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dher de dSls djsa
n|·i ¤+·
lt<i ~-¤|< · <¤-< +n|·, ~·l¤-< ª--|
HOUSES
HOW TO REDUCE BUILDING COSTS
Laurie Baker
Foreword
A small house of his own to live in is the cherished dream of the little man in our country, whether he is a daily
labourer, a small farmer, a low paid employee in Government or other service or a pretty merchant. More often
his dream remains unfulfilled. This is mainly because of the high cost of house building. What contributes to this
high cost is not only the high cost of materials and the high rates of wages prevailing especially in our State; It
is also because of the insane craze for the so called ‘new fashions’ in house building which the large majority of
our engineers are advocating and persuading their clientele to adopt. Very often the poor house holder is at the
mercy of the ‘all knowing’ engineer and he cannot or dare not have his way as to what sort of house he really
wants. The result is that houses are built with lavish use of steel and cement and painted all over in garish
colours. It is hardly fit, to live in, because it is hot as an oven, during summer. And for this contraption the poor
man has to spend his whole fortune. Such is the picture of the house - building activity in our State at the present
time.
People have begun to realize the folly of the whole thing and are seeking ways and means of building houses
of reasonably good quality and capable of fulfilling their real needs. It is to the needs of such people that Mr.
Laurie Baker addresses himself in this small manual on low-cost housing. Mr. Baker has been in this business
of low-cost housing for nearly half a century and has acquired immense experience of indigenous house-
building techniques in various parts of India and is at the same time well versed in modern techniques also. He
is in love with Kerala architecture and building practices which according to him are eminently suited to the
climatic and other conditions of Kerala and uses locally available building material very skilfully. Unfortunately
wood which was the mainstay of Kerala houses building has now become a scarce and costly commodity so
that we have to resort to new materials and new building- techniques.
Although born an Englishman, he came to India after taking his degree in architecture and for some time
worked with Gandhiji during the pre-independence days. It must have been during those days that Mr. Baker
developed his love of the poor and the passion to serve them. He married and settled down in Kerala and has
been working as an architect and builder for the last so many years.
This small book on low cost housing is the product of his vast and varied experiences. The reader can find
out for himself how practical and earthly his observations are. One key observation that Mr. Baker has made
in this book and reiterated many times is that it is not for the engineer to decide what sort of house a man wants
to build, but it is the man who has decide what sort of house he wants and then ask the engineer to building
according to his wishes. The man who wants a house for himself must take his decision based on his real needs
and the needs of his family and not be misled by ‘fashions’ or what the other fellow round the corner of the
street has built. He then selects from out of the various alternative techniques and alternative materials, which
Mr. Baker, has discussed in this book. It is then only that the engineer has to take over the work.
The techniques which Mr. Baker has discussed in this book with suitable explanatory sketches and diagrams,
will I am sure, be found useful by the poorest of the poor as well as middle class people. I commend this to the
public of Kerala.
C. Achuta Menon
Former Chief Minister of Kerala and Chairman, COSTFORD
25-5-1986
Trichur (Kerala) India
<| z|·<
t· ~|<ni ·t- + ln( ¤|º = ·|· +| =¤-| ¤ª· =¤|-| t ¤t ~|<ni -|t l<t|÷i +| n¤<¸· t| ¤| (+ ¤|º|
l+=|-, -|t ¤| +n~|¤ ¤|n| =·+|·i +n-|·i t| ¤| l¤·· +|: ¤|º| <+|-<|· -¤|<|-· -=+| =¤-|
~¬¸·| ti ·t-| t -=+| ¤nº| +|·º| t ·|· ¤-|- n ~|- ¤|ni -·-i +in- := -·-i +in- + <| +|·º|
t ¤tn| -| ntª| n|n ~|· +·n n ntªi n¤<¸·i <¸=·| t +·n n '-¤ ¤·z|-' + n+|-, l¤-+i ¤+|n-
tn|· -¤|<|-· :¤il-¤· +·- t ¤t- ¤|· ¤-|·| ·|· +| n|ln+ '=¤a|-i' :¤il-¤· +i <¤| ¤· l-·|· t|-| t
·|· n|ln+, n+|- + ¤|· n - -| º|< ~¤-i ·|¤ ¤|lt· +· ¤|-| t ~|· - ti ~¤-| ·|ª-| -- ¤|-| t :=
¤¤t = ¤z|n|· n|t| ~|· =inº :ª-n|n t|-| t, ~|· ·|·| +| -n|n ·|÷+in ·ª| + =|·| ¤|-| ¤|-| t ªni
n ·|º¸ºi +i -·t -¤- ·|· n ·t-| <z¤|· t| ¤|-| t ·|· ¤-|-¤-|- ¤-|·| ª·i¤ ~|<ni +ª|ni +i +ª|· ¤·
~| º|÷| t|-| t +·n n ¤-n|- ªt l-n|º| +| ¤ti ~|nn t
n|ª| +| := l<º||¤ºi n¸º|-| +| ¤·|n-¸¤- ~¤ =|¤· l<º|- nª| t, ~|· ¤ ~¤-i ~=ni ¤ª·-| +| ¤¸·| +·-
+ ln( +|·ª· +<n -a| ·t t n|·i ¤+· ,|·| =ª- n+|-| ¤· lnº|i ¤t ¤ª-+ := ¤ª·- +| ¤¸·| +·-i
t >i ¤+· l¤¤n ¤-|= =|n| = +nn|ª- + ·|· ¤-|- + +|n n nª t ·||·- + ~nª~nª ltª=| n
·|· ¤-|- +i <=i -+-i+| +| --t n¤| ~-·|¤ t :=+ =|·|=|·| ~|¬l-+ -+-i+| +i ·|i --t ~-¤i
¤|-+|·i t ~=n n --t +·n n ·|· ¤-|- + -·i+| ~|· --+ l÷¤|¤-| = º||= nª|¤ t, ¤| --+ ~-=|·
+·n +i ~|¤|t¤| ~|· ~-¤ ¤l·lª·|l-¤| + n|l¤·+ t, ~|· ª·||-i¤ ·|¤- =|nªi +| +z|n -¤¤|ª +·- t
<·||·¤¤z|, n+÷i ¤| +·n n ·|· ¤-|- +| nº¤ ~|¬|· ·|i, ~¤ <n·| ¤ ntªi t| ª: t :=ln( tn -¤
=|n|- -·|| -+-i+| +| ~¤-|-| ¤÷ª|
¤+· (+ ~ª¤ ¤l·¤|· n ¤-n ¤|ª-lz|-¤ n l÷ªi n- + ¤|< ¤t ·||·- ~|( ~|· ª¤-·|-| ¤|l-- = ¤tn --t|-
+¤ ~= ª|¬i ¤i + =|·| +|n l+¤| l-lz-- ti -=i <|·|- >i ¤+· n ª·i¤| + ¤l- ¤n ~|· =¤| +i ·||¤-|
¤-¤i l¤¤|t + ¤|< n ¤t +·n n ti ¤= ª(, ¤t| l¤¤n +: =|n| = ¤ =ª- ~|· =<· n+|- l÷¤|¤-
+· ·t t, ~|· ¤-| ·t t =ª-i n|ª- + ·|·| ¤· lnº|i := ¤|ºi ¤ª-+ n --+ n¤ -¤¤ ~|· l¤l¤¬ ~-·|¤|
+| l--|÷ t ¤|a+ º|< <º| =+- t l+ --+| -¤l·¤| l+--| ·¤¤t|l·+ t ~|· lnº¸ºi = ¤÷| t (+ n¸n
¤|- l¤=+| ¤+· ¤|·¤|· <|t·|- t ·|· n|ln+ º|< := ¤|- +| l-º|¤ n l+ ¤| +=| ·|· -|t-| t, - l+
:¤il-¤· :¤il-¤· l=¤· n+|- +| º||+| ¤-|¤ ~|<ni +| ·|· ¤-|- ¤+- ~¤-i ~|· ·|·¤|n| +i ~=ni
¤ª·-| +| n<¸<-¤· ·º|-| -|lt( -= ªni-++÷ ¤| ¤|=¤÷|=i + ¤·z|-l¤n ·|·| +| <º|+· ¤t+-| -ti
-|lt( -=+ ¤|< ¤t -- -n|n ¤+l-¤+ =ª- =|n|-| ~|· -+-i+| +| -- l¤-+| >i ¤+· - := ¤ª-+
n l¤¤-- l+¤| t :=+ ¤|< ti :¤il-¤· +| +|n z|ª t|ª|
:= ¤ª-+ n =n|: -+-i+| = ª·i¤=ª·i¤ n|ª ·|i ~¤-| ¤|¤ª ~|· --+| n|·| -a| ¤|¤ª l¤z|·|+· +·n
+ n|ª| + ln( ¤t ¤ª-+ ¤t- -¤¤|ªi t|ªi
=i ~-¤- n--
·|¸-¤¸¤ nº¤n·|i, +·n, -·|| -¤·n- +|ªº¤·|÷
:· n: ¡ºº·
l·|-¸·, +·n, ·||·-
Born in Birmingham, England, in 1917, Laurie Baker studied architecture at the Birmingham School of
Architecture from where he graduated in 1937 and became an associate member of the RIBA. During the
World War II he was an anaesthetist to a surgical team in China where he also worked on leprosy control and
treatment. On his way back to England, he had to wait for about three months for a boat in Bombay. There he
met Gandhiji and was influenced by him. He decided that he would come back to India and work here. During
1945-1966, apart from his general freelance architectural practice throughout his life in India, Baker was
architect to leprosy institutions in India and 1ived and worked in a hill village in Uttar Pradesh. In 1966 Baker
moved south and worked with the tribals of Peerumede in Kerala. In 1970, he came to Trivandrum and has
since been designing and constructing buildings all over Kerala. He has served at various times as Governor of
HUDCO, on the working group on Housing of the Planning Commission, and on several expert committees at
the national and state level.
BUILDING houses is a costly business these days. A lot of the current expenditure is on unnecessary
fashionable frills and designs. Much money could be saved merely by using common sense along simple,
established, tried building practices. Every item that goes to make up a building has its cost. So always ask
yourself the question, is it necessary? If the answer is “No”, then don’t do it. The following pages attempt to
show graphically the current and often expensive ways of building. The saving on each individual item may be
small, but if you can cut down every rupee’s worth of current cost by twenty-five paise a ten thousand rupee
house can be built for rupees 7,500. In saving and cutting down costs, the choice is YOURS! Do not allow the
architect, the engineer, and the building contractor to be dictators. You tell them what you want!
n|·i ¤+· +| ¤-n ¡º¡ n ¤·ln·|n, :·n÷ n t~| ¡ºª n --t|- ¤·ln·|n ª+¸n ~|¤· ~|·+iº+-· =
ª-|-+ +i l÷ªi ¤|:, ~|· -=+ ¤|< ¤| ~|· ~|: ¤i ( + =<ª¤ ¤- <¸=· l¤z¤ ¤z + <|·|- ¤t (+ ÷|+º·i
º|ni + =|·| -i- ª(, ¤t| --t|- +·a·|ª + :n|¤ ~|· ·|+·||n +| +|n l+¤| :·n÷ ¤|l¤= ¤|- ¤+- --t
~¤- ¤t|¤ + :-¤|· + ln( ¤-¤: n -i- nti- ··+-| ¤÷| -·|i --+i ·|º ª|¬i¤i = t: := ·|º +|
-- ¤· ªt·| ~=· ¤÷| --t|- ·||·- n|º+· ~|- ~|· +|n +·- +| l-z-¤ l+¤| ¡º:··· + <|·|- >i
¤+· ª¤-·| ª¤ = ·|¤- l÷¤|¤- + =|·|=|·| +·a·|ª ~ª¤-|n| + ¤nº| ~|·+iº+º ·t := <|·|- --t|-
-·-· ¤<z| + (+ ¤t|÷i ª|¤ n +|n l+¤| ¡º·· n >i ¤+· <l-|º| + ·|-¤ +·n ª¤ ~|· --t|- ¤iªn<i
~|l<¤|l=¤| + ¤i- +|n l+¤| ¡ºº n ¤ l·|¤-<n ~|( ~|· -¤ = ¤t =|· +·n n ·|¤-| +| l÷¤|¤- ~|·
l-n|º| +| +|n +· ·t t --t|- t÷+| (·||·- =·+|· +| t|-·l=ª (÷ ~·¤- ÷¤n¤nº +|·¤|·z|-| +
=-|n+, ¤|¤-| ~|¤|ª +i ~|¤|= +nºi, ~|· ·|-¤ (¤ ·|·ºi¤ ª-· +i +: l¤z|·|a =lnl-¤| + ln( ·|i +|n
l+¤| t ¤t -z|-n :ªºiº¸¤¸º ~|¤· l÷¤|¤- + ¤|÷ =<ª¤ ·|i ·t t
~|¤+n ·|· ¤-|-| (+ ntª| +|·|¤|· t 'n|÷-' ·|·| n ¤·z|-l¤n l÷¤|¤-, ~-|¤z¤+ n|n·| ~|· ~-¤
-|nn|n ¤· ti -¤|<| º|- t|-| t ¤· ·||÷i =i ~+n ~|· +¤ =·n l-n|º| -·i+ ~¤-|+· +|¤·i ¤=| ¤-|¤|
¤| =+-| t ·|· n nª- ¤|n t·+ =|n|- +i ~¤-i (+ +in- t|-i t :=ln(, ~¤- = t·+ ¤|· ¤t =¤|n
~¤z¤ ¤¸¤ '+¤| ¤t ¤ª·i t`' ~|· ~ª· '-ti' -| -=+| :ª-n|n - +· := ¤ª-+ n ~|¤+n ¤-ln-
ntª -·i+| +i -n-|, =|¬|·º| +nº|-in l-n|º| -·i+| = +i ª: t t·+ ~nª ltª= ~|· t·+ =|n|-
n ¤-- -|t ·||÷i ti t|, ¤·- ~ª· ~|¤ t·+ ª¤¤ +| :· ¤=| ·|i ¤-| =+ -|, <= t¤|· ª¤¤ +| ·|·
+¤n ·ºº ª¤¤| n ¤-|-| =·|¤ t|ª| ~|¤ -|t -| n¸-¤ n +º|-i +· ¤-- +· =+- t +·|i ·|i
~|·l+º+º, :¤il-¤· ¤| a+<|· +| ~¤- -·¤· t|¤i - t|- < --º, ~|¤ --t ¤-|¤ l+ ~|¤ +¤| -|t- t
YOU often hear people describing houses as “Modern” or “Old fashioned” The so-called “Modern house” is
often merely fashionable but foolish, simply because it is expensive and does not take, into account the locally
available inexpensive materials or the local climatic conditions or the actual needs of the occupants. Quite often
the so-called “old fashioned” house demonstrates that the choice of building materials is important because it is
less expensive and does not use up unnecessarily material that are in short, supply needed for other uses. It also
copes effectively with weather hazards such as strong sun, heavy rain, strong winds, high humidity etc. These
two sketches typify the small “Modern house” at the top and an old fashioned one below. The modern house
is “cubist” in design and uses a lot of cement plaster & paint. The roof does not protect the walls from rain and
sun with the result that it is not very comfortable or convenient to live in. The “Old fashioned” house has a
sloping roof which quickly sheds heavy rain protects walls from getting damp and from absorbing heat from the
sun. Some of the windows have been replaced with jalis, which are cheaper and give permanent - ventilation
and light and protection or security.
~|¤ ~+=· n|ª| +| '~|¬l-+' ¤| '¤·|- ¤·z|-' + ·|·| +i --| +·- t( =-- t|ª '~|¬l-+' ·|· ~+=·
¤·z|-l¤n ~|· n¸º|-|¤¸º| t|- t ¤t ·|· ntª t|- t :-n - -| =ª-, ª·||-i¤ l-n|º| =|n|- +| :ª-n|n t|-|
t ~|· - ti ª·||-i¤ t¤|¤|-i +i ¤l·lª·|l-¤| = :-+| +|: l·z-|-|-| t|-| t ~=n n :- n+|-| +| ~¤-
¤|lz|-<| +i =--i ¤ª·-| = +|: -|-n+ ti -ti t|-| t ~+=· '¤·|- ¤·z|-' + n+|- ª·||-i¤ ~|· =ª- =|n|-
+ ¤- t|- t :-n ntª ~|· <n·| =|n|- +| +n :ª-n|n t~| t|-| t (= n+|- n|=n + ¤|lº|n ¤=
-¤-i ¬¸¤, ·||·i ¤|l·z|, -¤ t¤|, ~l¬+ -ni +| ¤·||¤+|·i cª = =|n-| +·- t
¤ªn + ¤-- ¤· (+ '~|¬l-+' ·|· ~|· <¸=·| '¤·|- ¤·z|-' +| ·|· l<º||¤| ª¤| t ~|¬l-+ ·|· ¤-|¤º n
l÷·¤-n| '·|-|+|·' t ~|· :=n ¤t- ~l¬+ =inº, -n|ªº· ~|· ¤-º +| :ª-n|n t~| t := ·|· +i ¤- (=i
-ti t ¤| -=+i <i¤|·| +| ¬¸¤ ~|· ¤|l·z| = ¤-| =+ := ¤¤t = :=n ·t-| ~|·|n<t ~|· =l¤¬|¤-+ -ti
t ¤¤l+, '¤·|- ¤·z|-' + ·|· +i ¤- cn¤| t ¤| ·||·i ¤|l·z| +| ¤·|·- ¤t| <-i t ~|· <i¤|·| +| =in- -·||
¬¸¤ +i ªni =|º|- = ¤-|-i t +¤ lº|÷l+¤| +i ¤ªt ¤· :º| +i =ª-i ¤|ni ¤-i t ¤t t¤| + ¤t|¤ +
=|·|=|·| ¤+|z| ~|· =·-|| ·|i <-i t
IF you have to build your house on a terraced site, it is less expensive to place it in the middle of
the terrace.
The lower picture: shows the extra and more costly foundation and basement wall that has to be
built if the building is near the edge of the terrace.
¤l< ~|¤+| ~¤-| ·|· l+=i -·- ª·||- ¤· ¤-|-| t -| -= +ª|· (º·=| + ¤i-|¤i- ¤-|-|
+n º|-in| t|ª|
-i- +| l-·| l<º||-| t l+ ~ª· n+|- +| +ª|· + (+ l+-|· ¤· ¤-|¤| ª¤| t -| -i¤ ~|·
<i¤|·| ¤· ¤t- ~l¬+ º|-| ~|¤ª|
IF the site is a sloping one, less excavation and less filling up is needed if you place the
building parallel to the contours, as in the upper picture, and not cutting across the
contours, as shown in the picture.
~ª· ~|¤ cn~| ¤ªt ¤· ·|i ·|· ¤-| ·t t -| ·|· +i ¤l··º|| (contour| + =n|-|-· ¤-|¤,
¤= l+ -·¤· + l-·| n l<º||¤| ª¤| t (=| +·- = º|<|: ~|· ·|·|: +i +n ¤ª·- ¤÷ªi ·|·
+| ¤l··º|| + ~|·¤|· +|º- t( - ¤-|¤
WHEN exchanging the trenches for the house foundations, labourers dig out the soil and throw it in all
directions, especially outwards. After the basement walls have been completed they then shovel all the
soil back again as infilling. If they shovel the soil inwards it will already be where it is wanted for infilling
and some of the expense of excavation and infilling will have been saved.
·|· ¤· -i¤ º||<- + ¤|< l-+ni lnº¸ºi +| n¤<¸· ~+=· ¤|t· +i ~|· ¤·+- t -i¤ +i
<i¤|· -a- + ¤|< ¤ =|·i lnº¸ºi ·|·|: + ln( ¤|l¤= -a|- t ~ª· z|ª n ti ¤t -i¤
+i lnº¸ºi +| ·|i-· ÷|n ¤t| ·|·|: + ln( -=+i ~|¤z¤+-| t|ªi, -| -== º|<|: ~|·
·|·|: + º|- n +¤ +ni ~|¤ªi
MASONS are often more concerned with the outward appearance of a stonewall than with its strength
and stability. The upper sketch shows a plan of a stonewall as it is usually built, with big flat-faced stones
on the outside while the middle of the wall is filled in with bits and pieces.
The lower plan shows how stones should be bonded, that is they dovetail in with stones on the other side
of the wall and therefore give a much stronger and more durable wall. A properly bonded stonewall
hardly needs mortar, and certainly a mud mortar is adequate, whereas the upper typical wall is not really
safe without using a cement or lime mortar.
~+=· ·|¤lnª·|i <i¤|· + ¤º-|¤- ~|· n¤¤¸-i +i ¤¤|¤ -=+i ¤|t·i l<º||¤º n -¤|<| ··l- ·º|-
t ~l¬+-· <i¤|· -·¤· ¤|n l-·| ¤=i l<º|-i t :-n ¤÷ =¤|º ¤··|· ¤|t· +| t|- t ~|· ¤i- n
¤|º ¤··|·| +i ·|·|: t|-i t -i- + l-·| n ¤··|·| +i =ti --|: l<º||: ª: t :=n ¤|t·i·|i-·i <i¤|·
+ ¤··|· (+<¸=· + º||- n ~|+· ¤·= ¤|- t :== ~l¬+ lº+|-· ~|· n¤¤¸- <i¤|· ¤--i t =ti
-·i+ = l--i ¤··|·| +i <i¤|· n ¤t- +n ª|· +i ¤ª·- ¤÷-i t :=n lnº¸ºi + ª|· = ·|i +|n
-n ¤|-| t, ¤¤l+ -·¤· +i <i¤|· =inº ¤| -¸- + ª|· + ¤ª· =·l-|- -ti ¤-ªi
=|¬|·º| -|· ¤· ·|· +i nº¤ <i¤|· º:- n|ºi ¤++i :º| +i t|-i t, ¤| ¤··|· + º+÷| +i ¡º:-
~|¬|· l·|·-i +i -i¤ ¤· lº+i t|-i t
:=+| n-n¤ t l+ ¤t| º:-i :º +i <i¤|· ¡º:- ¤|ni ¤··|· +i <i¤|· ¤· ¤ai t ¤t| ·||÷i ¤ªt ¤-
¤|-i t :=n = ¤|l·z| +| ¤|-i ·|i-· l·=-| t ~|· l--ni ¤··|· +i <i¤|· +| +n¤|· ¤-|-| t ¤ti -·¤·
+ l-·| n l<º||¤| ª¤| t
(+ ¤| <|nl¤n n+|-| + ln( -|:-i :º +i <i¤|· +| ¡º:-i ¤··|· +i -i¤ +i ¤|t·i =-t = =¤|º
·º|-| ~-¤| t :== <i¤|· = -i- lª·- ¤|n| ¤|l·z| +| ¤|-i -i¤ n -ti l·=ª|
¤t +n º|-in| ·|i t, +¤|l+ l+=i l-lz-- -|·|¤·n (n|-| :ºº¤ª ¤·iº| + +n· +| ·|·- ¤|ni ¤··|· +i
¡º:-i <i¤|· +| ~|¤-- -·¤· + l-·| n -¤|<| t|ª|
A common practice is to have the main walls of a house in 9-inch thick burnt bricks, sitting on the top
of an 18-inch random rubble (roughly shaped stones) basement and foundation.
This means that there is a step where the 9-inch wall sits on the 18-inch wall below, and rainwater
tends to seep in and weaken the lower stonewall, as shown in the upper picture.
For single and double storey houses it is better to put the outer side of 9" brick wall flush with the
outer side of the 18" stone wall so that rainwater running down the wall does not soak into the wall.
This is also less costly because the stone 18-inch wall surrounding a room of a particular area
(say 200 sq. ft.) is larger (cubic content more) in the upper drawing.
-i¤ +| +|n t l+ ¤t ·|· + =|· ·||· +| ~¤- -i- +i ¤ni- ¤· ¤·n| =+ ¤|º (+nl¤n ~|· <|nl¤n
n+|-| n ¡º:- (:·=ni| -|÷i -i¤ +| ~|¬|· ~|n-|· ¤· =·|i -·t +i lnº¸ºi + ln( ¤¤|-- t|-| t
~+=· -i¤ +i <i¤|· + -i-, -|÷i ++iº +i ¤·- +i ¤ª·- -ti t|-i (¤=| l+ -·¤· + l-·| n l<º||¤|
ª¤| t|
¤t| ¤··|· ~|=|-i = lnn-| t ¤t| =|¬|·º| ¡º:-i n|ºi ¤··|· +i -i¤, (+ ¤| <|nl¤n n+|-| +| ¤¸·|
·||· c|- + ln( +|¤·i t t|, ~ª· lnº¸ºi +n¤|· ¤| cini t| -| ~nª ¤|- t
THE object or function of the foundation is to spread out the total weight of the house over the ground
below it.
For small single and double storey houses an 18-inch (45-cm) wide foundation base is usually fully
adequate on most soils and there is not often the need for the wider concrete layer beneath the basement
wall (as shown in the upper picture).
Where stone is available, the ordinary simple 18-inch thick random rubble wall is perfectly adequate to
carry the full load of a single or double storey house unless the soil is very poor or loose or of different
consistencies.
IN some districts stone and brick is not available. But some sort of foundation is needed to carry a
mud wall above.
The foundation trench can be excavated, the soil moistened with a little, water and then replaced with
layers of bamboo reinforcement inserted, as shown in the picture.
+¤ l¤n| n ¤··|· ~|· :º -ti lnn-i t ¤·- lnº¸ºi +i <i¤|· +| ¤|n =·||n- + ln( (+ -i¤
-| -|lt( ti
(=i ¤ªt| ¤· -i¤ º||<+·, l-+ni lnº¸ºi +| ·||÷ ¤|-i = ªin| +· l¤·· l-· t( ¤|= +i ¤lº¸º¤|
+| -|-|¤|-| ¤-+· -i¤ +| ¤º-| +· ¤=| l+ l--n l-·| n l<º||¤| ª¤| t
AFTER building a house there is often little cash left over for furniture.
Built in seats, beds, work tables etc. can easily and inexpensively be had, merely by building the
basement wall to a suitable height, as shown in the lower sketch.
~+=· ·|· ¤-|- n ti =|·i ¤¸¤i ª¤|t| t| ¤|-i t ~|· ¤|< n ¤·-i-· ~|l< + ln( +¤ ¤=| -ti
¤--|
·||÷i =¸n = ~ª· ¤··|· +i -i¤ +| ·||÷| ~|· -a| l<¤| ¤|¤ -| l¤-| l+=i º|- + ¤a- + ln(
¤--, nº- + ln( -º- ~|· +|n +·- + ln( n¤ ¤- =+-i t :=+i (+ nn+ l--n l-·| n
l<º||: ª: t
SOMETIMES stone is available, but only in small irregular shaped lumps. These make a very poor wall
that usually cracks and crumbles, as in the upper picture.
Wood or metal moulds can be made of suitable sizes. (Say 12" x 8" x 6" or 12" x 6" x 4" etc.) and these
lumps are placed in the moulds and the spaces filled in with a weak lime or cement concrete. This produces
neat rectangular blocks with which walls of different thicknesses can easily be constructed.
+: (= :n|+ t ¤t| ¤··|· lnn-| -| t ¤·- ¤|º ~l-¤ln- ~|+|· + cn| + ª¤ n :-= ¤-i <i¤|·
¤t- +n¤|· t|-i t (=i <i¤|· ¤-<i ti -º+ ¤|-i t ~|· :-n <·|· ¤÷ ¤|-i t, ¤=| l+ -·¤· + l-·|
n l<º||¤| ª¤| t
:- cn| = ·n|+ ¤-|¤ ¤| =+- t n+÷i ¤| ¬|- + =|-| (¡::- x º:- x ¡·:- ¤| ¡::- x
·:- x ::-| n :- cn| +| ÷|n+· º||ni ¤ªt +| -¸- ¤| =inº + n=|n = ·|·| ¤| =+-| t :==
=<· ~|¤-|+|· ·n|+ -¤|· t|ª, l¤-= ~nª~nª n|º|:¤| +i <i¤|· ~|=|-i = ¤-|: ¤| =+-i t
IF burnt-brick is available, and if a 9-inch thick wall is required, 25% of the total number of bricks, and
of the cost of the wall, can be saved by using a “RAT-TRAP” Bond. It is simple to build, looks well,
has better insulation properties and is as strong as the ordinary solid 9-inch brick walls.
The orthodox English Bond is shown at the top, and the Rat Trap Bond below.
~ª· ¤+i :º| = -|:- n|ºi <i¤|· ¤-|-i t| -| -¸t<|-i ¤¬- (Rat-trap Bond| + ¤¤|ª = :·
¤l-z|- :º| +| ¤-|¤| ¤| =+-| t := -·t <i¤|· +i +in- +n +i ¤| =+-i t ¤t <i¤|· ¤-|-
n ~|=|- t ~|· <º|- n =<· nª-i t (=i <i¤|· ¬¸¤ ~|· ¤|l·z| = ¤t-· =·-|| +·-i t =|¬|·º|
:l·nz| ¤¬ (English Bond| -·¤· -·|| (Rat-trap Bond| -i- l<º||¤| ª¤| t
FROM a structural stability point of view, a 4.5-inch thick brick wall is often adequate for single storey
houses, and certainly for interior partition walls. An isolated straight 4.5-inch wall is weak and can fall
over, be knocked over, or can be crushed by the weight of the roof it carries. But it can be perfectly
strong and capable of carrying the load of roofs and floors if it has either thin buttresses every five or six
feet (as in the middle picture) or if recesses are created, (as in the lower picture).
Similarly corners and intersecting walls are strengthening points in a thin wall.
These recesses can be used for shelves and almirahs at almost no extra cost!
c|- +i n¤¤¸-i + º¤|n =, (+nl¤n n+|- + ln( ¤|t·i <i¤|· +i n|º|: =|c-|·:- +|¤·i t
~<· +i =|·i <i¤|·| + ln( -| =|c-|·:- +i n|º|: ¤¤|-- t|ªi (+ ~+ni, =i¬i =|c-|·:-
n|ºi <i¤|· +n¤|· t|-i t ¤| ~|=|-i = lª· =+-i t, º++· = ct =+-i t, ¤| ¤- + ·||· = ·|i
+-ni ¤| =+-i t ¤·- ¤ti =|c-|·:- +i <i¤|· ~|·|n = -·¤·i ¤-| +| ·||· -a| ¤|¤ªi, ~ª·
-=n t·+ · ¤| · ¤·iº ¤· ¤z- ((+ :º +| =t|·|| nª, ¤| <i¤|· nt·<|· º||-| + ª¤ n ¤-, ¤=|
l+ l--n l-·| n l<º||¤| ª¤| t
:=i -·t = +|- ~|· ~|¤= n lnn- ¤|ni <i¤|· (+ ¤-ni <i¤|· +| n¤¤¸- ¤-|-i t
:- º||-| +| l¤-| ~l¬+ º|- l+( º|÷ ~|· ~-n|l·¤| + ln( :ª-n|n l+¤| ¤| =+-| t
SOME-building materials are there for the using. Cut them, or dig them out and carry them to the site, and
they are ready to use. Some such materials need shaping and trimming. Others have to be processes or
manufactured into more complex materials. For example, some limestones can be used as building stones.
Burn them in a kiln and they turn into lime, which can be used with sand and water as mortar or plaster, or it
can be used as paint. By adding other ingredients and a lot of manufacturing processes and a lot of energy (or
fuel) we produce cement.
These days we use very little stone and we also now use very little lime but we are very extravagant in the use
of cement, often, as in the case of mortars and plasters, when lime would be just as effective, efficient and
serviceable and of course at a very much smaller cost.
At present, the top picture depicts, India spends a lot of money and a lot of different forms of energy to buy
and bring cement from Korea. We could save a lot of building money by only using cement when it is really
necessary. As the lower picture shows, by using lime, which we can make, simply and with little energy and
transport, on the building site itself, we could save a lot of building money.
n+|- ¤-|- +| +¤ n|n -|
:ª-n|n + ln( nª·|ª -¤|· t|-|
t ¤= -= +|º+· ¤| º|| <+·
+|¤ª·|n ¤· n ¤|¤ ~|· :ª-n|n
+· +¤ n|n (=| t|-| t l¤=
~|+|· <- ~|· =¤|·- +i ¤ª·-
t|-i t +¤ n|n (= ·|i t l¤-t
¤t- ntª ~|· ¤lºn -·i+|= ¤-|¤|
¤|-| t --t ·|º¸ºi n ¤n|- = ¤t
-¸- n ¤<n ¤|- t -¸- +| ·-
~|· ¤|-i + =|·| lnn|+· -=+|
n=|n ¤| ¤nª-· + ª¤ n -¤¤|ª
t| =+-| t -¸- n -n|n ntªi
-i¤ lnn|+· ¤¤ tn -= +:
ntªi nz|i-| = ª¤|·- t, l¤-n
c·| :¬- / -·¤| º|- t|-i t, -¤
¤|+· tn =inº lnn-| t
-·¤· + l-·| + ~-=|· ~|¤+n -¸- ~|· ¤··|· +| :ª-n|n ¤t- +n t| ª¤| t, ¤¤l+ =inº
+| tn ¬÷-n = :ª-n|n +· ·t t n=|n ~|· ¤nª-· + ln( =inº +i ¤¤|( -¸- +| :ª-n|n
---| ti +|·ª· ~|· ~-¤| t|ª|, ~|· -= ¤· º|- ·|i ¤t- +n ~|¤ª|
~|¤+n l¤<z|| = º||=+· +|l·¤| = ·||·- ¤t- =inº º|·i< ·t| t :=n l¤<z|i n<| +
=|·|=|·| ¤t- =|·i -·¤| / :¬- +i ·|i ¤·¤|<i t|-i t ~ª· tn =inº +| ¤ti :ª-n|n +· ¤t|
-=+i ~=n n ¤ª·- t, -| tn +|¤·i ¤=| ¤-| =+- t l--n l-·| + ~-=|· tn -¸- +| ~|=|-i
=, +n º|- =, ¤t- +n:¬- ~|· ¤l·¤t- = l-n|º| ª·|n ¤· ti ¤-| =+- t :== +|¤·i ¤=|
¤- =+-| t
:+|:¤|
· · · ·
~|· =i =i
ªn ¤
· · · · ·
=inº
Cement
-¸ -|
Lime
=º|i
Powdered Bricks
· -
Sand
-|+-¤· n=|n|
Rich Mix
=|n|-¤
General
¤··|· +i -i¤
For Stone Foundation / Basement
-|+-¤· n=|n|
Rich Mix
=|n|-¤
General
-|+-¤· n=|n|
Rich Mix
=|n|-¤
General
-|+-¤· n=|n|
Rich Mix
=|n|-¤
General
¤··|· +i -i¤
For Stone Foundation/Basement
1 -
- 6
1 - - 8
1 -
-
10
-
1
-
2
-
1 - 3
- 1
2
4
-
1
2 6
1
3
- 12
1
4 -
14
1
5
-
16
1
2
4
18
1
2
4 20
THIS chart shows a variety of the mixes of cement, sand, lime and surkhi (which is a finely ground burnt
clay) to give different plasters and mortars according to the function for which they are needed and
according to the cost and availability of these several ingredients.
At present cement and sand only are commonly used. This is easy to mix and use and it sets quickly.
Lime and sand can give an equally strong mortar but it takes longer to set and lime mortars have mainly
gone “out of fashion”. Similarly good strong mortars are made by adding surkhi to lime and sand. These
too are slow setting and “unfashionable”. Adding to the lime, or lime and surkhi mixes, a small amount of
cement can solve the slow setting problem. All these variations are in this table.
¤ªn + ¤-- ¤· ¤-i -|ln+| n ~nª~nª n=|n| ~|· ¤nª-·| n nª =inº, -¸-|, =º|i ~|· ¤|n¸
+| ~-¤|- l<¤| t +|- =| n=|n| +t| nªª| ~|· -=+i +¤| +in- t|ªi :=+i ·|i nn+ := -|ln+|
n lnn-i t
~|¤+n =inº ~|· ·- +| -n- ti ~l¬+ t :-t lnn|-| ~|· :ª-n|n +·-| ¤t- ~|=|- t =inº
·- +| n=|n| ¤-<i ¤n ¤|-| t -¸-·- + n=|n +i -|+- ·|i nª·|ª ---i ti t ¤·- -= ¤n-
n -¤|<| =n¤ nª-| t :=ln( -¸-·- + n=|n +| :ª-n|n ¤t- +n t| ª¤| t :=i -·t -¸- ~|·
·- n =º|i (l¤=i :º| lnn|+· ·|i ¤º-| n=|n| ¤--| t +¤|l+ ¤t ·|i ¬i·¬i· ¤n-| t :=ln(
:=+| ¤-n- ·|i nª·|ª º|·n t|-| ¤| ·t| t ¬ini ªl- = ¤n- +i nlz+n +| =º|i-¸- + n=|n
n ·||÷| =| =inº lnn|+· <¸· l+¤| ¤| =+-| t ¤t -n|n ~nª~nª n=|n := -|ln+| n l<¤ t
BRICKS are often slightly irregular in length. So even if you can get a smooth “fair face” on one side of a
wall, the other side will be lumpy and irregular. Therefore, many builders say, you must plaster the wall. But
plaster is costly (it accounts for up to 10% of the total cost of a building). Also there is the painting and
maintenance cost of plaster too.
The middle sketch and the lower plan show how the mortar can fill over the sunken ends of the brick to
produce a special fair face on the second side of the wall. Plaster is not required and a pleasing pattern has
been made. No painting and no maintenance costs.
~+=· n¤|: n :º ·||÷i ¤|ºi¤÷i t|-i t := +|·º| l--|: + =n¤ <i¤|· +i (+ =-t l-+-i, =¤|º
~|· =n-n +·- + ¤|< <¸=·i =-t ºci ~|· ~l-¤ln- t|-i t :=ln( ¤t- = a+<|· ¤nª-· +·- +|
+t- t ¤·- ¤nª-· (+ ntª| +|·|¤|· t ·|· +i +in- +| nª·|ª ¡º ¤l-z|- º|- ¤nª-· ·||¤- n ti
º|- t| ¤|-| t :=+ ~n|¤| ¤nª-· + ·º|·º||¤, ¤-|:·ª|: ¤· ·|i +|¤·i º|- t|-| t
¤i- + ~|· l--n -|·| + ~-=|· <i¤|· +i <¸=·i =-t +| =<· ~|· =n-n ¤-|- + ln( :º + <¤
t( l=· ¤· n=|n| ·|·| ¤| =+-| t := -·t ¤nª-· + ¤ª· ti (+ º|¸¤=¸·- -n¸-| ·-| ¤| =+-| t
:= ¤· - ·ª|: +| º|- t|ª| - ti ·º|·º||¤ +|
LINTELS are usually made of reinforced concrete. Steel and cement are used.
Very often a lintel is not necessary over door and window openings up to four feet in width.
Ordinary brick-on-edge, as shown in the middle picture, is all that is required.
If something stronger is necessary, a hollow arrangement of brick-on-edge, as in the lower-picture,
filled with one or two steel rods in concrete will carry very large weights of wall and roof-etc. above.
This type of lintel is less than half the cost of the orthodox reinforced concrete lintel.
~|n-|· ¤· lnº· ~|· =i =i (RCC| + ¤-- t :-n ªºin ~|· =inº +| ¤t- ¤¤|ª t|-| t ¤t- ¤|·
-|· ¤·iº ¤|n <·¤|¤| ~|· lº|÷l+¤| ¤· lnº· +i ¤ª·- ti -ti t|-i t ~|n-|· ¤· -| l=· + ¤n nªi
:º +i (+ +-|· = ti +|n -n =+-| t := ¤i- + l-·| n l<º||¤| ª¤| t
~ª· ~l¬+ -|+- +i ¤ª·- t -|, l--n l-·| +i -·t :º| +| ¤n| +· ·º|, ~|· :º| + ¤i- ¤-i -|ni
n (+<| n|t +i =l·¤| +| ++iº n ¤n| <il¤( := -·t ¤-| lnº· -·¤· +i ¤- ~|· <i¤|· + ¤|n
+| ~|=|-i = =t =+ª|
:= -·t +| lnº· ¤·¤·|ª- ~|· =i =i (RCC| lnº· + n+|¤n ~|¬i +in- n ¤- ¤|¤ª|
BRICK arches are much less costly than reinforced nicer than concrete lintels.
They are just as strong; look much can be a variety of shapes.
:º +i nt·|¤, ~|· =i =i (RCC) + lnº· l¤--i ti n¤¤¸- t|-i t, ¤· +ti ~l¬+ =ª-i t|-i t
¤t nt·|¤ <º|- n ¤t- =<· nª-i t ~|· --t ~-+ ~|+|·| n ¤-|-| =·|¤ t
THE inexpensive way of spanning a hole in a wall is the simple “corbel’ arch. Each row of bricks
projects 2.25-inches beyond the course below until the bricks meet together in the middle. No fore
work or shuttering is necessary.
This picture also demonstrates the fact that if you remove a door or a window, the whole wall will not
fall down. Probably nothing will fail at all, but if it does, the maximum will be the amount of wall within
the triangle above the frame. This triangle of bricks is, in fact, all that a lintel carries, and not the whole
wall and half the roof above it.
l+=i <i¤|· n º|ni ¤ªt +| ·|·- +| =¤= =ª-| -·i+| -= ¤· (+ =·n =i '+|·¤n' nt·|¤ ¤-|-|
t t·+ +-|· +i :º ~¤-i l--ni +-|· = =¤| <| :- ¤|t· l-+n-i t ~- n <|-| ~|· +i :º ¤i-
n lnn ¤|-i t := ¤-|- n l+=i n-|- ¤| =t|· +i ¤ª·- -ti ¤÷-i
¤t l-·| := ~=ln¤- +| -¤|ª· +·-| t l+ l+=i (+ lº|÷+i ¤| l+¤|÷ +| tº| <- = <i¤|· ctªi
-ti ~·¤n -| +¤ lª·ª| ti -ti, ~|· lª·ª| ·|i -| ~l¬+=~l¬+ l·|+|º| +n + -·¤· +i <i¤|·
lª·ªi <·~=n, lnº· +¤n l·|+|º| + ~|+|· n :º| +| ·||· n|·| =·||n-| t, - l+ ¤¸·i <i¤|· ~|· -=+
-·¤· +i ¤- +| ·||·
WINDOWS are costly. One square foot of-window can cost up to ten times the cost of the simple brick or
stone wall it replaces.
A window has varied functions - to look out of, to let light inside a room, to let in fresh air, or to let out stale air,
and so on. In many of these situations a “JALI” or “honeycombed” wall is just as effective. Far from being a lot
more costly than the basic wall, if made of brick it can be less costly than the house wall!
The bottom picture shows the simple honeycomb brick pattern. Wide vertical joints are left open and not filled
with mortar.
The pictures above show a few of many possible variations. This is an alternative to the costly window.
lº|÷l+¤| ¤t- º|-ini t|-i t (+ ¤ª ¤·º lº|÷+i +i +in- nª·|ª <= ¤ª ¤·iº :º ¤| ¤··|· +i <i¤|·
+ ¤·|¤· t|-i t
lº|÷+i + +: :ª-n|n t ¤|t· <º|- + ln¤, +n· n ¤+|z| ~|- + ln¤, -|¤i t¤| ~<· ~|- ¤| ¤|=i
t¤| ¤|t· ¤|- + ln¤ ~|l< :- =¤+ ln¤ <i¤|· n :º| +i ¤-i ¤|ni ·|i ---i ti ~=·<|· t (+ -·¤·
lº|÷+i ¤-|-| <i¤|· ¤-|- = +ti ntª| t <¸=·i ~|· <i¤|· n :º| +i ¤|ni ¤-|- = <i¤|· +i +in- ~|·
·|º ¤|¤ªi
l--n l-·| n :º| +| (+ ¤·-<|· -n¸- n =¤|¤| ª¤| t ¤|÷| +| º|n| ·º|| ª¤| t ~|· n=|n = -ti ·|·|
ª¤| t
-·¤· + l-·|| n ¤t- =|·i =·||¤-|~| n = +¤ ti l<º||: ª: t lº|÷l+¤| +i ¤ªt :º| +i ¤-i ¤|ni +|
~¤-|-| +ti ~l¬+ ¤t-· ~|· =ª-| t
THESE two sketches show how jails can replace windows.
The cost of the lower house is very much lower than that of the top house.
:- <|-| l-·|| n ¤t l<º||¤| ª¤| t l+ l+= -·t lº|÷l+¤| +i ¤ªt :º +i ¤|ni n =+-i t
-·¤· ¤|n ·|· + n+|¤n n l--n| ·|· ¤t- ~l¬+ =ª-| t
THERE are a number of building items, which are meant for a specific use but which we can also use
to cut down costs.
The common split stone post can be used as a lintel, as brackets to carry wall shelves or tables or
slabs, or as security posts instead of steel bars and grills
·|¤- l-n|º| + +: (= =|n|- t l¤-+ +: ¤+l-¤+ :ª-n|n t :-t <¸=·i ¤ªt :ª-n|n +·+ +in- n +¤
+ni n|: ¤| =+-i t
ln=|n + ln(, ¤··|· + º|-¤| +| lnº· + ª¤ n, -|º|º +i -·t, º|÷ ¤= -¤¤|ª l+¤| ¤| =+-| t lº|÷+i
n n|t + =iº|-| +i ¤ªt ·|i :-t nª|¤| ¤| =+-| t
WHEN a window is a necessity it is quite a costly item as shown in the top right-hand corner.
The simplest window consists of a vertical plank set into two holes (or pivot hinges), one at the top and
one at the bottom. The traditional design consists of two short wood pieces with a circular hole in each,
and the vertical shutter has two small round protrusions (as shown on the left) to fit into the-holes. Only
a nine-inch wide hole is necessary for the ‘window’.
This is strong, simple, inexpensive, very little labour, no iron mongery, lets in light and air and provides
security
¤¤ lº|÷+i + ¤ª· ª¤|·| ti - -n, -¤ -| -= nª|-| ti ¤÷ª| ¤· ¤=| l+ -·¤·i <|¤ l-·| n l<º||¤|
ª¤| t, lº|÷+i nª|-| (+ ntª| +|n t
=¤= =·n lº|÷+i (+ n+÷i + -º- = ¤--i t ¤t ¤-n| -·¤·-i- +i -|º|º + (+(+ ¤<
n ¤a-| t ¤·¤·|ª- l÷¤|¤- n -·¤·-i- +i -|º|º| n (+(+ ¤< t|-| t, ~|· n+÷i + º|÷ ¤-n
n -·¤·-i- (+(+ lª-ni t|-i t, ¤| ¤<| n ¤a-i t lº|÷+i + ln( +¤n (+ -|:- -|÷i ln·i
ti ¤¤|-- t
¤t (+ n¤¤¸-, ~|=|- ~|· +nº|-ini lº|÷+i t :=n n|t ~|· nt-- <|-| +i ti ¤-- t ¤t
lº|÷+i ¤+|z| ~|· t¤| ~<· ~|- <-i t ~|· =·-|| ¤<|- +·-i t
DOOR frames cost a lot of money and are often not actually necessary.
This picture shows how planks can be screwed together by strap iron hinges to form a door,
and this can be carried by “hold-fasts” built into the wall, thus eliminating the outer door frame
altogether.
<·¤|¤| ~|· -|º|º ¤t< ntªi t|-i t ~+=· -| :- -|º|º| +i +|: ¤ª·- ti -ti t|-i l-·| n
n+÷i + +: ¤º·| +| ~|¤= n (+ n|t +i ¤º¸ºi = ¤|÷+· <·¤|¤| ¤-|¤| ª¤| t <·¤|¤| <i¤|·
n ¬= n|t + +·¤| ¤· ·|¸n-| t :=n n+÷i +i -|º|º +i ¤ª·- ti -ti t
THE door shutter itself is costly because it uses a lot of wood and quite a lot of costly labour.
The simplest door is made of vertical planks held together with horizontal (sometimes diagonal) battens.
<·¤|¤ +| ¤-n| +|¤·i ntª| t|-| t :=n n+÷i + =|·|=|·| nt-- ·|i º|¸¤ =|·i nª-i t
=¤= =·n <·¤|¤| º|÷ ¤º·| ¤· <| ~|÷ ¤·º¸º| +| +in| = a|++· ¤-|¤| ¤|-| t +·|i+·|i ~l¬
+ n¤¤¸-i + ln( (+ l-·¤| ¤·º¸º| ·|i a|+| ¤|-| t
ALMOST every sort of floor has to have solid base under it.
Fill the basement with sand or soil at an early stage it will get trampled down solid as work is done
above it.
After the roof is on, collect all the broken brickbats side by side, touching each other, on the rammed
earth.
Mix a small, heap of sand and lime on top of the bricks then spread it out and brush it in so that it fills
the cracks.
t·+ ¤·z| + -i- (+ a|= ~|¬|· t|-| (+<n ¤ª·i t ~|¬|· +| z|··~|- n ti ¤|n¸ ¤| lnº¸ºi
= ·|· <il¤¤ ¤=¤= n|ª -= ¤· -nª ¤| ~¤- ~|¤ +-n +· a|= t| ¤|¤ªi ¤- ¤- ¤|-
+ ¤|< =·|i :º| + º+÷| +| :+º¸a| +· --t ~ªn¤ªn (+<¸=· +| ¤¸-| t~| ¤ai t: ¤ni-
¤· =¤| < :º| + -·¤· ¤|n¸ ~|· -¸- +i (+ c·i lnn|¤ l¤·· := ¤·n| +· =|·i <·|· ·|·
:= ~|¬|· ¤· l+=i ·|i ¤+|· +| ¤·z| =¤·n-|¤¸¤+ nª|¤| ¤| =+-| t
THESE pictures show the DEEP PIT LATRINE, which is effective in all but very rocky sites.
There is a pit about 3 feet in diameter and as deep as you can dig it.
A reinforced concrete filler slab with a latrine pan set into it (and a hole for a vent pipe) is placed above
the hole or Pit. If the soil is sandy or loose the top 2 or 3-feet of the pit is lined with a 4.5-inch brick wall
(or a well ring will do).
A screen wall and a vent pipe are built above the latrine slab.
:- l-·|| n ªt· ª÷¸c ¤|n| z||-|n¤ l<º||¤| ª¤| t ¤t- ¤·|·in :n|+| +| ¤|÷+· := nª·|ª =·|i ¤ªt
¤-|¤| ¤| =+-| t
:=n -i- ¤·iº ·¤|= +| ª÷¸c| t|-| t ª÷¸c| ~|¤ l¤--| ªt·| -|t º||< =+- t
(+ ++iº (RCC| +| ¤lº¤| l¤=n z||- +| -=n| ~|· (+ l-+|=i +| ¤|:¤ nª| t| ª÷¸c + -·¤·
·º|| ¤|-| t ~ª· lnº¸ºi cini ~|· ¤|n: t| -| ª÷¸c n -|·| ~|· =|c -|· :- n|ºi <i¤|· ¤-|¤ :=+
ln( +( +| l·ª ·|i -nª|
(+ ¤<-n| ~|¬i :º +i <i¤|· ~|· ª= ¤|:¤, z||-|n¤ + -·¤· ¤-| <
ANYONE who can use a saw and a hammer can put together a simple, strong roof of timber over
rooms up to 12-feet (3.65-metres) wide. Three pieces of wood are nailed together and this simple
“trussed rafter” sits directly on top of any wall.
No wall plates and no ridge-poles are necessary.
The traditional timber roofs were beautiful but often quite elaborate, and extravagant with the use of
wood and called for a lot of skill.
+|: ·|i ·¤l+- ¤| ~|·i ~|· t·||÷| :ª-n|n +·-| ¤|--| t| ¤t- ~|=|-i = ¤|·t¤·iº -|÷ +n· ¤·
¤- ¤| =+-| t :=n -i- n+÷i + ¤·-| +| ~|¤= n a|++· (+ +-i ¤-|-i t|ªi ¤t +-i <i¤|·
¤· ¤aªi :- +l-¤| + ln( ~|· l+=i -·t +i º+ +i ¤ª·- -ti ¤÷-i t
¤·¤·|ª- n+÷i +i ¤- <º|- n =<· nª-i t, ¤·- --n ¤t- -¤|<| n+÷i nª-i ·|i --+| ¤-|-
n ·|i -¤|<| +|·iª·i nª-i ·|i, ¤| ~¤ ntªi ~|· <n·| t|-i ¤| ·ti t
TIMBER is becoming too scarce and costly. Galvanised iron and asbestos-cement sheets use less
timber, but iron rusts and is very hot to live under while those who work in asbestos factories an who
live and work under asbestos-cement roofs tend to develop lung cancer, so we should discourage its
manufacture and use. Reinforced cement concrete slabs are very costly and use a lot of iron and
cement.
As there is quite a lot of unnecessary concrete in an orthodox RCC slab we can replace some of
this redundant concrete with any light weight-cheap materials in order to reduce the overall cost of the
slab. This alternative RCC roof is called a FILLER SLAB. For fillers we can use lightweight bricks,
or Mangalore or country tiles etc. This will reduce the cost of the orthodox RCC slab by about 30 or
35%. As roofs and intermediate floors account for 20 to 25% of the total cost of a house, the saving
by using a Filler slab is considerable.
The top picture shows how two waste Mangalore tiles together form an excellent light weight filler,
and how they are placed between the steel reinforcement rods, creating a grid of RCC ribs or beams.
The lower picture shows a section through the slab.
n|t ~|· (=¤ªº==inº +i -|<·| = ¤-i ¤-|
n +n n+÷i nª-i t nl+- n|t| ¤ª ¤+÷
n-| t, ~|· ºi- +i ¤- ªln¤| n ¤t- -¤-i t
(=¤ªº= +i º|<|-| ~|· +|·º||-| n +|n +·-
¤|n n¤<¸· ~|· (=¤ªº==inº +i ¤-| + -i-
·t- ¤|n| +| ¤·¤·÷| +| +=· t|- +| ~<z||
·t-| t :=iln( (=¤ªº= +i -|<·| +| ¤-|-|
ti (+<n +n +·-| -|lt( ++iº = cni ¤-
¤t- ntªi t|-i t, ~|· --n n|t| ~|· =inº ·|i
¤t- nª-| t
¤·¤·|ª- ~|· =i =i (RCC| +i ¤-| n ¤ª·- = -¤|<| ++iº :ª-n|n t|-| t ¤- + ªn¤ +i +in-
+| +n +·- + ln( tn ¤·|n-¸ + ++iº + +¤ ltª= +i ¤ªt +¤ t-+|¤·-+| n|n ·|· =+- t
:= +n n|ª- + ~|· =i =i (RCC| ªn¤ +i ¤- +| 'l¤·n· ªn¤' +t- t ·|·|: + +|n n t-+i
:º, nªn|·i ¤| <=i º|¤·n (º|:-=| ~|l< :ª-n|n l+¤ ¤| =+- t := ·|·|: = ++iº + ªn¤ +i
+in- n ªºª· ¤l-z|- +i +ni ~| ¤|¤ªi ¤-| ~|· ¤i- + ¤·z|| ¤· ·|· + ¤¸· n¸-¤ +| +|: :º:·
¤l-z|- º|- ~|-| t := -·t +|¤·i ¤=| ¤- =+-| t
-·¤· + l-·| n l<º||¤| ª¤| t l+ <| ¤+|· nªn|·i º|:-= +| (+<¸=· ¤· ·º|+· l+= -·t ¤- +i
·|·|: + +|n n|¤| ¤| =+-| t :- º|:-= +| n|t +i =l·¤| = ¤- -|-¤|- + ¤i- ·º|| ¤|-| t
¤i- + l-·| n ªn¤ +| (+ +º|- l<º||¤| ª¤| t
IN districts where there is good strong mature bamboo available, the steel reinforcement rods in
conventional reinforced cement concrete can be replaced by bamboo. This is possible because the
tensile strength of some good types of bamboo is very similar to that of steel rods.
The only disadvantage is that it needs experience to know which is a “good” bamboo that will not
rot away, and as each bamboo varies in quality from other bamboos; it is not possible to calculate
with accuracy the strength of a slab.
However, the bamboo system is perfectly adequate and “safe” for small roofs, sleeping lofts,
shelves, benches, work tables, stair treads.
The top sketch is a full size section through a slab; the lower one shows how split bamboo strips
are wired together to form the necessary reinforcement in a concrete slab.
(= :n|+| n ¤t| ~-¤, ¤+ ¤|= lnn- t, ¤t| ++iº ªn¤ n n|t +i =l·¤| +i ¤¤|( ¤|= :ª-n|n
l+¤| ¤| =+-| t ¤t :=ln( nnl+- t, +¤|l+ +¤ ~-¤ ¤+|· + ¤|=| +i n¤¤¸-i n|t +i =l·¤|
l¤--i t|-i t
¤· ¤|= + :ª-n|n n ·||÷ ~-·|¤ +i ¤ª·- t :=+ ln( ¤t n|n¸n t|-| ¤ª·i t, l+ +|- =|
¤|= ~-¤| t ~|· ¤-<i =÷ª| -ti ~|· +¤|l+ t·+ ¤|= + ªº| (+<¸=· = ~nª t|ª, :=ln(
ªn¤ +i n¤¤¸-i +| l-lz-- ~-n|- ·|i nª|-| =·|¤ -ti t|ª| ¤|= + ¤¤|ª = ¤|ºi ¤-, =|- +i
~º|·i, -º-, ¤--, +|n +·- +i n¤, =ici ~|l< +| n¤¤¸- ~|· =·l-|- ¤-|¤| ¤| =+-| t -·¤·
+ l-·| n ªn¤ +| +º|- l<º||¤| ª¤| t l--n l-·| n ¤·º ¤|= +i ¤lº¸º¤| +| ~|¤= n -|· = ¤|¬
+· ++iº ªn¤ +i n¤¤¸-i + ln( -|-|¤|-| -¤|· l+¤| ª¤| t
A good nature bamboo can also be split in half and used as a permanent shuttering for reinforced
cement concrete ribs between brick units (three burnt bricks previously joined together with mortar to
form a small slab). This is a rural version of an orthodox reinforced brick slab (RBC).
¤t| ¤· ª|¤ + n+|- +i (+ ¤- l<º||: ª: t :=n ¤tn -| -i--i- :º| +| ~|¤= n n=|n
= ¤|÷+· ¤|º¤|º = ªn¤ -¤|· l+( ¤|- t (+ ~-¤ ~|· ¤+ ¤|= +| ¤i- n = <| ltª=|
n ¤·|÷| ¤|-| t ¤|= + :- º+÷| +| ª·||¤i -|· ¤· <| :º| + ªn¤| + ¤i- n ++iº +i ¤ºl·¤|
¤= nª|¤| ¤|-| t
MODERN houses with no overhanging roof, as in the upper picture, allow the walls to absorb rain
and heat from the sun. The upper parts of the rails also quickly look ugly because moss and fungus
develops.
If roofs extend over the walls, as in the “old fashioned” houses, they protect the walls from heat and
fungus.
In practice this means that “Modern” house walls need to be plastered and painted (thus adding
considerably to the cost) while houses with good overhanging roofs remain dry and cool and plaster
and paint are not necessary.
~|¬l-+ ·|·| +i ¤- -¤|<| ~|ª +| -ti l-+ni t|-i t := +|·º| <i¤|·, ¤·=|- +| ¤|-i ~|· =¸·¤
+i ¬¸¤ =|º|-i t <i¤|· + -·¤·i ltª=| ¤· ¤-<i ti +|: ~|· ¤·¤·¸< -ª ~|-i t, ¤| l+ <º|- n ·|<¸<i
nª-i t
¤·|- ¤·z|- ¤|n ·|·| n ¤- <i¤|· + +|¤·i ~|ª -+ l-+ni t: t|-i ·|i (=i ¤- <i¤|· +| ¤|l·z|,
¬¸¤ ~|· ¤·¤·¸< = ¤-|-i ·|i
:=+| n-n¤ ¤t t~| l+ '~|¬l-+' n+|-| +i <i¤|·| +| ¤|t· = ¤nª-· ~|· ¤º +·-| ¤÷-| t :=
¤· +|¤·i º|-| ~| ¤|-| t ¤¤l+ ~|ª l-+ni ¤-| ¤|n n+|- =¸º| ~|· a÷ ¤- ·t- t --t ¤|t·
= ¤nª-· ~|· ¤-º +·- +i ¤ª·- ·|i -ti ¤÷-i t
ARCHITECTS, designers and builders put a lot of little “extras” on to their buildings to make them,
they think, look “nice” or look “fashionable”, or to “compete” with neighbouring buildings. Usually
these gimmicks serve no useful purpose and merely add unnecessarily to the cost of the building.
Most materials have their own special characteristics and if used honestly and simply they contribute
to the “looks” of a building merely from their colour, their texture and the patterns formed by joining
them together. There is no need to cover them over with costly finishes. Let a brick wall look like a
brick wall and a stone wall should look like a stone wall. Concrete should look like concrete and not be
plastered or painted to look like marble.
A common foolish practice, which is costly and deceitful as well as stupid, is to build a brick wall,
scrape out the joints, plaster it all over with cement plaster and then paint on it lines and rectangles to
make it look like a brick wall!
If you do this sort of thing you deserve to have to pay 10% more for your house than your sensible
neighbour who builds a good brick wall and enjoys the look of it.
~|·+iº+º, l÷¤|¤-· ~|· a+<|· n+|-| n ¤+|· ~|· ¤·|n-¸ +| +|¤·i -|nn|n nª|- t --t nª-|
t l+ -|nn|n = n+|- +i z||·|| ¤cªi ~|· ¤t ¤÷|=i + n+|- = -¤|<| ¤·z|-l¤n l<º|- nªª|
¤·- -¤|<|-· -|nn|n nª|- = +¤n n+|- +i +in- ti ¤c-i t
t·+ n|n ¤= ¤··|·, :º, =inº +i ~¤-i +¤ l¤z|·|-|¤ t|-i t ~ª· --t :n|-<|·i = ¤¤|ª l+¤|
ª¤| t| -| ·|· + l<º||¤ n --+ ·ª, =-t ~|· ¤|÷| + -n¸-| = ti -|· -|< nª =+- t --t ntª
¤nª-·, ·ª·|ª- ~|l< = c+- +i ¤ª·- -ti t :º +i <i¤|· +| :º +i <i¤|· ¤=i ti l<º|- <
~|· ¤··|· +i <i¤|· +| ¤··|· ¤=| ti l<º|- < ++iº +| ++iº ti l<º|- < ~|· -= ¤· l¤·¤¸n +|
¤nª-· - +· ~|· - ti -= ¤· ·ª +·+ -= =ªn·n· ¤-|- +i +|lz|z| +·
:== ~l¬+ º|-in| -·i+| ~|· ¤¤+¸¤·i ~|· +¤| t| =+-i t l+ =¤= ¤tn -| ~|¤ (+ ~-¤i :º
+i <i¤|· ¤-|¤, l¤·· -= =inº = ¤nª-· +·, ~|· ~- n ·ª = =inº +i <i¤|· ¤· :º -n| n|:-
~|· ~|¤- ¤|-, l¤== ¤| <¤|·| :º = ¤-i <i¤|· ¤=| l<º|- nª
~ª· ~|¤ (=i l¤·¤¸nº|-i +·- t -| ~|¤+| n+|- ¤ª· ¡º ¤l-z|- ntª| ¤÷ª| :== -¤|<| t|lz|¤|·
-| ~|¤+| ¤÷|=i t ¤| ¤= (+ :º +i ~-¤i <i¤|· ¤-|-| t ~|· -= l-t|·-| t
COMMON money wasters are the little sunshades of reinforced concrete and plaster over windows
and doors. A good roof overhang would have served the purpose better. Sometimes you see the roof
overhang AND a sunshade immediately beneath it!
Very often there is not only the thin concrete slab which forms the canopy or sunshade and then, for
no good reason, a little nine inch high parapet wall is added all round the outer edge of the sun shade
and a little spout or pipe is inserted to let out water which will accumulate. All this means money and
trouble. Don’t do it.
<·¤|¤| ~|· lº|÷l+¤| + -·¤· ~|· =i =i (RCC| ~|· ¤nª-· + ¤-¤ ¤-|-| l¤·¤¸nº|-i +i (+
~|n ln=|n t <i¤|· + ¤|t· nº+-i ¤- := +|n +| ¤t-· +·-i t +·|i+·|i -| ~|ª l-+ni ¤-
+ (+<n -i- ¤-¤| <º|- +| lnn-| t
+·|i+·|i -| ++iº + ¤-¤| + -|·| ~|· n|ª -|:- -·-i n÷· ·|i ¤|¬ <- t ~|· -=n = ¤|-i
l-+|n- + ln( (+ ¤|:¤ ·|i ·|=| <- t ¤|t ·i ~+n: ¬¸¤ ~|· ¤|-i = ¤-- + ln( ¤-¤| ¤-¤|
º|< (+ ¤|ºi =i ¤|-i +i º+i ¤- ª¤|:
:- =¤ n ¤=| +i l¤·¤¸nº|-i ~|· ¤·¤|<i t (=| - +·
THE top right hand picture shows one of the currently fashionable reinforced concrete gimmicks
beloved by Engineers and Fancy Architects. Beams unnecessarily protrude and are often doubled,
and spaces between the RC columns and fitted with sloping slabs of concrete, which are costly and
collect dirt and dust.
In 99 cases out of a 100 a complete reinforced concrete frame structure is totally unnecessary for
ordinary houses or apartments up to three storeys high. Ordinary 9-inch brick walls (etc.) are perfectly
adequate to be used as load bearing walls and can well carry the load If floors and roofs without any
necessity for RC columns. These latter are merely an extra expense.
:- l-·|| n l<º||¤| ª¤| t l+ l+= -·t <i¤|· + -|·| ~|· ¤-| ¤-¤| <i¤|· +i lt¤·|¤- +·-| t
-·¤·i ¤|¤ t|·| +| l-·| ~|¤+n + ~|¬l-+ ~|· ¤·=i l÷¤|¤- +·- ¤|n :¤il-¤·| + l<n|ª +i -¤¤
t :=n ¤t< l¤·¤¸nº|-i t :=n z|t-i· ¤|t· +| l-+ni t, ~|· ~+=· <|t·i t :-n c|n¸ ++iº +
ªn¤ nª t, ¤| ¤t< ntª t ~|· -- ¤· +¤n ª< ~|· ¬¸n :+º¸ai t|-i t
ºº¤l-z|- -i-nl¤n ¤|n n+|-| n ~|· =i =i (RCC| ¤|l- n|t ~|· ++iº + c|- +i ¤ª·-
ti -ti t|-i t =|¬|·º| º:- +i <i¤|· ~|·|n = -·¤· +i ¤-| ~|· ¤·z|| +| ·||· =t =+-i t :=+
ln( ~|· =i =i (RCC| + º|-¤| +i ¤ª·- -ti t :-= +¤n º|-| ¤c-| t
SMALL flat-roofed boxes in long rows absorb a lot of heat from the sun, as seen in the upper
sketch.
Pitched roofs absorb less heat and of course still less heat is absorbed if fruit shade trees are
grown on the south and west side of houses, the houses are very much more comfortable to
live in.
¤=| l+ -·¤· ¤|n l-·| n l<º|-| t l+ +-|·| n ¤- =¤|º ¤- ¤|n ¤|º ·|· =¸·¤ +i -¤|<|
ªni =|º|- t
cn~| ¤- +n ªni =|º|-i t ¤l< ·|·| + <l-|º| ~|· ¤lz-n n +¤ ¤·n<|· ~|· ¤|¤|<|· ¤÷
nª| l<( ¤|¤ -| ·|· a÷| ~|· ~|·|n<t t|ª|
THE greatest building need in India is to provide houses for between twenty and thirty million homeless
families.
If we are to build them at all we must of necessity make all the economies we can.
Government and other building organisations charge “Establishment Charges” which pay for the top-
heavy infrastructures, such as their own office blocks, staff, transport facilities etc.
Not enough money remains to buy materials and pay for simple labour to put up 20 million small simple
houses.
·||·- n n+|-| +i =¤= =º- ¤ª·- -- :ª +·|÷ ¤l·¤|·| +| t ¤| (+<n ¤·|· t ~ª· tn :-
·|·| +| ¤-|-| t -| tn --+i l-n|º| +in- n -¤|<| = -¤|<| +ni +·-i ¤÷ªi =·+|·i l÷¤|ºnº ~|·
~-¤ =ªa- ¤| ·|· ¤-|- + +|n n nª t ¤| º|< ~¤- -·¤· ¤t- ~l¬+ º|-| +·- t ~|l¤·=
+| º|-, -·-i --º¤|t ¤|n :¤il-¤·, ¤i¤+|· ~|l< +i ¤¤t = --+ º|- ¤t- -¤|<| t|- t
=·+|· + ¤|= :+·|÷ =ª-, ¤|º ·|·| + ln( =|n|- º|·i<- ~|· n¤<¸·i <- + ln( ¤= -ti t
IN place of these costly complex organisations we need to isolate this simple, single-track goal and use
the minimum infrastructure: to get this one big task of putting up 25 million houses.
Instead of duplicating these big costly organisations all over the country, we need one first class
administrator-planner at the top - not an architect nor an engineer but a first rate business manager. At his
fingertips must be teams of “buyers” to locate and assemble local, plentifully available in expensive
materials on the sites where these 25 million houses will be built. Again these trained “buyers” will not be
architects or engineers. There will be surveyors to peg out sites and buildings, accountants to pay for
materials and labour on the spot, and of course 99.9% of our new establishment consists of masons and
labourers. No high rise offices, no vans and cars, only a few jeeps and lorries. No contractors and no
engineers.
All we really need is land, and money for materials and manpower, to get 25 million houses built
quickly, efficiently and beautifully.
¤t =·+|·i, ¤lºn ~|· ntª =ªa- +·|i ·|i c|:+·|÷ n+|- -ti ¤-| ¤|¤ª := nt|- n-¤ +| ¤¸·|
+·- + ln( tn (+ (=i ·¤¤ª·|| ¤-|-i t|ªi ¤| +n º|-ini t| ~|· ¤| := +|n +| +|·ª· cª =
¤¸·| +· =+ =|· <z| n tn :- ¤÷ ~|· ntª =ªa-| +i -+n -ti +·-i -|lt( :=n ~¤·=·, :¤il-¤·
~|· ~|·+iº+º +i ¤¤|( ¬¬ +| =nn- ¤|n| (+ +z|n ¤z||=+ t|-| -|lt( := ¤+|z|+ +| -- =|·i
º|ln¤| + ¤- n|n¸n t|ª, ¤| n|+| ¤÷- ¤· ª·||-i¤, =ª- n|n = ¤t +nn|ª- + c|:+·|÷ ·|· ¤|¬
=+ª ¤t º|ln¤| :¤il-¤·| ~|· ~|·+iº+º| +i -ti t|ªi :- º|ln¤| n -|¤-, n|:- n|·- + ln( +¤
=¤¤· ~|· n|n º|·i<i ~|· n¤<¸·i +| ¤nº <- + ln( +¤ nz|i ·|i t|ª ¤· :- º|ln¤| n ºº¤l-z|-
·|¤lnª·|i ~|· n¤<¸· ti t|ª :=+ ln( - ti l+=i ntª <+-· ~|· - ti l+=i ª|÷i+|· +i ¤ª·-
t|ªi +¤ ¤i¤ ~|· º+ ~¤z¤ nªª ~=n n tn ¤ª·- t ¤ni- +i ~|· n|nn¤<¸·i + ln( ¤¸¤i
+i -¤ tn ¤-<i ti :- c|: +·|÷ =<· ·|·| +| ¤-| ¤|¤ª
Inexpensive Expensive
Foundation &
Basement
Mud with
Bamboo
Reinforcement
R
Stone in
Mud
RR
Stone in
Lime or
Cement
Plaster
RRR
Brick in
Cement
Mortar on a
Concrete
Base
RRRRR
Stone in
Cement
Mortar on a
Concrete
Base
RRRRR
Main
Walls
Mud Pies,
Roly-Poly
Compressed
Blocks
R
Laterite or
Stone in Mud
and Pointed
RR
Brick in Mud
and Cement
Pointing
RRR
Brick in
Cement or Lime
Mortar
RRRR
Cement
and other
fancy blocks
in Cement
RRRRR
Mortar
Mud
R
Lime and
Sand
RR
Lime and
Surkhi and
Sand
RRR
Lime and
Cement and
Sand
RRRR
Cement and
Sand
RRRRR
Plaster
and Wall
Finishes
No
Plaster
Zero
Lime
Wash over
Brick or Mud
R
Earth, Dung
and lime
RR
Lime
Cement and
Sand
RRRR
Cement
and Sand
RRRRR
Door and
Window
Frames
No Frame
Zero
Country
Wood
RRR
Jack Fruit
Tree, other
woods etc.
RRR
Metal
Frames
RRRR
RC
Frames
RRRRR
Door and
Window Shutters
Brick Jali
Zero
Single
Plank
R
Board and
Baton
RRR
Wood
Panels
RRRR
Glass and
Wood Panels
RRRRR
Flooring
Lime and
Surkhi over
brickbats
R
Cement
Plaster over
brickbats
RR
Burnt clay
tiles over
brickbats
RRR
Black or Red
oxide and
Cement Plaster
over Concrete
RRRR
Mosaic
over concrete
RRRRR
Floor
between two
stories
Plank over
timber joists
RR
RCC filler
slab
RR
Double
Funicular Shell
on Ribs
RR
Various
Prefab Units
RRR
RCC Slab
RRRRR
Roofing
Thatch on
bamboo
R
Mangalore
tile on timber
RRR
RCC filler
slab
RRR
Various
Prefab Units
RRRR
RCC slab
RRRRR
=ª-|
n tª|
-i¤ ~|· ~|¬|·
¤|= ,|·| ·i:¤·|ª÷
lnº¸ ºi
·
lnº¸ºi = l--
¤··|·
· ·
-¸- ¤| =inº =
l-- ¤··|·
· · ·
=inº = l--i :º
++iº + ~|¬|·
¤·
· · · ·
=inº = l--
¤··|· ++iº ~|¬

· · · · ·
nº¤ <i¤|·
lnº¸ºi +
n|<| = ¤-i
·
lnº¸ºi = l--
¤··|·| ¤· =inº
+i ºi¤
· ·
lnº¸ºi n l--i :º|
n -·¤· = =inº
+i ºi¤
· · ·
=º|i-¸- ¤| =inº
=
l--i :º
· · · ·
=inº = ¤- ~-¤
ntª ·n|+=
· · · · ·
ª|·| ¤| n=|n|
lnº¸ ºi
·
-¸-| ~|· ·-
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ON the opposite page is an OPTION TABLE. It is by no means exhaustive, but it shows from top
to bottom the various main units in a house the foundations, the walls, the doors, the roof and so on.
From side to side it shows the various alternatives for each building unit. The simplest and least
expensive ideas are on the left increasing to the expensive method on the right. The letter R at the top
right hand corner of each square represents RUPEES. One R is a small amount while five RRRRR’s
means “expensive” Obviously rate and price vary from place to place and from one period in time to
another so we can only indicate which item are likely to be expensive and which are not.
The important word is “OPTION”. The choice of materials, techniques etc, is YOURS! You are not
bound to choose one whole column on the left - or one column on the right. You make your choice in
each horizontal line. If extra funds are available you can choose a little from the right. Your land may be
so bad, that you must choose RRRR for your foundation, but then your main walls need only be R. You
may cut out windows’ and go in for jali, in which case there is no ‘R’ in the window column! And so on.
What must be understood is that we cannot build 25 million houses if our choices come from the right
hand side columns!
25 MILLION FAMILIES
WITHOUT HOMES!
REDUCE BUILDING COSTS
AND BUILD THEM NOW!
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Foreword A small house of his own to live in is the cherished dream of the little man in our country, whether he is a daily labourer, a small farmer, a low paid employee in Government or other service or a pretty merchant. More often his dream remains unfulfilled. This is mainly because of the high cost of house building. What contributes to this high cost is not only the high cost of materials and the high rates of wages prevailing especially in our State; It is also because of the insane craze for the so called ‘new fashions’ in house building which the large majority of our engineers are advocating and persuading their clientele to adopt. Very often the poor house holder is at the mercy of the ‘all knowing’ engineer and he cannot or dare not have his way as to what sort of house he really wants. The result is that houses are built with lavish use of steel and cement and painted all over in garish colours. It is hardly fit, to live in, because it is hot as an oven, during summer. And for this contraption the poor man has to spend his whole fortune. Such is the picture of the house - building activity in our State at the present time. People have begun to realize the folly of the whole thing and are seeking ways and means of building houses of reasonably good quality and capable of fulfilling their real needs. It is to the needs of such people that Mr. Laurie Baker addresses himself in this small manual on low-cost housing. Mr. Baker has been in this business of low-cost housing for nearly half a century and has acquired immense experience of indigenous housebuilding techniques in various parts of India and is at the same time well versed in modern techniques also. He is in love with Kerala architecture and building practices which according to him are eminently suited to the climatic and other conditions of Kerala and uses locally available building material very skilfully. Unfortunately wood which was the mainstay of Kerala houses building has now become a scarce and costly commodity so that we have to resort to new materials and new building- techniques. Although born an Englishman, he came to India after taking his degree in architecture and for some time worked with Gandhiji during the pre-independence days. It must have been during those days that Mr. Baker developed his love of the poor and the passion to serve them. He married and settled down in Kerala and has been working as an architect and builder for the last so many years. This small book on low cost housing is the product of his vast and varied experiences. The reader can find out for himself how practical and earthly his observations are. One key observation that Mr. Baker has made in this book and reiterated many times is that it is not for the engineer to decide what sort of house a man wants to build, but it is the man who has decide what sort of house he wants and then ask the engineer to building according to his wishes. The man who wants a house for himself must take his decision based on his real needs and the needs of his family and not be misled by ‘fashions’ or what the other fellow round the corner of the street has built. He then selects from out of the various alternative techniques and alternative materials, which Mr. Baker, has discussed in this book. It is then only that the engineer has to take over the work. The techniques which Mr. Baker has discussed in this book with suitable explanatory sketches and diagrams, will I am sure, be found useful by the poorest of the poor as well as middle class people. I commend this to the public of Kerala.

C. Achuta Menon Former Chief Minister of Kerala and Chairman, COSTFORD 25-5-1986 Trichur (Kerala) India

nks 'kCn
gj vkneh jgus ds fy, NksVs ls ?kj dk liuk t:j latksrk gSA og vkneh pkgsa fngkM+h dk etnwj gks ;k ,d NksVk fdlku] pkgsa oks de&vk; okyk ljdkjh deZpkjh gks ;k fiQj dksbZ NksVk nqdkunkjA T;knkrj mldk liuk v/wjk gh jgrk gSA mldk izeq[k dkj.k gS & ?kj cukus esa vkus okyh mQaph dherA bl mQaph dher ds nks dkj.k gS & igyk rks eagxk eky vkSj dsjy esa eagxh etnwjhA nwljk gS dsjy esa ^u;s iQS'ku* ds edku] ftudh odkyr gekjs T;knkrj bathfu;j djrs gSaA cgqr ckj cspkjk ?kj dk ekfyd ^loZKkuh* bathfu;j dh n;k ij fuHkZj gksrk gSA ?kj ekfyd] edku ds ckjs esa u rks [kqn viuh jk; tkfgj dj ikrk gS vkSj u gh viuk jkLrk pqu ikrk gSA bl otg ls cs'kqekj yksgk vkSj lhesaV bLrseky gksrk gS] vkSj ?kjksa dks reke HkM+dhys jaxksa ds lkFk iksrk tkrk gSA xehZ esa HkV~Vh dh rjg rirs ?kj esa jguk nq'okj gks tkrk gSA ?kj cukrs&cukrs cspkjk xjhc vkneh daxkyh dh dxkj ij vk [kM+k gksrk gSA dsjy esa orZeku x`g fuek.kZ dk ;gh vkye gSA yksxksa dks bl fn[kkoVh ew[kZrk dk iQkyrwiu vc lkiQ fn[kus yxk gS] vkSj os viuh vlyh t:jrksa dks iwjk djus ds fy, dkjxj dne mBk jgs gSaA ykSjh csdj }kjk lLrs edkuksa ij fy[kh ;g iqLrd bl t:jr dks iwjk djrh gSA Jh csdj fiNy ipkl lkyksa ls de&ykxr ds ?kj cukus ds dke esa yxs gSaA Hkkjr ds vyx&vyx fgLlksa esa ?kj cukus dh nslh rduhdksa dk mUgsa yack vuqHko gSA blds lkFk&lkFk vk/qfud rduhdksa dh Hkh mUgsa vPNh tkudkjh gSA vly esa mUgsa dsjy esa ?kj cukus ds rjhdksa vkSj muds fMtk;uksa ls [kkl yxko gS] tks muds vuqlkj dsjy dh vkcks&gok vkSj vU; ifjfLFkfr;ksa ds ekfiQd gSa] vkSj LFkkuh; Hkou lkexzh dk dq'ky mi;ksx djrs gaSA nqHkkZX;o'k] ydM+h & tks dsjy esa ?kj cukus dk eq[; vk/kj Fkh] vc nqyZHk o eagxh gks xbZ gSA blfy, gesa u;s lkeku rFkk rduhdksa dks viukuk iM+sxkA csdj ,d vaxzst ifjokj esa tUesA okLrqf'kYi esa fMxzh ysus ds ckn og Hkkjr vk, vkSj Lora=krk izkfIr ls igys mUgksaus dqN vlsZ xka/h th ds lkFk dke fd;kA fuf'pr gh mlh nkSjku Jh csdj esa xjhcksa ds izfr izse vkSj lsok dh Hkkouk iuihA fookg ds ckn esa og dsjy esa gh cl x,] tgka fiNys dbZ lkyksa ls os lLrs vkSj laqnj edku fMtk;u dj jgs gSa] vkSj cuk jgs gSaA lLrh ykxr ds ?kjksa ij fy[kh bl NksVh iqLrd esa muds yacs rtqcsZ vkSj fofo/ vuqHkoksa dk fupksM+ gSA ikBd [kqn ns[k ldrs gSa fd mudk utfj;k fdruk O;ogkfjd gS vkSj feV~Vh ls tqM+k gSA ,d ewy ckr ftldks csdj ckj&ckj nksgjkrs gSa & ?kj ekfyd [kqn bl ckr dk fu.kZ; ys fd oks dSlk ?kj pkgrk gS] u fd bathfu;jA bathfu;j fliQZ edku dk [kkdk cuk;sA vkneh dks ?kj cukrs oDr viuh vkSj ?kjokyksa dh vlyh t:jrksa dks en~nsutj j[kuk pkfg,A mls xyh&uqDdM+ ;k ikl&iM+kslh ds iQS'kusfcy ?kjksa dks ns[kdj cgduk ugha pkfg,A mlds ckn og mu reke oSdfYid lLrs lkekuksa vkSj rduhdksa dks pqus ftudk Jh csdj us bl iqLrd esa foospu fd;k gSA blds ckn gh bathfu;j dk dke 'kq: gksxkA bl iqLrd esa lq>kbZ rduhdksa ls xjhc&ls&xjhc yksx Hkh viuk ik;saxs vkSj mudk ykHk mBk ik;saxsA fo'ks"kdj dsjy ds yksxksa ds fy, ;g iqLrd cgqr mi;ksxh gksxhA lh vP;qr esuu HkwriwoZ eq[;ea=kh] dsjy] rFkk ps;jeSu dkLViQksMZ 25 ebZ 1986 f=kpwj] dsjy] Hkkjr

Born in Birmingham, England, in 1917, Laurie Baker studied architecture at the Birmingham School of Architecture from where he graduated in 1937 and became an associate member of the RIBA. During the World War II he was an anaesthetist to a surgical team in China where he also worked on leprosy control and treatment. On his way back to England, he had to wait for about three months for a boat in Bombay. There he met Gandhiji and was influenced by him. He decided that he would come back to India and work here. During 1945-1966, apart from his general freelance architectural practice throughout his life in India, Baker was architect to leprosy institutions in India and 1ived and worked in a hill village in Uttar Pradesh. In 1966 Baker moved south and worked with the tribals of Peerumede in Kerala. In 1970, he came to Trivandrum and has since been designing and constructing buildings all over Kerala. He has served at various times as Governor of HUDCO, on the working group on Housing of the Planning Commission, and on several expert committees at the national and state level. BUILDING houses is a costly business these days. A lot of the current expenditure is on unnecessary fashionable frills and designs. Much money could be saved merely by using common sense along simple, established, tried building practices. Every item that goes to make up a building has its cost. So always ask yourself the question, is it necessary? If the answer is “No”, then don’t do it. The following pages attempt to show graphically the current and often expensive ways of building. The saving on each individual item may be small, but if you can cut down every rupee’s worth of current cost by twenty-five paise a ten thousand rupee house can be built for rupees 7,500. In saving and cutting down costs, the choice is YOURS! Do not allow the architect, the engineer, and the building contractor to be dictators. You tell them what you want!

ykSjh csdj dk tUe 1917 esa cjfea?ke] baXySaM esa gqvkA 1937 esa mUgksaus cjfea?ke Ldwy vkWiQ vkjdhVsDpj ls Lukrd dh fMxzh ikbZ] vkSj mlds ckn oks vkj vkbZ ch , ds lnL; cusA nwljs fo'o ;q¼ ds nkSjku og ,d MkDVjh Vksyh ds lkFk phu x,] tgka mUgksaus dq"Bjksx ds bykt vkSj jksdFkke dk dke fd;kA baXySaM okfil tkrs oDr mUgsa vius tgkt ds bartkj ds fy, cEcbZ esa rhu eghus jQduk iM+kA rHkh mudh HksaV xka/hth ls gqbZA bl HksaV dk mu ij xgjk vlj iM+kA mUgksaus Hkkjr ykSVdj vkus vkSj dke djus dk fu'p; fd;kA 1945&66 ds nkSjku Jh csdj Lora=k :i ls Hkou fMtk;u ds lkFk&lkFk dq"Bjksx vLirkyksa ds izeq[k vkjdhVsDV jgsA bl nkSjku mUgksasus mRrj izns'k ds ,d igkM+h xkao esa dke fd;kA 1966 esa Jh csdj nf{k.k ds jkT; dsjy x;s vkSj mUgksaus ih:esnh vkfnokfl;ksa ds chp dke fd;kA 1970 esa os f=kosUnze vk, vkSj rc ls og lkjs dsjy esa Hkouksa dk fMtk;u vkSj fuekZ.k dk dke dj jgs gSaA mUgksaus gqMdks (Hkkjr ljdkj dk gkmQflax ,aM vjcu MsoyiesaV dkjiksjs'ku) ds lapkyd] ;kstuk vk;ksx dh vkokl desVh] vkSj jkT; ,oa jk"Vªh; Lrj dh dbZ fo'ks"kK lfefr;ksa ds fy, Hkh dke fd;k gSA og us'kuy baLVhV~;wV vkWiQ fMtk;u ds cksMZ lnL; Hkh jgs gSaA vktdy ?kj cukuk ,d eagxk dkjksckj gSA ^ekMuZ* ?kjksa esa iQS'kusfcy fMtk;u] vuko';d >kyjksa vkSj vU; rke&>ke ij gh T;knk [kpZ gksrk gSA ij FkksM+h lh vDy vkSj dqN ljy fuekZ.k rjhds viukdj dkiQh iSlk cpk;k tk ldrk gSA ?kj esa yxus okys gjsd lkeku dh viuh ,d dher gksrh gSA blfy,] vius ls gjsd ckj ;g loky vo'; iwNsa & ^D;k ;g t:jh gS\* vkSj vxj ^ugha* rks mldk bLrseky u djsaA bl iqLrd esa vktdy izpfyr eagxs rjhdksa dh rqyuk] lk/kj.k de&[kphZys fuekZ.k rjhdksa ls dh xbZ gSA gjsd vyx fgLls vkSj gjsd lkeku esa cpr pkgsa FkksM+h gh gks] ijarq vxj vki gjsd :i;s dk 25 iSlk Hkh cpk lds rks] nl gtkj :i;s dk ?kj dsoy 7500 :i;ksa esa cukuk laHko gksxkA vki pkgsa rks ewY; esa dVkSrh dj cpr dj ldrs gSaA dHkh Hkh vkjfdVsDV] bathfu;j ;k Bsdsnkj dks vius mQij gkoh u gksus nsaA mYVs] vki mUgsa crk;sa fd vki D;k pkgrs gSaA

slh ugha gS tks mldh nhokjksa dks /wi vkSj ckfj'k ls cpk ldsA bl otg ls blesa jguk vkjkensg vkSj lqfo/ktud ugha gSA tcfd] ^iqjkus iQS'ku* ds ?kj dh Nr <yoka gS tks Hkkjh ckfj'k dks iQkSju cgk nsrh gS vkSj nhokjksa dks lhyu rFkk /wi dh xehZ lks[kus ls cpkrh gSA dqN f[kM+fd. which are cheaper and give permanent . into account the locally available inexpensive materials or the local climatic conditions or the actual needs of the occupants.g gok ds cgko ds lkFk&lkFk izdk'k vkSj lqj{kk Hkh nsrh gSA .k ^iqjkus iQS'ku* ds ?kjksa dh ppkZ djrs gq.ksa dh txg ij bZaVksa dh lLrh tkyh cuh gSA .d ^vk/qfud* ?kj vkSj nwljk ^iqjkus iQS'ku* dk ?kj fn[kk. The roof does not protect the walls from rain and sun with the result that it is not very comfortable or convenient to live in. These two sketches typify the small “Modern house” at the top and an old fashioned one below.kZ gksrs gSaA . supply needed for other uses.k lkeku dk bLrseky gksrk gS vkSj u gh LFkkuh. lqurs gksaxsA ^vk/qfud* ?kj vDlj iQS'kusfcy vkSj ew[kZrkiw. strong winds. high humidity etc.ventilation and light and protection or security. The “Old fashioned” house has a sloping roof which quickly sheds heavy rain protects walls from getting damp and from absorbing heat from the sun.YOU often hear people describing houses as “Modern” or “Old fashioned” The so-called “Modern house” is often merely fashionable but foolish. It also copes effectively with weather hazards such as strong sun.g ?kj eagxs gksrs gSaA buesa u rks lLrs] LFkkuh.k x. gok&ikuh dh ifjfLFkfr.ksa ls budk dksbZ fj'rk&ukrk gksrk gSA vly esa bu edkuksa dk vius okf'kUnksa dh lPph t:jrksa ls dksbZ rkYyqd gh ugha gksrk gSA vDlj ^iqjkus iQS'ku* ds edku LFkkuh. Quite often the so-called “old fashioned” house demonstrates that the choice of building materials is important because it is less expensive and does not use up unnecessarily material that are in short. Some of the windows have been replaced with jalis. fuekZ. The modern house is “cubist” in design and uses a lot of cement plaster & paint.k gSA vk/qfud ?kj cukoV esa fMCcsuqek ^?kukdkj* gS vkSj blesa cgqr vf/d lhesaV] IykLVj vkSj isUV dk bLrseky gqvk gSA bl ?kj dh Nr . heavy rain. vki vDlj yksxksa dks ^vk/qfud* . simply because it is expensive and does not take. vkSj lLrs lkeku ds cus gksrs gSaA buesa eagxs vkSj nqyZHk lkeku dk de bLrseky gqvk gksrk gSA .sls edku ekSle ds tksf[ke & tSls rirh /wi] Hkkjh ckfj'k] rst gok] vf/d ueh dk izHkkodkjh <ax ls lkeuk djrs gSaA cxy ds iUus ij .

. it is less expensive to place it in the middle of the terrace.sxkA .k x.fn vkidks viuk ?kj fdlh mQaps LFkku ij cukuk gS rks mls dqxkj (Vsjsl) ds chpksa&chp cukuk de [kphZyk gksxkA uhps dk fp=k fn[kkrk gS fd vxj edku dks dqxkj ds .IF you have to build your house on a terraced site.d fdukjs ij cuk. The lower picture: shows the extra and more costly foundation and basement wall that has to be built if the building is near the edge of the terrace.k gS rks uhsao vkSj nhokjksa ij cgqr vf/d [kpkZ vk.

sa] tSls fd mQij ds fp=k esa fn[kk.k gSA .saA .IF the site is a sloping one. and not cutting across the contours. less excavation and less filling up is needed if you place the building parallel to the contours. as in the upper picture. as shown in the picture.k x. u cuk.slk djus ls [kqnkbZ vkSj HkjkbZ dh de t:jr iM+sxhA ?kj dks ifjjs[kk ds vkj&ikj dkVrs gq. vxj vki <yqvk txg ij Hkh ?kj cuk jgs gSa rks ?kj dh ifjjs[kk (contour) ds lekukarj cuk.

WHEN exchanging the trenches for the house foundations.sxhA . ?kj ij uhao [kksnus ds ckn fudyh feV~Vh dks etnwj vDlj ckgj dh vksj iQsadrs gSaA uhao dh nhokj mBus ds ckn os lkjh feV~Vh HkjkbZ ds fy. okfil mBkrs gSaA vxj 'kq: esa gh og uhao dh feV~Vh dks Hkhrj Mkysa tgka HkjkbZ ds fy. mldh vko'. After the basement walls have been completed they then shovel all the soil back again as infilling. especially outwards. labourers dig out the soil and throw it in all directions. If they shovel the soil inwards it will already be where it is wanted for infilling and some of the expense of excavation and infilling will have been saved.drk gksxh] rks mlls [kqnkbZ vkSj HkjkbZ ds [kpZ esa dqN deh vk.

knk jQfp j[krs gSaA vf/drj nhokjsa mQij okys fp=k tSlh fn[krh gSaA buesa cM+s likV iRFkj ckgj dks gksrs gSa vkSj chp esa NksVs iRFkjksa dh HkjkbZ gksrh gSA uhps ds fp=k esa iRFkjksa dh lgh pqukbZ fn[kkbZ xbZ gSA blesa ckgjh&Hkhrjh nhokj ds iRFkj . The upper sketch shows a plan of a stonewall as it is usually built. whereas the upper typical wall is not really safe without using a cement or lime mortar.d&nwljs ds [kkaps esa vkdj iQal tkrs gSaA blls vf/d fVdkmQ vkSj etcwr nhokj curh gSA lgh rjhds ls fpuh iRFkjksa dh nhokj esa cgqr de xkjs dh t:jr iM+rh gSA blesa feV~Vh ds xkjs ls Hkh dke py tkrk gS] tcfd mQij dh nhokjsa lhesaV .k pwus ds xkjs ds cxSj lqjf{kr ugha cusaxhA . and certainly a mud mortar is adequate. vDlj jkt&feL=kh nhokj ds iq[rkiu vkSj etcwrh dh ctk. with big flat-faced stones on the outside while the middle of the wall is filled in with bits and pieces. A properly bonded stonewall hardly needs mortar.MASONS are often more concerned with the outward appearance of a stonewall than with its strength and stability. The lower plan shows how stones should be bonded. that is they dovetail in with stones on the other side of the wall and therefore give a much stronger and more durable wall.s mldh ckgjh fn[kkoV esa T.

gh mQij ds fp=k esa fn[kk.knk gksxkA . This is also less costly because the stone 18-inch wall surrounding a room of a particular area (say 200 sq.ksafd fdlh fuf'pr {ks=kiQy (ekuksa 200&oxZ iQhV) ds dejs dks ?ksjus okyh iRFkj dh 18&baph nhokj dk vk. ft.A common practice is to have the main walls of a house in 9-inch thick burnt bricks.d . lk/kj.k nks&eaftys edkuksa ds fy.) is larger (cubic content more) in the upper drawing.g de [kphZyk Hkh gS] D. and rainwater tends to seep in and weaken the lower stonewall. For single and double storey houses it is better to put the outer side of 9" brick wall flush with the outer side of the 18" stone wall so that rainwater running down the wall does not soak into the wall. This means that there is a step where the 9-inch wall sits on the 18-inch wall below. ukS&baph bZaV dh nhokj dks 18&baph iRFkj dh uhao dh ckgjh lrg ls likV j[kuk vPNk gSA blls nhokj ls uhps fxjus okyk ckfj'k dk ikuh uhao esa ugha fjlsxkA . sitting on the top of an 18-inch random rubble (roughly shaped stones) basement and foundation. nhokjsa 9&bap eksVh iDdh bZaVksa dh gksrh gSa] tks iRFkj ds VqdM+ksa dh 18&bap vk/kj fHkRrh dh uhao ij fVdh gksrh gSA bldk eryc gS fd tgka 9&baph bZaV dh nhokj 18&bap okyh iRFkj dh nhokj ij cSBh gS ogka FkksM+h txg cp tkrh gSA blesa ls ckfj'k dk ikuh Hkhrj fjlrk gS vkSj fupyh iRFkj dh nhokj dks detksj cukrk gSA .k rkSj ij ?kj dh eq[.ru mQij ds fp=k esa T.k x.k gSA . as shown in the upper picture.

k x. uhao dk dke gS fd og ?kj ds lkjs Hkkj dks vius uhps dh tehu ij iQSyk ldsA NksVs . For small single and double storey houses an 18-inch (45-cm) wide foundation base is usually fully adequate on most soils and there is not often the need for the wider concrete layer beneath the basement wall (as shown in the upper picture).d .THE object or function of the foundation is to spread out the total weight of the house over the ground below it. i.d&eaftys vkSj nks&eaftys edkuksa esa 18&bap (45&lseh) pkSM+h uhao dk vk/kj vkerkSj ij lHkh rjg dh feV~Vh ds fy.kZIr gksrk gSA vDlj uhao dh nhokj ds uhps] pkSM+h daØhV dh ijr dh t:jr ugha gksrh (tSlk fd mQij ds fp=k esa fn[kk.k 18&baph eksVh iRFkj dh uhao] .k <hyh gks rks vyx ckr gSA .k nks&eaftys edkuksa dk iwjk Hkkj <ksus ds fy. dkiQh gSA gka] vxj feV~Vh detksj .k gS)A tgka iRFkj vklkuh ls feyrk gS ogka lk/kj. Where stone is available. the ordinary simple 18-inch thick random rubble wall is perfectly adequate to carry the full load of a single or double storey house unless the soil is very poor or loose or of different consistencies.

dqN ftyksa esa iRFkj vkSj bZaV ugha feyrh gSaA ijarq feV~Vh dh nhokj dk cks> laHkkyus ds fy.k x. ckal dh ifV~V.ksa dk rkuk&ckuk cqudj uhao dks iq[rk djsa & tSlk fd fupys fp=k esa fn[kk. ghA .k gSA .d uhao rks pkfg. as shown in the picture. water and then replaced with layers of bamboo reinforcement inserted. But some sort of foundation is needed to carry a mud wall above. the soil moistened with a little.slh txgksa ij uhao [kksndj] fudyh feV~Vh dks FkksM+s ikuh ls xhyk djsaA fiQj fpjs gq. The foundation trench can be excavated. .IN some districts stone and brick is not available.

beds. est cu ldrh gSA bldh . csUp] ysVus ds fy. r[r vkSj dke djus ds fy. work tables etc.k tk. vDlj ?kj cukus esa gh lkjh iwath Lokgk gks tkrh gS vkSj ckn esa iQuhZpj vkfn ds fy.AFTER building a house there is often little cash left over for furniture. as shown in the lower sketch.s rks fcuk fdlh [kpZ ds cSBus ds fy. merely by building the basement wall to a suitable height. Built in seats.d >yd fupys fp=k esa fn[kkbZ xbZ gSA . dqN iSlk ugha cprkA FkksM+h lw> ls vxj iRFkj dh uhao dks FkksM+k vkSj mBk fn. can easily and inexpensively be had.

slh nhokj tYnh gh pVd tkrh gS vkSj buesa njkjsa iM+ tkrh gSa] tSlk fd mQij ds fp=k esa fn[kk.k /krq ds lkapksa (12&bap x 8&bap x 16&bap . This produces neat rectangular blocks with which walls of different thicknesses can easily be constructed.kj gksaxs] ftuls vyx&vyx eksVkb. as in the upper picture. Wood or metal moulds can be made of suitable sizes. (Say 12" x 8" x 6" or 12" x 6" x 4" etc.SOMETIMES stone is available.fer vkdkj ds <syksa ds :i esaA buls cuh nhokj cgqr detksj gksrh gSA .) and these lumps are placed in the moulds and the spaces filled in with a weak lime or cement concrete.k lheasV ds elkys ls Hkjk tk ldrk gSA blls laqnj vk.sls bykds gSa tgka iRFkj feyrk rks gS ijarq NksVs vfu.s tk ldrs gSaA ydM+h . These make a very poor wall that usually cracks and crumbles.k gSA bu <syksa ls CykWd cuk. dbZ .k x.rkdkj CykWd rS.ksa dh nhokjsa vklkuh ls cukbZ tk ldrh gSaA . but only in small irregular shaped lumps.k 12&bap x 6&bap x 4&bap) esa bu <syksa dks Mkydj [kkyh txg dks pwus .

25% of the total number of bricks. It is simple to build. looks well. and if a 9-inch thick wall is required. can be saved by using a “RAT-TRAP” Bond. vxj idh bZaVksa ls ukS&bap eksVh nhokj cukuh gks rks pwgsnkuh ca/u (Rat-trap Bond) ds iz.k gSA .k tk ldrk gSA bl rjg nhokj dh dher de dh tk ldrh gSA .slh nhokj /wi vkSj ckfj'k ls csgrj lqj{kk djrh gSA lk/kj.k bafXy'k ca/ (English Bond) mQij rFkk (Rat-trap Bond) uhps fn[kk.g nhokj cukus esa vklku gS vkSj ns[kus esa lqanj yxrh gSA . and of the cost of the wall.IF burnt-brick is available. has better insulation properties and is as strong as the ordinary solid 9-inch brick walls. The orthodox English Bond is shown at the top.ksx ls 25 izfr'kr bZaVksa dks cpk.k x. and the Rat Trap Bond below.

bLrseky fd.ksa ds fy. ckgjh nhokj dh eksVkbZ lk<+s&pkj&bap dkiQh gSA vanj dh lkjh nhokjksa ds fy.d vdsyh] lh/h lk<+s&pkj&bap eksVh nhokj detksj gksrh gSA oks vklkuh ls fxj ldrh gS] VDdj ls <g ldrh gS] .d iryh nhokj dks etcwr cukrh gSaA bu [kkapksa dks fcuk vf/d [kpZ fd. But it can be perfectly strong and capable of carrying the load of roofs and floors if it has either thin buttresses every five or six feet (as in the middle picture) or if recesses are created.gh lk<+s&pkj&bap dh nhokj vkjke ls mQijh Nrksa dk Hkkj mBk ik.FROM a structural stability point of view.k x. VkaM vkSj vYekfj.sxh] vxj mlesa gjsd 5 .kZIr gksxhA . or can be crushed by the weight of the roof it carries.d bZaV dk lgkjk) yxs] . An isolated straight 4.ky ls] . and certainly for interior partition walls. be knocked over.5-inch thick brick wall is often adequate for single storey houses. These recesses can be used for shelves and almirahs at almost no extra cost! <kaps dh etcwrh ds [.5-inch wall is weak and can fall over. rks lk<+s&pkj&bap dh eksVkbZ i. a 4.k gSA blh rjg ls dksus vkSj vkil esa feyus okyh nhokjsa .d&eaftys edku ds fy.k tk ldrk gSA . (as in the lower picture).k nhokj ygjnkj [kkapksa ds :i esa cus] tSlk fd fupys fp=k esa fn[kk. Similarly corners and intersecting walls are strengthening points in a thin wall.k Nr ds Hkkj ls Hkh dqpyh tk ldrh gSA ijarq .k 6 iQhV ij iq'rsa (.

ksx gks ldrk gSA pwus esa reke eagxh phtsa feykdj tc ge mls dbZ eagxh e'khuksa ls xqtkjrs gSa] ftuesa <sjksa bZa/u @ mQtkZ [kpZ gksrh gS] rc tkdj gesa lhesaV feyrk gSA mQij ds fp=k ds vuqlkj vktdy pwus vkSj iRFkj dk bLrseky cgqr de gks x. some limestones can be used as building stones. At present. lhesaV dh ctk.ZLFky ij ys tk. yxHkx rS.sxkA vktdy fons'kksa ls & [kkldj dksfj.sls Hkh gSa ftUgsa cgqr eagxs vkSj tfVy rjhdksals cuk. and they are ready to use.k tkrk gSA mUgsa HkV~Vh esa tykus ls og pwus esa cny tkrs gSaA pwus dks jsr vkSj ikuh ds lkFk feykdj mldks elkys . which can be used with sand and water as mortar or plaster.k ls Hkkjr cgqr lhesaV [kjhn jgk gSA blesa fons'kh eqnzk ds lkFk&lkFk cgqr lkjh mQtkZ @ bZa/u dh Hkh cjcknh gksrh gSA vxj ge lhesaV dks ogha bLrseky djsa tgka mldh vly esa t:jr gS] rks ge dkiQh iSlk cpk ldrs gSaA fupys fp=k ds vuqlkj ge pwus dks vklkuh ls] de [kpsZ ls] cgqr de&bZa/u vkSj ifjogu ls fuekZ.k gS] tcfd lhesaV dks ge /M+Yys ls bLrseky dj jgs gSaA elkys vkSj iyLrj ds fy. Others have to be processes or manufactured into more complex materials.k [kksndj dk.kj gksrk gSA cl mls dkVdj . pwus dk bLrseky mruk gh dkjxj vkSj vPNk gksxk] vkSj ml ij [kpZ Hkh cgqr de vk. simply and with little energy and transport. or it can be used as paint.k LFky ij gh cuk ldrs gSaA blls dkiQh iSlk cp ldrk gSA . or dig them out and carry them to the site. By adding other ingredients and a lot of manufacturing processes and a lot of energy (or fuel) we produce cement. Some such materials need shaping and trimming.k iyLrj ds :i esa mi.slk gksrk gS ftls vkdkj nsus vkSj laokjus dh t:jr gksrh gSA dqN eky . we could save a lot of building money. As the lower picture shows. We could save a lot of building money by only using cement when it is really necessary.SOME-building materials are there for the using. by using lime. when lime would be just as effective. edku cukus dk dqN eky rks bLrseky ds fy. These days we use very little stone and we also now use very little lime but we are very extravagant in the use of cement. often. India spends a lot of money and a lot of different forms of energy to buy and bring cement from Korea. Burn them in a kiln and they turn into lime. which we can make. efficient and serviceable and of course at a very much smaller cost. on the building site itself. the top picture depicts. as in the case of mortars and plasters. For example. Cut them.sa vkSj bLrseky djasA dqN eky .

General - 1 2 6 rkdroj elkyk Rich Mix 1 3 - 12 lkekU. General 1 4 - 14 rkdroj elkyk Rich Mix 1 5 - 16 lkekU. General - 1 - 2 iRFkj dh uhao For Stone Foundation / Basement - 1 - 3 rkdroj elkyk Rich Mix - 1 2 4 lkekU.bdkb.ka jjjj vkj lh lh LySc jjjjj lhesaV Cement pwuk Lime lq[khZ Powdered Bricks 1 - - 6 8 jsr Sand 1 rkdroj elkyk Rich Mix 1 - - 10 lkekU. General 1 2 4 18 iRFkj dh uhao For Stone Foundation/Basement 1 2 4 20 .

THIS chart shows a variety of the mixes of cement. Adding to the lime. bldk izpyu Hkh yxHkx [kRe gksrk tk jgk gSA /heh xfr ls teus dh eqf'dy dks lq[khZ&pwus ds elkys esa FkksM+k lk lhesaV feykdj nwj fd.k tk ldrk gSA .k gSA dkSu lk elkyk dgka yxsxk vkSj mldh D. pwus&jsr ds elkys dk bLrseky cgqr de gks x.g reke vyx&vyx elkys bl rkfydk esa fn.knk le. At present cement and sand only are commonly used. or lime and surkhi mixes. These too are slow setting and “unfashionable”.k gSA blh rjg pwus vkSj jsr esa lq[khZ (filh bZaV) feykdj Hkh iq[rk elkyk curk gSA D.k dher gksxh bldh Hkh >yd bl rkfydk esa feyrh gSA vktdy lhesaV vkSj jsr dk pyu gh vf/d gSA bUgsa feykuk vkSj bLrseky djuk cgqr vklku gSA lhesaV & jsr dk elkyk tYnh te tkrk gSA pwus&jsr ds elkys dh rkdr Hkh yxHkx mruh gh gS ijarq mls teus esa T. yxrk gSA blfy.g Hkh /hjs&/hjs terk gS blfy. cxy ds iUus ij cuh rkfydk esa vyx&vyx elkyksa vkSj iyLrjksa esa yxs lhesaV] pwuk] lq[khZ vkSj ckyw dk vuqikr fn.ksafd . a small amount of cement can solve the slow setting problem. All these variations are in this table. Similarly good strong mortars are made by adding surkhi to lime and sand.s gSaA . Lime and sand can give an equally strong mortar but it takes longer to set and lime mortars have mainly gone “out of fashion”. sand. This is easy to mix and use and it sets quickly. lime and surkhi (which is a finely ground burnt clay) to give different plasters and mortars according to the function for which they are needed and according to the cost and availability of these several ingredients.

fer gksrh gSA blfy. The middle sketch and the lower plan show how the mortar can fill over the sunken ends of the brick to produce a special fair face on the second side of the wall.d eagxk dkjksckj gSA ?kj dh dher dk yxHkx 10 izfr'kr [kpZ iyLrj Fkksius esa gh [kpZ gks tkrk gSA blds vykok iyLrj ds j[k&j[kko] iqrkbZ&jaxkbZ ij Hkh dkiQh [kpZ gksrk gSA chp ds vkSj fupys {ks=k ds vuqlkj nhokj dh nwljh lrg dks laqnj vkSj lery cukus ds fy. the other side will be lumpy and irregular. So even if you can get a smooth “fair face” on one side of a wall. Plaster is not required and a pleasing pattern has been made.d [kwclwjr uewuk jpk tk ldrk gSA bl ij u jaxkbZ dk [kpZ gksxk u gh j[k&j[kko dkA . cgqr ls Bsdsnkj iyLrj djus dks dgrs gSaA ijarq iyLrj .BRICKS are often slightly irregular in length. you must plaster the wall. Also there is the painting and maintenance cost of plaster too. But plaster is costly (it accounts for up to 10% of the total cost of a building). many builders say. No painting and no maintenance costs. Therefore. fljs ij elkyk Hkjk tk ldrk gSA bl rjg iyLrj ds cxSj gh .d lrg fpduh] likV vkSj lery djus ds ckn nwljh lrg Vs<+h vkSj vfu. vDlj yackbZ esa bZaVs FkksM+h NksVh&cM+h gksrh gSaA bl dkj. nhokj dh . bZaV ds ncs gq.k fpukbZ ds le.

is all that is required. If something stronger is necessary. vkerkSj ij fyaVj vkj lh lh (RCC) ds curs gSaA buesa LVhy vkSj lhesaV dk cgqr iz. Very often a lintel is not necessary over door and window openings up to four feet in width. as in the lower-picture.LINTELS are usually made of reinforced concrete.sxkA . Ordinary brick-on-edge.A bl rjg cuk fyaVj mQij dh Nr vkSj nhokj ds cks> dks vklkuh ls lg ldsxkA bl rjg dk fyaVj ijaijkxr vkj lh lh (RCC) fyaVj ds eqdkcys vk/h dher esa cu tk. filled with one or two steel rods in concrete will carry very large weights of wall and roof-etc. above. as shown in the middle picture. Steel and cement are used. a hollow arrangement of brick-on-edge.d drkj ls gh dke py ldrk gSA bls chp ds fp=k esa fn[kk.k gSA vxj vf/d rkdr dh t:jr gS rks] fupys fp=k dh rjg bZaVksa dks tek dj j[ksa] vkSj bZaVksa ds chp cuh ukyh esa .ksa dks daØhV esa tek nhft.d&nks yksgs dh lfj.k x.ksx gksrk gSA cgqr ckj pkj iQhV okys njoktksa vkSj f[kM+fd.ksa ij fyaVj dh t:jr gh ugha gksrh gSA vkerkSj ij rks fljs ds cy yxh bZaV dh . This type of lintel is less than half the cost of the orthodox reinforced concrete lintel.

BRICK arches are much less costly than reinforced nicer than concrete lintels. They are just as strong.g esgjkcsa ns[kus esa cgqr lqanj yxrh gSa vkSj mUgsa vusd vkdkjksa esa cukuk laHko gSA . look much can be a variety of shapes. bZaV dh esgjkcsa] vkj lh lh (RCC) ds fyaVj ftruh gh etcwr gksrh gSa] ij dgha vf/d lLrh gksrh gSaA .

Probably nothing will fail at all.k lgkjs dh t:jr ugha iM+rhA .d ljy lh ^dksjcsy* esgjkc cukuk gSA gjsd drkj dh bZaVsa viuh fupyh drkj ls lok nks bap ckgj fudyrh gSaA var esa nksuksa vksj dh bZaVsa chp esa fey tkrh gSaA bls cukus esa fdlh epku . fdlh nhokj esa [kqyh txg dks Hkjus dk lcls lLrk rjhdk ml ij . but if it does.g fp=k bl vlfy. the maximum will be the amount of wall within the triangle above the frame.k Úse ds mQij dh nhokj fxjsxhA njvly] fyaVj dsoy f=kdks.THE inexpensive way of spanning a hole in a wall is the simple “corbel’ arch. in fact. This picture also demonstrates the fact that if you remove a door or a window.k ds vkdkj esa bZaVksa dk Hkkj ek=k laHkkyrk gS] u fd iwjh nhokj vkSj mlds mQij dh Nr dk HkkjA . Each row of bricks projects 2. No fore work or shuttering is necessary.k fdokM+ dks gVk nsus ls nhokj <gsxh ughaA vOoy rks dqN fxjsxk gh ugha] vkSj fxjsxk Hkh rks vf/d&ls&vf/d f=kdks.25-inches beyond the course below until the bricks meet together in the middle.d f[kM+dh . and not the whole wall and half the roof above it. the whole wall will not fall down.r dks mtkxj djrk gS fd fdlh . This triangle of bricks is. all that a lintel carries.

d oxZ iQqV f[kM+dh dh dher yxHkx nl oxZ iQhV bZaV . f[kM+fd. The pictures above show a few of many possible variations. A window has varied functions .k gSA mQij ds fp=kksa esa cgqr lkjh laHkkoukvksa esa ls dqN gh fn[kkbZ xbZ gSaA f[kM+fd.ksa dh txg bZaVksa dh cuh tkyh dks viukuk dgha vf/d csgrj vkSj lLrk gSA .s nhokj esa bZaVksa dh cuh tkyh Hkh mruh gh vljnkj gSA . One square foot of-window can cost up to ten times the cost of the simple brick or stone wall it replaces.k gS vkSj elkys ls ugha Hkjk x.k gSA tksM+ksa dks [kqyk j[kk x. This is an alternative to the costly window.k x.s vkfnA bu lcds fy.d NRrsnkj uewus esa latks. In many of these situations a “JALI” or “honeycombed” wall is just as effective.s] dejs esa izdk'k vkus ds fy.s] rkth gok vanj vkus . if made of brick it can be less costly than the house wall! The bottom picture shows the simple honeycomb brick pattern. Wide vertical joints are left open and not filled with mortar.ka cgqr [kphZyh gksrh gSaA .k cklh gok ckgj tkus ds fy.d rjiQ f[kM+dh cukuk nhokj cukus ls dgha eagxk gSA nwljh vksj nhokj esa bZaVksa dh tkyh cukus ls nhokj dh dher vkSj ?kV tk.to look out of. or to let out stale air.sxhA fupys fp=k esa bZaVksa dks . to let in fresh air. and so on. Far from being a lot more costly than the basic wall.k iRFkj dh nhokj ds cjkcj gksrh gSA f[kM+dh ds dbZ bLrseky gSa & ckgj ns[kus ds fy.WINDOWS are costly. to let light inside a room.

The cost of the lower house is very much lower than that of the top house.THESE two sketches show how jails can replace windows.ksa dh txg bZaV dh tkyh ys ldrh gSA mQij okys ?kj ds eqdkcys esa fupyk ?kj cgqr vf/d lLrk gSA .k gS fd fdl rjg f[kM+fd.k x.g fn[kk. bu nksuksa fp=kksa esa .

as brackets to carry wall shelves or tables or slabs.k ds dbZ . which are meant for a specific use but which we can also use to cut down costs.sls lkeku gSa ftuds dbZ oSdfYid bLrseky gSaA bUgsa nwljh txg bLrseky djds dher esa dqN deh ykbZ tk ldrh gSA felky ds fy.THERE are a number of building items.] iRFkj ds [kEcksa dks fyaVj ds :i esa] pkS[kV dh rjg] VkaM tSls mi.ksx fd. or as security posts instead of steel bars and grills Hkou fuekZ.k tk ldrk gSA . The common split stone post can be used as a lintel.k tk ldrk gSA f[kM+dh esa yksgs ds lh[kpksa dh txg Hkh bUgsa yxk.

lets in light and air and provides security tc f[kM+dh ds cxSj xqtkjk gh u pys] rc rks mls yxkuk gh iM+sxkA ij tSlk fd mQijh nk.k x.WHEN a window is a necessity it is quite a costly item as shown in the top right-hand corner. simple. inexpensive.d eagxk dke gSA lcls ljy f[kM+dh .k gS] f[kM+dh yxkuk .sa fp=k esa fn[kk.d&.g iYyk mQij&uhps dh pkS[kV ds . The traditional design consists of two short wood pieces with a circular hole in each. and the vertical shutter has two small round protrusions (as shown on the left) to fit into the-holes.d ukS&bap pkSM+h f>jh gh i. one at the top and one at the bottom.u esa mQij&uhps dh pkS[kVksa esa . very little labour.d fxYyh gksrh gS] tks Nsnksa esa cSBrh gSA f[kM+dh ds fy. The simplest window consists of a vertical plank set into two holes (or pivot hinges).d&.g .d Nsn gksrk gS] vkSj ydM+h ds [kM+s iYys esa mQij&uhps . no iron mongery. dsoy .g f[kM+dh izdk'k vkSj gok vanj vkus nsrh gS vkSj lqj{kk iznku djrh gSA .kZIr gSA .d ydM+h ds r[rs ls curh gSA .d Nsn esa cSBrk gSA ijaijkxr fMtk. Only a nine-inch wide hole is necessary for the ‘window’. This is strong.d&.d etcwr] vklku vkSj de&[kphZyh f[kM+dh gSA blesa yksgs vkSj esgur nksuksa dh gh cpr gSA .

DOOR frames cost a lot of money and are often not actually necessary. thus eliminating the outer door frame altogether. This picture shows how planks can be screwed together by strap iron hinges to form a door. njoktksa vkSj pkS[kV csgn eagxh gksrh gSA vDlj rks bu pkS[kVksa dh dksbZ t:jr gh ugha gksrhA fp=k esa ydM+h ds dbZ iVjksa dks vkil esa .k x. and this can be carried by “hold-fasts” built into the wall.k gSA njoktk nhokj esa /als yksgs ds dCtksa ij ?kwerk gSA blesa ydM+h dh pkS[kV dh t:jr gh ugha gSA .d yksgs dh iV~Vh ls tksM+dj njoktk cuk.

njokts dk iYyk dkiQh eagxk gksrk gSA blesa ydM+h ds lkFk&lkFk esgur Hkh [kwc lkjh yxrh gSA lcls ljy njoktk [kM+s iVjksa ij nks vkM+s iQV~Vksa dks dhyksa ls Bksddj cuk.THE door shutter itself is costly because it uses a lot of wood and quite a lot of costly labour. The simplest door is made of vertical planks held together with horizontal (sometimes diagonal) battens.k tkrk gSA dHkh&dHkh vf/ d etcwrh ds fy. .d frjNk iQV~Vk Hkh Bksdk tkrk gSA .

d&nwljs dks Nwrk gqvk cSBh gqbZ tehu ij ltk nsaA bZaVksa ds mQij ckyw vkSj pwus dh .k tk ldrk gSA .dne t:jh gSA vk/kj dks 'kqjQvkr esa gh ckyw . After the roof is on.ALMOST every sort of floor has to have solid base under it. heap of sand and lime on top of the bricks then spread it out and brush it in so that it fills the cracks. touching each other. on the rammed earth.k feV~Vh ls Hkj nhft. collect all the broken brickbats side by side.d <sjh feyk.sA tSls&tSls yksx ml ij pysaxs oks vius vki dqpy dj Bksl gks tk. Fill the basement with sand or soil at an early stage it will get trampled down solid as work is done above it.sxhA Nr cu tkus ds ckn lHkh bZaVksa ds VqdM+ksa dks bdV~Bk dj mUgsa vxy&cxy .saA fiQj bls iQSyk dj lkjh njkjs HkjsaA bl vk/kj ij fdlh Hkh izdkj dk iQ'kZ liQyrkiwoZd yxk. Mix a small.d Bksl vk/kj gksuk . gjsd iQ'kZ ds uhps .

There is a pit about 3 feet in diameter and as deep as you can dig it.d daØhV (RCC) dk ifV.5-inch brick wall (or a well ring will do).k x.a dk fjax Hkh pysxkA .saA blds fy. dq.k gSA cgqr iFkjhys bykdksa dks NksM+dj bls yxHkx lHkh txg cuk. fn[kk.THESE pictures show the DEEP PIT LATRINE.k ftlesa 'kkSp dk rlyk vkSj . which is effective in all but very rocky sites. A screen wall and a vent pipe are built above the latrine slab. bu fp=kksa esa xgjs xM~<s okyk 'kkSpky.d insZuqek vk/h bZaV dh nhokj vkSj xSl ikWbi] 'kkSpky.k tk ldrk gSA blesa rhu iQhV O.kl dk xM~<k gksrk gSA xM~<k vki ftruk xgjk pkgsa [kksn ldrs gSaA .d fudklh dk ikWbi yxk gks xM~<s ds mQij j[kk tkrk gSA vxj feV~Vh <hyh vkSj ckyqbZ gks rks xM~<s esa pkjksa vksj lk<+s pkj bap eksVh nhokj cuk. If the soil is sandy or loose the top 2 or 3-feet of the pit is lined with a 4. A reinforced concrete filler slab with a latrine pan set into it (and a hole for a vent pipe) is placed above the hole or Pit. ds mQij cuk nsaA .

dksbZ Hkh O.ksa ds fy. vkSj fdlh rjg dh Vsd dh t:jr ugha iM+rh gSA ijaijkxr ydM+h dh Nrsa ns[kus esa lqanj yxrh gSa] ijarq muesa cgqr T. Three pieces of wood are nailed together and this simple “trussed rafter” sits directly on top of any wall.knk ydM+h yxrh FkhA mudks cukus esa Hkh T.knk dkjhxjh yxrh Fkh] tks vc eagxh vkSj nqyZHk gksrh tk jgh gSA . The traditional timber roofs were beautiful but often quite elaborate.d dSaph cukuh gksxhA . No wall plates and no ridge-poles are necessary. and extravagant with the use of wood and called for a lot of skill.65-metres) wide.fDr tks vkjh vkSj gFkkSM+k bLrseky djuk tkurk gks cgqr vklkuh ls ckjg&iQhV pkSM+s dejs ij Nr Nk ldrk gSA blesa rhu ydM+h ds cRrksa dks vkil esa Bksddj . strong roof of timber over rooms up to 12-feet (3.ANYONE who can use a saw and a hammer can put together a simple.g dSaph nhokj ij cSBsxhA bu dSafp.

For fillers we can use lightweight bricks.s tk ldrs gSaA bl HkjkbZ ls daØhV ds LySc dh dher esa 30&35 izfr'kr dh deh vk tk.WlcsLVl dh pknjksa dk cukuk gh . but iron rusts and is very hot to live under while those who work in asbestos factories an who live and work under asbestos-cement roofs tend to develop lung cancer. the saving by using a Filler slab is considerable.k gS fd nks csdkj eaxyksjh VkWbYl dks .ksa ls cus rkus&ckus ds chp j[kk tkrk gSA chp ds fp=k esa LySc dk .k x. creating a grid of RCC ribs or beams.k tk ldrk gSA bu VkWbYl dks yksgs dh lfj.k gSA . Reinforced cement concrete slabs are very costly and use a lot of iron and cement. Galvanised iron and asbestos-cement sheets use less timber.TIMBER is becoming too scarce and costly. dk dksbZ 20&25 izfr'kr [kpZ vkrk gSA bl rjg dkiQh iSlk cp ldrk gSA mQij ds fp=k eas fn[kk. As roofs and intermediate floors account for 20 to 25% of the total cost of a house.k x. .A daØhV ls <yh Nrsa cgqr eagxh gksrh gSa] vkSj muesa yksgk vkSj lhesaV Hkh cgqr yxrk gSA ijaijkxr vkj lh lh (RCC) dh Nrksa esa t:jr ls T.WlcsLVl dh [knkuksa vkSj dkj[kkuksa esa dke djus okys etnwj vkSj . or Mangalore or country tiles etc. The lower picture shows a section through the slab.dne de djuk pkfg.knk daØhV bLrseky gksrk gSA Nr ds LySc dh dher dks de djus ds fy.kas esa cgqr rirh gSA .WlcsLVl&lheasV dh pknjksa ls cuh Nrksa esa de ydM+h yxrh gSA ysfdu yksgk tax idM+ ysrk gS] vkSj Vhu dh Nr xfeZ.WlcsLVl&lheasV dh Nrksa ds uhps jgus okyksa dks iQsiQM+ksa dk dSalj gksus dk vans'kk jgrk gSA blhfy. As there is quite a lot of unnecessary concrete in an orthodox RCC slab we can replace some of this redundant concrete with any light weight-cheap materials in order to reduce the overall cost of the slab. yksgs vkSj .sxhA Nrksa vkSj chp ds iQ'kksZa ij ?kj ds iwjs ewY.d&nwljs ij j[kdj fdl rjg Nr dh HkjkbZ ds dke yk.k nslh [kijSy (VkWbYl) vkfn bLrseky fd. ge iQkyrw ds daØhV ds dqN fgLls dh txg dqN gYdk&iQqYdk eky Hkj ldrs gSaA bl de ykxr ds vkj lh lh (RCC) LySc dh Nr dks ^fiQyj LySc* dgrs gSaSA HkjkbZ ds dke esa gYdh bZaVsa] eaxyksjh . so we should discourage its manufacture and use. The top picture shows how two waste Mangalore tiles together form an excellent light weight filler. This alternative RCC roof is called a FILLER SLAB.d dVku fn[kk. This will reduce the cost of the orthodox RCC slab by about 30 or 35%. and how they are placed between the steel reinforcement rods.

k dh ctk. sleeping lofts.k gSA . However. the steel reinforcement rods in conventional reinforced cement concrete can be replaced by bamboo. eqefdu gS] D. the lower one shows how split bamboo strips are wired together to form the necessary reinforcement in a concrete slab. . The only disadvantage is that it needs experience to know which is a “good” bamboo that will not rot away. LySc dh etcwrh dk fuf'pr vuqeku Hkh yxkuk laHko ugha gksxkA ckal ds iz.ksafd dqN vPNs izdkj ds ckalksa dh etcwrh yksgs dh lfj.kj fd.k gSA fupys fp=k esa iQVs ckal dh ifV~V. shelves. The top sketch is a full size section through a slab.sls bykdksa esa tgka vPNs] ids ckal feyrs gSa] ogka daØhV LySc esa yksgs dh lfj.k x. and as each bamboo varies in quality from other bamboos. ckal bLrseky fd. benches.IN districts where there is good strong mature bamboo available.k . the bamboo system is perfectly adequate and “safe” for small roofs.k ftruh gksrh gSA ij ckal ds bLrseky esa FkksM+s vuqHko dh t:jr gSA blds fy.ksafd gjsd ckal ds xq. it is not possible to calculate with accuracy the strength of a slab.k tk ldrk gSA mQij ds fp=k esa LySc dk dVku fn[kk. stair treads. work tables.d&nwljs ls vyx gksaxs] blfy. .k tk ldrk gSA . rkuk&ckuk rS.g ekywe gksuk t:jh gS] fd dkSu lk ckal vPNk gS vkSj tYnh lM+sxk ughaA vkSj D.ksa dks vkil esa rkj ls cka/ dj daØhV LySc dh etcwrh ds fy.k x.g blfy.ksx ls NksVh Nrsa] lksus dh vVkjh] r[r] csUp] dke djus dh est] lh<+h vkfn dks etcwr vkSj lqjf{kr cuk. This is possible because the tensile strength of some good types of bamboo is very similar to that of steel rods.

ksa tSls yxk. This is a rural version of an orthodox reinforced brick slab (RBC).kj fd. .d Nr fn[kkbZ xbZ gSA blesa igys rks rhu&rhu bZaVksa dks vkil eas elkys ls tksM+dj NksVs&NksVs ls LySc rS.A good nature bamboo can also be split in half and used as a permanent shuttering for reinforced cement concrete ribs between brick units (three burnt bricks previously joined together with mortar to form a small slab). tkrs gSaA .gka ij xkao ds edku dh .h rkSj ij nks bZaVksa ds LyScksa ds chp esa daØhV dh iVfj.k tkrk gSA .d vPNs vkSj ids ckal dks chp esa ls nks fgLlksa esa iQkM+k tkrk gSA ckal ds bu VqdM+ksa dks LFkk.

vk/qfud ?kjksa dh Nrsa T. If roofs extend over the walls. as in the upper picture.slh Nrsa nhokj dks ckfj'k] /wi vkSj iQiQwan ls cpkrh FkhaA bldk eryc . The upper parts of the rails also quickly look ugly because moss and fungus develops. as in the “old fashioned” houses.MODERN houses with no overhanging roof.g gqvk fd ^vk/qfud* edkuksa dh nhokjksa dks ckgj ls iyLrj vkSj isaV djuk iM+rk gSA bl ij dkiQh [kpkZ vk tkrk gSA tcfd vkxs fudyh Nrksa okys edku lw[ks vkSj BaMs cus jgrs gSaA mUgsa ckgj ls iyLrj vkSj isUV djus dh t:jr Hkh ugha iM+rh gSA . they protect the walls from heat and fungus. In practice this means that “Modern” house walls need to be plastered and painted (thus adding considerably to the cost) while houses with good overhanging roofs remain dry and cool and plaster and paint are not necessary. allow the walls to absorb rain and heat from the sun.k nhokjsa] cjlkr dk ikuh vkSj lwjt dh /wi lks[krh gSaA nhokj ds mQijh fgLlksa ij tYnh gh dkbZ vkSj iQiQwan mx vkrh gS] tks fd ns[kus esa Hkn~nh yxrh gSA iqjkus iQS'ku okys ?kjksa esa Nrsa nhokj ds dkiQh vkxs rd fudyh gqbZ gksrh FkhaA .knk vkxs dks ugha fudyh gksrh gSaA bl dkj.

is to build a brick wall.sa gksrh gSaA vxj mUgsa bZekunkjh ls iz.knkrj rke>ke yxkus ls dsoy edku dh dher gh c<+rh gSA gjsd eky & tSls iRFkj] bZaV] lhesaV dh viuh dqN fo'ks"krk. Usually these gimmicks serve no useful purpose and merely add unnecessarily to the cost of the building. their texture and the patterns formed by joining them together.knk iQS'kusfcy fn[kus yxsxkA ijarq T. or to “compete” with neighbouring buildings.slh fiQtwy[kphZ djrs gSa rks vkidks edku t:j 10 izfr'kr eagxk iM+sxkA blls T.ksx fd. There is no need to cover them over with costly finishes. A common foolish practice. Let a brick wall look like a brick wall and a stone wall should look like a stone wall. Most materials have their own special characteristics and if used honestly and simply they contribute to the “looks” of a building merely from their colour.d vPNh bZaV dh nhokj cuk. look “nice” or look “fashionable”. Concrete should look like concrete and not be plastered or painted to look like marble.uj vkSj Bsdsnkj edkuksa esa csdkj vkSj iQkyrw dk dkiQh rke&>ke yxkrs gSaA mUgsa yxrk gS fd rke&>ke ls edku dh 'kksHkk c<+sxh vkSj og iM+kslh ds edku ls T.ARCHITECTS. they think. which is costly and deceitful as well as stupid.sa] fiQj mls lhesaV ls iyLrj djssa] vkSj var esa jax ls lhesaV dh nhokj ij bZaV uqek ykbusa vkSj vk. vkjdhVsDV] fMtk. plaster it all over with cement plaster and then paint on it lines and rectangles to make it look like a brick wall! If you do this sort of thing you deserve to have to pay 10% more for your house than your sensible neighbour who builds a good brick wall and enjoys the look of it.k gks rks ?kj ds fn[kkos esa muds jax] lrg vkSj tksM+ksa ds uewuksa ls gh pkj pkan yx ldrs gSaA mUgsa eagxs iyLrj] jax&jksxu vkfn ls <adus dh t:jr ugha gSA bZaV dh nhokj dks bZaV dh nhokj tSlh gh fn[kus nsaA vkSj iRFkj dh nhokj dks iRFkj tSlk gh fn[kus nsaA daØhV dks daØhV gh fn[kus nsa vkSj ml ij fiQtwy dk iyLrj u djsaA vkSj u gh ml ij jax djds mls laxejej cukus dh dksf'k'k djsaA blls vf/d [kphZyk rjhdk vkSj csodwiQh vkSj D.k gks ldrh gS fd lcls igys rks vki . scrape out the joints.d bZaV dh vPNh nhokj cukrk gS vkSj mls fugkjrk gSA .r ikssrsa] ftlls oks nqckjk bZaV ls cuh nhokj tSlk fn[kus yxsA vxj vki .k x.knk gksf'k.kj rks vkidk iM+kslh gS & oks cl . designers and builders put a lot of little “extras” on to their buildings to make them.

for no good reason.k NTtk [kqn . . cu.dne uhps NTtk ns[kus dks feyrk gSA dHkh&dHkh rks daØhV ds NTtksa ds pkjksa vksj yksx ukS&bap mQaph eqaMsj Hkh cka/ nsrs gSa vkSj mlesa ls ikuh fudkyus ds fy. Don’t do it. All this means money and trouble. njoktksa vkSj f[kM+fd.d vke felky gSA nhokj ds ckgj yVdrh Nr bl dke dks csgrj djrh gSA dHkh&dHkh rks vkxs fudyh Nr ds .k! bu lc esa iSlksa dh fiQtwy[kphZ vkSj cjcknh gSA . A good roof overhang would have served the purpose better.d ikbWi Hkh ?kqlk nsrs gSaA okg jh vDy! /wi vkSj ikuh ls cpus ds fy.COMMON money wasters are the little sunshades of reinforced concrete and plaster over windows and doors. Sometimes you see the roof overhang AND a sunshade immediately beneath it! Very often there is not only the thin concrete slab which forms the canopy or sunshade and then. a little nine inch high parapet wall is added all round the outer edge of the sun shade and a little spout or pipe is inserted to let out water which will accumulate.d NksVh lh ikuh dh Vadh cu x.slk u djsaA .ksa ds mQij vkj lh lh (RCC) vkSj iyLrj ds NTts cukuk fiQtwy[kphZ dh .

k 9&bap dh nhokj vkjke ls mQij dh Nrksa vkSj iQ'kksZa dk Hkkj lg ldrh gSA blds fy. vkj lh lh (RCC) ds [kEcksa dh t:jr ugha gSA buls dsoy [kpkZ c<+rk gSA .u djus okys bathfu. Beams unnecessarily protrude and are often doubled.THE top right hand picture shows one of the currently fashionable reinforced concrete gimmicks beloved by Engineers and Fancy Architects.kfu yksgs vkSj daØhV ds <kaps dh t:jr gh ugha gksrh gSA lk/kj.k x. These latter are merely an extra expense. bu fp=kksa esa fn[kk.k gS fd fdl rjg nhokj ds pkjksa vksj cuk NTtk nhokj dh fgiQktr djrk gSA mQijh ck. Ordinary 9-inch brick walls (etc.jksa ds fnekx dh mit gSA blesa csgn fiQtwy[kphZ gSA blesa 'kgrhjs ckgj dks fudyh gSa] vkSj vDlj nksgjh gSaA bues <kyw daØhV ds LySc yxs gSa] tks csgn eagxs gSa vkSj mu ij dsoy xnZ vkSj /wy bdV~Bh gksrh gSA 99&izfr'kr rhu&eafty okys edkuksa esa vkj lh lh (RCC) & . and spaces between the RC columns and fitted with sloping slabs of concrete. In 99 cases out of a 100 a complete reinforced concrete frame structure is totally unnecessary for ordinary houses or apartments up to three storeys high.sa gkFk dk fp=k vktdy ds vk/qfud vkSj iQSalh fMtk.) are perfectly adequate to be used as load bearing walls and can well carry the load If floors and roofs without any necessity for RC columns. which are costly and collect dirt and dust.

the houses are very much more comfortable to live in. Pitched roofs absorb less heat and of course still less heat is absorbed if fruit shade trees are grown on the south and west side of houses.knk xehZ lks[krs gSaA <yqvk Nrsa de xehZ lks[krh gSaA .knkj isM+ yxk fn. as seen in the upper sketch. tk.k vkSj if'pe esa dqN iQynkj vkSj Nk.SMALL flat-roofed boxes in long rows absorb a lot of heat from the sun.fn ?kjksa ds nf{k.sa rks ?kj BaMk vkSj vkjkensg gksxkA . tSlk fd mQij okys fp=k esa fn[krk gS fd drkjksa esa cus likV Nr okys NksVs ?kj lwjt dh T.

Government and other building organisations charge “Establishment Charges” which pay for the topheavy infrastructures.k dher esa T. iSls ugha gSaA .THE greatest building need in India is to provide houses for between twenty and thirty million homeless families.j] thi&dkj vkfn dh otg ls muds [kpsZ cgqr T. transport facilities etc. staff.knk deh djuh iM+sxhA ljdkjh fMikVZesaV vkSj vU. If we are to build them at all we must of necessity make all the economies we can. lkeku [kjhnus vkSj etnwjh nsus ds fy.knk gksrs gSaA ljdkj ds ikl 2&djksM+ lLrs] NksVs ?kjksa ds fy. Not enough money remains to buy materials and pay for simple labour to put up 20 million small simple houses. such as their own office blocks. laxBu tks ?kj cukus ds dke esa yxs gSa & oks [kqn vius mQij cgqr vf/d [kpkZ djrs gSaA vkfiQl dk [kpZ] mQaph ru[okg okys bathfu.knk ls T. Hkkjr esa edkuksa dh lcls l[r t:jr mu 2&3 djksM+ ifjokjksa dks gS tks .dne cs?kj gSaA vxj gesa bu ?kjksa dks cukuk gS rks gesa mudh fuekZ.

j vkSj eky [kjhnh vkSj etnwjh dk isesaV nsus ds fy. gesa .A bl izdk'kd dks mu lkjh Vksfy.jksa vkSj vkjdhVsDVksa dh ugha gksaxhA bu Vksfy.saxsA bl egku y{.j vkSj vkjdhVsDV dh ctk. dks iwjk djus ds fy.ksa esa 99&izfr'kr jkt&feL=kh vkSj etnwj gh gksaxsA blds fy. efficiently and beautifully.g Vksfy. iwath dhA rc ge tYnh gh bu <kbZ djksM+ laqnj ?kjksa dks cuk ik. no vans and cars. dqN losZ.saxsA .g ljdkjh] tfVy vkSj eagxs laxBu dHkh Hkh <kbZ&djksM+ edku ugha cuk ik. All we really need is land.A blesa viQlj] bathfu.ksa esa ukius] ykbu ekjus ds fy. dqN eqa'kh Hkh gksaxsA ij bu Vksfy.ksa ds irs ekywe gksaxs] tks ekSdk iM+us ij LFkkuh.IN place of these costly complex organisations we need to isolate this simple. we need one first class administrator-planner at the top . No contractors and no engineers. accountants to pay for materials and labour on the spot. and of course 99. to get 25 million houses built quickly.slh O. Instead of duplicating these big costly organisations all over the country. u gh fdlh eagxs nÝrj vkSj u gh fdlh xkM+h&dkj dh t:jr gksxhA dqN thi vkSj Vªd vo'. yxsaxsA vly esa gesa t:jr gS tehu dh vkSj eky&etnwjh ds fy.9% of our new establishment consists of masons and labourers.d . Again these trained “buyers” will not be architects or engineers. only a few jeeps and lorries.not an architect nor an engineer but a first rate business manager.oLFkk cukuh gksxh tks de [kphZyh gks vkSj tks bl dke dks dkjxj <ax ls iwjk dj ldsA lkjs ns'k esa gesa bu cM+s vkSj eagxs laxBuksa dh udy ugha djuh pkfg. and money for materials and manpower.d dq'ky iz'kkld gksuk pkfg. single-track goal and use the minimum infrastructure: to get this one big task of putting up 25 million houses. /a/s dks le>us okyk .ka bathfu.] lLrs eky ls .g de&ykxr ds <kbZ&djksM+ ?kj cka/ ldsaxsA . At his fingertips must be teams of “buyers” to locate and assemble local. No high rise offices. plentifully available in expensive materials on the sites where these 25 million houses will be built. There will be surveyors to peg out sites and buildings. .

Roly-Poly Compressed Blocks R Stone in Mud RR Laterite or Stone in Mud and Pointed RR Main Walls Mortar Mud R Lime and Sand RR Lime and Surkhi and Sand RRR Lime and Cement and Sand RRRR Lime Cement and Sand RRRR Cement and Sand RRRRR Plaster and Wall Finishes No Plaster Zero Lime Wash over Brick or Mud R Earth. other woods etc. Dung and lime RR Jack Fruit Tree.Inexpensive Stone in Lime or Cement Plaster RRR Brick in Mud and Cement Pointing RRR Brick in Cement Mortar on a Concrete Base RRRRR Brick in Cement or Lime Mortar RRRR Expensive Stone in Cement Mortar on a Concrete Base RRRRR Cement and other fancy blocks in Cement RRRRR Foundation & Basement Mud with Bamboo Reinforcement R Mud Pies. RRR Cement and Sand RRRRR Door and Window Frames No Frame Zero Country Wood RRR Metal Frames RRRR RC Frames RRRRR Door and Window Shutters Brick Jali Zero Single Plank R Board and Baton RRR Wood Panels RRRR Glass and Wood Panels RRRRR Flooring Lime and Surkhi over brickbats R Cement Plaster over brickbats RR Burnt clay tiles over brickbats RRR Double Funicular Shell on Ribs RR RCC filler slab RRR Black or Red oxide and Cement Plaster over Concrete RRRR Various Prefab Units RRR Various Prefab Units RRRR Mosaic over concrete RRRRR Floor between two stories Plank over timber joists RR Thatch on bamboo R RCC filler slab RR Mangalore tile on timber RRR RCC Slab RRRRR Roofing RCC slab RRRRR .

k lhesaV ls fpus iRFkj jj feV~Vh es fpuh bZaVksa esa mQij ls lhesaV dh Vhi pwuk vkSj jsr jj pwuk] lq[khZ jjj lhesaV ls fpuh bZaVsa daØhV ds vk/kj ij jjjj lhesaV ls fpus iRFkj daØhV vk/ kj jjj lq[khZ&pwus .ksa dh pkS[kVsa dksbZ Úse ugha dqN [kpkZ ugha taxyh ydM+h jjj dVgy vkfn jjj tqM+s jjj ydM+h ds iSuy jjjj mQij lhesaV iyLrj jjj daØhV ds jj iwoZfufeZr bdkb.lLrk eagxk uhao vkSj vk/kj ckal }kjk jhbaiQksLMZ jjjjj eq[. nhokj feV~Vh ds ykSanksa ls cuh feV~Vh j feV~Vh ls fpus j feV~Vh ls fpus iRFkjksa ij lhesaV dh Vhi xkjk .k bZaV ij pwus ls iqrkbZ j feV~Vh] xkscj vkSj pwuk jj pwuk lhesaV vkSj jsr jjjj lhesaV vkSj jsr jjjjj njoktksa vkSj f[kM+fd.d iYys VwVh baZVksa ij lhesaV dk iyLrj jj VwVh bZaVksa ds mQij vkj lh lh dk fiQyj LySc jj j ydM+h ds cRrksa ij okys j dbZ cRrksa ls 'kh'ks @ dkap vkSj ydM+h ds iSuy jjjjj jjjjj nks&eaftyksa ds chp ds iQ'kZ vkj lh lh LySc jjjjj idh feV~Vh ds VkWbYl jjj daØhV ds nksgjk dhiuqek [kksy dcsyw jjj vkj lh lh mQij nkuk (ekstsd) jjj . eagxs CykDl jjjjj vkSj jsr jjj pwuk] lhesaV vkSj jsr jjjj lhesaV vkSj jsr jjjjj nhokj dk iyLrj dksbZ iyLrj ugha dqN [kpkZ ugha feV~Vh .ka fiQyj LySc jjj iwoZfufeZr yksgs ds Úse jjjj daØhV ds Úse jjjjj njoktksa vkSj f[kM+fd.ksa ds iYys bZaVksa dh tkyh iQ'kZ VwVh bZaVksa ij lq[khZ&pwuk j dSaph ds mQij ydM+h ds iVjs jj Nr ckal ds mQij iQwl a dqN [kpkZ ugha .k elkyk feV~Vh j iRFkj jj pwus .k lhesaV ls fpuh bZaVsa jjjj lhesaV ls cus vU.

the walls.ksa dh txg tkyh dk bLrseky djsa ftlls fd dher esa vkSj deh vk tk. ds eqrkfcd cnyrh jgrh gSaA bl rkfydk esa phtksa ds eagxs vkSj lLrs gksus ds ladsr ek=k gSaA blesa ewy 'kCn ^bPNk* gSA lkeku vkSj rduhd dk p.A cl bl ckr dks ges'kk è.sa ls nk. From side to side it shows the various alternatives for each building unit.d ^j* ds ekus lLrk vkSj ^jjjjj* ds ekus cgqr eagxkA oSls njsa vkSj dhersa txg vkSj le.sa ls nk.sa rks ugha fn[kkbZ gSa] fiQj Hkh blesa ?kj dh eq[.ha vksj vkSj lcls eagxk eky nk.k x. techniques etc.sa rd ds [kkuksa esa ls fdlh .or one column on the right.ksa dks ^j* v{kj ls n'kkZ. ?kj cuk.ON the opposite page is an OPTION TABLE. that you must choose RRRR for your foundation.d dks pqu ldrs gSaA vxj vkids ikl dqN T.ka rks fn[kkbZ gSa tSls & vk/kj (uhao)] nhokjsa] fdokM+] Nr vkfnA bl rkfydk esa ck. dsoy ^j* pqusaA gks ldrk gS fd vki f[kM+fd.u vkidh ethZ ij gSA vki fdlh Hkh lkeku dks pquus ds fy. You may cut out windows’ and go in for jali. nhokj ds fy.ku j[ksa fd vxj ?kj fuekZ.ha vksj gSA izR. You make your choice in each horizontal line.saxsA <kbZ&djksM+ ifjokj cs?kj gSaA ?kj fuekZ. The letter R at the top right hand corner of each square represents RUPEES.d rkfydk gS ftlesa vki viuh bPNk vkSj {kerk ds vuqlkj pqu ldrs gSaA blesa lHkh laHkkouk. is YOURS! You are not bound to choose one whole column on the left .s gSaA blesa lcls lLrk eky ck. but it shows from top to bottom the various main units in a house the foundations. ca/s ugha gSaA vki ck.k esa yxk gj lkeku eagxk gksxk rc ge dHkh Hkh <kbZ&djksM+ ?kj ugha cuk ik.k lkexzh ds vyx&vyx fodYi fn. the doors.sa rd fuekZ.saA . but then your main walls need only be R.sd [kkus ds mQijh nkfgus dksus esa jQi. It is by no means exhaustive.k dh dher de djsa] vkSj cs?kjksa ds fy.k gSA . The simplest and least expensive ideas are on the left increasing to the expensive method on the right. What must be understood is that we cannot build 25 million houses if our choices come from the right hand side columns! 25 MILLION FAMILIES WITHOUT HOMES! REDUCE BUILDING COSTS AND BUILD THEM NOW! blds igys iUus ij . The choice of materials. in which case there is no ‘R’ in the window column! And so on.knk iSls gksa rks FkksM+s nk. the roof and so on. The important word is “OPTION”. bdkb. One R is a small amount while five RRRRR’s means “expensive” Obviously rate and price vary from place to place and from one period in time to another so we can only indicate which item are likely to be expensive and which are not. ^jjjjj* dks pqusa] vkSj fiQj eq[. Your land may be so bad. If extra funds are available you can choose a little from the right.sa gkFk dk [kkuk pqu ldrs gSaA gks ldrk gS fd vkidh tehu bruh [kjkc gks fd vki vk/kj ds fy.