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Computer Mouse

Computer Mouse

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Published by: VenkataLakshmi Krishnasamy on Sep 19, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Venkata Lakshmi.k

Inside a Mouse
The main goal of any mouse is to translate the motion of your hand into signals that the computer can use. Let's take a look inside a track-ball mouse to see how it works:

The guts of a mouse

1. A ball inside the mouse touches the desktop and rolls when the mouse moves.

The underside of the mouse's logic board: The exposed portion of the ball touches the desktop.

2. Two rollers inside the mouse touch the ball. One of the rollers is oriented so that it detects

motion in the X direction, and the other is oriented 90 degrees to the first roller so it

On either side of the disk there is an infrared LED and an infrared sensor. one or both of these rollers rotate as well. its shaft and disk spin. When the ball rotates. 4. The rate of the pulsing is directly related to the speed of the mouse and the distance it travels.detects motion in the Y direction. and the shaft spins a disk with holes in it. The rollers each connect to a shaft. The holes in the disk break the beam of light coming from the LED so that the infrared sensor sees pulses of light. . When a roller rolls. The following image shows the disk: A typical optical encoding disk: This disk has 36 holes around its outer edge. The following image shows the two white rollers on this mouse: The rollers that touch the ball and detect X and Y motion 3.

The chip sends the binary data to the computer through the mouse's cord. . 5.A close-up of one of the optical encoders that track mouse motion: There is an infrared LED (clear) on one side of the disk and an infrared sensor (red) on the other. An on-board processor chip reads the pulses from the infrared sensors and turns them into binary data that the computer can understand.

the disk moves mechanically. one on each side of the disk (so there are four LED/sensor pairs inside a mouse). It is visible in this photo: . the encoder chip detects 41 pulses of light. and an optical system counts pulses of light. So if the mouse moves 25. You might have noticed that each encoder disk has two infrared LEDs and two infrared sensors. On this mouse. In this optomechanical arrangement. You can also see the two buttons that detect clicks (on either side of the wire connector). a small processor that reads the pulses coming from the infrared sensors and turns them into bytes sent to the computer. There is a piece of plastic with a small. precisely located hole that sits between the encoder disk and each infrared sensor. This arrangement allows the processor to detect the disk's direction of rotation.The logic section of a mouse is dominated by an encoder chip.4 mm (1 inch). The encoding disk has 36 holes. The roller is 7 mm in diameter. the ball is 21 mm in diameter.

Each LED shines on to a light sensitive transistor. WORKING Open up a mouse and inside it you will find two wheels.this depends on the rotation direction.A close-up of one of the optical encoders that track mouse motion: Note the piece of plastic between the infrared sensor (red) and the encoding disk. The two emitters are spaced so that.75). Shining through the slots are two LEDs (light Emitting Diodes) shown by the black dots. That difference causes the two infrared sensors to see pulses of light at slightly different times. There are times when one of the sensors will see a pulse of light when the other does not. and vice versa." The window on one side of the disk is located slightly higher than it is on the other -. Note that LED B may be switching from light to dark or from dark to light . . to be exact. I have shown only 6 slots at 60° spacing but they are a lot closer and many more. The output voltage from the transistor is processed to switch rapidly from high to low as the LED's light is transmitted or occluded so that the voltage is low when the transistor is lit and high when it is in darkness. each one similar to the first drawing.. In my illustration the LEDs are spaced at 105° (60° x 1. This piece of plastic provides a window through which the infrared sensor can "see. The wheel is usually made of black plastic with rectangular slots punched in it. the other LED is looking at an edge and is therefore switching on or off. In the diagram LED A is fully illuminated and LED B is switching.one-half the height of one of the holes in the encoder disk. when one transistor can 'see' its LED through the centre of its window.

Here the wheel is shown in 4 different states. For clockwise rotation the states follow each other in order A-B-C-D-E from left to right but if you read the states from right to left. each 15° rotated from the last. If. then we have anticlockwise rotation. in re-wiring you get the two signals interchanged. then these correspond to anticlockwise rotation. It uses the number of transitions to measure the distance. Diagram E is equivalent to diagram A. being 60° rotated. The computer uses this fact to monitor direction: each time LED 2 goes from light to dark it samples LED 1 to determine the direction. So if we measure LED1 everytime LED 2 goes from light to dark. the mouse will simply work upside down or left to right instead of right to left. Notice that LED 2 is changing state from light to dark in diagram A for clockwise rotation and in diagram C for anticlockwise rotation. In practice the system s a little bit more clever since where are problems if the wheel stops on an edge. E-D-C-B-A. if LED 1 is light then we are rotating clockwise but if LED 1 is dark. The diagram below shows the corresponding electrical signals switching at 15° intervals.Now consider the second drawing. . Or course the two LEDs are interchangeable and it doesn't matter which one is used as the step and which as the direction.

one rotates for vertical movement and the other rotates for horizontal movement of the mouse ball.There are two such wheels. If you take your mouse to pieces you can easily see these two 'encoders'. The actual wheels have a lot more slots than I have shown. .

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