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Philosophy of mathematics
Selected readings
SECOND EDITION
Edited by
Paul Benacerraf
Hilary Putnam
Cambridge University Press
| €ambridge” +
London New York New Rochelle
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Fs ation © Pent al, ne 1964
‘Second dion © Cambridge Univer Mes 1983
Fat blithe by Price Hal 1964
Second efiton pis by Cambie Uy Pres 1983
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Philosophy of mathenati,
Biography
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Contents
Preface 0 the second edition vi
Incroduetion 1
Part I. The foundations of mathematics
‘Symposium on the foundations of mathematics
1. The logicist foundations of mathematics
2. The intuitionist foundations of mathematics
3. The formalist foundations of mathematics
Disputation
Intuitionism and form
Consciousness, philosophy, and mathematics
‘The philosophical basis of int
‘The concept of number
Selections from Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy
(On the infinite
Remarks on the definition and nature of mathematics
Hilber’s programme
Part I The existence of mathematical objects
Empiricism, semantics, and ontology
nist Logie
41
4
2
61
7
130
160
183
241Contents
On platonism
‘What numbers could not be
Mathematics without foundations
‘mathematics
art 111. Mathematical
ath
‘The a priori
“Truth by convention
W.¥.QUINE
Carnap and lopieal truth
(On the nature of mathematica tuth
(On the nature of mathematical reasoning
Mathematical truth
Models and reality
Part IV. The concept of set
Russell's mathematical logic
KURT GOEL
What is Cantor's continuum problem?
‘The iterative concept of set
‘What isthe iterative conception of set?
‘The concept of set
Bibliography — ST
“
258
2m
ais
39
355
37
394
403
aa
ar
470
486
soa
530
Preface to the second edition
Even a casual comparison of the table of contents of the present
collection with that of is predecessor will reveal significant differences ax
‘well as much overlap. By and large, the present selection isthe product of
‘two Forces (a) comments from users ofthe frst edition (and from poten-
‘ial users of the second) and (b) our own sense of the direction the field
thas taken during the past two decades,
‘We are grateful to our many friends and colleagues, too numerous 10
thank individually, who have commented on what they found useful and
less than useful in our frst effort aswell as on what they felt it would be
‘good to have available in one volume. Their perspective has been invalu
able, though the responsibility for our selections remains largely our own,
[Needless to say, we would have iked in & way to reise the first edi-
tion and simply add a second, companion, volume. But we are deterred
by the prohibitive cost (othe user) ofthe {wo volumes. Hence the inevi
table compromise: A selection was made, omitting several things to make
00m for new ones, In a number of cases (most notably the Wittgenstein
‘material and “"Two Dogmas of Empiricism”), the (present availability
‘of most ofthe material enabled us to omit it with less ofa sense of loss
[Not so with the rest. The selection of new material was even more diff-
cult, ax these years have been particularly fecund, both in relevant semi
technical results and in philosophical explorations.
‘As before, we limited our selections to those we fet would be accesible
to the philosophically educated reader with enough background in logic
{o understand an exposition of some ofthe results of twentith-century
loge. (An important example the independence of Cantor's Continuum
Hypothesis.) Ina similar vein, we tried also to narrow the range of philo-
sophical issues discussed in the selection to ones that could mast easily be
recognized as concerning the philosophy of mathematics. Both of these
admittedly loose principles served as guidelines only; but any tempt to
‘observe them inevitably constrains the range of literature availabe for
consideration. Except for these rules of thumb, in the end, we followed
rho overarching principle other than that of making a selection of items
that, in our judgment, would make interesting reading when taken
together

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