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Advanced Engineering Mathematics - Michael d. Greenberg 2nd Ed

# Advanced Engineering Mathematics - Michael d. Greenberg 2nd Ed

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10/28/2011

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# - = CZ

,

dz dt

d211 -=C dx"

d

1+

( 2 1 2
-

,
Figure 1, Electrical circuit,

(6)

equation (2).

Equation (1) is the differential equatio11governing the linear displacement z ( t ) of a body of mass m, subjected to an applied force F ( t ) and a restraining spring of stiffness k , as mentio~led the preceding section. in Equation (2) governs the current i ( t ) in an electrical circuit containing an inductor with inductance L, a capacitor with capacitance C , and an applied voltage source of strength E ( t ) (Fig. I), where t is the time. Equation (3) governs the angular motion B(t)of a pe~ldulum length 1, u~lder of the action of gravity, where g is the acceleration of gravity and t is the time (Fig. 2). Equation (4) governs the population .c(t) of a single species, where t is the time and c is a net birthldeath rate constant. Equation (5) governs the shape of a flexible cable or string, hanging under the action of gravity, where y ( z ) is the deflection and C is a constant that depends upon Figure 2. Pendulum, equation (3). the mass density of the cable and the tension at the inidpoint z = 0 (Fig. 3). Finally, equation (6) governs the deflection y(z) of a beam subjected to a loading zu(x) (Fig. 4), where E and I are physical constants of the beam material and cross section, respectively.

Ordinary and partial differential equations. We classify a differential equation as an ordinary differential equation if it contains ordinary derivatives with respect to a single independent variable, and as a partial differential equation if it contains partial derivatives with respect to two or more independent variables. Thus, equations ( I ) - (6) are ordinary differential equations (often abbreviated as ODE'S). The independent variable is t in (1)-(4) and x in (5) and (6). Some representative and i~nportantpartial differential equations (PDE's) are as follows: a2u 81 2 C U 2= (7) dz-t '

x

Figure 3. Hanging cable,
equatlon (5).