ϕ =
n
i=1
c
i
χ
E
i
, we have
_
ϕ dν =
n
i=1
c
i
ν(E
i
) =
n
i=1
c
i
(
_
E
i
_
dν
dµ
_
dµ) =
_
n
i=1
c
i
χ
E
i
_
dν
dµ
_
dµ =
_
ϕ
_
dν
dµ
_
dµ. For a nonnegative measurable function f, let ¸ϕ
i
) be an increas
ing sequence of nonnegative simple functions converging pointwise to f. Then
_
f dν = lim
_
ϕ
i
dν =
lim
_
ϕ
i
_
dν
dµ
_
dµ =
_
f
_
dν
dµ
_
dµ.
34b. If ν
1
<< µ and ν
2
<< µ, then ν
1
+ ν
2
<< µ. For any measurable set E, we have ν
1
(E) =
_
E
_
dν
1
dµ
_
dµ and ν
2
(E) =
_
E
_
dν
2
dµ
_
dµ. Thus (ν
1
+ν
2
)(E) =
_
E
_
dν
1
dµ
_
+
_
dν
2
dµ
_
dµ. By uniqueness of the
RadonNikodym derivative, we have
_
d(ν
1
+ν
2
)
dµ
_
=
_
dν
1
dµ
_
+
_
dν
2
dµ
_
.
34c. Suppose ν << µ << λ. For any measurable set E, we have ν(E) =
_
E
_
dν
dµ
_
dµ =
_
E
_
dν
dµ
_ _
dµ
dλ
_
dλ
where the last equality follows from part (a). Hence
_
dν
dλ
¸
=
_
dν
dµ
_ _
dµ
dλ
_
.
34d. Suppose ν << µ and µ << ν. Then
_
dν
dν
¸
=
_
dν
dµ
_ _
dµ
dν
_
by part (c). But
_
dν
dν
¸
≡ 1 so
_
dν
dµ
_
=
_
dµ
dν
_
−1
.
35a. Suppose ν is a signed measure such that ν⊥µ and ν << µ. There are disjoint measurable sets A
and B such that X = A∪ B and [ν[(B) = 0 = [µ[(A). Then [ν(A)[ = 0 so [ν[(X) = [ν[(A) +[ν[(B) = 0.
Hence ν
+
= 0 = ν
−
so ν = 0.
35b. Suppose ν
1
and ν
2
are singular with respect to µ. There are disjoint measurable sets A
1
and B
1
such that X = A
1
∪B
1
and µ(B
1
) = 0 = ν
1
(A
1
). Similarly, there are disjoint measurable sets A
2
and B
2
such that X = A
2
∪B
2
and µ(B
2
) = 0 = ν
2
(A
2
). Now X = (A
1
∩A
2
)∪(B
1
∪B
2
), (A
1
∩A
2
)∩(B
1
∪B
2
) = ∅
and (c
1
ν
1
+c
2
ν
2
)(A
1
∩ A
2
) = 0 = µ(B
1
∪ B
2
). Hence c
1
ν
1
+c
2
ν
2
⊥µ.
35c. Suppose ν
1
<< µ and ν
2
<< µ. If µ(E) = 0, then ν
1
(E) = 0 = ν
2
(E). Thus (c
1
ν
1
+c
2
ν
2
)(E) = 0
and c
1
ν
1
+c
2
ν
2
<< µ.
35d. Let (X, B, µ) be a σﬁnite measure space and let ν be a σﬁnite measure on B. Suppose ν =
ν
0
+ν
1
= ν
t
0
+ν
t
1
where ν
0
⊥µ, ν
t
0
⊥µ, ν
1
<< µ and ν
2
<< µ. Now ν
0
−ν
t
0
= ν
t
1
−ν
1
where ν
0
−ν
t
0
and
ν
t
1
−ν
1
are signed measures such that ν
0
−ν
t
0
⊥µ and ν
t
1
−ν
1
<< µ by parts (b) and (c). Then by part
(a), we have ν
0
−ν
t
0
= 0 = ν
t
1
−ν
1
so ν
0
= ν
t
0
and ν
1
= ν
t
1
.
36. Let (X, B, µ) be a σﬁnite measure space and suppose ν is a signed measure on Bwhich is absolutely
continuous with respect to µ. Consider the Jordan decomposition ν = ν
1
−ν
2
where either ν
+
or ν
−
must
be ﬁnite. There are measurable functions f and g such that ν
+
(E) =
_
E
f dµ and ν
−
(E) =
_
E
g dµ.
Then ν(E) = ν
+
(E) −ν
−
(E) =
_
E
(f −g) dµ.
37a. Complex measures: Given a complex measure ν, its real and imaginary parts are ﬁnite signed
measures and so have Jordan decompositions µ
1
−µ
2
and µ
3
−µ
4
respectively. Hence ν = µ
1
−µ
2
+iµ
3
−iµ
4
where µ
1
, µ
2
, µ
3
, µ
4
are ﬁnite measures.
*37b.
*37c.
*37d.
*37e.
(*) Polar decomposition for complex measures
38a. Let µ and ν be ﬁnite measures on a measurable space (X, B) and set λ = µ + ν. Deﬁne F(f) =
_
f dµ. Note that L
2
(λ) ⊂ L
1
(λ) ⊂ L
1
(µ) since
_
[f[ dλ ≤ (λ(X))
1/2
(
_
[f[
2
dλ)
1/2
and
_
[f[ dµ ≤
_
[f[ dλ. Thus F is welldeﬁned. Clearly F is linear. Furthermore [F(f)[ ≤ (µ(X))
1/2
[[f[[
2
. Hence F is
a bounded linear functional on L
2
(λ).
38b. There exists a unique function g ∈ L
2
(λ) such that F(f) = (f, g). Note that ¦g > 1¦ =
¦g ≥
1 + 1/n¦. Let E
n
= ¦g ≥ 1 + 1/n¦. Then µ(E
n
) = F(χ
E
n
) =
_
E
n
g dλ ≥ (1 + 1/n)λ(E
n
) so
81
(1/n)µ(E
n
) + ν(E
n
) ≤ 0. It follows that µ(E
n
) = 0 = ν(E
n
) and λ(E
n
) = 0. Thus λ(¦g > 1¦) = 0.
Similarly, λ(¦g < 0¦=0. Now µ(E) = F(χ
E
) = (χ
E
, g) =
_
E
g dλ and ν(E) = λ(E) − µ(E) =
_
E
(1 −g) dλ.
38c. Suppose ν << µ. If µ(E) = 0, then ν(E) = 0 so λ(E) = 0. Thus λ << µ. Let E = ¦x : g(x) = 0¦.
Then µ(E) =
_
E
g dλ = 0. Thus g = 0 only on a set of µmeasure zero. In this case, we have
λ(E) =
_
E
1 dλ =
_
E
gg
−1
dλ =
_
E
g
−1
dµ by Q22.
38d. Suppose ν << µ. Then
_
E
(1 − g)g
−1
dµ =
_
E
g
−1
dµ −
_
E
gg
−1
dµ = λ(E) − µ(E) = ν(E). In
particular, (1 −g)g
−1
is integrable with respect to µ.
(*) Alternate proof of the RadonNikodym Theorem
39. Let X = [0, 1], B the class of Lebesgue measurable subsets of [0, 1] and take ν to be Lebesgue
measure and µ to be the counting measure on B. Then ν is ﬁnite and absolutely continuous with respect
to µ. Suppose there is a function f such that ν(E) =
_
E
f dµ for all E ∈ B. Since ν is ﬁnite, f is
integrable with respect to µ. Thus E
0
= ¦x : f(x) ,= 0¦ is countable. Now 0 = ν(E
0
) =
_
E
0
f dµ.
Contradiction. Hence there is no such function f.
40a. Decomposable measures: Let ¦X
α
¦ be a decomposition for a measure µ and E a measurable set.
Note that µ(
¦X
α
∩E : µ(X
α
∩E) = 0¦) = 0 and µ(E¸
X
α
) = 0. Thus µ(E) = µ(
¦X
α
∩E : µ(X
α
∩
E) > 0¦). If µ(X
α
∩ E) > 0 for countably many α, then we have a countable union and it follows that
µ(E) =
µ(X
α
∩E). If µ(X
α
∩E) > 0 for uncountably many α, then
µ(X
α
∩E) = ∞. If µ(E) < ∞,
then for any ﬁnite union
n
k=1
(X
k
∩ E), we have µ(
n
k=1
(X
k
∩ E)) ≤ µ(
(X
α
∩ E)) ≤ µ(
¦X
α
∩ E :
µ(X
α
∩E) > 0¦) = µ(E) so
µ(X
α
∩E) ≤ µ(E) < ∞. Contradiction. Thus µ(E) = ∞ =
µ(X
α
∩E).
40b. Let ¦X
α
¦ be a decomposition for a complete measure µ. If f is locally measurable, then since
µ(X
α
) < ∞ for each α, the restriction of f to each X
α
is measurable. Conversely, suppose the restriction
of f to each X
α
is measurable. Given a measurable set E with µ(E) < ∞, let A =
¦X
α
∩ E :
µ(X
α
∩ E) > 0¦, B =
¦X
α
∩ E : µ(X
α
∩ E) = 0¦ and C = E ¸
X
α
). For β ≥ 0, ¦x : fχ
E
(x) >
β¦ = ¦x ∈ A : f(x) > β¦ ∪ ¦x ∈ B : f(x) > β¦ ∪ ¦x ∈ C : f(x) > β¦. The last two sets are
measurable since they are subsets of sets of measure zero. The ﬁrst set is measurable since it is simply
¦x : fχ
X
α
(x) > β¦ ∩ E for some α. For β < 0, ¦x : fχ
E
(x) > β¦ = E
c
∪ (E ∩ ¦x : f(x) > β¦). By a
similar argument as before, ¦x : fχ
E
(x) > β¦ is measurable. Hence f is locally measurable.
Let f be a nonnegative locally measurable function of X. Now
_
X
f dµ ≥
_
n
i=1
X
i
f dµ =
n
i=1
_
X
i
f dµ
for any ﬁnite set ¦X
1
, . . . , X
n
¦. Thus
_
X
f dµ ≥
α
_
X
α
f dµ. On the other hand, for any simple function
ϕ =
n
i=1
c
i
χ
E
i
with ϕ ≤ f, we have
_
X
ϕ dµ =
n
i=1
c
i
µ(E
i
∩
X
α
) =
n
i=1
c
i
(
α
µ(E
i
∩ X
α
)) =
α
(
n
i=1
c
i
µ(E
i
∩ X
α
)) =
α
_
X
α
ϕ dµ. Thus
_
X
f dµ ≤
α
_
X
α
f dµ.
*40c. Let ν be absolutely continuous with respect to µ and suppose that there is a collection ¦X
α
¦ which
is a decomposition for both µ and ν. Let ν
α
be deﬁned by ν
α
(E) = ν(X
α
∩E) for each α. Then there is
a nonnegative measurable function f
α
such that ν
α
(E) =
_
E
f
α
dµ. The function f =
α
f
α
is locally
measurable and ν(E) =
α
ν(X
α
∩ E) =
α
ν
α
(E) =
α
_
E
f
α
dµ =
α
_
X
α
∩E
f dµ =
_
E
f dµ.
40d. If instead of assuming ¦X
α
¦ to be a decomposition for ν, we merely assume that if E ∈ B and
ν(E ∩ X
α
) = 0 for all α, then ν(E) = 0, the reverse implication in part (b) remains valid although
the forward implication may not be true. Thus the argument in part (c) remains valid and so does the
conclusion.
11.7 The L
p
spaces
41. Let f ∈ L
p
(µ), 1 ≤ p < ∞, and ε > 0. First assume that f ≥ 0. Let ¸ϕ
n
) be an increasing sequence
of nonnegative simple functions converging pointwise to f, each of which vanishes outside a set of ﬁnite
measure. Then the sequence ¸[f − ϕ
n
[
p
) converges pointwise to zero and is bounded by 2f
p
. By the
Lebesgue Convergence Theorem, lim
_
[f −ϕ
n
[
p
dµ = 0. i.e. lim[[f −ϕ
n
[[
p
= 0. Thus [[f −ϕ[[
p
< ε for
some ϕ.
Now for a general f, there are simple functions ϕ and ψ vanishing outside sets of ﬁnite measure such
that [[f
+
−ϕ[[
p
< ε/2 and [[f
−
−ψ[[
p
< ε/2. Then [[f −(ϕ +ψ)[[
p
< ε.
(*) Proof of Proposition 26
42. Let (X, B, µ) be a ﬁnite measure space and g an integrable function such that for some constant
82
M, [
_
gϕ dµ[ ≤ M[[ϕ[[
1
for all simple functions ϕ. Let E = ¦x : [g(x)[ ≥ M +ε¦ and let ϕ = (sgng)χ
E
.
Then (M +ε)µ(E) ≤
_
E
[g[ dµ = [
_
gϕ dµ[ ≤ M[[ϕ[[
1
= Mµ(E). Thus µ(E) = 0 and g ∈ L
∞
.
(*) Proof of Lemma 27 for p = 1
43. Let (X, B, µ) be a σﬁnite measure space and g an integrable function such that for some constant
M, [
_
gϕ dµ[ ≤ M[[ϕ[[
p
for all simple functions ϕ. Now X =
X
n
where µ(X
n
) < ∞ for each n. Let
g
n
= gχ
n
i=1
X
i
. Then g
n
∈ L
q
, g
n
→ g and [g
n
[ ≤ [g[ for each n. Thus lim[g − g
n
[
q
dµ = 0. It follows
that lim[[g −g
n
[[
q
= 0 and g ∈ L
q
.
44. Let ¸E
n
) be a sequence of disjoint measurable sets and for each n let f
n
be a function in L
p
, 1 ≤
p < ∞, that vanishes outside E
n
. Set f =
f
n
. Then
_
[f[
p
=
_
[
f
n
[
p
=
_
[f
n
[
p
=
_
[f
n
[
p
=
[[f
n
[[
p
. Hence f ∈ L
p
if and only if
[[f
n
[[
p
< ∞. In this case, [[f[[
p
=
[[f
n
[[
p
. Also, since the
norm is continuous, we have [[
n
i=1
f
i
[[
p
→ [[f[[
p
so [[f −
n
i=1
f
i
[[
p
→ 0 (c.f. Q6.16).
45. For g ∈ L
q
, let F be the linear functional on L
p
deﬁned by F(f) =
_
fg dµ. By the H¨older
inequality, we have [F(f)[ = [
_
fg dµ[ ≤
_
[fg[ dµ ≤ [[f[[
p
[[g[[
q
so [[F[[ ≤ [[g[[
q
. For 1 < p < ∞, let
f = [g[
q/p
(sgng). Then [f[
p
= [g[
q
= fg so f ∈ L
p
and [[f[[
p
= [[g[[
p/q
q
. Now [F(f)[ = [
_
fg dµ[ =
_
[g[
q
dµ = [[g[[
q
q
= [[g[[
q
[[f[[
p
. Thus [[F[[ ≥ [[g[[
q
. If q = 1 and p = ∞, we may assume [[g[[
1
> 0.
Let f = sgng. Then f ∈ L
∞
, [[f[[
∞
= 1 and [F(f)[ = [
_
fg dµ[ =
_
[g[ dµ = [[g[[
1
= [[f[[
∞
[[g[[
1
so
[[F[[ ≥ [[g[[
1
. If q = ∞ and p = 1, given ε > 0, let E = ¦x : g(x) > [[g[[
∞
− ε¦ and let f = χ
E
. Then
f ∈ L
1
, [[f[[
1
=
_
[f[ dµ = µ(E) and [F(f)[ = [
_
fg dµ[ = [
_
E
g dµ[ ≥ ([[g[[
∞
−ε)[[f[[
1
so [[F[[ ≥ [[g[[
∞
.
46a. Let µ be the counting measure on a countable set X. We may enumerate the elements of X by
¸x
n
). By considering simple functions, we see that [f[
p
is integrable if and only if
[f(x
n
)[
p
< ∞.
Hence L
p
(µ) =
p
.
*46b.
*47a.
*47b.
*48. Let A and B be uncountable sets with diﬀerent numbers of elements and let X = AB. Let B be
the collection of subsets E of X such that for every horizontal or vertical line L either E ∩ L or E
c
∩ L
is countable. Clearly ∅ ∈ B. Suppose E ∈ B. By the symmetry in the deﬁnition, E
c
∈ B. Suppose
¸E
n
) is a sequence of sets in B. For every horizontal or vertical line L, (
E
n
) ∩ L =
(E
n
∩ L) and
(
E
n
)
c
∩ L =
E
c
n
∩ L. If E
n
∩ L is countable for all n, then (
E
n
) ∩ L is countable. Otherwise,
E
c
n
∩ L is countable for some n and (
E
n
)
c
∩ L is countable. Thus
E
n
∈ B. Hence B is a σalgebra.
Let µ(E) be the number of horizontal and vertical lines L for which E
c
∩ L is countable and ν(E)
be the number of horizontal lines with E
c
∩ L countable. Clearly µ(∅) = 0 = ν(∅) since A and B are
uncountable. Suppose ¸E
n
) is a sequence of disjoint sets in B. Then µ(
E
n
) is the number of horizontal
and vertical lines L for which
E
c
n
∩ L is countable. Note that if E
c
n
∩ L is countable, then E
m
∩ L is
countable for m ,= n since E
m
⊂ E
c
n
. If E
c
n
∩ L is countable, then
E
c
n
∩ L is countable. On the other
hand, if
E
c
n
∩ L is countable, then E
c
n
∩ L is countable for some n, for otherwise we have (
E
n
) ∩ L
being countable. It follows that µ(
E
n
) =
µ(E
n
). Thus µ is a measure on B and similarly, ν is a
measure on B.
Deﬁne a bounded linear functional F on L
1
(µ) by setting F(f) =
_
f dν.
12 Measure and Outer Measure
12.1 Outer measure and measurability
1. Suppose ¯ µ(E) = µ
∗
(E) = 0. For any set A, we have µ
∗
(A∩E) = 0 since A∩E ⊂ E. Also, A∩E
c
⊂ E
so µ
∗
(E) ≥ µ
∗
(A∩ E
c
) = µ
∗
(A∩ E) +µ
∗
(A∩ E
c
). Thus E is measurable. If F ⊂ E, then µ
∗
(F) = 0 so
F is measurable. Hence ¯ µ is complete.
2. Suppose that ¸E
i
) is a sequence of disjoint measurable sets and E =
E
i
. For any set A, we have
µ
∗
(A ∩ E) ≤
µ
∗
(A ∩ E
i
) by countable subadditivity. Now µ
∗
(A ∩ (E
1
∪ E
2
)) ≥ µ
∗
(A ∩ (E
1
∪ E
2
) ∩
E
1
) +µ
∗
(A∩(E
1
∪E
2
) ∩E
c
1
) = µ
∗
(A∩E
1
) +µ
∗
(A∩E
2
) by measurability of E
1
. By induction we have
µ
∗
(A ∩
n
i=1
E
i
) ≥
n
i=1
µ
∗
(A ∩ E
i
) for all n. Thus µ
∗
(A ∩ E) ≥ µ
∗
(A ∩
n
i=1
E
i
) ≥
n
i=1
µ
∗
(A ∩ E
i
)
for all n so µ
∗
(A∩ E) ≥
µ
∗
(A∩ E
i
). Hence µ
∗
(A∩ E) =
µ
∗
(A∩ E
i
).
83
12.2 The extension theorem
*3. Let X be the set of rational numbers and A be the algebra of ﬁnite unions of intervals of the
form (a, b] with µ(a, b] = ∞ and µ(∅) = 0. Note that the smallest σalgebra containing A will contain
onepoint sets. Let k be a positive number. Deﬁne µ
k
(A) = k[A[. Then µ
k
is a measure on the smallest
σalgebra containing A and extends µ.
4a. If A is the union of each of two ﬁnite disjoint collections ¦C
i
¦ and ¦D
j
¦ of sets in (, then for
each i, we have µ(C
i
) =
j
µ(C
i
∩ D
j
). Similarly, for each j, we have µ(D
j
) =
i
µ(C
i
∩ D
j
). Thus
i
µ(C
i
) =
i
j
µ(C
i
∩ D
j
) =
j
i
µ(C
i
∩ D
j
) =
j
µ(D
j
).
4b. Deﬁning µ(A) =
n
i=1
µ(C
i
) whenever A is the disjoint union of the sets C
i
∈ (, we have a ﬁnitely
additive set function on A. Thus µ(
C
i
) ≥ µ(
n
i=1
C
i
) =
n
i=1
µ(C
i
) for all n so µ(
C
i
) ≥
µ(C
i
).
Condition (ii) gives the reverse inequality µ(
C
i
) ≤
µ(C
i
) so µ is countably additive.
(*) Proof of Proposition 9
5a. Let ( be a semialgebra of sets and A the smallest algebra of sets containing (. The union of two ﬁnite
unions of sets in ( is still a ﬁnite union of sets in (. Also, (
n
i=1
C
i
)
c
=
n
i=1
C
c
i
is a ﬁnite intersection
of ﬁnite unions of sets in (, which is then a ﬁnite union of sets in (. Thus the collection of ﬁnite unions
of sets in ( is an algebra containing (. Furthermore, if A
t
is an algebra containing (, then it contains all
ﬁnite unions of sets in (. Hence A is comprised of sets of the form A =
n
i=1
C
i
.
5b. Clearly (
σ
⊂ A
σ
. On the other hand, since each set in A is a ﬁnite union of sets in (, we have
A
σ
⊂ (
σ
. Hence A
σ
= (
σ
.
6a. Let A be a collection of sets which is closed under ﬁnite unions and ﬁnite intersections. Countable
unions of sets in A
σ
are still countable unions of sets in A. Also, if A
i
, B
j
∈ A, then (
i
A
i
) ∩(
j
B
j
) =
i,j
(A
i
∩ B
j
), which is a countable union of sets in A. Hence A
σ
is closed under countable unions and
ﬁnite intersections.
6b. If
B
i
∈ A
σδ
, then
B
i
=
n
n
i=1
B
i
where
n
i=1
B
i
∈ A
σ
and
n
i=1
B
i
⊃
n+1
i=1
B
i
for each n.
Hence each set in A
σδ
is the intersection of a decreasing sequence of sets in A
σ
.
7. Let µ be a ﬁnite measure on an algebra A, and µ
∗
the induced outer measure. Suppose that for each
ε > 0 there is a set A ∈ A
σδ
, A ⊂ E, such that µ
∗
(E ¸ A) < ε. Note that A is measurable. Thus for
any set B, we have µ
∗
(B) = µ
∗
(B ∩ A) + µ
∗
(B ∩ A
c
) ≥ µ
∗
(B ∩ E) − µ
∗
(B ∩ (E ¸ A)) + µ
∗
(B ∩ E
c
) >
µ
∗
(B ∩ E) +µ
∗
(B ∩ E
c
) −ε. Thus µ
∗
(B) ≥ µ
∗
(B ∩ E) +µ
∗
(B ∩ E
c
) and E is measurable.
Conversely, suppose E is measurable. Given ε > 0, there is a set B ∈ A
σ
such that E
c
⊂ B and
µ
∗
(B) ≤ µ
∗
(E
c
) + ε. Let A = B
c
. Then A ∈ A
δ
and A ⊂ E. Furthermore, µ
∗
(E ¸ A) = µ
∗
(E ∩ B) =
µ
∗
(B) −µ
∗
(B ∩ E
c
) = µ
∗
(B) −µ
∗
(E
c
) ≤ ε.
8a. If we start with an outer measure µ
∗
on X and form the induced measure ¯ µ on the µ
∗
measurable
sets, we can use ¯ µ to induce an outer measure µ
+
. For each set E, we have µ
∗
(E) ≤
µ
∗
(A
i
) for any
sequence of µ
∗
measurable sets A
i
with E ⊂
A
i
. Taking the inﬁmum over all such sequences, we have
µ
∗
(E) ≤ inf
µ
∗
(A
i
) = inf
¯ µ(A
i
) = µ
+
(E).
8b. Suppose there is a µ
∗
measurable set A ⊃ E with µ
∗
(A) = µ
∗
(E). Then µ
+
(E) ≥ ¯ µ(A) = µ
∗
(A) =
µ
∗
(E). Thus by part (a), we have µ
+
(E) = µ
∗
(E).
Conversely, suppose µ
+
(E) = µ
∗
(E). For each n, there is a µ
∗
measurable set (a countable union of µ
∗

measurable sets) A
n
with E ⊂ A
n
and µ
∗
(A
n
) = ¯ µ(A
n
) ≤ µ
+
(E) + 1/n = µ
∗
(E) + 1/n. Let A =
A
n
.
Then A is µ
∗
measurable, E ⊂ A and µ
∗
(A) ≤ µ
∗
(E) + 1/n for all n so µ
∗
(A) = µ
∗
(E).
8c. If µ
+
(E) = µ
∗
(E) for each set E, then by part (b), for each set E, there is a µ
∗
measurable set A
with A ⊃ E and µ
∗
(A) = µ
∗
(E). In particular, µ
∗
(A) ≤ µ
∗
(E) +ε so µ
∗
is regular.
Conversely, if µ
∗
is regular, then for each set E and each n, there is a µ
∗
measurable set A
n
with A
n
⊃ E
and µ
∗
(A
n
) ≤ µ
∗
(E) + 1/n. Let A =
A
n
. Then A is µ
∗
measurable, A ⊃ E and µ
∗
(A) = µ
∗
(E). By
part (b), µ
+
(E) = µ
∗
(E) for each set E.
8d. If µ
∗
is regular, then µ
+
(E) = µ
∗
(E) for every E by part (c). In particular, µ
∗
is induced by the
measure ¯ µ on the σalgebra of µ
∗
measurable sets.
Conversely, suppose µ
∗
is induced by a measure µ on an algebra A. For each set E and any ε > 0, there
is a sequence ¸A
i
) of sets in A with E ⊂
A
i
and µ
∗
(
A
i
) ≤ µ
∗
(E) + ε. Each A
i
is µ
∗
measurable so
A
i
is µ
∗
measurable. Hence µ
∗
is regular.
84
8e. Let X be a set consisting of two points a and b. Deﬁne µ
∗
(∅) = µ
∗
(¦a¦) = 0 and µ
∗
(¦b¦) = µ
∗
(X) =
1. Then µ
∗
is an outer measure on X. The set X is the only µ
∗
measurable set containing ¦a¦ and
µ
∗
(X) = 1 > µ
∗
(¦a¦) + 1/2. Hence µ
∗
is not regular.
9a. Let µ
∗
be a regular outer measure. The measure ¯ µ induced by µ
∗
is complete by Q1. Let E be locally
¯ µmeasurable. Then E ∩B is µ
∗
measurable for any µ
∗
measurable set B with µ
∗
(B) = ¯ µ(B) < ∞. We
may assume µ
∗
(E) < ∞. Since µ
∗
is regular, it is induced by a measure on an algebra A so there is a
set B ∈ A
σ
with E ⊂ B and µ
∗
(B) ≤ µ
∗
(E) + 1 < ∞. Thus E = E ∩ B is µ
∗
measurable.
*9b.
10. Let µ be a measure on an algebra A and ¯ µ the extension of it given by the Carath´eodory process.
Let E be measurable with respect to ¯ µ and ¯ µ(E) < ∞. Given ε > 0, there is a countable collection
¦A
n
¦ of sets in A such that E ⊂
A
n
and
µ(A
n
) ≤ µ
∗
(E) + ε/2. There exists N such that
∞
n=N+1
µ(A
n
) < ε/2. Let A =
N
n=1
µ(A
n
). Then A ∈ A and ¯ µ(A∆E) = ¯ µ(A ¸ E) + ¯ µ(E ¸ A) ≤
µ(A
n
) −µ
∗
(E) +
∞
n=N+1
µ(A
n
) < ε.
11a. Let µ be a measure on A and ¯ µ its extension. Let ε > 0. If f is ¯ µintegrable, then there is
a simple function
n
i=1
c
i
χ
E
i
where each E
i
is µ
∗
measurable and
_
[f −
n
i=1
c
i
χ
E
i
[ d¯ µ < ε/2. The
simple function may be taken to vanish outside a set of ﬁnite measure so we may assume each E
i
has
ﬁnite µ
∗
measure. For each E
i
, there exists A
i
∈ A such that ¯ µ(A
i
∆E
i
) < ε/2n. Consider the Asimple
function ϕ =
n
i=1
c
i
χ
A
i
. Then
_
[f −ϕ[ d¯ µ < ε.
*11b.
12.3 The LebesgueStieltjes integral
12. Let F be a monotone increasing function continuous on the right. Suppose (a, b] ⊂
∞
i=1
(a
i
, b
i
].
Let ε > 0. There exists η
i
> 0 such that F(b
i
+ η
i
) < F(b
i
) + ε2
−i
. There exists δ > 0 such that
F(a + δ) < F(a) + ε. Then the open intervals (a
i
, b
i
+ η
i
) cover the closed interval [a + δ, b]. By the
HeineBorel Theorem, a ﬁnite subcollection of the open intervals covers [a +δ, b]. Pick an open interval
(a
1
, b
1
+ η
1
) containing a + δ. If b
1
+ η
1
≤ b, then there is an interval (a
2
, b
2
+ η
2
) containing b
1
+ η
1
.
Continuing in this fashion, we obtain a sequence (a
1
, b
1
+η
1
), . . . , (a
k
, b
k
+η
k
) from the ﬁnite subcollection
such that a
i
< b
i−1
+η
i−1
< b
i
+eta
i
. The process must terminate with some interval (a
k
, b
k
+η
k
but it
terminates only if b ∈ (a
k
, b
k
+η
k
). Thus
∞
i=1
F(b
i
) −F(a
i
) ≥ (F(b
k
+η
k
) −ε2
−i
−F(a
k
)) +(F(b
k−1
+
η
k−1
) −ε2
−i+1
−F(a
k−1
)) + +(F(b
1
+η
1
) −ε2
−1
−F(a
1
)) > F(b
k
+η
k
) −F(a
1
) > F(b) −F(a +δ).
Now F(b)−F(a) = (F(b)−F(a+δ))+(F(a+δ)−F(a)) <
∞
i=1
F(b
i
)−F(a
i
)+ε. Hence F(b)−F(a) ≤
∞
i=1
F(b
i
) −F(a
i
). If (a, b] is unbounded, we may approximate it by a bounded interval by considering
limits.
(*) Proof of Lemma 11
13. Let F be a monotone increasing function and deﬁne F
∗
(x) = lim
y→x
+ F(y). Clearly F
∗
is monotone
increasing since F is. Given ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that F(y) −F
∗
(x) < ε whenever y ∈ (x, x+δ).
Now when z ∈ (y, y + δ
t
) where 0 < δ
t
< x + δ −y, we have F(z) −F
∗
(x) < ε. Thus F
∗
(y) −F
∗
(x) ≤
F(z) − F
∗
(x) < ε. Hence F
∗
is continuous on the right. If F is continuous on the right at x, then
F
∗
(x) = lim
y→x
+ F(y) = F(x). Thus since F
∗
is continuous on the right, we have (F
∗
)
∗
= F
∗
. Suppose
F and G are monotone increasing functions which agree wherever they are both continuous. Then F
∗
and G
∗
agree wherever both F and G are continuous. Since they are monotone, their points of continuity
are dense. It follows that F
∗
= G
∗
since F
∗
and G
∗
are continuous on the right.
14a. Let F be a bounded function of bounded variation. Then F = G−H where G and H are monotone
increasing functions. There are unique Baire measures µ
G
and µ
H
such that µ
G
(a, b] = G
∗
(b) − G
∗
(a)
and µ
H
= H
∗
(b) −H
∗
(a). Let ν = µ
G
−µ
H
. Then ν is a signed Baire measure and ν(a, b] = µ
G
(a, b] −
µ
H
(a, b] = (G
∗
(b)−G
∗
(a))−(H
∗
(b)−H
∗
(a)) = (G(b+)−G(a+))−(H(b+)−H(a+)) = F(b+)−F(a+).
14b. The signed Baire measure in part (a) has a Jordan decomposition ν = ν
+
−ν
−
. Now F = G−H
where G corresponds to the positive variation of F and H corresponds to the negative variation of F.
Then G and H give rise to Baire measures µ
G
and µ
H
with ν = µ
G
− µ
H
. By the uniqueness of the
Jordan decomposition, ν
+
= µ
G
and ν
−
= µ
H
so ν
+
and ν
−
correspond to the positive and negative
variations of F.
14c. If F is of bounded variation, deﬁne
_
ϕ dF =
_
ϕ dν =
_
ϕ dν
+
−
_
ϕ dν
−
where ν is the signed
85
Baire measure in part (a).
14d. Suppose [ϕ[ ≤ M and the total variation of F is T. Then [
_
ϕ dF[ = [
_
ϕ dν[ ≤ MT since ν
+
and ν
−
correspond to the positive and negative variations of F and T = P +N.
15a. Let F be the cumulative distribution function of the Baire measure ν and assume that F is
continuous. Suppose the interval (a, b) is in the range of F. Since F is monotone, F
−1
[(a, b)] = (c, d)
where F(c) = a and F(d) = b. Thus m(a, b) = b − a = F(d) − F(c) = ν[F
−1
[(a, b)]]. Since the class
of Borel sets is the smallest σalgebra containing the algebra of open intervals, the uniqueness of the
extension in Theorem 8 gives the result for general Borel sets.
15b. For a discontinuous cumulative distribution function F, note that the set C of points at which F
is continuous is a G
δ
and thus a Borel set. Similarly, the set D of points at which F is discontinuous
is a Borel set. Furthermore, D is at most countable since F is monotone. Thus F
−1
[D] is also at most
countable. Now for a Borel set E, we have m(E) = m(E∩C)+m(E∩D) = m(E∩C) = ν[F
−1
[E∩C]] =
ν[F
−1
[E ∩ C]] +ν[F
−1
[E ∩ D]] = ν[F
−1
[E]].
16. Let F be a continuous increasing function on [a, b] with F(a) = c, F(b) = d and let ϕ be a nonnegative
Borel measurable function on [c, d]. Now F is the cumulative distribution function of a ﬁnite Baire
measure ν. First assume that ϕ is a characteristic function χ
E
of a Borel set. Then
_
b
a
ϕ(F(x)) dF(x) =
_
b
a
χ
E
(F(x)) dF(x) =
_
b
a
χ
E
(F(x)) dν = ν[F
−1
[E]] = m(E) =
_
d
c
χ
E
(y) dy =
_
d
c
ϕ(y) dy. Since simple
functions are ﬁnite linear combinations of characteristic functions of Borel sets, the result follows from
the linearity of the integrals. For a general ϕ, there is an increasing sequence of nonnegative simple
functions converging pointwise to ϕ and the result follows from the Monotone Convergence Theorem.
*17a. Suppose a measure µ is absolutely continuous with respect to Lebesgue measure and let F be
its cumulative distribution function. Given ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that µ(E) < ε whenever
m(E) < δ. For any ﬁnite collection ¦(x
i
, x
t
i
)¦ of nonoverlapping intervals with
n
i=1
[x
t
i
− x
i
[ < δ, we
have µ(
n
i=1
(x
i
, x
t
i
)) < ε. i.e.
n
i=1
[F(x
t
i
) −F(x
i
)[ < ε. Thus F is absolutely continuous.
Conversely, suppose F is absolutely continuous. Given ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that
n
i=1
[f(x
t
i
) −
f(x
i
)[ < ε for any ﬁnite collection ¦(x
i
, x
t
i
)¦ of nonoverlapping intervals with
n
i=1
[x
t
i
−x
i
[ < δ. Let E
be a measurable set with m(E) < δ/2. There is a sequence of open intervals ¸I
n
) such that E ⊂
I
n
and
m(I
n
) < δ. We may assume the intervals are nonoverlapping. Now µ(E) ≤ µ(
I
n
) =
µ(I
n
) =
(F(b
n
) − F(a
n
)) where I
n
= (a
n
, b
n
). Since
k
n=1
(b
n
− a
n
) =
k
n=1
m(I
n
) < δ for each n, we have
k
n=1
(F(b
n
) −F(a
n
)) < ε for each n. Thus µ(E) ≤
(F(b
n
) −F(a
n
)) < ε and µ << m.
17b. If µ is absolutely continuous with respect to Lebesgue measure, then its cumulative distribution
function F is absolutely continuous so by Theorem 5.14, we have F(x) =
_
x
a
F
t
(t) dt + F(a). i.e.
µ(a, x] =
_
x
a
F
t
(t) dt. It follows that µ(E) =
_
E
F
t
dt for any measurable set E. By uniqueness of the
RadonNikodym derivative, [
dµ
dm
] = F
t
a.e.
17c. If F is absolutely continuous, then the Baire measure for which µ(a, b] = F(b) −F(a) is absolutely
continuous with respect to Lebesgue measure and F
t
is its RadonNikodym derivative. By Q11.34a, we
have
_
f dF =
_
f dµ =
_
fF
t
dx.
*18. Riemann’s Convergence Criterion: Let f be a nonnegative monotone decreasing function on
(0, ∞), g a nonnegative increasing function on (0, ∞) and ¸a
n
) a nonnegative sequence. Suppose that
for each x ∈ (0, ∞) the number of n such that a
n
≥ f(x) is at most g(x).
12.4 Product measures
19. Let X = Y be the set of positive integers, A = B = T(X), and let ν = µ be the counting measure.
Fubini’s Theorem: Let f be a function on X Y such that
x,y
[f(x, y)[ < ∞.
(i) For (almost) all x, the function f
x
(y) = f(x, y) satisﬁes
y
[f
x
(y)[ < ∞.
(i’) For (almost) all y, the function f
y
(x) = f(x, y) satisﬁes
x
[f
y
(x)[ < ∞.
(ii)
x
y
f(x, y) < ∞
(ii’)
y
x
f(x, y) < ∞
(iii)
x
y
f(x, y) =
x,y
f(x, y) =
y
x
f(x, y)
Tonelli’s Theorem: Let f be a nonnegative function on X Y .
Parts (i), (i’), (ii) and (ii’) are trivial.
86
(iii)
x
y
f(x, y) =
x,y
f(x, y) =
y
x
f(x, y)
20. Let (X, B, µ) be any σﬁnite measure space and Y the set of positive integers with ν the counting
measure. Let f be a nonnegative measurable function on X Y . For each n ∈ Y , the function
f
n
(x) = f(x, n) is a nonnegative measurable function on X. Both Theorem 20 and Corollary 11.14 give
the result that
_
X
n
f(x, n) =
n
_
X
f(x, n). Note that Corollary 11.14 is valid even if µ is not σﬁnite
so the Tonelli Theorem is true without σﬁniteness if (Y, B, ν) is this special measure space.
21. Let X = Y = [0, 1] and let µ = ν be the Lebesgue measure. Note that X Y satisﬁes the second
axiom of countability and has a countable basis consisting of measurable rectangles. Thus each open set
in X Y is a countable union of measurable rectangles and is itself measurable. Since each open set is
measurable and the collection of Borel sets is the smallest σalgebra containing all the open sets, each
Borel set in X Y is measurable.
22. Let h and g be integrable functions on X and Y , and deﬁne f(x, y) = h(x)g(y). If h = χ
A
and g = χ
B
where A ⊂ X and B ⊂ Y are measurable sets, then f = χ
A·B
where A B is a measurable rectangle.
Thus f is integrable on X Y and
_
X·Y
f d(µ ν) = (µ ν)(A B) = µ(A)ν(B) =
_
X
h dµ
_
Y
g dν.
It follows that the result holds for simple functions and thus nonnegative integrable functions. For
general integrable functions h and g, note that f
+
= h
+
g
+
+h
−
g
−
and f
−
= h
+
g
−
+h
−
g
+
. Thus f is
integrable on XY and
_
X·Y
f d(µν) =
_
X·Y
f
+
d(µν)−
_
X·Y
f
−
d(µν) =
_
X
h
+
dµ
_
Y
g
+
dν+
_
X
h
−
dµ
_
Y
g
−
dν −
_
X
h
+
dµ
_
Y
g
−
dν −
_
X
h
−
dµ
_
Y
g
+
dν =
_
X
h
+
dµ
_
Y
g dν −
_
X
h
−
dµ
_
Y
g dν =
_
X
h dµ
_
Y
g dν.
23. Suppose that instead of assuming µ and ν to be σﬁnite, we merely assume that ¦¸x, y) : f(x, y) ,= 0¦
is a set of σﬁnite measure. Then there is still an increasing sequence of simple functions each vanishing
outside a set of ﬁnite measure and converging pointwise to f. Thus the proof of Tonelli’s Theorem is
still valid and the theorem is still true.
24. Let X = Y be the positive integers and µ = ν be the counting measure. Let
f(x, y) =
_
¸
_
¸
_
2 −2
−x
if x = y,
−2 + 2
−x
if x = y + 1,
0 otherwise.
Then
x
y
f(x, y) = f(1, 1) =
3
2
but
y
x
f(x, y) =
y
(2−2
−y
)+(−2+2
−y−1
) =
y
2
−y−1
−2
−y
=
−
y
2
−y−1
= −
1
2
.
(*) We cannot remove the hypothesis that f be nonnegative from Tonelli’s Theorem or that f be inte
grable from Fubini’s Theorem.
25. Let X = Y be the interval [0, 1], with A = B the class of Borel sets. Let µ be Lebesgue measure
and ν the counting measure. Let ∆ = ¦¸x, y) ∈ X Y : x = y¦ be the diagonal. Let I
j,n
= [
j−1
n
,
j
n
]
for j = 1, . . . , n and let I
n
=
n
j=1
I
j,n
. Note that ∆ =
n
I
n
. Hence ∆ is measurable (and in fact an
R
σδ
). Now
_
X
[
_
Y
χ
∆
dν] dµ =
_
X
ν(¦y : y = x¦) dµ =
_
X
1 dµ = 1 but
_
Y
[
_
X
χ
∆
dµ] dν =
_
Y
µ(¦x :
x = y¦) dν =
_
Y
0 dν = 0. Let ∆ ⊂
(A
n
B
n
) where A
n
∈ A and B
n
∈ B. Then some B
n
must be
inﬁnite so that (µ ν)(A
n
B
n
) = ∞. Thus
(µ ν)(A
n
B
n
) = ∞. By deﬁnition of outer measure,
it follows that
_
X·Y
χ
∆
d(µ ν) = (µ ν)(∆) = ∞.
(*) We cannot remove the hypothesis that f be integrable from Fubini’s Theorem or that µ and ν be
σﬁnite from Tonelli’s Theorem.
26. Let X = Y be the set of ordinals less than or equal to the ﬁrst uncountable ordinal Ω. Let A = B be
the σalgebra consisting of all countable sets and their complements. Deﬁne µ = ν by setting µ(E) = 0
if E is countable and µ(E) = 1 otherwise. Deﬁne a subset S of X Y by S = ¦¸x, y) : x < y¦.
Now S
x
= ¦y : y > x¦ and S
y
= ¦x : x < y¦ are measurable for each x and y. Let f be the
characteristic function of S. Then
_
Y
[
_
X
f dµ(x)] dν(y) =
_
Y
µ(S
y
) dν(Y ) =
_
¦Ω]
1 dν(y) = 0 and
_
X
[
_
Y
f dν(y)] dµ(x) =
_
X
ν(S
x
) dµ(x) =
_
X
1 dµ(x) = 1.
If we assume the continuum hypothesis, i.e. that X can be put in oneone correspondence with [0, 1],
then we can take f to be a function on the unit square such that f
x
and f
y
are bounded and measurable
for each x and y but such that the conclusions of the Fubini and Tonelli Theorems do not hold.
(*) The hypothesis that f be measurable with respect to the product measure cannot be omitted from
the Fubini and Tonelli Theorems even if we assume the measurability of f
y
and f
x
and the integrability
87
of
_
f(x, y) dν(y) and
_
f(x, y) dµ(x).
*27. Suppose (X, A, µ) and (Y, B, ν) are two σﬁnite measure spaces. Then the extension of the
nonnegative set function λ(A B) = µ(A)ν(B) on the semialgebra of measurable rectangles to A B
is σﬁnite. It follows from the Carath´eodory extension theorem that the product measure is the only
measure on A B which assigns the value µ(A)ν(B) to each measurable rectangle AB.
28a. Suppose E ∈ AB. If µ and ν are σﬁnite, then so is µν so E =
(E∩F
i
) where (µν)(F
i
) < ∞
for each i. By Proposition 18, (E ∩ F
i
)
x
is measurable for almost all x so E
x
=
(E ∩ F
i
)
x
∈ B for
almost all x.
28b. Suppose f is measurable with respect to A B. For any α, we have E = ¦¸x, y) : f(x, y) > α¦ ∈
AB so E
x
∈ B for almost all x. Now E
x
= ¦y : f(x, y) > α¦ = ¦y : f
x
(y) > α¦. Thus f
x
is measurable
with respect to B for almost all x.
29a. Let X = Y = R and let µ = ν be Lebesgue measure. Then µ ν is twodimensional Lebesgue
measure on X Y = R
2
. For each measurable subset E of R, let σ(E) = ¦¸x, y) : x −y ∈ E¦. If E is an
open set, then σ(E) is open and thus measurable. If E is a G
δ
with E =
E
i
where each E
i
is open,
then σ(E) =
σ(E
i
), which is measurable. If E is a set of measure zero, then σ(E) is a set of measure
zero and is thus measurable. A general measurable set E is thhe diﬀerence of a G
δ
set A and a set B of
measure zero and σ(E) = σ(A) ¸ σ(B) so σ(E) is measurable.
29b. Let f be a measurable function on R and deﬁne the function F by F(x, y) = f(x−y). For any α, we
have ¦¸x, y) : F(x, y) > α¦ = ¦¸x, y) : f(x −y) > α¦ = ¦¸x, y) : x −y ∈ f
−1
[(α, ∞)]¦ = σ(f
−1
[(α, ∞)]).
The interval (α, ∞) is a Borel set so f
−1
[(α, ∞)] is measurable. It follows from part (a) that ¦¸x, y) :
F(x, y) > α¦ is measurable. Hence F is a measurable function on R
2
.
29c. Let f and g be integrable functions on R and deﬁne the function ϕ by ϕ(y) = f(x − y)g(y).
By Tonelli’s Theorem,
_
X·Y
[f(x − y)g(y)[ dxdy =
_
Y
[
_
X
[f(x − y)g(y)[ dx] dy =
_
Y
[g(y)[[
_
X
[f(x −
y)[ dx] dy =
_
Y
[g(y)[[
_
X
[f(x)[ dx] dy =
_
[f[
_
[g[. Thus the function [f(x − y)g(y)[ is integrable. By
Fubini’s Theorem, for almost all x, the function ϕ is integrable. Let h =
_
Y
ϕ. Then
_
[h[ =
_
X
[
_
Y
ϕ[ ≤
_
X
_
Y
[ϕ[ =
_
X·Y
[ϕ[ ≤
_
[f[
_
[g[.
30a. Let f and g be functions in L
1
(−∞, ∞) and deﬁne f ∗ g to be the function deﬁned by
_
f(y −
x)g(x) dx. If f(y − x)g(x) is integrable at y, then deﬁne F(x) = f(y − x)g(x) and G(x) = F(y − x).
Then G is integrable and
_
G(x) dx =
_
F(x) dx. i.e.
_
f(x)g(y − x) dx =
_
f(y − x)g(x) dx. Thus
for y ∈ R, f(y −x)g(x) is integrable if and only if f(x)g(y −x) is integrable and their integrals are the
same in this case. When f(y −x)g(x) is not integrable, (f ∗ g)(y) = (g ∗ f)(y) = 0 since the function is
integrable for almost all y. Hence f ∗ g = g ∗ f.
30b. For x, y ∈ R such that f(y − x − u)g(u) is integrable, deﬁne F(u) = f(y − x − u)g(u). Consider
G(u) = F(u−x). Then G is integrable and
_
f(y−u)g(u−x) du =
_
G(u) du =
_
F(u) du = (f∗g)(y−x).
The function H(u, x) = f(y−u)g(u−x)h(x) is integrable. Then ((f ∗g)∗h)(y) =
_
(f ∗g)(y−x)h(x) dx =
_
[
_
f(y − u)g(u − x) du]h(x) dx =
_
f(y − u)g(u − x)h(x) dudx =
_
[
_
f(y − u)g(u − x)h(x) dx] du =
_
f(y −u)(g ∗ h)(u) du = (f ∗ (g ∗ h))(y).
30c. For f ∈ L
1
, deﬁne
ˆ
f by
ˆ
f(s) =
_
e
ist
f(t) dt. Then [
ˆ
f[ ≤
_
[f[ so
ˆ
f is a bounded complex function.
Furthermore, for any s ∈ R, we have
f ∗ g(s) =
_
e
ist
(f∗g)(t) dt =
_
e
ist
[
_
f(t−x)g(x) dx] dt =
_
[
_
f(t−
x)e
is(t−x)
g(x)e
isx
dx] dt =
_
[
_
f(t − x)e
is(t−x)
g(x)e
isx
dt] dx =
_
[
_
f(t − x)e
is(t−x)
dt]g(x)e
isx
dx =
_
[
_
f(u)e
isu
du]g(x)e
isx
dx =
ˆ
f(s)ˆ g(s).
31. Let f be a nonnegative integrable function on (−∞, ∞) and let m
2
be twodimensional Lebesgue
measure on R
2
. There is an increasing sequence of nonnegative simple functions ¸ϕ
n
) converging point
wise to f. Let E
n
= ¦¸x, y) : 0 < y < ϕ
n
(x)¦. Then ¦¸x, y) : 0 < y < f(x)¦ =
E
n
. Write
ϕ
n
=
k
n
i=1
a
(n)
i
χ
K
(n)
i
. We may assume the K
(n)
i
are disjoint. Also, a
(n)
i
> 0 for each i. Then
E
n
= (F
(n)
1
(0, a
(n)
1
)) ∪ ∪ (F
(n)
k
n
(0, a
(n)
k
n
)). Hence E
n
is measurable so ¦¸x, y) : 0 < y <
f(x)¦ is measurable. Furthermore, m
2
(E
n
) → m
2
¦¸x, y) : 0 < y < f(x)¦. On the other hand,
m
2
(E
n
) =
k
n
i=1
m(F
(n)
i
)m(0, a
(n)
i
) =
n
i=1
a
(n)
i
m(F
(n)
i
) =
_
ϕ
n
dx. By Monotone Convergence The
orem,
_
ϕ
n
dx →
_
f dx so m
2
¦¸x, y) : 0 < y < f(x)¦ =
_
f dx. Now ¦¸x, y) : 0 ≤ y ≤ f(x)¦ =
¦¸x, y) : 0 < y < f(x)¦ ∪ ¦¸x, 0) : x ∈ R¦ ∪ ¦¸x, f(x)) : x ∈ R¦. Note that m
2
¦¸x, 0) : x ∈ R¦ =
m(R)m¦0¦ = ∞ 0 = 0. Also, m
2
¦¸x, f(x)) : x ∈ R¦ = 0 by considering a covering of the set by
88
A
n
∪ [(n − 1)ε, nε) where A
n
= ¦x ∈ R : f(x) ∈ [(n − 1)ε, nε)¦. Thus ¦¸x, y) : 0 ≤ y ≤ f(x)¦ is
measurable and m
2
¦¸x, y) : 0 ≤ y ≤ f(x)¦ =
_
f dx.
Let ϕ(t) = m¦x : f(x) ≥ t¦. Since ¦x : f(x) ≥ t¦ ⊂ ¦x : f(x) ≥ t
t
¦ when t ≥ t
t
, ϕ is a decreas
ing function. Now
_
∞
0
ϕ(t) dt =
_
∞
0
[
_
χ
¦x:f(x)≥t]
(x) dx] dt =
_
[
_
χ
¦x:f(x)≥t]
(x)χ
[0,∞)
(t) dx] dt =
_
χ
¦¸x,y):0≤t≤f(x)]
= m
2
¦¸x, y) : 0 ≤ t ≤ f(x)¦ =
_
f dx.
*32. Let ¸(X
i
, A
i
, µ
i
))
n
i=1
be a ﬁnite collection of measure spaces. We can form the product measure
µ
1
µ
n
on the space X
1
X
n
by starting with the semialgebra of rectangles of the form
R = A
1
A
n
and µ(R) =
µ
i
(A
i
), and using the Carath´eodory extension procedure. If E ⊂
X
1
X
n
is covered by a sequence of measurable rectangles R
k
⊂ X
1
X
n
, then R
k
=
R
1
k
∪ R
2
k
where R
1
k
⊂ X
1
X
p
and R
2
k
⊂ X
p+1
X
n
are measurable rectangles. Then
((µ
1
µ
p
)(µ
p+1
µ
n
))
∗
(E) ≤
(µ
1
µ
p
)(R
1
k
)(µ
p+1
µ
n
)(R
2
k
) =
(µ
1
µ
n
)(R
k
)
so ((µ
1
µ
p
) (µ
p+1
µ
n
))
∗
(E) ≤ (µ
1
µ
n
)
∗
(E).
On the other hand, if R = F G is a measurable rectangle in (X
1
X
p
) (X
p+1
X
n
),
then F ⊂
F
k
and G ⊂
G
j
where F
k
is a measurable rectangle in X
1
X
p
and G
j
is a
measurable rectangle in X
p+1
X
n
. Now R ⊂
k,j
(F
k
G
j
) and ((µ
1
µ
p
) (µ
p+1
µ
n
))(R) + ε = (µ
1
µ
p
)(F)(µ
p+1
µ
n
)(G) + ε >
k,j
(µ
1
µ
n
)(F
k
G
j
). Now if
E ⊂ (X
1
X
p
)(X
p+1
X
n
), then E ⊂
R
i
and ((µ
1
µ
p
)(µ
p+1
µ
n
))
∗
(E)+ε >
i
((µ
1
µ
p
)(µ
p+1
µ
n
))(R
i
) >
i
k,j
(µ
1
µ
n
)(F
k
G
j
)−ε
t
≥ (µ
1
µ
n
)
∗
(E)−ε.
Thus ((µ
1
µ
p
) (µ
p+1
µ
n
))
∗
(E) ≥ (µ
1
µ
n
)
∗
(E).
Hence ((µ
1
µ
p
) (µ
p+1
µ
n
))
∗
= µ
1
µ
n
∗
. It then follows that (µ
1
µ
p
)
(µ
p+1
µ
n
) = µ
1
µ
n
.
*33. Let ¦(X
λ
, A
λ
, µ
λ
)¦ be a collection of probability measure spaces.
12.5 Integral operators
*34. By Proposition 21, we have [[T[[ ≤ M
α,β
.
35. Let k(x, y) be a measurable function on XY of absolute operator type (p, q) and g ∈ L
q
(ν). Then
[k[ is of operator type (p, q) so by Proposition 21, for almost all x, the integral
_
Y
[k(x, y)[g(y) dν exists.
Thus for almost all x, the integral f(x) =
_
Y
k(x, y)g(y) dν exists. Furthermore, the function f belongs
to L
p
(µ) an [[f[[
p
≤ [[
_
Y
[k(x, y)[g(y) dν[[
p
≤ [[ [k[ [[
p,q
[[g[[
q
.
(*) Proof of Corollary 22
36. Let g, h and k be functions on R
n
of class L
q
, L
p
and L
r
respectively, with 1/p + 1/q + 1/r = 2.
We may write 1/p = 1 − (1 − λ)/r and 1/q = 1 − λ/r for some 0 ≤ λ ≤ 1. Then k is of covariant type
(p, q) so the integral f(x) =
_
R
n
k(x, y)g(y) dy exists for almost all x and the function f belongs to L
p
∗
with [[f[[
p
∗ ≤ [[k[[
r
[[g[[
q
by Proposition 21. Now
_ _
R
2n
[h(x)k(x − y)g(y)[ dxdy =
_
R
n
[h(x)f(x)[ dx ≤
[[h[[
p
[[k[[
r
[[g[[
q
.
(*) Proof of Proposition 25
37. Let g ∈ L
q
and k ∈ L
r
, with 1/q + 1/r > 1. Let 1/p = 1/q + 1/r −1. We may write 1/q = 1 −λ/r
and 1/p = 1 − (1 − λ)/r where 0 ≤ λ ≤ 1. Then k is of covariant type (p, q) so the function f(x) =
_
R
n
k(x −y)g(y) dy is deﬁned for almost all x and [[f[[
p
≤ [[k[[
r
[[g[[
q
by Proposition 21.
(*) Proof of Proposition 26
*38. Let g, h and k be functions on R
n
of class L
q
, L
p
and L
r
with 1/p + 1/q + 1/r ≤ 2.
12.6 Inner measure
39a. Suppose µ(X) < ∞. By deﬁnition, µ
∗
(E) ≥ µ(X) − µ
∗
(E
c
). Conversely, since E and E
c
are
disjoint, we have µ
∗
(E) +µ
∗
(E
c
) ≤ µ
∗
(E ∪ E
c
) = µ(X). Hence µ
∗
(E) = µ(X) −µ
∗
(E
c
).
39b. Suppose A is a σalgebra. If A ∈ A and E ⊂ A, then µ
∗
(E) ≤ µ(A). Thus µ
∗
(E) ≤ inf¦µ(A) :
E ⊂ A, A ∈ A¦. Conversely, for any sequence ¸A
i
) of sets in A covering E, we have
A
i
∈ A so
inf¦µ(A) : E ⊂ A, A ∈ A¦ ≤ µ(
A
i
) ≤
µ(A
i
). Thus inf¦µ(A) : E ⊂ A, A ∈ A¦ ≤ µ
∗
(E). Hence
µ
∗
(E) = inf¦µ(A) : E ⊂ A, A ∈ A¦.
If A ∈ A and A ⊂ E, then µ(A) = µ(A) − µ
∗
(A ¸ E). Thus sup¦µ(A) : A ⊂ E, A ∈ A¦ ≤ µ
∗
(E).
89
Conversely, if A ∈ A and µ
∗
(A¸E) < ∞, then for any ε > 0, there is a sequence ¸A
i
) of sets in A such that
A¸E ⊂
A
i
and
µ(A
i
) < µ
∗
(A¸E)+ε. Let B =
A
i
. Then B ∈ A and µ(B) < µ
∗
(A¸E)+ε. Also,
A¸B ∈ A and A¸B ⊂ E. Thus µ(A)−µ
∗
(A¸E)−ε = µ(A)−µ(B) = µ(A¸B) ≤ sup¦µ(A) : A ⊂ E, A ∈
A¦. It follows that µ
∗
(E) ≤ sup¦µ(A) : A ⊂ E, A ∈ A¦. Hence µ
∗
(E) = sup¦µ(A) : A ⊂ E, A ∈ A¦.
39c. Let µ be Lebesgue measure on R. By part (c), we have µ
∗
(E) = sup¦µ(A) : A ⊂ E, A measurable¦.
If A is measurable and A ⊂ E, then given ε > 0, there is a closed set F ⊂ A with µ
∗
(A ¸ F) < ε. Thus
µ(A) = µ(F) +µ(A¸ F) < µ(F) +ε. It follows that µ
∗
(E) ≤ sup¦µ(F) : F ⊂ E, F closed¦. Conversely,
if F ⊂ E and F is closed, then F is measurable so µ(F) ≤ µ
∗
(E). Thus sup¦µ(F) : F ⊂ E, F closed¦ ≤
µ
∗
(E). Hence µ
∗
(E) = sup¦µ(F) : F ⊂ E, F closed¦.
40. Let ¸B
i
) be a sequence of disjoint sets in B. Then ¯ µ(
B
i
) = µ
∗
(
B
i
∩ E) + µ
∗
(
B
i
∩ E
c
) =
µ
∗
(B
i
∩E) +
µ
∗
(B
i
∩E
c
) =
¯ µ(B
i
). Also, µ(
B
i
) = µ
∗
(
B
i
∩E) +µ
∗
(
B
i
∩E
c
) =
µ
∗
(B
i
∩
E) +
µ
∗
(B
i
∩ E
c
) =
µ(B
i
). Hence the measures ¯ µ and µ in Theorem 38 are countably additive on
B.
41. Let µ be a measure on an algebra A, and let E be a µ
∗
measurable set. If B ∈ B, then B
is of the form (A ∩ E) ∪ (A
t
∩ E
c
) where A, A
t
∈ A. Thus ¯ µ(B) = µ
∗
(A ∩ E) + µ
∗
(A
t
∩ E
c
) and
µ
∗
(B) = µ
∗
(A ∩ E) + µ
∗
(A
t
∩ E
c
). If µ
∗
(A
t
∩ E
c
) = ∞, then µ
∗
(A
t
∩ E
c
) = ∞ and ¯ µ(B) = µ
∗
(B). If
µ
∗
(A
t
∩ E
c
) < ∞, then since A
t
∩ E
c
is µ
∗
measurable, µ
∗
(A
t
∩ E
c
) =
¯
¯ µ(A
t
∩ E
c
) = µ
∗
(A
t
∩ E
c
) where
¯
¯ µ is the measure induced by µ
∗
. Thus ¯ µ(B) = µ
∗
(B).
42a. Let G and H be two measurable kernels for E so G ⊂ E, H ⊂ E and µ
∗
(E ¸ G) = 0 = µ
∗
(E ¸ H).
Then µ
∗
(G ¸ H) = 0 = µ
∗
(H ¸ G) since G ¸ H ⊂ E ¸ H and H ¸ G ⊂ E ¸ G. In particular, G∆H
is measurable and µ(G∆H) = 0. Let G
t
and H
t
be two measurable covers for E so G
t
⊃ E, H
t
⊃ E
and µ
∗
(G
t
¸ E) = 0 = µ
∗
(H
t
¸ E). Then µ
∗
(G
t
¸ H
t
) = 0 = µ
∗
(H
t
¸ G
t
) since G
t
¸ H
t
⊂ G
t
¸ E and
H
t
¸ G
t
⊂ H
t
¸ E. In particular, G
t
∆H
t
is measurable and µ(G
t
∆H
t
) = 0.
42b. Suppose E is a set of σﬁnite outer measure. Then E =
E
n
where each E
n
is µ
∗
measurable and
µ
∗
(E
n
) < ∞. Then µ
∗
(E
n
) < ∞ so there exist G
n
∈ A
δσ
such that G
n
⊂ E
n
and ¯ µ(G
n
) = µ
∗
(E
n
) =
µ
∗
(E
n
). Let G =
G
n
. Then G is measurable, G ⊂ E and µ
∗
(E¸G) ≤ µ
∗
(E¸G) ≤
µ
∗
(E
n
¸H
n
) = 0.
Hence µ
∗
(E ¸ G) = 0 and G is a measurable kernel for E.
Also, there exist H
n
∈ A
σδ
such that E
n
⊂ H
n
and µ
∗
(H
n
) = µ
∗
(E
n
). Let H =
H
n
. Then H is
measurable, E ⊂ H and µ
∗
(H ¸ E) ≤ µ
∗
(H ¸ E) ≤
µ
∗
(H
n
¸ E
n
) = 0. Hence µ
∗
(H ¸ E) = 0 and H is
a measurable cover for E.
43a. Let P be the nonmeasurable set in Section 3.4. Note that m
∗
(P) ≤ m
∗
(P) ≤ 1. By Q3.15,
for any measurable set E with E ⊂ P, we have m(E) = 0. Hence m
∗
(P) = sup¦m(E) : E ⊂
P, E measurable, m(E) < ∞¦ = 0.
43b. Let E = [0, 1] ¸ P. Let ¸I
n
) be a sequence of open intervals such that E ⊂
I
n
. We may
assume that I
n
⊂ [0, 1] for all n. Then [0, 1] ¸
I
n
⊂ P so m([0, 1] ¸
I
n
) = 0. Thus m(
I
n
) = 1.
Hence m
∗
(E) = 1. Suppose A ∩ [0, 1] is a measurable set. Note that m
∗
(A ∩ E) ≤ m(A ∩ [0, 1]) and
m
∗
(E¸ A) ≤ m([0, 1] ¸ A). Thus 1 = m
∗
(E) = m
∗
(A∩E) +m
∗
(E¸ A) ≤ m(A∩[0, 1]) +m([0, 1] ¸ A) = 1
so m
∗
(A∩ E) = m(A∩ [0, 1]).
*43c.
*44. Let µ be a measure on an algebra A and E a set with µ
∗
(E) < ∞. Let β be a real number with
µ
∗
(E) ≤ β ≤ µ
∗
(E).
*45a.
*45b.
46a. Let A be the algebra of ﬁnite unions of halfopen intervals of R and let µ(∅) = 0 and µ(A) = ∞
for A ,= ∅. If E ,= ∅ and ¸A
i
) is a sequence of sets in A with E ⊂
A
i
, then A
i
,= ∅ for some i and
µ(A
i
) = ∞. Thus
µ(A
i
) = ∞ so µ
∗
(E) = ∞.
46b. If E contains no interval, then the only A ∈ A with m
∗
(A ¸ E) < ∞ is ∅. Thus µ
∗
(E) = 0. If E
contains an interval I, then µ
∗
(E) ≥ µ(I) −µ
∗
(I ¸ E) = µ(I) = ∞.
46c. Note that R = Q∪Q
c
, µ
∗
(R) = ∞, µ
∗
(Q) = µ
∗
(Q
c
) = 0. Thus µ
∗
restricted to B is not a measure
and there is no smallest extension of µ to B.
46d. The counting measure is a measure on B and counting measure restricted to A equals µ. Hence
the counting measure on B is an extension of µ to B.
90
46e. Let E be an interval. Then µ
∗
(E) = ∞ but µ
∗
(E ∩ Q) = 0 and µ
∗
(E ∩ Q
c
) = 0. Hence Lemma 37
fails if we replace “sets in A” by “measurable sets”.
47a. Let X = ¦a, b, c¦ and set µ
∗
(X) = 2, µ
∗
(∅) = 0 and µ
∗
(E) = 1 if E is not X or ∅. Setting
µ
∗
(E) = µ
∗
(X) −µ
∗
(E
c
), we have µ
∗
(X) = 2, µ
∗
(∅) = 0 and µ
∗
(E) = 1 if E is not X or ∅.
47b. ∅ and X are the only measurable subsets of X.
47c. µ
∗
(E) = µ
∗
(E) for all subsets E of X but all subsets except ∅ and X are nonmeasurable.
47d. By taking E = ¦a¦ and F = ¦b¦, we have µ
∗
(E) + µ
∗
(F) = µ
∗
(E) + µ
∗
(F) = 2 but µ
∗
(E ∪ F) =
µ
∗
(E ∪ F) = 1. Hence the ﬁrst and third inequalities of Theorem 35 fail.
(*) If µ
∗
is not a regular outer measure (i.e. it does not come from a measure on an algebra), then we
do not get a reasonable theory of inner measure by setting µ
∗
(E) = µ
∗
(X) −µ
∗
(E
c
).
48a. Let X = R
2
and A the algebra consisting of all disjoint unions of vertical intervals of the form
I = ¦¸x, y) : a < y ≤ b¦. Let µ(A) be the sum of the lengths of the intervals of which A is composed.
Then µ is a measure on A. Let E = ¦¸x, y) : y = 0¦. If E ⊂
A
n
where ¸A
n
) is a sequence in A, then
some A
n
must be an uncountable union of vertical intervals so
µ(A
n
) = ∞. Thus µ
∗
(E) = ∞. If
A ∈ A with µ
∗
(A¸ E) < ∞, then µ
∗
(A¸ E) = µ(A) so µ
∗
(E) = 0.
48b. Let E
t
⊂ E and let A
n
=
¦x:¸x,0)∈E
]
¦¸x, y) : −1/n < y ≤ 1/n¦. Then E
t
=
A
n
so E
t
is an A
δ
.
*48c.
12.7 Extension by sets of measure zero
49. Let A be a σalgebra on X and Ma collection of subsets of X which is closed under countable unions
and which has the property that each subset of a set in M is in M. Consider B = ¦B : B = A∆M, A ∈
A, M ∈ M¦. Clearly ∅ ∈ B. If B = A∆M ∈ B, then B
c
= (A¸M)
c
∩(M¸A)
c
= (A
c
∪M) ∩(M
c
∪A) =
(A ∪ M)
c
∪ (A ∩ M) = (A
c
¸ M) ∪ (M ¸ A
c
) = A
c
∆M ∈ B. Suppose ¸B
i
) is a sequence in B with
B
i
= A
i
∆M
i
. Then
B
i
=
(A
i
¸M
i
)∪
(M
i
¸A
i
) = (
A
i
¸
M
i
)∪(
M
i
¸
A
i
) =
A
i
∆
M
i
∈ B.
Hence B is a σalgebra.
*50.
12.8 Carath´eodory outer measure
51. Let (X, ρ) be a metric space and let µ
∗
be an outer measure on X with the property that µ
∗
(A∪B) =
µ
∗
(A)+µ
∗
(B) whenever ρ(A, B) > 0. Let Γ be the set of functions ϕ of the form ϕ(x) = ρ(x, E). Suppose
A and B are separated by some ϕ ∈ Γ. Then there are numbers a and b with a > b, ρ(x, E) > a on A
and ρ(x, E) < b on B. Thus ρ(A, B) > 0 so µ
∗
(A∪B) = µ
∗
(A) +µ
∗
(B) and µ
∗
is a Carath´eodory outer
measure with respect to Γ. Now for a closed set F, we have F = ¦x : ρ(x, F) ≤ 0¦, which is measurable
since ϕ(x) = ρ(x, F) is µ
∗
measurable. Thus every closed set (and hence every Borel set) is measurable
with respect to µ
∗
.
(*) Proof of Proposition 41
12.9 Hausdorﬀ measures
52. Suppose E ⊂
E
n
. If ε > 0 and ¸B
i,n
)
i
is a sequence of balls covering E
n
with radii r
i,n
< ε,
then ¸B
i,n
)
i,n
is a sequence of balls covering E so λ
(ε)
α
(E) ≤
i,n
r
α
i,n
=
n
i
r
α
i,n
. Thus λ
(ε)
α
(E) ≤
n
λ
(ε)
α
(E
n
). Letting ε → 0, we have m
∗
α
(E) ≤
n
m
∗
α
(E
n
) so m
∗
α
is countably subadditive.
53a. If E is a Borel set and ¸B
i
) is a sequence of balls covering E with radii r
i
< ε, then ¸B
i
+ y)
is a sequence of balls covering E + y with radii r
i
. Conversely, if ¸B
i
) is a sequence of balls covering
E + y with radii r
i
< ε, then ¸B
i
− y) is a sequence of balls covering E with radii r
i
. It follows that
λ
(ε)
α
(E +y) = λ
(ε)
α
(E). Letting ε → 0, we have m
α
(E +y) = m
α
(E).
53b. Since m
α
is invariant under translations, it suﬃces to consider rotations about 0. Let T denote
rotation about 0. If ¸B
i
) is a sequence of balls covering E with radii r
i
< ε, then ¸T(B
i
)) is a sequence
of balls covering T(E) with radii r
i
. It follows that λ
(ε)
α
(E) = λ
(ε)
α
(T(E)) for all ε > 0. Letting ε → 0,
91
we have m
α
(E) = m
α
(T(E)).
*54.
*55a. Let E be a Borel subset of some metric space X. Suppose m
α
(E) is ﬁnite for some α.
55b. Suppose m
α
(E) > 0 for some α. If m
β
(E) < ∞ for some β > α, then by part (a), m
α
(E) = 0.
Contradiction. Hence m
β
(E) = ∞ for all β > α.
55c. Let I = inf¦α : m
α
(E) = ∞¦. If α > I, then m
α
(E) = ∞ by part (a). Thus I is an upper bound
for ¦β : m
β
(E) = 0¦. If U < I, then there exists β such that U < β < I and m
β
(E) = 0 by part (b).
Hence I = sup¦β : m
β
(E) = 0¦.
*55d. Let α = log 2/ log 3. Given ε > 0, choose n such that 3
−n
< ε. Then since the Cantor ternary set
C can be covered by 2
n
intervals of length 3
−n
, we have λ
(ε)
α
(C) ≤ 2
n
(3
−n
)
α
= 1. Thus m
∗
α
(C) ≤ 1.
Conversely, given ε > 0, if ¸I
n
) is any sequence of open intervals covering C and with lengths less than
ε, then we may enlarge each interval slightly and use compactness of C to reduce to the case of a ﬁnite
collection of closed intervals. We may further take each I to be the smallest interval containing some pair
of intervals J, J
t
from the construction of C. If J, J
t
are the largest such intervals, then there is an interval
K ⊂ C
c
between them. Now l(I)
s
≥ (l(J)+l(K)+l(J
t
))
s
≥ (
3
2
(l(J)+l(J
t
)))
s
= 2(
1
2
(l(J))
s
+
1
2
(l(J
t
))
s
) ≥
(l(J))
s
+ (l(J
t
))
s
. Proceed in this way until, after a ﬁnite number of steps, we reach a covering of C by
equal intervals of length 3
−j
. This must include all intervals of length 3
−j
in the construction of C. It
follows that
l(I
n
) ≥ 1. Thus λ
(ε)
α
(C) ≥ 1 for all ε > 0 and m
∗
α
(C) ≥ 1.
Since m
∗
α
(C) = 1, by parts (a) and (b), we have m
β
(C) = 0 for 0 < β < α and m
β
(C) = ∞ for β > α.
Hence the Hausdorﬀ dimension of C is α = log 2/ log 3.
13 Measure and Topology
13.1 Baire sets and Borel sets
1.
[Incomplete: Q5.20c, Q5.22c, d, Q7.42b, d, Q7.46a, Q8.17b, Q8.29, Q8.40b, c, Q9.38, Q9.49, Q9.50,
Q10.47, Q10.48b, Q10.49g, Q11.5d, Q11.6c, Q11.8d, Q11.9d, e, Q11.37b, c, d, e, Q11.46b, Q11.47a,
b, Q11.48, Q12.9b, Q12.11b, Q12.18, Q12.27, Q12.33, Q12.34, Q12.38, Q12.43c, Q12.44, Q12.45a, b,
Q12.48c, Q12.50, Q12.54, Q12.55a]
92
5 Diﬀerentiation and Integration 5.1 Diﬀerentiation of monotone functions . 5.2 Functions of bounded variation . . . . 5.3 Diﬀerentiation of an integral . . . . . . 5.4 Absolute continuity . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Convex functions . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 The 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5
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22 22 23 24 24 26 27 27 27 28 29 30 30 30 31 31 32 33 35 35 36 39 40 41 41 43 44 47 48 50 50 51 51 52 53 53 56 56 57 57 58 60
Classical Banach Spaces The Lp spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Minkowski and H¨lder inequalities . . . o Convergence and completeness . . . . . . . Approximation in Lp . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bounded linear functionals on the Lp spaces
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7 Metric Spaces 7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Open and closed sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Continuous functions and homeomorphisms 7.4 Convergence and completeness . . . . . . . 7.5 Uniform continuity and uniformity . . . . . 7.6 Subspaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.7 Compact metric spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.8 Baire category . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.9 Absolute Gδ ’s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.10 The AscoliArzel´ Theorem . . . . . . . . . a
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8 Topological Spaces 8.1 Fundamental notions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Bases and countability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 The separation axioms and continuous realvalued functions 8.4 Connectedness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 Products and direct unions of topological spaces . . . . . . 8.6 Topological and uniform properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.7 Nets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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9 Compact and Locally Compact Spaces 9.1 Compact spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 Countable compactness and the BolzanoWeierstrass property 9.3 Products of compact spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 Locally compact spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5 σcompact spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6 Paracompact spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.7 Manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ˘ 9.8 The StoneCech compactiﬁcation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.9 The StoneWeierstrass Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Banach Spaces
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ii
10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Linear operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . Linear functionals and the HahnBanach The Closed Graph Theorem . . . . . . . Topological vector spaces . . . . . . . . Weak topologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . Convexity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hilbert space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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60 61 62 63 64 66 69 71 73 73 76 77 79 79 80 82 83 83 84 85 86 89 89 91 91 91
11 Measure and Integration 11.1 Measure spaces . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Measurable functions . . . . . . 11.3 Integration . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4 General convergence theorems . 11.5 Signed measures . . . . . . . . 11.6 The RadonNikodym Theorem 11.7 The Lp spaces . . . . . . . . . .
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12 Measure and Outer Measure 12.1 Outer measure and measurability . 12.2 The extension theorem . . . . . . . 12.3 The LebesgueStieltjes integral . . 12.4 Product measures . . . . . . . . . . 12.5 Integral operators . . . . . . . . . . 12.6 Inner measure . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.7 Extension by sets of measure zero . 12.8 Carath´odory outer measure . . . . e 12.9 Hausdorﬀ measures . . . . . . . . .
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13 Measure and Topology 92 13.1 Baire sets and Borel sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
iii
Then g is a welldeﬁned function and f ◦ g = idY . Suppose that P (n) is true and that there exists m ∈ S with m ≤ n + 1.2 Functions 6. 10.e. (⇐) Suppose there exists g : Y → X such that g ◦ f = idX .3 Unions. 12b. then g(f (x1 )) = g(f (x2 )). If x ∈ B. 3. (⇒) Suppose f is onetoone.1 1. x ∈ A ∪ (B ∩ C) ⇔ x ∈ A or x ∈ B and C ⇔ x ∈ A or B and x ∈ A or C ⇔ x ∈ (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C). then there exists x such that x = x. (X × Y ) × Z = { x. m > 1 and P (m) is false. if B c ⊂ Ac . . Given P (n). in which case the induction hypothesis again gives a smallest element. . If f (x1 ) = f (x2 ). Given a nonempty subset S of natural numbers. . Fix x0 ∈ X. . g(y) ∈ X and f (g(y)) = y. z }. If m ≤ n. Contradiction. Suppose that {n ∈ N : P (n) is false} = ∅. xi ). (⇒) Suppose f is onto. 8. . X × (Y × Z) = { x. For each y ∈ f [X]. z }. y. 12a. . x ∈ A ∩ (B ∪ C) ⇔ x ∈ A and x ∈ B or C ⇔ x ∈ A and B or x ∈ A and C ⇔ x ∈ (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C). 1. (⇐) Suppose there exists g : Y → X such that f ◦ g = idY . xn for each n. then either m is the smallest element of S or there exists m ∈ S with m < m = n + 1. y . z ↔ x. In particular. Contradiction. Thus A ∪ (B ∩ C) = (A ∪ B) ∩ (A ∪ C). we see that P (n + 1) is true ). Then g is a welldeﬁned function and g ◦ f = idX . Then it has a smallest element m. Hence A∆(B∆C) = (A∆B)∆C. A∆B = (A \ B) ∪ (B \ A) = (B \ A) ∪ (A \ B) = B∆A. . then S has a smallest element. 5. then A = (Ac )c ⊂ / / (B c )c = B. . . Thus B c ⊂ Ac . (A∆B)∆C = [((A \ B) ∪ (B \ A)) \ C] ∪ [C \ ((A \ B) ∪ (B \ A))] = [((A \ B) ∪ (B \ A)) ∩ C c ] ∪ [C ∩ ((A \ B) ∪ (B \ A))c ] = [((A ∩ B c ) ∪ (B ∩ Ac )) ∩ C c ] ∪ [C ∩ ((Ac ∪ B) ∩ (B c ∪ A))] = (A ∩ B c ∩ C c ) ∪ (Ac ∩ B ∩ C c ) ∪ (Ac ∩ B c ∩ C) ∪ (A ∩ B ∩ C). sn with (n) (n) (n) (n) x1 = a and xi+1 = fi (x1 . 2. then S has a smallest element by the induction hypothesis. x. let P (n) be the proposition that if there exists m ∈ S with m ≤ n.1 Set Theory Introduction 1. i. Thus f is onto. there exists xy ∈ X such that f (xy ) = y. . . P (1) is true since 1 will then be the smallest element of S. But P (1) ⇒ P (2) ⇒ · · · ⇒ P (m). there exists a unique xy ∈ X such that f (xy ) = y. 1 . we get a unique sequence xi from X such that x1 = a and xi+1 = fi (x1 . intersections and complements 9. . x1 = x2 . If m = n + 1. ∅ ⊂ {greeneyed lions}. A ⊂ B ⇒ A ⊂ A ∩ B ⇒ A ∩ B = A ⇒ A ∪ B = (A \ B) ∪ (A ∩ B) ∪ (B \ A) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (B \ A) = B ⇒ A ⊂ A ∪ B = B. xi ). A∆B = ∅ ⇔ (A \ B) ∪ (B \ A) = ∅ ⇔ A \ B = ∅ and B \ A = ∅ ⇔ A ⊂ B andB ⊂ A ⇔ A = B. Deﬁne g : Y → X such that g(y) = xy for all y ∈ Y . Conversely. . Deﬁne g : Y → X such that g(y) = xy if y ∈ f [X] and g(y) = x0 if y ∈ Y \ f [X]. y. Thus f is onetoone. . Clearly P (1) is true. For each y ∈ Y . If {x : x = x} = ∅. Suppose A ⊂ B. 7. Let P (n) be the proposition that for each n there is a unique ﬁnite sequence x1 . Suppose P (1) is true and P (n) ⇒ P (n + 1) for all n. Thus A ∩ (B ∪ C) = (A ∩ B) ∪ (A ∩ C). z . . 4. z ↔ x. y. A∆(B∆C) = [A \ ((B \ C) ∪ (C \ B))] ∪ [((B \ C) ∪ (C \ B)) \ A] = [A ∩ ((B \ C) ∪ (C \ B))c ] ∪ [((B \ C) ∪ (C \ B)) ∩ Ac ] = [A ∩ ((B c ∪ C) ∩ (C c ∪ B))] ∪ [((B ∩ C c ) ∪ (C ∩ B c )) ∩ Ac ] = [A ∩ (B c ∪ C) ∩ (B ∪ C c )] ∪ (Ac ∩ B ∩ C c ) ∪ (Ac ∩ B c ∩ C) = (A ∩ B c ∩ C c ) ∪ (A ∩ B ∩ C) ∪ (Ac ∩ B ∩ C c ) ∪ (Ac ∩ B c ∩ C). 11. . then x ∈ A. (n+1) (n) (n+1) (n+1) (n+1) (n) (n) (n) 1. y . By letting xn = xn by letting xi = xi for 1 ≤ i ≤ n and letting xn+1 = fn (x1 . Given y ∈ Y .
This. then x ∈ f −1 [B] so f (x) ∈ B c . If E1 . Thus f [Aλ ] ⊂ f [ Aλ ]. i. if x ∈ f −1 [Bλ ]. P(X) is a σalgebra containing C. by deﬁnition. x ∈ B ∩ ( A∈C A) ⇔ x ∈ B and x ∈ A for some A ∈ C ⇔ x ∈ B ∩ A for some A ∈ C ⇔ x ∈ A∈C (B ∩ A). Since f is onto. Thus B ⊂ f [f −1 [B]]. 3}. In particular. if x ∈ (f −1 [B])c . 3} with f (1) = f (2) = 1 and f (3) = 3. If x ∈ f −1 [B c ]. / 18a. Let A = {1}. x ∈ f −1 [B c ]. since C ⊂ A. Ay = ∅ for all y. If x ∈ Aλ . Thus f −1 [f [A]] ⊃ A. 1. then E is in the σalgebra generated by {E}.5 The axiom of choice and inﬁnite direct products 21. 2} → {1. Hence A is a σalgebra containing C and it contains A. i. Thus f −1 [B c ] ⊂ (f −1 [B])c . x ∈ (f −1 [B])c . Since x ∈ f −1 [B]. Then f [f −1 [B]] = f [B] = {1} B. then E1 is in some σalgebra generated by some countable subset C1 of C and E2 is in some σalgebra generated by some countable subset C2 of C. x ∈ ( A∈C A)c ⇔ x ∈ A for any A ∈ C ⇔ x ∈ Ac for all A ∈ C ⇔ x ∈ A∈C Ac . Let B1 be the σalgebra generated by C and let B2 be the σalgebra generated by A. Thus F c ∈ A . 1. 20. 17b. If x ∈ f −1 [ Bλ ].e. then x ∈ Aλ0 for some λ0 and f (x) ∈ f [Aλ0 ] ⊂ f [Aλ ]. 16a. Conversely. If F ∈ A . If E ∈ C. Then E1 ∪ E2 is in the σalgebra generated by the countable subset C1 ∪ C2 so E1 ∪ E2 ∈ A . 15. then B ⊃ A. If y ∈ B. A∆X = (A \ X) ∪ (X \ A) = ∅ ∪ Ac = Ac . 2 . 19b. Let B = {1. let Ay = f −1 [{y}]. B1 . If x ∈ Aλ . 2. Thus C ⊂ A . Let A1 = {1. gives equality. 18b. 2} with f (1) = f (2) = 1. if Ei is a sequence in A . 16c. 12d. 3} and A2 = {2. then each Ei is in some σalgebra generated by some countable subset Ci of C. Thus f (x) ∈ f [Aλ ] and f [ Aλ ] ⊂ f [Aλ ]. then x ∈ Aλ for all λ and f (x) ∈ f [Aλ ] for all λ. If x ∈ A. Consider f : {1. Then f [A1 ∩ A2 ] = f [{3}] = {3} but f [A1 ] ∩ f [A2 ] = {1. / / Conversely. E2 ∈ A . Hence B1 = B2 . then there exists x ∈ X such that f (x) = y. 12e. Conversely. 17c. then f (x) ∈ f [A] so x ∈ f −1 [f [A]]. 17a. if B is a σalgebra containing C. A∆B = X ⇔ (A \ B) ∪ (B \ A) = X ⇔ A ∩ B = ∅ and A ∪ B = X ⇔ A = B c . 2} A. Thus f −1 [ Bλ ] ⊂ f −1 [Bλ ]. For each y ∈ Y . If y ∈ f [f −1 [B]]. Thus B ∩ ( A∈C A) = A∈C (B ∩ A). then x ∈ f −1 [Bλ0 ] for some λ0 so f (x) ∈ Bλ0 ⊂ Bλ and x ∈ f −1 [ Bλ ]. then y = f (x) for some x ∈ f −1 [B]. together with the inequality in Q18a. If x ∈ f −1 [ Bλ ]. Then f −1 [f [A]] = f −1 [{1}] = {1. if x ∈ f −1 [Bλ ].e. Conversely. Thus f [f −1 [B]] ⊂ B. B1 ⊂ B2 . i. / x ∈ ( A∈C A)c ⇔ x ∈ A∈C A ⇔ x ∈ Ac for some A ∈ C ⇔ x ∈ A∈C Ac . Then Ei is in the σalgebra generated by the countable subset Ci .4 Algebras of sets 19a. 3} → {1. Furthermore. Thus f [ Aλ ] ⊂ f [Aλ ]. then f (x) ∈ B so x ∈ f −1 [B]. 2}. Thus B1 ⊃ B2 . Thus (f −1 [B])c ⊂ f −1 [B c ]. Conversely. then y ∈ f [Aλ0 ] for some λ0 so y ∈ f [ Aλ ]. then x ∈ f −1 [Bλ ] for all λ and f (x) ∈ Bλ so x ∈ f −1 [ Bλ ]. f (x) ∈ B. if y ∈ f [Aλ ]. Let A be the union of all σalgebras generated by countable subsets of C. By the axiom of choice. then f (x) ∈ Bλ0 for some λ0 so x ∈ f −1 [Bλ0 ] ⊂ f −1 [Bλ ]. Furthermore. 18c. Consider the collection A = {Ay : y ∈ Y }. / 14. 13. Let F be the family of all σalgebras containing C and let A = {B : B ∈ F }. 3}.12c. Thus f −1 [ Bλ ] ⊂ f −1 [Bλ ]. x ∈ f −1 [B] and y ∈ f [f −1 [B]]. being a σalgebra. then f (x) ∈ Bλ for all λ and x ∈ f −1 [Bλ ] for all λ so x ∈ f −1 [Bλ ]. Then A is a σalgebra containing C. 16b.e. is also an algebra so B1 ⊃ A. (A∆B) ∩ E = ((A \ B) ∪ (B \ A)) ∩ E = ((A \ B) ∩ E) ∪ ((B \ A) ∩ E) = [(A ∩ E) \ (B ∩ E)] ∪ [(B ∩ E) \ (A ∩ E)] = (A ∩ E)∆(B ∩ E). Consider f : {1. there is a function F on A such that F (Ay ) ∈ Ay for all y ∈ Y . y ∈ B. ( A∈A A) ∩ ( B∈B B) = B∈B (( A∈A A) ∩ B) = B∈B ( A∈A (A ∩ B)) = A∈A B∈B (A ∩ B). then F is in some σalgebra generated by some countable set and so is F c . A∆∅ = (A \ ∅) ∪ (∅ \ A) = A ∪ ∅ = A.
Uniqueness follows from the deﬁnitions. If A = ∅. 1. y} has a least element. q. suppose x ≡ x implies x + y ≡ x + y. there exists a unique sequence xi from X such that x1 = a. . Then x ≡ x implies x + y ≡ x + y since y ≡ y. 24. Let < be a partial order on X with the property that every nonempty subset has a least element. E3 ∈ Q = X/ ≡. . Hence the induced operation + makes the quotient space Q into a group. 23. Let n=1 bv = 1 − avv for each v. . Consider the set (0. . then A is ﬁnite by deﬁnition. . . xi }) ∈ X \ {x1 . . 1. . 1. By the generalised principle of recursive deﬁnition. xi+1 = F (X \ {x1 . deﬁne x < y if x y and x = y. then x < y. . 1] ∪ [2.8 Partial orderings and the maximal principle 29. Furthermore. If the least element is y. . Choose xi ∈ Ei for i = 1. then E = f (x0 ) for some x0 ∈ X. Given a partial order on X. Thus y1 + y2 ∈ Ex1 +x2 and Ex1 +x2 = Ey1 +y2 . then y < x. Thus its range. y ∈ [2.9 Well ordering and the countable ordinals 31a. Since X is a group under +. q. Then is a partial ordering on the set. . . Then x1 ≡ x2 and y1 ≡ y2 so x1 + x2 ≡ y1 + y2 . choose x ∈ F . Thus any nonempty subset of A has a smallest element. Let X be a wellordered set and let A ⊂ X. y2 ∈ G. G ∈ Q = X/ ≡. . x2 ∈ F and y1 . . . choose x ∈ A. p. which is countable by Propositions 4 and 5. If the least element is x. Also deﬁne x ≤ y if x y or x = y. 3) and x < y. is countable.i. Any strict linear ordering on X is also a strict linear ordering on A and every nonempty subset of A is also a nonempty subset of X. / 26. Let 0 be the identity of X. 25. Then / A is the range of y1 . By the axiom of choice. yn and is therefore ﬁnite. Consider the mapping p. . xk }). Thus < is a linear ordering on X with the property that every 3 . Then f (v) = avn ∞ with avn = 0 or 1 for each n. 3. (x1 + x2 ) + x3 = x1 + (x2 + x3 ) so + is associative on Q. If A = ∅. Deﬁne g : Y → X. Contradiction. Thus E cannot be the range of any function from N and E is uncountable. . Then x + y ≡ x + y and x + y ≡ x + y so x + y ≡ x + y . Deﬁne a new sequence y1 . Then bn ∈ E but bn = avn for any v. For any F ∈ Q. . Then f ◦ g = idY . Let f be a function from N to E.e. Then F + E0 = Ex+0 = Ex = F . 3) with the ordering given by x y if and only if either x. or x. . . x y ⇔ x < y ⇔ x ≤ y for x = y. Similarly for E−x + F . . the set {x. . let fn : X n → X be deﬁned by fn (x1 . 1] and x < y. xn } be a ﬁnite set and let A ⊂ E. Similarly when x0 ∈ E. 31b. . . . y ∈ X. xi+1 = fi (x1 . Its domain is a subset of the set of ﬁnite sequences from N. For each n ∈ N. For any two elements x.6 Countable sets 22. 1. . . Let F. y ∈ (0. . Let E = {x : x ∈ f (x)} ⊂ X. Let E = {x1 . Then (E1 + E2 ) + E3 = Ex1 +x2 + E3 = E(x1 +x2 )+x3 and E1 + (E2 + E2 ) = E1 + Ex2 +x3 = Ex1 +(x2 +x3 ) . Let E1 . Conversely. Thus E0 is the identity of Q. 1. Pick a ∈ X. . Hence E is not in the range of f . xn ) = F (X \ {x1 . 30. 1. Similarly for E0 + F . there is a choice function F : P(X) \ {∅} → X. Then < is a strict partial order on X and ≤ is a reﬂexive partial order on X. Choose x1 . y → F (Ay ). 1 → p/q. Suppose ≡ is compatible with +. then x0 ∈ f (x0 ) = E. Now suppose x ≡ x and y ≡ y . In particular. the set of rational numbers. 2. Let X be an inﬁnite set. E2 . xi } so xi = xj if i = j and the range of the sequence xi is a countably inﬁnite subset of X. Thus E−x is the inverse of F in Q. . Let F ∈ Q and choose x ∈ F and let −x be the inverse of x in X. yn by setting yi = xi if xi ∈ A and yi = x if xi ∈ A. If E is in the range of f . 3 → 0. xi ). F (Ay ) ∈ f −1 [{y}] so f (F (Ay )) = y. Then F + E−x = Ex+(−x) = E0 . Now if / x0 ∈ E. . 28.7 Relations and equivalences 27. 2 → −p/q. . 2 is the unique minimal element and there is no smallest element.
34b.e. Conversely. Let x. then S ∪ {x0 } = X. f −1 is deﬁned on f [X]. Let {Sλ : λ ∈ Λ} be a collection of segments. Given s ∈ S. Deﬁne f (x0 ) = y0 . Thus there exists y ∈ Y \ E such that x < y for all x ∈ E. Then y ∈ f [{w : w < z}] so / y = f (w) for some w < z. then y = f (x) is the ﬁrst element not in f [{z : z < x}]. Suppose y < f S (z). Contradiction. Contradiction. 34e. {y : y < y0 } ⊂ f [X]. 34a. i. Now gx0 is the ﬁrst element of Y not in g[{z : z < x0 }] = f [{z : z < x0 }] and so is f (x0 ). then x ∈ X \ Sλ so x ∈ Sλ . By part (e). Contradiction. i. Thus / f [X] ⊂ {y : y < y0 }. Thus f is a successorpreserving map on the segment S ∪ {x0 } so S ∪ {x0 } ⊂ S. Contradiction. if f (y) < f (x). Otherwise. then x1 < x2 since f is order preserving. Consider S ∪ {x0 }. we may assume Sλ ⊂ Sµ so that fµ Sλ = fλ by parts (d) and (a).nonempty subset has a least element and consequently a well ordering. Hence / Sλ = {x ∈ X : x < y0 }. Then f (x0 ) is the ﬁrst element of Y not in f [{x : x < x0 }]. Clearly. Thus y0 ≥ yλ for all λ. Then {y : y ∈ f [X]} is a / nonempty subset of Y and has a least element y0 . i. 34c. Thus f S (z) ∈ f S [{w : w < z}]. f is a welldeﬁned map because if s belongs to two segments Sλ and Sµ . then f −1 is a successorpreserving map on Y and f −1 [Y ] = S is a segment of X. 4 . On the other hand. 32. If f (x1 ) < f (x2 ). then f [X] is countable and since f is onetoone. Conversely. Let Y = {x : x < Ω} and let E be a countable subset of Y . If there is no / x ∈ X such that x > x0 . If y0 < yλ for some λ. E has an upper bound in Y . By Q33. Now if S = X. Let S = {z : z < x} be a segment of X and let z ∈ S. Suppose f [X] = Y . Since f is onetoone. Let X be the wellordered set in Proposition 8 and let Y be an uncountable set wellordered by such that there is a last element ΩY in Y and if y ∈ Y and y = ΩY . S is a segment so either S = X or S = {x : x < x0 } for some x0 ∈ X. Suppose Sλ = X. then f (ΩX ) < ΩY and f (ΩX ) is the largest element in f [X]. then f (y) ∈ f [{z : z < x}] and y < x.e.e. Clearly. Hence f [X] = {y : y < y0 }. which is countable. Contradiction. Hence f is an order preserving bijection from X onto Y . if f [S] = Y . Suppose f and g are distinct successorpreserving maps from X into Y . If f [X] = Y . then y → xy deﬁnes a mapping from Y \ E into the countable set E so Y \ E is countable. suppose f [S] = Y . Thus f is a successorpreserving map from S into Y . y < y0 . f S (z) = f (z) is the ﬁrst element of Y not in f [{w : w < z}]. Thus S ∪ {x0 } is a segment of X. Let S be the union of all such segments Sλ and let fλ be the corresponding map on Sλ . X is countable. Then there is a least y0 ∈ Y \ f [S]. Also. f −1 (f (x1 )) < f −1 (f (x2 )). Otherwise. we may assume there is a successorpreserving map f from X onto a segment of Y . then {z ∈ Y : z < y} is countable. if x < y0 . if y ∈ f [X]. Hence f [S] = Y . y ∈ X with x < y. Contradiction. Thus f (x0 ) = g(x0 ). X \ Sλ is a nonempty subset of the wellordered set X so it has a least element y0 . 34f. Thus w ∈ S and y = f S (w) ∈ f S [{w : w < z}]. Hence there is at most one successorpreserving map from X into Y . Sλ ⊂ {x ∈ X : x < y0 }. Contradiction. Thus f (x) < f (y). {x ∈ X : x > x0 } has a least element x and S ∪ {x0 } = {x : x < x }. Then {x ∈ X : f (x) = g(x)} is a nonempty subset of X and has a least element x0 . Then each Sλ is of the form {x ∈ X : x < yλ } for some yλ ∈ X. 33. If y0 = ΩY . 34d. Hence f S (z) is the ﬁrst element of Y not in f S [{w : w < z}]. f [X] = f [S] is a segment of Y . then we are done. Thus f −1 is order preserving. deﬁne f (s) = fλ (s) if s ∈ Sλ . If y0 = ΩY . Y is uncountable so Y \ E is nonempty. f (y) is the ﬁrst element of Y not in f [{z : z < y}] so f (y) = f (x). Let f be a successorpreserving map from X into Y . In the second case. Consider the set of upper bounds of E in Y . Since y0 ∈ f [X] ⊃ f [{z : z < x}]. If for every y ∈ Y \ E there exists xy ∈ E such that y < xy . f (s) = fλ (s) is the ﬁrst element of Y not in fλ [{z : z < s}] = f [{z : z < s}]. which is then a least upper bound of E. then by part (b). This is a nonempty subset of Y so it has a least element. Furthermore. Hence f is a onetoone order preserving map. then y0 ∈ Sλ . f [X] = {z : z ≤ f (ΩX )}. Consider the collection of all segments of X on which there is a successorpreserving map into Y . Suppose f is successorpreserving. f [X] = {z : z < y0 } for some y0 ∈ Y .
4e. If l0 ∈ L. Suppose x ≤ y. U is bounded below so it has a greatest lower bound u0 . 5c. If x ≥ 0 and y < 0. Then −x = (−1)x ∈ P so 0 = x + (−x) ∈ P . If x. Then x + z ≤ y + z so x ∨ y + z = y + z = (x + z) ∨ (y + z). Then zx ≤ zy if z ≥ 0 so z(x ∨ y) = zy = (zx) ∨ (zy). there exists N such that xnj − l < ε for j ≥ N . it has a least upper bound b. L is bounded above so it has a least upper bound l0 . Conversely. Similarly for y ≤ x. 2 5e. The cases where ∞ or −∞ is a limit are clear. then xy ≤ 0 so xy = −xy = x(−y) = xy. Then −1 ∈ P . Otherwise. suppose l ∈ R is a cluster point of xn . say x ∈ E. y ≥ 0. If x. then x ≥ −x so x = x = x ∨ (−x). Given ε > 0. Similarly when x < 0 and y ≥ 0. Thus l is a lower bound for U and is greater than u0 . 5b. Similarly. then x + y ≥ 0 so x + y = x + y = x + y. 4a. −b is a lower bound for S and if a is another lower bound for S.3 The extended real numbers 6. If x ≥ y.4 Sequences of real numbers 7. y < 0. If x. If x < 0. 2. Similarly for x < 0. Since ε is arbitrary. Then x ∧ y = x and x ∨ y = y so x ∧ y + x ∨ y = x + y. 5a. then xy > 0 so xy = xy = (−x)(−y) = xy. there exist N1 and N2 such that xn − l1  < ε for n ≥ N1 and xn − l2  < ε for n ≥ N2 . Suppose l1 and l2 are (ﬁnite) limits of a sequence xn . If E = ∅. then xy ≥ 0 so xy = xy = xy. then x + y = −x − y ≤ x − y = x + y. Let L and U be nonempty subsets of R with R = L ∪ U and such that for each l ∈ L and u ∈ U we have l < u. l1 − l2  = 0 and l1 = l2 . 2. Suppose x ≤ y. Then given ε > 0. Suppose x ≤ y. Then the set −S = {−s : s ∈ S} has an upper bound and by Axiom C. Now take x ∈ P . l0 ∈ U and u0 ≤ l0 . Suppose x ≤ y. / Contradiction.2 2. If E = ∅. Suppose there is a subsequence xnj that converges to l ∈ R. y < 0. there exists n1 ≥ 1 5 . Let S be a nonempty set of real numbers with a lower bound. Suppose −y ≤ x ≤ y. Given ε > 0.1 The Real Number System Axioms for the real numbers 1. Similarly for y ≤ x. then there exists l ∈ L with u0 < l. choose j ≥ N such that nj ≥ N . then x = x ≤ y. then inf E ≤ x ≤ sup E. If x ≥ 0. then x − y ≥ 0 so x ∨ y = x = 2 (x + y + x − y) = 1 (x + y + x − y). then it is the greatest element in L. then x + y < 0 so x + y = −x − y = x + y. then −a is an upper bound for −S and b ≤ −a so −b ≥ a. Suppose 1 ∈ P . If x ≥ 0. If x ≥ 0. 4d. x∧y y∧z (x ∧ y) ∧ z x ∧ (y ∧ z) x≤y≤z x y x∧z =x x∧y =x x≤z≤y x z x∧z =x x∧z =x y≤x≤z y y y∧z =y x∧y =y y≤z≤x y y y∧z =y x∧y =y z≤x≤y x z x∧z =z x∧z =z z≤y≤x y z y∧z =z x∧z =z 4b. Then xnj − l < ε and l is a cluster point of xn . y ≥ 0.2 The natural and rational numbers as subsets of R No problems 2. If x ≥ 0. 3. then x + y = x + y ≤ x − y = x + y. Similarly when x < 0 and y ≥ 0. then x = −x ≤ y since −y ≤ x. Similarly for y ≥ x. 2. y < 0 and x + y ≥ 0. then sup E = −∞ and inf E = ∞ so sup E < inf E. 8. If x. Similarly for y ≤ x. Hence u0 = l0 so u0 ∈ U and it is the least element in U . Then l1 − l2  < 2ε for n ≥ max(N1 . Similarly for y ≤ x. If u0 < l0 . Given N . Then −y ≤ −x so (−x) ∧ (−y) = −y = −(x ∨ y). Thus −b is a greatest lower bound for S. y < 0 and x + y < 0. N2 ). Contradiction. 1 5d. 4c.
Thus there exists k ≥ n such that xk > ∆. Given ε > 0. n ≥ N and xnk − l < ε/2 for nk ≥ N . . . Thus inf k≥m xk ≤ supk≥n xk whenever m = n. Given ε > 0. kj ). Furthermore by (i). there exists k ≥ n such that xk > ∆. . Now if m. Then lim xn ≤ sup xn < ∞. supk≥n xk > l − ε so there exists k ≥ n such that xk > l − ε. xN  + 1) so the sequence xn is bounded. Suppose n1 . suppose that given ∆ and n. Then the subsequence xkj converges to l and l is a cluster point of xn . Furthermore. xnk have been chosen. . Then xn − l ≤ xn − xnk  + xnk − l < ε for n ≥ N . Thus lim xn is a ﬁnite real number and by part (a). 1. Suppose xn is a Cauchy sequence with a subsequence xnk that converges to l. Hence l = inf n supk≥n xk = lim xn . inf k≥n xk ≤ supk≥n xk ≤ supk≥m xk . Suppose l = lim xn . . The sequence 1. If x = ∞. . supk≥n xk ≤ l . there exists kj+1 ≥ nj+1 such that xkj+1 > l − ε. xn − xm  ≤ xn − l + xm − l < ε. If l is a cluster point of xn and l > l. i. given ε and n. for any ε and n. Thus xk1 − l < ε. Suppose lim xn = ∞. . there exists N such that supk≥N xk < x + ε and there exists N such that inf k≥N xk > x − ε. Let l = lim xn ∈ R. . Thus xn converges to l. . xn  − xN  < 1 for n ≥ N . . Hence lim xn = supn inf k≥n xk ≤ inf n supk≥n xk = lim xn . there exists N such that xn − xm  < ε/2 for m. xk > ∆ for k ≥ N . i. 14. Thus lim xn = ∞. Thus xn is a Cauchy sequence. there exists n ≥ N with xn − x ≥ ε. nj and xk1 . . there exists N such that supk≥N xk < l + 1. 1. Then lim xnk = ∞ so lim xn = ∞. Conversely. Given ε > 0.such that xn1 − l < ε. . 12. If l ∈ R. then there exists ε > 0 such that for all N . By part (c). Suppose xn converges to l ∈ R. . then lim xn = lim xn = x. then l is a cluster point. Thus l is the only cluster point. then every subsequence of xn also converges to x. Suppose xn1 . xn converges to l. then there is a subsequence of xn converging to l . then there exists k ≥ N such that xk ≥ l + 1. 3. . Then xk < l + ε for k ≥ nj+1 .e. Conversely. Hence l is the largest cluster point of xn . The cases where l is ∞ or −∞ are similarly dealt with. xkj have been chosen. . N ) and xn converges to x. If xn converges to l. This subsequence will not have a further subsequence with limit ∞. Conversely. there exists k1 ≥ n1 such that xk1 > l − ε. then it is bounded by part (b) so it has a subsequence that converges to a real number l by Q9b. supk≥n xk > ∆. Conversely. If l = ∞. n ≥ N . there exists n such that supk≥n xk < l + ε so xk < l + ε for all k ≥ n. If lim xn = lim xn = l. there exists n ≥ N with xn < ∆. there is a subsequence converging to it. This gives rise to a subsequence xnk with xnk − x ≥ ε for all k. has exactly one real number 1 that is a cluster point but it does not converge. Given ε > 0. 9b. Similarly for lim xn . Thus xk − x < ε for k ≥ max(N.e. Then the subsequence xnj converges to l. . 1. Let xn1 = x1 and let nk+1 > nk be chosen such that xnk+1 > xnk . then lim xn = ∞ so for any ∆ there exists N such that inf k≥N xk > ∆. The converse holds by part (a). If x = lim xn . The statement does not hold when the word “extended” is removed. . Let xn be a Cauchy sequence. By deﬁnition again. suppose every subsequence of xn has in turn a subsequence that converges to x. xN −1 . If xn is a Cauchy sequence. . there exists N such that xn − l < ε/2 for n ≥ N . . 11d. If x ∈ R. suppose conditions (i) and (ii) hold. Contradiction. . Also. 15. Let xn be a bounded sequence. supk≥n xk ≥ l − ε. By (ii). suppose there is exactly one extended real number x that is a cluster point of xn . Choose nj+1 > max(k1 . If x ∈ R and xn does not converge to x. there exists k ≥ N such that xk − l  < (l − l)/2 so xk > (l + l )/2. . n ≥ N . . 1. Thus xkj+1 − l < ε. Also. In particular. there exists n1 such that xk < l + ε for k ≥ n1 . there exists N such that supk≥N xk < (l + l )/2. . 9a. Given ε. then there exists n such that xk < l for all k ≥ n. then since it is a cluster point. Then there exists N such that xn  − xm  ≤ xn − xm  < 1 for m. 2. If x = ∞ and lim xn = ∞. Similarly when x = −∞. Also. xnk ) such that xnk+1 − l < ε. If l is ∞ or −∞. By deﬁnition. 13. 11b. we may assume that l ∈ R. then the sequence has exactly one extended real number that is a cluster point 6 . Contradiction. Now choose k such that nk ≥ N . Contradiction. 11a. then there exists ∆ such that for all N . This subsequence will not have a further subsequence that converges to x. Choose nk+1 ≥ 1 + max(xn1 . it follows from the deﬁnitions that l is a cluster point of xn . Similarly when x = −∞. . For all m < n. if l > l. 11c. . . Thus supk≥n xk ≥ l for all n. This gives rise to a subsequence xnk with xnk < ∆ for all k. 4. inf k≥m xk ≤ inf k≥n xk ≤ supk≥n xk . Then given ∆ and n. 10. . Thus the sequence xn  is bounded above by max(x1 . If l = l and l is a cluster point.
Then r = 0 so r 2 is irrational and x < r 2 < y. Then sn − sm  = xm+1 + · · · + xn  ≤ xm+1  + · · · + xn  = tn − tm  < ε for n > m ≥ N . . . . Then 0 ≤ sn ≤ ∞ k (p − 1) k=1 1/p = 1 for all n. Thus lim xn + lim yn ≤ lim (xn + yn ). Contradiction. Then x − k=1 an /pn  < 1/pN < ε for n ≥ N . Conversely. 1] is uncountable and since R ⊃ [0. then lim sn = ∞ so ∞ ∞ = v=1 xv . But since X is open. Given x ∈ R. this gives a bijection from [0. Let b = sup S. let tn = v=1 xv . Then x∈E x ≥ sFk ≥ k for each k. . b + δ ) = [x. let a1 be the largest integer such that 0 ≤ a1 < p and a1 /p ≤ x. taking limits. 25. y) ⊂ X for all y > x. the sequence sn is monotone increasing. . On the other hand. For each n. Thus the set S = {y : [x. p − 1}. 1] to the set of inﬁnite sequences from {0. xk yk ≤ supk≥n xk supk≥n yk . which is uncountable by Q1. Let an+1 be the largest integer such that 0 ≤ an+1 < p and an+1 /pn+1 ≤ x − k=1 ak /pk . Suppose x∈E x < ∞. then the sequence has a subsequence converging to lim xn and another subsequence converging to lim xn . there exists δ > 0 such that (b − δ . . 2. n Conversely. if En0 is an inﬁnite set for some n0 . the sequence converges to a real number x with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. R is uncountable. Contradiction. let sn = k=1 ak /pk . Thus lim xn = lim xn = l. xk +yk ≤ supk≥n xk +supk≥n yk for k ≥ n. Suppose a1 . . then letting Fk be a subset of En0 with kn0 elements for each k ∈ N. For all n. supk≥n xk > 0 and supk≥n xk yk ≤ supk≥n xk supk≥n yk . Thus supk≥n (xk +yk ) ≤ supk≥n xk +supk≥n yk for all n. . √ √ / (*) Given x. Then S is bounded above. Take x ∈ X. Hence ∞ x∈E x = supF ∈F sF = sup sn = n=1 xn . if an is a sequence of integers with 0 ≤ an < p. bn = q − 1 and bm = p − 1 for m > n also satisﬁes x = n=1 bn . sFk ≥ k. there exists n such that F ⊂ {x1 . Thus sn is a bounded monotone increasing sequence so it converges. x1 + v=1 (xv+1 − xv ) = x1 + limn v=1 (xv+1 − xv ) = limn [x1 + v=1 (xv+1 − xv )] = limn xn+1 = ∞ limn xn . However the sequence ∞ bn with bm = 0 for m < n. Then each En is a ﬁnite subset of E. Then [x. Clearly. If the sequence sn is bounded. 17. we get lim xn yn ≤ lim xn lim yn . given F ∈ F. For any n and any k ≥ n. Since v=1 xv  < ∞. 1}. there exists N such that tn − tm  < ε for n > m ≥ N . n k n This gives rise to a sequence an of integers with 0 ≤ an < p and x − k=1 ak /p < 1/p for all n. 16. there exists N such that 1/pN < ε. x + δ) ⊂ X. there exists δ > 0 such that (x − δ. Thus ∞ x = n=1 an /pn . . y) Q √ by taking x = 0 if necessary. Given a real number x with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. xn } ∈ F for all n. b) ∪ [b. Thus the sequence sn is a Cauchy sequence so it converges and xn has a sum. Suppose [x. The set of rational numbers is neither open nor closed. Contradiction. Thus x = limn xn if and only if x = x1 + v=1 (xv+1 − xv ). . x] ⊂ X for all z < x. 21a. since 0 ≤ sn ≤ 1 for all n.5 Open and closed sets of real numbers 24. On the other hand. 23. xn } so sF ≤ sn and supF ∈F sF ≤ sup sn . If the sequence sn is unbounded. For each x ∈ Qc and for each δ > 0. Thus sup sn ≤ supF ∈F sF . ∅ and R are both open and closed. Now E = En so E is countable. . y ∈ R with x < y. Since X is open. Now lim xn ≤ lim (xn + yn ) + lim (−yn ) = lim (xn + yn ) − lim yn .24. Thus for all n. . b + δ ) ⊂ X. there exists r ∈√ such that x/ 2 < r < y/ 2.e. Thus [x. By Q22. Furthermore. 1]. When x = q/pn with q ∈ {1. Suppose X is a nonempty subset of R that is both open and closed. the sequence an obtained in this way is such that an = q and am = 0 for m = n. . n Now given ε. Then b ∈ S and b is a point of closure of X so b ∈ X since X is closed. the sequence tn is a Cauchy sequence so given ε. 7 . Hence X = R. For each n.so it converges to l by Q10. b + δ ) ⊂ X. which we may regard as unique by ﬁxing a way of representing those numbers of the form q/2n . n ∞ 19. Now. Similarly. Then inf n supk≥n (xk +yk ) ≤ inf n supk≥n xk +inf n supk≥n yk . lim (xn +yn ) ≤ lim xn +lim yn . {x1 . Otherwise. ∞ n n 20. . i. there is an irrational number s with x < s < x + δ so Q is not open. y) ⊂ X for some y > x. 21b. This sequence is unique by construction. . form its binary expansion (by taking p = 2 in Q22). let En = {x ∈ E : x ≥ 1/n}. We may assume 0 ∈ (x. 18. . 22. ∞ then lim sn = sup sn ∈ R so sup sn = v=1 xv . Thus [0. (z. for each x ∈ Q and for each δ > 0. y) ⊂ X} is nonempty. an have n been chosen. if l = lim xn and lim xn < lim xn . there is a rational number r with x < r < x + δ so Qc is not open and Q is not closed. Since each xv ≥ 0.
. ( O∈C O) is closed. Thus x ∈ (Ac )c . Let C be a collection of open sets. 38. y + δ ). Since y ∈ E . then x ∈ E and we are done. then Ix0 will contain two elements of E for some x0 . Let δ = min(y − x. Hence (x−δ. . .e. Thus E is countable. there exists δ > 0 such that {y : y − x < δ} ⊂ A if and only if every point of A is an interior point of A. ∞ then by Proposition 16. y + δ ) ⊂ (x − δ. Thus O∈C O is open. ◦ 34a. Thus x ∈ E and E ⊂ E ∪ E . Suppose y = x. i. By the HeineBorel Theorem. each Ix contains only one element of E. x + δ − y). Let F1 and F2 be closed sets. 1/3] corresponds to removing all numbers with unique ternary expansion such that a1 = 0 and a2 = 1 and removing the middle third (7/9. y + δ ) and (y − δ . Thus x is a point of closure of E. Then O1 and O2 are closed so O1 ∪ O2 is closed. there exists y ∈ E such that y − x < δ. / 30. i. then removing the middle thirds of the remaining intervals corresponds to removing all numbers with unique ternary expansion such that ai = 0 or 2 for i ≤ n and an+1 = 1. Suppose x ∈ A◦ . Conversely. 8/9) of [2/3. Let A = (−1. i=1 Fi = ∅. x + δ). there is a ﬁnite subcollection {F1 . let Fn = [n. Hence E is closed. Then F is open for any F ∈ C so F ∈F F c is open. Let E be an isolated set of real numbers. Then given / ¯ δ > 0. 1] corresponds to removing all numbers with unique ternary expansion such that a1 = 2 and a2 = 1. c c c c 33. If y = x. Hence Q = R and Q = R. Fnk } with n1 < · · · < nk . Conversely. let x ∈ E and suppose x ∈ E. Then for any ﬁnite k subcollection {Fn1 . We may take each δx to be rational and let Ix = {y : y − x < δx }. y ∈ E \ {x}. Then for any δ > 0. 0) and B = (0. 1). let bn be the sequence obtained by replacing all 2’s in the ternary expansion by 1’s. c Thus F1 ∪ F2 is closed. We may assume y > x. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 29. 1]. Each stage of removing middle thirds results in a closed set and C is the intersection of all these closed sets so C is closed. 1] = {0}. . 2/9) of [0. there exists y ∈ E such that x − y < δ. In particular. Let x ∈ R. If E is uncountable. Removing the middle third (1/3. Hence F ∈C F = ∅. there exists yn ∈ E with yn − x < 1/n. Clearly A ⊂ A for any set A. Let C be a collection of closed sets. Thus x ∈ E . 31.e. Contradiction. Thus there exists δ > 0 such that y−x ≥ δ for all y ∈ Ac \{x} = Ac . z ∈ E \ {x} and z − x < δ. Let Fn be a sequence of nonempty closed sets of real numbers with Fn+1 ⊂ Fn . (O1 ∩ O2 )c is closed. . Suppose x is a point of closure of E. Then {Ix : x ∈ E} is a countable collection of open intervals. Clearly E ⊂ E and E ⊂ E so E ∪ E ⊂ E. there exists z ∈ E \ {y} such / that z ∈ (y − δ . Removing the middle third (1/9. ∞). Then Fn is a sequence of nonempty closed sets of real numbers with ∞ Fn+1 ⊂ Fn but none of the sets Fn is bounded. Then c F ∈C F = R ⊃ F . If one of the sets Fn is bounded. Given an element in the Cantor ternary set with (unique) ternary expansion an such that an = 1 for all n. Then F1 and F2 are open so F1 ∩ F2 is open. 27. Since x ∈ E. A is open if and only if for any x ∈ A. suppose there is a sequence yn in E with x = lim yn . Thus x is an accumulation ¯ point of Q. For any x ∈ E. In particular. (F1 ∪ F2 )c is open.e. Conversely. 35. 34b. i=1 Fni = Fnk = ∅. Let x be a point of closure of E . This gives a onetoone mapping 8 . Then Oc is closed for any O ∈ C so c c O∈C O is closed. Suppose F ∈C F = ∅. there exists N such that x − yn  < δ for n ≥ N .e. 37. ( F ∈C F )c is open. Given δ > 0. 0] ∩ [0. 1] with unique ternary expansion an such that a1 = 1. . . 28. c c c c 32. Thus O1 ∩ O2 is open. namely x. Then yn − x < 1/N < ε for n ≥ N so yn is a sequence in E with x = lim yn . Let C be a collection of closed sets of real numbers such that every ﬁnite subcollection of C has nonempty intersection and suppose one of the sets F ∈ C is bounded. In particular. Then A ∩ B = ∅ but A ∩ B = [−1. Now n=1 Fn = {x : x ≥ n for all n} = ∅. choose N such that 1/N < ε. Then F ∩ i=1 Fi = ∅. suppose x ∈ (Ac )c . Let O1 and O2 be open sets. Then x ∈ A and x is not an accumulation / point of Ac . 36. x + δ) ⊂ A. Suppose the middle thirds have been removed up to the nth stage. and E ⊂ x∈E Ix . x+δ) ⊂ A so x ∈ A◦ . Thus F ∈C F is closed. i. there exists δx > 0 such that y − x ≥ δx for all y ∈ E \ {x}. Then bn may be regarded as the binary expansion of a number in [0. Given ε > 0. Contradiction. x − yN  < δ. Given δ > 0. Then x ∈ (y − δ . .¯ ¯ 26. Fn } ⊂ C such n n that F ⊂ i=1 Fic . there exists r ∈ Q such that x < r < x + δ. For each n. Then there exists δ > 0 such that (x − δ. Thus A is open if and only if A = A◦ . 2/3) corresponds to removing all numbers in [0. Then for every n. i. x ∈ Ac and / x ∈ (Ac ) .
there exists N such that for all x ∈ E and n ≥ N . Thus f g is continuous at x. Then f (x) − f (q) = x − f (q) > q − f (q) = ε. then f (x) − f (y) = x − y < δ < ε. q + δ). Let f and g be continuous functions. choose M such that M 2 > max(x + 1. Thus f is continuous on E. This mapping is also onto since given a number in [0. f (y) − f (x) < ε. C ⊂ C. Let f and g be continuous functions. If q < 0. Take g to be linear on each of these open intervals and take g(x) = f (x) for x ∈ F . x−1)/6q 2 +δ ≤ max(x+1. x − sin x < x3 /6 for all x = 0 (by Taylor’s Theorem for example). x + δ). 39. Then O = (f (x) − ε. Conversely. x + δ) ⊂ f −1 [O]. Now x ∈ U and U is open so there exists δ > 0 such that (x − δ. let an be its ternary expansion with an = 1 for all n. there exists δ > 0 such that q ≥ M for any rational p/q ∈ (x − δ. If y = p/q is rational. pick an irrational x ∈ (q − δ. There also exists δ > 0 such that g(x) − g(y) < δ whenever x − y < δ . Hence C = C . If q > 0. (*) Note that sin x < x for all x > 0 and x < sin x for all x < 0. Conversely. f is discontinuous at the nonzero rationals: Given a nonzero rational q. let ε = f (q) − q > 0. there exists δ > 0 such that f (a) − f (b) < ε whenever a − b < δ. f is continuous at each irrational: Let x be irrational. Now let bn be the sequence with bN +1 = aN +1 − 2 and bn = an for n = N + 1. i. Given ε > 0. 9 . *43. Also. Given ε > 0. 1]. let δ = ε. 1]. f (x) + ε) is open so there is an open set U such that f −1 [O] = E ∩ U . Also. we can take its binary expansion and replace all 1’s by 2’s to get a sequence consisting of only 0’s and 2’s. Thus x ∈ C . Thus there are only ﬁnitely many choices of pn and qn for each n. ε) and q ≥ M for any rational p/q ∈ (x − δ. q). Then when x < δ. pick an irrational x ∈ (q. Since the Cantor ternary set C is closed. there exists δx > 0 such that f (y) − f (x) < εx when y ∈ E and y − x < δx . f is continuous at 0: Given ε > 0. Suppose f is continuous on E. F c is open and it is the union of a countable collection of disjoint open intervals. x − 1)/6ε. Given δ > 0. there exists M such that for any n. which we may then regard as the ternary expansion of a number in the Cantor ternary set. Thus f ◦ g is continuous at x. Given ε > 0. g(x) + ε/2f (x)) whenever x − y < δ . 44a. x + δx ). x + 1/n) for inﬁnitely many n. Thus f + g is continuous at x. for any y ∈ E with y − x < δ. x + 1) for all n. Let O be an open set and let x ∈ f −1 [O]. fn (x) − f (x) < ε/3. Then f (x) − f (q) = f (q) − x > f (q) − q = ε. x + 1)qn < M max(x − 1. Hence (x − δx . x−1)/6M 2 +δ < 2ε. Then g is deﬁned and continuous on R and g(x) = f (x) for all x ∈ F . 44b. Then f (x) ∈ O so there exists εx > 0 such that (f (x) − εx . there exists a rational pn /qn ∈ (x − 1/n. Then choose δ > 0 such that δ < min(1. f (x) ≤ x < ε. x + δ) ⊂ U . Contradiction. given any δ > 0. Then pn  ≤ max(x − 1. Given ε > 0.6 Continuous functions 40. Let U = x∈f −1 [O] (x − δx . x + 1/n) with qn < M . given any δ > 0. Then y ∈ C \ {x} and x − y = 2/3N +1 < 1/3N < δ. Now choose δ > 0 such that g(x) − g(y) < ε/2f (x) and f (x) − f (y) < ε/2 max(g(x) − ε/2f (x). Now if y ∈ E and y − x < δ. Then U is open and f −1 [O] = E ∩ U .from the Cantor ternary set into [0. Since F is closed. 2. First we show that for any M . then f (y) − f (x) ≤ f (y) − y + y − x = p1/q−sin(1/q)+y−x < p/6q 3 +δ < max(x+1. then f (y) − f (x) ≤ f (y) − fN (y) + fN (y) − fN (x) + fN (x) − f (x) < ε. choose δ > 0 such that f (x) − f (y) < ε/2 and g(x) − g(y) < ε/2 whenever x − y < δ. x + δx ) ∩ E ⊂ f −1 [O]. Since f is continuous. Thus f is continuous on E. there exists δ > 0 such that fN (y) − fN (x) < ε/3 if y ∈ E and y − x < δ. given x ∈ C. Let y be the number with ternary expansion bn . Suppose fn is a sequence of continuous functions on E and that fn converges uniformly to f on E. 42. Let x ∈ E and let ε > 0. If y is irrational.e. This implies that there exists a rational p/q in (x − 1/n. Thus E ∩ (x − δ. Then (f + g)(x) − (f + g)(y) = f (x) − f (y) + g(x) − g(y) ≤ f (x) − f (y) + g(x) − g(y) < ε whenever x − y < δ. choose N such that 1/3N < δ. suppose that for each open set O. Thus (f ◦ g)(x) − (f ◦ g)(y) = f (g(x)) − f (g(y)) < ε when x − y < δ . Otherwise. Suppose x − y < δ. there is an open set U such that f −1 [O] = E ∩ U . Then (f g)(x) − (f g)(y) = f (x)g(x) − f (x)g(y) + f (x)g(y) − f (y)g(y) ≤ f (x)g(x) − g(y) + f (x) − f (y)g(y) < ε whenever x − y < δ . x + δ). f (x) + εx ) ⊂ O. 41.
Thus f maps the Cantor ternary set onto [0. b]. If f (x) < f (a). 1] is of the form q/3n0 with q = 1 or 2. f maps [a. bN = 1 and bn = 0 for n < N so N n n0 n=1 bn /2 = 1/2 . Thus f ∨ g is continuous at x. Given ε > 0. Then x ∈ [xi . an = 0 for n < n0 and an = 2 for n > n0 . Furthermore. Then f is uniformly continuous so there exists δ > 0 such that f (x) − f (y) < ε/2 whenever x. 44d. f (a) = f (x ) for some x ∈ [x. b]. Contradiction. suppose there is a continuous function g such that g(f (x)) = x for all x ∈ [a. if f (c) > γ. then f (a) < f (y) ≤ f (x) so f (y) = f (x ) for some x ∈ [a. b]. Furthermore. 47. Given x ∈ [0. Then f (c + δ/2) < γ so c + δ/2 ∈ S. y ∈ [a. From the second expansion we N get N = n0 . Hence f is constant on each such interval. b] and x − y < δ. Then x has two ternary expansions an and an where an0 = q. by the Intermediate Value Theorem. y in the same interval and having ternary expansions an and an respectively. 48. Thus g is continuous on [f (a). When y − z < δ. Thus f (a) < f (x). We may assume f is strictly monotone increasing. 1]. Let f be a continuous function on [a. b]. x] and y = g(f (y)) = g(f (x )) = x . 46. Conversely. sup f (x) < A + ε. f (b)]. / Contradiction. From the second expansion we get N = ∞. Given ε > 0. On the other hand. Then x is in the Cantor ternary set and f (x) = y. b] with g(y) − g(z) = g(f (x)) − g(f (x )) = x − x < ε. Take x ∈ [0. 1] with ternary expansion an such that an = 2bn for all n. z = f (x ) for some x ∈ [a. 49a. then from the ﬁrst expansion we get N = ∞. Now choose δ > 0 such that δ < 1/3M +2 . Also. Let f be a continuous function on [a. Then f is onetoone. y ∈ [0. 45. Now if f (x) ≥ f (y). Then S = ∅ since a ∈ S and S is bounded. Let g = f −1 : [f (a). Contradiction. c] so f (x) > γ and x ∈ S for all such x. then g(f (x)) < g(f (y)) so f (x) = f (y). xi+1 ] for some i. . Hence the sum is independent of the ternary expansion of x. f (b)]. Each interval contained in the complement of the Cantor ternary set consists of elements with ternary expansions containing 1. f (x + ε) − f (x)). Then ϕ(xi ) ≤ ϕ(x) ≤ ϕ(xi+1 ) and ϕ(x) − f (x) ≤ ϕ(x) − ϕ(xi ) + ϕ(xi ) − f (x) ≤ ϕ(xi+1 ) − ϕ(xi ) + f (xi ) − f (x) < ε. there exists δ > 0 such that δ < c − a and f (x) − f (c) < f (c) − γ whenever x − c < δ . for any x. let bn be its binary expansion. b] onto [f (a). then from the ﬁrst expansion we get N = n0 . Then f (x) − f (c) < f (c) − γ for all x ∈ (c − δ . . If q = 1. We may assume x = a and f (a) < f (b). Then f  = (f ∨ 0) − (f ∧ 0) so f is continuous. If f (c) < γ. We may assume f (xi ) ≤ f (xi+1 ). Thus Ny Nx f (x) = n=1 bn /2n ≤ n=1 bn /2n = f (y). b] to be linear on each [xi . Suppose f is strictly monotone. Then g(f (x)) = x for all x ∈ [a. . Then for each n. f (x) ≤ A + ε. Thus f (x) < f (y). b]. Given ε > 0. Let S = {x ∈ [a. Let f and g be continuous functions. Given x. suppose x < y and let n0 be the smallest value of n such that an0 = an0 . f ∧ g = f + g − (f ∨ g) so f ∧ g is continuous at x. b]. f (c + δ/2) − f (c) < γ − f (c). Then y = f (x) for some x ∈ [a. . f (b)] → [a. b] with x < y. the smallest n such that an = 1 is also the smallest such that an = 1. Then c ∈ [a. there exists 10 . b] and ε a positive number. Choose N such that (b − a)/N < δ and let xi = a + i(b − a)/N for i = 1. then by the Intermediate Value Theorem. Then an0 < an0 and bn0 ≤ bn0 . y ∈ [a. bn = 0 for n < n0 and bn = 1 for N ∞ n > n0 so n=1 bn /2n = n=n0 +1 1/2n = 1/2n0 . an0 = q − 1. 1]. b] and a = g(f (a)) = g(f (x )) = x . Let y ∈ [f (a). b] : f (x) ≤ γ}. 1] and ε > 0. N ∞ bn0 = 1 and bn = 0 for n = n0 so n=1 bn /2n = n=1 bn /2n = 1/2n0 . Let x ∈ [a. b]. Now deﬁne ϕ on [a. Hence f (c) = γ. Let f be a continuous realvalued function on [a. If x. Hence f is strictly monotone increasing. Let c = sup S. 1] with ternary expansions an and an respectively. In particular. Let f be a continuous function. f (b)]. Then when x − y < δ. Suppose x ∈ [0. an = 0 for n = n0 . xi+1 ] with ϕ(xi ) = f (xi ) for each i so that ϕ is polygonal on [a. Conversely.44c. 1]. Hence f is monotone and continuous on [0. N Let f (x) = n=1 bn /2n . f (x) − f (y) < ε. For any y ∈ [0. choose δ > 0 such that f (x) − f (y) < ε/2 and g(x) − g(y) < ε/2 whenever x − y < δ. Contradiction. there exists δ > 0 such that x→y 0<x−y<δ Thus for all x with 0 < x − y < δ. Suppose lim f (x) ≤ A. N . If q = 2. b]. there exists δ > 0 such that δ < b − c and f (x) − f (c) < γ − f (c) whenever x − c < δ. suppose there exists for any ε > 0 some δ > 0 such that f (x) ≤ A + ε for all x with 0 < x − y < δ. Now (f ∨ g)(x) − (f ∨ g)(y) ≤ f (x) − f (y) + g(x) − g(y) < ε. choose M such that 1/2M < ε. b] and suppose that f (a) ≤ γ ≤ f (b). choose δ > 0 such that δ < min(f (x) − f (x − ε). bN = 1 and bn = 0 for n < N so n=1 bn /2n = 1/2n0 .
e. For any δ > 0. xn is a sequence with xn = y such that y = lim xn and A = lim f (xn ). there exists δ > 0 such that −f (x) ≤ −f (y) + ε whenever x − y < δ if and only if given ε > 0. 50b. there exists δ > 0 such that x→y −f (x) ≤ −f (y) + ε whenever 0 < x − y < δ if and only if given ε > 0. Thus 0 < xn − y < 1/n and f (xn ) − A < 1/n for each n.e.e. i. Conversely. f (x) > L − ε whenever 0 < x − y < δ2 . i. Thus x→y x→y x→y x→y lim f (x) exists and equals f (y) so f is continuous at y. There also inf f (x) > L − ε. Given ε > 0. lim f (x) ≤ lim f (x). For any δ1 . f (x). Then for each n. Suppose lim f (x) = lim f (x) with limf = ±∞. f (x) − L < ε so lim f (x) exists. Given ε > 0 and δ > 0. By part (a).e. Then when 0 < x − y < δ. sup f (x) ≥ A − 1/n for all n so sup f (x) ≥ A. there exists x→y x→y δ1 > 0 such that sup 0<x−y<δ1 f (x) < L + ε. Then f is lower semicontinuous at y if and only if −f is upper semicontinuous at y if and only if −f (y) ≥ lim (−f (x)) if and only if given ε > 0. x→y there exists Nδ such that 0 < xn − y < δ for n ≥ Nδ . Thus for each δ > 0. there exists xn such that 0 < xn − y < min(δn . f (x) > A − ε so there exists x such that 0 < x − y < δ and f (x) ≥ A − ε. Then lim f (x) ≤ f (y) ≤ lim f (x). there exists δn > 0 such that f (x) < A + 1/n whenever 0 < x − y < δn . inf sup f (xn ) ≤ sup f (xn ) ≤ N n≥N n≥Nδ sup 0<x−y<δ f (x) so inf sup f (xn ) ≤ inf N n≥N x→y δ>0 0<x−y<δ sup f (x). Given ε. suppose l = lim f (x). suppose x→y lim f (x) exists and let L be its value. i. 49f. lim f (x) ≤ lim f (x). Suppose l = lim f (x) and let xn be a sequence with xn = y and y = lim xn . for each n. there exists x such that 0 < x − y < δ and f (x) ≥ A − ε. inf 0<x−y<δ2 49c. Suppose f is both upper and lower semicontinuous at y. Similarly. Thus for any δ > 0. f (xn ) − l < ε.e. Thus xn is a sequence with xn = y and y = lim xn but l = lim f (xn ). 50a. then sup 0<x−y<δ2 f (x) ≤ f (x) and inf 0<x−y<δ1 f (x) ≤ inf f (x) ≤ sup 0<x−y<δ1 f (x) ≤ f (x). f (x) < L + ε whenever 0 < x − y < δ1 . lim f (x) ≤ L. Also there exists N such that 0 < xn − y < δ for n ≥ N .e. there exists xn such that 0 < xn − y < δ and f (xn ) ≥ A − 1/n. limf (xn ) ≤ lim f (x) = A. suppose that given ε > 0 and δ > 0. Let x→y exists δ2 > 0 such that 0<x−y<δ2 δ = min(δ2 . By part (b). if f is continuous at y. Hence 0<x−y<δ x→y 0<x−y<δ lim f (x) = inf δ>0 0<x−y<δ sup f (x) ≥ A. Suppose lim f (x) = A and xn is a sequence with xn = y such that y = lim xn . Let L be the common value. lim f (x) ≥ L. l = lim f (xn ). Thus lim f (x) = inf δ>0 0<x−y<δ x→y sup f (x) ≤ inf n 0<x−y<δ n sup f (x) ≤ A + 1/n for all n so lim f (x) ≤ A. sup 0<x−y<δ 49b. Conversely. In particular. Conversely. Thus lim f (x) = lim f (x) = f (y) so f is both upper and lower semicontinuous 11 . Let f (y) be ﬁnite. Suppose lim f (x) ≥ A. then lim f (x) x→y x→y exists and equals f (y). x→y there exists δ > 0 such that f (x) − l < ε whenever 0 < x − y < δ. i.δn > 0 such that f (x) ≤ A + 1/n for all x with 0 < x − y < δn so x→y sup 0<x−y<δn x→y f (x) ≤ A + 1/n. inf x→y inf 0<x−y<δ1 f (x) ≤ sup 0<x−y<δ2 sup 0<x−y<δ1 0<x−y<δ2 Hence sup x→y f (x) ≤ sup 0<x−y<δ0 δ>0 0<x−y<δ f (x) for any δ0 > 0 so sup inf f (x) ≤ inf δ>0 0<x−y<δ δ>0 0<x−y<δ sup f (x). i. 1/n) and f (xn ) > A − 1/n. there exists δ > 0 such that f (y) ≤ f (x) + ε whenever x − y < δ. δ2 > 0. Given ε > 0. Suppose lim f (x) = A. x→y 49e. By part (a). there exists δ > 0 such that f (x) − L < ε whenever x→y x→y x→y x→y 0 < x − y < δ. Thus for n ≥ N .e. i. Then there exists ε > 0 such that for each n there exists xn with 0 < xn − y < 1/n and x→y f (xn ) − l ≥ ε. Thus equality holds. Conversely. i. δ2 ). 49d. if δ1 < δ2 .
b] we have f (x) = supn ϕn (x). Let y be in the domain of f and g. b]. suppose {x ∈ [a. b] : f (x) > λ} is open (in [a. For each n. Let ϕ : [a. The sets {x ∈ [a. b]. Thus ϕ is lower semicontinuous. y + δ). b] : f (x) ≤ λ}. Conversely. suppose ϕ(xi ) ≤ min(ci . there exists δ > 0 such that ϕ(xi ) ≤ ϕ(x) + 1/n whenever x − xi  < δ. the set {x ∈ [a. f (xk )) where ck (n) (n) (n) (n) = inf x∈I (n) f (x) and ck+1 = inf x∈I (n) f (x). b] : f (x) > c} with c ∈ Z form an open covering of [a. Thus α ≤ ψn (x) for suﬃciently large n. b] we have f (x) = lim ψn (x). ϕ(xi ) ≤ ci + 1/n and ϕ(xi ) ≤ ci+1 + 1/n for each n. Suppose there is a monotone increasing sequence ψn of continuous functions on [a. b]. The sets {x ∈ [a. b]). k Thus f (y) − ϕn (y) ≤ ε. For each n. b] such that for each x ∈ [a. f (y) < f (x) + ε whenever x − y < δ. 50i. 50e. If y ∈ (xi . *50g. Thus ϕ(xi ) ≤ min(ci . f is lower semicontinuous on [a. b] by part (f) and f ≥ ϕn+1 ≥ ϕn for each n. Let f be a function deﬁned on [a. . Then ψn (x) ≤ inf{f (t) + nt − y + ny − x : t ∈ [a. b] so by the HeineBorel Theorem. Since ϕn is monotone increasing. Hence f (x) = sup ψn (x) = lim ψn (x). b]. In particular. f ∨ g and f + g are lower semicontinuous. 2n . There also exists δ > 0 such that fn (y) ≤ fn (x) + ε/2 whenever x − y < δ. Hence f is lower semicontinuous. ci+1 ). 2. there is a ﬁnite subcovering. By part (e). Let f be a lower semicontinuous function on [a. Also ψn ≤ ψn+1 ≤ f for all n. Deﬁne ϕn (x) = inf x∈I (n) f (x) if x ∈ Ik and ϕn (xk ) = k min(ck . then ϕn (y) =≥ f (y) − ε since Ik ∪ Ik+1 ⊂ (y − δ. Hence f (y) = lim ϕn (y). xi+1 − y). we have α ≤ f (y) + nδ ≤ f (y) + ny − x for suﬃciently large n. f (x) is an upper bound for {ψn (x) : n ∈ N}. b]. Now if α < f (x). ck+1 . . Hence f is bounded from below. b] : f (x) > f (y) − ε} is open so there exists δ > 0 such that f (x) > f (y) − ε whenever x − y < δ. Since y is arbitrarily chosen from [a. then ϕn (y) = inf x∈I (n) f (x) ≥ f (y) − ε since Ik ⊂ (y − δ. xk ) for k = 0. Thus there exists c ∈ Z such that f (x) > c for all x ∈ [a. 50c. Let y ∈ [a. Suppose ϕ is lower semicontinuous. (n) (n) For n ≥ N . xi ) and (xi . In particular. 1. Then there is a sequence xn with xn ∈ S and y = lim xn . xi+1 − xi ). there is a monotone increasing sequence ϕn of lower semicontinuous step functions on [a. consider the set S = {x ∈ [a. Then ψn is a monotone increasing sequence of continuous functions on [a. Let m = inf x∈[a. .b] f (x). b] we have f (x) = lim ϕn (x). Given ε > 0. deﬁne ψn by linearising ϕn at a neighbourhood of each partition point such that ψn ≤ ψn+1 and 0 ≤ ϕn (x) − ψn (x) < ε/2 for each x ∈ [a. Then each ψn is lower semicontinuous by part (b) and f (x) = supn ψn (x). b]. b]) for each λ ∈ R. . Now for each n.e. there exists δ > 0 such that f (y) ≤ f (x) + ε/2 and g(y) ≤ g(x) + ε/2 whenever x − y < δ. Given ε > 0. f is lower semicontinuous. when y − x ≥ δ. By part (e). ci+1 ) for each i. Conversely. Thus f (y) ≤ limf (xn ) ≤ λ so y ∈ S. Let ci and ci+1 be the values assumed by ϕ in (xi−1 . let δ = min(y − xi . Then f (y) < f (y) + ε = f (x) + ε whenever x − y < δ. Suppose there is a monotone increasing sequence ϕn of lower semicontinuous step functions on [a. Hence S is closed so {x ∈ [a. Let f be a function deﬁned on [a. xi+1 ) for some i. b] : f (x) > c} with c ∈ Z form an open covering of [a. The result for intervals follows from the result for points. b] with f (x) = lim ϕn (x) for each x ∈ [a. *50h. Conversely. By part (g). suppose that f is lower semicontinuous. for each x ∈ [a. b]. Choose N such that 1/2N < δ. Let f and g be lower semicontinuous functions. Let y be a point of closure of S. Then each ϕn is a lower k k+1 (n) semicontinuous step function on [a. (*) More rigorous proof: Deﬁne ψn by ψn (x) = inf{f (t) + nt − x : t ∈ [a. b]. Thus f (y) − ϕn (y) ≤ ε. b] such that for each x ∈ [a. If y = xk for some k. b] : f (x) > λ} is open (in [a. Then f (y) = f (xi ) ≤ f (x) + ε whenever x − y < δ.at y. suppose that f is lower semicontinuous. Let ε > 0 and let y ∈ [a. b] so by the HeineBorel Theorem. f is lower semicontinuous at y. let δ = min(xi − xi−1 . b]. xi+1 ) respectively. Thus (f ∨ g)(y) ≤ (f ∨ g)(x) + ε and (f + g)(y) ≤ (f + g)(x) + ε whenever x − y < δ. For λ ∈ R. Let y ∈ [a. y + δ). Thus ψn is (uniformly) continuous on [a. Let f be a realvalued function. b]}. If y = xi for some i. if y ∈ Ik for some k. 50f. Thus f (y) ≤ fn (x) + ε ≤ f (x) + ε whenever x − y < δ. which 12 (n) (n) (n) . Conversely. Let fn be a sequence of lower semicontinuous functions and deﬁne f (x) = supn fn (x). let xk = a+k(b−a)/2n and (n) (n) (n) (n) (n) let Ik = (xk−1 . 50d. then there exists δ > 0 such that α ≤ f (y) ≤ f (y) + ny − x whenever y − x < δ. b]. f (y) − ε/2 < fn (y) for some n. b]. Given ε > 0. b]. b]. there is a ﬁnite subcovering. By part (a). b]. b] and f (x) = lim ψn (x) for each x ∈ [a. Suppose f is lower semicontinuous on [a. By part (a). On the other hand. there exists δ > 0 such that f (y) ≤ f (x) + ε whenever x − y < δ. f is lower semicontinuous. i. b]. (n) Thus there exists c ∈ Z such that f (x) > c for all x ∈ [a. b]} = ψn (y) + ny − x. Given ε > 0. b] → R be a step function.
b]. 51a. b] and g is lower semicontinuous. there is a ﬁnite subcovering {Ix1 . {x : f (x) = α} = {x : f (x) ≥ α} ∩ {x : f (x) ≤ α} is the intersection of a Gδ set with a closed set so it is a Gδ set. b].m . x + δx ). Then inf f (y) ≤ f (x) ≤ sup f (y) for any δ > 0. 51c. x + δN. Contradiction. i. Then there exists δ > 0 such that f (y) > λ whenever x − y < δ. g(x) ≤ ϕ(y) whenever x − y < δ. b]. Let λ ∈ R. There exists ε > 0 such that for every δ > 0. Now x ∈ n Fn. there exists δx > 0 such that f (x) ≤ f (y) + m − f (x) for y ∈ Ix = (x − δx . Hence ϕ(x) ≤ g(x) for all x ∈ [a. b]. there exists δn. Hence {x : h(x) < λ} is open in [a. Contradiction.x /2) so x0 ∈ (x − δN. b].x > 0 such that f (x) − f (y) < 1/n whenever x − y < δn. Consider Fn.x /2. By continuity of each fk . f (x) is an upper bound for { inf f (y) : δ > 0} and given ε > 0. Also. Let A and B be two sets in M with A ⊂ B. Then given ε > 0. Thus f is continuous at x if and only if f is both upper semicontinuous and lower semicontinuous at x if and only if f (x) = h(x) and g(x) = f (x) if and only if g(x) = h(x). Consider Gn = x∈S (x − δn. 2. Let f be a lower semicontinuous function on R. b] such that m = f (x0 ). then for each n. Each y ∈ [a. x0 ∈ GN = x∈S (x − δN. . . Let c = min(f (x1 ). Then mA ≤ mA + m(B \ A) = mB. Let S be the set of points at which f is continuous. Suppose ϕ(x) > g(x) for some x ∈ [a. b] and h is upper semicontinuous. .x /2 and f (y) − f (x0 ) ≥ ε. each Fn. Thus f (x) − ε ≤ x−y<δ inf f (y) so f (x) = sup δ>0 x−y<δ inf f (y) = g(x). In particular.x /2. Suppose g(x) = f (x).x . Conversely. then given ε > 0. {x : f (x) < α} = {x : f (x) ≥ α}c so it is an Fσ set.e. there exists n such that fk (x) − fn (x) ≤ 1/m for all k ≥ n.x /2) for some x ∈ S.is ﬁnite since f is bounded from below.m . there exists y−x<δ δ > 0 such that f (x) − ε = g(x) − ε < inf f (y). b] but 2c − m > m. The open intervals {Ix : x ∈ [a.m ⊂ C. Hence {x : g(x) > λ} is open in [a.1 Lebesgue Measure Introduction 1. 54. . Thus f (y) − f (x0 ) ≤ f (y) − f (x) + f (x) − f (x0 ) < ε. By a similar argument. Thus f (x) − ε < f (y) whenever y − x < δ and f is lower semicontinuous at x. Conversely. there / exists y with y − x0  < δ and f (x0 ) − f (y) ≥ ε. Suppose h(x) < λ. Conversely. then for any m. f (xn )). 53.x /2) and G = n Gn .7 Borel sets 52. {x : f (x) ≤ α} = {x : f (x) > α}c is closed.M so there exists N such that fk (x) − fN (x) ≤ 1/M < ε for k ≥ N .x so f (y) − f (x) < 1/N < ε/2. Hence we have g(x) = y−x<δ y−x<δ sup δ>0 y−x<δ inf f (y) ≤ f (x) ≤ inf δ>0 y−x<δ sup f (y) = h(x). Thus f (x) − f (x0 ) < 1/N < ε/2. b]. . g(x) ≤ ϕ(x). Then there exists δ > 0 such that f (y) < λ whenever x − y < δ. Thus fn (x) converges so m n Fn.m is closed. If x ∈ C.m = {x : fk (x) − fn (x) ≤ 1/m for k ≥ n}. . x + δn. Contradiction. 13 . {x : f (x) ≥ α} = n {x : f (x) > α − 1/n} so it is a Gδ set. Hence there exists x0 ∈ [a. Choose N such that 1/N < ε/2. 3 3. . b] so by the HeineBorel Theorem. b]} form an open covering of [a. suppose f is lower semicontinuous at x. Then there exists δ > 0 such that ϕ(x) ≤ ϕ(y) + ϕ(x) − g(x) whenever x − y < δ. if x ∈ m n Fn. Suppose g(x) > λ.x /2. b] belongs to some Ixk so f (y) ≥ 2f (xk ) − m ≥ 2c − m. choose M such that 1/M < ε. Let fn be a sequence of continuous functions on R and let C be the set of points where the sequence converges. suppose x0 ∈ G for some x0 ∈ S. Ixn }. there exists δ > 0 such that f (x) − ε ≤ f (y) whenever x−y<δ x − y < δ. Now C ⊂ m n Fn. x + δN. There exists y with y − x0  < δN. f (x) = h(x) if and only if f is upper semicontinuous at x. Suppose f (x) > m for all x ∈ [a. For each x ∈ [a. 51b. . If f is continuous at x. y − x ≤ y − x0  + x0 − x < δN. Let x ∈ [a. Thus 2c − m is a lower bound for f on [a. Hence C is an Fσδ set. Let ϕ be a lower semicontinuous function such that ϕ(x) ≤ f (x) for all x ∈ [a. Hence G = S and S is a Gδ set. Let f be a realvalued function deﬁned on R. On the other hand. Then x ∈ G for every x ∈ S. Then {x : f (x) > α} is open.
8. 11. Given ε > 0. there is a countable collection {In } of open intervals covering A such that l(In ) ≤ m∗ A + ε. m∗ E ≤ m∗ (E + y). then Ek is a countably inﬁnite set so n( Ek ) = ∞ and since nEk ≥ 1 for all k. (vi) ⇒ (ii). Given any set A and any ε > 0. Let O = In . 3. 10. (i) ⇒ (ii). Let F1 = E1 and let Fn+1 = En+1 \ k=1 Ek . O is the union of a countable collection of disjoint open intervals {In } so l(In ) = m( In ) < mE + ε/2. For each n. let En = [−n. m∗ B ≤ m∗ (A ∪ B). Given ε > 0. For each n. The case where m∗ E < ∞ was proven in part (a). Suppose there is a set A in M with mA < ∞. (ii) ⇒ (vi). Conversely. Suppose m∗ E = ∞. En = ∅ and mEn = ∞ for each n. Suppose E is measurable. Let Ek be a sequence of disjoint sets of real numbers. If all Ek ’s are ﬁnite sets and {Ek : k ∈ N} is a ﬁnite set. Let O = On . Hence m∗ (A ∪ B) = m∗ B. Then m∗ (A ∩ i=1 Ei ) = ∞ ∞ ∞ ∗ ∗ ∗ m ( i=1 (A ∩ Ei )) ≤ i=1 m (A ∩ Ei ) by countable subadditivity. Then m∗ (A ∪ B) ≤ m∗ A + m∗ B = m∗ B. Thus m( En ) = m( Fn ) = mFn ≤ mEn . if all Ek ’s are ﬁnite sets and {Ek : k ∈ N} is an inﬁnite set. 13b. by a similar argument. Conversely. nEk = ∞. Thus there ∞ N exists N such that n=N +1 l(In ) < ε/2. Then G is a Gδ set such that A ⊂ G and m∗ G = m∗ A. there exists an open set On ⊃ En such that m∗ (On \ En ) < ε/2n . Then O is an open set. n] ∩ E. 7. Then O is an open set such that A ⊂ O and ∗ ∗ m O≤ m In = l(In ) ≤ m∗ A + ε. then so is Ek . E ⊂ O and ∗ m (O \ E) = m(O \ E) = m( In ) − mE = m∗ ( In ) − m∗ E ≤ l(In ) − m∗ E < ε. then E + y ⊂ (In + y) so m∗ (E + y) ≤ l(In + y) = l(In ). Let O = In . Suppose E1 and E2 are measurable. there is a ﬁnite union U of open intervals such that m∗ (U ∆E) < ε/3. Let En be a sequence of sets in M. Let E be a set of real numbers and let y ∈ R.2 Outer measure 5.2. We may assume Ek = ∅ for all k since n∅ = 0. By part (a). 14 . Then 1 = m∗ ([0. there is a countable collection {In } of open intervals such that E ⊂ In and l(In ) < m∗ E + ε. Thus m∗ (A ∩ i=1 Ei ) ≥ i=1 m∗ (A ∩ Ei ). (i) ⇒ (ii). Let Ei be a sequence of disjoint measurable sets and let A be any set. Suppose m∗ A = 0. Given ε > 0. Thus n( Ek ) = ∞ = nEk . n( Ek ) = nEk . ∞ ∞ Hence m∗ (A ∩ i=1 Ei ) = i=1 m∗ (A ∩ Ei ). Then m∗ (U ∆E) = m∗ (U \ E) + m∗ (E \ U ) ≤ m∗ (O \ E) + m∗ (O \ U ) < ε/2 + ε/2 = ε. 1]) = m∗ A ≤ m∗ ( In ) = m∗ ( In ) ≤ l(In ). 3. 13a.3 Measurable sets and Lebesgue measure 9. Then Fm ∩ Fn = ∅ for m = n. Then m(E1 ∪ E2 ) + m(E1 ∩ E2 ) = mE1 + m(E2 \ E1 ) + m(E1 ∩ E2 ) = mE1 + mE2 . 6. Thus m∗ (E + y) ≤ m∗ E. ∞). If {In } is a countable collection of open intervals such that E ⊂ In . there is an open set On such that A ⊂ On and m∗ On ≤ m∗ A + 1/n. 4. Fn ⊂ En for each n and En = Fn . Thus E + y is a measurable set. let A be any set and let y ∈ R. Also there is an open set O such that E \ U ⊂ O and m∗ O ≤ m∗ (E \ U ) + ε/3. m (A ∩ i=1 Ei ) ≥ n n ∞ ∞ m∗ (A ∩ i=1 Ei ) = i=1 m∗ (A ∩ Ei ) for all n by Lemma 9. Then E ⊂ U ∪ O and m∗ ((U ∪ O) \ E) = m∗ ((U \ E) ∪ (O \ E)) ≤ m∗ ((O \ (E \ U )) ∪ (E \ U ) ∪ (U \ E)) < ε. Let A be the set of rational numbers between 0 and 1. Clearly n is translation invariant and deﬁned for all sets of real numbers. Suppose m∗ E < ∞. n 3. let En = (n. Suppose E is measurable. Let U = n=1 In . ∞ 12. Also let {In } be a ﬁnite collection of open m∗ In = l(In ) = intervals covering A. On the other hand. for each n. Then m∗ A = m∗ (A−y) = m∗ ((A−y)∩E)+ m∗ ((A−y)∩E c ) = m∗ (((A−y)∩E)+y)+m∗ (((A−y)∩E c )+y) = m∗ (A∩(E +y))+m∗ (A∩(E c +y)) = m∗ (A ∩ (E + y)) + m∗ (A ∩ (E + y)c ). Let G = On . Let E be a measurable set. there is an open set O such that E ⊂ O and m∗ (O \ E) < ε/2. Then mA = m(A ∪ ∅) = mA + m∅ so m∅ = 0. since B ⊂ A ∪ B. Then E ⊂ O and m∗ (O \ E) = m∗ ( On \ En ) ≤ m∗ ( (On \ En )) < ε. If some Ek is an inﬁnite set. Now for each n. Hence m∗ (E + y) = m∗ E. Conversely. Then En+1 ⊂ En for each n. then Ek is a ﬁnite set and since the Ek ’s are disjoint.
Ei = ∅ since if x ∈ Pk . 1). Suppose E is measurable. Thus m∗ (E \ F ) = 0. Let G = On . Let A be any set with m∗ A > 0. Now F and E \ F are measurable sets so E = F ∪ (E \ F ) is a measurable set. For each n. 1) ⊂ Pi since for any x ∈ [0. Let E be a measurable set with E ⊂ P . Since mEi = mE. There exists an Fσ set F such that F ⊂ E and m∗ (E \ F ) = 0. pi = pj and ri = rj . there exists y ∈ (x − δ. 3. F ⊂ E and m∗ (E \ F ) = m∗ (E \ Oc ) = m∗ (E ∩ O) < ε. 1] with f (x) = x + 1 if x ∈ E and f (x) = −x if x ∈ E. (iv) ⇒ (i). 19. Then E ⊂ G and m∗ (G \ E) ≤ m∗ (On \ E) < 1/n for all n. (v) ⇒ (i). Then mEn = 2n−1 /3n so m( En ) = mEn = 1. Pi ⊂ Ei for each i so 0 < m∗ P = m∗ Pi ≤ m∗ Ei / for each i and lim m∗ Ei ≥ m∗ P > 0 = m∗ ( Ei ). 17a. then x ∈ n≥k+1 Pn so m∗ ( Ei ) = 0. n + 1)) > 0 for some n ∈ Z and there is a nonmeasurable set E ⊂ A ∩ [n. 2) = 3 and m∗ Pi = m∗ P = ∞. There exists a Gδ set G such that E ⊂ G and m∗ (G \ E) = 0.4 A nonmeasurable set ◦ 15. Ei is a disjoint sequence of measurable sets with mEi = mE. For each n. x + δ) ∩ F c . Furthermore. let ri ∞ be an enumeration of Q ∩ [−1. For each i. By part (b). 1]. m∗ Ei ≥ m∗ ( Ei ) ≥ m∗ (A ∩ [0. For each i. For each n. m∗ (O ∩ E) < ε. Let β ∈ R. {x : f (x) > 0} = E. Let x ∈ [0. Then E c is measurable. For i=0 each i. there exists αn ∈ D such that β < αn < β + 1/n. n + 1) ⊂ A. Let F = Oc . Each step of removing open intervals results in a closed set and F is the intersection of all these closed sets so F is closed. Thus F c is dense in [0. Let f be deﬁned on [0. if A ⊂ [n. choose N such that 1/2N < 2δ. 14a. Thus mC = m([0. let En be the union of the intervals removed in the nth step. given ε > 0. each of length less than 1/2n . Let E be the nonmeasurable set deﬁned in Section 3. Now let Ei = A ∩ Pi for each i. let Ei = E + ri . there exists y ∈ P such that x and y diﬀer by some rational ri . 1) and let Pi = P + ri for each i. there is a closed set Fn such that Fn ⊂ E and m∗ (E \ Fn ) < 1/n. n1 n2 n1 n2 20.4. mF = m([0. For each n. In general. Thus m∗ (G \ E) = 0. n + 1)) so m∗ (A ∩ [n. 1] \ F c . On the other hand. (i) ⇒ (iii). Then ϕ1 + ϕ2 = i=1 αi χAi + i=1 βi χBi is a 15 .e. Given δ > 0. which is nonmeasurable. x + δ) must intersect one of the intervals removed in step N . Note that removing intervals in the nth step results in 2n disjoint intervals. then mEi = m(A ∩ Pi ) = m((A − ri ) ∩ P ) = 0 for each i by Q15. Then [0. Now G and G \ E are measurable sets so E = G \ (G \ E) is a measurable set. Hence Ei0 is nonmeasurable for some i0 and Ei0 ⊂ A. 3. If A ⊂ [0. Pi ∩ Pj = ∅ if i = j since if pi + ri = pj + rj . Then Pi is a disjoint i=0 sequence of sets with m∗ ( Pi ) ≤ m∗ [−1. Since Ei ⊂ Pi for each i. 1)) = 1. Finally. Thus mEi = m( Ei ) ≤ m([0. Let F = Fn . Now {x : f (x) > β} = {x : f (x) ≥ β + 1/n} = {x : f (x) > αn } so {x : f (x) > β} is measurable and f is measurable. Let ri ∞ be an enumeration of Q ∩ [−1.5 Measurable functions 18. (iii) ⇒ (v). 1). Then (x − δ. Similarly. n + 1) and 0 < m∗ A ≤ n∈Z m∗ (A ∩ [n. there is an open set O such that E c ⊂ O and m∗ (O \ E c ) < ε. Let ϕ1 = i=1 αi χAi and let ϕ2 = i=1 βi χBi . Then Ei is a sequence with Ei ⊃ Ei+1 for each i and m∗ Ei ≤ m∗ ( Pn ) < ∞ for each i. let Pi be as deﬁned in part (a) and let Ei = n≥i Pn . Then f takes each value at most once so {x : f (x) = α} has at most / one element for each α ∈ R and each of these sets is measurable. there exists an open set On such that E ⊂ On and m∗ (On \ E) < 1/n. n + 1) where n ∈ Z. i. 1). Thus m∗ ( Pi ) < ∗ m Pi . 1]) − m( En ) = 0. 1]) − α2n−1 /3n = 1 − α.(ii) ⇒ (iv). A = A ∩ n∈Z [n. However. 16. then pi ∼ pj and since P contains exactly one element from each equivalence class. we must have mE = 0. let Pi = P + ri . then there is a nonmeasurable set E ⊂ A. Also. Let D be a dense set of real numbers and let f be an extended realvalued function on R such that {x : f (x) > α} is measurable for each α ∈ D. On the other hand. Then F is closed. If each Ei is measurable. 17b. i. Then F ⊂ E and m∗ (E \ F ) ≤ m∗ (E \ Fn ) < 1/n for all n. 13c. 14b.e. 1)) = m∗ A > 0.
If m ≤ ϕ ≤ M . 22b. χA∩B (x) = 1 if and only if x ∈ A and x ∈ B if and only if χA (x) = 1 = χB (x). Choose N such that M/N < ε.k of (disjoint) open intervals such that m(Ui ∆Ai ) < ε/3n. we may take ϕ so that m ≤ ϕ ≤ M by replacing M/N by (M − m)/N < ε in the preceding argument.j αi βj χAi χBj is a simple function. Let f be a function with measurable domain D. then x ∈ A ∪ B. an }. Let f be a measurable function on [a. . suppose g is measurable. g = ∞}∪ {f = g = ∞} ∪ {f = ∞. Each Ek N −1 is measurable. Then ϕ is a simple function. which / is measurable.e. g = −∞} ∪ {f = −∞. which is measurable. 22d. then {x : h(x) > β} = {f = ∞. Also ϕ1 ϕ2 = i. b] : ϕ(x) = g(x)} ⊂ i=1 ((Ui \ Ai ) ∪ (Ai \ Ui )) = i=1 (Ui ∆Ai ) so it has measure less than ε/3. then x ∈ A \ B or x ∈ B \ A so / χA (x)+χB (x) = 1 and χA χB (x) = 0. b] that takes the values ±∞ only on a set of measure zero and let ε > 0. Let f and g be measurable extended realvalued functions deﬁned on D. Thus f (x) − ϕ(x) < M/N < ε. If x ∈ [a. Let f be an extended realvalued function with measurable domain D and let D1 = {x : f (x) = ∞}. If α < 0. f  ≤ M except on a set of measure less than ε/3. If g(x) = ϕ(x). then {x : h(x) > α} = {x : f D\{x:f (x)=±∞} (x) · gD\{x:g(x)=±∞} (x) > α}. If β ≥ α. Hence f + g is measurable. . . Deﬁne g by n g = i=1 ai χUi \ i−1 Um . Then D1 and D2 are measurable by Proposition 18. which is measurable. Suppose f is measurable. If χA∪B (x) = 0. then {x : h(x) > α} = {x : f (x) = 0} ∪ {x : g(x) = 0} ∪ {x : f D\{f =±∞} (x) · gD\{g=±∞} (x) > α}. which is measurable. Conversely. 23a. let Ek = {x ∈ [a. x ∈ Ui \ Ai . b]. g = ∞}. {x : h(x) > β} can be written as unions of sets as in part (c). D2 = {x : f (x) = −∞}. g = −∞} ∪ {f < 0. b]. which is measurable. Then the sets D1 . If α ≥ 0. For each i. Since D and E are measurable subsets of D∪E. Let f and g be measurable extended realvalued functions that are ﬁnite a. g = ∞} ∪ {x : f D\{f =±∞} (x) + gD\{g=±∞} (x) > β}. −N + 1. Thus χA∩B = χA χB . In the ﬁrst case.e. Also. mE1 ≤ b − a < ∞. Deﬁne f +g to be α whenever it is of the form ∞−∞ or −∞+∞. f is measurable. 21a. {x : f (x) > α} = {x ∈ D : f D (x) > α}∪{x ∈ E : f E (x) > α}. Let g be deﬁned by g(x) = f (x) if x ∈ D and g(x) = 0 if x ∈ D. If m ≤ f ≤ M . i. b] such that f (x) < M . Then f = gD and since D is measurable. If α ≥ 0.e. Thus there exists M such that mEM < ε/3. Thus these sets are measurable and f + g is measurable. D2 = {f + g = −∞} = {f ∈ R. N − 1}. then x ∈ A so / χA (x) = 1. Suppose f is measurable. we may take g so that m ≤ g ≤ M since both g and ϕ take values in {a1 . possibly with an additional set of measure zero. For α ∈ R. g = −∞}. Then g is a step function on [a. Let ε > 0 and M be given. then x ∈ A so χA (x) = 0. In the second case. let En = {x ∈ [a. . If β < α. Conversely. g > 0} ∪ {f = −∞. b] : kM/N ≤ f (x) < (k + 1)M/N }. D1 = {f g = ∞} = {f = ∞. b] : f (x) > n}. D1 = {f +g = ∞} = {f ∈ R. then {x : h(x) > β} = {x : f D\{f =±∞} (x) + gD\{g=±∞} (x) > β}. which is measurable. Let ϕ = i=1 ai χAi . Let f be a measurable function on [a. Let D and E be measurable sets and f a function with domain D ∪ E. 22c. which is measurable. then χA (x) + χB (x) + χA χB (x) = 1 + 1 − 1 = 1.simple function. Let h = f gD\(D1 ∪D2 ) and let α ∈ R. which is measurable. 21b. 22a. If χAc (x) = 0. then {x : g(x) > α} = {x : f (x) > α}. then x ∈ Ek for some k. {x : f (x) > α} = D1 ∪{x : f D\(D1 ∪D2 ) (x) > α}. Each En is measurable and En+1 ⊂ En for each n. 23b. For each k ∈ {−N. Then for any α ∈ R. 16 . D2 = {f g = −∞} = {f = ∞. suppose f D and f E are measurable. If χAc (x) = 1. g < 0} ∪ {f = −∞. If α < 0. Hence χAc = 1 − χA . g = −∞} ∪ {f = g = −∞} ∪ {f = −∞. then {x : g(x) > α} = {x : f (x) > α} ∪ Dc . g = ∞} ∪ {f < 0. then either g(x) = ai = ϕ(x). Each set on the right is measurable so {x : f (x) > α} is measurable and f is measurable. Let ϕ be a simple function on [a. Hence f is measurable. which is measurable. D2 . . If χA∪B (x) = 1. then x ∈ A∪B so χA (x) = χB (x) = χA χB (x) = 0. b] and let ε > 0 be given. suppose D1 and D2 are measurable and the restriction of f to D \ (D1 ∪ D2 ) is measurable. Let h = (f + g)D\(D1 ∪D2 ) and let β ∈ R. . Now D \ (D1 ∪ D2 ) is a measurable subset of D so the restriction of f to D \ (D1 ∪ D2 ) is measurable. g < 0} ∪ {f > 0. n 23c. Let f and g be measurable extended realvalued functions deﬁned on D and α a ﬁxed number. Deﬁne ϕ by ϕ = k=−N (kM/N )χEk . kM/N ≤ f (x) < (k + 1)M/N and ϕ(x) = kM/N . Thus lim mEn = m( En ) = 0. g ∈ R}. If x ∈ A ∩ B. which is measurable. Hence f g is measurable. g ∈ R}. g > 0} ∪ {f > 0. there Ni is a ﬁnite union Ui = k=1 Ii. Suppose f is measurable. m=1 or g(x) = 0 and ϕ(x) = ai . For each n. . Hence g is measurable. If x ∈ A ∩ B. i. f D and f E are measurable. x ∈ Ai \ Ui . / Hence χA∪B = χA + χB + χA χB . Thus n n {x ∈ [a. which is measurable. Conversely. .
. b ∈ R with a < b. . ∞)]] is Lebesgue measurable by Q24. By a similar argument to that in Q24. where A is as deﬁned in part (c). Now for any a. which has measure less than ε/3. 3. let A be the σalgebra generated by the nonmeasurable set P deﬁned in Section 4. / 17 . For any α ∈ R. / 30. . Thus C is a σalgebra. then consider the collection C of sets E such that f −1 [E] is a Borel set. Thus f maps each of these intervals onto an interval of the same length.48. Then g is also measurable.46. Thus f ◦ g is Lebesgue measurable. 28e. C is a σalgebra containing all the open intervals. For example. An Ameasurable function need not be Lebesgue measurable. This is also a counterexample for the last statement. 28b. Let f = χA so that f is Lebesgue measurable. we may take h so that m ≤ h ≤ M by construction. 1] and f maps [0. If f is Borel measurable and g is Lebesgue measurable. There exists a Lebesgue measurable function g and a Lebesgue measurable set A such that g −1 [A] is nonmeasurable (see Q28). For example. {x : (f ◦ g)(x) > α} = (f ◦ g)−1 [(α. let Ii be an open interval of length less than min(ε/3(n + 1). ∞)]]. Let g = f −1 : [0. Let f be measurable and B a Borel set. Then f −1 [ Ei ] = f −1 [Ei ]. Let f be a measurable realvalued function and g a continuous function deﬁned on (−∞. 25.23d. 2]) − 1 = 1. so E c ∈ C. 2]. The function g = f −1 is continuous and the function h = χA is measurable. Hence f −1 [B] is a Borel set. Propositions 18 and 19 and Theorem 20 follow from arguments similar to those in the original proofs and the fact that the collection of Borel sets is a σalgebra. ∞) and (−∞. take g and A to be Lebesgue measurable with g −1 [A] nonmeasurable. mF = m(f [C]) = m([0. then for any α ∈ R. 27. d/2) centred at xi . which is measurable by Q24. xn be the partition points corresponding to g.∞) for each n. f1 is constant on each interval contained in the complement of the Cantor set. which is a Borel set. . {x : f (x) > a} and {x : f (x) < b} are measurable. Let f be deﬁned by f (x) = f1 (x) + x for x ∈ [0. there is a nonmeasurable set E ⊂ F . Let g be a step function on [a. However the set {x : (h ◦ g)(x) > 1/2} = g −1 [A] is nonmeasurable. then for α ∈ R. Suppose Ei is a sequence of sets in C.e. ∞). Since mF = 1 > 0. 1] \ C) = 1 and since f is a bijection of [0. fk (x)−f (x) < 1/n.e. . 1] onto [0. b] and let ε > 0 be given. Hence f −1 [B] is measurable. If m ≤ g ≤ M . For each n. Thus C contains all the Borel sets. 1]. Let C be the collection of sets E such that f −1 [E] is measurable. Let x0 . Propositions 18 and 19 and Theorem 20 still hold. Hence g ◦ f is measurable. ∞)] = f −1 [g −1 [(α. 1] onto [0. By Q2. By Q2. 2]. 28a. b) ∈ C and C is a σalgebra containing all the open intervals so it contains all the Borel sets. the set {x : f (x) > α} is a Borel set so it is Lebesgue measurable. If f and g are Lebesgue measurable. which is measurable. ∞)] = g −1 [f −1 [(α. For each i. {x : (g ◦ f )(x) > α} = (g ◦ f )−1 [(α. Egoroﬀ ’s Theorem: Let fn be a sequence of measurable functions that converges to a realvalued function f a. 1] so f is continuous and strictly monotone on [0. 24. Then f −1 [E c ] = (f −1 [E])c . Let η > 0 be given. ∞)]]. Then {x : (f ◦ g)(x) > 1/2} = g −1 [A].6 Littlewood’s three principles 29. 1]. For any measurable set A ⊂ E with mA < 1 and any integer N . then for any α ∈ R. f has a continuous inverse so it is a homeomorphism of [0. 2]. If f is a Borel measurable function. Let A = f −1 [E]. If f and g are Borel measurable. The set A in part (c) is measurable but by Q24. n}. Then h is continuous n and {x ∈ [a. 2] → [0. 28d. Then fn (x) → 0 for each x ∈ E. it is not a Borel set since g −1 [A] is nonmeasurable. Call a function Ameasurable if for each α ∈ R the set {x : f (x) > α} is in A. . Thus (a. Thus f ◦ g is Borel measurable. By Q2. b] : g(x) = h(x)} ⊂ i=0 Ii . 1] \ C]) = m([0. f −1 [(α. so Ei ∈ C. Then A ⊂ C so it has outer measure zero and is measurable but g −1 [A] = E so it is nonmeasurable. Thus f is Lebesgue measurable. ∞)] is a Borel set and g −1 [f −1 [(α. If f is Borel measurable and B is a Borel set. pick x ≥ N such that x ∈ A. Let d = min{xi − xi−1 : i = 1. there exists An ⊂ E with mAn < η/2n and there exists Nn such that for all x ∈ An and k ≥ Nn . . on a measurable set E of ﬁnite measure. 1] onto [0. 26. b) are in C. f1 is continuous and monotone on [0. Then fN (x) − 0 ≥ 1. f ◦g may not be Lebesgue measurable. 28c. i. Thus m(f [[0. which is measurable.48. . Deﬁne h by linearising g in each Ii . Then χP is Ameasurable but not Lebesgue measurable. which is nonmeasurable. Then g is measurable. Let E = R and let fn = χ[n. Suppose E ∈ C. (a. Thus h ◦ g is not measurable.
b] such that ϕ ≥ f . 1) \ A and arbitrarily small t such that ft (x) ≥ 1/2. j and k ≤ n. . b] \ En . ∞) such that f = ϕ on [a. Thus the limit of a sequence of Riemann integrable functions may not be Riemann integrable so in general we cannot interchange the order of integration and the limiting process. Hence R b a f (x) = b − a and R b a f (x) = 0.Let A = An . i. Let rn be an enumeration of Q ∩ [a. b] and let h be the upper envelope of f . Then fn is a sequence of nonnegative Riemann integrable functions increasing monotonically to f . nmA ≤ 3 for all n and mA = 0. n + δ ]. b] and m{x ∈ [a. ∞) with m{x : f (x) = ϕ(x)} < 4 δ/2n+2 = δ. b] \ E such that mA < δ/4 and hn converges uniformly to f on [a.e. Let f be a bounded function on [a. Now the measurable sets A+ri are disjoint by the deﬁnition n n of P and the construction of the sequence ri . Choose rn+1 such that rn+1 = qi −qj +rk for all i. For t ∈ [0. ∞). Mi = supξi−1 <x≤ξi f (x) = 1 and mi = inf ξi−1 <x≤ξi f (x) = 0 for each n n i. let fn = χ{r1 . For any α ∈ R. there exists a monotone decreasing sequence ϕn of step functions such that h(x) = lim ϕn (x) for each x ∈ [a. there is a continuous function hn on [a. 1] such that r1 = qi − qj for all i. This is the only t such that ft (x) = 1. Since i=1 (A + ri ) ⊂ [−1. By Q2. By Egoroﬀ’s Theorem. h is upper semicontinuous by Q2. and ft (x) = 0 otherwise.2 The Lebesgue integral of a bounded function over a set of ﬁnite measure δ>0 y−x<δ 2a. 2]. where Pqi = P + qi . 1) with positive measure intersects inﬁnitely many of the sets Pi : n Suppose A intersects only ﬁnitely many of the sets Pi . b] \ O. x ∈ Pi(x) for some i(x). 31. For each t. ft (x) → 0 as t → 0. 18 . Let E = En . Suppose r1 . Let f be deﬁned by f (x) = 0 if x is irrational and f (x) = 1 if x is rational. let δ = min(δ/2n+3 . Thus S = i=1 (ξi − ξi−1 )Mi = b − a and s = i=1 (ξi − ξi−1 )mi = 0 for any subdivision of [a. −n + δ ]. b]\(E ∪A).e. h(y) = inf sup f (x). 4. Thus R a f = inf ϕ≥f a ϕ ≥ a h. and mO < δ. For each x.rn } . there is a function ϕ that is continuous on (−∞. which is closed.. 1) with positive measure intersects inﬁnitely many of the sets Pi . Thus b a b b b h = lim b a ϕn ≥ R b a f . If x ∈ A and / k ≥ Nn0 . If f is deﬁned on (−∞. Similarly for [−n − 1 + δ . Choose n0 such that 1/n0 < η. b].e. A ⊂ i=1 Pqi . (*) Any measurable set A ⊂ [0. n + 1 − δ ] : f (x) = ϕn (x)} < δ/2n+2 . In particular. Choose r1 ∈ Q ∩ [−1. Then we have a continuous function ϕ deﬁned on (−∞. b] \ E. Then A ⊂ E and mA < η/2n = η. . we have fk (x) − f (x) < 1/n0 < η. Lusin’s Theorem: Let f be a measurable realvalued function on [a. i. Then m( i=1 (A + ri )) = i=1 m(A + ri ) = nmA for n each n. Then f is continuous on [a. functions that converges to f on [a. For each n. 1/2). 1b. thus measurable. Thus fn converges to f uniformly on E \ A. Let t(x) = (x + 1)/2i(x)+1 . Thus for any measurable set A ⊂ [0. Then ϕ ≥ h except at a ﬁnite number of points (the partition points).51b and h is bounded.40. b] \ O. 1) \ A with i(x) arbitrarily large and so with t(x) arbitrarily small. Let En = {x : hn (x) − f (x) ≥ δ/2n+2 }. Then 1/2i(x)+1 ≤ t(x) < 1/2i(x) and ft(x) (x) = 1. rn have been chosen. 1) → R by ft (x) = 1 if x ∈ Pi = P + ri and x = 2i+1 t − 1. deﬁne ft : [0. there exist an x ∈ [0. Since f is bounded. the set {x : h(x) < α} is open. i. Let ϕ be a step function on [a. Thus h is measurable. Conversely. 1) with mA < 1/2. Thus for each x. m([0. −n − δ ]. Then mE < δ/4 and hn is a sequence of continuous.1 The Lebesgue Integral The Riemann integral 1a. . Then hn (x) − f (x) < δ/2n+2 for x ∈ [a. *32. n + 1 − δ ] such that m{x ∈ [n + δ . b] : f (x) = ϕ(x)} = mO < δ. ϕ is continuous on [a. 1) \ A) ≥ 1/2 so there exists x ∈ [0. b]. there is a continuous function ϕn on [n + δ . there is a subset A ⊂ [a. b]. Now there is an open set O such that O ⊃ (E ∪ A) and m(O \ (E ∪ A)) < δ/2. Hence R b a f= b a h. b] such that m{x : hn (x) − f (x) ≥ δ/2n+2 } < δ/2n+2 . there is at most one x such that ft (x) = 1 so each ft is measurable. Note that any measurable subset of [0. Linearise in each interval [n − δ . Then for each n. b] and let δ > 0 be given. b]\(E ∪A) with m(E ∪A) < δ/2. For each n.... Similarly for intervals [−n − δ . b]. j. 4 4. . Thus f is continuous on [a. For any subdivision a = ξ0 < ξ1 < · · · < ξn = b of [a. 1) with 1/2i+1 ≤ t < 1/2i .
there is an increasing sequence ϕn of simple functions such that f = lim ϕn . Since f is integrable. ∞). b] and let E be the set of discontinuities of f . Now 0 = 0 < 1 = lim fn and we have strict inequality in Fatou’s Lemma. Then E = En where En = {x : f (x) ≥ 1/n}. i2−n ) where n2n i = 1. 8.e. Suppose E has measure zero. Thus f ≥ sup ϕ over all simple functions ϕ ≤ f . there exists N such that F (x) − F (x − 1/n) < ε and F (x + 1/n) − F (x) < ε whenever n ≥ N .e. f ≥ lim fn since f ≥ fn for each n. E f ≤ lim E fn . Then fn is a decreasing sequence of nonnegative measurable functions with lim fn = 0. limfn = lim hn ≤ lim hn ≤ lim fn . Let f be a nonnegative integrable function and let F (x) = −∞ f .e. Then F (y) − F (x) < ε whenever x − y < δ.n+1) . On the other hand. Also. fn χE is a sequence of nonnegative measurable functions with fn χE → f χE a. Then gn is an increasing sequence of nonnegative measurable functions with ∞ f χ(x. i. Let fn be a sequence of nonnegative measurable functions. . On the other hand. fn (x) − ϕn (x) ≤ 2−n if x ∈ [−n. By Fatou’s Lemma. suppose f is a b b a Riemann integrable. Now given ε > 0. For each n. Then a g = a h. 2.2b. i. Hence f is continuous a. 7a. lim x+1/n f = f . Furthermore.x] = lim fn . 7b. let hn = inf k≥n fk . since g(x) − h(x) > 1/n} for all n. for suﬃciently large n. 4a.∞) . If f is integrable over E.3 The integral of a nonnegative function 3. Let g be the b b lower envelope of f . let fn = f χ(−∞. R f = a g. Hence f = sup ϕ over all simple functions ϕ ≤ f . Conversely. Let E = {x : f (x) > 0}. Let f be a nonnegative measurable function. Thus lim E fn ≤ E f and we have E fn → E f . For each n. By Fatou’s Lemma.e. let En.e. Let fn be a sequence of nonnegative measurable functions such that fn → f a. For n = 1. Thus f ≤ sup ϕ over all simple functions ϕ ≤ f . . lim F (x + 1/n) = F (x). g − h ≥ (1/n)m{x : 4. By the Monotone Convergence Theorem. 6. Thus f = 0 a. Now 0 = 0 < ∞ = lim fn so the Monotone Convergence Theorem does not hold. ∞ x x+1/n x x+1/n x 4. x 5. then so are f + and f − .i = f −1 [(i − 1)2−n .x−1/n] . 4b. for suﬃciently large n. let gn = f χ(x+1/n. . Hence F is continuous. f = lim ϕn = sup ϕn . Deﬁne ϕn = i=1 (i − 1)2−n χ(En. lim F (x − 1/n) = lim fn = f χ(−∞. ϕn (x) = n → ∞ if f (x) = ∞. Then for any measurable set E. (f − f χE ) ≤ lim (fn − fn χE ).e. Let f be a nonnegative measurable function and suppose inf f = 0. Thus f  = f + + f − is integrable over E and  E f  =  E f + − E f −  ≤  E f +  +  E f −  = E f + + E f − = E f . Let f be a nonnegative measurable function. n] and f (x) < n.e.. lim gn = f χ(x. 9. By the Monotone Convergence Theorem. Let f be a bounded function on [a. n2n and let En.0 = f −1 [n. i. . By the Monotone Convergence Theorem. Choose δ < 1/N . By a similar argument as in part (a).e. Thus a g − h = 0 so g = h a.0 ∩[−n.∞) . fn is integrable for suﬃciently large n so fn χE is integrable for suﬃciently large n. Also. Then each hn is a nonnegative measurable function with hn ≤ fn .∞) . Then each ϕn is a nonnegative simple function vanishing outside a set of ﬁnite measure and ϕn ≤ ϕn+1 for each n. Now f ≥ (1/n)mEn for each n so mEn = 0 for each n and mE = 0. and suppose that fn → f < ∞. Then fn is an increasing sequence of nonnegative measurable functions with f χ(−∞. Let fn be a sequence of nonnegative measurable functions converging to f and suppose fn ≤ f for each n. Thus ϕn (x) → f (x) when f (x) < ∞. Conversely. f ≥ ϕ for all simple functions ϕ ≤ f . .n]) . Then g = h a.x] = F (x). if f  is integrable 19 . Then fn is a sequence of nonnegative measurable functions with lim fn = 0.i ∩[−n. Now f χE is integrable since f χE ≤ f . Hence f = lim fn .e. we have lim( f − −∞ f ) = f − −∞ f so lim −∞ f = −∞ f . By Fatou’s Lemma. For each n. and mE = 0. For each n. Now for each n. .4 The general Lebesgue integral 10a. let fn = χ[n. By Fatou’s Lemma. f − E f ≤ lim fn − lim E fn = f − lim E fn . f ≤ lim fn . let fn = χ[n. Then by part (a).n]) + nχ(En. so R b a f = b b a g= b b a h=R b a f so f is Riemann integrable. .∞) = lim gn .
Then −N ϕ − ψ < ε/3 so E f − ψ = E∩[−N. By Fatou’s Lemma. b] and fn  ≤ f  so R b a b f = lim R and gn  ≤ f  so lim R f = lim gn = a f . there is a simple function ψ ≤ f − such that E f − − ε/2 < E ψ . The cases where the Riemann integral has improper upper limit are similar. b]. suppose f is Lebesgue integrable and the Riemann integral R a f exists with improper lower limit a.N ]c f − ψ ≤ E∩[−N. We may regard ψ as a function on R taking the value 0 N outside [−N. b]. In general. f = (f + h) − h.e.e. we have fn − f  → 0. there is a simple function ψ ≤ f + such that E f + − ε/2 < E ψ. g−fn is a sequence of nonnegative measurable functions on E. Also. f (x) = sin x/x is not Lebesgue integrable on [0. Thus limfn + g ≤ lim(fn + g) ≤ lim (fn + g) ≤ lim fn + g so limfn ≤ lim fn . 2g ≤ 2g + lim(− fn − f ) = 2g − lim fn − f . i. Let gn be a sequence of integrable functions which converges a. By linearising ψ at each partition point. b] b f − ϕ + E∩[−N. N ].e. By part (a). 13. fn − f  → 0. i. Since fn  ≤ gn .N ]c f  < ε. RiemannLebesgue Theorem: Suppose f is integrable on (−∞. let fn = f χ[a+1/n. Now  f (x) cos nx dx ≤ f (x) cos nx dx ≤ (f (x) − ψ(x)) cos nx dx + ψ(x) cos nx dx < ε/2 + ψ(x) cos nx dx. We may regard ψ as a function on R taking the value 0 outside [a.e. 15c. with f integrable. Thus g+ lim(−fn ) ≤ lim(g−fn ) ≤ lim (g − fn ) ≤ g + lim(− fn ) so lim(−fn ) ≤ lim(− fn ). there is a step function ψ on [−N. we see that ψ(x) cos nx dx → 0 as n → ∞. Let fn be a sequence of integrable functions such that fn → f a. Then fn → f on [a.b] . ∞).N ] f − ψ + E∩[−N. E∩[−n. on E. By Proposition 3. Let ϕ = i=1 ai χAi be a simple function with canonical representation. 12. Let f be integrable over E and let ε > 0 be given. If a is ﬁnite.n]c f  → 0. Then ϕ+ = i∈S+ ai χAi and ϕ− = − i∈S− ai χAi . Suppose ψ is deﬁned on [a. Similarly. there is a simple function ϕ such that E f − ϕ < ε/3. f  ≤ g. Let ϕ = ψ−ψ . Then ϕ is a simple function and E f −ϕ = E f + −ψ−f − +ψ  ≤ E f + −ψ+ E f − −ψ  = (f + − ψ) + E (f − − ψ ) < ε. 15a. Then fn → f and fn  ≤ f .b] . Thus fn − f  ≤ fn  + f  ≤ gn + g and gn + g − fn − f  is a sequence of nonnegative measurable functions. For each n. to an integrable function g and let fn be a sequence of measurable functions such that fn  ≤ gn and fn converges to f a. i. Thus there exists N such that E∩[−N. 20 . N ] such that ϕ − ψ < ε/12N M except on a set of measure less than ε/12N M .e. By Lebesgue’s Dominated Convergence Theorem. Then E f − g ≤ E f − ψ + E ψ − g < ε. ψ) + 1. fn = (fn + h) − h. E By part (a).N ]c f − ψ ≤ E f − ϕ + N −N ϕ − ψ + E∩[−N. By Q4.22. Also. Then fn + g is a sequence of nonnegative measurable functions on E. we get a continuous function g vanishing outside a ﬁnite interval such that ψ = g except on a set of measure less than ε/4M . ∞] although R 0 f (x) = π/2 (by contour integration for example). Then gn → f on [a. Conversely. If a = −∞. Since h is integrable. E 15b. lim fn ≤ limfn . Thus fn  → f . Then ϕ+ = i∈S+ ai mAi and ϕ− = − i∈S− ai mAi so ϕ = ϕ+ − ϕ− = n i=1 ai mAi . then suppose fn  → f . n 11. Suppose g = lim gn . Thus there exists N such that ψ(x) cos nx dx < ε/2 for n ≥ N so  f (x) cos nx dx < ε for n ≥ N . f − f χ[−n.e. there is a step function ψ such that E f − ψ < ε/2. By Q15.over E.e. If fn  − f  ≤ fn  − f  ≤ fn − f  → 0. 14b. 14a. Clearly ϕ+ and ϕ− are simple functions. lim(gn + g − fn − f ) ≤ lim (gn + g − fn − f ). Let g be an integrable function on a set E and suppose that fn is a sequence of measurable functions with fn  ≤ g a. where M ≥ max(ϕ.n]  → 0. i. given ε > 0. By part (b). where M ≥ ψ. Now f + h ≤ lim(fn + h) ≤ lim fn + h so f ≤ lim fn .N ]c f  < ε/3.e. Let h be an integrable function and fn a sequence of measurable functions with fn ≥ −h and lim fn = f . Hence we have limfn ≤ lim fn ≤ lim fn ≤ limfn . then E f + ≤ E f  < ∞ and E f − ≤ E f  < ∞ so f + and f − are integrable over E and f is integrable over E. Integrating ψ(x) cos nx over each interval on which ψ is constant. with fn  in place of gn and f  in place of g. Let fn = f χ[−n. Hence lim fn − f  ≤ 0 ≤ lim fn − f  and we have fn − f  → 0. let gn = f χ[−n. 16. fn + h is a nonnegative measurable function. there is a step function ψ such that f − ψ < ε/2. ∞ 10b. Let S+ = {i : ai ≥ 0} and let S− = {i : ai < 0}.N ] ϕ − ψ + E∩[−N.n] .N ] b f a+1/n b R af = = lim fn = b −n b a f .
By Q2. given ε > 0. By the Monotone Convergence Theorem. b] such that f −h < ε/4M . choose M such that nk ≥ N for k ≥ M . By Q20. t)]/sn  ≤ M + 1 for suﬃciently large n. there exists N such that m{x : fn (x) − f (x) ≥ ε} < ε for n ≥ N . Thus f ≤ lim E fnkj = lim E fnk = lim E fn . limt→0 f (x. limn hn = f . Thus f = lim fnkj . fnk converges in measure to f on E so it in turn has a subsequence fnkj that converges to f a. Let g be a bounded measurable function and let M be such that g ≤ M . t) is continuous in t for each x and let h(t) = f (x. If fn converges to f 21 . Hence h is a continuous function of t.e. tn ) = f (x. t)]/sn ) dx = 1 ∂f dx. we have ϕn (x) dx = ϕn (x + t) dx for all n. f is a bounded 1 1 1 measurable function of x so [ 0 f (x. 0 ∂t 4. t + sn ) dx − 0 f (x. t+sn ) dx− 0 f (x. t) dx. 19. 1] × [0. For each ﬁxed t. Similarly for f − . Then given ε > 0. f = lim fn . E Monotone Convergence Theorem: Let fn be an increasing sequence of nonnegative measurable functions that converges in measure to f . hn (x) = f (x. Then lim f (x. tn ) dx = f (x. Let tn be a sequence converging to t. f = lim fn . Then limn [f (x. 1] and which is a measurable function of x for each ﬁxed t. Let f be a function of 2 variables x. 22. 17b.12. Thus f (x) dx = f (x + t) dx. t + sn ) − f (x. Suppose that ∂f /∂t is bounded in Q. There exists an increasing sequence ϕn of nonnegative simple functions such that f + = lim ϕn . then there exists ε > 0 such that for any N there exists n ≥ N with m{x : fn (x) − f (x) ≥ ε} ≥ ε.limn→∞ f (x) cos nx dx = 0. t) dx]/sn = 0 ([f (x. Then g(x)[f (x) − f (x + t)] ≤ ε/2 + M whenever t < δ. By Q2. Thus 1 1 1 1 d dt 0 f (x. t)]/sn → ∂f /∂t. Let sn be a sequence such that sn = 0 for all n and limn sn = 0. Thus f = lim fnkj . 1] and suppose that for each ﬁxed t the function f is a measurable function of x. Then f + and f − are nonnegative integrable functions. t) ≤ g(x) where g is an integrable function on [0. t) = f (x) and that for all t we have f (x. By Lebesgue’s Dominated Convergence Theorem. Then there is a subsequence fnk such that lim E fnk = lim E fn . then so does any subsequence fnk . limt→0 g(x)[f (x) − f (x + t)] = 0. let the partial derivative ∂f /∂t exist. t deﬁned on the square Q = [0. For each x. lim h(tn ) = h(t). Let fn be a sequence that converges to f in measure. Thus fnk converges to f in measure.e. Now h is uniformly continuous on [a. Any subsequence fnk also converges in measure to f so it in turn has a subsequence fnkj that converges to f a. By Lebesgue’s Dominated Convergence Theorem. Let f be integrable over (−∞. there is a continuous function h vanishing outside a ﬁnite interval [a. Then m{x : fnk (x) − f (x) ≥ ε} < ε for k ≥ M . if fn does not converge in measure to f . t+sn )−f (x. t in Q.e. Thus any subsequence of fnk also converges to f in measure. This gives rise to a subsequence fnk such that m{x : fnk (x) − f (x) ≥ ε} ≥ ε for all k. Suppose further that f (x. the last equality following from Lebesgue’s Dominated Convergence Theorem. If fn converges to f in measure. 21. Let fn be a sequence of measurable functions on a set E of ﬁnite measure. i. Any subsequence fnk also converges in measure to f so it in turn has a subsequence fnkj that converges to f a. lim f (x. Since ∂f /∂t is bounded. Suppose that limt→0 f (x. Conversely. Then limn f (x. tn ) = f (x).12.5 Convergence in measure 20. t) dx. This subsequence will not have a further subsequence that converges in measure to f . t + sn ) − f (x.e. f + (x) dx = f + (x + t) dx. ∞). For each n. Lebesgue’s Dominated Convergence Theorem: Let g be integrable over E and let fn be a sequence of measurable functions such that fn  ≤ g on E and converges in measure to f on E. there exists M such that [f (x. 17a. 1] × [0. t + sn ) − f (x. b] so there exists δ > 0 such that h(x)−h(x+t) < ε/2M (b−a) whenever t < (f − h)(x) + (f − h)(x + t) = ε/2 + 2M f − h < ε δ. t) for each x.e. Let tn be a sequence such that tn = 0 for all n and limn tn = 0. Fatou’s Lemma: Let fn be a sequence of nonnegative measurable functions that converges in measure to f on E.e. t)]/sn ) dx. t) dx = limn [ 0 f (x. Now g(x)[f (x) − f (x + t)] ≤ g(x)[h(x) − h(x + t)] + g(x)[(f − h)(x) − (f − h)(x + t)]. tn ) is measurable and hn  ≤ g. Let fn be a sequence of measurable functions on a set E of ﬁnite measure. 1]. 18. Since f is integrable. t) dx = f (x) dx. i. Let f be a function deﬁned and bounded in the square Q = [0. i. Now since χE (x) dx = mE = m(E − t) = χE (x + t) dx for any measurable set E. t) dx]/sn = limn 0 ([f (x. For any subsequence fnk . 23.
Thus fnk has in turn a subsequence that converges to f a. D+ [−f (x)] = limh→0+ [−f (x+h)]−[−f (x)] = −limh→0+ f (x+h)−f (x) = −D+ f (x). Hence h h D+ f (c) ≤ D+ f (c) ≤ 0 ≤ D− f (c) ≤ D− f (c). h h 22 g(x+h)−g(x) ) h ≤ . There also exists N such that m{x : fn (x) − f (x) ≥ δ} < δ for all n ≥ N . Thus D− f (c) = limh→0+ f (c)−f (c−h) ≥ 0. 25. b). Contradiction. Let A = {x : fn (x) − f (x) ≥ δ}. for each n. Let f be deﬁned by f (0) = 0 and f (x) = x sin(1/x) for x = 0. there exists δ > 0 such that f (c) > f (c − h) for 0 < h h < δ . i. D+ f (0) = D− f (0) = −1. 4. Then D+ f (0) = limh→0+ f (0+h)−f (0) = h limh→0+ sin(1/h) = 1. b) follow from the previous cases. Then f (x) + εx ≤ f (y) + εy. b) by Q3. b]. If f has a local maximum at b. Thus m{x : fn (x) − f (x) ≥ ε} < ε for all n ≥ N . Then fnv → f in measure since the partial sums of the series are of the form fnv − fn1 . is everywhere nonnegative on (a. Suppose that fn → f in measure and that there is an integrable function g such that fn  ≤ g for all n. By Proposition 14. For any x. Let x < y. fn → f in measure. b) follows from a similar argument and the cases where D+ f or D− f is everywhere nonnegative on (a. Thus there exists N such that x≥N fn − f  < ε/3. Hence g is nondecreasing on [a. b] and assumes a local maximum at c ∈ (a. b). y] and D+ g(c) ≤ 0 for all c ∈ (a. First consider a function g such that D+ g(x) ≥ ε > 0 for all x ∈ (a. h h 2b. then x ∈ Fk for / / v v−1 some k so fnv+1 (x) − fnv (x) < 1/2 for all v ≥ k and fnw (x) − fnv (x) < 1/2 for w ≥ v ≥ k. Suppose there exist x. Then f (c)−f (c−h) > 0 for 0 < h < δ . b] and one of its derivates. i. Suppose f is continuous on [a. D− f (0) = 1. If x ∈ k Fk . Now {x : fn (x) − f (x) ≥ ε} ⊂ {x : fn (x) − fnv (x) ≥ ε/2} ∪ {x : fnv (x) − f (x) ≥ ε/2} for all n. D+ (f (x) + εx) ≥ ε on (a. We may assume δ < ε/6N . to a function g. −k fn − f  converges to fn − f . k 5 5.k] converges to fn − f .N ] fn − f  < ε/3 + ε/3 + 2N δ < ε for all n ≥ N .. if every subsequence fnk has in turn a subsequence fnkj that converges to f a. choosing ε = (f (x) − f (y))/(2(y − x)). A fn − f  < ε/3. By Lebesgue’s Dominated Convergence Theorem. b). we have f (x) − f (y) ≤ (f (x) − f (y))/2.1 Diﬀerentiation and Integration Diﬀerentiation of monotone functions 1. Then f (c+h)−f (c) < 0 for 0 < h < δ. Now there exists δ > 0 such that f (c + h) < f (c) for 0 < h < δ. Hence f is nondecreasing on [a. If f has a local maximum at a. h h 3a. In particular. choose N such that m{x : fn (x) − fr (x) ≥ ε/2} < ε/2 for all n. The case where D− f is everywhere nonnegative on (a. y ∈ [a. Then fn − f  = x≥N fn − f  + A∩[−N. Thus h D+ f (c) = limh→0+ f (c+h)−f (c) ≤ 0. y). Let fn be a Cauchy sequence in measure. g has no local maximum in (a. Contradiction. Given ε > 0. Thus the series (fnv+1 − fnv ) converges a. Let g(x) = f (−x). 2a. v ≥ N . b). then so does any subsequence fnk . then fnkj converges to f in measure so by Q22.e. r ≥ N and m{x : fnv (x) − f (x) ≥ ε/2} < ε/2 for all v ≥ N . Let Ev = {x : fnv+1 (x) − fnv (x) ≥ 1/2v } and let Fk = v≥k Ev .e.e. Similarly. Suppose f is continuous on [a. 24. D+ (f + g)(x) = limh→0+ (f +g)(x+h)−(f +g)(x) = limh→0+ ( f (x+h)−f (x) + h h limh→0+ f (x+h)−f (x) + limh→0+ g(x+h)−g(x) = D+ f (x) + D+ g(x). b]. Since D+ g(x) > 0 for all x ∈ (a. fn converges to f in measure. then D+ f (a) ≤ D+ f (a) ≤ 0. given ε > 0. 3b. Then m( k Fk ) ≤ m( v≥k Ev ) ≤ 1/2k−1 for all k so m( k Fk ) = 0. Then D+ g(x) = limh→0+ g(x+h)−g(x) = limh→0+ f (−x−h)−f (−x) = limh→0+ − h h f (−x)−f (−x−h) = −limh→0+ f (−x)−f (−x−h) = −D− f (−x). fn − f  → 0. b] with x < y and g(x) > g(y). Similarly. b) so f (x) + εx is nondecreasing on [a. there exists δ > 0 such that for any set A with mA < δ. then 0 ≤ D− f (b) ≤ D− f (b).e. Then 0 < f (x) − f (y) ≤ ε(y − x). (*) Note error in book. b]. Let ε > 0 be given. 5a.N ] fn − f  + Ac ∩[−N. Thus g is decreasing on (a.e. Suppose f (x) > f (y). Now fn − f  is integrable for each n and fn − f χ[−k. Now for any ε > 0. Let f = g + fn1 . Conversely.in measure. Then we may choose nv+1 > nv such that m{x : fnv+1 (x) − fnv (x) ≥ 1/2v } < 1/2v . say D+ f .
5b. For any x, D+ (f + g)(x) = limh→0+ (f +g)(x+h)−(f +g)(x) = limh→0+ ( f (x+h)−f (x) + h h limh→0+ f (x+h)−f (x) + limh→0+ g(x+h)−g(x) = D+ f (x) + D+ g(x). h h Similarly, D− (f + g) ≤ D− f + D− g and D− (f + g) ≤ D− f + D− g.
g(x+h)−g(x) ) h
≤
5c. Let f and g be nonnegative and continuous at c. Then D+ (f g)(c) = limh→0+ (f g)(c+h)−(f g)(c) = h limh→0+ f (c+h)g(c+h)−f (c)g(c) = limh→0+ (f (c+h)−f (c))g(c+h)+f (c)(g(c+h)−g(c)) ≤ g(c)limh→0+ f (c+h)−f (c) + h h h f (c)limh→0+ g(c+h)−g(c) = f (c)D+ g(c) + g(c)D+ f (c). h *6a. Let f be deﬁned on [a, b] and g a continuous function on [α, β] that is diﬀerentiable at γ with g(γ) = c ∈ (a, b). Suppose g (γ) > 0. Note that if D+ (f ◦ g)(γ) = ±∞, then D+ f (c) = ±∞. Now ε suppose D+ f (c) < ∞. Let ε > 0 be given and let ε1 = min(1, g (γ)+1+D+ f (c) ). There exists δ1 > 0 such that  g(γ+h)−g(γ) − g (γ) < ε1 for 0 < h < δ1 . There exists δ2 > 0 such that f (c+hh)−f (c) − D+ f (c) < ε1 h for 0 < h < δ2 so that f (c+h )−f (c)−h D+ f (c) < ε1 h . By continuity of g, there exists δ3 > 0 such that g(γ+h )−g(γ) < δ2 for 0 < h < δ3 . Now let δ = min(δ1 , δ3 ). When 0 < h < δ,  g(γ+h)−g(γ) −g (γ) < ε1 h and f (g(γ + h)) − f (g(γ)) − (g(γ + h) − g(γ))D+ f (c) < ε1 (g(γ + h) − g(γ)). Hence f (g(γ+h))−f (g(γ)) − h D+ f (c)g (γ) = f (g(γ+h))−f (g(γ))−D f (c)(g(γ+h)−g(γ)) + D f (c)(g(γ+h)−g(γ))−hD f (c)g (γ) < ε1 g(γ+h)−g(γ) + h h h D+ f (c)( g(γ+h)−g(γ) − g (γ)) < ε1 (g (γ) + 1) + ε1 D+ f (c) < ε. Thus D+ (f ◦ g)(γ) ≤ D+ f (c)g (γ) and h similarly, it can be shown that D+ (f ◦ g)(γ) ≥ D+ f (c)g (γ). Hence D+ (f ◦ g)(γ) = D+ f (c)g (γ). *6b. Suppose g (γ) < 0. Note that if D+ (f ◦ g)(γ) = ±∞, then D− f (c)g (γ) = ∞. Also note that there exists δ > 0 such that g(γ + h) − g(γ) < 0 for 0 < h < δ. By a similar argument to that in part (a), D+ (f ◦ g)(γ) = D− f (c)g (γ). *6c. Suppose g (γ) = 0 and all the derivates of f at c are ﬁnite. By a similar argument to that in part (a), D+ (f ◦ g)(γ) = 0.
+ + +
5.2
Functions of bounded variation
7a. Let f be of bounded variation on [a, b]. Then f = g − h where g and h are monotone increasing functions on [a, b]. Let c ∈ (a, b). Also let A = supx∈[a,c) g(x) and let B = supx∈[a,c) h(x). Note that A, B < ∞. Given ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that A − ε/2 < g(c − δ) ≤ A and B − ε/2 < h(c − δ) ≤ B. Then for x ∈ (c − δ, c), A − ε/2 < g(x) ≤ A and B − ε/2 < h(x) ≤ B. i.e. 0 ≤ A − g(x) < ε/2 and 0 ≤ B − h(x) < ε/2. Now 0 ≤ A − B − f (x) ≤ (A − g(x)) + (B − h(x)) < ε for x ∈ (c − δ, c). Hence f (c−) exists. Similarly f (c+) exists. Let g be a monotone function and let E be the set of discontinuities of g. Now for c ∈ E, g(c−) < g(c+) so there is a rational rc such that g(c−) < rc < g(c+). Note that if x1 < x2 , then g(x1 +) ≤ g(x2 −) so rx1 = rx2 . Thus we have a bijection between E and a subset of Q so E is countable. Since a function f of bounded variation is a diﬀerence of two monotone functions, f also has only a countable number of discontinuities. −n 7b. Let xn be an enumeration of Q ∩ [0, 1]. Deﬁne f on [0, 1] by f (x) = . Then f is xn <x 2 monotone. Also, at each xn , for any δ > 0, there exists x ∈ (xn , xn + δ) such that f (x) − f (xn ) > 2−n−1 so f is discontinuous at each xn . 8a. Suppose a ≤ c ≤ b. Let a = x0 < x1 < · · · < xn = b be a subdivision of [a, b]. If c = xk for n k n c b some k, then 1 f (xi ) − f (xi−1 ) = 1 f (xi ) − f (xi−1 ) + k+1 f (xi ) − f (xi−1 ) ≤ Ta (f ) + Tc (f ). b c b Thus Ta (f ) ≤ Ta (f ) + Tc (f ). The case where c ∈ (xk , xk+1 ) for some k is similar. Conversely, let a = x0 < x1 < · · · < xn = c be a subdivision of [a, c] and let c = y0 < y1 < · · · < ym = b be a subdivision of [c, b]. Then a = x0 < x1 < · · · < xn = c < y1 < · · · < ym = b is a subdivision of [a, b] and n m b c b b 1 f (xi ) − f (xi−1 ) + 1 f (yi ) − f (yi−1 ) ≤ Ta (f ). It follows that Ta (f ) + Tc (f ) ≤ Ta (f ). Hence b c b c b Ta (f ) = Ta (f ) + Tc (f ) and Ta (f ) ≤ Ta (f ). n 8b. Let a = x0 < x1 < · · · < xn = b be a subdivision of [a, b]. Then 1 (f + g)(xi ) − (f + g)(xi−1 ) ≤ n n b b b b b 1 f (xi )−f (xi−1 )+ 1 g(xi )−g(xi−1 ) ≤ Ta (f )+Ta (g). Hence Ta (f +g) ≤ Ta (f )+Ta (g). Let c ∈ R. n n b b If c = 0, then Ta (cf ) = 0 = cTa (f ). If c = 0, then 1 cf (xi ) − cf (xi−1 ) = c 1 f (xi ) − f (xi−1 ) ≤ n n b b b −1 cTa (f ). Thus Ta (cf ) ≤ cTa (f ). On the other hand, 1 f (xi ) − f (xi−1 ) = c 1 cf (xi ) − b b b b b b b cf (xi−1 ) ≤ c−1 Ta (cf ). Thus Ta (f ) ≤ c−1 Ta (cf ) so cTa (f ) ≤ Ta (cf ). Hence Ta (cf ) = cTa (f ). 9. Let fn be a sequence of functions on [a, b] that converges at each point of [a, b] to f . Let a = x0 < x1 < · · · < xn = b be a subdivision of [a, b] and let ε > 0. Then there exists N such that 23
b f (xi )−f (xi−1 ) ≤ 1 f (xi )−fn (xi )+ 1 f (xi−1 )−fn (xi−1 )+ 1 fn (xi )−fn (xi−1 ) < ε+Ta (fn ) b b b b for n ≥ N . Thus Ta (f ) ≤ ε + Ta (fn ) for n ≥ N so Ta (f ) ≤ ε + limTa (fn ). Since ε is arbitrary, b b Ta (f ) ≤ limTa (fn ). 10a. Let f be deﬁned by f (0) = 0 and f (x) = x2 sin(1/x2 ) for x = 0. Consider the subdivision −1 < 2/nπ < 2/(n − 1)π < · · · < 2/π < 1 of [−1, 1]. Note that tb (f ) → ∞ as n → ∞. Thus f is a not of bounded variation on [−1, 1]. 10b. Let g be deﬁned by g(0) = 0 and g(x) = x2 sin(1/x) for x = 0. Note that g is diﬀerentiable on [−1, 1] and g (x) ≤ 3 on [−1, 1]. Thus for any subdivision a = x0 < x1 < · · · < xn = b of [a, b], n n 1 1 g(xi − g(xi−1 ) ≤ 4 1 xi − xi−1  = 3(g(1) − g(−1)). Hence T−1 (g) ≤ 3(g(−1) − g(1)) < ∞. x x 11. Let f be of bounded variation on [a, b]. For any x ∈ [a, b], f (x) = Pa (f ) − Na (f ) − f (a) so d d d d d x x x x x f (x) = dx Pa (f ) − dx Na (f ) a.e. in [a, b]. Thus f  ≤ dx Pa (f ) + dx Na (f ) = dx Ta (f ) a.e. in [a, b] and b b d x b a b f  ≤ a dx Ta (f ) ≤ Ta (f ) − Ta (f ) = Ta (f ). a
n 1
n
n
n
5.3
Diﬀerentiation of an integral
No problems
5.4
Absolute continuity
xi b n n n xi 1 f (xi ) − f (xi−1 ) = 1  xi−1 f  ≤ 1 xi−1 f  = a f . Thus b b b b Ta (f ) ≤ a f . Hence Ta (f ) = a f . d d x x x x For any x ∈ [a, b], f (x) = Pa (f ) − Na (f ) − f (a) so f (x) = dx Pa (f ) − dx Na (f ) a.e. in [a, b]. Thus b b d d d d x x x x b a b (f )+ ≤ ( dx Pa (f ))+ + ( dx Na (f ))− = dx Pa (f ). Thus a (f )+ ≤ a dx Pa (f ) ≤ Pa (f ) − Pa (f ) = Pa (f ). n + Conversely, for any subdivision a = x0 < x1 < · · · < xn = b of [a, b], = 1 (f (xi ) − f (xi−1 )) xi b b b n n xi + b + b + + + 1 ( xi−1 f ) ≤ 1 xi−1 (f ) = a (f ) . Thus Pa (f ) ≤ a (f ) . Hence Pa (f ) = a (f ) . + + + +
*12. The function f deﬁned by f (0) = 0 and f (x) = x2 sin(1/x2 ) for x = 0 is absolutely continuous on [ε, 1] for ε > 0, continuous at 0 but not of bounded variation on [0, 1], thus not absolutely continuous on [0, 1]. Suppose f is absolutely continuous on [η, 1] for η > 0, continuous at 0 and of bounded variation on [0, 1]. For η ∈ (0, 1], let 0 = x0 < x1 < · · · < xn = η be a subdivision of [0, η]. Then since f is continuous at 0, n η + + 1 f (xi )−f (xi−1 ) → 0 as η → 0 . Thus T0 (f ) → 0 as η → 0 . Given ε > 0, there exists η ∈ (0, 1] such η that T0 (f ) < ε/2. Since f is absolutely continuous on [η, 1], there exists δ > 0 such that for any ﬁnite n n collection {(xi , xi )}n of disjoint intervals in [η, 1] with 1 xi −xi  < δ, we have 1 f (xi )−f (xi ) < ε/2. 1 n n Now let {(yi , yi )}1 be a ﬁnite collection of disjoint intervals in [0, 1] with 1 yi −yi  < δ. If η ∈ [yk , yk+1 ] n k n η for some k, then 1 f (yi ) − f (yi ) ≤ 1 f (yi ) − f (yi ) + k+1 f (yi ) − f (yi ) < T0 (f ) + ε/2 < ε. If n k−1 η ∈ (yk , yk ) for some k, then 1 f (yi ) − f (yi ) ≤ 1 f (yi ) − f (yi ) + f (η) − f (yk ) + f (yk ) − f (η) + n η k+1 f (yi ) − f (yi ) < T0 (f ) + ε/2 < ε. Hence f is absolutely continuous on [0, 1]. 13. Let f be absolutely continuous on [a, b]. Then f is of bounded variation on [a, b] so by Q11, b b f  ≤ Ta (f ). Conversely, since f is absolutely continuous on [a, b], for any subdivision a = x0 < a x1 < · · · < xn = b of [a, b],
(*) If g < 0, then ( g) = 0 ≤ g . If g ≥ 0, then ( g) = g ≤ g . 14a. Let f and g be two absolutely continuous functions on [a, b]. Given ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such n n that 1 f (xi ) − f (xi ) < ε/2 and 1 g(xi ) − g(xi ) < ε/2 for any ﬁnite collection {(xi , xi )}n of disjoint 1 n n n intervals in [a, b] with 1 xi − xi  < δ. Then 1 (f ± g)(xi ) − (f ± g)(xi ) ≤ 1 f (xi ) − f (xi ) + n 1 g(xi ) − g(xi ) < ε. Thus f + g and f − g are absolutely continuous. 14b. Let f and g be two absolutely continuous functions on [a, b]. There exists M such that f (x) ≤ M n and g(x) ≤ M for any x ∈ [a, b]. Given ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that 1 f (xi ) − f (xi ) < ε/2M n and 1 g(xi ) − g(xi ) < ε/2M for any ﬁnite collection {(xi , xi )} of disjoint intervals in [a, b] with n n n n xi −xi  < δ. Then 1 (f g)(xi )−(f g)(xi ) ≤ 1 f (xi )g(xi )−g(xi )+ 1 g(xi )f (xi )−f (xi ) < ε. 1 Thus f g is absolutely continuous. 14c. Suppose f is absolutely continuous on [a, b] and is never zero there. Let g = 1/f . There exists M n such that f (x) ≥ M for x ∈ [a, b]. Given ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that 1 f (xi ) − f (xi ) < εM 2 24
for any ﬁnite collection {(xi , xi )} of disjoint intervals in [a, b] with f (xi )−f (xi ) f (xi )f (x ) < ε. Thus g is absolutely continuous.
i
n 1
xi −xi  < δ. Then g(xi )−g(xi ) =
15. Let f be the Cantor ternary function. By Q2.48, f is continuous and monotone on [0, 1]. Note that f = 0 a.e. on [0, 1] since f is constant on each interval in the complement of the Cantor set and 1 the Cantor set has measure zero. If f is absolutely continuous, then 1 = f (1) = 0 f + f (0) = 0. Contradiction. Thus f is not absolutely continuous. x 16a. Let f be a monotone increasing function on [a, b]. Let g be deﬁned by g(x) = a f and let x d h = f − g. Then g is absolutely continuous, h (x) = f (x) − dx a f = 0 a.e. so h is singular, and f = g + h. 16b. Let f be a nondecreasing singular function on [a, b]. Let ε, δ > 0 be given. Since f is singular on [a, b], for each x ∈ [a, b], there is an arbitrarily small interval [x, x+h] ⊂ [a, b] such that f (x+h)−f (x) < εh/(b − a). Then there exists a ﬁnite collection {[xk , yk ]} of nonoverlapping intervals of this sort which cover all of [a, b] except for a set of measure less than δ. Labelling xk such that xk ≤ xk+1 , we have n n y0 = a ≤ x1 < y1 ≤ x2 < · · · ≤ yn ≤ b = xn+1 . Then 0 xk+1 − yk  < δ and 1 f (yk ) − f (xk ) < ε. n Since f is nondecreasing, 0 f (xk+1 ) − f (yk ) > f (b) − f (a) − ε. 16c. Let f be a nondecreasing function on [a, b] with property (S). i.e. Given ε, δ > 0, there is a ﬁnite n n collection {[yk , xk ]} of nonoverlapping intervals in [a, b] such that 1 xk − yk  < δ and 1 (f (xk ) − x f (yk )) > f (b) − f (a) − ε. By part (a), f = g + h where g = a f and h is singular. It suﬃces to show n that g = 0 a.e. Letting x0 = a and yn+1 = b, we have 1 (f (yk+1 ) − f (xk )) < ε. We may choose δ such b b that n [yk ,xk ] f < ε. Then a f < 2ε so a f = 0 and g = 0.
1
16d. Let fn be a sequence of nondecreasing singular functions on [a, b] such that the function f (x) = fn (x) is everywhere ﬁnite. Let ε, δ > 0 be given. Now f (b) − f (a) = (fn (b) − fn (a)) < ∞ so ∞ N there exists N such that N +1 (fn (b) − fn (a)) < ε/2. Let F (x) = 1 fn (x). Then F is nondecreasing and singular. By part (b), there exists a ﬁnite collection {[yk , xk ]} of nonoverlapping intervals such that xk −yk  < δ and (F (yk )−F (xk )) > F (b)−F (a)−ε/2. Now (f (yk )−f (xk )) ≥ (F (yk )−F (xk )) > ∞ F (b) − F (a) − ε/2 = f (b) − f (a) − N +1 (fn (b) − fn (a)) − ε/2 > f (b) − f (a) − ε. By part (c), f is singular. *16e. Let C be the Cantor ternary function on [0, 1]. Extend C to R by deﬁning C(x) = 0 for x < 0 and C(x) = 1 for x > 1. For each n, deﬁne fn by fn (x) = 2−n C( bx−an ) where {[an , bn ]} is an enumeration of n −an the intervals with rational endpoints in [0, 1]. Then each fn is a nondecreasing singular function on [0, 1]. Deﬁne f (x) = fn (x). Then f is everywhere ﬁnite, strictly increasing and by part (d), f is singular. 17a. Let F be absolutely continuous on [c, d]. Let g be monotone and absolutely continuous on [a, b] with c ≤ g ≤ d. Given ε > 0, there exists δ > 0 such that for any ﬁnite collection {(yi , yi )} of disjoint n n intervals with 1 yi − yi  < δ, we have 1 F (yi ) − F (yi ) < ε. Now there exists δ > 0 such that for n n any ﬁnite collection {(xi , xi )} of disjoint intervals with 1 xi − xi  < δ , we have 1 g(xi ) − g(xi ) < δ. n Now {(g(xi ), g(xi ))} is a ﬁnite collection of disjoint intervals so 1 F (g(xi )) − F (g(xi )) < ε. Hence F ◦ g is absolutely continuous. √ (*) Additional assumption that g is monotone. Counterexample: Consider f (x) = x for x ∈ [0, 1] and g(0) = 0, g(x) = (x sin x−1 )2 for x ∈ (0, 1]. Then (f ◦ g)(0) = 0 and (f ◦ g)(x) = x sin x−1 for x ∈ (0, 1]. f and g are absolutely continuous but not f ◦ g. x x *17b. Let E = {x : g (x) = 0}. Note that g(x) − g(a) =  a g  ≤ a g  for all x ∈ [a, b]. Let ε > 0. There exists δ > 0 such that A g  < ε/2 whenever mA < δ. Let η = ε/4(b − a). For any x ∈ E, there exists hx > 0 such that g(x + h) − g(x) < ηh for 0 < h ≤ hx . Deﬁne V = {[x, x + hx ] : x ∈ E, g(y) − g(x) < η(y − x) for y ∈ (x, x + hx ]}. Then V is a Vitali covering for E so there exists a ﬁnite N disjoint collection {I1 , . . . , IN } of intervals in V such that m(E \ n=1 In ) < δ. Now let O be an open set N such that O ⊃ E \ n=1 In and mO < δ. Then O is a countable union of disjoint open intervals Jm and N N g[E \ n=1 In ] ⊂ g[Jm ]. Thus m(g[E \ n=1 In )] ≤ m(g[Jm ]) ≤ g  = O g  < ε/2. Also, Jm 2hxn η < 2(b − a)η = ε/2. Hence m(g[E]) < ε. g[E ∩ n=1 In ] ⊂ n=1 g[In ] so m(g[E ∩ n=1 In )] ≤ Since ε is arbitrary, m(g[E]) = 0. 18. Let g be an absolutely continuous monotone function on [0, 1] and E a set of measure zero. Let ε > 0. There is an open set O ⊃ E such that mO = m(O \ E) < δ where δ is given by absolute continuity
N N N
25
then for any M . b). f (b)) for all x ∈ [a. Then there is an increasing sequence ϕn of simple functions on [c. Now a ϕn (g(x))g (x) dx = c χ (g(x))g (x) dx = a k Ek ck mEk = d d c ϕn (y) dy. *20c. Also. there exists c such that f (c) > M so f  is unbounded. b] with c ≤ g ≤ d. Hence H (x) = f (g(x))g (x) = f0 (g(x))g (x) a. There exists a Gδ set G ⊃ E with m(G \ E) = 0. Let H = {x : g (x) = 0}. then there exists c ∈ (a. it is continuous and thus measurable so g −1 [E] is measurable. 20a. Then ϕ(x) ≥ f (x) for all x ∈ (a. Since g > 0 on g −1 [E] ∩ H. Now for each n. There exists M such that f (x) − f (y) ≤ M x − y for all x. Now mE = mG = lim mGk = lim g−1 [Gk ]∩H g = lim k g−1 [On ]∩H g = g = g−1 [G]∩H g = g−1 [E]∩H g = F g . b) and let f (x) = m(x − x0 ) + ϕ(x0 ) be the equation of a supporting line at x0 . g−1 [E]∩H g = 0. then ϕ(x) has limits (possibly inﬁnite) as it approaches a and b respectively from within (a. For any ﬁnite collection {(xi . Let x0 ∈ (a. By Q17(b). By Q17b. Then G1 ⊃ G2 ⊃ · · · so lim mGk = m( Gk ) = mG. Since g is absolutely continuous. d]. y. Since each b b (ϕn ◦ g)g is measurable. mO = l(In ) = (g(dn ) − g(cn )) = cn 21b. 21c. Let G be the complement of a generalised Cantor set of positive measure and let g = 0 χG .e. g−1 [O] g < δ. Now H and g exist a. Now g[E] ⊂ g[In ∩ [0. g is measurable so H is measurable. If ϕ is monotone on (a. If ϕ is not monotone. Thus dn g = g−1 [O] g . we have D+ F (g(x)) = D+ F (g(x)) = D− F (g(x)) = D− F (g(x)) = H (x)/g (x) by Q6a so F (g(x)) exists. F is absolutely continuous on [c. d]. Thus for any M .e. Thus F = g −1 [E] ∩ H is measurable. we have ϕ(x) ≥ f (x) ≥ min(f (a).e. Then f (c) > M for some c ∈ (x. Since ϕ is continuous at a. Given n ε > 0. Since δ > 0 is arbitrary. d]. b).of g. Suppose f is Lipschitz. Now O is a countable union In of disjoint open intervals so l(In ) < δ and l(g[In ∩[0. g −1 [O] = g −1 [In ] = (cn . Suppose f is Lipschitz. Also. the set g −1 [E] ∩ H has measure zero. H = F ◦ g is absolutely continuous. lim ϕn = b b f . Now G is a countable intersection On of open sets. dn ). m(g[E]) = 0 so / f0 = f a. Thus g−1 [E]∩H g = g−1 [E] g < δ. Since ε is arbitrary. Let E be a measurable subset of [c. x 19a. Thus d c f (y) dy = lim c ϕn (y) dy = lim a ϕn (g(x))g (x) dx = a f (g(x))g (x) dx. if f is not Lipschitz. Since {x : g (x) = 0} has positive measure. m((g −1 [G] \ g −1 [E]) ∩ H) = 0 so g−1 [G]∩H g = g−1 [E]∩H g . Let f0 be deﬁned by f0 (y) = f (y) if y ∈ g[E] and f0 (y) = 0 if y ∈ g[E]. d]. Let f be a nonnegative measurable function on [c. g = χG = 0 on G . 1]. 21a. Let E ⊂ [c. (f ◦ g)g is measurable. 22b. In = (g(cn ). 21d. xi )} of nonoverlapping intervals with 1 xi − xi  < δ. b). 19b.e. Then there exists an open set O ⊃ E with mO < δ. b) 26 . Hence ϕ is bounded from below. g −1 [On ]∩H n=1 k F g = g −1 [E] g = b a χE (g(x))g (x) dx. 5. g is monotone and absolutely continuous on [a. there exist x and y such that f (x) − f (y) > M x − y. m(g[E]) = 0. By part (a). 23b. We may assume G ⊂ [c. By Q17(a). Then c g is absolutely continuous and strictly monotone on [0. Also. Let f be absolutely continuous. d] with mE = 0 and let δ > 0. b). 22a.5 Convex functions 23a. dn ∈ [c. Now f (x) = limy→x limy→x  f (y)−f (x)  y−x f (y)−f (x) y−x so f (x) = ≤ M for all x. g −1 [g[F ]] = F is nonmeasurable. d] with lim ϕn = f so lim ϕn (g(x))g (x) = f (g(x))g (x). Let O be an open set in [c. 1]]) < ε. By the Monotone Convergence Theorem. so H (x) = F (g(x))g (x) a. m(g[F ]) = 0. 1]] so m(g[E]) < ε. Then O is a countable union In of disjoint open intervals. n n we have 1 f (xi ) − f (xi ) ≤ M 1 xi − xi  < ε. 20b. d] and let F = g −1 [E] ∩ H. y) by the Mean Value Theorem. Also. *22d. By part (b). it has a nonmeasurable subset F . g(dn )) for some cn . b). let δ = ε/M . Also. Suppose ϕ is convex on (a. Whenever H and g exist with g (x) = 0. *22c. Let Gk = n=1 On . b). d]. except on E = {x : g (x) = 0}. Let ϕ be convex on a ﬁnite interval [a. Conversely. Thus f is absolutely continuous.
∞) for all p. and this can happen only when f (t) = α a. then its left.1 The Classical Banach Spaces The Lp spaces 1. (1−λ)(y−x) λ(y−x) ϕ(λx + (1 − λ)y) < λϕ(x) + (1 − λ)ϕ(y). If a (or b) is ﬁnite. Since ϕ (ξ1 ) < ϕ (ξ2 ). the integral is zero only when exp(f (t)) − g(f (t)) = 0 a. b). y). Let α = f p and β = gp so f = αf0 and g = βg0 where f0 p = g0 p = 1. Contradiction. Then 1 − λ = β/(α + β) and f + gp = (f + g)p = (αf0 + βg0 )p = (α + β)p (λf0 + p p (1 − λ)g0 )p ≥ (α + β)p (λf0 + (1 − λ)g0 ) by concavity of the function ϕ(t) = tp for 0 < p < 1. −ϕ (t) = −b2 p(p − 1)(a + bt)p−2 > 0. Since ε > 0 is arbitrary. Deﬁne f on [0. Hence limp→0 f p = f ∞ . Then f p = 1 ( 0 f p )1/p ≥ ( E f p )1/p ≥ (f ∞ − ε)(mE)1/p . For 1 < p < ∞. If ϕ (x) ≥ 0 for all x ∈ (a. ϕ is continuous on (a. Hence ϕ (x) ≥ 0 for all x ∈ (a. Thus 27 . ϕ(t) = a + bt so ϕ (t) = 0. Now f p = ( 0 f p )1/p ≤ ( 0 f p )1/p = f ∞ . c] and on [c. Let αn be a sequence of nonnegative numbers whose sum is 1 and let ξn be a sequence of positive k−1 k k α numbers. then ϕ is increasing on (a. Now exp(f (t)) dt − exp(α) = exp(f (t)) dt − g(α) = exp(f (t)) dt − g( f (t) dt) = (exp(f (t)) − g(f (t))) dt. closed.and righthand derivatives are monotone increasing on (a.2 The Minkowski and H¨lder inequalities o 5a. by Q24. ∞ ∞ α Letting k → ∞. ϕ (t) > 0 for all t ∈ (0. 1] by f (x) = log ξn if x ∈ [ n=1 αn . Hence ϕ is strictly convex for p > 1. k k α k k α k 6 6. ϕ(λx+(1−λ)y)−ϕ(x) < ϕ(y)−ϕ(λ(x)+(1−λ)(y)) . We may assume f p > 0 and gp > 0. Let g be a nonnegative measurable function on [0. 1] : f (x) > f ∞ − ε}. Let ϕ have a second derivative at each point of (a. ϕ is convex for 1 ≤ p < ∞ and concave for 0 < p ≤ 1. if ϕ is convex on (a. b) so ϕ is monotone increasing on (a. Then ϕ is continuous on [0. b) and it follows that the righthand and lefthand limits exist at a and b respectively. Now for x < y. λx + (1 − λ)y). For p > 1. 28. b). ϕ is strictly concave for 0 < p < 1. 2. the limits at a (or b) cannot be −∞. Equivalently. Then ϕ(tx + (1 − t)y) ≤ tϕ(x) + (1 − t)ϕ(y) for all x. b). we have n=1 ξn n ≤ n=1 αn ξn . limp→∞ f p ≥ f ∞ . Thus n=1 ξn n ≤ 0 n=1 n exp(f (t)) dt = n=1 αn ξn . ∞ Thus limp→∞ f p ≤ f ∞ . Thus mE > 0 and limp→∞ f p ≥ f ∞ − ε. and g(t) ≤ M2 a. Let ϕ(t) = (a + bt)p . Let ϕ be continuous on an interval I (open. and g(t) ≤ g∞ a.e. Set λ = α/(α + β). Let α = f (t) dt and let g(x) = m(x − α) + exp(α) be the equation of a supporting line at α. − log(g(t)) dt ≥ − log( g(t) dt) by Jensen’s inequality. b). Equality holds when exp(f (t)) dt = exp(α). If mE = 0. b). *26. Since log is concave.e. Suppose a ≥ 0 and b > 0. Let ε > 0 and let E = {x ∈ [0. Since exp(f (t)) − g(f (t)) ≥ 0.such that D+ ϕ(x) ≤ 0 on (a. Hence. 25a. the inequality also holds at the included endpoints. c] and D+ ϕ(x) ≥ 0 on [c. b) since the righthand derivative of ϕ is increasing on (a. Also. 1 1 1 1 1 1 6.e. For 0 < p < 1. Conversely.e. 1]. 24. b). Also. Suppose f ∈ L1 and g ∈ L∞ . halfopen) and convex in the interior of I. b). n=1 ξn n = α exp( n=1 αn log ξn ) = exp( 0 n=1 n f (t) dt). f + g1 = 0 f + g ≤ 0 (f  + g) = 0 f  + 0 g = f 1 + g1 . ϕ(λx+(1−λ)y)−ϕ(x) = ϕ (ξ1 ) for some ξ1 ∈ (x. Let f and g be two nonnegative functions in Lp with 0 < p < 1. then by part (a). Since ϕ is continuous. 1]. 1]. then f (t) + g(t) ≤ M1 + M2 a. For p = 1. For each k. ϕ(y)−ϕ(λ(x)+(1−λ)(y)) = ϕ (ξ2 ) for some (1−λ)(y−x) λ(y−x) ξ2 ∈ (λx + (1 − λ)y. ∞) so ϕ is strictly increasing on (0. 3. ϕ (t) = b2 p(p − 1)(a + bt)p−2 > 0.e. then f ∞ ≤ f ∞ − ε. y in the interior of I and all t ∈ [0. b). 23c. ∞). Thus f + g∞ ≤ f ∞ + g∞ . Hence ϕ is convex on (a. 4.e.. Note that f (t) ≤ f ∞ a. Thus ϕ is monotone on (a. b). Then f g ≤ f g∞ = g∞ f  = f 1 g∞ . Hence log( g(t) dt) ≥ log(g(t)) dt. n=1 αn ). so f + g∞ ≤ M1 + M2 .e. 27. Let f be a bounded measurable function on [0. If f (t) ≤ M1 a. Similarly. 25b.
6. we see that p q g f f  g 1 8b. there exists N such that fn − f p < ε/2 for n ≥ N .e. Suppose 0 < p < 1. 11. Thus for n. The area of the rectangle bounded by the xaxis. Thus equality holds here if and only if f p−1 g = gq f p−1 . p p p 5b. The area of the p a region bounded by f (x). Let u = (f g)p and let v = g −p .3 Convergence and completeness 9. q > 1 and 1/p + 1/q = 1. 8a.e. Thus f + g ∈ Lp . For 0 < p < 1. for n ≥ N so f  ≤ fN  + ε/2 a. the yaxis and y = b is ab ≤ ap p + bq q . 1 < p < ∞. 7b. f p gq = gq f p . Given ε > 0. Now for n. m ≥ N . Suppose fn −f ∞ → 0. o f p ≤ pp 1/p pp /(1−p ) (p −1)/p p q 1−p p 1/p q 1/q ( f g ) ( g ) = ( f g) ( g ) . f p gq ≤ pfp + qgq = p + 1 = 1. For 1 ≤ p < ∞. Thus fn is a Cauchy sequence. Let fn be a sequence of functions in L∞ . g)p ≤ 2p (f p + gp ). the xaxis and x = a is 0 xp−1 dx = a . The area of the region bounded by p f (x). to a function f and fn − f  < ε/2 a. Then v=1 ξv − ξv p < εp for (n) (n) each k and each n ≥ N so ξv − ξv p < εp for n ≥ N . Thus {t : fn (t) − f (t) > ε/2} ⊂ E for n ≥ N . Thus for (n) (n) k each v. Let fn be a convergent sequence in Lp . Hence ξv ηv  ≤  ξv p  ηv q . i. ξv ηv  ≤ sup ηv  ξv  =  ξv 1  ηv ∞ . f g ≥ f p gq . there exists M < ε/2 such that m{t : fn (t) − fm (t) > M } = 0 so m{t : fn (t) − fm (t) > ε/2} = 0. fn − fm p ≤ fn − f p + fm − f p < ε. By part (a). Let q be such that 1/p + 1/q = 1. m ≥ N and each v. the yaxis.e. ξv is Cauchy in R so it converges to some ξv . Then ηv  = αv and ptξv ηv  = ptξv αv ≤ (αv + tξv )p − αv .  ξv + ηv ∞ = sup ξv + ηv  ≤ sup(ξv  + ηv ) ≤ sup ξv  + sup ηv  =  ξv ∞ +  ηv ∞ . f p = uv and g q = v p /(p −1) . Given ε > 0. By comparing these areas. fn − f ∞ → 0. Given ε > 0. ξv − ξv p < εp for n.f +gp ≥ (α+β)p (λf0 p +(1−λ)g0 p ) = (α+β)p = (f p +gp )p . Then fn converges a. there exists N such that inf{M : m{t : fn (t)−f (t) > M } = 0} < ε for n ≥ N . Note that q = pp /(1 − p ).e. fn − f ∞ → 0. uv ≤ up vq . Then mE = 0 and fn converges uniformly to f on E c . m ≥ N . Equivalently. f + gp ≤ 2 max(f. Then 1 − λ = β/(α + β) and  ξv + ηv p = ( ξv + ηv p )1/p ≤ ( (ξv +ηv )p )1/p = ( (αξv +βηv )p )1/p = ( (α+β)p [λξv +(1−λ)ηv ]p )1/p ≤ ( (α+β)p [λξv p + (1 − λ)ηv p ])1/p = α + β =  ξv p +  ηv p . We may assume that f p > 0 and gq > 0. Let E = {t : fn (t) − f (t) ≥ ε}. Let 1 ≤ p < ∞ and let ξv be a Cauchy sequence in p . Hence f g ≥ ( f  ) ( g ) = f p gq . suppose there exists a set E with mE = 0 and fn converges uniformly to f on E c . For 1 ≤ p ≤ ∞. Furthermore. there exists N such that (n) (m) p (n) (m) p ξv − ξv  < ε for n. Thus m{t : fn (t)−f (t) ≥ ε} = 0 for n ≥ N . Let p = 1/p so p > 1. Thus p p p p p ptξv ηv  ≤ (αv + tξv ) − αv =  αv + tξv  p −  αv p ≤ ( αv p + t ξv p ) −  αv p . Equality holds in part (a) if and only if b = ap−1 . Hence inf{M : m{t : fn (t) − f (t) > M } = 0} < ε for n ≥ N . m ≥ N . In particular. Hence f +gp ≥ f p +gp . q p p 8c. Consider the graph of the function f (x) = xp−1 . By the H¨lder inequality. Suppose f ∈ Lp and g ∈ Lp .e. Let a. p p p p p *6. For p = ∞. f + g ∈ Lp by the Minkowski inequality. Let fn be a Cauchy sequence in L∞ . Let p = 1/p and q = −q/p. Then p > 1. Thus (ab)p b−p ≤ (ab)pp p + b−pq q = pab − pbq q so ap ≤ pab − pbq q and ab ≥ ap p + bq q . b be nonnegative. Conversely. For p = 1. there exists N such that inf{M : m{t : fn (t) − fm (t) > M } = 0} = fn − fm ∞ < ε/2 for n. 8d. Set λ = α/(α + β). 12. Then f g = up . By a similar argument as part (b). Given ε > 0. let α =  ξv p and β =  ηv p so ξv = α ξv and ηv = β ηv where ξv p = ηv p = 1. Consider ξv . 1/p + 1/q = 1. i. 7a. 10. let αv = ηv q/p . i. p−1 p−1 p For 1 < p < ∞. Suppose 0 < p < 1 and 1/p + 1/q = 1. q p q Hence f g ≤ f p gq .e. inf{M : m{t : fn (t) − f (t) > M } = 0} < ε for n ≥ N . Thus ξv − ξv ∈ p for n ≥ N so ξv ∈ p 28 (n) . m ≥ N . Let q be such that 1/p + 1/q = 1. g)p = 2p  max(f. we get p ξv ηv  ≤ p ξv p  αv p = p ξv p  ηv q . b 0 y 1/(p−1) dy = bp/(p−q) p/(p−q) = bq q . x = a and y = b is ab. there exists N such that fn (t) − f (t) < ε/2 for n ≥ N and t ∈ E c . q = ∞. p p−1 Diﬀerentiating with respect to t at t = 0. There exists f ∈ Lp such that for any ε > 0. and f ∈ L∞ .
i. m ≥ N so fn (x) − fm (x) < ε for n. Now p p k=0 ξk+1 −ξk ( ξk k=0  ξk+1 −ξk ( ξk b ξk+1 ξk+1 ξk+1 ξk+1 1 1 1 p p p  ξk+1 −ξk ( ξk f )χ[ξk .e.e. Suppose there is a constant M such that fn p ≤ M for all n. Thus m{x : ϕ∆ (x) − f (x) > ε} = m{x : ϕ∆ (x) − f (x)p > εp } ≤ ε−p ϕ∆ − f p < ε for suﬃciently small δ. Thus there exists N such that fn − f p < ε/2M and gn (x) − g(x) < ε/(4(mE c )1/p f p ) for n ≥ N and x ∈ E c . m ≥ N . If ξv is a Cauchy (n) (n) sequence in c0 .ξk+1 )  = ξk (ξk+1 −ξk )p  ξk f  . Also. to a function f in Lp . It is straightforward to check that  · ∞ is a norm on ∞ . m ≥ N and x ∈ [0. Thus ξv converges to some ξv for each v. 1 ≤ p < ∞ and let gn be a sequence of measurable functions such that gn  ≤ M for all n and gn → g a. Let ξv be a (n) (m) Cauchy sequence in c. Let g = χ[0. 16.and  ξv − ξv p → 0.e. Then f g = 0 but fn g = fn = 1 for each n. m ≥ N . 1] be the space of all continuous functions on [0. Now 2p (fn p + f p ) − fn − f p ≥ 0 for each n so by Fatou’s Lemma.e. p p *20. Then fn → 0 and fn 1 = 1 for each n. Also.ξk+1 ) p . Thus there exists N such that fn (x) − f (x) < ε/(2(mE c )1/p gq ) for n ≥ N and x ∈ E c . 13. It is straightforward to check that  · ∞ is a norm on c and c0 . Given ε > 0. By Egoroﬀ’s Theorem. Let ξv be a Cauchy sequence in ∞ . Thus gn fn − gf p → 0. to a function f in Lp . Suppose fn − f p → 0. i. Given ε > 0. fn − f  → 0. (n) (n) 6. sup ξv − ξv  < ε for n ≥ N . Thus f ∈ C.1/n] for each n. Given ε > 0. For p = 1. Given ε > 0. i. By the ξ ξ ξ ξ ξ H¨lder inequality. 1] and deﬁne f  = max f (x) for f ∈ C. m ≥ N . for any ε > 0. Then ξv − ξv  < ε for (n) (n) each v and n. 1 ≤ p < ∞. Now for each v (N ) (N ) (N ) (N ) and v . Let c be the space of all convergent sequences of real numbers and let c0 be the space of all sequences (n) which converge to 0.e. (n) (m) (n) (m) Given ε > 0. p *19.  ξv − ξv ∞ → 0. which converges a. Let fn be a Cauchy sequence in C. there exists N such that ξv − ξv  ≤ ξv − ξv  + ξv − ξv  + ξv − ξv  < ε.ξk+1 ) p = a  ξk+1 −ξk ( ξk f )χ[ξk . Conversely. 18. 15. Thus fn (x) converges to some f (x) for each x ∈ [0. Let g ∈ Lq . Now  fn g − f g ≤ fn − f g ≤ ( E fn − f p )1/p ( E gq )1/q + ( E c fn − f p )1/p ( E c gq )1/q ≤ 2M (ε/4m) + (ε/(2(mE c )1/p gq ))(mE c )1/p gq = ε for n ≥ N . then ξv converges to 0 since ξv  ≤ ξv − ξv  + ξv . Furthermore. i. there exists N such that sup ξv − ξv  < ε for n. suppose fn p → f p . By Egoroﬀ’s Theorem. Now gn fn − gf p ≤ gn fn − gn f p + gn f − gf p = ( gn p fn − f p )1/p + ( gn − gp f p )1/p ≤ M fn − f p + ( E gn − gp f p )1/p + ( E c gn − gp f p )1/p < ε/2 + (ε/8M )(2M ) + ε/(4(mE c )1/p f p )(mE c )1/p f p = ε for n ≥ N . Let fn = nχ[0. 17. 1]. 1 < p < ∞. Thus lim fn − f p ≤ 0 ≤ lim fn − f p . Thus ξv converges to some ξv for each v and ξv − ξv  < ε for n ≥ N .1] ∈ L∞ . Let fn be a sequence in Lp . 2p+1 f p ≤ lim 2p (fn p + f p ) − fn − f p = 2p+1 f p − lim fn − f p . max fn (x) − f (x) < ε for n ≥ N .  ξv − ξv ∞ → 0. ϕ∆ − f p ≥ εp m{x : ϕ∆ (x) − f (x)p > εp }. there exists N such that max fn (x) − fm (x) < ε for n. the convergence is uniform.e.e. Then (n) (m) (n) ξv − ξv  < ε for each v and n.4 Approximation in Lp ξk+1 ξk+1 m−1 m−1 1 1 f )χ[ξk .ξk+1 ) p ≤ f )χ[ξk . Thus ξv (n) (n) (n) is Cauchy in R. there exists δ > 0 such that gq < (ε/4M )q whenever mE < δ. T∆ (f )p =  p 29 . Let fn be a sequence in Lp . Let fn → f in Lp . Then fn p → f p since  fn p − f p  ≤ fn − f p . fg = lim fn g. there exists N such that sup ξv − ξv  < ε for n. Hence fn − f p → 0. Thus T∆ (f )p ≤ o p b ξk+1 ξ ξ m−1 ξk+1 m−1 1 1 f p ( ξkk+1 1)p−1 = k=0 (ξk+1 −ξk )p−1 ξkk+1 f p (ξk+1 − ξk )p−1 = a f p . Hence ξv ∈ c and sup ξv − ξv  < ε. By Chebyshev’s inequality. there exists E such that mE < δ and fn E converges uniformly to f on E c . it is not true. m ≥ N .  ξkk+1 f p ≤ ξkk+1 f p ( ξkk+1 1)p/q = ξkk+1 f p ( ξkk+1 1)p−1 . there exists E such that mE < δ and gn converges uniformly to g on E c . Then (N ) (n) (n) ξv  ≤ ξv  + ε for each v and ξv ∈ ∞ . k=0 ξk (ξk+1 −ξk )p ξk Hence T∆ (f )p ≤ f p and T∆ (f )p ≤ f p . which converges a. 1]. It is straightforward to check that  ·  is a norm on C. 14. there exists δ > 0 such that E f p < (ε/8M )p whenever mE < δ. Let C = C[0.
f ∞ = 1 and f g = g = g1 f ∞ . x). For each v. Given ε > 0. F ( ξv ) =  ξv F (ev ) ≤  ξv p  F (ev ) q so  F (ev ) q ≥ F ( ξv )/ ξv p for all nonzero ξv ∈ p . z) and y ∈ Sz. For each v. z) = 0 and ρ(z. Let F be a bounded linear functional on p . Similarly for c0 . y) < ε < δ − ρ(x. Since xi − yi  = yi − xi  for each i. y) ≤ ρ(x. y). If ρ(x. F ( ξv ) =  ξv F (ev ) ≤  ξv ∞  F (ev ) 1 so  F (ev ) 1 ≥ F ( ξv )/ ξv ∞ for all nonzero ξv ∈ c.e. x) = 0 < ∞. y) < ∞. y) = 0 if and only if xi − yi  = 0 for all i if and only if xi = yi for all i if and only if x = y. For p = 1. For any x.δ . Clearly. Thus  F (ev ) ∞ ≥ F . . Thus  F (ev ) q ≥ F . 3b. y) ≤ ρ(x . y) < 1} is the interior of the diamond (resp. y) ≤ ρ(x. 0. y). . y) = 0. Conversely. {x : ρ(x. If g1 = 0. 7 7. x) = 0. Finally. x) = ρ(x. y) = 0. then ρ(y. and suppose there exist functions g and h in Lq such that F (f ) = f g = f h for all f ∈ Lp . Then f g = E g ≥ (g∞ − ε)mE = (g∞ − ε)f 1 . y) < δ so y ∈ Sx. z) + ρ+ (z. Thus F (ev ) ∈ q and  F (ev ) q ≤ F .e. let xv = sgn(F (ev )) and let x be deﬁned as n n n before. n ∞ 23. Note that  ξv − v=1 ξv ev − v=n+1 ξev ∞ → 0 for each ξv ∈ c with lim ξv = ξ so F ( ξv ) = ξv F (ev ) by linearity and continuity of F . Let g be an integrable function on [0. z). Then ρ(z. y) < ∞. then g = 0 a. Let g be a bounded measurable function. Conversely.5 Bounded linear functionals on the Lp spaces 21a. Let F be a bounded linear functional on Lp . Now xp = ( v=1 xv p )1/p = n q F (ev ) n n n ( v=1 F (ev )p(q−1) )1/p = ( v=1 F (ev )q )1/p so ( v=1 F (ev )q )1/q = ( n v=1 (ev )q )1/p = F (x) ≤ xp v=1 F F  for all n. y) ≤ ρ+ (x. . For any xj . The argument for ρ+ is similar except for the last property. Thus g = h a. Thus ρ+ (x. x) = ρ(x. cube) with center y and sides of length 1. Let ρ be an extended metric on X. ρ) and let x be a representative 30 . Hence ρ(x. ρ∗ (x.6. z) < ∞ and ρ(z. y) = 0. zj . Let f = 1. Thus ρ(x. Thus ρ deﬁnes a metric on X ∗ . y). y) = ρ∗ (y. note that  ξv − v=1 ξv ev p → 0 for each ξv ∈ p so F ( ξv ) = ξv F (ev ) by linearity and continuity of F . Then F (x) = v=1 xv F (ev ) = v=1 F (ev ) so v=1 F (ev ) = F (x)/x∞ ≤ F  for all n. Thus F (ev ) ∈ 1 and  F (ev ) 1 ≤ F . Thus g = h a. y ) + ρ(y . y) < 1} is the interior of the square (resp. y) ≥ 0 for all x. Then f p = g − hp(q−1) = g − hq so f ∈ Lp . ρ∗ (x. 1 ≤ p < ∞. bipyramid) with center y with height and width 2. 1b. then ρ(y. z) + ρ(z. For n = 2 (resp. Then f is a bounded measurable function. let E = {x : g(x) > g∞ − ε} and let f = χE .e. For each v. Then F (x) = v=1 xv F (ev ) = v=1 F (ev )q . If ρ(x. z) + ρ(z. Suppose x and x are in the same equivalence class. Also suppose that y and y are in the same equivalence class. xn .ε . let f = sgn(g). . For any x. note that  ξv − v=1 ξv ev 1 → 0 for each ξv ∈ 1 so F ( ξv ) = ξv F (ev ) by linearity and continuity of F . . n = 3). y) = ρ(x . F ( ξv ) =  ξv F (ev ) ≤  ξv 1  F (ev ) ∞ so  F (ev ) ∞ ≥ F ( ξv )/ ξv 1 for all nonzero ξv ∈ 1 . Let Xα0 be a part of the extended metric space (X. sphere) with center y and radius 1. . z)+ρ(z. 22. xj − yj  ≤ xj − zj  + zj − yj  ≤ maxi xi − zi  + maxi zi − yi  = ρ+ (x. y ). 3a. Let X ∗ be the set of equivalence classes under this relation. y) < ∞. f ∞ = 1 and f g = g = 0 = g1 f ∞ . let ev be the sequence with 1 in the n vth entry and 0 elsewhere. 0. y) < 1} is the interior of the circle (resp. . For p = 1. Now f g = f h so g − h = f (g − h) = 0. then 0 ≤ ρ(x. z) + ρ∗ (z. ρ(x. x ) + ρ(x . y) = ρ(x . y. {x : ρ+ (x. y) = 0 so ρ(x. ρ(x. 2. choose f = sgn(g − h). 21b. If ρ(x. y) = 0. . Thus ρ(x. y) = 0 is an equivalence relation. y) = 0. If ρ(x. Then f ∈ L1 and f (g − h) = g − h. If ρ(x. y) = i=1 xi − yi  ≤ i=1 (xi − zi  + zi − yi ) = i=1 xi − zi  + i=1 zi − yi  = ρ∗ (x. n n n n ρ∗ (x. Then ρ(x. y) ≤ ρ(x. {x : ρ∗ (x. yj . z) + ρ+ (z. Now g − hq−2 (g − h)g = g − hq−2 (g − h)h so g − hq = 0. Suppose 0 < ε < δ − ρ(x. then ρ(x. *24.1 Metric Spaces Introduction 1a. Then f is a bounded measurable function. Now ρ∗ (x. If g1 = 0. let xv = F (ev )q /F (ev ) = F (ev )q−1 sgn(F (ev )) and let n n n x = x1 . Now F (ev ) = F (ev )/ev 1 ≤ F  for all v so F (ev ) ∈ ∞ and  F (ev ) ∞ ≤ F . choose f = g − hq−2 (g − h). n For 1 < p < ∞. 1]. y) < ∞. Thus  F (ev ) 1 ≥ F . then x and y are in the same equivalence class. y) ≤ ρ(x. For p > 1. y) < ∞ is an equivalence relation. Conversely.
Let g be a point of closure of the set of integrable functions that vanish for 0 ≤ t < 1/2. E) > 0.y] ∞ < 1. ¯ 5b. If y ∈ Xα0 . 1) and [0. y) = 1 if x = y and ρ(x. y) ≤ ρ(x. 1) given by h(x) = x/(1 − x). z) ≤ ρ(x. there exists a step function ϕ such that f − ϕ1 < ε. which is continuous.y] where x. y) < δ. since ¯ is a closed set containing E.δ so Sy. If h(x) = h(y). L∞ is not separable. For every n. Let δ = 1 − x. Let g be a point of closure of C.y] ∞ = 1 if x = y. Let x(t) be a measurable function with x < 1. by interchanging x and z. y) ≥ ρ(x. Thus h is onto. 6a. y) ≤ 1} = X. z) < ∞ so z ∈ Xα0 .3.of Xα0 . Given ε > 0. 9a. Thus Xα0 is open.δ ⊂ Xα0 . ¯ ¯ ¯ 5. (E)c = ( E⊂F F )c = E⊂F F c = F c ⊂E c F c = (E c )◦ . 6b. Xα0 is closed. 4b. ∞). ρ(x. The set in part (b) is not always the closure of the ball {x : ρ(x. y) − δ = δ so z ∈ S c .e. y) > α/2 for all y ∈ E so x ∈ E. Then fn is a Cauchy sequence in C and it converges to g so g ∈ C. Now X = Xα so Xα0 = X \ α=α0 Xα . then ρ(x. being a rational function. Then ρ(x. then E ⊂ F = F . Since the union is open. i. y) < 1} = {y}.δ with δ > 0.e.2 Open and closed sets 4a. Let h be the function on [0. Then χ[0. *7. E) = inf y∈E ρ(x. ¯ ρ(x. By Proposition 6.δ is open. y) < 1} = {y} and {x : ρ(x. ρ(z. 7. take any y ∈ E. The inverse function h−1 is given by h−1 (x) = x/(1 + x). and the set of integrable functions that vanish for 0 0 ≤ t < 1/2 is closed in L1 . If E ⊂ F and F is closed. Hence g vanishes a. f (z) − f (x) < ε. E) ≤ ρ(x. there exists fn in the set such that fn − g1 < 1/n.x] − d∞ < 1/2 and χ[0. For any x ∈ Sy. z) < δ. y). E) = 0} = E. E) = α. Since continuous functions on [0. y) + ρ(y. let 0 < ε < δ − ρ(x. ∞). y) ≤ δ}. y − x < δ so y = (y − x) + x < δ + x < 1. 1] with rational coeﬃcients being a countable dense subset (Weierstrass approximation theorem). y) < δ}.δ . C ⊂ L∞ . ¯ 9b. Thus O ⊂ E ◦ for any open subset O ⊂ E so O⊂E ⊂ E ◦ . y) − δ.8. Similarly. Thus S c is open and S is closed. say ρ(x. z) + ρ(z. L1 is separable. For any z ∈ Sx. C is complete. 1] are bounded. E) ≤ ε + f (z).3 Continuous functions and homeomorphisms 8. C is separable with the set of polynomials on [0. By Q6. is continuous on [0. 6c. For each 1/2 1/2 1/2 n. Then x ∈ [0. Conversely. then there exists d ∈ D and x. for any open subset O ⊂ E and y ∈ O. let f (x) = ρ(x. Take x ∈ S c . Hence the set of measurable functions x(t) with x < 1 is open in L1 . If ρ(x. ¯ E E⊂F F ⊂ E. Then 0 g ≤ 0 fn − g + 0 fn  ≤ 1 fn − g < 1/n for all n. / 31 . Let δ = ρ(x. y) < δ}. Conversely. ρ(x. Sx. y) < δ + ρ(z. For example. ◦ 5a.x] − χ[0. Thus f (x) − f (z) < ε and f is continuous. y) = 0 if x = y. 1) and h(x) = y. We may further approximate ϕ by a step function where the partition intervals have rational endpoints and the coeﬃcients are rational to get a countable dense subset.x] and χ[0.x] − χ[0. Thus C is a closed subset of L∞ . let x = y/(1 + y).e. Then {x : ρ(x. Sy.δ . Thus h is onetoone. When ρ(x.13. Contradiction. y ∈ [0. there exists δ > 0 such that x ∈ O ⊂ E for all x with ρ(x. 1). 1] with x = y such that χ[0. there exists fn ∈ C such that fn − g∞ < 1/n. y) < δ so x ∈ E. Hence h is a homeomorphism between [0. if ¯ Hence {x : ρ(x. let δ = ε. then x(1 − y) = y(1 − x) so x = y. From the deﬁnition.δ . The function h. given f ∈ L1 and ε > 0. 4c. y ∈ [0. y) > δ. {x : ρ(x. For any y ∈ [0. For a ﬁxed set E. y) − ρ(x. Then f (x) = ρ(x. there exists y ∈ E such that ρ(x. E is an open subset of E so E ◦ ⊂ O⊂E O. By Q2. 7.y] − d∞ < 1/2. Conversely. y). then for any δ > 0. Thus f (x) − f (z) < ε. Consider the ball Sy.ε ⊂ Sy. i. E) = 0. Then χ[0. Consider χ[0.δ = {x : ρ(x. Consider the set S = {x : ρ(x. If there exists a countable dense subset D. Rn is separable with the set of ntuples of rational numbers being a countable dense subset. For any y ∈ Sx. let X be any metric space with X > 1 and ρ being the discrete metric. z) > ρ(x. 1]. Thus E ⊂ E⊂F F for closed sets F . then for any z ∈ Sy.
Suppose xn1 . xnk ) + ρ(xnk . σ) is a bounded metric space. Clearly. Let X and Y be metric spaces and f a mapping from X to Y . Since h is continuous at 0. Then when ρ∗ (x.z)+ρ(z. then σ is an extended metric (resp. Now σ(x. 11a. there exists n ≥ N with ρ(x. The subsequence xnk converges to x. When ρ+ (x. Similarly for ρ∗ and ρ+ . Consider the discrete metric ψ. On the other hand. there exists xn ∈ E with ρ(x.y) = 1 − 1+ρ(x. Hence σ is a metric on X. y) < δ. y) < δ. . f (xn )) ≥ ε. xn ) < 1/n.z)+ρ(z. given ε > 0. There also exists N such that ρ(x. xn1 ) < 1. There exists nk+1 ≥ nk such that ρ(x. The rest of the argument in part (a) follows. . Let ρ be a metric on a set X and let σ = ρ/(1 + ρ). ρ) to (X. then every subsequence of xn has x as a cluster point by Q12. the two implications show that the identity mapping is continuous from (X. Since the identity mapping is clearly bijective. y)) < ε. Conversely. ρ(x. ε). ρ∗ (x. . Thus ρ+ and ρ are equivalent metrics. xn1 ) ≥ ε. ρ). Hence σ and ρ are equivalent metrics for X. Suppose f is continuous at x and let xn be a sequence in X that converges to x. 11b. suppose there is a subsequence xnk that converges to x. Let E be a set in a metric space X. Suppose the sequence xn has x as a cluster point. 14. . σ(x. we see that if σ(x. . let δ < min(δ . ym ) < ε/2 for n. ρ(x. N ).y) ≤ σ(x. xnk+1 ) < 1/(k + 1). 16. yn ) ≤ ρ(xn . By Q12.4 Convergence and completeness 12. . xnk ) < ε for k ≥ N . y) = 1−σ(x. σ) to (X. y) = 1+ρ(x. Hence the sequence xn converges to x. Thus ρ and ρ∗ are equivalent metrics. 0). y) < δ. ρ(x. y) < δ . ρ(x. y) < ε. Let xn and yn be Cauchy sequences from a metric space X. xm ) < ε/2 for n. y) < δ < ε. Thus ψ is not equivalent to the metrics in part (b). there exists δ > 0 such that if ρ(x. y) = 0 if and ρ(x.z)+ρ(z.y) ≤ 1 − 1+ρ(x. y ∈ X so (X.y) = h(σ(x. y) < δ . Suppose xn1 . y) < ε. Let x = (0. If every subsequence of xn has in turn a subsequence that converges to x. y) ≥ 0 with σ(x. Conversely. Pick n1 such that ρ(x. xk ) ≤ ρ(x. y) < ρ(x. σ). y) < δ . y) < δ. y) < nδ = ε. y) < δ. then for each n. y) < δ. suppose xn does not converge to x. xnk+1 ) ≥ ε. If x is a cluster point of a sequence from E. f (y)) < ε if ρ(x. Thus ρ+ and ρ∗ are equivalent metrics. y) < (nδ 2 )1/2 = (ε2 /n)1/2 < ε. When ρ(x. y) < δ. Given ε > 0. Note that ρ(x. When ρ(x. . There √ < exists δ > 0 with δ < ε/ n such that ρ∗ (x. xn ) < 1/n but σ(f (x). xnk have been chosen. there exists xn with ρ(x. Thus σ(f (x). y) n < ε. Now for k ≥ N . ρ) and (X. 17a. ρ(x.10a. y) < δ. Then nk ≥ k ≥ N and ρ(x. Suppose the sequence xn converges to x. y) < δ < ε. there is a subsequence xnk that converges to x. m ≥ N . suppose f is not continuous at x.y) 1 1 only if x = y. y) = σ(y. pseudometric). xn ) < ε. If ρ is an extended metric (resp. y) = 1. y) ≤ 1 for all x. y) < δ. x ∈ E. The sequence xn converges to x. y) < δ but ψ(x. There exists n1 ≥ 1 such that ρ(x. xn ) < δ for n ≥ N . Conversely. When ρ+ (x. y) < ε. σ(x. Given ε > 0. y))2 < δ 2 so ρ+ (x. xn ) ≥ ε. there exists δ > 0 such that σ(f (x). there exists δ > 0 such that h(σ(x. xnk ) < ε/2 for k ≥ N and ρ(xn . Given ε > 0.y) 1+ρ(x. Then every subsequence of xn also converges to x and so has x as a cluster point. m ≥ N . When ρ∗ (x. Pick k ≥ max(N. Since xn ∈ E.y) 7. y)√ δ implies ρ+ (x. there exists N such that ρ(xn . y)) < ε when σ(x. . there exists N such that ρ(x. ρ+ (x. 10c. ym )+ρ(ym . xk ) < ε. For any δ > 0. if x ∈ E. Suppose ρ and σ are equivalent metrics on X. x). . xnk ) < ε. y) ≤ ρ(x. ρ∗ (x. When ρ(x. The identity mapping is a homeomorphism between (X. 15. Suppose a Cauchy sequence xn in a metric space has a cluster point x. y). The subsequence xnk does not have x as a cluster point. . f (xn )) < ε for n ≥ N so the sequence f (xn ) converges to f (x) in Y . then σ(x. pseudometric). σ) as well as from (X. y) = h(σ(x. then given ε > 0. The sequence xn converges to x but f (xn ) does not converge to f (x). . z) + σ(z. xnk have been chosen. Thus given x ∈ X and ε > 0. y) < δ < ε. .y) = σ(x. (ρ+ (x. Then pick nk+1 ≥ nk such that ρ(x. Thus x is a cluster point of the sequence xn . Furthermore. yn ) so 32 . 13. we can choose y = x such that ρ(x. Conversely. xm )+ρ(xm . xm ) < ε/2 and ρ(yn . y) < δ. σ(x. Also. By considering the inverse function. Then there exists ε > 0 such that for every n. Given ε > 0 and given N . y)) where h is the function in Q8. there exists N such that ρ(x. then ρ(x. ¯ ¯ there exists n such that ρ(x. Thus xn converges to x. Now given ε > 0. Given ε > 0. it is a homeomorphism so ρ and σ are equivalent metrics. σ(x. When σ(x. 10b. let δ = ε/n. Now ρ(xn . There exists ε > 0 such that for each N .
ym ) ≤ ρ(xn . y) = ρ1 ( x . Hence T is an isometry between X and T [X] ⊂ X ∗ . (x. When ρ1 ( x. Then τ ((xn . y ) = ρ(x . x) < ε/2 and σ(yn . xm ) + ρ(yn . x . xm. Thus T is onetoone. then xn ∼ yn so they are equal in X ∗ . yn ) = lim ρ(xn . Since ρ∗ (T x. xm . we may assume (by taking a subsequence) that ρ(xn . y . yn ) − ρ(xm . xn ) = ρ∗ ( yn . ρ∗ ( xn . yn ). 7. Let (X.m ) < ε/2. yn ) ≤ ρ∗ ( xn . . x. yn ). yn ) = lim ρ(xn . y ) < δ.m ∞ ∞ be a sequence of such Cauchy sequences which represents a Cauchy sen=1 m=1 quence in X ∗ . ¯ 21a. Let f be a uniformly continuous mapping of a metric space X into a metric space Y and let xn be a Cauchy sequence in X. ym )2 )1/2 = τ ((xn . x ) + ρ(x . Given ε > 0. Thus the pseudometric space becomes a metric space.m . ym ). xn. y ) ≥ 0. yn ). T is continuous on X and its inverse is continuous on T [X]. 33 . x ) < ε/2 and σ(y. y . Hence ρ1 and ρ∞ are uniformly equivalent to the usual product metric τ . f (xn ) converges to some y ∈ Y . yn ) − ρ∗ ( xn . yn ) converges to (x. the sequence yn is Cauchy in Y . y . xm )2 + σ(yn . *17e. yn ) = lim ρ(xn . Hence f (xn ) is a Cauchy sequence in Y . limn ρ(xn. y ) < ε/2 so τ ( x. m ≥ N .5 Uniform continuity and uniformity 19.n is Cauchy in X and represents the limit of the Cauchy sequence in X ∗ . Furthermore. T y) = lim ρ(x. ym )). ym ) − ρ(xn . If xn is a Cauchy sequence from X. Given ε > 0. x.m ∞ n=1 is Cauchy in X. x . let δ = ε/2. ρ1 ( x.m ) < ε/2. Then T X = T and T T [X] = T −1 so (T ◦ T )T [X] = idT [X] and X onto X ¯ (T ◦ T )X = idX . yn ) for Cauchy sequences xn and yn . Deﬁne xn to be equivalent to yn (written as xn ∼ yn ) if ρ∗ ( xn . ρ(x. xn+1 ) < 2−n . T [X] is dense in X ∗ . y) < δ implies σ(f (x). y . y ) = ρ(x. Then ρ∗ ( xn .m ) < ε/2. x . f (y)) < ε. yn ) = 0 so ρ∗ ( xn . y . yn ). ρ1 ( x. y ) = ρ1 ( x. x ) + σ(y.e. there exists N such that ρ(xn .m . y . xn ) + ρ∗ ( yn .m . x ). Given ε > 0. Since ρ(xn . x . x . If xn ∼ xn and yn ∼ yn . 20.m ) < ε/2 since the sequence xn. y = x . We may assume that for n ≥ N .m ) < ε/2. y ) ≤ ρ(x. xn ). y) = 0 so x = y. yn ) ≤ ρ(xn . In particular. y ) < ε. if T x = T y. σ) be two complete metric spaces. ρ1 ( x. x) + σ(y . ym ). Since T [X] is dense in X ∗ and X is dense in X ∩ Y . y )) < ε. 17b. x . yn ) be a Cauchy sequence in X × Y . y ) = 0 if and only if x = x and y = y if and only if x. zn ) + ρ∗ ( zn . Thus there is a ¯ unique isometry T from X ∩ Y onto X ∗ that extends T . the sequence xn is Cauchy in X. yn ) ≥ 0 for each n. Finally. y). . xm ) + ρ(yn . Hence the sequence ρ(xn . Also. Thus ρ(xn . . ¯ 18. xn converges to some x ∈ X. i. 17d. y ) = ρ(x. Associate each x ∈ X with the equivalence class in X ∗ containing the constant sequence x. x . y . Similarly. ρ∞ is a metric. y . Let xn. ρ1 ( x. ρ∗ ( xn . If ρ∗ ( xn . When ρ∞ < δ. then ρ(x. y . there is a unique isometry T from ∗ ¯ ∩ Y that extends T −1 . x . ρ) and (Y. Also. Furthermore. yn ) is Cauchy in R and thus converges. m ≥ N . yn ) ≥ 0 since ρ(xn . x ) = 0 and σ(y. y ) + ρ1 ( x . This deﬁnes a mapping T from X onto T [X]. x)2 + σ(yn . x . Given ε > 0. yn ) = ρ∗ ( xn . Hence the sequence (xn .ρ(xn . Hence ρ1 is a metric. σ(y. ρ(xm . y ) < ε2 /4 + ε2 /4 < ε. Similarly. Thus σ(f (xn ). y ) < ε/2 so τ ( x. m ≥ N . yn converges to some y ∈ Y . y . y ) + σ(y .m . yn ) ≤ lim ρ(xn . y . m ≥ N so the sequence xn. y )2 < ε2 /4 so ρ1 ( x. y . y ) = ρ(x. x ) + σ(y. y)) = (ρ(xn . x ) + σ(y. yn ) − ρ(xm . y) < ε/2 for n ≥ N . y ) < ε2 /4 + ε2 /4 < ε. Similarly. Thus ρ(xm. yn ) = lim ρ(yn . ym ) ≤ ρ(xn . y ) = ρ(x. x ) + σ(y. Since X is complete. xm ) + ρ(yn . Let xn be a sequence from E that converges to a point x ∈ E. x . ρ∞ ( x. . xn ) = lim ρ(xn . y) = ρ(x. y ) < δ. m ≥ N . Hence the set of all Cauchy sequences from a metric space becomes a pseudometric space under ρ∗ . there exists δ > 0 such that ρ(x. we have T ◦ T = idX ∗ and −1 ∗ T ◦ T = idX∩Y so (T = T ) . xm ) ≤ (ρ(xn . xn ) = 0. xn. ρ(xm. Also. Since Y is complete. We may also assume that ρ(xm. When τ ( x. y)2 )1/2 < ε for n ≥ N . y ) = 0 if and only if ρ(x. ρ∗ ( xn. ρ(x.m . xn. x . y ) = max(ρ(x. x . yn ) = ρ∗ ( xn . x )2 < ε2 /4 and σ(y. then ρ∗ ( xn .m ) < ε for m.m . yn ) = 0. ρ∗ ( xn . xm ) < δ for n. y . ρ(x. There exists N such that ρ(xn . zn ) + lim ρ(zn . (xm . Hence X is isometric with the closure of X in Y . Let (xn . Then xn is Cauchy in X so f (xn ) is Cauchy in Y . xm . Deﬁne ρ∗ ( xn . Similarly. x ) < ε/2 and σ(y. there exists N such that for m. y . ρ(xn. 17c. y ). yn ) = 0. T is an isometry from X onto T [X] and T −1 is an isometry from T [X] onto X. y ). ym ) < ε for n. f (xm )) < ε for n. Similarly. y) ∈ X × Y and X × Y is complete. x ) + σ(y.
ε). y) < δ. g(¯ )) < ε. Thus total boundedness is a uniform property. ρ∗ (x. y)) < ε. Let xn be a sequence in E converging to x and let xn be a x ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ sequence in E converging to x . Choose N such that N > 2/ε and let xn = (n − 1)/N for n = 1. There exists δ > 0 such that ρ(x. 22a. ([0. Hence [0. 1 1 ∗ ∗ ∗ Thus ρ (x. Hence Y = n=1 Sf (xn ). Then ρ(x. choose n large enough so that 3n2 δ > 1. x x x ¯ to Y that agrees with f on E. ∞) is not totally bounded. y) < δ < ε. . y) < δ < ε. Given δ > 0. Given ε > 0. y) = (n + δ)3 − n3 > 3n2 δ > 1. ε/n. there exists δ > 0 such that h(σ(x. ∞) is totally bounded. y) < ε. However ρ and ρ are not uniformly equivalent metrics. Note that ρ(x. ∞). f (xn )) + σ(f (xn ). y) < ε. m ≥ N so σ(f (xn ). Then h(xn ) converges to h(x) and g(xn ) converges to g(x). Then y = f (x) for some k x ∈ X. y))2 < δ 2 so ρ+ (x. xn ) < δ and σ(f (x). Hence f (xn ) and f (xn ) converge to the same point. y) < δ. ρ and ρ are equivalent metrics. . y) = 1−σ(x. For each n. ∞). y) < δ. When ρ(x. 23b. y) = δ and ρ (x. y) < nδ = ε. Hence boundedness is not a uniform property. f (xm )) < ε for n. y) < ρ(x. let δ = ε/n. Suppose xn and xn both converge to x. When σ(x. But then xk + 2 is not in any of the balls Sxn . √ Then when ρ∗ (x. 1). Thus ρ+ and ρ are uniformly equivalent metrics. x) < δ/2 for n ≥ N . y) < δ. Let ε = σ(y. ρ(x. g(¯)) < ε/3 and x x x ¯ σ(f (xn ). . 3εx1 + 12 /n). Since h(xn ) = g(xn ) for all n. Contradiction. ∞) = n=1 Sxn . Let h be a continuous function from E a sequence in E converging to x. Given ε > 0. y) < δ . y) ≤ ρ(x.21b. Take y ∈ Y .y) 22c. Suppose f (xn ) converges to y and f (xn ) converges to y with y = y . When ρ∗ (x. ρ+ (x. y)) < ε when σ(x. y) < δ. 1) are balls of radius ε that cover [0. y) n < ε. We may assume that σ(f (xn ). When ρ(x.1 . Thus σ(g(¯). ρ(x. Let x ∈ E and let xn be ¯ 21d. n and x3 − y1  < δ. f (x )) < ε/3 for x. f (xn )) < ε. 1) and [0. x1 . Then σ(y. there exists δ > 0 such that ρ(x. y) < δ. We may assume σ(f (xn ). Given ε > 0. y) < δ. We may assume that x1 . ¯ ¯ ¯ Then ρ(xn . ∞). Suppose [0. There exists N such that ρ(xn . x1 + δ).δ that cover X.y) = h(σ(x. 23c. y) < δ. There exists δ > 0 with δ < ε/sqrtn such that ρ∗ (x. Let ε > 0 be given. ∞) with the usual metric ρ is an unbounded metric space. Thus ρ and ρ∗ are uniformly equivalent metrics. x1 − 1) δ < ε/n and ρ (x. ¯ Suppose ρ(¯. . The intervals (xn − 1/N. σ) be metric spaces with X totally bounded. There k exist ﬁnitely many balls Sxn .δ . . ρ) be a totally bounded metric space. x ) < δ implies σ(f (x). f (x )) < ε. When ρ+ (x. y) < δ . k say [0. σ) is a bounded metric space.ε so Y is totally bounded. there are a ﬁnite number of balls of 34 . When 3 3 ρ (x. Then x1 − y1  = x3 − y1 /3ξ 2  < ε/n.1 . Thus ρ+ and ρ∗ are uniformly equivalent metrics. ε/3nx1 − 12 . There also exists N such that ρ(xn . 0 and let y = n + δ. ∞). Let f : (X. 21c. . f (xn ) converges to some y = g(¯) ∈ Y and f (xn ) converges to some y = g(¯ ) ∈ Y .f. x ∈ E. Thus total boundedness is not a topological property. let δ < min(δ . Since h is continuous at 0. ρ(x. . Thus [0. n 3 *22b. y) < δ. ρ∗ (x. f (xn )) + σ(f (xn ). Thus ρ(xn . ∞). 0 . m ≥ N . ¯ we get a function on E extending f . x) < δ/2 and ρ(xn . . xn + 1/N ) ∩ [0. Also. x) < δ/3 and ρ(xn . the function h(x) = x/(1 − x) is a homeomorphism between [0. y) < δ implies ρ+ (x. . y) = x3 − y1  + i=2 xi − yi . Thus x1 − y1  < 3 max(x1 + 1. Let (X. Now x ∈ Sxn . (ρ+ (x. . . N . Now given ε > 0. Contradiction. . ε/3nx1 + 12 . Given x ∈ R and ε > 0. Q11a) 23a. f (xn )) < ε/3 for n ≥ N . x ) < δ implies σ(f (x). Deﬁne ρ (x. ρ) and ([0. . x ) < δ implies σ(f (x). y ) ≤ σ(y. y )/4. (c. ρ) and (Y. When ρ∗ (x.δ for some n so ρ(x. x ) < δ/3 for n ≥ N . the metric σ = ρ/(1 + ρ) is uniformly equivalent to ρ so there is a uniform homeomorphism between ([0. Hence σ and ρ are uniformly equivalent metrics for X. . xi − yi  < δ for each i and x3 − y1  = 3ξ 2 x1 − y1  for 1 3 3 2 some ξ ∈ (x1 − δ. When ρ(x. When ρ+ (x. Let (X. By Q11a. choose δ < min(1. y) < ε. . 0. .e. given ε > 0. y) = h(σ(x. Hence g is uniformly continuous on E. i. y ) < 3ε = 3σ(y. f (x )) < ε. By Q22c. 23d. y) < (nδ 2 )1/2 = (ε2 /n)1/2 < ε. By Q8. X = n=1 Sxn . Let x = n. x ) < δ/3 with x. . Hence h ≡ g. g(¯ )) < ε/3 for n ≥ N . . y ) < ε for n ≥ N . y) < δ . σ) be a uniform homeomorphism. By deﬁning y = g(x). y) < δ < ε. y)) where h is the function in Q8. Hence ρ and ρ are equivalent metrics and since ρ and ρ are equivalent metrics. ρ) → (Y. 3εx1 − 3 12 /n. Then there are a ﬁnite number of balls of radius 1 that cover [0. there exists δ > 0 such that ρ(x. xi − yi  < ε/n for i = 2. σ). xn ) < δ for n ≥ N so σ(f (xn ). 0. σ(x. Then ρ is a metric on the set of ntuples of real 1 n numbers. y) < ε and σ(f (xn ). Let ε = 1. [0. σ(x. y )/4 > 0. g(x) = h(x). x ∈ E. xm ) < δ for n. xk are arranged in increasing order. 1) is totally bounded. . .
Hence σ is a bounded metric for which (O. we have 3ρk0 (xk0 . the spaces (Xk . x) = k=1 2−k ρ∗ (xk . Let Xk . z) + k=1 2−k ρ∗ (z. If for each k. ϕ(x) . τ ). y) ≤ k=1 2−k ρ∗ (x. i. Suppose that for each k. y) = τ (y. σk ) are uniformly homeomorphic. Hence τ (x. Suppose a sequence x(n) in Z converges to x ∈ Z. Given ε > 0. σk ) are homeomorphic with fk : Xk → Yk a ∞ ∞ homeomorphism. Now suppose B is a closed subset of a complete metric space Y . Thus if F ∩ K = ∅. Let Sn be the set of the centres of these balls. there exists δ > 0 such that ϕ(x) − ϕ(y) < ε/2 when ρ(x. . Then given ε > 0. Let X be a metric space. x) < ε for n ≥ N . y = ϕ(x)} is closed in X × R. Also. Then S = { x. ρk ) and (Yk . Hence f is a homeomorphism between ∞ ∞ k=1 Xk and k=1 Yk . For k = 1. ρ(x. Since ρ∞ is uniformly equivalent to the usual product metric by Q19. Now pYk ◦ f = fk ◦ pXk so it is continuous. then ρ(x. σ) is a complete metric space. Since X × R is complete. Let x ∈ A. When ρ∞ ( x. Then τ (x. y) < δ . yk ) where ρk = ρk /(1 + ρk ).radius 1/n that cover X. (n) Conversely. y) = k k n n n ∞ ∞ −k ∗ ρk (x. x) since ρ∗ (xk . y) = k k k k k=1 2 τ (x. y) ≥ 0 since ρk (xk .e. Since 2k0 ε = min(ε/2. Now y ∈ B = B so B is complete. xk ) for all k. there exists M such that ρk (xk . xk0 )) for n ≥ N so (1 − 2 ε )ρk0 (xk0 . y) > δ for all x ∈ K and all y ∈ F . xk ) < ε/2. Let σ = ρ/(1 + ρ). Thus ρ(x. By Q22c. y). Then exists N such that τ (x(n) . ϕ(x) . xk0 )/4 < 2k0 ε < ε/2 for n ≥ N . suppose xk converges to xk for each k. if F ∩ K = ∅. y) ≤ k=1 2−k ρ∗ (x. Then by Q14. τ ) is complete. Let A be a complete subset of a metric space X. xk ) < ε/2 for n ≥ M . x(n) converges to xk ∈ Z. y. there is a sequence from A that converges to x. Deﬁne ∞ −k ∗ ∗ ∗ τ (x. choose N such that N > 1/ε. F ) > 0 for all x ∈ K. Then it is a Cauchy sequence in Y ¯ so it converges to some y ∈ Y . Oc ) for each x ∈ O. xk0 ) < ε for n ≥ N and (n) xk (n) (n) converges to xk for each k. τ (x.6 Subspaces ¯ 25. k k Hence x(n) converges to x. 7. When ρ(x. ε/2). z) + τ (z. yk ) ≥ 0 for all k. then there exists x ∈ K and y ∈ F such that ρ(x. ρ). Given ε > 0. Also. Hence (Z. ρ) is complete. 24c. ρk ) and (Yk . let ε = min(2−k−1 ε. y). ρk ) is complete. note that f is continuous if and only if pYk ◦ f is continuous for each k. ρ) → (S. the spaces (Xk . F ) = inf y∈F ρ(x. (n) xk is a Cauchy sequence in (Xk . N . Let ϕ(x) = ρ(x. . . Thus f is continuous. y). ρk ) so it converges to xk ∈ Xk . The function f K is continuous on a compact set so it attains a minimum δ > 0. Now for each n. y) + ϕ(x) − ϕ(y) < ε. By part (a). then by a similar ∞ ∞ argument as part (c). y) ≤ τ (x. f (y)) = ρ(x. F ) = 0} = F = F . ∞ 24a. S is complete. x ∈ A. 24b. there exists N such that (n) ∞ −k ∗ ρk (xk . y : x ∈ O. 1/4). Thus f is a uniform homeomorphism and (O. Suppose each (Xk .7 Compact metric spaces 27. Let yn be a Cauchy sequence in B. f −1 is −1 continuous since pXk ◦ f −1 = fk ◦ pYk is continuous for each k. Let O be an open subset of a complete metric space (X. 7. k=1 2 (n) (n) (n) k0 k0 ρk0 (xk0 . ρ(x. τ (x. S is complete under the metric ρ∞ . 35 . τ (x. . yk ) = ρ∗ (yk . the spaces k=1 Xk and k=1 Yk are uniformly homeomorphic. y) < δ < ε. xk0 ) < 2k0 ε for n ≥ N . Thus S is a dense subset of X. Now f is bijective. Thus τ is a metric on Z. Deﬁne f : k=1 Xk → k=1 Yk by f ( xk ) = f (xk ) . Hence X is separable. ρ∞ (f (x). Since A is complete. *26. Thus A is closed. z) + τ (z. ρ∞ ) with f (x) = x. xk0 ) < 2 ε (1 + ρk0 (xk0 . Similarly. Consider the function ¯ f (x) = ρ(x. ρk be a sequence of metric spaces and deﬁne their direct product Z = k=1 Xk . x ) < 1/N < ε for some x ∈ SN ⊂ S. y) = 0 so ρ(F. Let x(n) be a Cauchy sequence in (Z. By Q9b. Then for each k. xk ) < ε for n ≥ N . K a compact subset and F a closed subset. k=N +1 2 N ∞ N Thus τ (x(n) . Let δ = min(δ. 2−k−2 ). Then f is bijective since each fk ∞ is. 24d. Consider f : (O. y) = k=1 2 ρk (xk . yk ) = 0 for all k if and only if xk = yk for all k if and only if k x = y. Furthermore. σ is uniformly equivalent to ρ. y) < δ. Conversely. Then each Sn is a ﬁnite set and S = Sn is a countable set. There ∞ −k ∗ (n) ρk (xk . Given ε > 0. ϕ(y) ) < δ . xk ) < k=1 ε/2k+1 + ε/2 < ε for n ≥ M . Hence ρk0 (xk0 . {x : ρ(x. z) + k=1 2−k ρ∗ (z. For any x ∈ X. y) = 0 if and only if ρ∗ (xk . xk ) + k=N +1 2−k ρ∗ (xk . K) = 0. where pYk : k=1 → Yk is the projection map.
Let A = { xn : xk ∈ Ak for k ≤ N. then the ball contains a point y ∈ E. Suppose each Xk is totally bounded. There exist ﬁnitely many balls {Bxn . 30b. ¯ 34. nowhere dense. Since En is dense for c each n. Then yn ∈ A and < ε 2 + 1 2N < ε. Let X be a totally bounded metric space and let f : X → Y be a uniformly continuous map onto Y . Then Bx. Hence En is of the ﬁrst category. By Q31a.k En. 1) onto [0. set contains a point in E 32a. y) − ϕ(y))/2.r ⊂ O. Hence the balls {Bf (xn ). If ¯ ¯ x ∈ E. Then F c is dense. Given ε > 0. Since X is compact. For k > N . Since O is open. 1] with mFn = 1 − 1/n. If ¯ Contradiction. 29b. If 0 < r < r − ρ(x. Suppose O is open and F is closed. xn ) < δ and σ(f (x). for each n. 7.r ⊂ Bx.y. Thus ϕ(x) > 0. Then each Xk is complete and totally bounded. which is a countable union of nowhere dense sets. Hence A is of the ﬁrst category. it is bounded so ϕ(x) < ∞. Suppose Bx.r ⊂ O. ¯ \ O is a closed set containing no open sets. Let E = Fn ⊂ [0. . Then O contains a point x in E c .r ⊂ O. xMk } such that for any x ∈ Xk . Z is complete. For each x ∈ X. If X is sequentially compact. By part (a). 1]. choose N such that (k) (k) 2N > 2/ε. the generalised Cantor set constructed from [0. y) < ε by part (b). Then En = k En. By part (a). . pick pk ∈ Xk . suppose a closed set contains no open set.r ⊂ O for some O ∈ U . If ϕ(y) < ϕ(x) − ρ(x. We may assume X ∈ U .k for each n. Thus O 36 . Set ϕ(x) = sup{r : ∃O ∈ U with Bx. 33b. Hence any nonempty open ¯ c and E is nowhere dense. O \ O is nowhere dense. f (x )) < ε. then there exists r > ϕ(y) + ρ(x.y) ) < k (xk k ∈ Ak such = (k) xj for k ≤ N and let N ∞ −k ε −k k=1 2 k=N +1 2 2 + yk = pk for k > N . 29a. Hence ϕ(y) ≥ ϕ(x) − ρ(x. Z is totally bounded and by Q24b. Now En = n k En. Then A = M1 · · · MN .k = n. ¯ is open so there is a ball centred at x and contained in O \ E ⊂ O \ E. Contradiction. Then E is of the ﬁrst category and 1 − 1/n ≤ mE ≤ 1 for each n so mE = 1. Let Z = k=1 Xk . δ < ϕ(x) so there exists r > δ such that Bx. y) < δ.8 Baire category 31a.δ ⊂ Bx. Then any open set contains a point in F c so F c is dense and F is nowhere dense. y) = k=1 2−k 1+ρ(xk .r ⊂ O}. ϕ(x) − ϕ(y) ≤ ρ(x. Then ε > 0 since ϕ(x) > 0 for all x. When ρ(x. Then y = f (x) for some x ∈ X. 32b. 1) is totally bounded but [0. Suppose that En is a sequence of sets of the ﬁrst category. 29d. Hence Z is compact. 1] by removing intervals of length 1/(n3n ) at the nth step is closed. there is a nowhere dense closed set Fn ⊂ [0. Given ε > 0. xk = (k) (k) pk for k > N }. y) such that Bx. Thus any open set contains a point in F c so any open set cannot be contained in F . Now (A ∩ En )c ⊃ (A ∩ En )c = Ac ∪ En for each n.k is nowhere dense. Suppose a closed set F is nowhere dense. ϕ attains its minimum on X.r ⊂ O. then By.28a. there exists r such that Bx. Let the centre of the ball be x. there exists / O ∈ U such that x ∈ O. 33a. The function h(x) = x/(1 − x) is a continuous map from [0. Conversely. there exists Ak = {x1 . xj ) < ε/2. Given ε > 0. Conversely.14b. (A ∩ En ) is dense for each n. there exists δ > 0 such that ρ(x. x ) < δ implies σ(f (x).k . Now x ∈ Bxn .r ⊂ O for some O ∈ U . Suppose E is nowhere dense and let O be a nonempty open set. xj ) < ε/2.δ for n=2 some n so ρ(x. Let yk n ρk k τ (x. For each k ≤ N . let δ = ε. Let ε be as deﬁned in part (d). ∞). f (xn )) < ε. suppose ¯ Now O \ E that for any nonempty open set O there is a ball contained in O \ E. Take y ∈ Y . y). Thus x ∈ E c .δ }k that cover X. ∞ *30a. Let ε = inf ϕ. for each k ≤ N . 28b. we have ϕ(y) < r < r − ρ(x. If O \ O contains an open set O . then O contains a point in O.ε }k cover Y and Y is totally n=1 bounded. [0. ¯ 31b. there exists xj (k) ∈ Ak with ρk (x. there exists xj (k) that ρk (xk . If xn ∈ Z. y). y) and By. For any x ∈ X and δ < ε. where each En. 29e. . and has Lebesgue measure 1 − 1/n. . 29c. Contradiction. By Q3. Thus ϕ is continuous on X. y). ∞) is not. Then E = En where each En is nowhere ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯c ¯c dense and A = (A ∩ En ). Now ϕ(y) < r − ρ(x. y) so taking r = ϕ(y) + (r − ρ(x. Suppose each Xk is compact. Suppose that E is of the ﬁrst category and A ⊂ E.r ⊂ O for some O ∈ U .
37a. 37b. Since each (En )c is dense and ¯n )c is dense so E contains a dense Gδ .e. Suppose that given ε > 0. contradicting the Baire category theorem. there exist N and a neighbourhood U of x such that σ(fn (x ).F \ F ◦ contains an open set O . For each k. for any g ∈ C and any ε > 0. Hence there is no such function. 39. If f is a realvalued function on [0. Let E be a subset of a complete metric space. there exists m such that f (x) ≤ m for all f ∈ F. Then ◦ ◦ O = Em ⊂ X is a dense open set and for each x ∈ O. say E ⊃ On . 1]. Since xk ∈ [0. say E = Fn and E c = Fn where each Fn and Fn is closed. 1 − 1/n] for all k and [0. 1]. x2 . Let X be a complete metric space without isolated points. each Fn and Fn is nowhere dense. Hence its complement. Let E be a subset of a complete metric space. F \ F ◦ is nowhere dense. . i. F circ is empty. Then f (x) − f (x0 ) ≤ n(x − x0 ) so f ∈ Fn .47. we may assume that xk converges to some x0 ∈ [0. Since On is dense.f . then the set of points of continuity of f is a Gδ . each On is dense so On is nowhere c dense and E is of the ﬁrst category. Since the set of rational numbers in [0. f (x)) < ε for n ≥ N and all x ∈ U . Let C = C[0. 1 − 1/n] is compact. Thus F \ F ◦ is a closed set containing no open sets. 40a. For each m. 1]. Then X = {xn } where each {xn } is nowhere dense and X is of the ﬁrst category. In particular. By part (a). the set of irrational numbers in [0. Suppose E and E c are both dense in a complete metric space X. 1] is not an Fσ by part (b). is not a Gδ . 1] is a Gδ . By Q31a. By part (a). Suppose E c is dense and F is a closed set contained in E. 1] and set Fn = {f : ∃x0 with 0 ≤ x0 ≤ 1 − 1/n and f (x) − f (x0 ) ≤ n(x − x0 ) for all x. . there is a ball centred at x and contained in O so x ∈ F ◦ . [0. 37d. Hence E is residual. We may assume that xn ∈ U for 37 . 1 − 1/n]. suppose E contains the metric space is complete.f is closed and so Em is closed. If E is residual. Thus F = F \ F ◦ is nowhere dense. A subset E of a complete metric space is of the ﬁrst category if and only if E c is a residual subset of a complete metric space if and only if E c contains a dense Gδ if and only if E is contained in an Fσ whose complement is dense. Then X = Fn ∪ Fn so X is of the ﬁrst category. 1] and the set of irrational numbers in [0. Hence X = Em . 1] is complete since it is a closed subspace of the complete metric space R. Hence at most one of the sets E and E c is an Fσ . Then E c ⊂ On . *38a.f = {x : f (x) ≤ m}. then E c is of the ﬁrst category so c ¯ ¯ E c = En where each En is nowhere dense. 1] is uncountable. 38c. 35. Let xn be a sequence with x = lim xn . Suppose X has a countable number of points x1 . and suppose that for each x ∈ X there is a number Mx such that f (x) ≤ Mx for all f ∈ F. By Q2. the set of rationals in [0. 1] has no isolated points. [0. For each x ∈ X. 36a. Conversely. Contradiction. 1] is the union of the Fn ’s so D is of the ﬁrst category in C. let Em. D = C so there is a function in C \ D. Also suppose that E and E c are both Fσ ’s. *38b. then F ◦ is of the ﬁrst category. Hence X has an uncountable number of points. 1]. and let Em = F Em. Let F be a family of realvalued continuous functions on a complete metric space X. There also exists a polygonal function ψ whose righthand derivative is c everywhere greater than n in absolute value and ϕ(x) − ψ(x) < ε/2 for all x ∈ [0. Since each f is continuous. 1]. 37c. (E c c a dense Gδ . . 36b. contradicting the Baire category theorem. Then F c ⊃ E c so F c is dense and F is nowhere dense. 1]. Since D is of the ﬁrst category in the complete metric space C. 1] which is continuous on the rationals and discontinuous on the irrationals. Thus E = En ⊃ (En )c . that is. [0. Em. 1] is an Fσ . Also. The set D of continuous functions which have a ﬁnite derivative on the right for at least one point of [0. x ∈ Em for some m so there is a neighbourhood ◦ U of x such that U ⊂ Em . contradicting part (c). F is uniformly bounded on U . there exists xk with 0 ≤ xk ≤ 1 − 1/n and fk (x) − fk (xk ) ≤ n(x − xk ) for xk ≤ x < 1. 38d. By the Baire category theorem. a nowhere diﬀerentiable continuous function on [0. Hence Fn is nowhere dense. then for any point x ∈ O . The set of rational numbers in [0. x0 ≤ x < 1}. the set of rational numbers in [0. Suppose fk − f  → 0 where fk ∈ Fn . Then ψ ∈ Fn and g(x) − ψ(x) < ε for all x ∈ [0.. If F is closed and of the ﬁrst category in a complete metric space. there exists a polygonal function ϕ such that g(x) − ϕ(x) < ε/2 for all x ∈ [0. 1] are both dense in the complete metric space [0.
K ⊂ i=1 Uxi for some x1 . E is a dense Gδ by Baire’s theorem. f (x)) < ε/2 for x ∈ U . fl (x )) ≤ 1/m and x ∈ Fm. For any ε > 0 and k. In particular. 1/n and f (x) = g(x0 . fl (xN )) + σ(fl (xN ). σ(fk (x ). . Then x ∈ Fm. f (x )) ≤ 1/m < ε for any k ≥ n and x ∈ U . fl (x )) ≤ σ(fk (x ). there exists N and a neighbourhood U of x such that σ(fn (x ). f (x)) < ε/3 for n ≥ N . xnk have been chosen. For m. f (x)) < ε for n ≥ N and fn converges continuously to f at x. Let X be a complete metric space and fn a sequence of continuous maps of X into a metric space Y such that f (x) = lim fn (x) for each x ∈ X. f (x)) < ε/3 for x ∈ U . 0) = lim g(xn . By part (b). 40b. fl (x)) < 1/m so x ∈ Fm. . (g). f (x)) < 3ε/4 for k ≥ N . fk (xN )) + σ(fk (xN ). Conversely. f (x)) ≤ σ(fk (xk ). For any x ∈ X. There exists n1 ≥ 1 and xn1 ∈ U1 with σ(fn1 (xn1 ). Then there exists a neighbourhood U of x such that σ(fn (x ). Thus there exists a neighbourhood U of x such that U ⊂ Fm. Since each fn is continuous. l ≥ n and any x ∈ U . Then x = lim xnk by construction but f (x) = lim fnk (xnk ) so fn does not converge continuously to f . 0 . 0 . Conversely. By part (c). . fn (x)) < ε/3 and σ(f (x ). there exists a dense Gδ in X on which fn converges continuously to f . f (x )) < ε so fn converges uniformly to f on K. Since each Om is open and dense. f (x )) < ε m for each n ≥ Nx and x ∈ Ux . 40e. there exist N and a neighbourhood U of x such that σ(fn (x ). 0) = lim g(xn . . Given ε > 0.n . 0 = lim xn . There is a sequence xi in Fm. Thus σ(fn (x ). Conversely.n is closed. there exists N such that σ(fn (x). g(x0 .n is open and since X is complete. we have σ(fn (x ). For each n. It follows that for any k. fl (x)) ≤ σ(fk (x). Then σ(f (xk ). By Proposi◦ tion 31. Then fn converges uniformly to f on {x} for each x ∈ X. suppose there exists ε > 0 such that for any N and any neighbourhood U of x. n ∈ N. suppose fn converges continuously to f at x0 . Suppose g is continuous at x0 . Given ε > 0. Let (xn . ρ) and (Y. Conversely. Deﬁne g : X × Z → Y by g(x. suppose that given ε > 0. l ≥ n}. there exists n such that σ(fk (x). . f (x )) < ε/4 for all n ≥ N and all x ∈ U . ◦ 40g. There exists a neighbourhood U of x and an n such that σ(fk (x ). l ≥ n. then x ∈ Om for all m. let Un = Bx. i. fl (x )) ≤ 1/m. f is also continuous. σ(fk (x ). Then x0 . Hence X = n Fm. Suppose fn converges continuously to f on X. l ≥ n. zn ) so g is continuous at x0 . Let X be a complete metric space and fn a sequence of continuous functions of X into a metric space Y . Suppose fn converges pointwise to f . (h) and (a).e. deﬁne Fm. 1/n) = fn (x) and g(x. there exists δ > 0 such that ρ(x. fN (xk )) + σ(fN (xk ). We may assume that xk ∈ U for all k and σ(fN (xk ). f (x)) < ε for k ≥ N so f (x) = lim fk (xk ) and fn converges continuously to f at x. then f (x) = g(x. Thus σ(fk (xk ). f (x)) ≤ σ(f (xk ). 0) = lim g(xn . f (x)) < ε/4. Let xn be a sequence with x0 = lim xn . . 41a.n . If xn is a sequence converging to x. 0) = lim g(xn . fl (x)) ≤ 1/m for all k. Let Z = {1/n} ∪ {0}. Om = n Fm. Let fn be a sequence of continuous maps. f (x )) ≤ 1/m for any k ≥ n and x ∈ U . Let x be a point of closure of Fm. choose m > 1/ε. 1/n) = lim fn (xn ) so fn converges continuously to f at x0 . 40h. Since 0 = lim zn . fl (x )) < 2ε + 1/m. Hence fn converges continuously to f on X. fk (x )) < ε and σ(fl (x). . 0 . fl (x )) < ε. fN (x)) < ε/4 for k ≥ N . Thus σ(fn (x ). Let xk be a sequence with x = lim xk . f (x )) < ε for n ≥ N and x ∈ U . there exists n ≥ N and x ∈ U with σ(fn (x ). 0 = lim zn and f (x0 ) = lim fn (xn ).n . f (x)) < 1/2m for k ≥ n.all n ≥ N so σ(fn (xn ). there exists Nx and a neighbourhood Ux of x such that σ(fn (x ). σ(fk (x). Let (X. suppose fn converges uniformly to f on each compact subset of X. we have σ(fk (x ). By part (a). There exists nk+1 ≥ nk and xnk ∈ Uk with σ(fnk+1 (xnk+1 ). Since ε is arbitrary. f (x)) ≥ ε. f (x)) + σ(f (x).n = {x ∈ X : σ(fk (x). Then x0 = lim xn . Then for k. *40d. Then X = Ux so for any compact subset K ⊂ X. Suppose fn converges continuously to f at x. σ(fN (x). x ) < δ for i ≥ N .n so Fm. Let fn be a sequence of continous maps. f (x)) ≥ ε. Suppose xn1 . Thus σ(fk (x ). f (xk )) + σ(f (xk ). xm . 40f. 40i. the function g is continuous at x. For each x ∈ X and each ε > 0. If x ∈ E. f (x )) < ε for n ≥ N and x ∈ U . 40c.n .1/n . Then there exists N such that ρ(xi . fN (x)) + σ(fN (x). Let E = Om . 0) = f (x). . By parts (f). f is continuous at x so we may assume that σ(f (x ). given ε > 0.n for some n. Hence f is continuous at x. Let x ∈ Om . it follows that g(x0 . Thus for n ≥ max Nxi and x ∈ K. f (x)) < ε/2 for n ≥ N and x ∈ U . Om is also dense. f (x)) ≥ ε. 0) = lim f (xn ). 1/n). Let fn converge continuously to f at x. σ) be complete metric spaces and f : X × Y → Z be a mapping into a metric 38 . 0 in the product metric. x ) < δ implies σ(fk (x).n converging to x . Since f (x ) = lim fl (x ). zn ) be a sequence in X × Z converging to x0 .
y0 )] < 1/m. f (x . there exists x1 ∈ G such that ρ(x0 . x ) < δ for k ≥ N . y→x ◦ Since each Fq \ Fq is nowhere dense.53) and E is a Gδ set. y0 )] ≤ 2/m for all p ∈ U . Then τ [f (x . y0 ) < ε. f (xN . f (x . Thus G is a dense Gδ set in X such that {y : x. ρ) be a complete metric space and f : X → R be an upper semicontinuous function.f. y0 ) < 1/n. Let G = Om . Let f : X1 × · · · × Xp → Z be a mapping into a metric space Z that is continuous in each variable.z > 0 such that f [Bz. there exists a dense Gδ set G ⊂ X such that f is continuous at x.1/n /2 .δn. there exists δ > 0 such that σ(y. Since 39 .z ] ⊂ Bf (z). y0 )] ≤ 1/m and x ∈ Fm.n . y0 )] ≤ 1/m. y). There is a sequence xk in Fm. Hence X = n Fm. y). Let Om = n Fm. Let E be the set of points at which f is continuous. y) ≤ 2−n = 1 for all x. Suppose f is discontinuous at x. τ [f (xk . y0 ). Q2. then f (x) ≥ q and ◦ for any δ > 0. y0 ). Let En = z∈S Bz. τ [f (x . y). Hence G × H is a Gδ in X × Y . f (x. 42c. Thus G × H = Gn × Hn = (Gn × Hn ) where each Gn × Hn is open in X × Y . then for each n. y ∈ On } is a dense open subset of Y for each x ∈ Gn . E c is of the ﬁrst category and E is residual. Let G = Gn . Then x1 . Given ε > 0. *42b. Then there exists N such that ρ(xk .n . f (x. Then for any y with σ(y. Then E = On where each On is a dense open set in X × Y .9 Absolute Gδ ’s 44. y). *42d. y0 ) ≤ 1/n. f (xk . Hence G × H is dense in X × Y . y ∈ E. y0 ) < ε/2. y). Also. there exists y with ρ(x. y ∈ E} = {y : x. y). Then f is not lower semicontinuous at x so f (x) > lim f (y). for each n. Also let G ⊂ X and H ⊂ Y be dense Gδ ’s. y0 )] ≤ τ [f (x . If f is continuous at z ∈ X × Y . y0 ) < δ implies τ [f (x. τ [f (x.n . x0 . choose m > 2/ε. Thus there exists a neighbourhood U of x such that U ⊂ Fm. there exists a dense Gδ ⊂ X1 × · · · × Xp on which f is continuous. Since σn ≥ 0 for all n. y) < δ and f (y) < q so f (x) > lim f (y). f (x . x0 ) < ε. y ∈ X × Y . if x ∈ Fq \ Fq for some q ∈ Q. x0 ) < ε/2 and σ(y. τ ) that is continuous in each variable. Let x be a point of closure of Fm. f (x. y0 ∈ E and τ ( x1 .n so Fm. y) = 0 for all n if and only if x = y. there exists a dense Gδ set Gn ⊂ X such that {y : x. Then σ(x.1/n . y0 )] ≤ 2/m < ε for p ∈ U . Hence E is a dense Gδ in X 7.δz. Then τ ( x. Fix y0 ∈ Y . 41c. Then E is a Gδ . y ∈ On } is a dense Gδ for each x ∈ G.n . y). G is a dense Gδ by Baire’s theorem. y0 )] ≤ 1/m for all y with σ(y. there exist x0 ∈ G and y0 ∈ H such that ρ(x. y0 ) ≤ 1/n}. Since G is dense.n is closed. 41e. Then G = Gn and H = Hn where each Gn and Hn is open. There exists q ∈ Q such that f (x) ≥ q > lim f (y). y0 for each x ∈ G. y0 )] ≤ 1/m for x ∈ U by continuity. 41d. *43.space (Z.n = {x ∈ X : τ [f (x.n converging to x . y) = 2−n σn (x.n for some n. there exists δn.n . Take x0 . y0 ∈ X × Y and let ε > 0 be given. Then G is still a countable intersection of dense open sets in X. Then x ∈ Fq \ Fq . σ(x. f (x. y)] + τ [f (xN . y). y0 ). Given ε > 0 and x. Given a ﬁnite product X1 × · · · × Xp of complete metric spaces. y0 )] < 1/m so x ∈ Fm. By part (b).7. y0 )] ≤ 1/m. f (x . For each k and any y with σ(y. For any x ∈ X and m. Let σ = 2−n σn . ◦ 41b. we may regard the product as (X1 × · · · × Xp−1 ) × Xn where X1 × · · · × Xp−1 is a complete metric space. there exists δ > 0 such that ρ(x. Then E = n En (c. σ ≥ 0. Om is open and since X is complete. Let (X. We may assume that τ [f (x . y . Since ε is arbitrary. Hence there is a neighbourhood U of x. f (x. then x ∈ Om for each m. Conversely. Thus τ [f (x . Then x ∈ Fm. Thus E c = q∈Q Fq \ Fq . y)] < ε and τ [f (x. y0 )]+τ [f (xN . f (xN . Thus E is dense in X × Y . y). By Proposition 31. y0 such that τ [f (p). y0 )] ≤ 2/m for x ∈ U . By a similar argument as in part (d). Let E ⊂ X × Y be the set of points at which f is continuous. f (x. Choose n > 1/δ. y0 . y0 ) ≤ 1/n and any x ∈ U . f (x. y) = 0 if and only if σn (x. f (x . y0 )] < ε. Let ◦ x ∈ Om . Since each Om is open and dense. Let X and Y be complete metric spaces. For any y with σ(y. x0 . y). y0 for each x ∈ G. y0 ) = ρ(x1 . By part (c). y0 in X × Y such that τ [f (p). Hence f is continuous at x. τ [f (x . y→x y→x ◦ ◦ Let Fq = {x : f (x) ≥ q}. y0 )] < 2ε+1/m. Set Fm. y). x ) < δ implies τ [f (x. x1 ) < ε. Om is also dense. If x ∈ G. 42a. Given ε > 0. There exists a neighbourhood U of x. f (x . Let E be a dense Gδ in X × Y .
N . 1) by the continued fraction expansion. *46e. Since g and h are continuous on B. y ∈ E such that x.g(x)) = supOn [1 − 1+σ(f (x)... Hence the set of functions from X into Y becomes a metric space under σ ∗ . . . y) < 2δ ≤ δ1 so ρ(x. For EIj = E ∩ Ij . .. . x). f (x)) < ε for k ≥ N . If each σn is uniformly equivalent to ρ.k. f (x)) ≤ σ(f (xk ). But g(un ) = h(un ) for all n so g(u) = h(u). g) ≥ 0 for all n.g(x)) ∗ ∗ ∗ 48b.. . Starting from E. .k2 and so on. y) = σ(x. 1) whose complement is dense is uniformly homeomorphic to Nω .. g) ≥ 0. g) = 2−n σn (f. σ). y) = σ(y. y) < 2−N < ε. σ(f (x). . choose N such that 2−N < ε. and let F+ be the family of all pointwise limits of functions in F. kn (y) ) ≤ ∞ −i ∗ −N < ε. g). be disjoint open intervals satisfying the conditions of part (a) with ε = 1/2. g) = σ ∗ (g. Given ε > 0.kn for all n. Thus σ(f (xk ). y ∈ Ik1 (x). y) = σn (y. .. . By parts (a)(d). at the nth stage getting intervals Ij. Continuing. . Then X = {xn } ⊂ Un so X = Un . kn (y) ) < δ. Hence f is continuous on X. Let On be the union of the ﬁnite number of Vx ’s.g(x)) ] ≤ σ(f (x). Thus σ(x. δN /2 ). Then u ∈ A so there is a sequence un in A converging to u. Thus ∗ ∗ ∗ σ (f. . Let ε > 0 and ﬁx x ∈ E. k2 . . y) < 2−n for all n so σ(x. σn (f. repeat the process with ε = 1/4. Let {xn } be a countable dense subset of X. any dense Gδ E in (0.. Let F be an equicontinuous family of functions from X to Y . x) for all n. τ ) and (E. For each n. y) ≤ 2−n σn (x. kn (x) = kn (y) for n = 1. f (x )) < ε/3 for any x ∈ K. kn (y)) ≤ 2 Then x. . fN (x)) + σ(fN (x). fN (x)) < ε/3 for k ≥ N . Then K = {xk }∞ ∪ {x} is a compact subset of X. Also. kn (x) = kn (y) for n = 1. g) ≤ σ (f.h(x))+σ(h(x). σ(x. When τ ( kn (x) .g(x)) 1 ∗ all n. . there exists δn > 0 such that σn (x. . there is an open set Un such that xn ∈ Un and Un is compact. such that for each n we have x ∈ Ik1 . y) < ε/2 and σ(x. Let δ < 2−N . there exists N such that σ(fN (xk ). g) = supOn 1+σ(f (x). . . . If ρ(x.10 The AscoliArzel´ Theorem a 47.kn . f ). k2 .l with ε = 2−n . N so n=1 2−n σn (x. Also. 7. y) = 0 and x = y.. . . let I1 . then σ is uniformly equivalent to ρ. . . . there is a ﬁnite number of Vx ’s covering Un . y) < ε/2 for n = 1. Let σ ∗ (f. 46c.σn (x. y) < δ. *46a. N so τ ( kn (x) . g) where σn (f. Let u ∈ B. there is a unique integer k1 such that x ∈ Ik1 . 46b. Let A ⊂ B ⊂ A be subsets of a metric space and let g and h be continuous maps of B into a metric ¯ space X. Let δ = and ρ(x. g) ≤ 1 for all ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ n.kn is less than 2−n for each n. suppose there are x.. Let X be a separable. y ∈ Ik1 . ¯ 45. Ij. σ(x..2 . y) = 2−n σn (x. y) < ε/2 ∞ −n < ε/2. Since σn (f. Hence E is homeomorphic to the set of irrationals in (0. y) < δ. h) + σn (h. When σ(x. Let fn be a sequence of continuous functions from X to a metric space Y which converge to a function f uniformly on each compact subset K of X. that is of f for which there is a sequence fn from F such that 40 . fN (xk )) + σ(fN (xk ). Since σn (f. σ (f. y) < δ. and (Y.h(x))+σ(h(x). j) = δij .. g(un ) and h(un ) converge to f (u) and g(u) respectively. If σ(x. then σ1 (x. 1). there exists N such that σ(fN (x ). g) = supOn 1+σ(f (x).h(x))+σ(h(x). . By construction. locally compact metric space.g(x)) ] = supOn 1+σ(f (x). g) ≤ 1 < ∞ and since σn (f.g(x)) .g(x)) 1 ∗ ∗ supOn [1 − 1+σ(f (x). Hence g ≡ h. Then x ∈ EIk1 and there is a unique integer k2 such that x ∈ Ik1 .. Thus there is a unique sequence of integers k1 . . g). y) < ε.. y) < ε/2.. Given a sequence of integers k1 . Hence σ is equivalent to ρ on E.1 . There exists N such that n=N +1 2 N N min(δ1 /2. Thus σ is a metric on E.. g) = σn (g.. z) + −n 2 σn (z. i=N +1 2 ρ (kn (x). z) + σ(z. y) < δn implies σn (x. Given x ∈ E. . 46d. Suppose g(u) = h(u) for all u ∈ A. Let Nω be the space of inﬁnite sequences of integers and make N into a metric space by setting ρ(i. y) < δn implies ρ(x. For each n and any x ∈ Un . Let x ∈ X and let xk be a sequence in X converging to x. f ) for σ(f (x). y) < ε. Given k=1 ε > 0. σ) any metric space. h) + σ (h.. 48a. Then X = On . For each n.. I2 . For each n. Then Un ⊂ x∈Un Vx and since Un is compact. σ ∗ (f. 49.. . .. y). getting intervals Ij. which is in turn homeomorphic to the set of irrationals in (0. there is an open set Vx containing x with Vx compact. the diameter of Ik1 .kN (x) so σ(x... Let τ be the product metric on Nω . σ (f. then σn (x.g(x)) ≤ σn (f. Hence the correspondence between Nω and E given by parts (b) and (c) is a uniform homeomorphism between (Nω . Let X be a metric space.
f (y)) ≤ σ(f (x). Hence O ∩ E = ∅ and x is a point of closure of E. a each sequence fn in F has a subsequence that converges pointwise to a continuous function. Let 0 < α ≤ 1 and let F = {f : f α ≤ 1}. Then for any set A ⊂ X.n = {z : fn (z) ≤ m}. then x is not in some closed set F / ¯ ¯ containing E so x ∈ F c . f −1 [I] = ∅ if c ∈ I and f −1 [I] = X if c ∈ I. so E ⊂ E. Also. y) = 1 otherwise. Let Em = n Em.n where Em. f (x)) < ε/3 and σ(fN (y). c + ε)] is either ∅ or X. if F = F ¯ If x ∈ E. Thus E = E. Thus A ∪ B ⊂ A ∪ B. *51c. For each z ∈ ∆. Hence x ∈ E. there is an open set O containing x such that σ(f (x). E ◦◦ is 41 . Then f −1 [c] = f −1 [(c − ε. if f (x) = c for all x ∈ X. If O ∩ E = ∅. *51a. fN (x)) + σ(fN (x). Since any open set of real numbers is a countable union / of disjoint open intervals. 1 − z ) centred at z . F = F . then F is a closed set containing F so F ¯ . f (y)) < ε. Take c ∈ R. any two distinct points can be enclosed in disjoint open sets. If X has more than one point. Also. F is an equicontinuous family of functions on the separable space [0. then for any open interval I. f is holomorphic on O. Since we always have F ⊂ F . y) = 0 if x = y and ρ(x. There is an Em that is not nowhere dense so it has ◦ nonempty interior. then there is a sequence fn from F such that f (x) = lim fn (x) so there is an N such that σ(fN (x). In particular. F c ∩ E = ∅. By the AscoliArzel´ Theorem. Since F c is an open set containing x. Let C be the circle of radius r/2 centred at z . then E ⊂ Oc . then there is no metric on X such that the associated topological space is trivial because in a metric space. *51b. 1b. A = x∈A Bx. On the other hand. ¯ Conversely. Then O = m Em is a dense open subset of ∆ and fn is locally bounded on O. Hence F is a sequentially compact. x ∈ Oc . fN (y)) + σ(fN (y). Hence A ∪ B ⊂ A ∪ B. Furthermore. y. A ⊂ A ∪ B and B ⊂ A ∪ B ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ so A ⊂ A ∪ B and B ⊂ A ∪ B. f (z) − f (z ) ≤ 4r−1 z − z  for all f ∈ F. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ A ∪ B is a closed set containing A ∪ B so A ∪ B ⊂ A ∪ B. It follows that F is equicontinuous. Given x ∈ X and ε > 0. Since Oc is closed. Hence F+ is also an equicontinuous family of functions. Given a set X. ¯ ¯ If F is closed. Hence the only continuous mappings from X into R are the constant functions.1/2 so A is open. Since f −1 [O] ⊂ X for any open set O ⊂ R. ¯ ¯ ¯ the intersection of all closed sets containing E. Hence all mappings of X into R are continuous. Let X be a space with a discrete topology. ¯ ⊂ F . Furthermore f is holomorphic on ∆. Let U be an open ball of radius min(z .f (x) = lim fn (x) for each x ∈ X. Contradiction. E ⊂ E. E is the intersection of all closed sets containing E so E ⊂ E. ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ 2. f is continuous. Conversely. Thus the associated topological space is discrete. deﬁne ρ on X × X by ρ(x. then x is in every closed set containing E.1 Topological Spaces Fundamental notions 1a. any sequence fn in F has a subsequence that converges uniformly a to a function f on each compact subset of ∆. 1c. there is an Mz such that fn (z) ≤ Mz for all n. it follows that f is continuous. Since w−z w−z 2πi f (z) ≤ 1 for all f ∈ F and all z ∈ ∆. 50. f (w) dw 1 f (z) − f (z ) = 2πi C [ f (w) dw − f (w) dw ] = z−z C (w−z)(w−z ) by Cauchy’s integral formula. Let X be a space with a trivial topology. For every z within r/4 of z . On the other hand. Thus f ∈ C[0. 8 8. fn is equicontinuous on O so there is a subsequence that converges uniformly to a function f on each compact subset of O. then since F is closed. On the other hand. suppose x is a point of closure of E. Let f be a mapping of X into R. If f ∈ F. Also. Then U ⊂ ∆. f (y)) < ε/3 for all y ∈ O and f ∈ F. Let fn be a sequence of holomorphic functions on ∆ such that fn (z) → f (z) for all z ∈ ∆. then max f (x) + sup f (x) − f (y)/x − yα ≤ 1. f (y)) < ε/3. and thus compact. Let O be an open set containing x. If f is a continuous mapping of X into R. F is closed. 1]. E ◦ is the union of all open sets contained in E so E ◦ ⊂ E. E ◦◦ ⊂ E ◦ . By an argument similar to that in part (a). Contradiction. f (x) − f (y) ≤ x − yα for all x. Thus f must be a constant function. Let F be the family of functions that are holomorphic on the unit disk ∆ = {z : z < 1} with f (z) ≤ 1. Then σ(f (x). then f −1 [I] is either ∅ or X for any open interval I. 1] and each f ∈ F is bounded. Then Em is closed and ∆ = m Em . E is ¯ ¯ ¯ one of which is E itself. By the AscoliArzel´ Theorem. 1]. Let f ∈ F and ﬁx z ∈ ∆. If x ∈ E. Now if f ∈ F+ and y ∈ O. Conversely. subset of C[0.
the union of all open sets contained in E ◦ , one of which is E ◦ itself, so E ◦ ⊂ E ◦◦ . Thus E ◦◦ = E ◦ . A◦ ∩ B ◦ is an open set contained in A ∩ B so A◦ ∩ B ◦ ⊂ (A ∩ B)◦ . On the other hand, A ∩ B ⊂ A and A ∩ B ⊂ B so (A ∩ B)◦ ⊂ A◦ and (A ∩ B)◦ ⊂ B ◦ . Thus (A ∩ B)◦ ⊂ A◦ ∩ B ◦ . Hence (A ∩ B)◦ = A◦ ∩ B ◦ . If x ∈ E ◦ , then x is in some open set O contained in E so x is an interior point of E. Conversely, if x is an interior point of E, then x ∈ O ⊂ E for some open set O so x ∈ E ◦ . ¯ ¯ If x ∈ (E c )◦ , then x is in some open set O ⊂ E c so x ∈ Oc ⊃ E and thus x ∈ E c . Conversely, if x ∈ E c , / c c c ◦ c ◦ ¯c. then x is not in some closed set F ⊃ E so x ∈ F ⊂ E and thus x ∈ (E ) . Hence (E ) = E 3. Suppose A ⊂ X is open. Then given x ∈ A, x ∈ O ⊂ A with O = A. Conversely, suppose that given x ∈ A, there is an open set Ox such that x ∈ Ox ⊂ A. Then A = x∈A Ox , which is open. 4. Let f be a mapping of X into Y . Suppose f is continuous. For any closed set F , f −1 [F c ] is open. But f −1 [F c ] = (f −1 [F ])c so f −1 [F ] is closed. Conversely, suppose the inverse image of every closed set is closed. For any open set O, f −1 [Oc ] is closed. But f −1 [Oc ] = (f −1 [O])c so f −1 [O] is open. Thus f is continuous. 5. Suppose f is a continuous mapping of X into Y and g is a continuous mapping of Y into Z. For any open set O ⊂ Z, g −1 [O] is open in Y so f −1 [g −1 [O]] is open in X. But f −1 [g −1 [O]] = (g ◦ f )−1 [O]. Hence g ◦ f is a continuous mapping of X into Z. 6. Let f and g be two realvalued continuous functions on X and let x ∈ X. Given ε > 0, there is an open set O containing x such that f (x) − f (y) < ε/2 and g(x) − g(y) < ε/2 whenever y ∈ O. Then (f + g)(x) − (f + g)(y) = f (x) − f (y) + g(x) − g(y) ≤ f (x) − f (y) + g(x) − g(y) < ε whenever y ∈ O. Thus f + g is continuous at x. There is an open set O such that g(x) − g(y) < ε/2f (x) and f (x)−f (y) < ε/2 max(g(x)−ε/2f (x), g(x)+ε/2f (x)) whenever y ∈ O . Then (f g)(x)−(f g)(y) = f (x)g(x)−f (x)g(y)+f (x)g(y)−f (y)g(y) ≤ f (x)g(x)−g(y)+f (x)−f (y)g(y) < ε whenever y ∈ O . Thus f g is continuous at x. 7a. Let F be a closed subset of a topological space and xn a sequence of points from F . If x is a cluster point of xn , then for any open set O containing x and any N , there exists n ≥ N such that xn ∈ O. Suppose x ∈ F . Then x is in the open set F c so there exists xn ∈ F c . Contradiction. Hence / x ∈ F. 7b. Suppose f is continuous and x = lim xn . For any open set U containing f (x), there is an open set O containing x such that f [O] ⊂ U . There also exists N such that xn ∈ O for n ≥ N so f (xn ) ∈ U for n ≥ N . Hence f (x) = lim f (xn ). 7c. Suppose f is continuous and x is a cluster point of xn . For any open set U containing f (x), there is an open set O containing x such that f [O] ⊂ U . For any N , there exists n ≥ N such that xn ∈ O so f (xn ) ∈ U . Hence f (x) is a cluster point of f (xn ) . *8a. Let E be an arbitrary set in a topological space X. (E ◦ )◦ is the intersection of all closed sets containing (E ◦ )◦ , one of which is E ◦ , so (E ◦ )◦ ⊂ E ◦ . On the other hand, E ◦ is the intersection of all closed sets containing E ◦ , one of which is (E ◦ )◦ since E ◦ = E ◦◦ ⊂ (E ◦ )◦ , so E ◦ ⊂ (E ◦ )◦ . Hence (E ◦ )◦ = E ◦ . ¯ ¯ Now since E = E and (E c )c = E, new sets can only be obtained if the operations are performed ¯ alternately. Also, (E)c = (E c )◦ so (E)c
c c
=
(E)c
◦
=
(E c )◦
◦
= (E c )◦ = (E)c . Hence the
c
¯ distinct sets that can be obtained are at most E, E, (E)c , (E)c , (E)c E c , (E c )c , (E c )c , (E c )c
c
, (E)c
c
,
(E)c
c
c
, Ec,
, (E c )c
c
,
(E c )c
c
c
.
*8b. Let E = {(0, 0)} ∪ {z : 1 < z < 2} ∪ {z : 2 < z < 3} ∪ {z : 4 < z < 5 and z = (p, q) where p, q ∈ Q} ⊂ R2 . Then E gives 14 diﬀerent sets by repeated use of complementation and closure. 9. Let f be a function from a topological space X to a topological space Y . Suppose f is continuous and let x ∈ X. For any open set U containing f (x), f −1 [U ] is open and x ∈ f −1 [U ]. If y ∈ f −1 [U ], then f (y) ∈ U . Thus f is continuous at x. Conversely, suppose f is not continuous. There exists an open set O such that f −1 [O] is not open. By Q3, there exists x ∈ f −1 [O] such that U is not a subset of f −1 [O] for any open set U containing x. Then O is an open set containing f (x) and f [U ] is not a subset of O 42
for any open set U containing x. Hence f is not continuous at x. 10a. Let the subset A of a topological space X be the union of two sets A1 and A2 both of which are closed (resp. both of which are open). Let f be a map of A into a topological space Y such that the restrictions f A1 and f A2 are each continuous. For any closed (resp. open) set E ⊂ Y , f −1 [E] = (f −1 [E] ∩ A1 ) ∪ (f −1 [E] ∩ A2 ) = f −1 [E] ∪ f −1 [E] = (A1 ∩ F ) ∪ (A2 ∩ F ) for some closed A1 A2 (resp. open) sets F, F ⊂ A. Hence f −1 [E] is closed (resp. open) and f is continuous. 10b. Consider the subset (0, 2] of R. Then (0, 2] is the union of (0, 1), which is open, and [1, 2], which is closed. Let f be the map deﬁned by f (x) = x on (0, 1) and f (x) = x + 1 on [1, 2]. Then f (0,1) and f [1,2] are each continuous but f is not continuous (at 1). *10c. Suppose A = A1 ∪ A2 , A1 \ A2 ∩ (A2 \ A1 ) = ∅ and A2 \ A1 ∩ (A1 \ A2 ) = ∅. Let f be a map of A into a topological space Y such that the restrictions f A1 and f A2 are each continuous. Let F be a closed subset of Y and let F = f −1 [F ] ⊂ A. Then F = F ∩ (A1 \ A2 ∪ (A1 ∩ A2 ) ∪ A2 \ A1 ) = F ∩ (A1 \ A2 ) ∪ F ∩ A1 ∩ A2 ∪ F ∩ (A2 \ A1 ). Note that F ∩ (A1 \ A2 ) ⊂ A1 and F ∩ (A2 \ A1 ) ⊂ A2 . Thus f [F ] = f [F ∩ (A1 \ A2 )]∪f [F ∩ A1 ∩ A2 ]∪f [F ∩ (A2 \ A1 )] = f [F ] ⊂ F and F ⊂ f −1 [F ] = F . Hence F = f −1 [F ] is closed and f is continuous.
8.2
Bases and countability
¯ 11a. Let B be a base for the topological space (X, T ). If x ∈ E, then for every B ∈ B with x ∈ B, since B is open, B ∩ E = ∅. i.e. there is a y ∈ B ∩ E. Conversely, suppose that for every B ∈ B with x ∈ B there is a y ∈ B ∩ E. For each open set O in X with x ∈ O, there is a B ∈ B with x ∈ B ⊂ O. ¯ Then there is a y ∈ B ∩ E ⊂ O ∩ E. Thus x ∈ E. 11b. Let X satisfy the ﬁrst axiom of countability. If there is a sequence xn in E converging to x, then ¯ for any open set O containing x, there exists N such that xn ∈ O for n ≥ N . Thus O ∩ E = ∅ so x ∈ E. ¯ There is a countable base Bn at x. By considering B1 , B1 ∩ B2 , B1 ∩ B2 ∩ Conversely, suppose x ∈ E. B3 , . . ., we may assume B1 ⊃ B2 ⊃ B3 · · · . Now each Bn contains an xn ∈ E. For any open set O containing x, O ⊃ BN ⊃ BN +1 ⊃ · · · for some N so xn ∈ O for n ≥ N and xn is a sequence in E converging to x. 11c. Let X satisfy the ﬁrst axiom of countability and let xn be a sequence from X. If xn has a subsequence converging to x, it follows from the deﬁnition that x is a cluster point of xn . Conversely, suppose x is a cluster point of xn . There is a countable base Bn at x. We may assume B1 ⊃ B2 ⊃ · · · . Since B1 is open and contains x, xn1 ∈ B1 for some n1 ≥ 1. Suppose xn1 , . . . , xnk have been chosen. Then there exists nk+1 ≥ nk such that xnk+1 ∈ Bk+1 . For any open set O containing x, O ⊃ BN ⊃ BN +1 · · · for some N so xnk ∈ O for k ≥ N and the subsequence xnk converges to x. 12a. See Q9. 12b. Let Bx be a base at x and Cy be a base at y = f (x). Suppose f is continuous at x. For each C ∈ Cy , since C is open and contains f (x), there is an open set U containing x such that U ⊂ f −1 [C]. Then there exists B ∈ Bx such that B ⊂ U ⊂ f −1 [C]. Conversely, suppose that for each C ∈ Cy there exists B ∈ Bx such that B ⊂ f −1 [C]. For any open set O containing f (x), there exists C ∈ Cy such that C ⊂ O. Then there exists B ∈ Bx such that B ⊂ f −1 [C] ⊂ f −1 [O]. Hence f is continuous at x. 13. Let C be any collection of subsets of X. Let B consist of X and all ﬁnite intersections of sets in C. By Proposition 5, B is a base for some topology S on X. For any topology T on X containing C, we have B ⊂ T . Since any set in S is a union of sets in B, S ⊂ T . Hence S is the weakest topology on X containing C. 14. Let X be an uncountable set of points and let T consist of the empty set and all subsets of X whose complement is ﬁnite. Then X ∈ T since X c = ∅, which is ﬁnite. If O1 , O2 ∈ T , then we may c c assume O1 , O2 = ∅ so (O1 ∩ O2 )c = O1 ∪ O2 , which is ﬁnite. Thus O1 ∩ O2 ∈ T . If Oα ∈ T , then c c ( Oα ) = Oα , which is ﬁnite. Thus Oα ∈ T . Hence T is a topology for X. Suppose (X, T ) satisﬁes the ﬁrst axiom of countability. Take x ∈ X. There is a countable base Bn at c c c x. Note that Bn is ﬁnite for all n so Bn is countable. Thus there exists y ∈ ( Bn )c = Bn with c c y = x since ( Bn ) is uncountable. Now X \ {y} is open and contains x so there exists BN ⊂ X \ {y}. But y ∈ BN ⊂ X \ {y}. Contradiction. Hence (X, T ) does not satisfy the ﬁrst axiom of countability.
43
15. Let X be the set of real numbers and let B be the set of all intervals of the form [a, b). For any x ∈ X, we have x ∈ [x, x + 1). If x ∈ [a, b) ∩ [c, d), then x ∈ [c, b) (or [a, d)). Hence B is a base of a topology T (the halfopen interval topology) for X. For any x ∈ X, let Bx,q = [x, x + q) where q is a positive rational number. Then {Bx,q } is a countable base at x. Thus (X, T) satisﬁes the ﬁrst axiom of countability. Let B be a base for (X, T). For any x ∈ X, there exist Bx ∈ B such that x ∈ Bx ⊂ [x, x + 1). If x = y, then Bx = By . Thus {Bx } is uncountable and (X, T) does not satisfy the second axiom of countability. For any x ∈ X and any open set O containing x, there is an interval [a, b) ⊂ O containing x. Furthermore, there is a rational q ∈ [a, b). Thus the rationals are dense in (X, T ). Now (X, T ) is not metrizable because it is separable and a separable metric space satisﬁes the second axiom of countability. 16. Suppose X is second countable. Let B be a countable base for the topology on X and let U be an open cover of X. For each x ∈ X, there exists Ux ∈ U, such that x ∈ Ux . Then there exists Bx ∈ B such that x ∈ Bx ⊂ Ux . Thus X = x∈X Bx . Since B is countable, we may choose countably many Ux ’s to form a countable subcover of U. Hence X is Lindel¨f. o 17a. Let X1 = N × N and take X = X1 ∪ {ω}. For each sequence s = mk of natural numbers deﬁne Bs,n = {ω}∪{ j, k : j ≥ mk if k ≥ n}. Clearly, any x ∈ X is in some Bs,n or { j, k }. If x ∈ Bs,n ∩Bs ,n , then either x = ω or x = j, k . If x = j, k , then { j, k } ⊂ Bs,n ∩ Bs n . If x = ω, let s = mk be the sequence where mk = max(mk , mk ) for all k and let n = min(n, n ). Then ω ∈ Bs ,n ⊂ Bs,n ∩ Bs ,n . Other possible intersections are similarly dealt with. Hence the sets Bs,n together with the sets { j, k } form a base for a topology on X. *17b. For any open set O containing ω, there is some Bs,n such that ω ∈ Bs,n ⊂ O. Since Bs,n contains some j, k ∈ X1 , so does O. Thus ω is a point of closure of X1 . 17c. X is countable so it is separable. If it satisﬁes the ﬁrst axiom of countability, then since ω is a point of closure of X1 , by Q11b, there is a sequence from X1 converging to ω and by Q11c, ω is a cluster point of that sequence, contradicting part (b). Hence X does not satisfy the ﬁrst axiom of countability and thus it also does not satisfy the second axiom of countability. 17d. X is countable so it is Lindel¨f. o
8.3
The separation axioms and continuous realvalued functions
18a. Given two distinct points x, y in a metric space (X, ρ), let r = ρ(x, y)/2. Then the open balls Bx,r and By,r are disjoint open sets with x ∈ Bx,r and y ∈ By,r . Hence every metric space is Hausdorﬀ. 18b. Given two disjoint closed sets F1 , F2 in a metric space (X, ρ), let O1 = {x : ρ(x, F1 ) < ρ(x, F2 )} and let O2 = {x : ρ(x, F2 ) < ρ(x, F1 )}. The sets O1 and O2 are open since the functions f (x) = ρ(x, F1 ) and g(x) = ρ(x, F2 ) are continuous. Thus O1 and O2 are disjoint open sets with F1 ⊂ O1 and F2 ⊂ O2 . Hence every metric space is normal. 19. Let X consist of [0, 1] and an element 0 . Consider the sets (α, β), [0, β), (α, 1] and {0 }∪(0, β) where α, β ∈ [0, 1]. Clearly, any x ∈ [0, 1] belongs to one of the sets. Note that (α, β) ⊂ [0, β) ∩ (α, 1]. If x ∈ (α, β)∩[0, β ), then x ∈ (α, min(β, β )) ⊂ (α, β)∩[0, β ). If x ∈ (α, β)∩(α , 1], then x ∈ (max(α, α ), β) ⊂ (α, β) ∩ (α , 1]. If x ∈ (α, β) ∩ ({0 } ∪ (0, β )), then x ∈ (α, min(β, β )) ⊂ (α, β) ∩ ({0 } ∪ (0, β )). If x ∈ [0, β) ∩ ({0 } ∪ (0, β )), then x ∈ (0, min(β, β )) ⊂ [0, β) ∩ ({0 } ∪ (0, β )). If x ∈ (α, 1] ∩ ({0 } ∪ (0, β)), then x ∈ (α, β) ⊂ (α, 1] ∩ ({0 } ∪ (0, β)). Hence the sets form a base for a topology on X. Given two distinct points x, y ∈ X, if neither of them is 0’, then [0, (x + y)/2) is an open set containing one but not the other. If y = 0 , then {0 } ∪ (0, x/2) is an open set containing y but not x. Hence X is T1 . Consider the distinct points 0 and 0’. If O is an open set containing 0 and O is an open set containing 0’, then 0 ∈ [0, β) ⊂ O and 0 ∈ {0 } ∪ (0, β ) ⊂ O for some β, β . Since [0, β) ∩ (0, β ) = ∅, O ∩ O = ∅. Hence X is not Hausdorﬀ. 20. Let f be a realvalued function on a topological space X. Suppose f is continuous. Then for any real number a, {x : f (x) < a} = f −1 [(−∞, a)] and {x : f (x) > a} = f −1 [(a, ∞)]. Since (−∞, a) and (a, ∞) are open, the sets {x : f (x) < a} and {x : f (x) > a} are open. Conversely, suppose the sets {x : f (x) < a} and {x : f (x) > a} are open for any real number a. Since any open set O ⊂ R is a union of open intervals and any open interval is an intersection of at most two of the sets, f −1 [O] is open so f is continuous.
44
By Urysohn’s Lemma. Let fn be a sequence of continuous functions from a topological space X to a metric space Y . and {x : f (x) + g(x) > a} = q∈Q ({x : g(x) > q} ∩ {x : f (x) > a − q}). there exists an open set U0 such that F ⊂ U0 and U0 ⊂ O = U1 . we also have f is continuous if and only if for any real number a. Also. {x : f (x) + g(x) < a} = q∈Q ({x : g(x) < q} ∩ {x : f (x) < a − q}). Suppose X is normal. f (x)) < ε/3 for all n ≥ N and all x ∈ X. 24c. By induction.ε . *23b. Then h(x) − h1 (x) ≤ 2/3 for all x ∈ A. Now rn+1 has an immediate predecessor ri and an immediate successor rj (under the usual order relation) in Pn+1 ∪ {0. so f g is continuous. Let X be a Hausdorﬀ space. then ρ(f (y). then V is an open set containing y that is disjoint from U . so f ∨ g is continuous. there exists an open set Ur1 such that U0 ⊂ Ur1 and Ur1 ⊂ U1 . d) containing / f (x). By part (a). Since f (x) > r1 . {x : (f ∨ g)(x) < a} = {x : f (x) < a} ∩ {x : g(x) < a}. x ∈ Ur ⊂ Ur2 for some r < r2 . which is open. such that F ⊂ Ur ⊂ O and Ur ⊂ Us for r < s. which is open. If y ∈ U . There exists N such that ρ(fn (x). For any real number a. Then 45 . 1) of the form r = p2−n in a sequence rn . 23a. and {x : (f ∨ g)(x) > a} = {x : f (x) > a} ∪ {x : g(x) > a}. choose rationals r1 and r2 of the form p2−n such that c < r1 < f (x) < r2 < d. Clearly. suppose that given a closed set F and an open set O containing F . which is open. 1}. which is open. Since f (x) < r2 . Thus there is an open set Urn+1 such that Uri ⊂ Urn+1 and Urn+1 ⊂ Urj . Consider the open set U = Ur2 \ Ur1 . fN (y)) + ρ(fN (y). Let h = f /(1 + f ). {x : f (x)g(x) < a} = q∈Q ({x : g(x) < q}) ∩ {x : f (x) < a/q}. Conversely. Since U0 ⊂ U1 . Let B = {x : h(x) ≤ −1/3} and let C = {x : h(x) ≥ 1/3}. d). which is open. Suppose open sets Ur have been deﬁned for rationals r in Pn such that Up ⊂ Uq whenever p < q. Suppose fn converges uniformly to a function f .Since {x : f (x) ≥ a}c = {x : f (x) < a}. For any pair of disjoint closed sets A and B on X. Thus f [U ] ⊂ (c. there is a continuous function h1 which is −1/3 on B and 1/3 on C while h1 (x) ≤ 1/3 for all x ∈ X. Hence f is continuous. / 23d. Thus f [O] ⊂ Bf (x). / y ∈ Ur1 so f (y) ≥ r1 > c. Thus U ⊂ O. which is open. fN (x)) + ρ(fN (x). 24b. then y ∈ Ur2 so f (y) ≤ r2 < d. Suppose X is normal. one corresponding to each rational in (0. By the constructions in parts (b) and (c). 0 ≤ f ≤ 1. then x ∈ Ur for all r > r1 so f (x) ≤ r1 . Now U is disjoint ¯ from Oc since if y ∈ Oc . Arrange the rationals in (0. f (x)) < ε. Let {Ur } be the family constructed in part (b) with U1 = X. Let A be a closed subset of a normal topological space X and let f be a continuous realvalued function on A. which is open. If x ∈ Oc . the set {x : f (x) > a} is open and the set {x : f (x) ≥ a} is closed. Let ε > 0 and let x ∈ X. and {x : f (x)g(x) > a} = q∈Q ({x : g(x) > q}) ∩ {x : f (x) > a/q}. By Urysohn’s Lemma. f is continuous. If x ∈ Ur1 .ε/3 . 22. B c is an open set containing A. x ∈ Ur1 . F ⊂ U and G ⊂ U c . or r ≥ rj . Given a closed set F and an open set O ¯ containing F . Suppose we have continuous functions hn on X such that hn (x) < 2n−1 /3n for all x ∈ X and n n h(x) − i=1 hi (x) < 2n /3n for all x ∈ A. Now if r ∈ Pn . Let Pn be the set containing the ﬁrst n terms of the sequence. Let B = {x : h(x) − i=1 hi (x) ≤ −2n /3n+1 } and n n n+1 let C = {x : h(x) − i=1 hi (x) ≥ 2 /3 }. so f ∧ g is continuous. we have a sequence {Ur } of open sets. and {x : (f ∧ g)(x) > a} = {x : f (x) > a} ∩ {x : g(x) > a}. 23c. Let U1 = O. (*) Proof of Urysohn’s Lemma. Suppose f and g are continuous realvalued functions on a topological space X. Then F ⊂ Gc and there is an open ¯ ¯ ¯ set U such that F ⊂ U and U ⊂ Gc . Then h = f /(1 + f ) < 1. {x : (f ∧ g)(x) < a} = {x : f (x) < a} ∪ {x : g(x) < a}. then either r ≤ ri . then x ∈ Ur for all r so f (x) = 0. Since fN is continuous. there is an open set O containing x such that fN [O] ⊂ BfN (x). Since any open set in Y is a union of open balls. in which case Urn+1 ⊂ Urj ⊂ Ur . there is a continuous function hn+1 which is −2n /3n+1 on B and 2n /3n+1 on C while hn+1 (x) ≤ 2n /3n+1 for all x ∈ X. which is open. 1) of the form p = r2−n . 24a. X is normal. so f + g is continuous. 21. Note that Uri ⊂ Urj . If x ∈ F . Since U and U c are disjoint open sets. If y ∈ O. then x ∈ Ur for any r < 1 so f (x) = 1. there exist disjoint open sets U and V such that F ⊂ U and Oc ⊂ V . there is a continuous realvalued function f on X such that 0 ≤ f ≤ 1. Given x ∈ X and an open interval (c. in which case Ur ⊂ Uri ⊂ Urn+1 . Let F and G be disjoint closed sets. there is an open set U ¯ such that F ⊂ U and U ⊂ O. Equivalently. f (x)) ≤ ρ(f (y). Thus x ∈ U . Let f be the realvalued function on X deﬁned by f (x) = inf{r : x ∈ Ur }. Let F be a closed subset of a normal space contained in an open set O. f ≡ 0 on A and f ≡ 1 on (B c )c = B. Let X be a Hausdorﬀ space.
. . 1/2)]. Consider the sets of the form {x : fi (x) − fi (y) < ε for some ε > 0. . . For any pair {x. . . Given two distinct points x. Thus O is in the weak topology generated by F. The weak topology on X generated by F has {f −1 [O] : f ∈ F. some z ∈ X. then f (x) ∈ (c. Suppose f (v) = g(v). yn . fn of functions in F} such that x ∈ Bx ⊂ Ox and y ∈ By ⊂ Oy . Thus i=n+1 2 kn converges uniformly to k. i. 1/2)] and f −1 [(1/2. d).e. . By considering the constant polynomials. Suppose f (x) = f (y) for all f ∈ F. the weak topology generated by F is contained in T . Then there are disjoint open sets O1 and O2 such that f (v) ∈ O1 and g(v) ∈ O2 . 28. Given a closed set F and x ∈ F . then O1 ∩ O2 ∈ T . Now if Oα ∈ T . we see that ∅ and X are in T . and some ﬁnite set f1 . n+1 46 . d − f (x ))} ⊂ f −1 [O]. Hence T is T1 .h(x) − i=1 hi (x) < 2n+1 /3n+1 for all x ∈ A. there is an f ∈ F such that f (x) = 1 and f ≡ 0 on Oc . 26. . there is a continuous function ϕ on X which is 1 on A and 0 on {x : k(x) = 1}. there are open sets U1 and U2 such that v ∈ U1 . hn is uniformly summable to k and since each kn is continuous. and some ﬁnite set f1 .e. Set g = ϕk/(1 − ϕk). fn of functions in F}.e. For any v ∈ B. A and {x : k(x) = 1} are disjoint closed sets. Then for each O ∈ T / and each x ∈ O. By Urysohn’s Lemma. Let k(x) = i=1 hi (x). Since f and g are continuous. Suppose this topology is Hausdorﬀ. If x ∈ {x : f (x) − f (x ) < min(f (x ) − c. there are disjoint open sets O1 and O2 in X such that x ∈ O1 and y ∈ O2 . . . . y} of distinct points in X there exists f ∈ F such that f (x) = f (y). T ). Let kn = i=1 hi .e. O2 ∈ T . g[U2 ] ⊂ O2 . suppose that for each pair {x. Then g is continuous and g = k/(1 − k) = h/(1 − h) = f on A. d). xn and y = y1 . 25. Then k(x) − kn (x) ≤ (2/3)n for all x ∈ X. k is continuous. Contradiction. (*) Proof of Tietze’s Extension Theorem. then km (x) − kn (x) =  i=n+1 hi (x) ≤ ∞ m i−1 i /3 < (2/3)n . and some ﬁnite set f1 . Then there are sets Bx and By of the form {x : fi (x)−fi (z) < ε for some ε > 0. say x = x1 . Let X be a Hausdorﬀ space and let Y be a subset of X. f ≡ g on B. 27. there are disjoint open sets Ox and Oy such that x ∈ Ox and y ∈ Oy . we may assume O is an open interval (c. Then each kn is continuous and h(x) − kn (x) < 2n /3n for all x ∈ A. O open in R} as a base. and the sets f −1 [(−∞. Now h(x) − kn (x) < 2n /3n for all n and all x ∈ A so letting n → ∞. i. we have v ∈ A. with O1 ∩ Y and O2 ∩ Y being disjoint open sets in Y . Hence the topology is Hausdorﬀ. Let F be a family of realvalued continuous functions on a topological space (X. Let X be a completely regular space. ∞)] are disjoint open sets. ∞)]. Hence T is not T2 . y} of distinct points in X. Hence f (v) = g(v). In Rn let B be the family of sets {x : p(x) = 0} where p is a polynomial in n variables. i. i. x ∈ f −1 [O]. y ∈ Rn . k = h on A. Let T be the family of all ﬁnite intersections O = B1 ∩ · · · ∩ Bk from B. there is a function f ∈ C(X) / such that f (x) = 1 and f ≡ 0 on F . x ∈ f −1 [(1/2. Then f (u) ∈ O1 and g(u) ∈ O2 but f (u) = g(u) so O1 ∩ O2 = ∅. It is also clear that if O1 . fn of functions in F} is a base for the weak topology on X generated by F. Hence the sets of the form {x : fi (x) − fi (y) < ε for some ε > 0. . 24f. Suppose that for each closed set F and each x ∈ F there is an f ∈ F such that f (x) = 1 and f ≡ 0 on F . let p be the polynomial n 2 i=1 (Xi − xi ) . 3/2)] ⊂ O. and let f and g be two continuous maps of B into a ¯ Hausdorﬀ space X with f (u) = g(u) for all u ∈ A. Any two open sets are not disjoint since for any ﬁnite collection of polynomials there is an x that is not a root of any of the polynomials. v ∈ U2 . Hence X is regular. *29. Then x ∈ O1 ∩ Y and y ∈ O2 ∩ Y . y ∈ Bx ∩ By . . x ∈ f −1 [(1/2. Then F ⊂ f −1 [(−∞. Let A ⊂ B ⊂ A be subsets of a topological space. h(x) − k(x) = 0 for all x ∈ A. . Contradiction. n 24d. If m > n. Also. i. Then x. . . k ≤ 1. . . some y ∈ X. Let F be a family of realvalued functions on a set X. Thus there is an open set containing y but not x.e. Also. . 24e. Now there exists u ∈ A with u ∈ U1 ∩ U2 . Hence there is a function f ∈ F such that f (x) = f (y). Thus x ∈ {x : f (x) − f (x ) < min(f (x ) − c. . Since f is continuous for each f ∈ F. since kn  ≤ 1 for each n. some y ∈ X. Now if x ∈ f −1 [O] for some f ∈ F and O open in R. ¯ 30. Since k = h < 1 on A. Then x ∈ {x : f (x ) − f (x) < f (y) − f (x)/2} and y ∈ {x : f (x ) − f (y) < f (y) − f (x)/2} with the two sets being disjoint open sets. Then p(x) = 0 and p(y) = 0. Hence Y is Hausdorﬀ. d − f (x ))}. f [U1 ] ⊂ O1 . Conversely. m kn (x) − kn−1 (x) < 2n−1 /3n for all n and all x ∈ X. Given two distinct points x and y in Y .
d + ε) ⊂ O ⊂ I for some ε > 0 since O is open. then there exists z ∈ E such that a ≤ z < z and there exists z ∈ E such that z < z ≤ b so that z ∈ E.δ contains a point z of H. y] ⊂ E. [a. For each z ∈ By. there exists δ > 0 such that By. Hence X is not arcwise connected. 36. Thus [x.δ ⊂ G for some δ > 0 and By. Since A ⊂ B = O1 ∪ O2 and A is connected. Let x ∈ G and let H be the set of points in G that can be connected to x by a path. There is a path f connecting y to x. Let A be a connected subset of a topological space and suppose that A ⊂ B ⊂ A. b) and let O be a subset of I that is both open and closed in I. Contradiction. If d ∈ O. y . y : x = 0. Suppose d = sup{y : (a. Hence B is connected. Hence G is connected. sin(1/x0 ) = y for some x0 in the interval. Take x ∈ O1 and y ∈ O2 . y ∈ B 0. Hence X is connected. Thus H = ∅. Now there is a path connecting z to x and there is a path connecting y to z. x0 . Cα ⊂ O1 . For each n. choose n such that 1/2nπ < ε. y) ⊂ O} ≤ b. contradicting the continuity of f . Suppose O1 and O2 is a separation of B. Since Cα is connected and p ∈ Cα . 1] is connected. then y ∈ By.δ ⊂ G. 1] is connected so we may assume f [0. Then there is a path f from 0. Thus C is open. Let X be a locally connected space and let C be a component of X. b). Let I = { x.4 Connectedness 32. c ) ⊂ O. Clearly sup{y : (a. If z ∈ (a.y . Let f (t) = x(t). Thus ¯ By. There exists δ > 0 such that Bx. y : y = sin(1/x). Then p ∈ O1 or p ∈ O2 . Then y ∈ O1 ∩ O2 .31. It follows from Q33 that intervals of the form (a. Suppose there exists z ∈ (x. there is a p ∈ Cα ∩ Cα . Now any other Cα has a point in common with Cα so by the same argument. Thus there is a path connecting y to x so y ∈ H and H is closed. we have Cα ⊂ O1 . In particular. Hence E is an interval. b) ⊂ E ⊂ [a. G is arcwise connected. contradicting O2 = ∅. There exists z > d − ε such that (a. −1 ≤ y ≤ 1} ∪ { x. [a. Since S is the image of (0. i. y ] = x0 < ε so x0 . b). Then (a. 0 to some point of S. z) ∪ (d − ε. Since x is arbitrary. ¯ 33. y : x = 0. Then E ∩ (−∞. Let X be as in Q35b. Hence O = I and I is connected.δ ⊂ H and H is open. 0 do not contain connected open sets so X is not locally connected. 1/n) such that x(tn ) = u. Let G = Cα . Let I = (a. For any pair Cα and Cα . Then h given by h(t) = g(2t) for t ∈ [0. 8. Since B is connected. If x ∈ C. z) ⊂ O. Let X be an arcwise connected space. The set of t such that f (t) ∈ I is closed so it has a largest element. Hence I ⊂ S and by Q33. there exists c > c such that (a. *35b. z) and E ∩ (z.e. c ∈ O. b].δ . *37. y ∈ E with x < y. ∞) are a separation of E. y(t) . We may assume that t = 0. For y ∈ Bx. Thus for any c < b. / contradicting the connectedness of E. Suppose O1 and O2 is a separation of G. Contradiction. 0 < x ≤ 1}. there is a path g connecting z to y. b] are also connected. Then ¯ B = B ∩ A ⊂ B ∩ O1 = O1 . Let 0. d + ε) ⊂ O. d + ε) ⊂ Oc for some ε > 0 since Oc is open. Hence d = b. Suppose p ∈ O1 . Let a = inf E and b = sup E. 1/2] and h(t) = f (2t − 1) for t ∈ [1/2. we may assume that A ⊂ O1 . d + ε) = (a. contradicting O2 = ∅. z) ⊂ (a. 34a. 1] → X with f (0) = x and f (1) = y. 47 . Clearly. Thus G ⊂ O1 . (*) (Closed) topologist’s sine curve 35c. 1] is a path connecting z to x. If y ∈ H.δ ⊂ G. then (d − ε. 0 < x ≤ 1}. 34b. S is connected. Thus (a. sin(1/x) takes on every value between 1 and 1 in the interval [2/(4n + 3)π. 2/(4n + 1)π]. 35a. f (t) = (1 − t)x + ty is a path connecting x and y. 1] under a continuous map. Suppose X is arcwise connected. Let G be a connected open set in Rn . Hence H = G. Then x(0) = 0 while x(t) > 0 and y(t) = sin(1/x(t)) for t > 0.δ . 1] ⊂ O1 . then (d − ε. Let E be a connected subset of R having more than one point. There is a continuous function f : [0. Suppose x. y : y = sin(1/x). y ∈ I. X = I ∪ S is connected. Suppose O1 and O2 is a separation of X. Consider X = { x. y) ⊂ O} < b. 1 1 Since sin 2 (4n + 1)π = 1 and sin 2 (4n + 3)π = −1. Then there exists tn ∈ (0. Now tn converges to 0 but y(tn ) does not converge. Omitted. If d ∈ O. Then ¯ ρ[ 0. Contradiction. b]. For each y ∈ H. y) such that z ∈ E. then there is a connected basic set B such that x ∈ B. Since [0. choose u with 0 < u < x(1/n) such that sin(1/u) = (−1)n . But there exists / z > d − ε such that (d − ε. z) ⊂ O. −1 ≤ y ≤ 1} and S = { x. Given ε > 0. B ⊂ C. b]. E ⊂ [a. Suﬃciently small balls centred at 0. f [0. Let {Cα } be a collection of connected sets and suppose that any two of them have a point in common.ε ∩ S.
δ such that x ∈ Bx. Let X2 = X \ X1 . For any open set O ⊂ Y . y ∈ α Xα . Tα be a family of Hausdorﬀ spaces.α being disjoint open sets in Z. *40b.1 ∩ Oα. Conversely. Let X1 be a subset of X that is both open and closed. if O is open in X1 ∪ X2 . Now X2 is closed so X1 = X2 ∩ X1 is closed. O2 ⊂ Xα such that x ∈ O1 and −1 −1 y ∈ O2 . Then F1 ⊂ O1. If X has a base.ε × By. there are disjoint open sets O1 . Let X1 ⊂ X be a direct summand. Let (X.α with O1.α and F2 ⊂ O2. The sets O1 and O2 are also open in Z so it follows that Z is Hausdorﬀ. there are open balls Bx. there exists O open in B such that x ∈ O but y ∈ O. Then X2 is open and X1 ⊂ X2 . Thus Xα is normal. Then F1 ⊂ O1 ∩ Xα and F2 ⊂ O2 ∩ Xα with O1 ∩ Xα and O2 ∩ Xα being disjoint open sets in Xα .y . then O ∩ Xi is open in Xi for i = 1. Since B is Tychonoﬀ. Let η = min(ε. 41.ε ⊂ U and y ∈ By. it follows that Z is Hausdorﬀ. Hence Z is normal. Let X2 be c c c another direct summand. 1}/ ∼ where ∼ is the smallest equivalence relation with x. y ∈ U × V . F1 and F2 are closed in Z so there are disjoint open sets O1 . y ∈ Z so there are disjoint open sets O1 .δ ⊂ V .α ⊂ Xα such that F1 ∩ Xα ⊂ O1. 38d. Conversely. X1 ∩ X2 = ∅ and X = X1 ∪ X2 . i.α . 39b. equivalence classes under the equivalence relation ρ(x. F2 ⊂ Z. i. f −1 [O] is open in Xα for each α. suppose each Xα is Hausdorﬀ. Consider E = R × {0. Suppose f : Z → Y is continuous. Thus Xα is Hausdorﬀ. 2. Given disjoint closed sets F1 . Given disjoint closed sets F1 . Given x. Suppose Z is Hausdorﬀ. O2 ⊂ Z such that x ∈ O1 and y ∈ O2 . Given distinct points x.ε is the same as Bx. For any open set O ⊂ Y . Then X is the disjoint union of its parts and by ◦ Q7.8. Then X2 is open.2 for each α. Thus each restriction Xα f Xα is continuous. y ∈ Z. / Then O is also open in X so X is Tychonoﬀ. 1} → E be the quotient map and consider the base q[(a. Let q : R × {0. f −1 [O] = f −1 [O]. Then E is not Hausdorﬀ and thus not regular and not completely regular but the elements in the base are. 2 and thus open in X. Then 48 . then xα ∈ Oα.2 is open in Xα and only ﬁnitely many of them are not Xα . Then ◦ O = (O ∩ X1 ) ∪ (O ∩ X2 ) is open in X. Then πα [O1 ] and πα [O2 ] are disjoint open sets in α Xα containing x and y respectively. On the ◦ other hand. For any U × V with U open in X and V open in Y . we have xα = yα for some α. Conversely. f −1 [O] is open in Z so f −1 [O] ∩ Xα is open in Xα for each α. x ∈ Xα and y ∈ Xβ for some α and β. then O ∩ Xi is open in Xi for i = 1. Thus X is the direct union X = Xα . 43. ρ) be a metric space with an extended realvalued metric and Xα its parts. Since Xα is Hausdorﬀ. Given x. 42. σ) be two metric spaces. O2. Let Xα . *40a. There is a basic element B containing x. Xα Xα 38b. b) × {e}] for a < b and e ∈ {0.1 ∩ Oα. Suppose Z is normal. F2 ⊂ Xα . 1 for x ∈ R \ {0}. suppose each restriction f Xα is continuous.5 Products and direct unions of topological spaces ◦ 38a. O2 ⊂ Z such that F1 ⊂ O1 and F2 ⊂ O2 . O2 ⊂ Xα such that x ∈ O1 and y ∈ O2 . ρ) and (Y. given x. The open ball B x. δ). then since Xα is Hausdorﬀ. 38c. then since Xα ∩ Xβ = ∅ and the sets Xα and Xβ are open in Z. y) < ∞. 39a. If α = β. Thus x ∈ α Oα ⊂ B1 ∩ B2 . *40c. we consider (X × Y. Note that α Xα is a basic element. F ⊂ Z is closed if and only if F c is open if and only if F c ∩ Xα is open in Xα for each α if and only if F ∩ Xα is closed in Xα for each α. (*) Error in book.i . the sets F1 ∩ Xα and F2 ∩ Xα are closed in Xα for each α so there are disjoint open sets O1. x. Hence X = X1 ∪ X2 .3b. Since ρ∞ is equivalent to the usual product metric. Then it follows from the deﬁnition that X1 is open.ε and By.ε is open in the product topology. each part is open (and closed). let x.e.α and O2. If x ∈ B1 ∩ B2 where Bi = α Oα.e. y ∈ Xα . If α = β. ρ∞ ). 0 x. there are disjoint open sets O1 . Let (X. suppose each Xα is normal. Each of the sets f −1 [O] is open so f −1 [O] is open and f is continuous.ε so B x. y be distinct points in X. If O is open in X.y .α and F2 ∩ Xα ⊂ O2. Let Z = Xα . Now each Oα = Oα. 1}. each element being Tychonoﬀ. Then O1 ∩ Xα and O2 ∩ Xα are disjoint open sets in Xα containing x and y respectively.α .
44.m ≡ 0 on Bm . 48c. Each x ∈ X can be identiﬁed with the element in I F with f th coordinate f (x). Let V = πf [(0. αm } ⊂ A and some ﬁnite collection {O1 . Thus Tx = (X × {b}) ∪ ({x} × Y ) is connected for each x ∈ X. Now since πα is continuous. . 48a. . there exists Bn such that / x ∈ Bn and Bn ⊂ Bm . Suppose X is metrizable and A is countable. Then gn. y) = −n ρ(xαn .}. . Thus U × V is open in the metric topology. By part (b).m } is countable. Fix a point a ∈ X. . Let U be open in X and let y ∈ F [U ]. Given a basic element f Of ⊂ I F . Om } of open subsets of X. Hence the product topology is the weakest topology such that each πα is continuous. We may then also identify each basic element α∈A Oα with {f : f (α) ∈ Oα for each α}. b ∈ X × Y . The result for any ﬁnite product follows by induction. . Suppose X is a normal space satisfying the second axiom of countability. First we consider ﬁnite products of connected spaces. But since all but ﬁnitely many of the sets Oα are Xα . . choose a basic element Bm such that x ∈ Bm ⊂ F . X can be given an equivalent metric ρ that is bounded by 1. On } is a ﬁnite collection of open subsets of X. Under the identiﬁcation again.m [F ] = 0. Then by Q7.m (x) = 1 and gn. . πf (y) = f (x) = 1 so y ∈ W . I F is metrizable and thus X is metrizable. We may enumerate A as {α1 . Let F be the mapping of X onto its image in I F . then each basic element in the product topology is a ﬁnite intersection of preimages under some πα of open sets in X. which is open in α Xα . For any ﬁnite subset K ⊂ A. Given an open set Oα0 ⊂ Xα0 . *49. Thus F [U ] is open in I F . Further suppose that given a closed set F and x ∈ F there is f ∈ F such that f [F ] = 0 / and f (x) = 1. Let Y be the union of the sets XK . m. Y is connected. . αn } is some ﬁnite subset of A and {O1 . by Urysohn’s Lemma. Now Oα = Xα for all but ﬁnitely many α so let K be that ﬁnite set. Suppose each f ∈ F is continuous. Deﬁne σ on X A by σ(x. . Then x∈X Tx is the union of a collection of connected spaces having the point a. . But this union is X × Y so X × Y is connected. suppose fn (α) converges to f (α) for each α. Thus W ⊂ F [U ]. Furthermore the family {gn. Then we may regard this as a sequence xn converging to x under the identiﬁcation described above. α2 . Then σ is a metric on X A so X A is metrizable. n2 −1 46. . 47. πα (xn ) converges to πα (x). . . By deﬁnition. Since any two of them have a point in common. . X A = α∈A Xα . The intersection is in fact a ﬁnite intersection since all but ﬁnitely many of the sets Of are I.ε × By. m such that Bn ⊂ Bm . Suppose X and Y are connected and choose a. . Suppose a sequence fn converges to f in X A . . We may identify each x ∈ α∈A Xα with the function f : A → X given by f (α) = xα . Let x ∈ X and let U = α Oα be a basic element containing x. By Q45. The subspaces X × {b} and {x} × Y are connected. .m is deﬁned with gn. Then there is a homeomorphism between X and I F . Then y ∈ XK ⊂ Y and y ∈ U . f (αn ) ∈ On } where {α1 . Hence each πα is continuous. . Suppose X is a normal space satisfying the second axiom of countability. Let {Bn } be a countable base for X. 49 .δ ⊂ U × V . we only need to consider the sets {f : f (α1 ) ∈ O1 . If z ∈ W . If T is a topology on X A such that each πα is continuous.11a.m ≡ 1 on Bn and gn. . there is a countable family F of continuous functions with the property in part (a). Let {Xα }α∈A be a collection of connected spaces and let X = α Xα . Then XK / is homeomorphic to the ﬁnite product α∈K Xα so it is connected. / ¯ Hence X = Y so X is connected. yαn ). Let y be the element with yα = xα for α ∈ K and yα = aα for α ∈ K. ∞)] and let W = V ∩ F [X]. Thus fn ∈ B for n ≥ N and fn converges to f in X A . b in common so it is connected.α converges to xα for each α.B x. fn (α) converges to f (α) for each α. Hence the product topology on X × Y is the same as the topology induced by the product metric. Then W is open. xn.η ⊂ Bx. *48b. For each pair of indices n. Then there exists N such that fn (αi ) ∈ Oi for n ≥ N and i = 1. . there exists a c continuous function gn. let XK be the subspace consisting of points x such that xα = aα for α ∈ K. Also. . by Q32.m on X such that gn. . . . . Now y = F (x) for some x ∈ U and there is f ∈ F −1 such that f [U c ] = 0 and f (x) = 1. Let B be a basic element containing f . i. Given a closed set F c and x ∈ F . Then f (αi ) ∈ Oi for some ﬁnite subset {α1 . then z = F (x) for some x ∈ X with f (x) > 0 so x ∈ U . Thus each basic element in the product topology is in T and thus the product topology is contained in T . .e. Hence F is a homeomorphism. F −1 [ f Of ] = {x : F (x) ∈ f Of } = {x : f (x) ∈ Of for each f } = f −1 [Of ]. 45. Conversely. By Q23a. .y . πα [Oα0 ] = {x ∈ α Xα : xα0 ∈ Oα0 }. being homeomorphic to X and Y respectively. The ternary expansion of numbers gives a homeomorphism between 2ω and the Cantor ternary set. Thus F −1 [ f Of ] is open and F is continuous.
Suppose f is continuous. For any open interval (y − ε. For n=N +1 ∞ F F0 . the sequence fn (x) is Cauchy so it converges since Y is complete.B ∈ A ∩ B. Suppose that f (x) = 0 except for x in a countable subset {xn } and f (xn ) < ∞. there exist α0 and α1 such that xα ∈ U for α α0 and xα ∈ V for α α1 . Let A be the system consisting of all ﬁnite subsets of X. Now if f (xn ) = ∞. Let xα be a net that converges to x. f (y)) ≤ σ(f (x). For any open set O containing f (x). f is continuous. y ∈ B.B ∈ A ∩ B ⊂ O ∩ O . fNx (x)) + σ(fNx (x). f (x)) < ε. Then in particular the statement holds for all sequences. each coordinate of xβ converges to the corresponding coordinate of x. Let fn be a sequence of continuous maps from a topological space X to a metric space (Y. . y + ε). . . Given x ∈ X. fm (x)) < ε/2 for n. σ) that is uniformly Cauchy. Thus the AscoliArzel´ Theorem and its corollary are still true. suppose X is not Hausdorﬀ. f (x)) ≤ σ(fn (x). then we only have f (xn ) < ∞ and it follows that the limit is not unique. we have A ⊂ O and B ⊂ O so x A. Hence every net in X has at most one limit. Thus by considering arbitrarily large ﬁnite subsets of G. fN (y)) + σ(fN (y). a 8. we see that yF does not converge. In particular. For α = αi . let yF = x∈F f (x). y − yF  ≤ n=N +1 f (xn ) < ε so yF ∈ (y − ε. y be two points that cannot be separated and let the directed system be the collection of all pairs A. f (y)) < ε for y ∈ O. suppose that for each net xα converging to x the net f (xα ) converges to f (x). For each F ∈ A. with F G meaning F ⊂ G. *54. 55. Since all but ﬁnitely many of the Oα are Xα . 50 . f (x) > 1/n for uncountably many x. . Then there are disjoint open sets U and V such that x ∈ U and y ∈ V . For each x ∈ X. we also have πα (xβ ) ∈ Oα = Xα . For A. y + ε). Suppose Y is complete. there exists βα such that πα (xβ ) ∈ Oα for β βα . Let f (x) be the limit of the sequence. Thus fn converges uniformly to f and by part (a). . Thus lim yF = y. Then for n ≥ N and x ∈ X. The proofs of Lemmas 7. . Let x. Thus xβ ∈ α Oα for β β0 . Let X be any set and f a realvalued function on X. Let α Oα be a basic element containing x. 50b. which is open. Hence f (xα ) converges to f (x). B O. 53. Given ε > 0. For each x ∈ X. B of open sets with x ∈ A. m ≥ N and x ∈ X. Let y = f (xn ). suppose each coordinate of xβ converges to the corresponding coordinate of x. there exists N such that σ(fn (x). fN (x)) + σ(fN (x). Conversely. σ) that converges uniformly to a map f . Suppose X is Hausdorﬀ and suppose a net xα in X has two limits x. Then πα (x) ∈ Oα for each α. O . Choose x A. . we have x ∈ f −1 [O]. βαn . xN }. Then f (xα ) ∈ O for α α0 . . y. Let O be an open set containing x and let O be an open set containing y. Given ε > 0.6 Topological and uniform properties 50a. It follows that f is continuous. Contradiction. we only need to consider a ﬁnite set βα1 . f (x)) < ε/3 for n ≥ N and x ∈ X. there exists Nx ≥ N such that σ(fNx (x). Suppose a net xβ in X converges to x. Let X = α Xα . For β β0 . Hence f is continuous. if f (x) = 0 on an uncountable set G. fN (y)) < ε/3 for y ∈ O. Choose α such that α α0 and α α1 . we have παi (xβ ) ∈ Oαi . we have σ(fn (x). Then fn converges to f . Hence f (xn ) < ∞.7 Nets 52. Conversely. Hence f (x) = 0 except on a countable set. f (x)) < ε/2. Since x and y are limits. Given ε > 0. Then σ(f (x).3739 remain valid when X is a separable topological space. Conversely. there is an open set O containing x such that σ(fN (x). There exists α0 such that xα ∈ f −1 [O] for α α0 . Let fn be a sequence of continuous maps from a topological space X to a metric space (Y. Conversely. then for some n. we may choose β0 such that β0 βαi for all i. For each α. there exists N such that ∞ f (xn ) < ε. Thus both x and y are limits. Since each projection is continuous. Hence the net xβ converges to x. Then xα ∈ U ∩ V for α α . let F0 = {x1 . there exists N such that σ(fn (x).8. 51.
Now {Ox : x ∈ X} is an open cover for X so there is a ﬁnite subcovering {Ox1 . let O be an open set containing f (x). For each x ∈ X. Now ∅ = ( Kn ) \ O = (Kn \ O) ⊂ Kn ⊂ O. T2 ) is Hausdorﬀ. Since C is an intersection of closed sets. Let N = max1≤i≤k Nxi . . fn (x) ∈ O for n ≥ N . 5a. f (xi )) < ε/3 for 1 ≤ i ≤ k. Since C0 is compact and Hausdorﬀ. *8b. T1 ) is a continuous bijection. Kn \ O is a decreasing sequence so it has the ﬁnite intersection property. Thus (X. there exists an open set Ox containing x such that σ(fn (x). Also. If (X. Let X be a Hausdorﬀ space and Cn a decreasing sequence of compact and connected sets. T1 ) is not Hausdorﬀ. Kn is closed in K0 so Kn \ O is closed in K0 . f (x)) ≤ σ(fn (x). Vyn }. (*) Assume K0 is Hausdorﬀ. Hence X is regular. T ) is a compact Hausdorﬀ space. Contradiction. Thus (X. Hence C is connected. Let U = i=1 Uyi and V = i=1 Vyi . Hence Kn ⊂ O for some n. . Let X be a compact space and F an equicontinuous family of maps from X to a metric space (Y. . T ) is a Hausdorﬀ space. then id : (X. Thus A and B are closed in C0 . then id is a homeomorphism. σ(fn (xi ).O be a subbasic element 51 . Hence f (x) = lim fn (x). 3. 4. 6. . Then Kn \ O is nonempty and closed in Kn . U is an open cover of some Cn by Q2. In particular. σ). . *2. Now G is compact and n {Vy : y ∈ G} is an open cover for G.O for n ≥ N . Vyn }. f (x)) < ε/3 for n ≥ Nx . Hence (X. Suppose X is a compact Hausdorﬀ space. . If T1 is a weaker topology. Conversely. If (X. . Let F be a closed subset and let x ∈ F . given ε > 0. *7. it has a ﬁnite reﬁnement. then for T∞ weaker than T . it is normal. which also covers C. Let fn be a sequence of maps from X to Y that converge in the compactopen topology to f . T1 ) is compact. Also. Thus there are disjoint open sets U. Let fn be a sequence of continuous maps from a topological space X to a metric space (Y. Hence Cn is disconnected. Suppose (X. C is closed. the open cover has a ﬁnite subcovering so X is compact. 5c. T ) is a continuous bijection. (*) Assume X is Hausdorﬀ 8a. . σ). For any open cover U of C. For x ∈ X. Let O be an open set with Kn ⊂ O. Contradiction. T2 ) is not compact. fn (y)) < ε/3 for y ∈ Ox and all n. T2 ) is compact. x ∈ Oxi for some i so σ(fn (x). Suppose Kn is not a subset of O for any n. then for T∈ stronger than T . For each y ∈ F . Then U and V are disjoint open sets with F ⊂ U and G ⊂ V . For each x ∈ X. If (X. Let fn be a sequence from F such that fn (x) → f (x) for all x ∈ X.1 Compact and Locally Compact Spaces Compact spaces 1. i. . there exists Nx such that σ(fn (x). Then C = A ∪ B ⊂ U ∪ V . which are also sets in T∈ . Then A and B are nonempty disjoint closed subsets of C. Thus there is a ﬁnite subcovering {Vy1 . Since every element in the reﬁnement is a subset of an element in the open cover. There exists N such that fn ∈ N{x}. then id is a homeomorphism. Let U = i=1 Uyi n and V = i=1 Vyi . Now F is compact and {Vy : y ∈ F } is an n n open cover for F . then id : (X. Then we also have σ(f (x). f (xi )) + σ(f (xi ). Hence (X. . . Oxk }. for each y ∈ G. 5b. Suppose fn converges to f uniformly on each compact subset C of X.e. / there are disjoint open sets Uy and Vy with x ∈ Uy and y ∈ Vy . If (X. Let F and G be disjoint closed subsets. T2 ) → (X. Hence fn converges uniformly to f on X. Hence C is compact. f (y)) < ε/3 for y ∈ Ox . any two distinct points in X can be separated by disjoint sets in T . Contradiction. By Q3.9 9. fn (xi )) + σ(fn (xi ).O is open in the compactopen topology and contains f . Then N{x}. Let C = Cn . V ⊂ C0 such that A ⊂ U and B ⊂ V . Suppose X is a compact Hausdorﬀ space. Cn ⊂ U ∪ V for some n. f (x)) < ε for n ≥ N . If T2 is a stronger topology. suppose every open cover has a ﬁnite reﬁnement. Thus there is a ﬁnite subcovering {Vy1 . T ) → (X. there are disjoint open sets Uy and Vy such that F ⊂ Uy and y ∈ Vy . . Let Kn be a decreasing sequence of compact sets with K0 Hausdorﬀ. Then every open cover has a ﬁnite subcovering. Contradiction. Suppose C is disconnected with A and B being a separation for C. By Q2. Since Kn is a compact subset of the Hausdorﬀ space K0 . Let NK. any open cover from T1 is an open cover from T so it has a ﬁnite subcovering. For n ≥ N . Then U and V are disjoint open sets with x ∈ U and F ⊂ V . T ) is a compact space. Suppose X is compact. T1 ) is Hausdorﬀ. Thus it has a ﬁnite subcovering. Hence X is normal.
i. Now {x : x < b} ∩ {x : a < x} = {x : a < x < b}. Since {x : fN (x) < fN (y) + ε/3} is open. we may construct for some 52 . Let fn be a decreasing sequence of upper semicontinuous functions on a countably compact space.ε/4 . i. which is open. f ). Deﬁne f (xn ) = n for xn ∈ A. 9b. f (x) < α. A realvalued function f on X is continuous if and only if {x : f (x) < α} and {x : f (x) > α} are open for any real number α if and only if f is both upper semicontinuous and lower semicontinuous. Let C be a compact subset of X and let ε > 0 be given. fn (x) − f (x) decreases to zero. f (x)) < ε for n ≥ N and x ∈ C. there exists N such that fN (x) − f (x) < ε/3 for all x ∈ X. For any x ∈ C.containing f . 9. let x0 = sup xn . Now for any real number α. that f ≥ 1. f is also upper semicontinuous so f is continuous. Suppose a sequence fn of upper semicontinuous functions converges uniformly to a function f . fn ∈ NK. Thus by Proposition 11 (Dini). Now fn − f is a sequence of upper semicontinuous functions on a countably compact space such that for each x. {x : a < x}. (*) Assume f to be continuous.ε/4 ] and Oi = Bf (xi ). Suppose f and g are upper semicontinuous. Let ε = σ(f [K]. Then xn < x0 +1 for all n. Given α ∈ R. If it has a ﬁnite subcovering. Then −1/f is a bounded continuous function with no maximum. x0 ∈ {x : x < x0 + 1}. Oc ).O for n ≥ N . {x : a < x < b}. If f (x) < α. xn ∈ {x : x < x0 +1} for all n so the sequence converges to x0 . f [C] is compact. 9e. If no such sequence exists. Then f is continuous on the closed set A and since X is normal. pick y ∈ {x : f (x) < α}. Hence B is a base for a topology on X. n There exists N such that fn ∈ i=1 NCi . Then fn (x) ∈ O for n ≥ N and x ∈ K. Oc ) > 0. by taking max(1. On the other hand. Thus (iii) ⇒ (ii). by Tietze’s Extension Theorem. xn ∈ C such that the open balls Bf (x1 ). x ∈ Ci for some i so σ(f (xi ). Then f [K] is a compact set disjoint from Oc so σ(f [K]. i. then f (x) ≤ fn (x) < α. fn − f converges to zero uniformly. We may assume. let n Ci = C ∩f −1 [Bf (xi ). The sets {x : x < a} form an open cover for X. Then g is an unbounded continuous function on X. 11a. Given ε > 0. then f (x) − f (y) = [f (x) − fN (x)] + [fN (x) − fN (y)] + [fN (y) − f (y)] < ε. if fn (x) < α for some n. Fix y ∈ X. For any x0 ∈ X.e. Contradiction.2 Countable compactness and the BolzanoWeierstrass property 9a. *10 (i) ⇒ (iii) by Proposition 9. Hence {x : f (x) < α} is open and f is upper semicontinuous. Thus (ii) ⇒ (i). We ﬁrst show the existence of a sequence xn in X such that f (y) − f (xn ) < 1/n for y > xn . {x : f (x) + g(x) < α} = q∈Q [{x : g(x) < q} ∩ {x : f (x) < α − q}]. Hence f + g is upper semicontinuous. There is a sequence xn in X with no cluster point. Let f be a continuous realvalued function on X. . Let f be a continuous function and suppose it is unbounded.ε/4 cover f [C]. . Hence X is not compact. Hence X is sequentially compact. For any sequence xn in X. c)}. Conversely. . f (xi )) < ε/4 for n ≥ N . Hence fn converges to f in the compactopen topology. A is discrete. then there exists a ∈ X such that x < a for all x ∈ X. Suppose that every bounded continuous realvalued function on X assumes its maximum. . Hence fn converges uniformly to f on C. 9c. *11b. Thus f ∈ i=1 NCi . Since C is compact and f is continuous. . Hence f is upper semicontinuous.Oi . Thus {x : f (x) < α} = n {x : fn (x) < α}. there is a continuous function g on X such that gA = f . fn (x) ∈ Oi for n ≥ N so σ(fn (x). there exists δ > 0 such that x − y < δ implies fN (x) − fN (y) < ε/3. Let X be the set of ordinals less than the ﬁrst uncountable ordinal and let B be the collection of sets of the form {x : x < a}. Suppose X is no countably compact. then there exists N such that fn (x) − f (x) < α − f (x) for n ≥ N . There exists δ > 0 such that x − y < δ implies f (x) − f (y) < α − f (y). suppose fn converges to f in the compactopen topology. {x : max(a. There exists N such that σ(fn (x). Now if x − y < δ. . By part (c). Then it does not have the BolzanoWeierstrass property. Then {x : f (x) < α} and {x : g(x) < α} are open for any real number α.Oi for n ≥ N . For each i. Bf (xn ). Then A is closed and since all subsets of A are also closed. Thus there exist x1 . i. . *11c. Then Ci is compact and f [Ci ] ⊂ Oi .e. i.e. Thus σ(fn (x). Also.ε/4 . f (x)) < ε/4. which is open. f (x)) < ε for n ≥ N and x ∈ K. 9d. {x : x < c} ∩ {x : a < x < b} = {x : a < x < min(b.e. Thus the sequence has no limit points. Let A = {xn }. Let fn be a decreasing sequence of upper semicontinuous functions which converge pointwise to a realvalued function f . . fn (x) < α for n ≥ N . fn converges to f uniformly.e. c) < x < b} = {x : a < x < b} ∩ {x : c < x}. and suppose that lim fn (x) = f (x) where f is a lower semicontinuous realvalued function.
*12b. Let Q = f ∈F If . cover f [Q] by ﬁnitely many open intervals I1 . . Let U be an open cover for Y consisting of basic sets. . Oxn } n n ¯ that covers K. . Since X × {t} is homeomorphic to X. Let U be an open cover of X × I and let t ∈ I. Now X × {t} can be covered by ﬁnitely many basic sets A1 × B1 . which can then be covered by ﬁnitely many elements of U. f −1 [Ij ] = α Uα where Uα is open in (j) (j) n I and all but ﬁnitely many of the Uα are I. let Fj = {α : Uα = I} and let F = j=1 Fj . Then K is closed in 53 . . Then there exists a1 > b0 such that La1 ∈ U. 16. that is. Each closed and bounded subset X of Rn is contained in a cube I n where I = [a. X × {t} is compact so there is a ﬁnite subcovering {U1 . . Each I is compact in R so I n is compact in Rn by Tychonoﬀ’s Theorem. Consider f −1 [Ij ] for j = 1. Since K is compact. Then O ⊃ K and O = i=1 Oxi is compact. 9. . Thus Y is not ﬁrst countable. y ∈ Aj × Bj and n X × B ⊂ i=1 (Ai × Bi ) ⊂ U . Deﬁne g = f ◦ h. Then ω1 ∈ Ub for some Ub ∈ U. Thus x. 15. Now X is closed in I n so X is compact. Now let x0 = sup xn .N an increasing sequence zn such that f (zn ) − f (zn−1 ) ≥ 1/N for each n. If x. n then x. . Since y > b0 or y < a1 for any y ∈ Y . . Btm } covering X. Also. .4 Locally compact spaces 18. Let X be a compact Hausdorﬀ space. Let F be the family of continuous realvalued functions on X with values in [0. Then g depends only on F and f − g < ε. there is a ﬁnite subcollection {Ox1 . 1]. and thus normal. The collection of the sets Bt forms an open cover of X so m there is a ﬁnite subcollection {Bt1 . There exists a < ω1 such that a > an for all n. *19a. Similar argument as Q11a. . Hence Y is compact. 9. there is an open set Ox containing x with Ox compact. Since f is continuous for each f ∈ F. Let X be a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space and K a compact subset. Let Xn be a countable collection of sequentially compact spaces and let X = Xn . Then there is a (n) (1) (2) subsequence xn of xn whose second coordinate converges. *17. Then a0 ∈ Ub0 for some Ub0 ∈ U so b0 < a0 . . by Urysohn’s Lemma. Deﬁne h : Q → Q by πα h(x) = xα for α ∈ F and 0 otherwise. Let a0 = sup{a : La ∈ U}. there is a subsequence xn whose ﬁrst coordinate converges. . Then each Un is of the form {x : x > an }. . Given a (1) sequence xn in X. Furthermore. y ∈ X × B. {La1 . there is an open set Bt containing t such that X × Bt can be covered by ﬁnitely many elements of U. For each j. n. Now {x : y < x} is an open set in Y that does not intersect D. then since X is compact Hausdorﬀ. Contradiction. . Then f (x) = f (x0 ) for x ≥ x0 . Thus for each t ∈ I. Each coordinate of this sequence converges so the sequence converges in X. Thus D is not dense in Y and Y is not separable. . Ub0 } is a ﬁnite subcovering of U that covers Y . . 0 ∈ La for some La ∈ U. In of length ε. Let La = {x : x < a} and Ub = {x : b < x}. Suppose there is a countable base {Un } at ω1 . Hence X is sequentially compact. . Un } n of U such that U = i=1 Ui ⊃ X × {t}. Consider the mapping g of X into Q mapping x to the point whose f th coordinate is f (x). Then y = sup D exists and y ∈ Y . Ak × Bk ⊂ U . . . Given ε > 0. Let Q = I A be a cube and let f be a continuous realvalued function on Q. which is a ﬁnite set. 12a. . . g is a continuous bijection from the compact space X onto the Hausdorﬀ space g[X] so X is homeomorphic to g[X]. . Then B = B1 ∩ · · · ∩ Bk is an open set containing t. g is continuous. Thus g is onetoone. Let O = i=1 Oxi . Now g[X] is a compact subset of the Hausdorﬀ space Q so g[X] is closed in Q. Now X × I = i=1 (Bti × I). Then zn converges to its supremum but f (zn ) does not converge. For each x ∈ K. there exists f ∈ F such that f (x) = 0 and f (y) = 1. Consider the diagonal sequence xn .3 Products of compact spaces 13. Suppose X is compact and I is a closed interval. Then the open set {x : x > a} does not contain any Un . . . Let X be a locally compact space and K a compact subset of X. If x = y. b]. Let D be a countable subset of Y . *14. These sets (j) (j) cover Q and we may assume each of them is a basic set. contradicting the continuity of f . t ∈ Aj × Bj for some j so x ∈ Aj and y ∈ i=1 Bi ⊂ Bj .
O and U 22b. . If U1 and U2 are open in X. The map g : Rn → S n − p deﬁned by g(y) = t(y)y1 . Thus id is continuous. then U = X \ K. where U = Uα and K = Kβ . xn . . . Also. each Kβ is closed in X and Kβ is closed in X. 1 − t(y) where t(y) = 2/(1+y2 ) is the inverse of f .23a. . Hence the onepoint compactiﬁcation of X is Y . then (X ∗ \ K1 ) ∩ (X ∗ \ K2 ) = X ∗ \ (K1 ∪ K2 ) where K1 ∪ K2 is compact. there is an ¯ open set U such that x ∈ U and U ⊂ O. then there are disjoint open sets in X. then U = (X ∗ \ {ω}) ∩ U for some U open in X ∗ . use Q16 to regard K as a closed subset of the compact Hausdorﬀ space Q. Also. ¯ The sets O and X ∗ \ O are disjoint open sets in X ∗ separating x and y. If U is open in O. then f −1 [U ] = U is open in X. then f −1 [O∗ \ K] = X \ K. By Q8. Let p = 0. Then f = gX is the required function. Now f −1 [{x : x < a}] = {x : x < a}. Consider the basic sets in Y . any open set in X is open in X ∗ so id is an open mapping. Hence X ∗ is compact. and f ∗ the mapping of X ∗ into Y ∗ whose restriction to X is f and which takes the point at inﬁnity in X ∗ to the point at inﬁnity in Y ∗ . Let X ∗ and Y ∗ be the onepoint compactiﬁcations of X and Y . If K ⊂ O is compact. By Urysohn’s Lemma. . If x ∈ X and y = ω. y ∈ X. which is open in X and thus open in X ∗ . 0. Similarly for sets of the form {x : a < x < b}. The corresponding ﬁnite subcollection of U together with X ∗ \ K then covers X ∗ . which is open in X. then Uα is open in X. Let K be a compact subset of a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space X. Hence O is locally compact. . U1 ∩ (X ∗ \ K1 ) = U1 ∩ (X \ K1 ). Deﬁne f : X ∗ → Y by f (x) = x for x ∈ X and f (ω) = ω1 . Thus the collection of sets is closed under arbitrary union. Consider the mapping f of X to the onepoint compactiﬁcation of O which is identity on O and takes each point in X \ O to ω. If K1 and K2 are compact subsets of X. Deﬁne f (x) = min(2(g(x) − 1/2). Let U be an open cover of X ∗ . Hence X ∗ is Hausdorﬀ. and f a continuous mapping of X into Y . . *19b. If U is open in X. If x. there is an ¯ open set O ⊃ K with O compact. Let X be the space in Q11 and Y be the space in Q12. t(y)yn . there is a continuous function g on X ∗ with 0 ≤ g ≤ 1 that is 1 on K and 0 on X ∗ \ O. whose complement {x : x ≤ a} is compact. which is open in X. . Finally. (*) Alternatively. being closed in a compact space. Suppose 54 . Thus Rn is homeomorphic to S n −p and the Alexandroﬀ onepoint compactiﬁcation of Rn is homeomorphic to the Alexandroﬀ onepoint compactiﬁcation of S n − p. Thus f −1 [{x : a < x}] is open in X ∗ . Then {x : f (x) > 0} = {x : g(x) > 1/2}. then so is U1 ∩ U2 . . Since each Kβ is compact in the Hausdorﬀ space X. . If {Kβ } is a collection of compact subsets of X. Then U contains a set of the form X ∗ \ K for some compact K ⊂ X.23a. Hence the collection of sets forms a topology for X ∗ . Thus Kβ is closed in each Kβ so Kβ is compact. which is compact because g is continuous on X ∗ . If {Uα } is a collection of open sets in X. 22a. 20c. Also. f is a homeomorphism. which is open in X. Hence f is continuous. Then by Q18.X ∗ . Uα ∪ (X ∗ \ Kβ ) = U ∪ (X ∗ \ K) = X ∗ \ (K \ U ). ¯ that separate x and y. 23. Let O be an open subset of a compact Hausdorﬀ space X. Consider the collection of open sets of X and complements of compact subsets of X. Deﬁne f : S n − p → Rn 1 by f (x) = 1−xn+1 x1 . Clearly id is a bijection. there is a continuous function g on X ∗ with 0 ≤ g ≤ 1 that is 1 on K and 0 on D. Then ∅ and X ∗ are in the collection. Let x. 20a. which is S n . Then there is a ﬁnite subcollection that covers K. 21b. Hence id is a homeomorphism. Let id be the identity mapping from X to X ∗ \ {ω}. K \ U is compact. then U = U so U is open in X. Let X and Y be locally compact Hausdorﬀ spaces. then there is an open set O containing x with O compact. If U is open in X ∗ \ {ω}. . for any x ∈ O. . Since K \ U is closed in the compact set K. Take the other elements of U and intersect each of them with X to get an open cover of K. and thus in X ∗ . f −1 [{x : a < x}] = {x ∈ X : a < x} ∪ {ω}. Since f is a continuous bijection from the compact space X ∗ to the Hausdorﬀ space Y . y be distinct points in X ∗ . Let O be an open subset of a compact Hausdorﬀ space X. Now X ∗ \ O and K are disjoint closed subsets of X ∗ so by Urysohn’s Lemma. Let S n denote the unit sphere in Rn+1 . *21a. there exists a closed set D containing ω with D ∩ K = ∅. Then the closure of U in X is the same as the closure of U in ¯ is compact. 20b. Let X ∗ be the Alexandroﬀ onepoint compactiﬁcation of a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space X. Then f is clearly a bijection. 0). then (X ∗ \ Kβ ) = X ∗ \ Kβ . 1 ∈ Rn+1 . By Q8. If U = X ∗ \ K for some compact K ⊂ X. Thus the collection of sets is closed under ﬁnite intersection.
Take x ∈ F \F . (O ∩ U ) ∩ F = ∅. Then y ∈ On ∩ U . The functions ϕi = fi /(f + g) ∈ F. *28. There is an ¯ open set O containing x with O compact. (f ∗ )−1 [Y ∗ \ K] = X ∗ \ f −1 [K] is open in X ∗ . (*) Assume that X is Hausdorﬀ. Let X be a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space. Suppose F is a closed subset of X. Then U ∩ O is open in O ¯ such that x ∈ O and O O ⊂ U ∩ O. . F ∩K is closed. . *26. Let X be a Hausdorﬀ space satisfying the ﬁrst axiom of countability. let x1 be a point in O1 ∩ U . Hence Y is open in X. *24b. F ∩ K is closed. For each closed compact set K. For each closed ¯ compact set K. Then K is compact in the Hausdorﬀ space X and thus closed. suppose F is not closed.f is proper. Let {Oλ } be an open covering of a compact subset K of a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space X. If (O ∩ Fn )◦ = ∅. f > 0 on K. then f + g ∈ F. . By Q26. . ¯ in O. ¯ Then f. . For each x0 ∈ O\K. . there is an open set U ⊂ Y containing y with UY = Y ∩ U compact. fn . . Set f = i=1 fi and g = i=1 gi . there is a gx0 ∈ F with gx0 (x0 ) = 1. . g ∈ F. . suppose f ∗ is continuous. Hence f ∗ is continuous. Then V1 ⊃ V2 ⊃ · · · is a decreasing sequence of closed sets in the compact set V1 . . Then x ∈ V and V ⊂ V = V ∩ Y = U ⊂ Y . Since V is closed ¯ ¯ ¯ O. we may choose a ﬁnite number f1 . Thus O ⊂ U ∩ O. Let xn+1 ∈ On+1 ∩ Vn and let Vn+1 be an open set containing xn+1 such that Vn+1 is compact and Vn+1 ⊂ On+1 ∩ Vn . Also. xn and V1 . Vn have been chosen. f + g > 0 on O and g ≡ 0 on K. *27. since O is open in ¯ it is open in O and thus open in X so V is open in X. Lemma: Let X be a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space and U be an open set containing x ∈ X. . Let O be an ¯ open set with K ⊂ O and O compact. Given y ∈ Y . we have U ⊂ Y ∩ U ⊂ Y . suppose F is not closed. Y ∩ U ¯ ¯ ¯ open set V ⊂ X. 0 ≤ fx0 ≤ 1 ¯ and supportfx0 ⊂ O∩Oλ for some λ. Let F be a family of realvalued continuous functions on a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space X. n form a ﬁnite collection of functions subordinate to the collection {Oλ } and such that ϕ1 + · · · ϕn ≡ 1 on K. Let X be a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space and {On } a countable collection of dense open sets. (ii) If f. Hence On is dense in X. ¯ V is compact. there is an f ∈ F with f (x0 ) = 1. there is an open set O ⊂ X 55 . Note that O is a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space (see Q29b). . V = V ∩ Y . Then x ∈ F ∩ O \ (F ∩ O) so F ∩ O is not closed. Also. ¯ ¯ Then there is an open set V containing x such that V is compact and V ⊂ U . Since X is ﬁrst countable. Conversely. Note that since Y is dense. and suppose that F has the following properties: (i) If f. Let Y be a dense subset of a Hausdorﬀ space X. . Let X be a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space and let O be an open subset contained in a countable union Fn of closed sets. Now F ∩ K = {xn : n ∈ N} is not closed. supportf ⊂ O. ◦ But (O \ Fn ) = O \ ( Fn )c = ∅. Then since U ⊂ Y ∩ U . Then x ∈ V . gm of n m ¯ these functions such that the sets where they are positive cover O. and suppose that Y with its subspace topology is ¯ ¯ locally compact. Hence (O ∩ Fn )◦ = ∅. ¯ ¯ Proof: There is an open set O ⊂ X containing x such that O is compact. By compactness of O. g1 . . which is open in X ∗ since f −1 [K] ⊂ X is compact. g ∈ F. Now U = V ∩Y for some ¯ ¯ ¯ X is Hausdorﬀ. Contradiction. for any compact set K ⊂ Y . then f /g ∈ F provided that supportf ⊂ {x ∈ X : g(x) = 0}. For each x0 ∈ K. Suppose F is a closed subset ¯ of X. (iii) Given an open set O ⊂ X and x0 ∈ O. For any open set U containing x. 0 ≤ gx0 ≤ 1 ¯ and supportgx0 ⊂ K c . Take x ∈ F \ F . Conversely. Hence f −1 [K] ⊂ X is compact. Suppose F is closed in a locally compact space X. Given x ∈ F . Thus there is an open set O ⊂ O ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ O O = O ∩ O = O . there is an fx0 ∈ F with fx0 (x0 ) = 1. . (*) Assume that X is Hausdorﬀ. V ⊂ O ⊂ U ∩ O ⊂ U . This collection of closed sets has the ﬁnite intersection property so Vn = ∅. Thus ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ U ∩ (F ∩ O) = ∅. i = 1. . Then f = f ∗ X is continuous. 25. Let V1 be an open set containing x1 such that V1 is compact and V1 ⊂ O1 ∩ U . 29a. then (f ∗ )−1 [U ] = f −1 [U ]. 0 ≤ f ≤ 1 and supportf ⊂ O. g ∈ F. . If K ⊂ Y is compact. Let y ∈ Vn . Note that ¯ ¯ and contains x. Now O ∩ Fn ⊃ (O ∩ Fn )◦ ◦ ◦ so O ∩ Fn = ∅ and Fn is an open set dense in O. which is open in X and thus open in X ∗ . . there is a sequence xn in F converging to x. . . (O \ Fn ) is dense in O. Furthermore. If U is open in Y . Let K = {xn : n ∈ N} ∪ {x}. then (f ∗ )−1 [Y ∗ \ K] = f −1 [Y \ K] ∪ {ωX } = X ∗ \ f −1 [K]. Let V = O ∩ O . Also. which is a union of sets closed in O. *24a. Given an open set U . Since ¯ is closed. Conversely. Suppose x1 . Thus f /(f + g) ∈ F is continuous and ≡ 1 on K. then (O ∩ Fn )◦ = ∅ for all n (with the interior taken in O) so O \ Fn is dense and open in O for all n. O = (O ∩ Fn ).
By part (a). For a ﬁxed x0 ∈ X and any a ∈ (0. Since each Oxi meets only a ﬁnite number of sets in {Eλ }. y) ≤ ρ∗ (x. Conversely. Then there is a proper continuous map ϕ : X → [0. ∞) by ϕ = (1 − ϕn ). x0 ) ≤ a} ⊂ {x : ϕ(x) ≤ a + ϕ(x0 )}. For each x ∈ X. there is an open set Un N containing y such that ϕn (y)−ϕn (x) < ε/2N for x ∈ Un . 9. x0 ) ≤ a} are compact for some x0 and all x ∈ (0. Hence f : X → [0. let ϕn be a continuous realvalued function with ϕn ≡ 1 on On−1 and supportϕn ⊂ On . f −1 [K] is compact. Suppose there is a sequence On of open sets with On compact. Hence ¯ E = Eλ . By the lemma in Q26. Now U ∩ O is an open set in O ¯ containing x with U ∩ OO = O ∩ U ∩ O = U ∩ O being compact since it is closed in the compact set U . . For each n = 1. . y ∈ ON for some N and thus y ∈ On for n ≥ N . Then Y is dense in the Hausdorﬀ space Y . Thus Eλ ⊂ E. ∞). Note that a compact subset K ⊂ [0. Take x ∈ ON . Then U is an open N N set containing y and for x ∈ U . y) < δ implies ϕ(x) − ϕ(y) < ε/2. ∞). Let {Eλ } be a locally ﬁnite collection of subsets of a topological space X. y) = ρ(x. x0 ) ≤ b + ρ(x1 . x0 ) ≤ b + ρ(x1 . N ϕn (x) = 1 for n ≥ N + 1 so ϕ(x) = n=1 (1 − ϕn (x)). so does K. ε/2). Since X is proper. there exist x1 and b such that ρ(x. x0 ) is continuous from X to [0. which is compact. Also. Let N = max(N. xn ∈ K. Let (X. By part (b). Conversely. Let (X. ∞). ρ) be a proper locally compact metric space. and set E = Eλ . . ∞). . In fact. Now f −1 [K] is bounded since K is bounded and closed since f is continuous and K is closed. Suppose O is open in a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space X. Y is locally compact since Y is closed in X. ∞) is a proper continuous map and X is σcompact. Then ρ(x. x0 ) ≤ a} is compact. Suppose a subset Y of a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space X is locally compact in its subspace ¯ ¯ topology. When ρ(x. is closed in O *29b. 31b. we consider closed bounded intervals in [0. ρ(x. ρ) be a proper locally compact metric space.5 σcompact spaces 30. ¯ ¯ there is an open set U containing x such that U is compact and U ⊂ O.¯ containing x with O compact. ρ∗ (x. Let X be a locally compact Hausdorﬀ space. Let U = n=1 Un ∩ON . ρ) be a σcompact and locally compact metric space. 31c. Then ϕN +1 (x) = 1. then K is closed and bounded by Proposition 7. suppose Y is ¯ . N ). By considering ON −1 and open sets Vn with Vn compact and Vn ⊂ Un . Now n K ⊂ x∈K Ox so K ⊂ i=1 Oxi for some x1 . By Q28. Thus K is a closed subset of the compact set {x : ρ(x. x1 ) ≤ b for all x ∈ K. Deﬁne ϕ : X → [0. 9. suppose a subset K is closed and bounded. Choose δ < min(δ . N . y) + ϕ(x) − ϕ(y). (*) Proof of Lemma 22. Given y ∈ X and ε > 0. Deﬁne ρ∗ (x. y) < δ. y) < ε/2 + ε/2 = ε and when ρ∗ (x. x0 ) ≤ a} are compact for some x0 and all a ∈ (0. 33. If x ∈ E. ∞). Then the closed balls {x : ρ(x. Thus E ⊂ Eλ . For each n. ϕ(y) − ϕ(x) ≤ [ϕ(y) − n=1 (1 − ϕn (y))] +  n=1 (1 − ϕn (y)) − ϕ(x) ≤ N N [ϕ(y) − n=1 (1 − ϕn (y))] + n=1 ϕn (y) − ϕn (x) < ε. Since K is bounded. If K is a compact subset. Take x ∈ O. There exists N such that N ϕ(y) − n=1 (1 − ϕn (y)) < ε/2. x0 )} so K is compact. there exists δ > 0 such that ρ(x. On ⊂ On+1 and X = On .6 Paracompact spaces 32. Hence O is locally compact.22. y) < δ. 31a. . Then ρ∗ is a metric on X. the closed balls {x : ρ(x. Eλn so x ∈ i=1 Eλi ⊂ Eλ . Given x ∈ X and ε > 0. {x : ρ∗ (x. Thus {x : ρ(x. Let {Eλ } be a locally ﬁnite collection of subsets of X and K a compact subset of X. 56 . Y is locally compact ¯ ¯ open in Y ¯ since Y is open in Y . y) < ε. 29c. then there is an open set containing x n ¯ that meets only a ﬁnite number of sets Eλ1 . . Hence ρ∗ is a proper metric. the function f (x) = ρ(x. we then apply a similar argument as above. Y is open in Y . x0 ) for all x ∈ K. ∞). Let (X. Thus ρ and ρ∗ are equivalent metrics. . Eλ ⊂ E for all λ. there is an open set Ox containing x that meets only a ﬁnite number of sets in {Eλ }. Thus by part (a). To show that ϕ is proper. . . ∞) is closed and bounded. Since ¯ ¯ ¯ Eλ ⊂ E for all λ. . . . Hence ϕ is continuous. Then O ∩ F is an open set in F containing y and O ∩ F F = F ∩ O ∩ F ¯ and thus compact. Hence F is locally compact.
The inclusion i : X → Y induces a