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Rape Awarness

Being armed with the right information is a womans best defense


UNIT ONE UNIT TWO UNIT THREE UNIT FOUR UNIT FIVE UNIT SIX UNIT SEVEN UNIT EIGHT Australian rape statistics The five personalities of the rapist How to recognise rapist techniques Know how to avoid a dangerous situation What is child sexual abuse Telling children about child sexual abuse Child sex offenders and their tricks Indicators of child sexual abuse and effects when they are adults

Unit .1

Australian Rape Statistics


A survey conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics showed that three- quarters of sexual assaults on women are not reported to police. The Australian Institute of Criminology states that strangers commit only 24 percent of sexual assaults against women. 46 percent are committed by a close friend, family friend, family, neighbor, work colleague or boss 30 percent by a man only known to the victim by sight or name only. ( 1994 statistics )

Reality Check: It is estimated that one in four young women will be assaulted in some way before
they are 18 years of age and there will be one out of ten women raped in there life time Most victims are assaulted by men they know or trust. Most sexual assaults are premeditated. There were 15,630 victims of sexual assault recorded by the police in Australia in 2000 an increase of 11% from 1999.

Victim Offender Relationship Statistics


38% Known non-family members 28% Family members 16% Stranger 18% Not stated

Age of Sexual Assault Victims


It is more prevalent among young people under the age of 25 years old 40% In the range of 10 to 14 years old are most at risk 35% In the range of 15 to 24 years old 15% In the range of 0 to 9 years old 7% In the range of 25 to 44 years old 2% In the range of 45 to 64 years old 1% In the range of 65 and over

Location of Sexual Assault


67% Occurred in residential locations, particular in private dwelling 23% Occurred in community locations 10% Occurred on the street, footpath, recreational faculties such as parks, ovals and transport

Reality Check: Most people who choose to rape are not mentally ill. Rape is not just about sex it is
about controlling, harming and degrading someone else. Most offenders have a cycle of offending that starts with fantasies and develops into targeting victims. 30% of rapes are not reported.

Unit .2

The five personalities of the rapist


Reality Check: rapists come in all sizes and shapes, and rarely conform to the medias stereotypes. Most rapists are not lower class working people but middleclass, educated men. Most victims are assaulted by men they know or even trust and most sexual assaults are premeditated.

Five personality types of rapists Gentleman Rapist ( Power Reassurance )


The vast majority, 70 percent, of reported rapes are personality type gentleman rapist because of his gentlemanly behavior after the rape. He is less violent and less sure of himself. He seeks power and gets it through sex, he rarely carries a weapon, The gentleman rapist may fantasize about having a relationship with his victim long before he ever gets her alone. He will often get sympathy of those who know him. His mild manner on the surface, however, hides a rage and a determination to get what he wants. He can cross-over to become a revenge rapist or a sexual sadist and is just as dangerous, perhaps even more so, because he will most likely get away with his crime and do it again. He is more influenced by social standards of beauty- his victim is usually someone whom he would normally wish to date. Some acquaintance rapist become oddly tender immediately afterward and try to dress the woman or cover them. Some gallantly insist on walking or driving their victims home, telling the woman that its dangerous for them to be out alone. Others profess love and talk about having an ongoing relationship. Another type kisses their victims good-bye and says they will call them again soon.(and some do call, apparently raring to go on another Date) in short, many man fail to perceive what has just happened as rape. PREVENTION: As the most common of all rapists, and often the most respectable in societys eyes, this personality type is seldom seen as a criminal. The best way to break through to escape is to be assertive with him. You must make him understand that what hes about to do is not love, not sex, not fun, its rape. Attempt to break through his fantasy by screaming, fighting, or otherwise actively resisting him. Try to make him understand that what he is doing is a crime.

Control Freak ( Power Assertive )


In 25 percent, of all rape reports, the control freak personality surfaces. This personality tends to be in his mid-twenties with a blue collar job. This kind of rapist is more violent than the gentleman rapist and may initiate a sudden attack. He doesnt care about his victim. He will tend to be cruel to others and domineering in his attitude, often insisting that others do things his way. He may suddenly change in personality and appearance his level of violence can escalate and become that of the revenge rapist or sexual sadist at any time. He will often reveal his true personality early his tendency is not to see a woman as a real person, and he will talk about women badly and in a way that objectifies them. PREVENTION: Talk to him, getting eye contact and making yourself a real person to him

Gang Rape
Gang rape accounts for about 9 percent of all reported rapes. However, the physical and emotional damage that is inflicted upon the victim of gang rape is enormous. When man rape in pairs or gangs, the sheer physical advantage of their position is clear-cut and unquestionable. Group rape is the conquest of men over woman. Often, men who commit gang rap normally would be too timid to perpetrate a rape by themselves. When they become part of a group of men this changes, particularly if there is a great deal of alcohol consumed. Men who commit gang rape experience a special bonding and there seems to be a sense of pride in humiliating their victim. They prove their manhood and standing in a group. Generally, the group leader is the first to commit rape and the others will then follow. It is also true that part of the motivation for members of the gang is to not lose status or look bad in front of the others. Gang rape is generally much more violent and abusive than normal rape. The perpetrators of the gang rape appear to have a lot of hostility and rage against women. Gang rapes are more common at events where alcohol and drugs are consumed. Fraternity parties and athletic parties can be a breeding ground for this kind of assaults PREVENTION: If all else fails, and you find yourself being assaulted by a group of men, try to make eye contact with one person. Tell him to get help. You may be able to break the male-bonding with him long enough for him to feel compassion for you. Depending on his personality and the groups control over him, it may or may not work.

Revenge Rapist ( Anger Retaliatory )


Although only 4 percent of reported rapes can be traced to this personality type, it get a lot of media attention. There is much anger here and this man is retaliating against women. He is usually in his thirties he tends to be educated and somewhat successful. This personality type may strike quickly with a high level of violence. Generally, there is a precipitating event in there life that triggers rage. He often takes a possession, or trophy from his victims. Although he may not originally intent to kill, he often does. PREVENTION: If confronted by this type of rapist you are in great danger. This man has a great deal of hatred and rage. Your best bet is to attempt to escape, fighting with all your might and trying not to let him get you to an isolated spot.

Sexual Sadist ( Anger Recitative )


Only 1 percent of all reported rapist fall into this category, and these tend to be stranger-to-stranger rapes, or an acquaintance rape in which the victim and perpetrator had only just met. The very term indicates that this individual is angry and gets excited by the thrill of the crime. He intends to kill his victim. He will plan extensively, and counts on the intended victim to provide him with an opportunity. He tends to be in his thirties or forties. He will lure victims to him maybe by pretending he his helpless and will try and kidnap them. PREVENTION: If you are attacked by this kind of person, you can bet you will have to fight like hell to get away. Since this type of individual is very clever, your best bet is to be aware and trust that inner guidance that tells you not to get too close or be alone with him. If you carry some kind of weapon, you must be prepared to use it at a moments notice.

Reality Check: Remember that all rapists are serial rapists. That is, they rape repeatedly until stopped. Rapists do not fit neatly into one category or another and a rapist can also progress to greater violence as time goes on. The feelings of the power and excitement may buildup.
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What Turns an Ordinary Man into a Rapist


In many cases, its a simple case of opportunity. If the opportunity exists, and the man thinks he wont get caught, hell take it. In fact, a recent study by a major university indicated that a very alarming percentage of males would rape if they thought no one would ever find out. Teens and women have to be aware and alert that they can become a target at any time. We know strangers can be dangerous but when friend and dates become rapist, who can we trust. Being armed with the right information is a womans best defense.

Unit .3

Rapist Techniques
If you observe a man using one or more of these techniques, you should be on your guard and get away from him quickly. Do not allow yourself to be alone with him, and do not hesitate or analyze. Act quickly to protect yourself. Purpose or experience where none exists. The man may even refer to the woman and himself as we, attempting to make the woman feel that he and she are sharing a common pursuit or purpose.

Prevention: When you notice this kind of behaviour, ask yourself, why is he trying to create a
team of the two of us? and does he really share the same experience as me or is he just lying to get close to me. Remind yourself that you and he are not sharing an experience, and remain on your guard.

Charm and Niceness: To charm is to compel or control by allure or attraction, when a man is
charming a woman you should say to yourself this man is trying to charm me many women who have been assaulted report that the man was extremely nice at the beginning. Beware of the behaviour that is excessive, inappropriate, or seems dazzling.

Prevention: If you have a sense that a man is exhibiting behaviour that is unusual for the situation,
ask yourself. Why might he be acting so nicely? or, why would he be trying to charm me?

Too Many Details: It is common for a person who is lying to offer too many details in an effort to
bolster his credibility. A person who is telling the truth is not preoccupied with whether or not he is being believed, while a person who is lying will work hard to be convincing.

Prevention: If you are hearing a mass of details or background information that you did not ask
for, you should ask yourself, why is he trying to convince me? try not to get too distracted by the story so that you can remain alert and clear about what is really going on.

Typecasting: A common maneuver is to make a slightly critical statement that then challenges the
listener to prove the opposite. The man does not necessarily believe what he is saying, he only believes that his statement will affect the womans behaviour. For example, he might say youre so well dressed that youre probably really uptight and wouldnt know how to have a good time the woman may find herself trying to prove to him that she does know how to have a good time, and may go along with things she otherwise wouldnt in order not to be perceived as uptight or not cool.

Prevention: The best way to counteract this tactic is to say nothing, and not to take the bait. If you
find yourself thinking, Ill show him Im not uptight you are falling into his trap.

Alcohol and drugs the rape enablers


About 75 percent of men and more than half of women involved in rape had been drinking alcohol or taking drugs before the attack. Some men who are planning an attack may be constantly refilling her glass to make it harder for the womens ability to fight back. Alcohol or drugs consumption will cause a womans senses to become dulled and clouded. In a sexual assault, she is going to need all of her wits about her to be able to get out of the situation. Many times, a woman is too intoxicated to understand where the rapist is taking her or even what hes going to do until its to late and the assault has begun. I urge you to look at alcohol and drugs differently. This is not just a harmless recreational beverage, but a potent drug that can become a tool for rapist.

Reality Check: Any one of the above techniques can be used to try and control a woman into a situation in which the assailant has power over the situation.

Premeditated rape
The majority of rapes are premeditated. If the rapist has not already identified a victim, he will be on the lookout for an easy target. Although the rape attack will almost certainly be premeditated, the method will be opportunistic. The mind set of this particular attack is that the rapist knows what he wants or what is going to happen. The rapist will already have a plan worked out and may have picked several different locations, all he will be looking for is a victim. Some of the locations could possibly be: - Short-cuts through alleyways or park areas - Lonely pathways - Behind buildings or walls - Car parks - Beaches - Generally quiet areas or times In some cases, the rapist may already know or have located the victim, he will just be looking for the opportunity. He may well have already followed the victim and knows the route she takes and the times. With this type of attack, an extreme amount of force may well be used.

Rapist that are known to the victim


This is the most larges percentage of most rape crimes. In these cases, the rapist are known to their victim, as they are usually a friend, ex partner, family friend, boss some one you have meet at work or out some were in town. Watch out they can use any of the rapist techniques on you and it is a possibility that they could be even stalking you.

Sexual Harassment
Date and acquaintance rape often starts as a series of intimidations and manipulations of a sexual nature and unwanted, repeated sexual attention. This is called sexual harassment and it is illegal even if the harasser is not your boss or some one at work. Here are some behaviours that the law may deem to be sexual harassment: - Sexual offensive or derogatory comments - Humor and jokes adout sex - Sexual remarks about your body, clothing or sexual activity - Sexual propositions or pressure for sexual activies - Insults of a sexual nature - Requests or demands for sexual favours - Catcalls - Leering, ogling, whistling - Insulting sounds - Use of inappropriate body images to advertise events - Visual displays of degrading sexual images - Unnecessary and unwanted physical contact [touching, brushing, pinching] - Attempts to imede or block movement - Attempts or actual fondling or kissing - Physical assault or unwanted sexual intercourse The basic point to remember is that sexual harassment is unwanted, unsolicited, or undesired attention of a sexual nature. Sexual harassment is a breach of the trusting reationship that normally exists between the employer and the employee. Sexual harassment can ezaly escalate into rape.

Reality Check: Sexual harassment is not just about sex it is about power. Typically, such behavior is desgned to humiliate and control.

Stalking
Probably the most insidious of the sexual crimes is that of stalking the never-ending control, manipulation, and pursuit of the intended victim. In general, it is such a heinous crime that the stalker rarely ends his pursuit. It is estimated that as many as on of every twelve women has been staled at some point in their lives. Fifty-three percent of stalking cases are reported to the police and about 12 percent of all stalking cases result in criminal prosecution. Over half all stalkers have never experienced a long term relationship and most of them do not have any major mental illness.

Who stalks
Love obsession stalkers: This category is characterised by stalkers who seem to develop a
love obsession or fixation on another person with whom they have no personal relationship. The target may be only a casual acquaintance or even a complete stranger. This category represents about 25 percent of all stalking cases. The stalker can develop fixations on people including co-workers, casual acquaintances, or people they just pass in the street. Since most are unable to develop normal personal relationships with someone they retreat to a life of fantasy relationships with persons they hardly know. This kind of stalker can turn out to be very dangerous in the long term. In some cases even going as far as murder their victims in a twisted attempt to romantically link themselves to their victim forever.

Obsession stalker: This second category represents 75 percent of all stalking cases and is
distinguished by the fact that some previous personal or romantic relationship existed between the stalker and the victim before the stalking behaviour began. Stalkers in this class are characterized as individuals who are: - Emotionally immature. - Often subject to feelings of powerlessness. - Unable to succeed in relationships by socially acceptable means. - Jealous, bordering on paranoid. - Extremely insecure about themselves and suffering from low self-esteem. Since the victim literally becomes the stalkers primary source of self-esteem, his greatest fear becomes the loss of this person. The stalkers own self-worth is so closely tied to the victim that when he is deprived of that person, he feel that his own life is without worth. In some extreme cases, these stalkers will stop at nothing to regain their lost possession their, partner. This is what makes simple obsession stalkers so dangerous. If you are attempting to break off a relationship with a obsession stalker, he will desperately connive ways to get the relationship re-started. If you resist him or dont cooperate, he may use force or intimidation. If threats and intimidation fail, he may turn to violence. He cannot be objective about his ex-partner. He has only one desire, and that is to return to what he felt was the perfect relationship he may define himself through that relationship and feel like a failure if the relationship fails. His violence may escalate to homicide from an obsessive belief that if he cannot have his victim in this life, then he will have her in the next.

Unit .4

Know how to avoid a dangers situation


Identifying the would be stalker
Stalkers have many distinguishing features that could warn potential prey. Problem in previous relationships are common. In some instances, the stalker will continue to harass a former intimate even while embarking on another relationship. There is generally little that can be done to prevent victimisation by a stranger. However, when there has been a previous relationship, be it intimate, work related, professional or casual in nature, certain features dictate a need for caution. These include: - Possessiveness and excessive jealousy. - Highly manipulative behaviour. - Exerts an unreasonable amount of control in a relationship - Demanding unrealistic levels of commitment at an early stage of the relationship. - Poor frustration tolerance - Abusiveness in the relationship. - Hypersensitivity. - Excessive dependence. - Insecurity and low self esteem. - Obsessive characteristics { an all consuming passion for a celebrity } - No close friends. Such characteristics should sound alarm bells. Trust your instincts. The longer you tolerate this relationship the more difficulties you are likely to encounter when it ends. Finally, never date a person out of pity and certainly do not date somebody who threatens to commit suicide if you will not see them. In doing so you will surely be courting a stalker.

Dulled Senses for date rape or acquaintances rape


When you go out with a guy, you will have to depend on your own feelings. Pay attention to the inexplicable instincts that tell you at times: Watch out Theres something wrong with him hes not treating me with respect I dont feel comfortable with him anymore In many cases of sexual assault, the victim had a feeling something was going to happen or that the perpetrator was going to hurt her. There may be times when his behaviour is not obvious enough for her to put her finger on why he makes her uncomfortable-she may have a nagging feeling that something is wrong with him. She may have thought she was being silly and just brushed off her feelings with: - Oh this is nonsense - Hes an upper-classman - Hes so good looking - Hes so popular - I should feel honored to be with him - I know him - But he is my friend In todays society we seem to have lost the ability to recognise a bad situation. We have to re-educate ourselves to recognise the feelings of danger that will keep us out of harms way. 9

Planning Ahead
Crime victims who fare the worst in a confrontation with a criminal generally have one thing in common. They thought it would never happen to them, and took no precautions or even gave any thought to protecting themselves. It may help you in the long run to put yourself hypothetically in the position of being attacked.

Ways to prevent date and acquaintance rape


- Introduce him to your roommate, friends, or family before you go out, and tell them when you will return. - If this is your first date with him, meet him during daylight hours and take your own car. - Remember, isolated spot can be dangerous. Meet him in public and stay around other people. - Parties where there is excessive alocohol consumption can be dangerous. Do not go to isolated bedrooms and do not allow yourself to be alone with man with no other females present. - Alcohol and drugs are tools of date rapists. Getting high or drunk will make his job easier and your escape more difficult. - Always pour your own drinks, even if you are drinking only soft drinks. Never let someone else carry or watch your drink for you. If you have any reson to suspect that your drink has been spiked, throw it away and remove yourself from the situation. - always carry a mobile phone and enough cash to get home. If you need to make a call for help and it is at all possible, excuse yourself and go to the womens bathroom or some other safe place to make your call. Do not do it where he can hear your conversation. - Never leave a bar or party with a man you do not know or are not absolutely sure about. - Do not let a man intimidate you or make you feel uncomfortable. If your inner guidance tells you to leave, do so at once.

Avoiding rape or premeditated rape


Some of the danger spots and ways you could avoid a potentail rape situation includes.

Personal safety on public transport


- Check timetables, so you are not waiting a long time for the bus or train. - If possible, when going home late at night, ring someone at home to watch for your arrival. - Dont stand alone while waiting for a bus or train especially at night, stand with other people. - Try and go to a bus stop that is busy and is well lit. - When possible, travel in numbers with two or more friends. - If youre on a bus or train try and sit near the bus driver or as close as possible. - If you are on a train, pick a carriage with a lot of people in it. - Try and stay awake and alert on public transport. - Obserive fellow passengers and change seats if uneasy about their behaviour. - You should always carry your mobile phone if there is a emergency. - You should change stops and vary your route home to avoid falling into a pattern that a potential rapist might spot. - Be aware of who gets off at your stop. - If you are being followed take some action quickly if you see a taxi, hail it or go into a shop or walk into a house that looks occupied and get some help.

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Personal safety on the street


- Dress sensibly. - If you are going out late, try and arrange a lift home from a friend or a taxi. - Avoid walking alone. - Never hitchhike. - Try not to take short-cuts through unknown or lonely areas. - If possible take a well lit and busy road. - Always walk towards the oncoming traffic this way no one can pull up behind you. - Use caution when using elevators, isolated stairways, or toilet areas. Dont place yourself at risk. - When walking down the street be aware of any alleys, dark pathways, walls or any where a attacker may hide around. - If approach, maintain a comfortable distance while you answer questions or give directions. Never turn your back on someone who has approached you. - Avoid being flirty or showing any overly friendly attention to any one individual. - Avoid any situation that may encourage unwanted attention. - If the attack is imminent you should flee your attacker, run quickly to a well lit populated location if possible such as a milk bar, service station or shops. - Scream or shout as loud as you can to attract attention. - You should strongly avoid a close physical encounter with the attacker, you should quickly assess the situation and fight and scream with all your might. - Strike fast, aiming for vital spots.

Safety in the car


- Park in well lit and busy areas. - If walking to your car have your keys in your hand ready to open the door. - Make shore doors are locked and windows are closed at traffic lights so no one can get in.

Safety at home
- If you are getting a taxi or a lift by friends home, get them to wait for you to get inside safely. - Carry your keys in your hand. Dont stand at your front door searching for them in your handbag or pockets. - Always lock all doors and windows. - Buy some dead locks. - Get a home alarm system. - Dont leave spare keys in an obvious place. - Never tag your keys with your address. - If you do lose your keys, change the locks. - It is a good idea, if you have at least two telephones in the house-one in your living room and one in your bedroom your mobile phone may also be good use if telephone cant work. - Have a lock on the bedroom door.

If you hear a burglar enter your home


- Arm yourself - Go to your childrensroom and take them to a safe place. - If you can get out of the house and get help If you can not get out go to a room with a lock and lock your self in the room and phone for help.

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If you arrive home to find a burglar


- Do not go in the house if you suspect that someone is inside. - Call for help from a neighbours house. - Do not disturb intruders. If you do, get out of their way. - Do not touch anything until the police arrive.

Stopping sexual harassment


Sexual harassment you do not have to put up with this type of attention. The majority of man who carry out this type of harassment mean it as a joke, but it can have very serious undertones. If such men are caught, they often say that they didnt mean it. Or it was just a silly joke. If they are not caught, they will persist until they get what they are after, or what they think they are due. If you give in to them, you may then find yourself at risk from every other male in the work place as word gets around that you are fair game. Or you could find yourself with a very bad reputation. This could happen even if you refuse the attention, because most men do not like being told no. If you do not comply with your attacker, they can make your place of work a very difficult place to be, and could even make things so unpleasant that you are forced out of your job, especially if the offender is in a position of authority. If you experience any type of sexual harassment that you find uncomfortable or upsetting, you must report it to your superior. Establish a record of events, so that if the situation gets really bad, those in authority can see that you have not just made it up on the spur of the moment. You must report it to your superior or if it is your superior that is doing the harassment you most report the incident or incidents to human resource department or your work union.

Avoiding a gang attack


For a women, being alone and confronted by a male gang is probably one of the worst scenarios imaginable. Simple self confidence should be your first defence in this situation, since by not reacting as they expect of a woman, the gang may give up on you. The more it will unnerve your attackers. The key element in dealing with this situation is to quickly establish who the gang leader is and concentrate on him; he will either be the biggest or the one doing all the talking. By being selfconfident and continuing to move forward while quietly but firmly asking the attacker to get out of your way, you may well convince the leader to back down. Try not to allow yourself to be surrounded. Do not be distracted from your chosen course of exit. Do not talk to the attackers except to issue orders. You must protect your back at all time. In the last resort, if the gang attacks, go for it. Use all your skills-voice, punches and kicks and run at the first opportunity if there is space to get away.

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Unit .5

What is child sexual abuse


Child sexual abuse is a crime. It is when someone whom a child trusts, or someone older or bigger then them, tricks, threatens or forces them into sexual activities. Children who have been abused are never to blame.

Touching: The adult touches, strokes or rubs the child in a sexual way. Masturbation: The adult makes the child touch his her/her genitals and/or the adult touches
the childs genitals.

Vaginal or anal penetration: By a finger, penis or other object. Pornography: Where the adult shows the child videos, dvds or photographs of sexual
practices.

Kissing: The adult kisses the child in an uncomfortable way. Exposing (lashing) sexual parts: The adult exposes his/her sexual organs to the child Watching: The child undress or bathe and suggestive behaviors or comments. Any other way children are used by someone for sexual purposes. Was I sexually assaulted as a child
Sometimes people wonder if what happened to them was child sexual assault. It can include a childs body being touched in a sexual way or the child being made to touch an adult in a sexual way. It also includes other behaviours such as watching the child in order to be sexually aroused, making the child watch sexual acts or an adult behaving in a sexual way towards the child. Child sexual assault can be a single incident or occur over a longer period of time. It may involve one or more perpetrators. Sexual assault of a child can have an impact on their physical, psychological and social development. However, the range and intensity of the effects of child sexual assault are different for everyone.

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Unit .6

Telling children about child sexual abuse


Sexual safety for kids
Just as adults teach children about water safety, fire safety, or car safety, it is important to teach children about sexual safety. Children learn from adults that sexual safety is important. Show children that you are aware of sexual safety such as discussing way of respecting our bodies, or rejecting sexual put-downs or jokes. Set clear behaviour limits in relation to sexual safety such as we dont touch other peoples privates. Talk with children about respectful words for what are private parts of their body. Knowing about sexual abuse helps keep children safe and protects them from it. When adults talk openly with children about sexual abuse, and discuss what the child can do if they are in a threatening situation, then they give the child permission to tell. Children who are sexually abused often find it difficult to tell someone what is happening to them. The offender actively works to make the child keep it a secret. Families can help be encouraging a loving environment where children are able to talk openly about their feelings and know that they will be taken seriously.

Teaching children about personal safety Trusting your instincts


- Encourage children to trust their feelings. - Explore with children the things that make them feel safe and happy and what makes them feel scared. - Explain that their bodies can often tell them when they are in danger-they might get a funny feeling in the tummy or they might want to run away. - Explore with children how their bodies feel when they are scared. - Tell them if they do not feel safe they should tell someone they trust straight away.

Respecting your body


- Use the correct names for sexual parts of the body when youre talking to children about sexual safety. - Explain to children that their body is their own and that no one has the right to touch them in ways that make them feel scared or uncomfortable.

About sexual abuse


- Explain to children that sexual abuse can happen with someone in their family or someone they know who tells them it is okay. - Stress to children that if someone touches them in a sexual way it is not their fault and that they should tell someone they trust about it.

About grown ups


- Explain to children that some-times grown-ups do thing that are not okay. - Explain that sometimes when they tell a grown-up something they might not always understand. Tell them if a grown-up says, Dont be silly or I dont believe you that they should keep telling until someone believes them and does something to help them.

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Unit .7

Child sex offenders and their tricks


Who they are
They are usually very ordinary people who could come from any background, they can hold any position within the community. They are often well respected, making it much more difficult for a child to tell someone. They are usually male. They are often related to the child or are a family friend. They are always very careful to ensure they are not suspected of child sexual abuse. Must man who commit sexual assault do not appear to have any mental illness or abnormality. Most sexual assaults are premeditated and well-planned and are committed by some known to the victim. They are not usually spontaneous or impulsive acts committed by strangers lurking in dark streets. It is estimated that 80 percent of adult sexual assault victims know the offender. Research tells us that the people who sexually abuse children do so in a planned way and work out times to be alone with children. Research study found that about half of the men who sexually abused children were in a stable relationship.

Child sex offender tricks


They may win the childs or parents trust over a period of time before they abuse. They may become the kind person who supports and befriends a parent in order to gain access to the children. When they become trusted they may be a welcome visitor in the home, they may mind the child when parents go out, or offer to take the child on an outing. They often have hobbies and interests that appeal, and usually hook in children by showing a keen interest in what they like or by giving presents such as money or gifts. They often tell a child that there is a special relationship and what they do together should be a secret. It may be very confusing for a child if the activity is pleasurable. They can make a child feel special, a pedophile may make a child feel loved and cared for. Children who have never had this sort of attention may be more likely to respond to someone who shows them attention and affection. The child in some cases can believe that what they are doing is all right and is special but what they need to know is something that has to be a secret is most of the time bad. Sexual assault is a criminal offence regardless of whether or not some of the acts make the child or young person feel good physically. In many cases, a child does not have the emotional tools to understand what is happening.

Things to look out for


- Be suspicious if an adult seems more interested in spending time with your child than with you. It might Be that he offers to look after your child, or wants to be alone with your child. - Be wary of people who are overly kind, affectionate or who give your child lots of gifts. Remember, most People have good intentions, so dont jump to conclusions.
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Unit .8

Indicators of child sexual abuse


- Children may show unusual sexual behavior and knowledge of sexual behavior that you would not expect for their age. They may be more interested in sexual activities than other children and wantingto touch others in sexual ways. - They may have unexplained redness or soreness around the genital areas. - Younger children who have been sexual abused may become unusually withdrawn or unusually aggressive, have nightmares, start wetting the bed or acting out of character with their normal behavior - Older children may become aggressive, have difficulty at school and even run away from home. - Some children may become withdrawn and feel suicidal, threatening risks. - Sexual themes in the child artwork, stories or play. - Poor or deteriorating relationships with peers. - Drug/alcohol abuse. - Fear of going home. Keep in mind that these behaviours are not necessarily connected to sexual abuse, but they do mean that something is going wrong for your child and that she needs help. All children need support and help if they are abused. It is important for you to provide love and reassurance to your child but also to get support from someone who specialises in helping sexually abused children. If you have serious concerns about these matters dont ignore your gut feeling, phone family and youth services, child abuse services, crisis care services, or the police.

In the long term the child may also experience a number of effects as an adult. These may include.
- Depression, anxiety, trouble sleeping. - Low self-esteem. - Damaged goods syndrome. - Dissociation from feeling. - Sexual difficulties such as fear of intimacy. - Multiple sex partners or difficulty in reaching orgasm. - Relationship problems such as an inability to trust. - Rebellious behaviour such as drug/alcohol abuse. - Suicide attempts or feelings - Prostitution. There is a strong correlation between child sexual abuse and late teenage prostitution. - Reluctance to disclose details about themselves. - An underlying sense of guilt, anger. - Fear of being a bad parent.

Emotions about the assault


Confusion, fear, shame, anger, powerlessness, numbness, grief, loneliness and extra alertness are all common reactions to sexual assault. As a children get older they may develop different ways to cope in order a dull the painful emotions and memories associated with the sexual assault.

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Decreased feelings of self worth

Sexual assault teaches children that they are not important and that their feelings do not matter. Often children and adult survivors carry shame about the assaults. As adults they may believe that they have no rights and the abuse may have taught them to believe that they do not deserve to be treated with respect.

Problems in relationships
Sexual assault betrays a childs trust and denies them the opportunity to be loved unconditionally. Some survivors may find it very difficult to trust people, often fearing further betrayal. The perpetrator may be a family member and this can make any contact with their family of origin very distressing.

Sexual difficulties
Adult survivors may actively avoid sex or particular sexual acts that evoke memories of the assault/s. Alternatively, the assaults may cause them to seek sex to meet their emotional needs, as they may believe that their only value is sexual.

Effects on the body


Child sexual assault can hurt a child physically. Adult survivors some times experience physical sensation or pain that is linked to the childhood trauma. Sexual assault of a child can have an impact on their physical, psychological and social development. However, the range and intensity of the effects of child sexual assault are different for everyone. If you experience any of these problems you should consider counseling with a supportive and experienced cousellor.

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