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24369884 the Decoded Indus Harappan Scripts and the True Vedic Soma

24369884 the Decoded Indus Harappan Scripts and the True Vedic Soma

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Published by: ciscowonder on Sep 19, 2011
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  • 2. The asva and its fragmented bones
  • 3. The apocalyptic vision of the animal with ten horns
  • 4. The vegetarian Brahmins
  • 5.Rigveda borrowed terms for rice and the plough from Tamil
  • 6.The fire worshipping Harappans as Tamils
  • 7. The symbol
  • 8. Indus tradition
  • 9. Dr. J.M. Kenoyer’s classification of Bharata History
  • 10. The fish sign
  • 11. The bread and wine sacrifice
  • 12. The kerala Nambootiris and Harappa
  • 13. The godhuuma story
  • 14.Rigveda do not have a word for brick
  • 15. The blame of a vowel conscious Sanskrit
  • 16 .The culture of drawing the kolam
  • 17. The mother goddess worhipping Harappans
  • 18.The Aryans were not linga worshippers
  • 19. A bull as the doorkeeper or guardian
  • 20. marks on pots
  • 21 The story of the kevian
  • 22. sasa is soma
  • 23. The gandharva guardians of the soma
  • 24. The rebus evidence
  • 25 Man as the measure
  • 26. The ghar evidence in the script
  • 27. Bharata as bhadra
  • 28. parokshapriya(homophones and rebus) is the mainstay of the script
  • 29 Bhaarata was the land of Bharata speakers
  • 30.Peshawar and Bhaarata
  • 31.North Indian River names
  • 32.The counting and measuring
  • 33. An inscription and the SOV language
  • 34. Difference in number constructions indicate word differences in Bharata
  • 35. One tribe of Bharadvaaja and the twelve tribes of Israel
  • 36.Samhita mantra style
  • 37. Inter relation of the weights and measures
  • 38. Units of measurement in the ancient world
  • 39. The Sumerian system of weights and measures
  • 40. Bharata measurements of time
  • 41. The fish eating alligator
  • 42. The Unmistakable gaayatri
  • 43. The myth of the soma
  • 44.The soma question
  • 45. soma , syena and tavas
  • 46 . Soma candidates
  • 47. The mistaken bull’s hide
  • 48. Soma Pavamaana and Onam
  • 49. Rice wine the sura(alcohol) or madhu(alcohol) form of soma
  • 50.Conclusion



THE HINDU on Sunday 15-11-2009 carried the article ‘Indus Civilisation reveals its volumetric system.Combination of V signs and linear strokes were used to indicate volumes’ (page 22) by Srii T.S.Subramaniam .The article narrates the findings of Dr. Bryan Wells wherein he locates numbers in the strokes in the inscriptions .He has tried to reconstruct broken bangles in a pot and make the number agree with the number in the writng on the outside of the pot.He also assumes the fish symbols in the script to indicate weights. But finally a Tamil cat(chat) jumped out of the bag(gab) when the author told us that the work of Dr. wells is to be published in 2010 and Dr. Bonta of Pennsylvania who speaks Tamil found that the Akkadian Sargonic texts referred to the weight systems of Dilmun as ‘minus’and ‘min’in Tamil is fish.Dilmun was using the Harappan system of weights. Hence the language of Harappa was Tamil.This is a wonderful conclusion !As we will see later in the ancient world this word was used by people of different tongues !The author concluded his article with the comment that Dr.Wells felt that a lot of people will disagree with him on the findings of the fish sign. And there lies the naked truth.The inscription on the pot in the article begins with an open eye script. ! which I hope will serve as an eye- opener for all researchers of the Indus

It has thus become necessary again to expose the deficiencies in the dominant view of Tamil as the language of the Indus script.Readers are requested to refer my earlier works like Bharata the language of the Harappans(BTLOTH),A concise dictionary of Indus Harappan Bharata, The language of the Indus Script from the bearer symbols etc.(available on scribd.com) to get a fuller basic understanding of the type of the language in the scripts. We shall now look into some of the myths created around the Indus script and some relevant facts supporting the identity of the Bharata language spoken by the Harappans. . 1.The pastoral roaming Aryans The Rigvedic people led a pastoral roaming life. The Harappans led a city life. Hence it is not the vedic culture. It is most probably the Dravidian culture because the Dravidians led a settled life. The presence of Brahui –a Dravidian language-in the Harappan area confirms this. The Aryans came to India along with their domesticated horses around 1750 BCE when the Indus Civilization was already on the decline.

The truth is that it is the Dravidians(draa,dram-to go,to run ;dramila-traveller) who were travellers.Tamil is Sumer. Their migration from Mesopotamia to Bhaarata began towards the close of the third millennium BCE due to the severe droughts and famine there. Brahui is probably the left over of their sojourn in Harappa. The Bharats(Aryas) led a well organized life in purs(cities) ruled by kings as per the Rigveda itself. Refer the chapter The life of the Harappans in Bharata the language of the Harappans. A relevant passage from the work is quoted below: Let us now look up for the Bharata influence on a primitive Dravidian language, namely, the TODA. ‘The Toda language is considered to be a dialect of the development of Turanian speech styled Dravidian, the language of a group of primitive, illiterate and perhaps war like tribes who, between three thousand and four thousand years ago migrated from tracts of Western Asia and penetrating India, probably through Baluchistan and the natural waterlines of the country, filled all its western and southern districts,pushing before them, in some period of their advance, the various tribes of the Kol

aborigines’<<. A phrenologist amongst the Todas- William E. Marshall>> This statement though made in the 19th century is only validated further by the latest research findings. There were severe droughts in Mesopotamia around 2000 BCE which led to increase in the salinity of the soil and decrease in agricultural productivity. There was a major depopulaton of Southern Mesopotamia, leading to the collapse of the Sumerian culture. During the period from 2100 BC to 1700 BC, there was a major shift in population from Southern Mesopotamia towards the north and

the population in the area declined by nearly 3/5(SWP:p.6). Severe starvation caused the migration of these people into Baluchistan. Their entry into Harappa began around 2000 BC when the Harappan civilization itself was struggling and waning due to the change in course of the rivers and seismic calamities. Suunarii (Bharata-dawn) = Shinar = Sumer = Tamil. Dra(su)vi(me)da(ru) is derived from Dramila(dra-running,nara –man cf.2000BCE migration), or sira(head)niila(black). The Sumerians called themselves sag-giga ( the black- headed people). That Tamil(Sumer) by itself is a Sanskrit term points to the migration of the Sumerians through Bharata and subordination to the Bharats with consequential loss of identity. This explains the existence of Dravidian Brahui in the north,concentration of Dravidians in South India , the similarity of several Rigvedic terms to Tamil terms(for eg.an Indian settling in England normally takes to talking English .Similarly Tamils began talking Bharata),the existence of Dravidian terms in Brahmana compositions etc.One of the reasons for the down fall of Sumer was the rise of the Akkadian empire under the leadership of Sargon(2334-2279BC).He may have annexed Meluhha also as it is said “ships from Meluhha, ships from Magan and ships from Dilmun, he (ie., Sargon) made lay anchor at the harbour of Akkad”<<DTIS Page14>> It is also stated that towards the end of the rule of Naram –Sin (2254-2218 BC), the grandson of Sargon, a Meluhha king was among the many kings rebelled against him.Now Meluhha - Velicca (light – Dravidian),melukaah(royalty,king-Hebrew),Baluch(who migrated to Sindh?)-Velicca – bharata (light),bhadra(king)

Sakra(Indra.Bhaarata varsha and the unicorn indicating king as the symbol. However the Dravidian mel-aka(upper country) or more probably me(bha)-lu(ra)-kaah(ta) seems possible(cf.Naturally with the conquest the Semitic people.Bharatas). We have seen that both Dravida and sag-giga has the same sense as ‘Krishna’. For eg. If we take 2327 BC as the period of Sargon’s conquest of . Sargon --Krsna.Arjuna) The cultural changes that took place in the Harappan civilization around this time also points to such a possibility.mel= pari- above.the Sumerians and even Egyptians began to travel more and more to Bhaarata(melukaah-Meluhha cf.aka-dhi-seat or vaasa-house .Krishna belonged to the Yaadava community. In the Kurukshetra war the Paandavas (baandhava – relative. The Bharats are said to have descended from king Bharata).headed man).pravaasa = stay abroad). Does this mean that Vyaasa had in mind the exploits of Sargon when he narrated the Kurukshetra war? Of course. Yaadava --Akkad They are also similar like the Sargon – Krsna pair. This is borne by the mummified remains of an Assyrian and an Egyptian corpse at Lothal.relatives of the Kauravas defeated them under the leadership of Krishna (the black man or black.The king with a staff or the Bharadvaaja with a tuft is the unicorn with the single horn. the king being the Sun God. Look at the words: Yadu.Hence Meluhha can be Bharata (Meluhha is not the Sanskrit ‘mleccha’ a word of later origin and probably unknown to the Akkadians. the exploits of the king were the exploits of the Sun God. Now look at the name of the Akkadian conqueror Sargon.

for a king his country is like a wife).nara.language and culture mixed with that of the Bharata groups and the present day North India has a large Dravidian superstratum and not substratum as some scholars say. Alexander the Great. The Bharata (vedic) civilization continued in the north into the historical period without any break.va-nara=human likes) to Lanka (Ganga-gagana-the sky and the South) in search of his wife Siita (desa-land. conquered Bhaarata. especially in regard to all pious . just add 2000 years and we come to 327 BC. Will history repeat in AD 3673? We will not be there to see! Their sojourn in Harappa was not long and peaceful as there were frequent fights between them and the Bharats who were much advanced in civilization.naama) leads an army of vaanaras (monkeys. Marshall had further pointed out that “In the case of the Dravidians… that a possible early contact with the Aryas… rendered Sanskrit. has a historical parallel here. However as a result of the sojourn of the Dravidian tribes. The Raamaayana story where Raama(Deva. their blood. The advancement to the South was also not exclusively on Dravidian lines.Harappa. Probably there were Bharata leaders for them as the Dravidians adopted for themselves the superior religious and social practices of the Bharats leading to cultural subordination. Add another 2000 years and we come to another era of western conquest. However this explains the presence of Dravidian Brahui in the Harappan region and the similarity of several Rigvedic terms to Tamil terms. the Dravidians migrated to the south in search of fertile lands and green pastures for their cattle and sheep.srii. though a solar(king was god) story. Unable to withstand the pressure of the vedic people. the year when another great conqueror from the West.lama. namely the beginning of the British conquest of India.

Tamil has the Sangha period (circa-BC 300 to AD 300)as the bright olden golden day of its literary excellence. Now it is clear that this contact began around 2000BCE when they entered Baluchistan and sojourned among the Bharats.Vritra(Indra) himself is Rudra and Krishna(the sun god). .notions and reverent observances. written or unwritten.The term sangha is not Tamil like Tamil itself.It is an import from svarna(kanaka –tanka-gold) of Sanskrit where the Gupta-navaratna period is considered as the Golden age.16) has its counterpart in history where Bhaarata (Indus valley) was taken over by Sargon and later the Bharats defeated his descendants to reclaim sovereignty. With the fall of the Harappan culture the Vedic Indra-Rudra culture began to fade and the the Krishna(Sargon)-Siva culture began to rise in its place. The Todas were the least cultivated of the Dravidian(Turanian) races and the Toda language had no compositions.8. influential amongst them…difficult to determine at what early period this Dravidian branch of the Turanian tree had first been biased through the superior religious instinct of the Arya”.The Indra –Krishna conflicts(RV. In contrast the Bharata Vedic compositions began from the Early Harappan period itself. Known Tamil literature is at least two to three millenniums younger to the Vedic literature which used the Indus script to make its compositions.85. If the script was Tamil at least some Tamil works of that age like the Vedas should have remained .But again the strength of the migrants increased leading to the final downfall of the cities. .

usha-dawn.vaara-weekday.Oh rays(vasu) you made the horse from the Sun…Oh asva.agna(fire).Hence the Harappan civilization is not vedic.The fact is that a great civilization need not be judged on the fragmentary presence or absence of a few horse bones since the term asva of the Rigveda veda is misunderstood by modern scholars and it does not refer to the domesticated horse..163.1. The vedic asva(aksha-eye.the sun) for the English and the kutira(horse) for the Tamils? Why don’t they use equus ?Asva is uksha (bull. yahva (lord) etc. This explains why the seals of those times portray the buffalo.kaala-time.you are vaayu(wind). ahas(day).2) which says that the asva is the gauramriga(blue buffaloe = bos gaurus ) or viira(niira-water.viira-hero.and the SKY(aakaasa.bhadra) is the water buffalo denoted by the fish(matsa→masta-manusha-mahisha-the head of the bull and mesha ( ) as ).niira-water. Asva is also aahva(vacasspeech).daksha-year.Agna(asva) gave the horse.That asva is not the domesticated equus is clearly stated by the Aitareya Brahmana(6.soma-suura-the sun) of the sacrificial victim was one of the famous somas(su-ma.then from the full WATERS(ap-sa.miina-fish)-bhadra(bull) .2&3>>”Oh fast going asva.agni.avasa(the king. The omega is the inverted form of the nose of the Harappans) of several inscriptions.also.8.you are agna.you are the Sun…you are born of three sources..vacas-word.2.vaasa(house).vasus(rays.aakaasa-sky.vaasa vesa(house warming).avasaabhisheka(anointing the new king) etc.ma=water) which was a delicious offering to the God and the priest . you were born first from the SUN(avasa). the Sun .salvation . abda(year).lion(hari) or buffalo-man(srii) fights whereas no domestic equus is seen.dvija(a Brahmin).sava (sacrifice).the sun).Asvamedha is asva( ) and close(omega ) seen at the beginning(alpha-aleph-bull =close = noose = nose . niilablue or miina-Pisces.aasava(liquor).abda) and you have made great SOUND(vac)to bless your LORD(yahva)….usha(dawn).The vedic people were horse riders.black. It is also aahva(naama)-daana(karma-giving a new name as in baptism).and your WINGS(vaaja) are like those of the kite and your legs are like those of the deer….The .The manusha sacrifice and mahisha sacrifice were favourite forms of Durga(Suurya-the Sun) worship till the 19th century in India.the Sun). namely.abda-year) itself.The blood (sona-blood. Asva medha is the annual(abda) sacrifice of the asva (Pisces-king or the water buffalo) and a mesha ( a ram) as seen in M-1186.The mesha in this seal also gives the reading of medha.aksha-eye). Manusha(a man) is a matsa(fish) or mahisha(a buffalo). Why the most popular term for the asva is the horse(usrabull. The asva and its fragmented bones No horse bones found in Harappa(there are claims to the contrary also!). What is the vedic asva?The answer is in<< RV 1.

. The unicorn is bhadra(Bharata)-asva(agna-man) . The AUM = A-U-MA =A-KA-NA (fire)= sona=soma=homa = naaka(arrow=horn).suura-the sun.60Cf.rod or staff.. A Bharata(Brahmin) carried a bhadra (a a pestle.7.AV.bhat.10.light. svara-word.14).3. ahas(day) and vasus(rays).59.suula-trident.word.1.the Kikatas in the east(RV.king.raaja(king cf.22.Vettikkutira(mule-Malayalam) has something of bhadra(vetta-light)-asva(horse) in it.ravi(the sun) etc.Gandharva) on the west. (RV.srii(word.the sun) = .dot) being bharata a bhadra (pestle) and a bhadra( bindu).18. adhvara-sacrifice. The vedic tribes were mainly the Gandharas(cf.Srii (tra-tri.word).a Brahmin) .5.sacrificial deity is Rudra(Durga=suurya-the sun.The Himavanta mountains formed the northern boundary(RV.pattar etc) we have the term bhadraasva or viirabhadra.srii= raaja) as per the Atharvaveda statement bharata viirabhadra kshatriya before cremation aBrahmin’s staff or the Kshatriya’s bow were taken away from their hands(AV.Bhadra is AUM.adhara-lips. athara-fire.ushas(dawn) . Bhadra(vasara = pestle.spot.22. The unicorn(agni-horn)’s horn is the tuft of the dvija(Brahmin).Varuna) change colour from red to yellow as the sacrifice progress.atharva-veda).14). The vedic chariots driven by asva were the carts driven by buffaloes and oxen and the avasa(the sun) driven by abda(year).soma raaja) etc.Magadhas and Angas in the South(AV. srii(the sun.adhvaga(asva-go→bull horse) etc.Brahmin cf. a ratha was introduced to indicate caara(motion). This custom continues till date indicating the continuity in the use of AUM.rati(sex).2. In sacrifices bharata(fire) being va(like)-rata(ratha-chariot). bharata-fire.varsha(year).red) and soma(yellow) as the rising sun born from the blue night(mahisha.126.bird) is nara(man).rasana(tongue).4) of Bhaarata which was true till the birth of Pakistan.5. bow and arrow). the sara(agna) – aum -naama-was worn as a sectarian mark.The sara of Ru-dra(rava-sara) that chopped the head of Prajaapati had three forks.It is the same from Harappa. A Kshatriya(raaja-king) carried a sara(arrow.The symbol indicates srii bhadra (with prosperity) and srii Bharata (the sun or agni.hara(fire).53.14).The upaviita(sacred thread) has three(srii) strands and the naama(nayana= na-yama = = + ) has three(srii) lines and a knot-the brahmagranthi This knot is there in the AUM.above scripts with a staff. Asva being bhadra(bull.Note the symbol of AUM used at present.121.

Usually AUM (horn) + sariira(srii-ra=the sun ) is used to indicate aum srii(the sun. Kritika →kiriita(crest)-ka(head).sound). Hebrew Ψ sin(jina.h = v) . Agni and Indra continue to be the chief gods of the Hindus even today in the form of Ganesa and his vaahana vrisha(mouse.sa(god.surata-rati-sex).Kiriita has a ghar in it as do a gar-ta( the throne).bull.Bharata is bhaasha.This is shown on thehorned heads of deities( deva.Agna is AUM.srii.K)+ RA.devi=sava=god like) as god is srii (word. The trident (3= Ψ ) AUM is the cross(4= †) as seen in the case of the naama. Look at the similarity of the ivrits( Hebrews ) to the Bharats.naaga) + V(U. Kritika is ghar(house.Moses(sunrise) was kept ina papyrus basket and kept among the reeds along the bank of the Nile.=A(astra.agna.light).Ghar being sara(tri) Subramanya was born in sara(reed)-vana(house) on the banks of the Ganga .Jesus was born in Bethlehem (the town of David=divasa) and was kept in a manger and a nakshatra was introduced.sikha in K-50. is made dru.Siva =srii(the sun)-kha(the sun) =kahacara(the sun)=Durga=suurya.K-65 etc.the crown of thorns for the Christ) to show kritika. The horn is the AUM.The horn on the head of the deity is the naama on the forehead of the Brahmin.Indra). Kiriita is giri(hill)-da(hill.ra(fire.fire.The title of srii is added to names of men as born from suurya ( srii-strii-woman.Beth(ghar-satra)-lehem(naga-god) is the naga-satra of Kritika.split).The trisikha of the horn in M-304. the shofar blown at the end of yom kippur ) = horn = srii = sara = svara = suurya = oma(protector) sopaar (trumpet. Ra(• )+ va(V)+ sar(p)a = Rudra = bharata = vaaca = bhadravaaca = auspicious call(speech) of the god or the priest king. cf..Tamil-tii-fire).It is made the ghar(cross) for the crucifixion of the Christ. sara (horn) ram’s horn) . The horn is tri-sikha to show Kritika (agni-sunrise)also.M-305 etc.the sun.suula.Kritika is the garta of the sun king.This is tilaka(naama). svara (sound).Indra(vrisha) is the mouse(vrisha). Aum=agna(asva) -avana=ahna=yom(cf.srii. Hebrew is bruu(bruuhi-tospeak).This is more clear from the script where a saakha is added to the tri(kri) figure as → → → (cf.The uni (agni)horned bhadra(bull) agni is the uni(agni) horned bhadra( elephant).soma) .hara-fire)-diva(Siva).It is the kolam call. It is the horn sounded by the priest asking the people to wake up.suurya-the sun .It is AUM.tri-kha = tri-ra = trident(suula-suurya)=sariira(gaa-tra=tri-kha =body).like) etc.Rudra is srii ravi(srii devi=the sun)..gaayatri and the horned deity.NA(• ) = avana(salvation) = ahna(it is the call of sunrise.

Udaya is agna(the sun) and ahna(day) udaya.As such it is agnadvaya (Asvidvaya) and dyu(agni.Malayalam-muuri) taya(protection.AUM..bhadra(horn).sky. today) = = = = ma(time).bhadra(king).. ina (the Sun).She was named Babylon. The apocalyptic vision of the animal with ten horns. 17 . deva(agna.naama (mark on the forehead) sa =god. ox ) taaw (mark on the suura.Brahmin.bhadra(bullbeast).dava=fire). paatra ( cup).raaja. Usually this is considered as a description of Rome.(Apocalypse 17.dvi=two- .(Apocalypse.and she held a golden cup(cf.3-5) .The woman is dressed in purple and scarlet and was glittering with gold (cf.colours of dawn)….the seals of bull fight).samaya (time).suurya (the Suncf.9-12). dina (day) 3.bhadra(mountain). The Apocalypse of the Bible describes a woman sitting on a scarlet beast with seven heads and ten horns.Usha( dawn) is Iisa(durga).The seven heads are the seven hills on which the woman sits .srii) forehead) yom (day.bhadra(ten).the sun as Rudra and Soma) . Praatar(kalya-kanya-vesya-a harlot) is bhadra(woman).day.they are also seven kings. yosha(a woman).But what a vivid description of dawn is given in this passage can be understood by comparing this animal with the unicorn.pattana( city ).bhadra(gold) and as usha is aja(The Lamb) aginst which the kings and the woman and the beast are in yuddha(war = udaya-sunrise cf.The ten horns are ten kings etc.sor (bull.

14. the paatra.the woman etc.ne.maa.yama etc.Thus the bhadraasva(unicorn) becomes saptaasva and again the ten horned beast.Hence she is a prostitute.Asva is a(not)-dva(two) = agna = uni =1 =sapta(seven) .vaaja-sacrifice) or the recitation of the Bharadvaaja .nama.haatra(wage. = asva(agna. =tra .vaasra(bull.haa.naa.horn.soma) . For the bhadraasva the Harappans chose the bharata(agni=uni=one) horn but the Greeks made it bhadra(ten).Hence sapta =paatra(cup).saa.mountain).The seven hills are the saptaasva saptagiri(the sun) and the seven weekdays as vaasra(weekday) is bhadra(bull.bull.The seven is the ten as the Apocalypse says.bhaarata(fire).mountain).killing). The inscription may be bhadraasva(asva bhadra).Daksha’s saya with his daughter). lord.25. With the ca(of cakshu )and the haatra it becomes sahasra(1000) also.the asvin horses ).offering). Saptaasva is the sun.maatra(measure).Of course 10=1+ 0 =1.cf.sama. Another interesting fact can be seen by referring to the inscription in H-9.bhadra.To have an idea of this woman and the beast and the fight just refer the Kalibangan seal K-65 on DTIS page 253 Fig.woman. Indra etc.death.house).bhadra(gold.Udaya is also u-saya(sex.Soma Bhadra Bharadvaaja or asva(bull) netra(offering) bharad-vaaja (bhadra=10 . =paa.netra(eye.day.

5. Hence it is not Aryan.plough etc are Dravidian. Rigveda being Bharad-vaaca has ten mandalas(chapters.mantra seven times or thousand times etc.aaNu-man.Langala(hala) is sangama(union).mandala=mantra=hymn )also.ear cf.to cook). kannu(eye.hara.fish etc as seen in the Vedas and the Brahmanas.9.k=y). The Tamils call the bull kaaLai because it pulls the hala and it indicate kaalai(dawn.162.11-19).Bharata-amba=mother).Bharata-srii-fire) or patta(bharata-fire) have their origin in Bharata. The fire worshipping Harappans as Tamils Popular Tamil words for fire like tii(fire.).5.1.The Harappan civilization was a civilization of fire worshippers as seen from the writing and the sacrificial vedis.r=i). 5.lu-man in Sumerian).kai(hand. mangala(fire) and naama-hala(name of hala or hara-fire).Bharata-anu-man. The truth is that the vedic Aryans ate beef .cevi(ear.1.Bharatakara. The meat of the sacrificial victim was cooked and offered to the gods and eaten by the worshippers.ja = father.Note the Tamil words tai( mother cf.mutton . The vegetarian Brahmins .Bharata-carana-foot.Bharatajaa=maata=mother.The asvamedha(avasa-medha = meat juice of the king.talai(head.sara.162. 6.the Eucharist of the Christians.ear of corn!).Bharata-ja) or appa(father. The Harappans ate beef. And yet we should blindly accept this argument? Rice is srii(fire.soma etc.paada-foot.Bharata-mukha-face.kaalu(foot.162.kara.Bharata(Brahmin-agna-yajna-havana) itself is fire .gama-going in. tantai(father.The bulls (bhadra-bharata) .Bharata-saras =head).AV. The fact is that hala(gha.8).1.k=p.Rigveda borrowed terms for rice and the plough from Tamil. Rigveda do not have original word for rice and plough.sraana(rice gruel).birth –m=z) or amma(mother.12cf.l=r.vapra-father.mor(face.k=c.It was believed that the sacrificial victim did not die but went to the gods(RV.k=r).ha.The Hindus do not eat beef.ab-father in Hebrew).21.Bharata-pa.lih-to lick) is the right Bharata term.the Sed –bull’s tail-festival of the Egyptians etc.Bharata-kalya-dawn) . Look back into the antiquity of the Rigveda and the Sangam literature for a moment as we have seen.srona.siira.l=d)and even aalu(person.(RV.Bharata-srava.avasa –mesha = the Aries Sun) denotes the sacrifice of the buffaloe or the king.(RV.r=i).11. 4.bharata-nayana.srava(food.drii-to split. The terms for rice.

Atharva =Bhaarata ( athar = fire )=adhvara ( sacrifice) = Rudra (srii-the sun.18.2.2.Seven priests are shown in the seal.ram is shown close to the human head) .10.28.blood.18.animals(cari.7) but was then accepted by the deadman’s brother as his wife and taken back home.vana (tree) is nabha(vaana-the sky).18.including the unicorn.(AV.touch wood) .bhadra) symbolize srii and bharata .This is because vriksha is prakaasa(light cf.are usually surrounded by divine females(hari-kirana-rays=vi-nara=naari-female and priests) as shown in the seal M-1162.3.Dhaatri.vriksha-tree) The purpose of the aja( ram) was to sent the dead raaja(king) to soma(heaven) like the srii who goes up in the sky through usha(dawn). Agni(fire) was the first deva to be called in to taste the sacrifice(naturally fire devours the sacrifice first) including soma(sona-fire.staff and bow and arrow). The Brahmin living by agni was called agni.(RV.60Cf.18.mesha. The sacrificial deities were Rudra(viirabhadra) and Soma(sona. Upon death the fire worshippers were cremated but others were buried.the vaanara(monkey. Tvashtri.M-1186 may be read as aum srii rudra(dru) bhadra(from the horned deity) -patra(bharata)- adharva(adhvara)- medha(sacrifice.suura=agni) .(AV.4.Puushan etc .(AV.pasu) and mountains(giri . Soma lives in the woods(the god in the tree or or ) as Varuna in the sea.Prajaapati.Agni is sapta-jihvah (seven tongued).dru(tree) is srii(the sun) etc.90.2).34).Interestingly Hanuman.dhuuma-smoke).the scripts with.3).dru-tree) = bhaarata-prakaasa(light. Before cremation a Brahmin’s staff or the Kshatriya’s bow were taken away from their hands(AV.8 ..9.Agni symbol is uni.59.A goat was killed and placed on the pyre and burnt along with the dead man to send him to heaven.The dead man’s wife had to lie down by the side of the husband on the pyre(RV.Varuna) god is vana(tree-nabha)ra(agni) god also as the monkey lives in the woods like Soma.2.

6.2) Prajaapati is varsha(year.happiness.dog).cf.sa) and Asvidyaya (ra-vi =dyu =dvi = yama = ina = the sun) (Aitareya:7.(Aitareya:18. The deities for dawn are bhaarata .The Harappans followed the vedic lunisolar calendar of 30 days X 12 months with a 13th month inserted to agree with theseasons.Indra.3 . For it the deity is aaditya(the Sun) who is worshipped in the horned form since in the tenth month the go acquires hoofs and horns. Seven adhvaryus sprinkle water on the soma(note the tuft of the adhvaryus which is the horn of the unicorn also).trident) etc.iisa.M-1186).suura-the sun) .shown as the head of the deity in the sacrificial scene in M-1186.1-2cf. suula(spear.(Aitareya :17.The samvatsara satra is called gavaamayana.the horned deity in the seals).blood) . sona(fire.33 ) statement ‘Samvatsara Prajaapati’ and is also prajaa(citizen) pati(lord) = the king.saya=sex) with his daughter usha(dawn) by Rudra(putra=a son) is the theme of several scripts portraying the equinoctial sacrifice. suna(air.H-94) was invoked to bring long life to the survivors. .After the cremation everybody took a bath to remove pollution by the fire of cremation and the auspicious sacrificial fire tiger(jaatavedasCf. and soma (Ψ) Rudra (rava-srii) Ψ are almost identical as soma is suura(the sun).7).2.The chopping of the head of Daksha for his sin of sexual union(udaya = u. ( Agni =bhaata =bhadra=bull) .rain)-pati(lord ) as per Aitareya Braahmana (3.usha(aja. Siva is called candracuuda(sa – god.5.

Aries is said to denote the head and Pisces is said to denote the feet.mesha etc.Mitra.beginning cf.7).In the zodiacal signs Aries is the first and Pisces is the last. Aitareya Braahmana like the Rigveda (Aum AgnimiiLe…)opens with the statement OM Agnirvai devaanaamava mo Vishnu paramastadantarena sarvaa anyaa devataa which means among the devas Agni has the first place and Vishnu the last place followed by Indra. .Varuna etc. In some instances the numbers accompanying the Indus scripts can be the number of mantras to be recited in a sacrifice.Rudra as kapaalesvara or Daksha or Subramanya as in ) and Vishnu( matsa = first incarnation of Vishnu) denotes the paada(foot-tail) . denote the kapaala(svara.bird) itself.(Aitareya: 7.720.Vishnu is called tripaad(srii bhaatu-the sun) and tri(3)x paada(4) =12.head. The fish bull denotes Vishnu and dvaadasa(12 cf.tapasa-the sun) are words.5. in between.1000 etc and the selected mantras were those composed by the Rishi of one’s own gotra.Different numbers were considered for different classes like 360.aja. Since devatas ( sabda-words.1.800. 12 inches make a foot) . this can also mean that in the seals agna. Gaayatri is portrayed as having two wings(like Isis ) as per Aitareya : 19. If Tamil borrows terms from Bharata even to denote fire and other basic things and we assume Tamil as the language of Harappa it is not quite logical.This aja is the Gaayatri(prakaasa=rising Sun=ravi= vi =horse.

paatra(jar).the sun).man)..vrisha-Indra) and soma(madhu. samaa(year).red).k etc.water.15) = bhadra(bull.Hence apart from sacrifices.a hare).DTIS page 21.v.pa(0) and ra(|) . This script is the equivalent of c. cf.ka(fire.a girl. The horn is AUM.cakra(wheel) etc. dvi(two) – sa(bird.water).The Tamils carry their Sumerian and Semitic roots as shown by the words they speak and by their life customs like uncle-niece marriage etc.head.rakta(blood.Bhadra is agni(nagna).sara(arrow.It is the top stratum..the robbers crucified with the Christ).One of the major reasons for the fall was the failure of administration systems due to the large scale migration of the Mesopotamian people into India via Harappa.)+ ra (| ) = + dhana(wealth.dhuuma.medha-sacrifice.naasa-ruin.Fig 1.rava-sound. aalap(speak.nagna(naked).kha-the sun.r. It is a linga(phallus) .Bhadra(bull) is bharata(bhaasha-speech).light.a cow).Rudra(Siva) is ra(the sun) -dru(tree) .auspiciousness.deva(god) = dvi-kara(two hands) =divaakara(the sun)=double hook bhadra (v-tra)symbol (W =S=bird=bhadra=patri=sarpa. come at the beginning of the Indus writings. The cultural . nara(man).ram ) nayana(netra-eyes.Sariira(Body) is srii –ra. hara(fire.14&1.maasha(a weight).Thus sa (.plus).naga-the sun) is the first.maasa(month. Contrary to the popular belief that the Vedic civilization came to India with the fall of Harappa .a robber cf. maata(mother) etc.va(Varuna. These lines were combined in different permutations to make words.saras-head).lap(speak).deities are provided with special dress and vehicles also.a cipher).a tiger cf. .jnascholar.cakra(wheel). The Indus scripts were derived from the basic three components of sa-va-ra(sound) denoted by the Sa(-). mesha(aja.the moon).dvi-va(hand= F+ F) =diva(day). linguistic and ritualistic changes took place there .Jaatavedas-the auspicious fire tiger).Agna(fire) being the first.auspiciousness..jana-birth.v. The The symbol symbol = sa(bird.u.INRI).eg : Agna(fire)= yajna(sacrifice) = vasana(house.A triangle ▲ and a rectangle █ indicate bhadra itself from the v-tri as in the naama.s. The Hebrews adopted alpha (bull)from Bharata terms like rap(praise. agna(aja-Aries. 7.Agni is aja.As per the Aitareya Braahmana the horn is developed in the Tenth month indicating the noon position and the winter solstice.the sun). rudra (rava-sara = srii ravi=suura=suula-trident.m.raksha(salvation) is also the Christian sacrificial doctrine. naaza(nose.It is bhadraasva(bhadra vacas-aum).vadha-killing.sona) are sacrificial deities .Hence the fire symbols like the Asva(fish.balance) = dvija(Brahmin). Prakaasa(light) is vriksha(tree). Tamil is not the substratum.raaja(a kingcf.sara = sama = dhana =raaja (r = m=n=z) .sing). It can be seen that several scripts of the ancient world and the present follow the script formulation priciples employed by the Bharats The script conversions are applicable even today.offering to god).In H3305 a bhadra (girl )is shown instead of the bull(bhadra) to show Bharata.cloth) =vaahana(vehicle).savanasacrifice).Uksha(bull) is ukta(speech). The bharata(bha-tra = pa-tra = ) symbol is often added to make AUM SRII BHARATA (BHADRA). . srii(fire.the Vedic civilization in fact was made to fade by the fall of Harappa.srava(ear cf. C= = sa =bird.

A camasa is a kapaala(AV.ka(head) or uksha(bull) .ra=agni.Svaaha is svaasa(breath).vi = w =bird).8. U-kha(a pot) is va(like)-kha(ra-vi-the sun. vi(bird.usha(dawn) or yoshaa(a woman) or vaksha(the chest).si-Siva.tree on sma(face ) is svaaha.It is Omega for the Greeks.9) .concluding words of a drama). : .Thus = ( bhadra.vis(bird-word)-arka(the sun = Gaayatri). = dvikara(two hands. The use of visarga was continued in Sanskrit todate by the symbols which are in fact the vi(two) –cakras or holes of the nose instead of the full nose as in Harappan times. Note the smasru in this symbol smasru = dru.) The multiple names of the gods and goddesses were derived from the same symbols with different sound values.a girl.head.naasa(sisna is a naasa or nose).two)-cakra(wheel) and vac(word)-agra (end=bhadra vaaca=Bharata vaaca=Bharadvaaja) . Saras(saras-siras-head.Durga.k=y) .bleat of goats and calves) to indicate nagna(naked.The visarga is ha(H) and ha is Siva bhadra (soma bhadra) and auspiciousness.linga). sarad =year) is Sarasvati.deva-hara=agni.Vaaja is the concluding mantra of a sacrifice.In H-3305 this symbol is shown with the naked goddess(maa-mother.10. Hence the Harappan naasa(nose) has become the double noose in the later visarga.snake.It is bhadraasva(lamassu) or bharata vaaca(bharata vaakya.Visarga is visarja(emission) of bhadra(breath) during incantations or speech.devi-a goddess).Siva) =divaakara(the sun) =Durga =suurya(the sun .auspiciousness etc.Akshara(an alphabet.Ka being agni(aja) is the A(alef= = = )among the consonants. Kha is k + h = r + v in Devanaagari.bhadra(girl.sma-face=face of Siva.vetra) the normal stop in devanaagari writing.sma-face) and a sisna(sa=snake. This shows the continuity in the writing and speech system from Harappa till today agreeing with the archeological continuity established by Dr.Sarasvati .sa(god) and raksha(protection.Kenoyer as given below again for ready reference.amulet). The script of the Malayalam alphabet ka is a figure of the head.bharata-agna-fire) .cf.It is hanu(to make anu-svaara) and it is bhadra(a cow.As sa it is a god-bird(ravi=Gaayatri.It is a naasa(nose.d=s. It is also sma(face. It is visarga.agnafire).god. ka-head.god) is a raksha(an amulet).Visarga is vi.C(100 =sata) has the power of change as in centum and kentum or as in chat or cat .vis(bird=word)-agra(end) .sama is = ).a bird.

they also settled where food and water was in plenty. Indus tradition We cannot consider the Bharats as a simple Indo-European people . lot of animals for hunting and lot of wild fruits and grains like rice and yava.Egypt.Like a swarm of white ants that settle on dry grass or leaves .godhuuma etc) ca 5000 – 2600 BC . J. Kenoyer’s classification of Bharata History Early food producing Era Regionalization Era Indus CivilizationHarappan culture Integration Era Late Harappan period 1900 – 1300 or 1000 BC Post Indus Tradition 2600 – 1900 BC ca 6500 – 5000 BC (cf. Dr.shifting habitats and finally settled on the banks of the Sarasvati-Indus rivers as the area provided plenty of water.yava. It is this mastery of fire power that made them the imperial force of the ancient world reaching out to Sumer.8.They began the asvamedha(taming of animals including wild elephants) and somamedha(taming of plants or farming).Their greatest contribution to mankind is the generation and mastery of fire and the beginning of farming. they talked bharata(speech) and they called.Greece and even England .they worshipped bharata(fire) as their chief god . themselves Bharatas(the people of fire) .M. they ate bharata(srava-rice) .soma. 9. They were a group of people who migrated out of Africa very early. They made bharata( fire).

“Through the process of over expansion and changes in important river patterns.pa. artistic symbols and aspects of social organization that characterized the first urban centers of the Indus Civilization have continued upto the present in the urban setting of traditional South Asian Cities……. The foot is the beginning. 10.gift). The fish sign (a = agna = bharata = purusha = man) bhaarata +vaaja=Bharadvaaja . A =foot = Vishnu = vacana(word) = bharata(bhaasha-speech cf. architecture.fivecf.girl) =aksha(eye..drava(water.Netra(fish) is netri(offering cf. This script is the equivalent of a.fish).ma).soma.dru(tree).na.dvaadasa(twelve).bhaama(the sun).netra(eye.leader) = ha-sta it stands on zero or digits(numbers and fingers). It can indicate as many donations itself.Egyptian ra = mouth) = bhadra ( bull. the Harappan urban centres began to decline around 1900 BCE and the unifying cultural symbols of the cities were no longer useful.patra(leaf).king ) also. It might have been so many netras(nercas=daana=offering) . paartha-bhadra(head of kings).daana(offering.the sun. dasa(ten).darkness.cf.it is andha(blind.asva(bull.na(ra). Like netra(eye).netra=eye.Egyptian awttime).na(ra) and ca(pa. Bhiima(=bhaama) etc.rice etc) and mantra( hymn cf.nii-to lead.Some of the technologies. .ca.srii-god.asva=vac=speech) also from its components a(pa). In other scripts also the fish was probably borrowed from Bharata and the indication need not have been so many fish.Malayalam-nercaoffering to gods or kings.ma etc.abda-year.paada(foot).dvija(Brahmin).At least in some of the cases the western style of reading of number+ fish =donation of as many number of fish is not right.Painted Grey Ware Northern Black Polished Ware Early Historic Period 1200-800BC 800-300BC ca. 600BC Let us quote him further.leader. Fish is Daksha.agna(fire).niisrii=offering). The head is the end.

tat(that) whence we have ma-sta=Pi-sces.leader).red colour at dawn). We can turn the netra to the horizontal plane to get a fish in water as = = A netra is a leader of marta(man) who walks upright.The double horn bhadra is soma(sky.miina(asva. For the asterism bharani (jar =bhara-rava-hara-fire.Asva being usha.Bhasana being paadapa has netra(roots.from o=n. Nayana(eye) = na –yama = + = . Hence we have matsa=masta(head) = marta = netra =nakra(makara.stay).Thus the asvabhadra is sunrise and equinox and the soma bhadra is noon and solstice.soma extraction) Savana is netra(eye.Bhadra –dvaya is Bharadvaaja.beard) as shown above .rice) bhadra .Malayalam-ninablood. = 3 and 4.moon.a hole.Dhuriiya-dvaya is suuryodaya and Duryodhana. It is nayana and nii(to lead)-ina(the sun).ina = yama) Yama is the deity.Asva is 7.blood cf.light).asva-beef cf.avasapad-vat=cattle RV.netra(eye.graaha=alligator)= ha-rana (hand) = hasta(hand) =bhasana(beetle)=paadapa(tree.169. From the above we have = = = = = = = = nayana(eye).offering) .). Devoid of the poetic and ritual embellishments a sacrifice is simply cooking and eating avasa(food.It is the northeast angle where the light of the sun appears at dawn.king. Miina is fish.pa(water )sta(sit.In a similar seal two asva are merged into the trunk of a fig or asva-tha that has leafpatra in place of fish-drava.1) bhadra and soma bhadra (rice). Drava (fish) is srava(food.king) and the Asvins(asva=bull.sight) asterism is in Pisces. 3+ 4 = 7 and 3 x 4 = 12 Nayana is sayana(sex cf.Aksha is asva.p) = bhadra(bull.Pisces is usually shown by two fish-drava which is the two bulls-bhadra or asva.rice) being raaja(king) the king’s body was said to be eaten.bhadra-light) =soma(rice).Now ma=pa=ha=na.udaya).Hence miina is sona(red) and soma(brown rice).udaya=u – saya-sex ) and savana ( sacrifice.agna. svana(sound).king) = vadana(mouth) = vacana(speech)=bharata(fire.But aksha(eye) is 5. ahas and abda is denoted by miina –the fish. The rising unicorn asva is bhadraasva or bhadra(light)-avasa(the sun. ) .7).In water it is matsa=ma.Afish eating alligator is soma bhadra(paddy) and annapraasana(feeding rice).sona(fire. Svana is agna and asva.Asva is sapta(sabdasound.noon.Bhadra(bull.Asvini (Dasra-darsa-new moon.10.Viirabhadra is miinabhadra(buffalo).nii-lead =miina . Miina is the twelfth sign as asva is dvaadasa as seen above.Netra(eye) is 2.udaya) as Naasatyau(matsya-Piscesnortheast.rice=soma) and bhadra(bull. This seal shows tribhadra(pa-tra=bhadra srii bhadra=full of prosperity.sacrifice.the aruna varna.

avana(salvation).soma).rishi(composer of vedic hymn) etc.The gruel of the bran served the role of the blood. prabha-shine. leader).food).krishi(farming).sara-arrow) .soma extraction).paddy).hull) for soma(bull.darbha(kusa grass used for sacrificial purposes) .svana(sound) etc. To get a better understanding of the fish(netra-eye) note the Egyptian terms ntr(god). For soma as netra(eyes) it is the brows.ra.srava-sru-flow). Initially the devas used to sacrifice humans(naramedha) and the bhadraasva(buffaloe-asvamedha) .food.savana (sacrifice.sona(fire.has same sound values) = agna(fire).dhooma(smoke).Drii is srii –leaf = pa = bhadra-bull=nri-pa=king=Varuna). anna( the sun.drishti(eye).a.pa.zrishti(creation).the Bharata terms Indra.food).patra(wings) for patri(birds).The kernel served the role of the flesh and it was called purodaasa(bhadra-aasarice cake or rice food).netra(eye.ha(the closed bracket . The kerala Nambootiris and Harappa I have already pointed out the better closeness of the Kerala Nambootiris to the Harappan traditions compared to their counterparts in Tamilnadu probably due to their independent .rice.offering.dahana(fire).sa(legs meet) + or pa.sacrifice). In the soma yaaga the soma bhadra (bull. Bhadra is pa (leaf.A giri is da(drii) or sara(arrow=drii) and tri as da . 11.da.aahvaa(name). Now the asva is also a bhadra or ra . iri(to create).1).A sara is also written +ra to make the figure of the arrow as .aum. The bread and wine sacrifice.srava(ear.8. The Christian priests replaced this with wheat bread and red wine as draaksha(grape) is rakta(blood) and raksha(salvation).ma.rice.ha(hands are sama-parallel or va-kra→bent) + na.kuruti(sacrifice). kratu(vishnu. which are the tarpana(satiating gods and dead ancestors) tools. patra(fins) for matsa(fish). srava(ears) for sasa(hare) and srava(ear ) or carma(skin. The bra-cket is kara(hands) for marta.salabha-a butterfly.soma.Hence Siva’s sara(suula) had three forks or it is called a trisuula.6.ra.va.yahva(lord).na.sruti(veda).srava(ear. But later they substituted the humans( homo-soma) and the asva(soma) with the soma lata (soma dhaanya= somaraaja = king of plants) as it satisfied as the bhadra(srava-srii-rice cf. we have + = If we are to replace the bhadra or ra by the drava –bhadra which is sara +pa =sarabha(a kind of deer with eight legs cf ashta vasu.king) was to be sacrificed.blood).sariira-body) itself (Aitareya.the Malayalam terms nerca(offering to god).sarpa(serpent) etc. The asva is pa(patra . asva(bull). 12.Mitra.irt(eye).

People forget that the firepit is usually enclosed in bricks.bat . The blame of a vowel conscious Sanskrit Sanskrit is a highly vowel conscious language. The truth is that godhuuma is bhojana(food) . cap. The house of a Kerala Nambootiri is called a mana (cf. .soma-fire and sama(equal).base.Susruta considered saalayah.syena) and the other grains as ku-dhaanyah(cf.cape .Malayalam :ara-mana =a palace).mother.rooster. 13.shine). The love of the elephants. 14. That the house is called vana can be seen from the rebus of nava given in the scripts itself as nava(=na+va = nine) → vana(vaasa=house) → vana(water fall) The sagnicitya atiraatra somayaaga is special to the Kerala Nambootiris showing their ancestral relation to the vedic Brahmins of Harappa.the special liking for the brown rice.Wheat has eat(bhojana) and heat in it.Food generates energy.cf sushoma where soma is found.The term bhadra means brick . How can an Englishman read all this?This tendency descends from Bharata itself.roast.dress)-ra(fire.Bhadra is vasana(house).go-dhuuma). The Harappans were expert brick makers.But brick has a Rig in it .migration either by sea or through the western cost.ku( the earth)-suuna(born).cot.(DNA or genome studies confirm the better closeness of the South Brahmins to the Harappans than their North Indian counterparts.mode etc. poshana(nourishment) and go(the sun)sona.bhadra(rock) and vas(house.).the celebration of Onam etc. .Brick is rock.As an example see the name of the house itself. Taking literally it means dust(dhuuma) of cow(go). We have the Harappan script vas(house)=vana(house) =mana of the Nambootiris.mood.Hence one cannot ignore vowels in reading the script.It is also go(the sun). It is beth(=B) for the Hebrews and viitu for the south Indians. Look at the following English words: Foot. are some other features of this descent.It is likely that the Sumerian count of bricks as seg-sar also evolved from this name. Hence Rigvedic people did not know about wheat. 15.vriihayah as dhaanya(soma.bottom.How far is the truth from the cow dust!Interestingly Tamil also use the term gotumai which is godhuuma itself.shashtikaah. The godhuuma story The term for wheat is godhuuma.Hence the civilization is not vedic.Rigveda do not have a word for brick Rigveda do not have a word for brick. This is because of the baking of the bricks and their use to build houses and fire pits .boot.

Observe agna-agni. 16 .maasa-mesha.Naaraayana(Vishnu) is nayana-naama(name. In the agnishtoma the yajamaana was supposed to keep his hand in the mushti(fist) or bhadra(fist) form to indicate mukti(moksha).auspiciousness.Hence the upaviita(sacred thread) of a Brahman is considered as Yajnopaviita also.kill) and yagna. is tra(tri-three) =sara(arrow)=sira(head) =ka(K=head).Agni is eka. The Bharata va indicates Varuna. is the naama (ra)symbol for a Vaishnavite and it is the linga(ra-agni = ra) symbol for a Saivaite.biija(egg). Agna is ahna(day) .asva(buffalo) etc.it is drawn with white flour to indicate subha)is South Indian.sa-god.the first.The culture of drawing the kolam.va. A is the foot and ka is the head.cloth.bhadra-pati .vaasavesha.amulet).Hence we have the single alphabet amulets(eg.The Harappan ra Is also usually added to it to make srii.buffalo ) denoted by patra(leaf). Akshara = ii-svara(god) and raksha(salvation.jnaa(know.light).Tiger.wind. Now pa (P) is va(V).house(B). Naama → →na+ma →nama(praise)→samasama(smasaana).He was supposed to keep bharata(fire) lit in his house and carry a bhadra(vetra ) with him always from which tradition the bishops(Peter) carry the croziers.purusha-bharata.santaana →sasa(hare) →sasi(the moon =soma) → (a) + (na) =ana +naa(man) .Now A =E=N .. Whence ra and ii-svara (soundsuurya) is god. Dmd-1 which use =ra.pushti(prosperity) and bharata(fire.Pa is the fist.bhadra-auspiciousness) also. . probably the naama indicating the three class of vedic priests attending to sacrifices or the three upper castes also.bhadra(bull). → or † )-ra(agni) → .praja.bhuja(hand). also.bull. hand(F).iisvara-aisvarya-suurya .deva-devi.egg) and va(vaaha=hand.usha-aja-iisa.Note the fist in this symbol accompanying Jaatavedas(the sacrificial fire Tiger) or Varuna in H-92.Ra is ri and i.a Brahmin) asva(agna-ra). The culture of drawing the kolam (kola=soma=rice=bhadra.also.agnesa-jinesa-ganesanagesa-mahesa-vighnesa etc.Rava is ravi. The A and N together give the K.The P is the figure of pa(leaf.praise etc.The Symbol of the Malayalam script Ra and the Greek Omega is the inverted form of this script.Since the Harappans used kolams it was .tula-sama.The English script R has a attached to the P bull (bhadra) to make a unicorn R which is the symbol of the Harappan bharata(agni.So the is A-NA-KA(aum) or agna which is srii(tri) also.putra.

Yohannan is vacana(word) itself. Amme naarayana is amma (ina.vana-forest) devata is bhara-hara-devata (fire god)itself. is Similarly para(hara-fire.(Luke 3:4). deepa(lamp.But sandhya is darkness and gaayatri is prakaasa(light.Hence Jesus was also crucified nagna. The fact is that usha ( Iisa).mala-mountain. were the mother goddesses.Paadabandhana is bhaata(bharata) vandana(worship).Nagna is agna and agna is aum. Maata (mother) = pitaa(father)=guru(srii) =deva(god) . This is also related to the sandhyaa vandana and gaayatri vandana. .nara-srii. Each bhadra(cell. The kola(hvaana-svana-soma) is to tread on bhadra(rice) and see the rise of srii at praatar(dawn) as soma bhadra(Siva).Saavitri.At sunrise a bhadra(woman) draws the bhadra(kolam).foot. Maari Amman of the Tamils is srii(m=z).patri (bird) etc.With the upanayana sandhyaa vandana is practised.Anantabhadra(endless knot) makes aanantabhadra(full of happiness). bharata(fire) and bhadra(bali=sacrifice).Hence it becomes bandhana(restraint) of sandhya and vandana(adoration) of gaayatri.cell).vandana-worship).Prabhaata(dawn) is parapada(desert. AUM.Dravidian.Hence the Gospel of John(vacana) begins with the word was god concept(John 1:1) and John the Baptist was referred to as the voice(vacana) of one calling( hvaana-kolam) in the desert.)bandana(binding.bhadra deva-the sun).Devi is Ravi(the sun).Gomukha is a trumpet.foreign place.patra(leaf).the sun).The symbols used in the kolams like bhadra(cipher..The Aryans were not.Veda is light of knowledge.yama-ina=the sun).girl) and nagna(naked=agna-fire).In H-3305 the script itself reads bhadra(bharata-fire.The kolam(call-hvaana=agna=ahnaday=avana-salvation=aum) is bhartaa(husband.fire = soma whence lotus makes a claim to soma by colour apart from its nervine effects. bhaata-dawn paada.The root words employed are Bharata and not Tamil.Sarasvati.Lakshmi) or carrying(Vishnu) a pa-d-ma( a lotus= bhadra-bharata!The Malayalam word taamara-lotus is taamra-red = sona-red. The Bible presents the kolam as John(hvaana-sound of the conch-AUM at dawn) the Baptist.anna(ina=yama=the sun) or the fire sun god itself .purusha-man) in it is bharata(fire) and praata(dawn).Gaayatri. point to bhadra (happiness).Hence the cross is AUM.wakes up her bhartaa(husband) who has to place his bhadra(paadafoot) on the kolam to enjoy a long married life. Nagna is agna. Hence ma = sa = pa =sa= = ga = sa = god and god is seen born from (Brahma. The mother goddess worhipping Harappans The Harappans were mother goddess worshippers.Nothing is far from the truth. 17.foot of god ).praata-dawn.Bhadra vaaca is AUM.Mam(ma=water)-daana(giving) is vandana and bandhana.yama=the sun) and Naaraayana(Vishnu. He is calledYohannaan Mamdaana( ) in Malayalam.Durga etc.).paatra(jar). In H-3305 a nagna girl is shown.

Praasa is patra and sara-va) whence we can see that bhadra is srava(ear.Deva and Siva.Siva is subha(dvi-va) and svaaha(naaza-nose).ravi=sasi=soma) the moon form of the sun god itself. The Harappans were linga(sepha-phallus) worshippers whereas the Aryans were not.Ardhanaariisvara is arka(the sun)-hari(srii-the sun)-iisvara(suurya-the sun).John’s gospel-word was god) is worshipped as linga and Siva worship is prevalent in the South.Hence life is blood as per the Bible).Siva is .A bhadra(girl) becomes soma when she becomes a vadhu(wife.paatra(jar cf.) which are Bharata terms. 18.da=mountain ) + patra(pa-leaf ) or (two praasa or sara.Candracuuda(Siva) is ca(sa-god) –Indrasuura(the sun) . Naasa is ruin or end .ra-sana.Svaasa is svaaha(s=h).St.Sava is yupa(sacrificial post ) and subha(auspicious).Moses got the patra-writing of god on bhadra-rock.soma).la. fire) is Siva(Soma).Hebrew mosaa is sunrise.Siva.Linga as li(ruin)-hara(ruin) also indicate the same.Thus Siva is (ra = vi = sa.bhadra)-dhi(seat) also. the language was Tamil.Patra is pa-dhara(da-mountain) or pada(word).auspiciousness) .soma) of a bhadra(purusha-man).ra-naga etc. Vasipati is Vasu(rays)pati(lord= pasupati=Siva ) also.Praana is svaasa(breath).Jiiva is praana. The truth is that Tamil worshippers use the terms Siva(sepha) and linga (ag-ni.head.Vasi(spear) is another form of linga or Siva.girl. Note the substitution of bhadra (head) by bhadra (Siva=naama) and vasi ( spear.usha.vasu.rice) and soma(bull.The body praana is sava(corpse=Siva).).si-mha.Jupiter).blood) whence soma itself.Sara-va is srava(soma-rice) and sara-na(va=na) which is sraana(rice gruel.rice. bhadra(king.mosaa) is soma.agni.srava(ear.Sona( blood .Jiiva is also sona(blood.Vishnu.bull.ci-hna.tu-nga.Compare H-3305 bhadra(girl or = praasa(spear )+ with or =bhaarata(agni =bhadra (wheel )+ )+ ) + bhaarata or = bhadra(giri.The Aryans were not linga worshippers.Vasi being Siva and usha.Saanu(a hill.madhu-honey.soul.drona=soma) etc.Since Siva(vac-word = bhadra =god cf.dawn) in the bhaarata(Siva) figures.cooked meat=soma).gold.alcohol.Soma bhadra(rice) being born through krishi(farming) is giri(saanu.rice.Moses.covenant on Mount Sinai with which he destroyed the golden calf-soma bhadra made by Aaron or Aruna-the red rising sun.the sun. Bhaarata is sona(fire. was used to pierce the vakshas(ushas -vasi) of the Christ(kratucross). → → Sepha(phallus) is jiiva(life.

Bird is word. Vaaja is the concluding mantra of a sacrifice.vaaca(speech) etc. ). : . Bhadra(pestle) is linga.5(bhadra-hasta-hand. Naasa is naada(sound) . Patri(bird) is bhadra(girl.bird)-cakra(wheel) =vis(bird)-agra(end) vaayu(wind. Siva is seen with a trisuula(srii-suura-the sun).si(subha-auspicious.Rudra and bhadra are the gods of the bharata (fire) worshippers. and usha(dawn v = u). In compositions hence gradually the terminator role of Siva = =• got established.Siva bhadra is Soma bhadra.It is bhadraasva = bhadravaaca = svaaha = vacas at bhadra = bharata vaakya.Siva and Daksha yaaga.paada(foot.naama(name markcf.vac(word).Siva)-naga(the sun). Siva is also called cf.rice=soma).naaka-the sky where the sun resides) etc.Siva).Usha is uma(iisa – Siva’s consort.It is the bhadra line stop used in later Naagarii writings .jina(suurya-the sun.siivaa(a python. Word is god. maata(mother).vesa(entry).rod) also.Viira bhadra-Sivachopped of Daksha’s head and replaced it with the head of a ram )whence he is bhadra(bharata = purusha associated with the bhadra(bull.Bhadra is the bull(Tamil-vella –white) and a vetra(staff.m=s).The linga is sometimes encircled by a snake also like the snake on the neck of Siva.a quarter or quartet )etc.fire) is Siva(pancaakshara=bhadresvara=Siva).subha(auspicious).Siva).naaga(naga-the sun). The first is for vaata(air) and the second for vaaja(food). to soma(yellow).bull) =subhadra(auspiciousness as in H-3305).Vaaja is va-aja(ram). The most common Harappan symbol is the bhadra vetra (bharata) symbol.n=v).During the course of the morning sacrifice the rising sun changes colour from rudra(red).When nose is sunk the wholehole . soma(moonsoma is bhadra as associated with sacrifices and the horn shape of the crescent soma also.snake).naasa-nose) → paayu(anus.bird).sarpa). maana(measure).Both are organs of visarja(excretion).bhadra(Siva.to bhadra(white. Vaca(word) –agra(end)= bharata vaakya = sa = vis .top).dinam) also. Visarga = vi (two. This bhadra(rod) of purusha(bhadra) is the linga=li(like).kara-hand.cf nose) .Bhadra is stop(pot. Thus svaasa(svaaha) became bhadra(breath) and the subha bhadra(full stop).Savita is devata.bull.va-sa(god.This snake is sa(god.vaasa(house).vaata(vaayuwind).mesha(aja=agna).hara(fire.vaaja(food.V-S.Bhadra (• ) is (linga cf.god) called nandi(jinan.diva (day).haraSiva.We will come to soma as bhadra when we identify the Rigvedic soma also).Yashti is yati(stop • ).is sunk!.naga(the sun.naaga – snake.light). purusha-man.naama or aum simplified as the bindu ).vrisha.si(sa-god). V=5= sa is visarga when placed at the end of a sentence.

girl.bhadra).Linga worship is bharata(fire) worship practised by the Bharats.light.na. Separately it is agna.Rati is srii .Indra) is purusha(a man) and the bhadra(pestle.Agna is linga.bha(cf.But in reality he is bhaga(the sun) and agna(fire) and not ghna(destroyer).bull.sira.Hence aja is linga. as suggested by Dr.This is another form of the purandara or tripuradahana who was supposed to destroy the Harappan cities. .ananta bhadra=kolam) is Siva sepha. patra(leaf). etc. Other symbols like . the omega-ukha-bhadra . is sa.Udaya(sunrise) is u(Siva)saya(rati).girl.This is because bhadra is hasta.In this symbol we can see the two forms.ten) = (ha-sa-ta.sacrifice).AUM etc.king. Aja is agna.paatra(jar) and saakha(branch)etc.Bharata became bhaasha by his time. The dasa(dos-hand. In counting also soma(naasa-nava-nine-9) and bhadra(ten-10 ) indicate the limit of number cycles.with same sound values substitute their places also. The fish bhadra(alpha=a. Williams in his Sanskrit –English dictionary.sriippaattusong of god) hence. At the temple in Kodungallur the Bhagavati (bhaga=the sun) is worshipped by terippaattu(abuse songs.M.Linga is La(ra)-agni. .The Jews and Muslims follow the same practice wherein they remove the agracarma cap of the bhadra(linga) and wear a cap(tuft) on the bhadra(head) .praatadawn).head.hasta-hands.Bhadra deepa(cf.sava(a corpse). .hara-na.vaaja(food. . as in . This word normally can be the svaaha or ha( visarga) at the end of inscriptions. Ha(kha) is Siva and soma(cf.bull) .deva(god). This kha has become ha.vaaca(speech) etc.F) and kha.seva(service).The Malayaalees use the term teri(srii) to abuse.sama =). Hence this symbol is attached to bhadra(circle.Siva is called Bhagaghna(destroyer of bhaga).Saya(sex) is jaya(victory.pa) is the foot(paada) and is the head(ka.the sun). zava(sacrifice).In between the words its role is probably given to the asvins who are asva =vaaja =haya =ha –va(na-like).kaasa-light).= sa = bird = word = god = bhadra (soma) = bharata Paanini = vaani(speech) –nii(to lead).ma.sobha-shine). is formed by binding of two hands itself which is also Thus is sepha(phallus) . saakha(branch.ha-ra-na) . bhadra(auspiciousness.Even the horn of the unicorn has phallic symbolism as vrisha(bull.bhuja(hands. saras for siras and gha or kha for ha. Hence paaninii is grammar .horn) is his linga as expressed by the tuft of the Bharats.bhadra.

Thus tra = sara. Thus the fire god bharata and the fence god bhadra is the guardian of the soma fields.Agnesa as Vighnesa and Ganesa is the lord of these gana(agna.Jarrige1988b:188 Fig 4.bhadra(triangle) . Kara(hand)-hara(fire.sacrificial bull) =srii(man. Bhadra being pura (town) it can indicate Rudra(Krishna. The inscription reads Rudra(Krishna.Kalasa is kara-ja(hand-born) and jala(water)-sa(with).vaasra(bhadra). Viirabhadra being prabhaata(dawn) and prakaasa(light) is pravesa(a door) also.mahaa(great)Bhadra(Siva.Vritra).jina(the sun).Vritra) –viira –pura also.PaaNa( a hand) is a paana(a pot).4 c-d ) .DTIS page21.full. A fence is called a veli (bhadra-pattal-pestle) in Malayalam.The fish eating alligator is also the gharma in which . Vaasra is vaasa (a house) .Bhadra is made pa-tra(tri) and vakra is made va-tra(tri) in these.Fig.kri = Rudra(Siva.5.fence).vri.Dvaara-ka is svarga(the sky) and dvaara bhartaa is svar bhartaa(soma bhadra-king of the sky) also.bhadra(rectangle) .Siva) =nara(man. and pa-tra(double hook= W = tri-V=trivrita =trivakra ). The keralites often say “ellaam(everything) bhadramaanu(is bhadra)” . Gandharva =gana(group) –bhadra(Siva ) = agna(fire).It shows the bull of Siva or the house of Rudra or Rudra vardhana (a name)=Rudra viira bhadra(vardhana –a name).14&1.hara(viira).Note the bull (bhadra-Rudra) tethered to a tree(dru=drava-fish=bhadra-bull=vetra-staff=yuupa-a sacrificial post.Hasta is kalasa(pot-one can take water in the palm like in a cup) and panca(five). A bull as the doorkeeper or guardian A bull is shown on a knob in M-318 (DTIS page 92. V is P itself as patra(leaf).the sun) =Rudra( vedic sacrificial deity) = soma(sona-fire. 30.the Gandharva is shown with a drum of Siva also.srii trina.the same sun (agna-aga) god is worshipped in different names. In H -182. Harana is makara or nakra or graaha(alligator) and karna (ear) . he is the one and only god for some.bhadra(hand) etc.bull.soma) = Vritra(Indra) = Krishna(srii-jina-the sun) = ru + sara = Rudra.4 .blood. V is the hasta(kara-hand) and harana(hand).pestle) that was used to fence the crops.the guardian of the soma fields. Aga and agna being eka(one). 20. ru.5) . tra.naga).6.sna.A pot is also gharma (RV. Now look at the term Gandharva. rice gruel .Drava is fish and paatra(jar) . Dvaara(door) =bharata(fire) =bhadra(bull.The Malayalam kalam(pot) is kalasa and kara.1. marks on pots.15) = man or god on tree(tree god) = bharata =bhadra = Rudra ( putra-the son of god-the Christ on the cross = the sun in light rays ) = bharata is shown by patri(bird) .patra(leaf) .” Veli ketti bhadramaakki” means fenced and protected.Siva is said to be the lord of bhuuta gana.hole. As stated by the Rigveda .whole) .bharata(fire).Soma is also the sky.naga(the sun).Fig. This bhadra is the bull ( full ) indicated by the cipher and bhadra(stone.Candra cuuda is sankara suura himself. 19. air and Siva.agna.dhuuma-smoke) = putra(a son) The soma plant is often the smoke which goes up like a tree.

bharata-fire) which is sa-bhadra or Savitri or Gaayatri.na= paatra(pot).14).a srava(ear.drava(fish. As 5 + 3 it is also 8.though sa( =) + sa (=) is sasa(hare).Or it is V(pot)-ap(water)-dha(dhiseat. being maatri(maataraa-mother) and pitri(pitaraa-father) the Drona(Bharadvaaja) was said to be born from a drona (a pot). namas(obeisance. Srava is sa-rava .rice.In the copper tablet C2B7(DTIS page111Fig7.soma. tavas(sahas.Marut.the drona.Saashtaanga is Sa(god.srava(food.drona(measure).the plant shown is soma bhadra along with the sasa or hare figure.plenty.soma) =trina(grass=soma) = dru(tree) = bhadra) = fish eating alligator(soma mahira) = savitra (the sun).oil.trina(grass.water.To sas is to jump and to saz is to kill as a yaj(sacrifice) . mahat(Siva.great).rice. .Mitra) bhadra(happiness). = weapon) = saz(to kill)=svaaha = naasa(nose) =hanu(jaw.Varuna.ears. Vyaapta(volume ) is often va( V ) –ap(=pa=water)-sa(V) itself . The measure is often called drona kalasa in the vedic style.anka-mark) and pranaama(obeisance by bowing down) is pranava(AUM).Soma is food and homa is sacrifice.sacrifice). (soma Soma is sasa(sasi = soma = the moon) . 21 The story of the kevian This symbol is often mistaken as the Tamil kevian(from kevi = cevi = ear) .That the kevi (Malayalamcevi-ear)is not original can be understood by the fact that all pious Tamils are seen to perform the saashtaanga pranaama before the idols of the deities they worship by crossing the hands to form the sa-pranava-bharata holding their srava(karna.festival.ka.mahas(light.devi. the vessel in which soma is often stored and which was also a standard measure.fish) .strength).darbha(grass) etc.pot) or it is the volume(dhi) of the liquid(pa) the pot or container can contain. This is sasa.nation. This was the principle of volume measurement adopted in other ancient civilizations also.milk etc) is stored or boiled.yaaga.ma.sa. tra + va.drava(liquid.the X) –hasta(hands) – agna(fire.= cevi = ravi= deva.buffalo).food) etc.bird.Indra. Sas is tavas and . + = =tri-na(grass= soma)=drona.

stop) patraasana(eating leaves or rice.drava) or fro-g.bhaat for the North Indians .god). Srava(ear.deva(god).vana(house).tavas(strength).bull.food).soma(rice.time). desa(place. sasa(hare).sada(grain) Sat putra(a good son) was made sataputra( a hundred sons-the Kauravas in the Mahaabhaarata).86.One of the reasons for calling paddy soma is its ripe svarna(soma-gold) amsu itself. 22.Hare(haze) is hari =dra(to run).ra)-sa.Siva.srii) to indicate srava(ear of paddy ) and thereby srava(bhadra = rice.Note the toa in toad.Paarvati. saadam for the South Indians and zad for the Persians.Lakshmi).rice wine) = pada(word). The hare(hari=srii=srava) has two prominent ears like the vriihi(va-hari=hare like) or soma. sa(god).king.dasa(ten).sahas as seen from sa –ka(va. or dasa(sata) pala (weighing 10 or 100 palas) etc.44 soma is associated with vrishaa(mouse.Hence haari is a group of travelling traders also. The inscription soma(sasa) vritra(Indra.Indra.rice)→srava-na(ear. sasa is soma B7 -------.rice)=sada(Sed of Egypt).. har in har-e which were derived from dra(to run).fro in frog. Putra(son) = bhojana(food) = bhadra(bull.bull. In RV . . sata(hundred). Thus sasa = sasi (soma) = sama (M=Z) =soma(paddy.with you) .rice grain)→sraavana(an Asterism.The same sense is in the Malayalam word tavala for toa-d(tavas.saa = te (they.king.Leo)→sronaa(ricegruel.dava(fire).Rudra) bhadra(rice.Sasa patra( soma bhadra) also indicates the dasaapavitra(fringed filtering cloth) used to filter soma(rice flour and wine). shat(6).nava(nine). Dasa patra can be desa bhartaa(the king cf.Sasa has long srava (ears) and srava(soma sada) too has long srava(ear of paddy) which is the amsu(soma) . dasa(10. sa+sa = saa(she.for you.nation) .male) and hari (hare.purodaasa) is shown with the figure of three rice saplings(pa-tra = bhadra-rice).Dasaratha).C2 sasa(hare) =sas(jump).rice).tavas(strength).Sed for the Egyptians-the bull’s tail is the soma bhadra).Onam)→drona(soma vessel -so called as sronaa is soma) →soma(rice gruel.green.sata(100) . .cf. zat(good.fire) zat(good).9 .horse.sada(fruits and grains.

kratu-sacrifice)netra(offering) it can indicate the offering of sataudaana. This sata is also made jata(matted hair) to make him jatabhadra.vaara(tail).king or rice sacrifice).gold). As sata(hundred)-bhadra(usra-bull.) –sriibhadra (prosperous.prabhaata(praatar.vara(great).sara(arrow.seat).3.24.Viirasena(a name) etc. . Soma bhadra can be soma paatra (soma vessel) and praasana can be graasa(a morsel or lump of rice).soma vritraetc.bhadra-asana – rice food = purodaasa.srii.offering.soma paatra(vessel for rice).dawn).sava(corpse).srava-rice)-vritra(vrisha-bull.pa = leaf .seat) =asana(food)=yajna(sacrifice)=dhana(wealth)=daana(offering).pavitra(dasaapavitra=soma filter) and Happiness and prosperity be with you ! It can also indicate the three sheaves for the Gandharvas who guarded the fields(AV.harihare.Interestingly aasanda has its base in sad (to sit down at a sacrifice) which is corroborated by the sasa and sada in the typical vedic style.Siva. aasa.three leaves).sound). It can also indicate a golden aasanda offering by Somabhadra Rudra .stop.kara(hasta -hand).rava.the sun). Aasa = saa = te = sasa also.satapushpa.annapraasana).bhadra(rice.Indra.H-182). patra(leaf). auspicious) – Bhadraasana ( throne.leader.soma putra.T=V) whence Siva is also called Sadaa(sata)Siva.bhadra(happiness.leader).saa patra or te srii bhadra which is savitra(the sun).Vishnu).Somaraaja being the king has to be provided with a garta(throne) or aasanda (chair).soma.vaara(tail) Hence it reads satarudra(sataputra.the first meal of Brahmin infants.pan(to worship) = tra(tri).a girl. cf. bhraaja(shining).rava(the sun.presh(to invite or call upon).amsu(ear of paddy).zava(sacrifice) =tripatra(trefoil.asana(food) also.rice.king) and patra(pa-leaf) –tra(tri. viiraasana(a yogic posture).girl.naasa(nose).netra(eye.Drupada.bhadra(happiness.It can simply indicate the ghar(kara) aasana for the soma paatra in the sacrifice also.aasana(face.Sasa is aja(ram) and vaaja(food.paatra(jar).gold).jaya-the sun) is Siva(sau=100.6cf.Satarudra is a hymn of the Yajurveda addressed to Rudra( Siva). It can also be understood as Soma bhadra – Rudra – netra(offering) – praasana(eating.pa-tra = = patra(leaf). Sata(hundred.offering).pada(feet.dru(tree).bull.hara(fire.kara(hasta-hand). aaza(face.three) Hence C2 = soma bhadra(rice).bhadra-yajna-bull.bull.bhaarata(fire) = cf.deva-god). = kara(hand).stop.Soma bhadra vritra bhaarata is fire. =pa(leaf)-tra(three) = = netra(eye.sacrifice) .sriibhadra(full of prosperity).

Bhadra being 1 and 0 can be represented by the vetra(yashti-yati) or cakra(bhadra) . Rudra is bhadra.subha(Siva) and bharata(jaatavedas-raaja vacas=bhadra vaaca=auspicious speech=AUM) varuna-jaatavedas vyaaghra(tiger)=arka(the .aksha-eye) +aasa(seat.bull.) .velicchappaatu tullal in temples.unicorn).Since bhadra is sa it becomes sa +sa or subhadra(subha-siva. The dancing girl is nrit(dance) of bhadra(Siva. the image of the dancing girl) among the Harappans. There were male and female dancers(RV. In H-182 the tiger is Va. hrit. 23.subha). Evidence of bhadraasana(royal seat=garta=kaasara=bull) is given by the hoofed seats in some seals.+ + → hasta(hand . Varuna.marana nritta-death dance of the sacrificial victims) .nrit is mrit. later this became simhaasana.naatya(nrit-Rudra) and the bhadra(Siva) taandava(sandhya) dance forms.King being simha.3305 this single alphabet is given along with the naked bhadra(Durga..mesha=naasa=maata=sepha=deva.a beautiful girl) deity to make bhadra maata (Durga)or bharata maata(India) or bhadra deva(sepha).Nrit=netra is also sacrifice) and M-312 where five men (panca bhadra) tame a bull(bhadra bandhana -bull taming = bhadra vandana-bhadra worship cf. rudra(bhadra)-vaadya(damaru-drum) etc and from their love of dancing(bhadra nritdancing girl) we have the bharata(praata).kolam drawing).netri also Cf. Arkodaya(sunrise) is given by the ardhodaya(half-risen) pose of deities.sacrifice) → svaasa(breath) → svaaha Svaaha is considered as the wife of bhaarata(agni) also.gold.Morning is saanta(calm. linga=bhadra.maasha(weight).bhadra-kanya-kalya) and evening is asaanta(turbulent-taandava cf. velicham=bhadra .Naasa has two bhadras(holes) in it.130.Vrisha is purusha(cf.Aja=agna.1. The gandharva guardians of the soma We can see a clear picure of the somabhadra worship of the Harappans from H-182 where a damaru is shown with the bhadra nrit(five svastikas = 5men.viina(lute).In H.1.7.(bhadra=king.4 cf. From the Harappan’s love of music we have the Rudra(bhadra).gold) .naasa-nose) + hasta(aksha) → dvi-hasta(aksha)-aasa(naasa) → su (good)-vaaja (food.diva-day) or bhadra (subha-siva) sepha(deva ) or even bhadra(ten.92.

Sata-u is Siva.M = Z). Popes etc.The five agni symbols form pancaagni or bhadraagni which is Siva himself.daana) bhadra(zero) – panca (five)=50 cf.sun)=argha(price) suura(tiger.powerful. ma ha bhadra = mahaabhadra(Siva) = saavitra(the sun.vaaja. srava(soma).Pancamukha(pancaanana=five faced= five na. Vandana is shown by the tiger and drummer and the panca-na symbols.fire) is the guardian of soma bhadra (rice).But Tiger(va)+drummer(nata) = vand(praise) damaru(drona =soma-svana) = dharma(yama-damaru-drum) = nritta (dance) = mrita (dead)= sava(a corpse) = Siva(subha) suura(Tiger –suurya-soma) .raa.satau(100)daana(offering) and M=1000 in Roman numerals(ma=sa =sama ka.maata.sa cakravarti(emperor) =Gandharva.suuna=suula=soma) truti-sruta=deva=rava=srii =sra nja(a singer or drummer) . are epithets of Siva. .Bhadra(fence.na(man) +da(drum)=nata(dancer) nja –jna(a scholar) . It can indicate Gandharva panca-na (vandana-obeisance.bhadra raaja(vaaja) = soma raaja(bhadra).naatha.bhatra(soma ) – raaja(raama. headed=Gaayatri also.siva.deva. pa-tra.vaaca. It can also indicate king suura dharma soma raaja made bhadra vaaja 50or it may be the genealogy of the king as we count the Jinas.Panca is also vamsa(tribe) whence it can be Pancaa-la which indicate Soma Raaja Pancaala(a king). Pancabaahu(five handed)etc.mukha=vadana-face= bhadra-head).sava.).srii.va ) .

girl.rice. Let us compare bhadra nrit (= girl’s dance) with H-182 (bhadra –pancaakshara) and with M-312 -bull baiting where five men were made to dance in the air by a bhadra(bull.Aitareya Brahmana 2.Malayalam-centa=drum) were said to guard the soma fields(gandharva itthaa padamasya rakshati RV.husband).13) the numbers accompanying it can represent the age of the soma or duration of the soma sacrifice in number of days like caturaha(4days).Siva.sravarice.Siva. catuvimsa aha(24 days) etc.9.as suura dharma soma raaja bhadravaaja(bharadvaaja) 50 . Note the transformation of somaraaja as nata(som=nat)raaja later.bhartaa-ruler.2.mahaa-great)-sarva(Siva.as-to frighten or drive away. Gandharvas(cf.naaka-the sky.4-gandharvas protect by frightening and driving away cf.gan(naga-the sun. Bhadra( ) being soma(cakshushii evaagnishomau –agni and soma has the form of the eye.ghanta(Siva)-rava(the sun. Siva is diva(the sky.shadaha(6 days). may also be indicated.Hence like . Alternatively the pancaadasastoma(from five dasa symbols). The group of panca –marta(men) or nrit can indicate pancaamrita (food of god) or panca viira ghoshta(five heroes room) also.) as these drummers guarded the soma( rice ) fields continuously keeping watch and frightening away the animals and birds who came to feed on the soma(paddy) crop thereby becoming the protectors or guardians of the soma. Gandharva→.soma) like the soma pavamaana(fanning soma) .dvaadasaaha(12 days).day) and subha(bhadra-auspicious).bhadra-bull.83.jyotishtoma (from fish symbol) etc.trivrit stoma (from three circle symbols.sound).

Naaka is moksha (the heavens) and sara(arrow). The rebus evidence Many instances of the rebus principle of Bharata terms can be seen in the scripts which cannot be matched by Tamil terms.makara-nakra-graaha-an alligator cf.Hence the king’s well was given a leaf shape like the naama(bindu) on the forehead and the sceptre.air).Moksha is soma(the sky.masta(head cf.giri(hill). Prakaasa is pra-hasta(capetapaani(hand).naaka). Even today the North Indians say saraf pyao ( water drink = SOV style).This shows the continuity of the Bharata rituals. 24.speech.Naaka is naada(svana) and sound is considered as a function of the element of aakaasa(asva.Sara( grass.the bhadraa(pasu-cow-subha-Siva) srava(rice) is also used as auspicious symbol. Siva as soma bhadra is hence soma bhartaa(ruler and protector of the sky.fire.rice) and bhadra.Yamuna and Sarasvati .the sun) which also make him gandharva.the fish eating alligator and the hand holding fish or rice lump).-athari(finger.Horn-harana-hand.prakaasa-light).arrow. bharata(light.agra(end) It is natural that the fire worshippers should pay great attention to the finger shaped flames.bindudot.dvaara-door.bhadra(bull.Triveni (triple -braided) is Prayaaga(confluence point of Ganga.kara(hand).hand with extended fingers) and b) Triveni becomes tri- .Hasta (hand ) is matsa(fish). Adri(hill)-athar(fire)-.circle).fire) even today.svara-sound.hole). Similarly in several rituals a darbha(bharata-fire) ring is worn on the athari(finger.finger shaped flame of fire).harana(hand. the trident horn on the heads of the deities.Brahmin) and patra(leaf).Bhadra is bhadra (king).vetra-pestle.water) is sra-va(ear. a) → → → → patra-bhadra-bharata Let us first take the case of the leaf like well seen at the Harappan priest king’s courtyard.Giri-kara is also giridhara(Krishna) and srii-kara(causing prosperity).bhadra(water).Soma is also svana(sound) and gandharva is also naakabhadra(light. .

the bearer of the oblation . The symbol V(paana. angu (inch) etc. The measurement unit aNu (atom)is also anu(man. sa-maya(time). From the body we have maatra(metre). 25 Man as the measure A maanava(man) is a maapana(scale).eg. Counting is ganana(counting cf. Akkadians.Drupada).But the language is Bharata and not Tamil. Each Indus script has multiple applications arising from the rebus style as seen in the case of .5) is the hand. Hebrews and the Egyptians. For time it is ma(time itself.offering).Λ) which also denotes 5.The minus of Dilmun noted by Dr.Kara is sara(five).soma).10 on page 65 of DTIS . =paana(jar mina-fish ) and the paaNa (hand). Mina = maana(measure) = pari-maaNa(measure.shekel).4.volume).saarada (Sarasvati) also. dasa-10). Bhaarapati (bearer) is Paarvati .ka. bhuja(cubit).This is sulka (muulya.sa-maa(year) .kara-paaNa-hand.ra.sna(sma.sha.c) → pa+ pa + (srii. Adhvara(atharva) is sacrifice. Bhaarata is bhaasha(speech) and vadana(face).hasta(panca-5) etc. Every part of the human body is a measurement unit in Bharata. Palm = maapana(measure) = pangti = paani =ten(fingers) = ten . Since pa =na (P=F=N)and ca(P=B=C) it can become Naarada(netra-eye.bhaasa(prakaasa-sunshine-prabhaata-dawn. Paana is paaNa and baaNa(arrow).sulka(dvi-kara= ?cf. The praise of Asvamedha is to impart knowledge of cattle rearing. The Sumerians used the terms sar.jar. Srava(prabha=sobha=soma) is ear and food .parimaana(measure).srii(the sun) .bhadra(head.the tribe).length.paada(foot).Sravana is veda. Bhaarata is adhvaryu.) whence we have ma-asa(month).yama(god of death).a bean).a) + — sa =bhaarata(fire. naasa(maasha-a weight.su-kara=tax) =nakra = fish eating alligator.maasa-month.speech. From the maana(measure) comes the miina(fish) and mina(unit of measurement).Daksha Prajaapati etc. Its inverted form is sara(arrow.Harana( hand ) is nakra (alligator) and netra(eye ) also.na. The root word for measurement is the maa(maana-to measure) indicated by (naama -nameor paana-jar ) .manana-thought ).maasha) etc. Hence this sybol is used in the inverted form to represent the face(vadana) and head(bhadra) in H-103. The principle of maanava as maapana was received by the Sumerians.The praise of soma is to impart knowledge of farming.mass). Bonta also came from Harappa as suggested by him.maasha(a weight of gold.By the addition of the saras she can be made Sarasvati.yaama(3 hours) etc.bhadra(king).Refer page 161of Bharata the language of the Harappans and Fig.Babylonians.samaa-year). Krishi(farming) is sruti(veda) and srava(rice. Argha( price) is muulya(from ma) .

Bhadra(gold) maasha can be the weight or a dealer of gold(goldman). Hence sma is replaced by soma naaza(nose). Note the different types of ghars present in the scripts like .Sumerian sar =gar-den) is the catushkona catvara(courtyard or rectangular place where cross roads meet)in which the yajnapaatra(sacrificial pot) is placed(cf.rule. a +s + va+va = asvaa = bharata =paartha (king) Since va=sa(C=V) it is also sazana(killing the sacrificial victim cf.Suula(soma) bhadra can be hala bhadra also. .count) Netra is maatra(measure).spear) is sira(bhadra-head).numbers(0→9).Hala bhadra is Bala bhadra(brother of Krishna). bhaarata-aja(asva bhadra. This maana-ati is inches(angus). Hence pranava is the elder brother.order. Tolaka is a weight of gold or silver equal to 12 maasha. .bezah of the Hebrews).egg cf.melukaah-king) .cf.ati(pada-foot. .) .A maaNika is a weight equal to 8 palas.man. property given by a king ) etc.Bhadra suula can be a dealer of tuula (cotton-cottonman). .the sasa bhadraasana in para 21).and paada(foot) is used as the base.bhadra-mesha = asva-mesha= asvamedha=dakshayaaga . Foot is mana-yati = vana(house).Do you notice a ghar in kra-tu(sacrifice) and the cro-ss. .mesha. Balaraama =hala raama=hara naama =pranava(AUM).the Christ carrying the cross is another form of this). Manayati-is used by Kerala carpenters even today for measurements of buildings.It equals the weight of objects. A maaNava is a pearl ornament of 16 strings.St.Naasa(nose) being naada(sound) and deva(god) is the naama on the forehead of devas. naatha(lord). . maasha tola hala Bhaarata(pa-raaja) is the king(cf. Ghar (cf. and naasa(ruin) symbols.Vadana is mukha(mu-Siva. biija (cipher.In the Daksha yaaga Daksha’s head was replaced by a ram’s head .base) = paana(hand. .It is after this that Krishna(the sun) appears.Soma is suula(spear. .jar)-ati = paaNa(hand)-bhadra(foot) .Sama is sma(face) and soma.Thomas portrayed with a spear. 26. .bhadraasva).Sara (p-raasa. miina .In measurements the bhuja(hasta) .kha-the sun =soma) Tulaa( scale. The ghar evidence in the script Ghar is a house(cf.saazana ( teacher.eka-one)=ank(to mark)=aneka(many)=anga(limbs) =gana(group.a weight unit) is sama(equal..Muruka with a vel) and raaja. Agna(fire. .Hindi-ghar). .Bhaarata is vadana. . .The fish is dvaadasa(12) and in a foot there are 12 .

though there might have been kings of the name who ruled Bhaarata. Vaasra is vaasa(house).Bharadvaaja(clan) and Bhaarata varsha (the country called Bhaarata). Bhadra(stone) is bhaasha(speech) and bharata(fire.Hebrew) talking to Moses and at Sinai giving the ten commandmends (cf.These scripts show the significance of the sacrifice in the lives of the vedic bharats.bhadra(mountain cf. the fish eating alligator.prabhaa etc. Kripa( a friend of Indra. Horeb=Hebrew.Thus the unicorn became the symbol of bhadravacas(aum.sila) tables.pity) is giri(hill)-pa(leaf).kripa. Bhadra being ten.covenant) .Hebrew – tabera – fire. Hence the Bharatas are said to have descended from the king called Bharata whereas in reality it is from the language and the priestly clan that the people got the name like the Egyptians.. .the language) .It is Thoma for the Kerala Christians who were Nambootiris before conversion to Christianity.Prabhaata(dawn) is parvata(bhadra). . Bharata is also paada.origin).Sumerians etc.Sinai is sila(bhadra-rock) and the commandments were written on two stone(bhadra.bharata-agni-uni)vaaja(horse.house).Sinai.It is the number one.But Bharata is bhadra(bull.daabar-to speak ).Akkadians. Bharata as bhadra bhadra bhadra bhadra ( stone henge) Bhadra(bull). Foot is root.).arrow).It is also Bharata vaaca(speech) and vaasa(resident). etc.Hence it is happy Chrismas! cf.bhadra(elephant). Ghar is placed on kara(hand) . Bharadvaaja is bhadra(bull. in . 27.stone. Greek makar means happy. Bharata(speech) is Paali (a language) and vaani(speech).those of Asoka). The .mountain. patra(leaf) etc. .The Nambootiris have a direct descent from Harappa. .Kailaasa. Bhadra is a yashti(rod) and yati(stop).Thus bharata(agni) is muula(root. Bhadraasva is Bharadvaaja.Observe the fire god on Horeb(Broohi.Muula is Manu for the Hindus. the ten commandments(bhadra) were given on Mount Sinai(bhadra). .Paada is foot and a fourth. It is Muusa(Moses) for the Hebrews.The Asva(Soma )yaaga of the Nambootiris attracted the Roman traders and scholars who took them to Rome as Christianity.paartha-king).This is continued into the historical period as the silaasaasanas(stone edicts eg. Vrisha is varsha and vaasra(bull.

The Indus scripts are the best examples of this style.sara -arrow) and bhadra(head.the bhadrapatra also can indicate Bhaarata Varsha and Bharadvaaja (the leaf being the tuft).s=n).Bhadra(patri=bird) is patra(pa – leaf. vaaca(word) =sa(bird.dru(sa = vi)-saakha =Visaakha ( sa+sa+saakha) Prakaasa(light) is vriksha(tree). Like the bhadravrisha(unicorn).gold).giri (hill) =srii (the sun.the fourth or outer pa is sa)=srii bhadra = trivrita =trina(grass)=netra(eye. A spear has the shape of the head or a leaf or the linga.fire) =paatra(vessel)=bhaarata=bharata – pa-tra(tri) = sa-vitri(the sun.Drona(Soma) .god) = vaaja(arrow = vasi =spear =Siva) .purodaasa = kurbaana(k=p.Williams .Hence these are interchangeable. =bhadra(bull. In the amulet M-1429 a nauka(boat) is made from mu-kha(face) to give sukha(happiness). = tra(tri-srii) is made dru(tree) with a saakha(branch).light.offering = W (patri-bird) = ) =maatri(mother) =Indra. the Gha from which ha was born as observed by Dr. Dosha is thus soma as usha is asva.word cf.praise) and naama(name). ha-sa-ta=sa-sa-kha=saakha. da(hill) + pa(leaf) =deva =rava.word of god) Giri –patra =srii bhadra (blessed with prosperity) =sriikara = Bhadra is paaNa (hand ) also. 28. parokshapriya(homophones and rebus) is the mainstay of the script.5.Hence kha = ha. Paroksha priya iva hi deva (Aitareya :3. a patra is made a pa + tra(dru-tree.Naasa(nose) is naava(boat.stop).sara-arrow) to make .rebus phrases etc.Dosha is the hand.) style of composition. Bhadra-patra =100 or 20.king.1) which means the devas(the Rishis and their compositions-the Vedas) were fond of the paroksha(indirect speech using homophones. Ha is also sa and pa whence hasta(hand) is shashty(sixty) and sapta.darkness and turmeric(yellow. The branch is a kha or hasta .d=b.Mitra . There is an udaya giri (hill of sunrise) and an astamaya giri(hill of sunset) also which in fact is the rising and seting sun itself.

Drona is a measure also.heaven. Hence kumbha is puurna(full) and puurna(suurya) kumbha(soma) is auspicious.the sara is split.patri(birdcf.naaga-snake.bhadra(bull.vaasa(house. ishu(arrow)-vaara(roof) = iisvara(god) ..gaana-song). The Kerala Nambootiris still call their residence ‘mana’ a Dravidian contaminated form of the Harappan vana and bha-vana (a house) .panca pakshi). Nava-vana(water.food.ma + dru =druma = Drona (a measure of Soma).rice) etc. naaka(arrow. yava = nava(nine.dhruva(Vishnu).Also sa.year. sa + ra = srii (fire.leaf. The roman v is this vaasra in inverse form.Nellita was a unit of measurement for the Karalites.Also ina(the sun ) is yama(two) and vi(two)-na(naaka).Note the sara in the paa-tra paatra=pa(va=ma =2.naga-the sun. Srii being drii(to split).auspiciousness).It can also indicate a saraava ( a cup.bhadra(bull. = = = five pa.word.dress) = naasa (naama=deva) = daasa(servant).offering).paaNa(hand) = baana(arrow) = bhaama(the sun) =saaya(evening) = saama (maasa =daana=maaya) or Indra(yama-sara=two arrows) .)+sara(5) = 7 or 10 = full .ten).house) .sara-arrow) = vaasra(a house.place) .maatra(measure).bull. netra(eye.satra(a house) = Dro-na ->soma = sara = arrow.drava(fish).The bhadra(holes) of the nose is made bhadra(vetra) of the sara(arrows). Srava(Malayalam -coru-rice) is soma . paa-tra(pa.the sun) =raaja(king) . 8 yava =1angula(inch) = 3cm yava = mana =maana = sama cf. Sa +dru =satru(an enemy) = va –dru =srava(Malayalam -coru –rice) .weekday) . drumaasraya(chameleon) = Dronaacaarya = Somaraaja . sara+sara =saraa = srii.sa –tra =panca(five) .Bhadra being va(two)-sara(kara-five) is usually pattu(ten).the Soma Yaaga is said to bring in rains.srava(ear.Siva. Hence Drona taught the Kauravas dhanurvidya(the science of sara or archery).five.praise.a measure equal to two Prasthas or one Kudava). vaa-sra(house)=bhadra(hand=panca = five ). Of course rains or irrigation is a must for the paddy cultivation.five .ma.maatara(mother).new). Srava being varsha(rain.

=smasaana(cemetery cf. Drava being fish tridrava =sriideva.raksha)=sarpa bhadra =cakravarti(emperor).born from ravi-srii-rati) The svaaha provided the priests a good chance to yawn with both arms raised over the head! netra(Indra.bhavana(house). The sma(face) is indicated by bhadra(fish.srii.it is srii bhadra also.Hence this can be netra –dvi-drona or netra-subhadra or soma bhadra or dru being srii .extraction of soma ) and trina being Marut(pavana) and soma this script indicates soma pavamaana also.vacana-speech) =mukha -netra(beard) of mukha netra of dru netra of bhasana(vadana) .fish) in the previous figure is replaced by bhadra(cakra-vakra-circle) here. ) the following scripts are also its mukha -subha or bhadramukha(a handsome man) .raaja.paada(foot).Being a tree. . naasa(nose) = naama(sectarian mark) = mesha(Aries) =maana(measure.Normal bhadra is the rectangle or circle.srii-ghantaSiva)also as shown by tri(three)-khanda(parts) .bhasana and netrabeard).the face should have a netra (root) apart from the normal netra(eye) .soma). is netra(Indra) itself and is Siva also.RIP) Smasaana kaalii is Bhadrakaali and smasaanavesmaa is Siva.honour) = snaana(bath)=jnaana(knowledge) =janana(birth) sa + sa Ξ = dvi-sa = ravi-sa =dvija (a Brahmin. The Harappan priest king has a bhadra on his forehead along with the pa-tra-cakra marks on the cloak.This netra is the beard. .Mitra.tri-na) →pa-tra (three pa) = . Hence a Linga stand also could be seen with this mark indicating the phallic Siva symbolism.pavana(wind).bull. Trinetra . Pa-tra-cakra(wheel.The fish being pavana(wind)and savana( yaaga. Vadana being bhadra(dra-va = fish.fire) .netra-eye). srava-naasa-bhasana(a beetle.bhadra(king.He is Sriikanta(Siva.circle. pa-tra-paada → jhasha(fish.Pa-tra as bhadra is light and as raa-tra is night.vadana(mouth) and bhasana(beetle equivalent. dru –tree) .bhadravaaca=sama(sava-Siva)-sama(sava-Siva) = samaadhaana = peace. savana(offering.Drava is vadana(mouth) and vacana(speech).Bhadra(drava-bull.Trina is drona.vadana-mouth.A matsa( fish=bhadra ) being bhadra ( ).netra(trina)+ naasa+ mouth=mukha .Dru is replaced by srava(ear =dru =srii).

rice,sveda(sweat),sveta(a conch),deva(god), tvashtaa(the sun) ,bhadrapaada,sapta(seven), sabda(sound),bhadra(bull,full,king),paada(foot), daanava(a demon), dvaadasa(12) , viirabhadra = bhadraasva =soma bhadra = puurna kumbha(Malayalam-niRa paRa=a full pot,full drona) etc. As go-tra(tribe) and go-cara(sight) it is also kusala(happiness),Kosala(a kingdom) ,pu-tra(a son), sutra(thread) etc.and its equivalent is arrow is replaced by the go(eye,bull) symbol. where the ra(shaft) of the

=sa-vaara= varsha(year),svara(sound) ,suurya(the sun). Sa is bird and fence.Sakra (Indra)is sa and kara(paaNa=vaara=hands,rava-sound,the sun).Sa-vana(paaNa) is sacrifice and soma extraction.va +sa(bird) + va =vasu(ray).It is the kara(ray) of Sakra(Indra).Vaara is also water and the patri is bhadra . Hence it is the viirabhadra(buffalo) and the rising sun. vaara(bracket=hands,roof) + ka(bird) +pa(fish)=Bhaargava.sa(bird) –va(fish) + kara =divaakara(the sun) ,Siva bhadra ,shat(sata) bhujaa=Durga, and prabhaata(dawn). Va + pa(fish) + sa(bird) +va =vaasava(Indra),vaashpa(heat,tear cf.the fish is the eye. It is also asva(fish)-viirabhadra the sacrificial victim = bhadraasva. The bracket is the hands, brows,wings,fins and husk. drava(fish),bhadra(bull),bhara –paada(dawn),netra (eye,sacrifice),vimsati(10+10=20), bhadra(• )+asva( ) =bhadraasva =unicorn(the bhadra can be the horn,linga or bindu).

viirabhadra =

bhadravaara, varsha =dasavaara

srii-giri . =savitri.

Bhadra (water) is vaara(niira=water).sa X + bhadra

paada(foot,four)=bhadra(five,bull,cipher) =raksha(protection) = prabhaata (dawn); bhadrapaada=40 .Upapaaduka(paaduka-footwear) is a deva(god). Paaduka as paadapa( a tree) gives the god in the tree. bharata = Brahmin; raaja-srii (king)

Bandhaka is vyaapaara(trade), panaya(pawn),barter(exchange) or bhaata vandana(worship of dawn).Even now, panaya =pawn=bandhaka of the Harappans.
paada=pa + da (look at p =d = b ) + =daasa(servant,a class of people),Dasra(Asvin) sha,sara =usha(udayagiri)

udara(belly) = patra(leaf); agna(man) +patra(cipher) =10 ;udara puurana(eating food), puurna kumbha (full pot or belly),soma bhadra (Siva,rice) ;sha(man) + patra =savitri(the sun) sha + na,e =shna, te(to you) or agne ( o agni !)

kara(hand)=sara(arrow),paana(cup)=baana(arrow) . kara = sara = 5.Dhanishta(dhanusara-bow and arrow) is soma(sky,noon).Manusha(man) is Manu-ja(born) and ma(great) - dhanu also.Dhanu is dhvani (sound). Man makes great sound which is speech. In fact aatmaa (soul) of man is his vacana(bhaashana-speech) as shown by the descending tongues(speech) of fire at the Pentecost in the Bible(Acts:2) .Rasana(tongue) is sara(arrow,kara-hand)-na(like). A kshatriya was supposed to carry a sara (arrow) to show that he was a raaja(king). paaNa(hand) is paana(cup), baana(arrow)..pan = to trade, to pray paaNa = paasa(cord) . Mushti is a measure.Paasahasta is Varuna.Kaarpaasa is cotton. In the agnishtoma the sacrificer keeps his hands in the mushti( fist) form ,till the close of the yaaga to show mu(Siva),nu(praise)-sti(dhi-seat,te-to you) or namaste(obeisance to you).

dasaapavitra (a fringed filtering cloth) was used as a soma filter.


vaa-sra(house),sa-tra(house) etc. have a sara(arrow) in them.pa=va=sa=like.

A vaasra(house) , bhadra (a head cf. arrow.

)) and a pa-tra(leaf

) are like the

29 Bhaarata was the land of Bharata speakers

Now let us become a bit more positive and pose a very reasonable question. Tamilnaadu is the land of Tamil speakers.Malayaalanaadu is the land of Malayaalam speakers.Karnaataka is the land of Kannada speakers...Hindustaan is the land of Hindi speakers. Greece is the land of Greek speakers. Italy is the land of Latin speakers . England is the land of English speakers. China is the land of Chinese speakers.Japan is the land of Japanese speakers. Sumer was the land of Sumerian speakers.Akkad was the land of Akkadian speakers.Egypt is the land of Egyptian speakers.Then why Bhaarata varsha cannot be the land of Bharata speakers?. How can this happen when the Americans do not speak America.! In the Indian context we have ancient literary evidence of Bhaarata Varsha but not a Tamil varsha.Why? In Bhaarata varsha of course differet peoples were there like Gandharas,Kosalas etc. Bhaaratavarsha is also known as Aaryaavarta(bhaarata=aarya,varsha=varta). The story of Bhaarata getting its name from the king Bharata comes from the Parokshapriya style of ancient writers since Bhaarata(bhaasha) is

a bhadra(paartha-king cf.Meluhha and Hebrew- melukaah-royalty,king.) .The Christians call the priest father, not because he is their real father, but he is their bhartaa – paartha-bhadra -ruler.Dr. William’s definition of Bhaarata as descended from the Bharatas(applied to agni either sprung from the priests called Bharats or ‘bearer of the oblation’) rightly applies here. Bhaarata varsha and bhadraasva varsha are mentioned among the seven or nine divisions of the earth viz:Kuru,Hiranmaya,Ramyaka,ILaavrita,Hari, Ketumaalaa,Bhadraasva,Kimnara and Bhaarata(Mbh).Hiranmaya and Kimnara being the same and Bhadraasva and Bhaarata being the same the divisions can be seven also instead of nine. 30. Peshawar and Bhaarata Purushapura was the name of Peshawar. Peshawar and Persia are Bharata descendants.Purusha is bharata and pura ..Bharata is pattana(city cf.Tamil vattam-a taluk or district).If the scholars realized this the misunderstanding about the pastoral Aryans would not have occurred.Purusha=Bharata = pattana(puracity),Harappa(t=h),Meluhha(p = m,r = l,t = h) Bhaarata Varsha is pattana varsha(vaasra-house,bull;vaasa-house) or bhadra vrisha or Bharata Vrisha. Hence the unicorn is Bhaarata Varsha and Bharata purusha. The Bhaarata(bhadra) vrisha (bull) was made Bhadra(elephant) god and elephant town (Hastinapura=Harappa) later from Bharata-pattana-bhadra transformations.. cf. Kaurava = saurava=suurya (bharata-the sun) The unicorn is bhadraasva(Bharadvaaja-fire)= patra-asva(peepul-leaf cf.the long pointed tip of the leaf.patra-leaf is made bhadra-bull,king,asvattha-vata ) = bhadra vaaca= bharata vaaca=Bhaarata varsha=bhadra vrisha. It is agnesa. Its asva is bhaasha (vacas)and vaasa(house). Hence bhadraasva=Bhaarata varsha(vaasa=vaasra-house,bull,day). The Dravidian claim as the builders of Harappa can also be doubted by the very fact that whereas the Harappan sites were in a stage of continous Bharata(pura,pattana) progression from 6500 BCE to 1750 BCE,such a Bharata(pura,pattana) trend is not seen in their travel to the South. Did they simply forget the traditional city building traits? The Dholavira sign board bears the name Bhaarata nagara(Bhaarata city) which is a further proof to the Bharata basis for the Harappan civilization.The inscription is a,ca,na,pa,ma bhadra patra na,sa sa ra,la bha

= bhasana(beetle,vadana-mouth,hasta-hand,panca-five),nakra(makaraalligator),nagara(bhadra-pura-pattana-city),harana(hand,karna-ear,karma –deed,kiranaray,the sun),marta(man),matsa(fish), netra(eye deep,Hades),maarga(path) . ,


Bhadra is deva(deity). → viira-bhadra=viira-purusha=hero .auspicious) –sarva(all.bhaarata.auspicious)-sravas(sravorenowned).bha) or paartha (king. (asvattha leaf ) → .sarpa. Thus (bhadra-circle.king.fish) . subha(auspicious).su. bhadra(border-fence-sa-god. sa(bird.drava-fish) itself.netra(eye). Bhaarata-mahaanagara.sarpabhadra(cakravarti-emperor). bhadra (sara-sira-ka-head.tra-tri= .sarpa-naaga-snake) → pa-tra → a.border) = bhadra(border.ila-leaf .stop).Malayalam -aal-ila = vaal-tail.Semitic melukaahsa ra king-nagara)→ bhadra.snake) → pa .pa .king. sobha(shine) and varsha(rain.paa).place) and pa(water)-sara(water).da + + → patri(bird).full.Varuna-soma bhadra-solstice) is the tail(note the fish tail) of the bhadraasva(unicorn-ucchaisravas-the rising sun) .mahaa(sarva) nagara(city) – bhadra(city.leader) → sarpa-naaga-snake)→ asva →Bharadvaaja→ ukha(paatra-jar.sabha-court) Nakra is nagara.tail)-patra(leaf .pa-tra (vaasrahouse.horn.prabhu-lord).vaasra(house) → → raaja(king) cf.vetra-pestle.bharata The inscription is hence (Nagara) bhaarata.light.asva-bull.god.rice.fire.subha-auspicious.year). bhadra(bull.nagara(city).mahaa-bhadra-great) and sarpa is sarva(all. Indra)→ makara(nakragraaha=alligator)-asva(bull.bird. .raaja-king .king) position of the noon(soma-the sky.H-3305 ) → vaara(roof.bhadra.bhadra(king.bull.year.asva(bhadrabhadra- bull. In the parokshapriya style it can also be read as Pancaala(Gaandhaara) -bhadra(city. Ucchaisravas is usha(dawn.catura(four)→savitra(the sun).soma) is prabha(sobha-splendour. paarthva –royalty.varsha(country.naaka(the sky.cakra-aksha-wheel.bhadra-uksha-usha-iisa cf.Rudra).snake.the moon) sun.Makaraasva(fish eating alligator. Srava(ear.netra-eye. viira-bhadra (sacrificial victim) → bhadra-asva(aja –eka-paada= praata-avasa= rising sun =Agni.ahas-day)-iisvara(suurya-the sun) and is said to have uccha(long)srava(ears).ka)-pa(va.food.sra(si. Makara is bhadra(bull.nagara-city cf.sacrifice.the sun.king.great.

sa etc.agna = eka = aga = aja = mesha = naaza = mass = maasha (a weight unit).paada-tra or tripaada(twelve).house warming etc. The rivers of North India like the North Indian cities carry the vedic signature in their names like Sarasvati.mass.) and river(aaRu.ma. These units might have been in use either simultaneuously for different purposes or at different periods of the development of the civilization itself. North Indian River names.The five fingers on both hands gave a bhadra(ten). .Sindhu.Sena.subha). mile etc.Did the Aryans after their arrival rename these rivers.ka.Yamuna etc. This soma bhadra (drona bhadra) is the nirapara (puurna kumbha –full pot) of the Keralites which is still used in auspicious occasions like marriage.replacing the earlier Dravidian names.) have their roots in Bharata.litre.bhadra(pasu = ten).Egyptian deben ) initially this may have indicated the number 5. Note the bhadra pakshii or Gaayatri (syena)or soma bhadra(drona kalasa) in the scripts like . For counting the basic unit is agna(fire).va.puzha.metre. 31. The hasta(hand) was the basis of counting.maasha.na.Bhadra is hasta(five).niir etc. 32.pa. .The counting and measuring The Tamils adopted the counting and measuring systems of the Bharats like the other peoples of the ancient world.tanniir. Hence the dasa(2x5 decimal) and sexagesimal(3x4x5) systems came into force. Bhadra being hasta(panca-5 cf.This seems impossible since Dravidian words for water (vellam.nadi etc. The root term to measure is maa(to measure) from which comes the maana. Compare this name with the name of Ver-pahrada-kkaipperu-virar-Killi a founder king of the early Tamil Chola dynasty and note the close resemblance to the Bharata inscription style. miina. Sa is patri(pakshi-bird).Ganga.It is ha.Paarsva-a name) or Pancaala –Cakravarti-Viirabhadra(vaasra)Deva(Siva. The three divisions of the four fingers on a hand multiplied by the five fingers on the other hand makes shashty(sa-hasta = sixty). This is the roman symbol of 2xV=X The V=5=is the palm(insert your palm into the figure of the number and see) itself.

Agna has ka(ra=1) + na(0) .dvija-Brahmin) → (ka +tri =Gaayatri –bird) → (kha. Mu is three in Malayalam and Tamil from this reading.mantra for Siva.jna. Note the kara(hand ) in kai and the pakshii-patri(pangti-group) in patti. Agna is aga. 2.Tamil) angu = hand dva(na.naaga.saa.leader) .Siva-n and savana(soma). 4.dvau =randu (netra)=kannu nakha(20).ca-tvara = sa(bird.offering.yajna.vaahana etc.Hence naanku = naalu(4.Agna is ravi(n=r. Siva is hence trinetra(srii-Indra.Vadana is bhadra( ) also.sa) – tra(saa.na is A(N=A). Shat and ashta are the hasta(panca) itself.Na( ) + ma( ) is naama .god)-tula(sama) = suurya.ma.jina.naa.m=v).te .raaja) = uni.The head is a bhadra(cipher) and the foot is pa-da=va-ra(1) .naga.gana.The trident is the linga itself.sapta(7). It can indicate 5+1= 6 or 11 also.paa) = hara(srii Compare with )+ na =hand = bha -dra =Siva(Hence pancaakshara-five letter.Ekaaha is a one day sacrifice.Hence the bharata(bhadra-linga) symbol is used as the cihna(mark) of the Bharats.god like panca(5).eka= agna(srii. Now.saanu-the sun) = kaalu(leg-foot.netra=two.Keralites still use the term kai –ppatti for the palm.symbol of no.deva. .→ (dvi =sa=vi=bird. 1.aja.ma. sa +sa = dvi-sa=dvija.Hence the top or bottom may be taken to begin a word.catvaara(4) = sacrifice – 9 or 45 . Bharata =srii(fire).Mitra) and mukkannan(trinetra) for the South Indians.srii.mantra) also.ra-vi -bird ) → shat(sa – sa = bird or god bird ) → ashta(sa-sa =bird).Ravi is savitri or Gaayatri from saava + tra or saa + bhadra . It can be naama(saama. paada(pa+ da-to cut) =deva(=sagod=veda=four) = catvaara = + = sa(na .panca = paaNa-sa = hasta(hand) = aintu(ancu=5.Aum is agna.catur bhujaa=Gaayatri) bhadra(amulet.) Panca is tapana(the sun).a quarter) sa –tula =bird like.dvaadasa(12) etc.Bhadraasva is the unicorn.maa. Hence naama =aum.eye.= aja = naasa +ra =netra(offering. Hence we get value of 1 or ten for man.sacrifice)- 5. agna(asva. Ma is placed on (u ) it. 3 traya =srii =muunru Ψravi-srii-mu =sa+ra =ra+vi .sasa.

the property of Yama) also.Ten(honey) –kai(fruit) is sweet.hasta) itself is vasu(vas-house.mesha=naasa) .Asva netra is offering of bulls.After a nava a bhadra (svaaha.va(tail. Ashta(asta. aaLu = anu(man ) It is the fist(o=5=bhadra) of the first hand on which the first finger of the second hand rests.like the sun. .matsa(fish). ..asta(end.cipher) = pattu(Tamil-ten) =baahu(hand) = pasu(cow) .ka=1) =1X =9.sapta = sabda(sa-dva) = Tamil elu(iru=2 after 5) sa = 3 + paada(4) =7 For Tamils it is 5 +2 .ka-light.sha-man)dhi(seat).Hence it is saa(next. it can be a saptaaha (7 days) sacrifice also.shat = saz (to kill).one bhadra made a cipher) and sava(a corpse.house) = ettu(8-Tamil) = ha-sta(hand).Then again the counting is continued from the eleven.According to the Bible sha(man) is the creation on the sixth day.hara(Malayalam-aru=to kill). Nava is na-bha(the sky.Pancaamrita is milk.jala-ga=water flow) Any water is thus Ganga and soma(su-ma=water).It kills the first hand and jumps to the second hand.ina-the sun)-dasa(ten). Since fish is soma.nas(to ruin).rava(the sun).Six signs make the sun set and six ritus make the year complete.sas(to jump). In Malayalam aaRu(six)= aruti(end)=nirirti(death)=mriti(death). . Nava(nine) is maapa (measure) . Sapta itself is divasa(day) and tapasa(the sun). naalu = 4→ nava 9 = paaNa(hand) . 7 .The bull (bhadra) is vaasra(day. 9.full.For the Keralites it is tenga(coconutGanga as it is born in gagana and is sweet) . dasa (dos-hand) = bhadra(hand.one minus ten =nava) na(0 = ten) .ray).bull) and mantra (hymn). Hence na = sa =X = ten . . desa(place) .kanaray. .ishta(favourite. 6. yama( . saptaasva is the sun.masta(head).ashta = anta. dasa(time). netra asva.water. Vimsati(20) is yama(two.sa(like) = saha-ja (brother).It is 5+4 and 10-1.(5). etc can point to tens or its multiples(ten=dasa. It is the noose of death.nava=onpatu(9-Tamil.pa = 0). 8.curd. 10.n=s.dasa(ten).chosen).honey.saabat-svaasa) is given to make the ten. It is the first after the fist. yava( =9).ghee and Ganga(gagana-sky.

.V =5.The sexagesimal system of the Sumerians and Babylonians were derived from the hasta(dasa) and shashti(sa-hasta=sixty) of the Bharats.Sumerian measure of bricks) .Note the Roman numbers l=1. bhuja (arm-cubit) – cf.but bhadra=10) and dvaadasa(12) is the basis for the duodecimal system. .sar. cf.X(dasa= ).Ganga) also. Hence sahasra is a mahaabhadra(great bull. C =100 . Probably the mesha being agna is the basis for the decimal system and the fish being paada(4.C(sata=saras= ). Thus the paada(foot) is 12 inches(angu). 60(3x4x5) or 1000 compare with dasa = da + sa Sa-ta(100) = dasa(10) = sa-sa(hare) = nuuru (suurya) – Kaurava(100 sons=1sun) Sahasra(1000) =aayiram(Tamil-1000) =sa(X)-hasra(cakra-wheel. The Roman numerals are commonly believed to have started with the ancient Etruscans but Bharata is the original source.the sun) with sra(srii=1) gives=1000..M(sahasra ?M=Z) etc The saha in saha-sra can be a maha(buffalo) and mu-kha(face).20tulaa) = 4 kazhanju(cf.Mu(three)-kha(cipher..five. .sama(equal) and bhaara(weight) .cf. sara = 5. Trimsat is tri-na –dasa or dru-ma-dasa .D( or cf. M =1000 etc. The Harappans measured their land with measuring rods and classified the lands also.bhaara-weight) –sara(five. The Roman numerals were adopted from the Bharata counting system as seen from the symbols for V(panca= ?).a pond.Bhadra is the bull(1) and the cipher (0). or ? Thus for counting also Tamil depends on Bharata.sata=100). Dasa is the bhadra(the bull head and the crossed hands) from which the Tamils get pattu(ten = bhadra = 1 and 0). ).simha(lion) etc.kara) – gana(count) – paaNa(hand)-paana(a jar)-pala(a weight. X =10 .Trina is grass and druma is tree.L(L=Vpancaasat=bhadra dasa cf.D = 500.muzha-kkol of the Malayaalees = cubit(bhuja) for the Egyptians tulaa (libra) = dvi(two)-na(0) = dina(day)=sama(equal.L=50.a drachm of meat = kala-amsa.amsa-part)=100palas(hundred has two na s in it ) pala = bhaara(weight. karaamsa) = 4 karshas=1/100 tula Pala is tulaa .bhadracipher.The English ten = dasa(n = z) . Kara(hand) – kala(amsa-part.water cf.patri-bird?) = saha(dasa-10)-sra(sata-100).

From na(grain.It is the area of field covered by a para(drona) of paddy. maapana(measure.anga. Uras(vakshas-chest) =maaRu ( Malayalam-chest).cover cf.dhara(earth cf.or =2 aadhakas=1/2 suurpa = 64seras.nava(new. 33..choicest. An inscription and the SOV language The inscription appearing on the pot containing 17 bangles as given by Dr.This is by making bhadra(gold) = pattara. This continuity from Harappa was used till the Indian government decided to switch over to the SI weights and measures.in it. This gave the muzhakkol(measuring rod of Kerala).tuula = kaarpaasa= or cotton Sulka (cf. An inch has an angu. Name was often the unit of purity.hara-fire).scale) etc. agra(border) . For example bhadra is gold and bhadra is 10.netra bhadra tra na. Its smaller units were called naazhi(naali=1/40 of para).na Kha(hollow.e netra(kha). Until recently the Keralites used to ask etra para nilam(vayal) untu?(How many para of field have you got?).evolved.ha=kha=0). But note that a metre has a matra or netra in it.nishka- . A gram and kilo has a kara or gana or bhaara in it.angula etc.vala-bangle).nine cf. Wells is: samaa vas sapta. Rava is kara(hand.sapta = hapta etc.maatra.shekel)is muulya(price) and tula-a(ka)= sama(equal) = maasha(a weight cf.But the Keralites say pure gold as having pattara(10 ½ ) maattu(maatra).or =32 seras.or =1/16 khaarii= 4aadhakas. Hence the purity of gold was fixed at that.ank. Bhadra = field = paddy field .It is para (=10itangazhi or itangaali) for the Keralites.ma(water and time) and naa(maanava-man) maana(measure). sar) in it. = cf.centum = kentum.sama-equal). Hasta is bhuja . A drona = 4aadhakas =16 pushkalas=128 kuncis=1024 mushtis.idangazhi(idangaaali= 4 naazhi=1/10 of para) An acre has kara(hand).)are all measures derived from maanava (human body) as maapana (scale). asra(angle).aperture ) is rava(the sun) in the Indus script and the Devanaagari script. u -sar (paRa ?) udara = yojana (4 krosas = 9 miles) = or maasha ? Kara = kala = gana =sara=hala (cf.ansu.or = 200 palas =1/20 kumbha.vara(bridegroom.

zama=equal) etc.ten). kreni (sale) etc. sama(end. Kara netra is bangle. can be arc(to shine. From the pa of bha-vana(house) . Nava(kara) netra was made nava ratna(nine gems ) later.good luck to you).happiness to you.vasati(house).general communications and instructions etc.Sapta is asva as sabda is vacas(speech-asva) and tapasa is agna(asva).anka(mark.places).maatara(mother).ornament).argha(price). sapta can be sabda(sound).to dress.mountain). arha(god.to present) na(kha-bangle) .maasha(a weight). The last two symbols read together as samaavisa(samaavas-to settle in. numbers.maata(mother).kriinana (purchasing).netra(karanetra-bangle). The Indus inscriptions include words indicating akshara(god).vana(house) etc is naasa(nose). also.details of sacrifices.satra(house). va-asa(house) and the samaa symbol we can have samaapa (sacrificing or offering oblations to the gods) . The most difficult part in reading the Indus inscriptions is the anvaya(syntax or logical connection) which offers several alternatives in the vedic parokshapriya style.samaavesa-enter together.srii etc.paatra(jar).svaaha(visarga).tavas(strength).to worship).samaavisa(kept inside) = (offering) bangles 17 kept (together).E is Vishnu who is also Naaraayana.vaasa(house).usha-dawn.samaavishta-entered together or filled with.Siva).saptaabhadra(17).to dwell cf. It can be a stop also as yashti is yati.count). Sran –na can also be read as kravana ( worshipper ).amulet).tapasa(the sun).ma+ra.maatra(measure).as we have seen.) The inscription may be read as : Netra(offering).bhadra(auspiciousness. Netra netra like neti neti can denote the vedic style of giving emphasis or making a point. .samaavid-to cause to know etc. Eka + ha = ekaaha(a form of sacrifice). sa-ra=tra = N= E=A.nakai -jewel in Tamil).The netra(eye) is shown on the kara(hand) in like the eye of the needle.vasu-ray) . netra(eye.a+ ra etc. by the circle on the curve(va-kra=kara) continues to be e in Devanagari and English. bhadra(10.maasa(month).arka(the sun). laksha(identification mark). vasana(attire.samaasraya-shelter together. This sentence also shows the SOV nature of the language to which branch Sanskrit and Tamil belongs.arh-to worship) .tribes. bhadra can be 1 and 0(cipher. Hence reading in the vedic reverse style it can be Samaapa(offering) saptaabhadra(17) sran(to give.weights and measures. The three lines forming It is na+ra.bhadra naama(names of the god kings. vas(to shine.sava-corpse.bharata vaaca(names of the sun or fire gods).raksha(protection.zamaa(year.offering) etc.

Asva-netra is Visvaa-Mitra also.soma.0) or dvaadasa(12=21 in reverse.king) sabda(word. But Bharadvaaja is bhadra-dvaya = dvaadasa =12. One of the reasons for the 12 tribes is the 12 rasis(signs of the zodiac).10.The the sona(blood) Israel poured is the sona varna (aruna varna-red colour ) of the dawn when the sun cross Pisces(Egypt = ijya-Jupiter. Hence it is a holy number. . The second is maatra(measure). Israel sprinkled the blood of rams(aja=usha=dawn) on the door lintels of their houses to get out of Egypt.Indra) or simply bhadra(auspicious. Difference in number constructions indicate word differences in Bharata Sapta(seven) is formed from sabda(sound) and tapasa(the sun). 35.0) netra(2) =12. Bharata is ten.pat-pada-foot → ushas . 20 or 21.iisvara) should have 12 tribes.But these hair lines or digits denote na. What is the diference between||||||| and ? The first is sapta and saptaaha.Egypt is Pisces = ushas.5.ha(ha-sta=hand) etc. Israel is said to have twelve tribes.It is Soma(Moses) and sona(blood).There is a miinafish in Memphis and a dyaush pitaa-Jupiter-in Hout-ka-ptah or Aegyptus. Rigveda being bharata has bhadra(10) mandalas. Dru-pada(pra-bhaata-dawn) etc.34. One tribe of Bharadvaaja and the twelve tribes of Israel.hapta (seven) etc. Hence the sapta becomes saptaaha(a week of seven days).savanna etc.netra (offering. With the fish(bhadra=bali. |||||||| =7 (sapta).) it probably indicates the number of sacrificial animals or sacrifices or mantras as in bhadra(1. netra bhadra(1.The old . It can also indicate Satraaha(destroyer of foes.speech).netri=offering. But there is another reason also.soma.eye) . Hence the gotra of Israel (Indra.

With the unicorn(Bharadvaaja.720.rekhaapaatha. and the selected mantras were those composed by the Rishi of one’s own gotra(Aitareya: 7.10 kol) → vimsa(1/20) Maapana is measure and samaapa is sacrifice.The last letter of the first word merges with the first letter of the second word. The words were read both ways also. .Different numbers were considered for different classes like 360. Israel has 12 tribes.Samhita mantra style Sikhapaatha.which means the first word to the last word of the veda form an uninterrupted whole. In fact Tamil inherited this trait from the samhita style of the Bharats.maala. Bharadvaaja sahasra can be the recitation of AUM 1000 times The numbers accompanying the fish can be the number of mantras to be recited in a sacrifice. The repetition of letters in compound words is not because of the Tamil style of duplication of the first letter of the second word in compound word formation. (in para 33) = (H-9). Maa(measure) →maasa(month) → maapana ( measurement.danda.ghana etc are various styles of reading the veda.) Bhadra(bali) = sapta(7) = sa(|||)maa(||||)pa( ) =sacrifice=34 = the number of ribs of the asva(vacas=sabda=sapta=7=3+4=34).is in fact matsa-mahisha-the black bull = medini-the earth itself as explained by the Aitareya Braahmana.Misra = land.balance) → vamsa(tribe. Bharadvaaja = 12 .This is why the boustrophedon writing style is also seen in some of the inscriptions .800.1000 etc. Samhita is the style of unbroken word. Thus one tribe of Bharadvaaja is the twelve tribes of Israel.kingdom name Kemet-black land.7) as seen in paara 6. the two inscriptions may be the same or carry the same sense. 36.ratha.. bhadraasva) it can indicate netra(offering)-bhadra(bull)-bharadvaaja(12) or netra(offering)sapta(7)-bhadraasva(buffalo) also. Since bhadra(asva)=bharata(asva)= = . Bharadvaaja vamsa = Bharadvaaja samaapa .the Arabic name of Egypt also indicate medini and the bhadra-mahisha.dhvaja.

4x3=12.30.Standard fingers on the two hands are five+five = ten.4. paada.cipher) = bhuja(arm).wealth. 37.Anu is man.word. Land was measured by the measure of paddy it can fill in sowing.learning of pada (word) perfect as veda. Man’s standard length limit is six feet.agna. .maasha .27.bhaasha.body(2=hands=va) and head(3 = sar = tra) .food.5 and 6 =2.srava(ear . Now multiplying dasas(X) we have sata(C=100).6.3.8.commodity for sale. Nellita is a measure =1/8 of an inch . became the standard units to count with.7.120.maa-na = paada(foot) = biija(seed.maasha.full.gold.the number of signs in the zodiac and the number of inches in a foot. Paada being laabha(F=L foot=leg) fish + bhadra can indicate subha laabha also. Another application is in measurements.The words were read forward and backward to make paatha .dru(tree)tra(three)-srii(the sun. The aNu is a unit and aNu is atom.price. The body has three divisions. The Harappan scripts have multiple applications as already seen.4.15.bull.neti-neti style. From the reverse of dasa(shat=6) we have shat sa = sixty.three) forms the limit at the top and the number of limbs are 4.maata = samaa(year)= sa-maya(time) = yaama(a unit of time) –maaya(a goddess).praata.naasa .360 etc.18.) From this we have ||||=ma.Since saras(srii. Inter relation of the weights and measures. 2. There are 6 ritus and 60 samvatsaras(years) in the time reckoning of the Bharats. The basic unit is maa (= = ) or maana(n=m) = naama =paana(jar)=paaNa(hand)=paNa (stake. Hence we have the shashty and sata(dasa) systems of counting. Shat = 6 = 5+1 .light).soma).10. paatra.maana . The symbol for shat = V1.paatra( jar )-patra(leaf).20.the foot (1).Yama(the god of time and death).king.24.Miina is niiLa(length= doora = distance.nagna etc.Now n=m=z Hence we have ma(time)-maa(N=Y).Hence paada and miina became units of measurement. In reverse it is dasa = 10.3.ten.wage.) for Tamils and mile for the Romans.a weight=20 maashas.Bhadra is bharata. Eg.9.business etc.field) etc.60. namely .bhadra(o.maasa .drava(fish). The fish + leaf symbols (soma bhadra) in the Harappan scripts arise from this.visarga. bhadra (bull).mina . For example naasa is mesha.5. Sums and multiples of 1. In several cases word duplication is there in the netra-netra.12. The first 1(hand) when crossed by the second I(hand) we have X = dasa(ten).

Units of measurement in the ancient world.and the mina(maneh or shekel) as measure of weight.kataaha. The original measures of length were derived from the human body: the finger.and the "sack" (khar cf. Bharata kosa.Bharata-paada-foot). Bharata. The Hebrews used units like the cubit (Bharata-bhuja) to measure length.Bharata.hasit(content and width of the hand cf. H103.Bharata –maatra).the log(Bharata-kosa) to measure capacity. and pace. cattle Litra(cf.Bharata -khaara or khaarii). The Hebrew system was derived from the Babylonian system which in turn evolved from Sumerian and Bharata roots. hand.dozen-12) equalled 12 shena(5+7=12) Some of the weights from the Dynastic period take the form of bull's heads or other animals. .hand). One deben(panca-5. Bharata-hasta.doora-distace) for length.mesha) . .sar =sara=dhara -kara=5.kalasa) . bezah(egg cf Bharata –biija – paada-bhuja) etc. span. The Egyptians used units like the royal cubit(bhuja) and itrw(drava =travel.maasha. . are some of the units.Bharata – bhadra-finger). The measurements for capacity included the "jar" (hin cf. resin and gold-dust.kalasa) was a small vessel often used as a measure . Kapiza( cf.ezba(finger breadth cf. these measurements were also used to measure items such as honey. 38. Weights were made in units known as debens(cf.laabha subha(svaaha. The word shena was not used as the name of a weight. arm. the "barrel" (hekat.bhadra = panca-five. pala=bhaara-weight cf. Besides grain. foot.water. The unit of value was Sna (vocalized as shena = cf.fish. heqat cf.) . ris(stadium cf.zeret(spanbharata-kara-hand).gharhouse).miina).Bharata. pesiah(pace cf.bhadra) = pasu(go=cow)-laabha(gain).

39.in the vimsottari dasa scheme etc. How the sexagesimal system came into use?The answer is sixty also is hasta or sa-hasta or shat dasa.Bharata -caru-pot) filled with either barley. At the base of the system is the barleycorn. Sar and ka(cf. hasta(hand) = shashti (hand)shows that the sexagesimal system also originated in Bhaarata. The barleycorn is a 'še'.One can count up to 60(=3x4x5) by pointing at one of the twelve parts of the fingers of the left hand with one of the five fingers of the right hand. wheat. .Shashti yojanii(journey of sixty yojanas) . Bharata = miina-drona ) for capacity and mana (Bharata-maasha)for weight. or oil. The parts are divided from each other by the joints in the fingers.2x3x4=24(horas). volume. Du is do(the hand ) of Bharata.Bharata The Old Babylonian system used units like =saras=ka=head) etc .dhara-earth) for area and volume. used for the smallest unit in length. pronounced as 'sh'(cf.For the Keralites the life of Mahaabali was terminated by the third foot of Vishnu!). she. The Akkadians made use of a letter š called a shin. min-netracakshu – soma grain = nellita-in Malayalam. water. and mass were derived from a theoretical standard cube.' Cf Bharata –mesha = maasha = sa) . Gur . Now 1x2x3= 6(ritus).( Gur cf. ( 'shay' ='she.3x4x5=60(years) and 1x2x3x4x5=120(the life of man in the Bible. sila(fish cf. The Babylonian number ( cunei form symbol) wedge is the hand itself. This gives a way of finger counting up to 60 . Gerah. are other examples. sar (garden-plot Bharata-sa or bhadrafence. the kush (cubit cf Bharata-bhuja) for length. One can count up to 60 using two hands. called 'gur'.The Babylonians used weights and measures like Gan . Shashtika is that which was bought for sixty.shashti haayana(period of sixty years) etc. volume and weight. Mina . Units of length were prefixed by the logogram DU ( ) a convention of the archaic period counting system from which it was evolved. The Sumerian system of weights and measures .Thus the Babylonian ka gets a link to Akkadian se through the (please note that the actual quantity indicated by these names need not be the same in different systems). On the left hand there are three parts on each of four fingers (excluding the thumb). area. In general length.

kalasa.The calendar of Nippur dates to 3500 BCE and was itself believed to be based on older astronomical knowledge of an uncertain origin(Bharata origin) .Bharata-nimisha).dina-day).Bharata-tulaa. have roots in Bharata .vessel(ban.Doo -ra is distance or length in dos(arm) and padas(foot.sara-5).camasa).Bharatabhadra-field. Some units of time are gesh(Bharatadasa –time).samaya-time) The similarity of the words is not accidental as already discussed in BTLOTH.maatra cf ma=water).yama-god of time. Capacity Shekel(gin.da-na(Bharata-vinadi cf. Ma-na = maana( pari-maa-na = measure) is miina itself.the paatra(kalasa.city) etc.paNa).kalasa.cf.mu(year.ritubimonth).Bharata-paana) etc. and siderial day as used by the Bharats.Bharata –raasi-sign or month. Akkadian:libittu-muusaru) is the paRa(bhadra-drona) for the South Indians.the paada.kalasa). The bhuja.sar(garden.phala.Bharatasila.Bharata sa-ma = tula). It is probably because of the migration of the Bharats to Sumer around the close of the fifth millennium BCE.shekel(gin .load(gun.mu-es(second.Bharata –ma-time. Samaya is sayana and sa (god) –yama(god of time).Bharata-kosa.bowl (sila .samaa-year.na=ma).jala=kala. We have seen that the principle of maanava as maapana was first employed by the Bharats and the ancient world followed their measuring systems.The main astronomical cycles used to construct the calendar were the synodic month.saraka.ku(field.Itud(month.ud(day. The Bharata measurements of time can be summarized as below: . Time .Bharata-kala.pur(estate. The seg-sar(720 bricks.pala) have their roots in Bharata . 40. paved the way for measuring units.maatra etc.pada = do as v = u). have their roots in Bharata.gana. Bharata measurements of time.Bharata-kana.sulka).pound(ma-na. Sumerian measures of shekel(gin.Bharata-diva.Bharata-ku=earth). equinox year. Mass The units of mass grain(se.drona).Bharata-pur =mansion.

pada-foot) 2 pala = 1 prasruta=4 ounce 2 prasruta=1 kudumba=8 ounce 2 kudumba = 1 saraava=16 ounce(cf.2).6) or .• • • • • • • • • • • a paramaanu(nimisha) is the normal interval of blinking in humans.21. the sukla(white) and the Krishna(dark) . The year was divided into twelve months and occasionally an intercalary month was added to make the year agree with the seasons. or approximately 48 minutes a nakshatra ahoratram or sidereal day is exactly equal to 30 muhurtas A leekshaka is 1/60th of a paramaanu a lava is 1/60th of a leeksha a renu is 1/60th of a lava a truti is 1/60th of a renu . four yaamams(AV.4.maasha) =1 teaspoon(3.6. A maasa or lunar month (approximately 29.naasa-nose.10.55.12 ml) . a yaama is 7½ ghatis =3hours The day was divided into 30 parts and the night into thirty parts.55 ml) 8 saana =1 sukti=1 ounce 2 sukti =1 pala=2 ounce(cf.19.divasa-day) .The 28 lunar mansions beginning with Krittika(the spring equinox) and including Abhijit are named in AV.2). or approximately 24 minutes a muhurta is equal to 2 ghatis. Measurements of volume 60 bindu = 1 saana(cf.pala-kara-hand. The year was also divided into three seasons of four months and six seasons of two months each.ahas(days) constituted a saptaaha(a week).(AV.6.5 days) was divided into 2 pakshas.sara-arrow. or approximately 4 seconds a vighati is 6 paramaanus.A month had thirty days and the year had 360 days. Sapta(seven.water.59.srava-ear) 2 saraava=1 prastha =32 ounce(911.6.7 and Taittiriya samhita 4. or approximately 24 seconds a ghati is 60 vighatis.(RV.

Measurements of Mass 60 grain = 1 dram(3.888 mg) 3 dram=1 tola 40 tola= 1 raattal 1 grain = 1/6 pana(65 mg) 6 grain=1 pana 12 ½ pana=1¼ dram 30 pana=1 tola =2½ kazhancu ¾ kazhancu =1saana 2 saana=1 kola 2 kola=1 karsha 2 karsha=1 sukti 2 sukti=1 pala 2 pala=1 prasruta(10 tola cf. .suula-spear) 2 prasruta=1 kudumba(40 tola) 2 kudumba=1 saraava 100 pala=1 tulaam(5 kilogram 831 gram 900 milligram) 41. The fish eating alligator.

and rightly he is the first Paandava. At Sabari mala (bhadra. Hence this is eye and ear. But asva is also abda(year.ray).sahari-lamp or the sun cf.in Kerala .sa-god)=Varuna=nripa(king) =Karna = Kaama= karma(work)=janma(birth)=Dharma(god of death) =madana(kaama deva) = .sudina-day) gave birth to Karna. speech) and praaata(dawn).The fish is also netra(eye).Why?Naturally.Thus soma is madhu(honey.ray. The asva(rays) with a bhadra(uni-horn) is the bhadraasva.Srava =karna(ear)=graaha(alligator)=nakra(alligator)=makara(alligator)=mihira(the sun).The bhadra of the asva is bharata(fire.Naarada etc. Netra is Indra.place.The Tamils celebrate it as Pongal .) .varsha-rain. Now how can Karna be made a king by Duryodhana? Varsha(year.mu= year for the Sumerians.valsara).Hence it is a lump or morsel of rice in the hand or in the mouth.Thus the fish eating alligator is soma(mu=so =srava=varsha=year.liquor) .vaara-water.Makaraasva is also the sun covered by his rays.this is celebrated as Makaravilakku (vilakku –deepa-lamp).vinaati-time.vaara-tail).) + ma(fish.when the annual sun is at the peak of the south sea(the sky).dhanakara(giver of wealth).The hand is dos(cf.yuddha (udaya).-the winter solstice.jina(the sun) etc .Bhaarata= pa-water. a son of the suurya will be on the side of the Kauravas(suurya-varsha-year) itself.Hence in simple logic this is the bharata(speech) being caught by the srava(ear).year.soora(the sun) and doora(distance) whence we have the muzhakkol(measuring rod.Harana is hiranya(gold) as soma is svarna(gold).time) = sravana = soma(the sun. The makara matsya is Maitraa -Varuna. Mitra.rice). Hence this is called makaramatsya(makara varsha =Solstitial year.The solstice is the tail since the day sun is not visible in the north(midnight) against which the annual sun gives the winter solstice.Karna is Varuna.ma = time) raaja. Makara is na(like)-kara(hand.vritacovered. Bhadra(bull) is deva(god) and deepa(lamp). Malayalam. Makara is harana(hand .The fish itself is srava(bhadrasoma).Sankara(Siva).the moon.Maitraa-varuna is also one of the priests attending a soma sacrifice. The Christians celebrate this as Chrismas. The ear so(srava = varsha = sarad-year cf.a son of suurya first.).The fish is asva(vacas) and the graaha is karna(ear) . abdi is the ocean).takazhi-lamp) .so). But he was made a king by Duryodhana(suuryodaya-sunrise only) and he was on the side of the Kauravas(suurya) in the Kurukshetra(sriikshidra. Harana is also offering whence it can denote offering of bulls. In the Mahaabhaarata Kunti (Sindhu cf.

The work on the stone henges was said to have begun by around 3100BCE.also.makaravaahana etc.Varuna is the lord of the sea(the sky). Makara is the position of the sun in the nabhasa( sky) and kataka(svarga-heaven) is the position of the sun in the naraka(Hades) in the day cycle.the soma festival is the festival of the New Year. For the Harappans Makara was the god’s country and naraka was the devil’s country as savita is god and his reverse form pisaaca is the devil.Makaraketana is both Kaamadeva and Varuna(Karna). According to Aitareya Braahmana the bhadra(varsha-year.Praata(dawn) is preta(dead body).A bhadra being stone the Bharats on their reach in England(Wiltshire-Amesbury-Salibury) created the circular (bhadra-vritta-varsha-circle) stonehenge(bhadra) as the burial ground as Varsha(Varuna.A Brit-on has a lot of Bharata blood in him.mritadead) is the god of death . bharata is bhadra (bull .Indra) Daksha(asva-bull.makaradhvaja.haa-yana.Sava is deva. Indra and Mihira showers the rain of light.abda-year). John Mamdaana.Srava(soma) being varsha.food) = makara = naraka(Hades) = nagara(city) = Kerala .stone.yama.Kerala being Karna and keRal(Pongal= sun rise). cf Hindi-pattar-stone. .srava(year.Indra) is rain.Varuna is called makaraasva.the bhadra ( rising stone ) being the rising horn .raaDa-light.Thus the fish eating alligator is a figure of Varuna itself and it indicated Maitraa-Varuna for the Harappans .Hence burial sites were created to camouflage the actual purpose of solar worship at the equinox and the solstice.Bhaarata varsha=melukaah=king) but is visible as the king at p-raata(raaja) and Anga(agna) given by Duryodhana (suuryodaya).ina.vrisha-bull.Nowadays Kerala is called god’s own country also. though the western systems still follow the logical Harappan tropical year for their calculations.In fact the role of Kaamadeva is clear from the fact hat Kunti gave birth to Karna(similar to the birth of Christ) before her marriage to Paandu(Bhaanu-the sun) . is Now. the makaradeepa for the Keralites.the month of agna is Raadha).Hence the makaraasva is the solsticial year. Var(water)-sha(jha-storm and rain.Thus though Karna was the king of Anga(Agna) and nurtured by Raadha(Vaisaakha.The Harappans used to reckon time from sunrise and it continues till date in all astrological calculations with the difference of the mistake of mixing up the tropical and the sidereal years. the makarappongal for the Tamils etc. if we want we can make him king of Kerala .Greek-petros-stone).Varsha is Varuna cf. Now va-rsha(raaja) by itself is a raaja(cf.makaraketana.Bhadraasva(unicorn) is praata-avasa(rising sun) denoted by the paretaavasa(dead king or bull) in the asvamedha and has the same significance.

though takes birth at midnight has to wait till sunrise to become visible.rice) is also bhadraazana(the throne of the king) which is also makara ketana (one with makara for his house=Varuna=nripa=king).king. an indication of Gaaya-tri (ca+ghaz-to swallow = cakaas = to shine) also can be seen in this.king) descended in Kerala during the Onam and ascended in Tamilnaadu at the makarapongal. Gaayatri being prakaasa(light) . For the Keralite the bhadra is the deepa which is seen on the Sabari(Sahari-bhadra) mala(mountain= bhadra. .Interestingly another branch of the same people began the work on the pyramids(Bharata→pramiita-dead body of the sacrificial victim.In other words seeing the rise of the solstitial sun was of great festivity to the Bharats and it is their hallmark. m.The Year has to depend on sunrise to become visible. Bharata is pattana(city). Hence Mahaabali (bali = bhadra =bull.nri-king. In Tamilnaadu the bhadra is not the stone pillar but the bull itself which they tame on the day of the makarappongal(the sunrise of makara. Bhadraasana(eating the bull or fish . For the Christians all over the world it is Happy (Greek-makar=happy) Christmas.deva )graaha is the kolam . This bhadra memorials is a common Bharata trait. Paada(bhadra. Bharata(purusha-men) -nagara (naa-man.keral(rise) = makarappongal . Paada –graaha(kolam) =bharatagriha(a Brahmin’s house= devagriha = deva graama=Brahmin’s village) .natu-to plant.Egyptian→mr-pyramid) around the same time. Kerala = makara = Karna = Varuna .srii-the sun.kal-stone) in Malayalam.fire.soma .Siva= sava-corpse.stone = viira=hero) and maatu(soma-bull) . .It is thus the tail of the bull of light.).ri-death.bull. Thus the year sun was worshipped in the form of worship of the dead(pitri = varsha) as happened in the case of Karna.Graaha is graama.prabhaata-dawn). The South Indians followed this custom by raising the hero stones which is called natukal or naattakkallu(memorial stone.gana-group) nagara(nakra).But natu is naatu ( bhadra = place. .The solstice .Asvakarna is a mountain and Asva griiva is a king.parvata-mountain.

king)-dasa(ten.2416 BC-2392 B.Hence the wolf god and the bull god has a tail of light itself. → soma bhadra (rice) → → → → The makara matsya is also Maitraavaruni(Agastya).period). Soma (the sacred drink). A matsa graaha is a fisherman . suma bhadra → → → → soma bhadra → → →.Prakaasa is vrika(wolf.stay).The period of the king agrees with the mature Harappan period. Thus this also has a reference to the soma king(rice).graama-village ).Note the vaara( tail.vrisha-bull)-sa(iisagod).roof) in the trina of soma bhadra as shown : viira bhadra → → → → → → etc. and from which a hot drink (Gharma) is offered to the god Indra and to the two Asvins.ta(tail).Nagara (city.bhadra(bhartaa-ruler) or bharata graama(Brahmin village) is also indicated in this.mrit(earth.Rudra is mutala(Malayalam-a graaha) .In the Egyptian Sed(sada =soma bhadra=rice=king and bull) festival the King(bhadra) had to tame the Apis bull(bhadra). This matsya graaha is Peter (bhadra) whom Christ made a martyagraaha (catcher of men). In the seal M-312. .The farmer was told to hold the hala(siira) and instead he began to catch the kaalai(the bull) which is called jallikkattu(bull taming) by the Tamils.It is Happy Christmas! Augustus Caesar is often associated with the period of Christ also! Karna = Varuna = Varsha = bhadra = Soma = Siva (bhadra).But vrika(wolf) is vrisha(bull) and Wepwawet is Viirabhadra=prabhaata=prakaasa(light). Jyotishtoma(agnishtoma) is a soma sacrifice.king) or rice(soma bhadra = king) like the purodaasa(bhadra-as→ rice.death)-sta(sit.It is the Makara Jyoti.Bhadra is the lord of iisaana(northeast-Pisces-fish) from where the sun rises in the morning.Sankara(Siva) is sa-nakra. Important rituals in the Rgvedic period were concerned with Agni (Fire).Bhadra(bhaarata) is jyoti(light).A kola is also soma and the kolam is used to worship soma bhadra(srava-rice.tri(three.a bhadra(bull) is seen to hurl in the wind five(bhadra) purusha(bharata).A Sed feast is seen recorded in the solar temple at Abu Gurab during the period of the Ra king Nyuserre Ini(ca.The Egyptians considered the tail as the tail of the wolf(Bharata. Interestingly the Heb Sed festival was to be celebrated every thirty years.Trimsat → soma srii (rice)→ trina-sada= rice.The body of the king said to be eaten by the worshippers during theSed festival can be beef(bhadra=bull. The Bharata term for thirty is trimsat.suura bhadra-sunshine) every morning by the white soma bhadra powder(kolappoti) sprinkled in front of the house in various bhadra forms.vrika) god Wepwawet. and a pot which is heated.srii-rice.C) probably to denote the thirtieth Jubilee of the King’s ascension to the throne or a soma festival. But the bhadra graaha is the farmer who ploughs the fields holding his bulls or buffaloes.eat) or the Eucharist.

Also compare Egyptian scripts like . or . . . etc. .. . .destroying.head) sometimes a separate square or rectangular bhadra is also used to indicate soma bhadra(deva). denote soma bhadra by the suula(trident. .suura-soma-the sun. . Bharata → giri=mountain. . .pravaasa = staying abroad. . Man with bow and arrow.Siva. with the Bharata scripts . .rice) and soma(jambhiira-jambiira-jambhala-jambha-lemon. or .rava-the sun.prabhaata-dawn from where the sun goes to the high land or the sky. . . .blood)patra(leaf. . .vaasahouse). .para-other.parvata(mountain. Bharata → aapad=vipad = tearing. Malayalam-jona-ka-naara-ka=lemon. .Along with patra(leaf) and bhadra(circle.satru-enemy.sha(man)sara(arrow) 42.light. . . . etc. The Unmistakable gaayatri .paataka=hatya=killing. Egyptian → ha-sh-t = foreign land.bhadra-water. In Egyptian this is h-f-t-j = foe. . .sona-fire. .pada-foot. .Let us take one or two examples to illustrate: = = Sumerian →kur = mountain. . . .satru →sa(with).jona =jam= soma = naara = water = bhadra=bhiira=viira=vaara=miina=fish) placed on it which is a common sight in Hindu temples. . → → → → Srava-patra is karma patra( the ear lobe) and soma bhadra (sasa bhadra) The Bharat’s link to the Egyptians is also shown by the large number of common words for the two languages (refer Bharata the language of the Harappans) . .

god=ra)-patri(bird=vi )-srii ( the Sun).kha-cipher).hence gaayatri is marked on the body ).ja(light)-srii→ prakaasa(light )→ tri(three)-kaaya(body) etc. gaayatri→ savitri(the sun)→sa(bird. On DTIS page 111 and112. . (sa.gaayatri : Gaayatri is defined as that which protects the singer. gaya(the sky)-srii(the sun-the sun in the sky).tri(three)→jaya(the Sun). and three leaves (equivalent to trefoil) marks on the kaaya(body) of the animals. one who recites the hymns of the Saamaveda etc. wherein a nagna(naked )bhadra(girl) close to whose legs the written is shown.gayatri often takes the form of syena-the heavenly falcon).ka(agni)-strii(a woman). gaatra(the body. a vedic metre with six letters in a line.yaaga(sacrifice) .tri(three) –ka(head. In B12 B6(page112) the gayatri is directly shown by the lute(ka .bhadrikaa(an amulet).3 the three sides of the Harappan amulet H-3305.patri ) mark is Srii-ka is Agni (the Sun) or Sarasvati. tri(three-three lines). Gaayatri(jayasrii) is also the Sun . tilaka.bhadra.patri(bird. Fig7.khecarii(khacarii-Durga). adri( mountain). gaaya (singing). athari( finger). strii(woman) + →ka-strii …ka-srii…gaayatri .14 the animal bodies (carii-animal-srii) are marked with gaayatri by way of marks of srii(the Sun ). On DTIS page 91 Fig 6.gaaya)+three line symbols.sariira is srii . kesari(a lion).

on page 257 Fig 14.0. three circle –tri-kha—gaayatri).bull etc) On DTIS page 13. the beard lines(hair-line-srii.the sun) is rati(sex).12.26. A three ka UUU or or ka-dri figure denotes gaayatri as do .srii (tri)-bhadra =jhasa= bhadra= bhadra( 10.saa-pa-tra = gaayatra=Drupada=prabhaata(dawn) Joined bodies(kaaya) of animals(carii) shows saya( union.12. .head-ka).head-ka) and the trefoils (tripatra—sriibhadra. the seal K-50 shows the deity with a tree crest to show gaayatri (kaaya-body.10.6 as sa-bhadra paa . . gaayatri is shown by the saya(sex)-rati(sex) =gaayatri.and on page 256 Fig 14. On DTIS page 254 Fig14.11.33 etc. the priest king is shown with marks of gaayatri(bhadrika) by way of a circle on the forehead(circle-srii. The trefoils correspond to fire(bharata=pa-tra) places (hearth) and fire.ka-head –dru-tree-srii) Tree (dru-tri)+head (ka) → tri-ka—gaayatri Srii (fire.rati) and thereby gaayatri.pa-tra sara ->ravi→ subhadra.16 the gaayatri is shown by the three leaves(trefoil. etc.32. . stop.tri saakha-three forks) motifs .1. On DT1S page 212. On DTIS page 228 gaayatri is written in fig13.12. On DTIS Page 219 Fig12.

2). Sacrifices were given on New Moon and Full Moon days.(RV.95.The soma might have been the body( tanu-somos) .45. Gaayatri is shown by -> -> -> Gaayatri(srii-chaaya→image of the Sun) + = savitri =bhaarata = gaayatri= = jhasha (fish) =jhasha(fish=jha-Indra.bird)= tri-ka.At the time of oblations the gods were invoked by their secret names.CX11 No 387 a tree itself is shown with two unicorn heads(ka +ka =kaa) projecting out from its stem in a gaayatri (kaadru)pose.sa-god.4. (AV.7.Fire sacrifices extending for nine and ten months(RV.11) and year long(RV.Seven adhvaryus .80.pa = patri(bird).Pious people performed the sataudaanam where a hundred pots of boiled rice(cf.103.5.moon=soma). Vishtarii offering is extolled in AV.9cf.34 .pa-tra (bharata) 43.8) were there. were given away(AV.In John Marshal’s Mohenjo-daro pl.7.annadaanam-offering of food). blood(sona) . fire(sona) and sound(svana).9. The myth of the soma The soma oblation was often associated with animal sacrifice(RV.7).9.gaayatri = = gaayatri.

162. Water itself is soma. From the presence of remains of small amounts of Ephedra(in the case of horse bones it was the absence.5.It was believed that the sacrificial victim did not die but went to the gods(RV.The asvamedha(avasa-medha = meat juice of the king.12). Soma was to be sold for a cow (somakrayanii-price of soma). this plant was considered as the soma plant of the Rigveda and the vedic Aryans were believed to .the soma and its twigs did not come up with satisfactory answers for several questions.7 Cf.9. But as in the case of the asva and its bones .transporting grain in cartsRV.This shows that the Vedic Bharats moved away from the original homeof the soma where it was available in plenty.5. 44.avasa –mesha = the Aries Sun) denotes the sacrifice of the buffaloe or the king.Since it was abundantly available in the Iranian plateau.(RV.10.it was concluded that soma is Ephedra .9.ma = water).AV.but in the case of soma.21. it is the presence).(su-ma.The soma question One of the most important allegations against a vedic origin for the Harappan Civilization is based on the use of the mysterious drink called Soma by the vedic Bharats and the extent of availability of this plant in various parts of the world from Iran to America! Rigveda indicates that soma was to be bought from vikrayin (traders) who belonged to the kutsa (sakata-vehicle cf.11.1.sudrafarmer) gotras.8.(RV. A few people of all times used some form of intoxicants and proof of this is available in the form of its residue or its chemical derivatives in their containers.8).sprinkled it with water(RV.M-1186).1. and the Parsis call this plant haoma and use this in their haoma sacrifice.The meat of the sacrificial victim was cooked and offered to the gods and eaten by the worshippers.

For example marut(wind.water. But in the Christistian Holy Mass(medha.brick). Moreover.gold) is soma by the elimination of r. One would hence expect that the two have opposite effects. the Jyotistoma) does not provide a suitable occasion for the process of fermentation that an alcoholic drink would require. Compare the Malayalam words coru(rice=srava) and jor(Persian. The procedures in the Soma-sacrifice (e. The soma myth is another story fabricated in this line.air. soma .zor-strength). Hence Ephedra was chosen as the most favoured soma candidate. nectar.Moksha (sky) is soma by the elimination of k .48.heat) of the soma. 45.It is tavas(strength.g. syena and tavas Gaayatri brings soma to the earth in the form of the falcon-syena as it is dhaanya(grain).But in reality the syena is the soma dhaanya itself.3 Gaayatri in the form of Suparna(Garuda) is said to have brought Soma from heaven to the earth. NellaRa(granary) is called ponnaRa(cellar of gold) by the Keralites. Standard Malayalam dictionaries(Gundert Nighantu. . Rigveda is a work of the greatest poetic genius .It discusses each nuance of the padas (words) with great imagination and creates narratives and stories around them.soma) .Siva. Thus.rice gruel.godhuuma etc.In the somayaga the syena is made of bricks(bhadra = soma.But r = m.Hence srava-coru-zor = soma(rice) itself.Yama.) give the meaning of soma or suuma as the juice of Cynanchum acidum drunk at sacrifice. As per RV.milk.Sabda Taaravali etc. improper understanding of a few terms from a great text of a great civilisation and its consequent explanations were used as a tool to distort its history and the history of the whole world itself. Eating coru gives jor.It is the veda of gira(pada-word).Kubera etc. Suparna is svarna which is soma itself.the moon.9.Taking the Rig words and comments on face value can lead to grave misunderstandings as happened with the asva. the Vedic texts prescribe the consumption of alcohol for someone who has drunk too much Soma (alcohol will help digestion).the sky.have entered India from Iran.the purodaasa(bread) and soma( wine) are kept ready before the ritual begins.

the Pratiprasthatr.(cf.saama(veda). 4. the Nestr.gold) colour.fish eating alligator). 7.sacrifice).netra=fish=soma) and (3)the Udgatr. 46 .ma.na ) + V (ka. It should be guarded by the Gandharvas. Soma candidates A study of the Rigveda shows that for a plant to be called soma or saoma or haoma it should satisfy the following conditions.(2)the Adhvaryu. the Agnidh and the Potr . the Pratihartr and the Subrahmanya. There is a fourth group of assisting priests including the Brahman-priest.the adhvaryu was to lead away the soma(Tamil-maatu) with a leather whip(varatraa-kaanda . the Acchavaka and the Gravastut.Vritra-ghanta=Rudra ghanta=Siva= bhadra) .sahas(tavas). sa is ha and na as in svaasa (breath). specialist of the Rgveda with assistants.Siva) . It should be grown in water.savana (extraction of soma. specialist of the Samaveda with assistants.syena(falcon). It should be brought by syena(cf.dhaanya).ma. . Thus Gaayatri(Savitri) is syena and soma and can bring soma from heaven(moksha-soma). mahas(strength.naasa(nose) and svaaha. It should have green leaves. It should have hari (green. . the Unnetr(cf.splendour). 8 Its name should indicate it to be a king. It should have ansu 5.srii –raaja-arici = anna =god) 10 It should be daughter of Meru(cf.sayana(sex).na) → savama=haoma=soma. 1. specialist of the Yajurveda with assistants.the Maitravaruna (or Prasastr cf.sa(bird) → = (sa. naasa(nose). .bhadra=mountain).It should be giristha. 6. The priests attending a soma sacrifice are (1) the Hotr-priest. The plant should grow knot by knot. naama(name).the Brahmanacchamsin cf.the Prastotr. Soma being bhadra(bull.Of course. It should be able to explain the additional vowel a in the term.srii-raaja-king) 9 It should be a god (cf.dhaanya(grain) etc. paddy-bhadra-king.va. 3.ya ) + = (sa.yaaga. 2.

It should be stored in kalasa(jars)-or large vessels(drona). till it is filled up again by the Sun.grape) or both might have served the role of sura and soma. cf. 15. All the 114 hymns of the ninth book of the Rig Veda are said to be in its praise.1I It should be crushed by adri (stone). Asclepias acida is a a genus of herbaceous plants which yield an intoxicating milky juice when squeezed. which is regarded as being drunk by the gods and so waning.ghee.. it should be like a pancaamrita.It should be available in sufficient quantity to be given to soldiers who went for war. Soma pounding is said to generate a lot of tapas( heat. Can it be caama( syaamaka =Panicum miliaceum) of the Keralites? Sugar cane is a soma(madhu) lata as it gives out the juice when pressed but it does not require pavamaana and it does not generate tavas. Soma is a regular name for the moon. 13 It should be the food of all.I t should be fermentable. Ragi is a soma from which madhu (that cause mada-intoxication and give modahappiness is soma ) extracted.bhadra = paaRa = rock) 12.both devas and men. Drona = soma .maize as l=m) as it has a svarna(soma) colour.tavas-strength). Can soma be cola (Great millet.sugar or honey ie.It should be miscible and consumable with milk.curd. All of these are more or less poisonous. In both the Rig Veda and Zend Avesta.Hence it loses its candidacy. 16.eg.Hence it should generate a lot of tavas during processing.Sugar is of course mixed with milk and milk products to prepare sweets and sweet drinks.It can direcly be boiled and eaten. 14. Soma is the king of plants . But the problem with it is that it does not need the pavamaana part for eating. Hence it is possible that either Ephedra or Draaksha(vine.But since Ephedra is poisonous it is unlikey .paRa = bhadra = paddy( Bharata dr =Dravidian R.

god. sona(fire). . Now look at the term Draaksha.madhu(liquor.Brahma). The sacred lotus also is a candidate for it because of its form.svana(sound cf.rice gruel).raksha(protection). particularly that of the Himalayan rivers. Draksha = dra(sura=madhu=soma)-rakta(red).soma(the sky.medini and mahisha).Wine is vine.suura(the sun).Rakta is sona(soma) Draksh is to make sound.air. Unless it was available in large quantities why it was stored in kalasas and dronas as described in the Vedas? Dra is to travel.saanu(mountain) .sona(blood).joint by joint .happiness. Asva is vacas .If the Semitic tribes were aware of it the vedic people were in all probability aware of it.Ephedra being a madhu was probably used by a small number of people .snake)-rakta(blood).1).that a Vedic text should devote many of its hyms to its praise.4). Vedic soma is su-ma(water.Also if soma was a rare thing how could it be a common food and its sura be given to soldiers fighting a war and how could gambling houses serve meat and liquor (AV.So Ephedra cannot be the vedic soma even though it has the properties of soma as madhu(intoxicant).Then how can the juice be stored in numerous kalasams and many large dronas? Drona as the name itself indicate is soma.It is a relatively new term.bird.dhuuma(smoke) etc.ray.soma is svana). color and haluucinating properties. But was this plant that much important in the life of an entire population to get the dedication of an entire mandala of the Rigveda to its praise? Were the vedic savants so fond of intoxicants? Obviously.7). bhuumi(the earthcf.49.Grape wine grows knot by knot.honey). is a kind of Soma (RV VII. The presence of Ephedra at the Harappan sites led to the assumption that soma was Ephedra . Ephedra is a dry plant with very little juice.The custom of using Ephedra as soma is of later origin through the Persian trade or migration links itself.70.raksha (protection).not. The mushroom Amanita muscaria is considered as another soma candidate. Cannabis (soma) is also suggested as a candidate as zulu warriors use it as an energizer. Water itself.6.The sun rises from the udayagiri(a . Draaksha is also sa(like. Soma(su-ma=juice) is mentioned as existing in all plants (RV X.Does it mean that the vedic people were unaware of Draaksha.97..tanu(the body).

Hence Rudra and Soma were the sacrificial deities.aasava(liquor). The sharp roof or top is the glumes or bracts for soma.bull.34.The kernel is the flesh of the bull-(soma bhadra).puurna(suurya). Rigveda itself states that the first soma is the rising sun(soma.The lemma of the hull with fine hairs is the hide of the bull. The second soma is soma. Compare this soma –sara(srava=sara=arrow. Moon being noon and gold was called candra=svarna=soma. Parts of Mature Rice Kernel Anna puurnesvari is anna(rice.Soma being saanu(the sun.paana=hasta).of course .srava-rice) etc.The asva of the asvins is usha(dawn). . vaaja(food.).the sun).p=h. Pavamaana is pavana(wind =fan) and bhagavaan(god). → This is soma bhadra(paddy-bull). The rising sun is first red (rudra) and then gold (svarna.Indra .Prabhaata (dawn) is parvata(mountain).Muuja(moksha-soma)-vat mountain(RV.com in Google.the asvins and agni (the rising sun) drinks a lot of Soma which is the soma(sona-red.com.the moon.blood) colour at sun rise.cf.lata-grass) figure with the figure of the parts of mature rice given by LSUAg center. Soma Candrakkala(lunar crescent) is candra(soma)hala(Malayalam-kaaLa.suura.the soma like any other grains and herbs had to be brought from the hills like we get madhu(honey) and soma (rice) even today.1) is prabhaata (usha -dawn) also.10.svarna(soma) –iisvary(goddess).a hill) it was to be brought from the mountains.Also rice is cooked on fire which is assumed as feeding the firegods.mountain) in the distant east.usha ).The bran is the blood. For the residents of the Harappan cities .

ghee.ya.M=L) and the whole plant is called andhas(soma plant = rice.Bible. The asvamedha and the somayaaga are the most important of the yaagas performed by the Bharats.anna-food. Its stalk is called amsu(soma=lata=plant.Rigveda calls upon soma to give mainly vaaja ( food ). in some cases. srava(food) and andhas(annafood) .ha etc.sapta.usha-dawn.eg.food ).the sun).honey etc. 17.Siva.eg.hapta etc.) .Leviticus.va..liquor. it can imply the drop of a consonant or semi vowel like ka. Soma is also called saoma .the sun) and soma(madhu-honey.for consumption. Thus svarna(hari=gold=srii=rice) = sronaa(rice bran gruel. the purodaasa (purushaaasa=Eucharist=body of the bhadra-bull or the king) and the draaksha rasa(grape wine) is used. Soma was mixed with milk.anna(food.agna-avana-ahna-aum.Durga). Being blood it is praana(life cf.sada(rice)-na(grain) etc.All these are the same.In the Holy Mass(medha=sacrifice) of the Christians which is a blend of the asva(ahna-day.The .ra.from the colour of bran it was considered as blood by the vedic poets) = soma( s=h is the usual transition.curd.Braan is brown.Sraavana)= sauma = haoma = sona(blood. When two vowels are there.The soma sacrificer had to fast for days before he was fed with soma.sa(god.la.This is the way rice is consumed even today.Andhas is dhaanya(grain).possessing)adana(food). Mu means Siva and brown colour.svarna-sona etc.It is called haoma by the Parsis. Soma( agnistoma) or vaaja peya ( anna ) is related to rice. Siva is bhadra.butter.fire cf.Hence the original name of the plant and the etymology of the term should be able to explain the double vowel in this.14).maddyaahna-midday) yagas.madya.anna-ja(generated from anna or food). svaasa =svaaha.anna-da(giver of anna .Bhadra = ta(d)va(bha)s(ra) = braan .

The uduukhala is called ural (=arani in which fire is generated by churning) in . Maddhyaahna was made madya anna (intoxicating food or beverage) in the soma libation.4. Hence all gods need soma(food. Noon is Moon. bhakti(worship).tapasa(the sun). la . Raw rice was fanned with suurpa( fans) and rice flour was usually filtered using a strainer – pavitra(bhadra)-caalana(filter).Gaatra (body) = kaasara(bull)=bhadra(bull)= soma = tanu(body).fire ) to survive.namely vashat(vaaja-food.is the noonday libation (RV.bhaksha(drinking or eating.the priest and the worshipper. ari-ppa(cf. In the soma sacrifice .Soma bhadra(king.sexual enjoyment) etc.savita-the sun) and svaaha(svaasa-breath.kalasa-pot.14).coil.bull) is soma raaja(king.7). Soma(srona-rice gruel or wine) was to be filled in kalasas and Drona(srona)s which shows large volume.Hence the statement ‘madyam madam ’ (RV. Soma is purified by pounding in an uduukhala ( uluukhalaa mortar) with an ulakka(a pestle for pounding rice. Fire is born in arani. two terms.uluukhala-ulakka.Rice is bhadra(king.bhakta(worshipper).Anna puurnesvari is god.Bhadra is paaRa (rock) and paRa( drona = soma) .tavasstrength.water.sa = soma = srona(rice).libation) are of significance.svaasa-breath.devas and humans. Soma is svana(sound .Bhadra is bharata(speech.Also compare pakti(cooking).35.anna-food) is agna(fire) and yajna(sacrifice).The people who ate bhadra became the Bharats.bhuja(hand). Food itself is god as shown by the Eucharist.puuja(worship). Ahna(day.bhoga(eating.cf. It was a common food.bull. Srii(rice) is adri(rock). For the Keralites paddy is nel.fire) and breath. In the Bible God was told to convert stone into bread. Soma is bhadra . .Christians have reduced this fasting to just one hour before the intake of the Eucharist.Yajna is also asana(anna-food) for the fire god.Sava(a corpse) is fed into dava(fire) as food of the deva(deity) who is Rudra(Siva-the sun) himself.rock) also.srii-rice).9.Vishnu.bhaata(dawn). Adri-arici –rice = srii .dvija-Brahmin.food).107.havis-ghee.ari = rice).It was consumed by soldiers.Food is god .divasa-day. Only thine – thine only.pacata(fire).Noon day is maddhyaahna. The Keralites call the strainer Nel (rice=soma) = haalaa(liquor) = kallu (toddy) → na = ma .musala-a club).speech) also.

brown coloured one!RV.Vriihi (rice) = harina(green.the soma is food to agni.Soma is called ‘babhro’ ( O.bharata(fire).6.31.94. Cf ear of paddy).9. the brown and white colour come from raw and pure rice. Soma is said to have hanging branches of yellow colour.Vedic ansu is the same.9. Agni is man.patara(ray of sun light).3 describes the wind blowing and river flowing to spread the glory of soma indicating the paddy fields on the banks of rivers and canals. It is said to have naicasaakha(cf.Hence it is said to be available on the mountain of Muuja(usha) –vat.pa-sa.power).hill). RV.a deer.9.srii. Agni is the head of the family.It is food for Indra(antana-a Brahmin) . Of course fodder is patra and bhadra (soma). Thus the green colour is from the plant.3). The bull(soma.rays).cf.Malayalam which carries the sense of soma bhadra as sona(fire).Soma(rice) is his food.It is said to have the hari(green.animal(pasu).14 ).RV.53.la=ma) is said to eat it.RV.He is traana(protection.druma. Parjanya(varsha-varshana-rains) is associated with soma.6.9.3. In fact paddy seedling is called njaaru(trina.brown.sunrise) .10).1). The fish and soma grow in water) Amsu (a filament of the soma plant.Indra and the gods(by the fire sacrice). Soma is sa –uma(usha.hiranya(gold .9.Bhadra is varsha.Muuja is soma and mosaa( Hebrew -going out. .5) from the brown colour of raw rice.Mitra and Aryamaa in (RV. “Bellow aloud the bulls that eat the soma shoots”(RV.a solar ray) →su-ma (flower. He generates and preserves the gaarhapatya agni.white.. He is netra(a leader) .flower) →suura(the sun) → sura(alcohol) Ear = srava(ear) = bhadra = patala. Soma = sa(god) –mu(Siva) → saanu(the sun.Sushoma is sushama(light).Thus soma is also sobha(shine.32.1.9.gold).Since agni(fire) resides in arani .Note the water symbols seen with soma the fish.15.4 compares the ear of paddy with the horn of a bull as soma is bhadra(bull.golden colour from ripe paddy . Ear of paddy is called nelkatir in Malayalam.Soma grows in water and its cultivation and harvesting is closely related to the seasonal rains.Thus soma is the food of man(agni).92.light) . Katir is also the sun and the solar rays.RV.3).9.water) → suuna(bud.sickle like bent ear of paddy cf.lata.ina =Siva).RV.X. Katir(ear of paddyMalayalam=suurya-the sun)→ amsu(soma) → ambu (water.10) colour and is with sahasravalsa(many horns or branches. Mu = Siva.5.32. Soma is linked to Varuna.the sun) and njaattuvela is the period of a solar asterism(cf.the sun ) = kirana(the sun.harita(green RV.srona.the star of Bethlehem).91. the solar priest.

Dru was used to split the soma grains and drona was used to store the soma grains).Soma is Mosa(Moses) and Thoma. Somalata is somaraaja = soma(trina)= srii(rice.The Harappans called their bha-vana (house) as vana as seen from the scripts nava vana vana. The Christians of Kerala are said to be Nambootiris converted by St. Nellu is pullu(ulapa = grape like creeper. Thomas. siira = su-hala = plough) . The story is that St.3 describes the mighty soma being purified to get vaaja( anna-food.But ma = na(grain).druu-to kill . the farmer.9. The Christian priests reside in palli(villa.juice) = the soma extract .This 7½ is iisvara(god). measure of purity is 10½ maattu as bhadra is gold. a disciple of Christ. For gold . They even call their houses mana (vas.The brown colour of the rice makes it appear like the sona(blood = soma) liquid extract. Mana is also illam(ill –villa) .trina(grass) and soma. Soma → su(to press out)-ma(water.42. In the ural soma is purified.It is to get brihat(plenty of) srava(rice) and vaaja(food) in RV.vaasa) .6.9. Bran-praana(life) – praasa(food) Anna praasa is the rite of feeding rice for the first time to Brahmin infants at the age of six months. Somavedins became Christians in Kerala . The soma shoots were considered to be purchased from suudra(farmer.RV. I have already pointed out that the Malayalee Nambootiris are very close to the Harappans by their descent. Srona(rice) is svarna(gold) .Dru-daaru-drona-wooden implement or vessel. Thomas founded ezhara pallis (7½ churches) in Kerala. Locally brewed rice liquor is called kota.arici) = soma bhadra = = In the arani fire is generated.grass).Tamilsaadam-rice). Lata(grass) is raaja(king). Kota is sura and soma. Interestingly the Keralites have a great fondness for elephants which is a continuation .Ural = bhadra = arani = drii (to split.bhadra) which is illam itself.44. In Kerala toddy is called kaLLu –haalaa(toddy) = nellu = soma(madhu-liquor).It is suuna (a bud or flower) like godhuuma which is another soma.

vadhu(wife) .Malayalam-meti-treading out grain) used to pound soma? The clue can be found in the Indus script itself.29. Pavamaana is cleansing.9.Rice is considered as a sacrificial bull as per Aitareya Brahmana.9. But when we deal with the greatest poetic genius we should not take everything on face value.It is also called the skin of cows( RV. Hence soma pounding stone was also called linga(agni-Malayalam-kallu-stone.79.What is the adri (cf. The husk is the hide.9.bhaga(the sun)-naama(name) and bhuu(the earth)-naama( name).Rice gets its name from its bhadra(white) colour.101. By pounding it between adris(adri = yoni = female genitals. The bran is the blood.ina-the sun).Greek-somos) .Tapas is tavas(strength).The white kernel is the flesh.Bhadra is va(like)-dhara(the earth). Adri is athari (finger) and paada as seen from the scripts. This tavitu is the large amount of tavas created during the pounding of Soma.Tavas is also tapasa and soma.Bhadra is full(bull) and white. .! Bran is brown and praana.The harvested rice ears(ansu) were pounded between the feet and the hands when the golden grains flow out like water drops.bhojana(food). Our modern way of removing the praana ( bran) and cooking the white rice removes the amrita as waste and leaves the dead body for eating.rati-sex) somarasa is produced which is the biija or sukla(su-jala=soma). The Malayalam term for brown is tavitu(brown. the ural served as the arani where the soma was pounded. of Kerala has two elephants(subhadra = Bharadvaaja = unicorn) itself as its emblem. Srii(rice) is fire and the sun.4) .66. Soma is tanu( body.thresh and thrash.of the Harappan traits itself and the Govt.madhu(honey. Press stones chew and crunch thee on the ox’s hide (RV.bran).The exponents of the veda mistook it as the hide on which the priests sit.rice.In the next step.kaLLu-soma) Kaamalataa(phallus) is somalata(soma herb). The name of the sun is anna(food.mada-sex). its being cooked on srii and the offering as purodaasa to fire. 47.The ear is the horn. History often repeats itself. Adri is yo(ad)ni(ri).liquor) and moda(happiness.This is by a misunderstanding of the veda. Bhadra is king and gold . Hence it is called bhadra.11 ). But it is also poshana(nourishment). The mistaken bull’s hide Ox hide has been used to sit upon while pressing soma. The hide is the husk(hull) on which the stones grind.

35.Krishi (farming) is giri(mountain)-dhi(seat) itself.sushoma=Malayalam tuuma-splendour) .katir praayam(ear of paddy age). 8.pazhazm tatti praayam(golden ripe age) etc.muntakan koyttu –the paddy harvest in Dhanu-Sraavan) .girl) in Taurus.113. and of yellow (hari) colour. 9.ansu.3) also.1-2) which is Srii –ayana-patha(day. The plant is described as growing in the mountains (giristha→srii-giri). Avittam = dha-nishta =dhana(dha=srii=the sun) –sta(seated) = noon and solstice matching.These parts of the day and the year are the soma parts. Indra and Agni were known for drinking massive amounts of soma as do the mortals .year).bhadramountain.86. with long stalks.The Soma is said to give the bull(bhadra. Asvamedha is the worship of the equinoctial sun.bull.29.kaayancu(grain-5days)-vilayancu(ripe grain -5 days) .Hari is the colour of the ripe rice fields.solstice = Christmas).purusha) his bull(soma.kalyaanapatha(dawn)and sraavanapatha(cf.The bhadra(soma) grain itself is the bull and the cow.ahna.krishi. The most important Vedic sacrifices were the Asvamedha (usha.kaaymatangi praayam(bent ear of paddy age) .64. The Rig Veda associates the Sushoma(kusuma.varsha-rain.bhadra) like strength (RV.44 compares the removal of the husk to the peeling of the skin of a snake.The soma plant is the embodiment of the sun and the solar rays(cf.10-11). It is also sona(the aruna varna) at sunrise.katir etc.It marks beginning of noon or Kataka(Cancer.equinox=Easter) and the Somayaaga(madhyaahna. 8. RV. Indra(the rising sun) and agni (aja-the Aries sun) drinks it and grows stronger to become the bhadra(white.varsha) and other regions with Soma (RV.7. 10.). Soma yaaga is the worship of the .pottin praayam(flowering age).Kalasa-pot ) in the day(bhadra) and Makara(Capricorn) in the year. Arjika(arici. The harita(green) fields achieve hari(golden) colour as the crop mature.punca). .9. Rice is pounded to produce srona.The soma lump or rice ball is the noon sun under the aspect of the sign of Makara.paalancu(milk-5 days). Pounding it produces tapas(heat) as it happens with the solar rays.2. The different stages of growth of paddy were denoted by njaaru praayaam(sapling age) – kol praayam(stalk age). and the days from flowering were counted as puuvancu(flower -5days). The pot being the fish it is a figure of the fish eating alligator. Avittam pirannal tavittilum ponnu( One born in the asterism of Dhanishta will turn even braan into gold or whatever he do will be a success) is a Malayalam proverb. Probably the most important Soma region is Sharyanavat ( RV.10.175. soma = sobha(light cf.

Now what may foeman's malice do to harm us?’’ Does this not point to the ‘sariira(tanu-soma-body) and rakta’(blood.S. Asva = avasa(the sun).In the sacrificial riual the wedding is between the year and the day . Thus this is also a repeat of the sasa patra (C2B7) theme. 48. .Solsticial sun. Pavamaana is also bhagavaan (god). we have attained the light. Soma Pavamaana and Onam A sthivi(suurpa -bhadra-muram= fan cf.rakta) which is the body and blood of Christ? .soma-madhu-pasu) is tamed to make the soma bhadra . Suunu is the sun and a son .sa-raksha. Pongal is prepared by mixing bhadra(rice). Interestingly at the end of the game the winner would be presented with a bhadra(a girldaughter) of the chieftain(bhadra. The rice meal of a Keralite or Tamilian is never complete without buttermilk.8. paRakkal-flying ) or pavamaana(purification ) of soma. Neycoru is rice prepared with ghee. with the viira(the men taming the bull) makes a viirabhadra and shat bhadra. Shat bhadra is sada(grain) – bhadra(rice) or somabhadra itself.curd etc.viij-to shower) is used to perform paattu(Malayalam-winnowing. soma = suura (the sun).These are still favourite dishes of Kerala and Tamilnaadu. See the seal M-312( a neat photograph of this seal is available in the article: bull baiting of yore by Srii T. The RV. Paalkanji is prepared with milk(kshiira) and rice(bhadra).bhartaa. It is also used to segregate the rice from the husk and bran which also is pavamaana (pavana-wind-fanning) .Soma ( bhadra ) vandana is performed as maatu(soma) bandhana(taming).bull) . In the festival of Maattuppongal the soma is worshipped by preparing the rice Pongal first and then the maatu (bull.3 says ‘‘We have drunk soma and become immortal. The bhadra(five. sugar(madhu) and ghee.This segregates the grain from the chaff after harvesting.In the Tairu saadam curd is mixed with rice. Aum nama Sivaaya is a shat bhadra.kaattu = pavana-wind.raksha-protection) of the Christ which is the sariiraksha(food) or the purodaasa(rice cake) and draaksha(grape wine.48.paartha) making it a kalyaanapatha as indicated by the Rigveda. Thus the bull(bhadra-varsha) becomes the girl(bhadra-praatar) seeking a husband(bhartaa-bharata-the rising sun).Subramanian in THE HINDU dated 13 Jan .2008)where five(pancabhadra=va-two+tra-three) men(bhadra) try to tame (bandhana) a bull(soma bhadra).

Soma = madhu(sura) and sona( rakta.neycoru or curds -dadhi). The Soma region Muuja(soma)-vat also means ‘abounding with sara(reeds)' .With the fall of Harappa under the influence of the migrating non-vedic communities the rituals too lost their original significance.91.cakkarappongal) . as cooked with grain or barley (yava). The drink Soma was guarded by the Gandharvas.Rudra-aksha).1 and 9.two) whence like srotra(srava-earsasa) .16. In fact.The Parsis themselves had already lost sight of the Rigvedic concepts by the period of Zoraster due to the influence of the various groups of non-vedic people who were living in the Persian belt. It consists entirely of hymns addressed to Soma Pavamana ("purified Soma"). RV.soma=svarna-gold).V. etc.Sugar-cane was probably used in some soma preparations (cf.twin arrows also denote soma as do any trina(sara-na=sara-va=srava) The soma drink was prepared by priests pounding the plants with stones. sa(god. which are sometimes .Soma(sura. The Atharva Veda (AV XI.Srava(ear.rice-soma) is sara-va(like.netra(matsa=madhu=soma) . The Rig Veda describes Soma as a watery plant.61. . Soma was also prepared with gold(cf.9. paal kanji. an occupation that creates tapas (literally "heat").2 clearly states soma as andhasa(anna –rice).It can be from the paalancu(paal=milk) age in the ripening of rice. showing that several plants had Soma-like qualities.Malayalam-cora) . The Ninth Mandala of the Rigveda is known as the Soma Mandala. Sara (srii)was mainly used to make sara(arrows) and was sacred to both Agni(srii) and Soma(srii-rice). In it the soma(sura) is the draaksha. The juice so gathered is mixed with other ingredients (including milk) before it is drunk.the source of strength(daksha) . Rigveda by this time was a text with an age of at least two millenniums (Early Harappan to 1500 BCE). synonyms for Soma.with)-rakta . Soma was prepared in three forms.6.17).The Parsis had a great influence on the Hindus. growing near water (RV VIII.The Rig Vedic soma was a grass or reed grass. Soma was often called madhu (honey or mead). Soma was often used with ghee (ghrita) and honey (madhu). (R. 9. barley and darbha (kusha or durva). . In general.with)raksha and sura(wine)-aksha(seed..1) and giving out a milky juice.cf.15) specifically mentions five great plants of which Soma is the best.42. Also purified rice is white like milk or light .which is mixed with milk(go) products. milk (gocf. Draaksha is sa(god. It is described as "green-tinted" and "bright-shining" in the RigVeda. including marijuana. Then why the Hindu priests do not use it?The use of a substitute soma was probably a ploy employed by the priests to hide the actual soma as the sacrifice itself was a drama like the Holy Communion..sona)paana(drinking) is kurbaana(Holy Mass) which is a blend of the asva and soma yaagas.Hence it is a soma and the Christian priests still use it.

sraavana(savana. This again shows the closeness of the Kerala Nambootiri Brahmins to the Harappan traditions .Thus this is similar to the annual resurrection of the Christ at the vernal equinox. Rice bran oil is an extract of bran itself. It is performed on the asterism of Dhanishta(tavas-strength. The asterisms puurvaashaada .kanji=soma=rice gruel) when soma(the moon.susruushaa. Only in Kerala this festival is there. Bran mixed with milk and honey would give extra strength.sravana)bali(bhadra) and vaamana(onam= pa-vamaana )are the soma pavamaana itself.service).It is celebrated in the month of Cinga(kanji = soma = king = Simha = Leo.srona .animal sacrifice was an essential aspect of the soma yaaga) The sraavan rite of drinking sraanaa(rice bran gruel ) has its roots in the Harappan vedic traditions. The purodaasa is the soma cake (soma juice). savita-the sun Dhanu-sta=the high sun = noon sun) .kanji) is in the asterism of sraavana(sraana-cooked meat.sraanaa-soma-kanji cf. also was probably influenced by the Persians and mentions several Soma plants which are mainly intoxicants or nerve stimulants. The legendary king Mahaa(haoma. It is called onam (homa -soma .ocean.uttaraashaada.The great ayurvedic doctor. Sushrut(cf. Kaatikkanji (kaati=kaavi=brown=bran.Mahaabali = soma bhadra =svarna bhadra = the ascending day sun and the moon.strength.In the annual cycle the winter solstice marks the noon and the beginning of the sign(month) of Makara .kanji-rice gruel-soma) is consumed after Tiruvonam .Luna is soma. In the sign of the moon the fall of the sun begins which is the going of Mahaabali to paataala(Hades).svana savana . .soma) and Dhanishta(Dhanu-soma. The tapas or tavas produced by pounding soma is tavitu(bran-brown-praana= blood as per the vedic concept) produced during the pavamaana of soma.The sun enters the sign of the moon at noon. He visits Kerala every year on the Tiruvonam day . Pavamaana = poshana = bhojana = tavas = srona = sraanaa = rice bran cooked as gruel? Sraavan(Tiruvonam) is soma festival.tavishaheaven. This shows that a number of soma-like plants existed.sta-seat) point to the noon(soma-sky) position of the day sun.tavas = strength) . Krittika (Asvamedha) is the mesha equinox and Dhanishta(Sraavana-SomaOnam) is the winter solstice.soma.

The Keralites have a preference for the mutta(bhadra-soma) brown rice whereas in Tamilnaadu the white rice is preferred. The importance of soma in the life of the vedic Bharats can be understood from the following facts: More than 140.3000 BC India.When required rice wine served the role of the soma juice. India.Pavamaana is annapuu(the sun) and Annapuurnesvari(anna-svarna-iisvari or srii) also.00.A munta(soma.Annadaana is giving food as an offering.lotus etc.putra=bhojana=food itself is sariiraraksha and sariira-rakta) and eaten. .The white juice comes out if semi ripe paddy is pressed. 4. and Indonesia.Soma has to be purified before eating to remove the hull . In some vedic rituals the whole stem of the paddy might have been pressed which may give a green colour to the extract. they have nearly 2.Muntaka means Brahma.Dhanu) is a dwarf or a short man.000 varieties of rice existed in India during the vedic period. even today 2. Rice cultivated at various periods of the year were called by different names like punca. Together.000 varieties of cultivated rice (the grass family Oryza sativa) are thought to exist .and offered as oblation in fire. More than 90 percent of the world's rice is grown and consumed in Asia. The special like of the Keralite for the matta ari (brown rice) and the onam celebration with drinking of rice bran gruel point to the Keralite’s celebration of Harappan soma festivals.placed on receptacles –kapaala. Pavamaana is poshana and bhojana. where people typically eat rice two or three times daily.5 billion people almost half of the world's population. Purodaasa is bhadra(king.000 varieties of rice exist in India . Muntakan etc.00. Rice farming has been traced back to around 5. Annapraasa is feeding rice(especially putting rice into a child’s mouth for the first time).000 BC.bull)-aasa(ad-to eat) whereby the king’s body was eaten as in the Eucharist where bhadra was made putra(son of god.kaLLu. Purodaasa is also the soma but this idea has been lost sight by the end of the Harappan Times.This munta kan is the Vaamana. According to Dr.Purodaasa is a mass of ground rice rounded into a cake usually divided into pieces . He estimated that. Richaria. The harvest in Dhanu-Makara is called muntakan koyttu.Most believe the roots of rice come from 4000. The Bharats were a part of this Asian population . one of the most eminent rice scientists of the world. where natives discovered the plant growing in the wild and began to eat and cultivate it. Three of the world's most populous nations are rice-based societies: People's Republic of China.

Cheongju (cf. for storage of the soma as seen in this figure in the Wikipedia article on Rice wine) .soma). Rice is thrown on newly married couples as a symbol of fertility. . Rice wine is an alcoholic beverage made from rice.low-alcohol Japanese rice drink. In several Asian languages the words for 'food' and 'rice' are identical. 49. which in turn has a higher alcohol content than beer (3-8%). Cơm rượu (cf. Huangjiu (cf.d = r ) people of the Central High lands of Vietnam call it rượu cần(cf. with colors varying from clear to brown or brownish red. To have a general idea of the sura application of soma(rice ) let us look into the rice wines (soma) of different parts of Asia. the Koreans call it cheongju and the E De (cf. drona = soma(vessel) = ruou – can .sraa.soma). The Japanese call it ginjō sake. Aarya.soma) -A Vietnamese dessert consisting of rice balls in mildly alcoholic.The average Asian consumer eats 150 kg of rice annually compared to the average European who eats 5 kg.srii etc. For sacrifices the purodasa and the rice wine were used as soma.rice)-puurna(svarna-suurya) is andhas . vriihi. vaaja. Ang Jiu .Chinese red rice wine. similar to the kalasa and drona of the Bharats. Rice brew has a higher alcohol content (18-22%) than wine (10-20%).Anna(food. thick.sara. literally "yellow wine" or "yellow liquor". milky rice wine. Yadu .srava.jar To understand the actual relevance and magnitude of the influence the soma had in the life of the Asians from the vedic period to the present we can take note of the somas like : • • • • • Amazake .A Chinese fermented rice wine.Korean rice wine. luck and wealth.aadi. Rice wine the sura(alcohol) or madhu(alcohol) form of soma That rice is soma can be confirmed further from the sura application of soma among the people of Asia under various names as listed below. saali.somathey still use earthenware jars.

soma).Brahmin) parokshapriya’ composition concept. 50.Korean alcoholic beverage.Rice beer made after fermentation in Chottanagpur regions of eastern Indian states of Jharkhand. Soju (cf. often mistaken as rice wine. Orissa and West Bengal (India). Raksi .Cattle was an essential part of the farming process for which the hala(siira=srii=rice) was developed.A clear rice wine from Laos. Keralites brew the kota (sura.soma).• • • • • • • • • Kulapo .This period is the 4000-3000 BCE period. barley.madya.Conclusion The right identification of the vedic asva and the soma further confirms the point we discussed in regard to the age of the Rigveda .A reddish rice wine with strong odor and alcohol content from the Philippines. Lao-Lao .By comparison of the historical records of the beginning of the Sed festival in Egypt and the period of the drying up of the Sarasvati as per the SPOT image study we had already given a period of the fourth millenium BCE as the period of beginning of the composition of the Rigveda. sweet Chinese rice wine.A rice wine originating in the Isan region of Thailand. . or sweet potatoes . Mijiu (cf.Indian rice wine Hadia(cf.srava-srii-rice) is the refined wine of Hadia .Tibetan and Nepali rice wine.Rasi(cf.soma)-a clear.kkallu(toddy) from nellu(paddy or rice).soma). Sato .The asva medha as asva veda and the soma medha as soma veda is also poetic lores of cattle rearing and rice farming along with the solar worship practised by the Bharats. The relevant passage from BTLOTH is quoted below again: Rigveda being giraveda contains the most authentic version of Harappan speech.h = m). Of course we should not confuse the mahisha(asva) for the domestic horse or godhuuma (wheat) as dust of cow! The Rigveda should be restudied in the light of the ‘Deva (veda. Sonti (cf. The Bible has drawn heavily from it for the creation of its books. but actually almost always in combination with other ingredients such as wheat.

The age of the Rigveda is a subject of great debate. .aja-eka-pada ) which is also the raama(lama.siira). concepts. A restudy of words like asva(avaza.The arrival of the Bharats in Egypt is a little later.It was during this period that the Bharats invaded Egypt and settled there.utilizing images from the French satellite SPOT.hala(drii. Contemporariness of the Rigveda with the dynastic Egyptian culture is seen in the Sed(asvamedha).has suggested that the river Sarasvati (Gaggar-Hakra) started drying up in the middle of the 4th millennium BC.mahisha).Horus(Rudra).P.Hence at least parts of the Rigveda might have been composed in the first half of the 4th millennium BC .Francfort.bhadra(brick=rock).Another clue can be had from the description of the Sarasvati(Gaggar-Hakra)river.Most of the early Harappan settlements were along the banks of the river Sarasvati.The drying up of the Sarasvati probably prompted the Bharats to explore new territories including Egypt.rati). Isis(usha.The four Vedas of the New Testament are Luke.Matthew and John.ratha(bharata. Mark.AjaGaayatri.The Vedas were probably composed during the early Harappan and mature Harappan periods and the Brahmanas in the post Harappan periods.H.abda)medha(mesha. srii(rice = reversed srii).However the Rigveda speaks of the asvamedha yaaga which in fact is the SEDfestival of the Egyptians which they were practising from the first dynasty (BC 3150-2700) .Ra(Ravi) etc.Iisa).This is the early Harappan period.Osiris(Savitri). The Unicorn (bhadraasva .Hence it is probable that the avasa(asva.vedha) was practised by the Bharats before they settled in Egypt and the Rigveda described it even before this period.lamassu) and the asva(mahisha) puts it on contemporary Sumerian or Akkadian planes.

The chief occupation of the people was agriculture(Cf. and writing was being introduced as can be seen from the Harappan seals and earthenware.19). bhaava(bhaa.8. farming and weaving were advancing.matsa.price. when wheels were introduced on carts and sacrificial rathas etc.parsuAV.matsa.aga.8.bhaga.24. kraya-purchase.3. They ploughed the land with a plough(siira RV.vyaaghra( agra-first.end.10.4).101. from Mehergarh till the present it is the same).20.ha).etc.argha-price.sangama.The ploughmen were called kiinaasa(RV.simha(mahisha. will help one understand properly the period of the Rigveda.RV.7.raatri).They left three sheaves for the Gandharvas who guarded the fields(AV.3.10.45.Durga).naama-hala).10.310).saya.gha.2RV.3 or laangala AV.7) or by drawing water using a bucket and pulley (asmacakram RV. (ku-suuna.101. It belongs to the period when the worship of fire as the worship of the Sun was introduced by humans.The fields were watered by means of irrigation canals(kulya RV.45.Even nowadays the sound of .2.2.H-182.arka-the sun.bhaaga).bhojana). Another passage from The Life of the Harappans(BTLOTH) also will be relevant here to show how the asva and soma went together in the life of the Rigvedic Bharats.17.surendra).101.refer scripts like ).3.3.7cf.3. when the priest kings were sacrificed and eaten by the worshippers.3.kravya-meat).10.12 ) from wells or lakes(AV.3. purandara(pura-Indra.43.irinaa AV. taught their disciples and threw away the tablets once the disciples mastered those hymns. The gurus wrote hymns on tablets.raasi(srii.yaaga(agna. This explains why many tablets were seen scattered as if thrown into dustbins.49.7.They reaped the fields with sickles(srinii AV.marta.1.

drums and crackers is used to frighten away the animals and birds that come to feed on the soma crop in the fields).Threshing floors(khala cf.Malayaalam kaLam-todate) and winnowing baskets (sthivi) were used(RV.10.27.15) and grain was transported in carts to the homes(RV.1.9.8) and stored in granaries(RV.2.14.11 cf.the granary in Mohenjo-daro). The mearure for grain was the khaarii(RV.4.32.17cf.Egyptian khar).Their next important profession was cattle- rearing. Cattle(go) were kept in go-tra(RV.2.23.8

cf.sara –arrow is made go.Go is also dhara-the earth,king and eye

denoted by earth),vraja


ie. aksha-asva-netra-bhadra etc denoting the eye, bull , king and the

and goshtha(AV.3.11.5,4.21.1) .Cow-herds(gopa) took cows out to pasture

daily(RV.10.19.45). Water troughs called prapaa(RV.6.28.7),drona(RV.5.50.4)or prapaana (AV.7.75.1cf.pranava) were provided for them(Note the prapaa and drona

before the Unicorns


) .Professional milkers were called godhuk.

(AV.7.73.6).Draught oxen were castrated with claspers(sleshamaana AV.3.9.2) . They

reared also goat and sheep(Refer the scripts


).Rams were cooked (RV .

27.17) .Wool was collected (RV.1.126.7). Dogs guarded cattle and houses and barked at

thieves (RV.7.55.3 cf.dogs

in the Harappan seals.).Weaving in cotton and wool was

done by men and women(RV.2.3.6,10.26.6,1.61.8,10.130.1-2cf.netra-cloth- figures

in the seals cf.Malayalam-muntu-neriyatu- cloth.).The warp was called tantu (cf.Tamil-tuntu-cloth)and the woof was called ota and the shuttle was called tasara (RV.6.9.2,10.130.1-2).Carpenters made chariots and carts.The wheels were of solid wood (RV.7.32.20).Boats and ships were built(RV.10.101.2 Cf the amulet M-1429). It will now be clear that The Indus-Harappan Civilisation was the Vedic Bharata Civilization and the language was Vedic Bharata. Let us conclude this artcle with a pancaakahara mantra

→ The inscription on the right is the Gandharva(Mahaabhadra) pancaagni,the guardian of the soma fields. In the inscription on the left an aksha ( panca ) is shown

followed by the agna(vighna) inscription.Hence



is sriikanta (Siva) .

is khandaparsu (Siva).

Interestingly khandaparsu(ghanta-Siva;parsu-bhadra-Siva,kratu-Vishnu,sacrifice ) is also an elephant with a broken tusk. This is Ganesa ( agnesa = unicorn). The rectangle is a bhadra(cell,bull,elephant) and this figure inverted is the unicorn itself as

The last script is the same in both inscriptions indicating bhadra (Siva).

Thus this inscription is also a Siva oriented one.

Of course reading the scripts is easy but the anvaya(syntax) will be difficult .

aksha,bhadra(go),Siva,AUM =bhadra

= raaja= srii



triangle=rectangle =circle

AUM – agna - is srii itself.Ca-kra is Sakra (Indra) and raksha(protection cf.Gandharva)..Bhadra is soma.

a ,ca,va,vi,sa,ma,na,ha-visarga


svaaha is dva(two) – ha .

With the




bhadravaaca(Bharadvaaja,agna,AUM) from the alpha(bull) and the omega(nose) or speech and breath.


tra,srii,sna,bhadra,sira . Ghnataa is a tool to grind and pound.Ghanta is

Siva.Khandaparsu as seen is Siva.Compare this with




The inscription may be read as = Bhadra

: Rudra(Vritra,Krishna):( naama-name,nama-bowing,praise)

Bhadra(Siva) - ca(va = same ) – Rudra- bha(va,ca)

Siva is trinetra (Srii Mitra) and the third eye is agni(fire).an arrow. Akshaagni is also akshauhinii an army consisting of 21870elephants.Aksha is five and Siva. Nama Sivaaya(adoration to Siva) is the pancaakshara mantra of Siva(bhadra).Savitra kanta are also possible . Pavitra kanta.Bhadra(Siva) –Savitra-bha Gokarna Siva Gokarna means Siva. Aksha is also a weight(16 maasha= 1 karsha) or measure=104 angula.21870chariots. . AUM Vishnu bhadra Svaaha Srii Rudra svaaha .Thus the one aksha(Siva) was made a one man army! Anu (man) is aaRu (Malayalam -six ).ghanta –vrata=a rite on the fourth day of Phaalguna. 65610 horses and 109350 infantry men.Aksha – agni – Siva is another possible reading. Srii(raaja) Vishnu sra-va(soma. a-vi-ghna-si(su)-va(bha) = bhadra astu te = endless happiness to you ! Another interesting element is aksha(5)-agni(1)= 6 or 15 . Some of the other possibilities are : Srii Vishnu bhadra svaaha Bhadra(bharata) nripa(king-Varuna.Shat(six) is sha(man) .pranava-AUM). Aksha agni(vighna) ghanta bhadra -are synonyms of Siva. the span from the tip of the thumb to that of the ring finger.sacrifice) a-vi-ghna.It is also the seed Indraaksha or Rudraaksha of which rosaries are made.Vishnu) pranaama(adoration.

stopping).spider etc.Let us use for this. vaara(roof.speech. A practical Bharata writing exercise .It can be the name of a king (bhadra. Let us select the unicorn itself which is the most common Bharata symbol for AUM.It is denoted by the man.hand. the earth etc. Srii is the sun . can indicate it.Let us select the wheel for this word.man.prosperity etc.All symbols of agni.It announces sunrise and is a wake up call.unicorn.wheel.abode.bhara(ruling) and suurya(the sun.house etc.Let us select the bha-vana(abode) with a baana(arrow)to for this. Iisvara or iisvari is god and is denoted by ishu(arrow) – vara(vri-environing.king.suula-trident) symbols.Vishnu Ghanta or simply a mantra with the names of the sungod Siva.man.fire light.bull. It is denoted by the wheel. Bhuvana is a man.raaja) or Brahmin(Bharata).Bharadvaaja etc. AUM srii bhuvanesvarai nama: AUM srii bhuvanesvari(a deity) namaha(bowing).waterfall. Aum is bharata vaaca.bhadravaaca.tail).kolam etc.peepul leaf.being. .the sun.

Cambridge University Press. References 1. Deciphering the Indus script (DTIS). Let us select the jar symbol to denote this.Nama: is namaha (obeisance) and svaaha(svaasa-breath) and is denoted by the terminal signs of head or nose like the jar. 1994. Asko Parpola.spear etc. Cambridge . The resulting inscription explains the style and brevity of the Indus-Harappan inscriptions Vijayabhaarati.

Raymond O Faulkner . Griffith Institute. Padmanaabha Pilla . 1996. 4. Canada. 1997.New Delhi. Kunnamkulam.A. U. Books . India.Asia Publishing House. Hyderabad. 14. Kanippayyuur Sankaran Naambootirippaatu. 1999. Ancient Egypt – Myth and History . Kerala. Current books.2. Sumer. AMG International Inc. Kerala. New Delhi.S. Puraanic Encyclopedia . The Indus script: texts.1977. Kerala. Kerala. Sabdataaraavali. The Vedic people . Geddes and Grosset Ltd. 13.Rao . Kottayam. An Introduction to Indus writing Bryan wells. The University of Calgary . 7. C. 2000. Scotland. Wikipedia 15. The decipherment of the Indus Script. 3. Pancaangam Pustaka Saala. 1991. Vettam Maani. 1996.ASI. The Rigveda . Kottayam.India .S. 9. OMC Narayanan Nambotirippatu.2008 5.R. 12. Bombay .concordance and tables. A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian .2. Orient Longman.1991.Kottayam. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. New Lanark. National Book stall . Sir Monier Monier Williams. Their History and Geography: Rajesh Kochhar. Sriikantesvaram G.English Dictionary. Sanskrit .1982. 8. Oxford. Sanskrit – Malayalam Dictionary. 10. Ltd. 1995.Iravatham Mahadevan. D. 11. The Hebrew – Greek Key Word Study Bible. 1998.April 2000. 6.

2.2.org/wiki/Michael_Witzel17.03. William E.S. 1995. 1992 .Dr.2.Madhusudan Mishra .wikipedia. 17.2008 20.The Scope and Significance of Sumerian Mythology.Delhi .Kerala.Kottayam. New Delhi. Wikipedia.net/17.15.http://wikipedia.V. The Deciphered Indus Script .Yugank Publishers.www.com/indus2/index.02. A Phrenologist Amongst The Todas .org/wiki/indus_valley_civilization17. Wikipedia .Scribd.mohenjodaro. 16. New Delhi.html17.Leela Devi ..2008 19.2000.www. Rajaram.Christianity-its true Indian origin and the secrets of the sacraments – .India.2008 24.Scribd.Petroglyphs on dolmens and Bharata –Vijayabhaarati.com 26.Scribd.15.com 29.R.The Horse.1998. Asian Educational Services.T. India.2008 22.harappa.com/indus/indus1.Balakrishnan.html17. Iythareya Brahmanam .com 27.The Vidyarthi Mithram Book Depot.2008 18.A loud Bharata horn by the Harappan horned archer-VijayabhaaratiScribd.Scribd.2008 21.www.02.com 25.com 28. 18.Aditya Prakashan.http://en.A concise dictionary of Indus Harappan Bharata-Vijayabhaarati.2.Life In Ancient India In The Age of The Mantras : P.Bharata –the language of the Harappans(BTLOTH)-Vijayabhaarati . From Indus to Sanskrit .Indus sign find in kerala and Bharata –Vijayabhaarati .Natwar Jha and N.2008 23.Srinivas Iyengar .Asian Educational Services-1991 17. 13. Marshall.harappa. 16.

12.Rice.Google. Srii Mahaa Vishnu and the Indus Script –Vijayabhaarati .com 33. 32.Scribd.Soma plant .25.Google 25.11.2007 34.The Language of the Indus script from the ‘Bearer’ Symbols – Vijayabhaarati.2007 .11.Scribd.com 31.Scribd.Rice wine.Wikipedia.com.Vijayabhaarati.12.The Original Sin and The Harappans –Vijayabhaarati.com 30.2007 35.Scribd.

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