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by slip ringsand commutators as in slip-ring AC motors. These motors are widely used in industrial drives, particularly polyphase induction motors, because they are robust, have no friction caused by brushes, and their speed can be easily controlled.
1 History 2 Operation and comparison to synchronous motors o 2.1 Synchronous speed o 2.2 Slip 3 Construction 4 Speed control 5 Equivalent circuit 6 Starting 7 Sources 8 References 9 External links
History The idea of a rotating magnetic field was developed by François Arago in 1824, and first implemented by Walter Baily. Based on this, practical induction motors were independently invented by Nikola Tesla in 1883 and Galileo Ferraris in 1885. Tesla conceived the rotating magnetic field in 1882 and used it to invent the first induction motor in 1883; Ferraris developed the idea in 1885. In 1888, Ferraris published his research to the Royal Academy of Sciences in Turin, where he detailed the foundations of motor operation; Tesla, in the same year, was granted U.S. Patent 381,968 for his motor. The induction motor with a cage was invented by Mikhail DolivoDobrovolsky a year later.
stator windings are arranged so that when energised with a polyphase supply they create a rotating magnetic field that induces current in the rotor conductors. the speed of the physical rotor must be less than that of the stator's rotating magnetic field (ns).Operation and comparison to synchronous motors A 3-phase power supply provides a rotating magnetic field in an induction motor. As well as generating rotary motion. induction motors are sometimes referred to as asynchronous machines. an induction motor has a current induced in the rotor. the rotating magnetic field of the stator imposes a torque on the magnetic field of the rotor. induction motors may be used as induction generators or unrolled to form the linear induction motor which can directly generate linear motion. causing rotational motion of the rotor. due to this. the rotor slows slightly until a current is re-induced. The ratio between the speed of the magnetic field as seen by the rotor (slip speed) to the speed of the rotating stator field is unitless and is called the slip. to do this. it is helpful to understand their distinction from a synchronous motor. and it continues as before. By contrast. the speed of the rotor matches the speed of the rotating magnetic field in the stator. A synchronous motor always runs at a shaft rotation frequency that is an integer fraction . In a synchronous AC motor. or else the magnetic field will not be moving relative to the rotor conductors and no currents will be induced. These currents interact with the rotating magnetic field. causing it to rotate steadily. For these currents to be induced. Synchronous speed To understand the behaviour of induction motors. It is called synchronous because at steady state. If this happens while the motor is operating.
In this case. The slip s is a ratio relative to the synchronous speed and is defined as where nr is the rotor rotation speed in rpm. P. a 6 pole motor would have 3 pole pairs. Some texts refer to the number of polepairs per phase. Construction . It can be shown that ns in rpm is determined by where f is the frequency of the AC supply in Hz and p is the number of magnetic poles per phase. takes the place of p in the equation. the synchronous speed of an induction motor is the same.of the supply frequency. Slip Typical torque curve as a function of slip. the number of pole pairs.
induction motors can have any number of phases. since the capacitor generates a second power phase 90 degrees from the single-phase supply and feeds it to a separate motor winding. Squirrel cages were invented by Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky. V. slip ringrotors with windings connected to slip rings replacing the bars of the squirrel cage. W). The stator of an induction motor consists of poles carrying supply current to induce a magnetic field that penetrates the rotor. so they must incorporate some kind of starting mechanism to produce a rotating field. with the magnetic field having the same number of north and south poles. Many single-phase motors having two windings and a capacitor can be viewed as two-phase motors. but twophase motors exist. Induction motors are most commonly run on single-phase orthree-phase power. 4 pole motor (phases here are labelled U. Note the interleaving of the pole windings and the resulting quadrupole field. but cannot produce a rotating field in the motor.Typical winding pattern for a 3 phase. To optimize the distribution of the magnetic field. There are three types of rotor: squirrel cage rotors made up of skewed (to reduce noise) bars of copper or aluminum that span the length of the rotor. Speed control . in theory. the windings are distributed in slots around the stator. and solid core rotors made from mild steel. Single-phase power is more widely available in residential buildings.
When driven from a fixed line frequency. induction motors are usually run so that in operation the shaft rotation speed is kept above the peak torque point. the speed tends to be unstable and the motor may stall or run at reduced shaft speed. the inverters can be expensive. Below this point. However. The theoretical unloaded speed (with slip approaching zero) of the induction motor is controlled by the number of pole pairs and the frequency of the supply voltage. depending on the nature of the mechanical load. . loading the motor reduces the rotation speed. Equivalent circuit The equivalent circuit of an induction motor. then the motor will tend to run at reasonably constant speed. and induction motors were mainly used in fixed speed applications. By varying the line frequency with an inverter. induction motors can be kept on the stable part of the torque curve above the peak over a wide range of rotation speeds.Typical torque curves for different line frequencies. When used in this way. and fixed line frequencies and other start up schemes are often employed instead. many older DC motors have now been replaced with induction motors and accompanying inverters in industrial applications. Before the development of semiconductor power electronics. it was difficult to vary the frequency. However.
Rs and the copper factor 2 of Rr both cause I R losses. During operation. Rr. represented by the inductor Xs. which is why this machine takes up mostly reactive power. Thus. this is an approximation because a nominal torque generated by the cooling of the rotor and stator is not included in the calculation. in contrast to synchronous machines where it is induced only by the reactive current in the stator windings. the two resistances induce magnetic flux. meaning the efficiency improves with increasing load and reduces with temperature. Xr represents the effect of the rotor passing through the stator's magnetic field. Hence. The effective resistance of the rotor. is composed of the equivalent value of the machine's power and the ohmic resistance of the stator windings and squirrel cage.The equivalent circuit of an induction motor has the equivalent resistance of the stator on the left. The idle current draw is often near the rated current. Starting . induction motors are more effective at higher voltages. this is usually more than half the power loss at the rated load. the stator induces reactance. the active current in the rotor increases by Rr. Xs gets smaller with smaller frequency and must be reduced by the delivered drive voltage. since the fan is usually mounted on the rotor. increases engine power losses. The current produces a voltage drop in the cage factor of Rr and a slightly higher one in the stator windings. Above the rated speed or frequency. Holding torques and speeds close to zero can be achieved with vector controls. as Rs. If the torque against the motor spindle is increased. Due to the construction of the induction motor. Today. In these conditions. Rs and Rr are measured automatically and thus can be used on a motor to automatically configure itself and thus protect it from overload. The induction motor equivalent circuit when idle is approximately Rs + Xs. due to the copper and core losses existing without load. the losses increase faster in the rotor than in the stator. In continuous operation. consisting of the copper and core resistance in series. There can be problems with cooling here.
a rotor resistance starter is usually used instead. Although these methods can also be used to start a slip ring induction motor. alternatively. In some designs. auto-transformer and star-delta. The four methods of starting an induction motor are direct on-line. starting is done by a turn of copper wire around one corner of the pole. reactor. such currents may be created by feeding the winding through a capacitor or having it have different values of inductance and resistance from the main winding. usually either by a centrifugal switch acting on weights . imparting to it sufficient rotational character to start the motor. creating an out-of-phase magnetic field. only the starting circuit determines rotational direction. A single phase induction motor rotates either way. the second winding is disconnected once the motor is up to speed.Main article: Motor controller Torque curves for 4 types of asynchronous induction motors: A) Single-phase motor B) Polyphase squirrel cage motor C) Polyphase squirrel cage bar deep motor D) Polyphase double squirrel cage motor It is necessary to provide a starting circuit to start up an induction rotor. as the starting torque is very low and efficiency is not a problem. such shaded-pole motors are typically used in applications such as desk fans and record players. Larger motors have a second stator winding fed with out-of-phase current. rotation may be commenced by manually giving a slight turn to the rotor. These are called shaded poles. it cannot be used in squirrel cage induction motors (SCIMs) because external resistance cannot be introduced in the cage rotor. The current induced in this turn is out of phase with the supply current. For small motors of a few watts.
improving torque. reducing the current through the second winding to an insignificant level.on the motor shaft or a thermistor which heats up and increases its resistance. Other designs keep the second winding on when running. .
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