it,J<i- t i Sy

NASA CR-112237

ADHESIVE-BONDED

SCARF AND STEPPED-LAP

JOINTS

TECHNICAL

REPORT

by L= J o HART-SMITH

Prepared

under

Contract

NAS1-11234

_4

Douglas Aircraft Company McDonnell Douglas Corporation 3855 Lakewood Blvd Long Beach, California 90846

\_:'

XT;

January

1973

for

Langley Research Hampton, Virginia NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND

Center 23366 SPACE ADMINISTRATION

NASA CR 112237

ADHESIVE-BONDED

SCARF

AND STEPPED-LAP

JOINTS

TECHNICAL

REPORT

by L. J. HART-SMITH

Prepared under Contract NASl-ll234 Douglas Aircraft Company McDonnell Douglas Corporation 3855 Lakewood Blvd. Long Beach, California 90846

JANUARY

1973

for

Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia 23366 NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION

ABSTRACT

Continuum of scarf

mechanics

solutions

are

derived

for joints.

the

static

load-carrying account

capacity for The

and stepped-lap plasticity solutions within

adhesive-bonded stiffness

The analyses and thermal which true

adhesive scarf lower practical be the computer critical joint joints continues stepped-lap double-lap ent) step joint

and adherend include a small

imbalance algebraic

mismatch. serves answer are

a simple fraction of

formula cent joint of the

as a close for most to

bound,

a per

geometries first such

and materials. results have ever been obtained

The scarf for and, are

solutions adherends. stepped-lap for from each that bond on the of handles obtained Indeed,

believed Digital

dissimilar for the

programs adherend

developed stresses different

joints, step. for shear scarf both

the The scarf

and adhesive exhibit overlaps with grossly

computed

solutions for long to

behavior the long

double-lap strength joints. the scarf The and

inasmuch

as that

potential overlaps

increase joint

indefinitely exhibit

solutions The

some characteristics computer and the program

joints. lengths weak

stepped-lap

arbitrary have the

(differ-

and thicknesses design to details the

solutions

clarified has been

potentially used effectively

and the joint

remedies. proportions.

program

optimize

KEYWORDDESCRIPTORS

Bonded

Joints Stresses Stiffness Thermal Analysis and Strains Imbalance

Scarf

Joints Joints

Adhesive Adherend Adherend Computer

Stepped-Lap Static

Strength Formulation Joints

Mismatch Programs

Elastic-Plastic Advarced

Composite

iii

F. (NASA CR 2218) and four technical was performed (NASA CR I12235. by the National Hampton. Card and Mr.FOREWORD This report was prepared Corporation. report by the Douglas California Aircraft Company. G. Aeronautics Administration's Research Virginia. The program Langley was sponsored Center. November IgTl and and Space -6. and -8) cover the work. V . Dr. One summary Long Beach. M. McDonnell Douglas under the terms of Contract reports between NASl-l1234. -7. Bush were the Contracting Agency's Technical Monitors. which January 1973. H.

...........2 Computer Strength A....... 6......... A4EG for Elastic-Plastic A........... Illustrations Appendices A............... ........... Computer Program A4EC for Elastic Scarf Joints A.................. for Elastic Strength Scarf Joints Program Computer Bonded A4EF Joints ..3 Computer Bonded A...................... 8............ 5............CONTENTS Section Symbol s .. Introduction Elastic 2... Analysis Elastic-Plastic Discussion Elastic of Parametric .......... Summary l • Page xi 1 3 7 15 23 25 31 37 45 47 49 65 Strength of Bonded 65 Elastic-Plastic 73 of 81 of Stepped-Lap 93 Strength of I03 .............................. ......... of Scarf Analysis Joints of Scarf Effects ......................... 4... 7....................................................... A4ED for Lower Scarf Joints Bound Program of Bonded Program ........ Joints .......................... Joints . vii .. Joints ........................4 ... ..........l ........ 3. ................................ Analysis of Stepped-Lap Analysis Elastic-Plastic Discussion Conclusion References of Stepped-Lap of Design of Stepped-Lap Joints ......................... Strength A4EE for Elastic-Plastic ....5 Computer Program Stepped-Lap Bonded Joints ..........

Distributions Joints Loads for Brittle and Ductile Elastic-Plastic Adhesives Shear Stress in Bonded Stepped-Lap Strengths and Internal ....... 55 56 Mismatch for Bonded 8.. for Bonded Stepped-Lap for Brittle Joints and 59 ..... Optimization Step Lengths .. Elastic Shear Stress Stepped-Lap for Brittle in Bonded If.......ILLUSTRATIONS Figure I. ....................... 62 63 of Details in Stepped-Lap ix .... Effect of Adhesive Adherend Thermal in Reducing Scarf Strength Joints Loss due to ...................... 49 50 Page Notation Effect and Geometry for Adhesive-Bonded Imbalance of Adherend Stiffness on Elastic of Bonded 51 Scarf Joints 4......... and Ductile lO........... Adherend Comparison Ductile of Shear Stress-Strain Characteristics Adhesives Between .. between Dissimilar Adherends ............ of Adherend Stiffness and Thermal Imbalances for Elastic 52 Scarf Joints .. 13........ Notation Practical Fatigue and Geometry Proportioning for Adhesive-Bonded of Stepped-Lap Stepped-Lap Joints to Protect Against 57 Adhesives 58 Failures at Tip of Metal Distributions Joints Adherend ............... Explanation of Non-Uniform Adhesive Shear Stresses in BondedScarf Joints 2. Comparison with Optimized 15................. Plasticity Imbalance Plasticity in Reducing for Bonded Strength Loss due to ...................... Joint Analysis ......... Interaction Bonded 6. ....... 53 Effect of Adhesive Adherend Stiffness Scarf Joints 54 7..... Effect ........ 60 12.................... Stepped-Lap Joints with Uniform Step Lengths and 61 14... Scarf Joint Analysis Strength .. 3.... Thermal Mismatch on Elastic Strength of Bonded of Adherend Scarf Joints 5........ 9..... .. Bonded Joints ......

) coordinate .) of elastic trough in adhesive (in.) origin and/or (longitudinal) displacement axial Non-dimensionalized sense from x) coordinates (different xi .Tcure ) of adherend (longitudinal) parallel to direction of load el = : = = = = Coefficient Adhesive Elastic Plastic Axial of thermal strain shear shear expansion (/°F) Y Ye Yp shear adhesive adhesive strain strain of adherend (in.) of bond) P SGNLD T AT t X Applied load on entire joint between tensile (Ib in.) shear loads Distinguisher Direct stress and compressive resultants in adherends (Ib / in.D CTHERM d E ETR F G m_ Extent Integration constants adherend zone thermal mismatch (in.) (psi) coefficient Non-dimensionalized Length of elastic Young's Adherend Adherend Adhesive Overlap modulus in adhesive bond (longitudinal) stiffness for adherend ratio stress extensional allowable shear (length direct (or ultimate) (psi) representation (psi) modulus for elastic-plastic (in.) b C.An a_c Coefficients adhesive Extents joint of power series for shear stress distribution in layer of plastic stress state in adhesive at ends of bonded (in. / in.) Temperature Thickness Axial change (Toperating (in. .SYMBOLS Ao_.

.n Thickness = = = of adhesive (small) layer (in.p i. -I) of elastic ratio for adherend(s) shear stress (psi) stress (psi) stress (psi) T = T av T = adhesive (maximum) shear = adhesive shear P = Non-dimensionalized coordinate SUBSCRIPTS a_c = Adhesive Elastic (cement) and plastic values of symmetric bonded joint e.2 = = = Inner and outer Different adherends adherends counter at each end of joint I .n = Power series xii .o 1.) 8 Scarf angle Exponent Poisson's Adhesive Average Plastic x/_ = (o) shear stress distribution (in..2.

uniform end that than of The lap each joints represent joint retains a cross between the scarf upper joints limit strain over there and uniform on joint lap of at is on more the stepped-lap joints step. bonding latter What and unsuitable until a scarf recentjoint. joint. the stress The terms of which be effective scarf and/or stress to joints uniform that for One dominant regardless ratio is of equal the to characterisof any ad- for hesive adhesive ratio adherend the peak thermal adhesive mismatch. titanium filaments. on joining is that. In doing model adhesive has been is accounted to Douglas elastic-plastic lap long joints. overlaps. effects directly of realistic are to Severe overlap very mismatch The effects asymptotically zero for long overlaps. to very a specific short or that equations so a series for it a lower could do not solution bound was employed. One objective on efficiency report scarf and quantify so. together dissimilar adherends imposes layer is joint adherend joint stiffness imbalance thermal the is mismatch adhesive for is a limitation not efficiency. so much than of the boron scarf advantage efficiency . limitations plasticity demonstrated tic deduced ductility unbalanced by the for is joints.SUMMARY It has long lap been joints thicker in the known that bonded the scarf joints are has not of or limited been have in well a higher strength understood in efficiency than uniform for ly any the and that sections. was deduced solutions proportions. shear average the lower shear (<z) of the adherend possess extensional an explicit stiffnesses. but overcomes the of severe strength adhesive concentration scarf are joints One advantage and fit is far stepped-lap critical that of it is the joints when more thick the alignment less is joints for a single than interface. which proved to for adherend decrease an algebraic to all the more be so close practically thermal be employed adverse range. in governing standard expression precise joint confined differential functions. used are particularly with and more higher important boron-epoxy flexible edge me_WDers frequently the graphite the former fibers can take conjunction thinner of the Because filaments. stressed along As a consequence its length of of for this as it (essentially) identithese uniformly cal a scarf to analyze between adherends. is a scarf Another joint for suitable brittle boron-epoxy This in laminates is because the panels. solution Even so. Stepped-lap joints.

adherend from which the softer to restrict it is necessary to prevent joints the length of the end step of the stiffer Another characteristic of steps of it from being identified overloaded. parameters. The scarf joint The stepped-lap independently solutions are in terms dimensionalized permits improve joint program is dimensional each step to be varied the most critical so as to be able to identify One key factor detail(s) of the joint. end of the joint quently. .Digital computer FORTRAN IV programs are included for the iterative solutions of nonand and necessary for these problems. stepped-lap by the analyses the internal The steps is that the end three the more critical determine end dominate load distribution and effectively end are found to the load capacity. no effect at the less critical have practically on the load capacity. in the design at the Conse- of stepped-lap joints is that the bond load transfer (less stiff) is concentrated adherend extends.

ing work are are the Severe numerical developof the FORTRAN IV digital by far the to the computer bulk of programs the employed phase represented listed illustrated solutions in investigation. thickness The objective (extensional of this in stiffness) report apply and elastic-plastic to the scarf adhesive and steppedrather than straightcould in not techniques The developed approach used References that remains differential cases. recognized scarf is or to the that. developed case between stiffness-balanced adherends the particular ratio thermal are in such publication of Lubkin on scarf [Reference between in 1957 dissimilar sought for of associated moduli. with structural for uniform References joint of is to (I) of the possible efficiency members the (2) decreases being bonded increasing together. should consideration of e is his dissimias to of 45 Unfortunately the appropriate be of realistic to predictions angle equation scarf no practical so great for (typically excess materials as to For interest bonding materials. analysis lap finite forward joints. shear deed. joint governing parameters. maximum an acceptable (2) explain how. Specific presented stepped-lap This scarf joint necessarily analysis is concerned with the with the the non-uniform together if of the that are adhesive dissimilar adherends the shear adherare stresses ends. order for aerospace the the adhesives less than and adherend 4 degrees in scarf angle bond be restricted potential 3 .I. illustrated whereby 1 for non-uniform of thermal stresses mismatch joints (3)] who. literature these the references are problem. with uniform He omitted the adhesive stress a particular any adherend [I0] end elastic larity. in most equations specific problems closed-form had to be derived. anism Figure The first be that angle It associated that bonding are is well-known It has are only stresses begun to if uniform recently be appreciated the adherends to this is adhesive InThe mechin adherends. use stepped-lap be realized. to set The governing up but. It the is generally of either efficiency lap joints. INTRODUCTION in the bonding joints is together mandatory (I) of if and thick sections. appears scarf of adherto stresses the markedly contains non-uniform very few dissimilar. identical. indicate degrees) together. computer programs solutions Appendices show the are and representative effect for of the non-dimensionalized scarf joints. accuracy continuum mechanics were relatively solutions be overcome and this The elements.

[Reference in 1971. analysis of scarf joints was performed by [see Reference joints were Boron/epoxy-to-boron/epoxy Thermal effects and boron/epoxy-toIn the former in the vi- analyzed.strength to exceed author the adherend [Reference strength(s). of the cross plies. elastic any non- are reported in References Reference (5) to (9) but none of these (lO) included adhesive include mismatch effects. in keeping common design tension to be so small that adhesive (or com- may be neglected in comparison with the shear stresses. but were unable to solve them. with an elastic-plastic for adherend linearly ad- and accounts stiffness and thermal with imbalances. was deduced. good agreement for the first Appendix two. (5)] the present demonstrated with (4)] and Erdogan and Ratwani shear by calculation between the non-uniform adhesive stress associated on scarf joints dissimilar adherends. et al analyses with of difficulties at high load levels. Corvelli . In 1968. Working independently. (lO)] also performed single-lap iterative which theoretical they compared and stepped-lap showing joints their They element analyses. joint. discrete also in the analysis but. while The former work was based derived a perfectly-plastic elastic formulation. cinity finite-element (6)]. adhesive analysis. ities in the load path are excluded the scarf angle is considered pression) stresses and. in view of the much lower modulus While the mathematical restricted stepped-lap solutions thermal the number complexity of solutions joint of equations obtained. the latter from a linearlysolution but at Consequently neither afforded a complete both demonstrated clearly that the adhesive load transfer is concentrated The present elastic that end of the joint solution herends utilizes from which the softer adherend adhesive model extends. were neglected. In the latter case a markedly more load being with significantly and from the 0 ° plies This is to be expected in the laminate than occurred with the + 25 ° plies. non-linear Calcote. for the stepped-lap Grimes. were identified relatively small (<41) stress concentrations Their existence of the ends of the scarf. governing the scarf joint has of the a number of investigations Finite-element adhesive-bonded have been performed. Eccentricpractice. formulated the scarf joint equations (see their A) in greater and Sale_ detail than is done here. an elastic Richards aluminum case. and adherend linear behavior convergence [Reference double-lap. had not been demonstrated non-uniform transferred stress to prior to that distribution investigation. encountered Wah.

and single-lap joints than did the adhesive shear stresses [see References (1) and (2)]. The success of this elastic-plastic adhesive approach in these simpler problems led to the decision to apply the sametechniques to the scarf and stepped-lap joints in this report.[Reference (II)] developed analysis techniques for bonded joints which included analytical solutions for stepped-lap joints. particularly at the outermost steps. who represented the adhesive and interlaminar shear characteristics by six straight segments. The boron filaments are too thick (0.and single-lap adhesive-bonded joints using an elastic-plastic adhesive formulation [see References (12) and (13)]. In actual design practice for scarf and stepped-lap joints. In practice the stepped-lap joint contains a large number of small steps and closely approximates the behavior of the equivalent scarf joint. The present author had earlier derived such solutions for double. The adhesive-bonded stepped-lap joint is of practical interest principally because of extensive use in the bonding of boron-epoxy to titanium edge members. and too hard to machine. but in a less comprehensive form Past attempts to include non-linear adhesive behavior in the analytical solutions have centered around the Ramberg-0sgood representation which has a smooth continuous characteristic. than presented here. The only difference is marked for very brittle (high-temperature) adhesives and is the adhesive shear stress (and strain) concentrations at the ends of each step. The precise shape of the stress-strain curve appeared to be unimportant. the author's elastic-plastic solution was in good agreement with the discrete element solutions by Teodosiadis [Reference (14)]. This belief was further reinforced in Reference (1) by the derivation of precisely the same potential bond shear-strength for any arbitrary bi-elastic adhesive characteristic having the same strain energy and failure stress and strain. This has precluded the derivation of any explicit closed-form solutions. to be as suitable for the more efficient scarf joints as the very thin graphite fibers are. It transpired that peel stresses imposed more severe limitations for thick double. These showedthat the adhesive shear strain energy per unit bond area was the necessary and sufficient adhesive characteristic governing the potential bond shear strength.005 inch). the slope is small and the end step is 5 . In addition.

are recorded in the computer programs prepared from the analyses for their use. and design procedures.invariably any unusual Reference thin so there is no way for severe joint. the analysis peel problem. For in stepped-lap outer end step. (1) can be employed to assess any potential This report considers joints in turn elastic and discusses and elastic-plastic parametric effects analyses of scarf and stepped-lap The digital Appendices. along with brief instructions . with a thick peel stresses to develop.

elastic adhesive be considered e is considered of adhesive removed. as a function of the axial coordinate x are (Et)l = Eltl(l . (6) . (Et)2 = E2t2(_) • (3) The adhesive bond. Figure eccentric elastic-plastic should angle effect 2 depicts bonded the scarf solutions. (2) in which the adherend thicknesses. that cose = i and e = o. ELASTIC ANALYSIS OF SCARF JOINTS for the for the analysis both plastic the of a nonand zones geometry joint. dx (Et) 2 + _2AT . introducing non-dimensionalized co-ordinate xl_ . with practical This is quite aerospace legitimate materials.2._) . is omitted In other The scarf words. shear strain is taken to be uniform across the thickness of the That is y = (a2 al)In as • (4) The elastic adhesive shear stress T = it Gy is follows : G(62 . accounting for (I) thermo- The stress-strain effects. for the small scarf angles associated The conditions the joint are of horizontal equilibrium for a differential element dx within dT I dT2 = o . so small That is. d61 relations yield T1 for the elastic d62 T2 -dx = --+ (Et) I aIAT .61)/n to stress non-dimensionalize Tp and the bond the overlap. the peel stresses from consideration. In and nomenclature The the diagram former serves case. solution (5) In with solving respect these to the equations the peak desirable shear axial ¢ = adhesive Thus. set a = c _ 0 and b = _. dx dx = o adherend materials.

a series solution is sought.__ __d_l] (lO) (2). with the aid of equations to the solution (n-1)An¢ i ( n-2 ) _ G£ _ (e 2 _ al)A T + _3) £ T E2t2 i __ An n ¢(n-1) P_ + . having the form QO T __ T = _A n ¢n-i (7) p 1 as critical 1 . for the adherend forces per unit width. leads de Substitution of the series T nLd_ p _¢ J (7) and (9). T2 = Tp_ n 1 (9) Now equation (5) is differentiated. it is more above than the derivative straightforward governing equation. equations in this case. T 1 = T&v _ Xp£___n_n ¢n n 1 A . _ G [c162.¢) av Eltl(1 p Eltl(1 . While a if necessary single above.¢) 1 n cn (ll) . The solution proceeds from equation (7). d(T/ xp). This is why a series to work here and. Substitution into equation (1) yields. by interchange of the identifying equation non-linear it cannot differential has been derived from the equations solution in terms is employed of the be solved directly. We define the adherend l end of the joint A 1 - so that (8) subscripts i and 2.

(13) the non-dimensionalized thermal mismatch term is _(OL2 . the equation directly into a form for solution by recurrence G£ G£ 2 T (i ._1)a_(l T q P .¢) converts relations. (14) and the adherend ETR(1) = stiffness ratio .¢) _(n-l)An¢(n-2) 1 = ----(_2 . non-dimensionalized overlap is given by the square (X£) 2 n + _Ye -itl + E 2 .1 )AT CTHERM(1) = CTHERM(2) - CTHERM(1) .Multiplication suitable throughout by (z .ETR(1)] _ A _'_ ncn 1 n . is ETR(2) = E2t 2 / Eft I (15) Eft I / E2t 2 It is interesting lap joint to note that precisely (1)]. certain the greatest coverage with the minimum number of The non-dimensional parameters root of are introduced.0. Equation the same variables (12) then becomes govern the double- [see Reference (X£) 2 _[(n-l)A n (n-2)An_l]¢ (n-2) = (_£)xCTHERM(1)x(I .¢) - T x av i (I£)2ETR(1) + [I+ETR(1)] _ An _"_ 1 n (I£)211 #(n-l) + [I+ETR(1)] . (16) 9 .¢) - av qElt 1T P + __ G£2 q [(i-¢) E2t2 __ _An 1 n ¢(n-1) + __ i Eltl _An 1 n ¢n ] (12) In order to give the solution independent variables.

quite generally. ETR(1) <_ 1 (Interchange 1 and 2 if necessary. [ + (I_) 2 A2 (I£) CTH]_RM(1) AI (19) + m_(1)] • + _ i) while. is the local end effect identified 10 . From the coefficient of ¢0. It remains now to establish the initial conditions by examining the coefficients of the ¢0 and ¢i terms. overlap by throughout of any The only minor exception in Reference (6). relation An = I = (n-2)An_ 1 + (I£) 2 [( 1 + (t£)2[1 + l_-_rR(1)/n-i C + P E_nR(l_)n_-_] ) -1 .l_-_i]R(1)]A1 + ErI_R(1) - A21 2 . adhesive length. conclusively possible. 2A 3 . adherend the entire behavior of bonded scarf joints.) (21) This surprisingly simple result proves to dominate adhesives.By rearranging the limits = E[ (n+l)An+ 2 nAn+l]_)n of the series it follows that (1_) 2 T x a____v = (I£)xCTHERM(1)x(I - ¢) - l (I£)2_I_R(I) + [I+ETR(1)] E i = A n+l n-i @n + [i + ETR(1)] (I£)211-ETR(1)] [i+ m_(1)] Tp oo A E i ncn n • (17) For large values the recurrence of n. on setting is deduced to zero the coefficient as of the term ¢n-2. Richards even for elastic-plastic the importance This equation stiffness demonstrates whenever the of maintaining balance When this is maintained. from the coefficient of ¢1.A 2 (t_) CTH_RM(1)+ I [i . for long overlaps (large of _). is essentially uniformly in the absence stressed of any thermal the entire mismatch. (20) It follows values T a___v + T P from equation (19) that.

computer program (26) procedure employed in the FORTRAN in Appendix Al is as follows. T av T P = A1 x to employ two arbitrary constants That is to The first two are chosen. The coefficient in terms A3 for each (20). SIG(3) and in equation (22) by means (20) and (18) after AI and AI The solution listed = i . it follows integrating equation T av T A = _ 1 n n (22) p In using this series satisfy the boundary it is necessary conditions. (7) that in terms of equations (18) to (20). set of iniThen a tial values number (25) and (26) is evaluated order coefficients the same number are of equation of higher are evaluated being then evaluated substituted in turn through for into sIo(3) equation as the recurfor (19) SIG(4). these summations takes on the form A2 Z + [Z +m_(Z)] SZG(b) = (_) CT_(Z) + [Z+_(Z)] szo(3) (27) [Z+ _TR(1)] II . A2 = 1 for SIG(4) IV digital . which rence relation The results of (18). T a___v= T SIG(3) + A 2 x SIO(4) .) are the quantities of equations formed by evaluating the set- The summations coefficients ting. A2 = 0 for SIC(3) (25) = 0 .Returning by now to the solution. because of equation (8). (24) p SIG(I. in turn. SIG(3) + A 2 x SIG(4) (23) and.

equation (18) is re-organized form (n-l) (n-2) + (I£) 2 + \n-l! + ETR(1) \n-i/ [n(nI)] l + ETR(1) n-2/] The reason for this is the factor(_£)2in this. n is the decision to evaluate terms A /n of the average tities A n series (22) directly rather than the quanto the of the series (7). internal even with as many as 50 terms of the shear of overflow in the computer. In spite of this problem. condi- from a computation A negative adherends Tav/_p value that was violated. 12 . of the joint. The detailed certain discussion of parametric effects is presented in Section 5 but features of the mathematics The most important stress of the numerical feature solution merit elaboration the at this stage. values of A n equation a much higher equations (29) and (18). mismatch of between Tav/T p indicates joint will break such apart severe prior to any mechanical loads. be at one end or other (27) converges (for progressiveA1 used equation 20 (28). addition an extremely reliable identifies the more strength It tion thermal application is starting obvious (8) that value critical each of Tav/Tp can be computed readily. for long overlaps. (18) than to reach negligible values of An/n from (29). To do so. however. Such a computation is of little importance. within of equation rapidly. since the critical location must however. to reach Because of value of n is needed negligible from equation Indeed. even with the use of equation to compute reliable (29) rather than equation stress distributions stress (18) it remained for long overlap series because impossible joints. because The A2 is program divided evaluations in by Appendix (_)2 in SIG(3) to this. The program end by the simple expedient of estimating the end of of the joint and selecting > i of the signifies the simply lower that value. In n) the first five successive and SIG(4).The unknown re-arranged T av A 2 is then to be evaluated and substituted into equation (19) in the form [l + ETR(1)] CTH RM(Z) = E (1) + T P [i A2 (28) This equation establishes the potential bond shear strength. usually ly increasing terms.

whether may nullify is CTHERM(1) may be either than or greater any independently thermal This (_) the is less mismatch possibility in the even overpower for term given short in stiffness imbalance because of evidently of joint the greatest thermal between such overlaps equation denominator end of and. for in-plane A more precise of thermal shear loading would necessarily a two-dimensional 13 . thermal be seen terms reference change the loads all Figure This 2 that implies the the with joint joint the quantities in is the strain absence for is the the any thermal mismatch same end of and that critical tensile Rather terms. event have that been the set up for load applied is tensile loads it thermal in can the ad- applied all that. the El GI case of in-plane and E2 in equation is covered equations affects by the analysis based which in-plane on it induce shear replacing moduli at at by the bond shear and G2 and neglecting angles to those of stresses except right the mechanical adherend loads sides of the joint. is also stiffness joints. load and that between mis- the opposite the strength end of the same joint may be critical for a reversed may not be the same if there Likewise. positive severe effects. the (28). (28) that the more ambiguity arises critical as the result of the negative than or unity. direc- concentrations joint for a load in the reverse analyses in Reference above By analogy with the double-lap shear loading (2) and those the concern thermal for (1). with will effects. except the of both same. the factor that mismatch of terms. It should be noted that. compressive. imbalance the adherends.The computation is effected quantities. adherend sign of (I) In and (2) the to sign. indeed. it is always end (1) is that regard to adherend from equation The possible Since ETR(1) or imbalance to identify E_R(Z) < Z. may well by the It follows critical adherends was predicted change as the overlap program changes output. possible for which thermal of joint strength proceeding from the other end of the joint by simply With interchanging the subscripts stiffness l and 2 on all affected alone. aggravate any stiffness the stress effects for one load direction. for compressive as a consequence. and compressive than the change program the strength exception quantities of merely loading changes rather the signs of CTI_IRM(I) and CTHEILM(2) tO account than tensile loading. behavior computer Equations herends. just as for double-lap imbalance if the thermal match terms nullify they must tion. forces effects The direct forces T I and T2 are replaced representation require by shear s I and s2 per unit length.

analysis rather than the one-dimensional solution above and the justification for doing so is minimized by the small amountof adhesive plasticity that even the real brittle adhesives exhibit.

14

3. The preceding tive portions difficulties fic answers

ELASTIC-PLASTIC analysis

ANALYSIS

OF SCARF

JOINTS formula-

elastic

covers essentially scarf joint encountered

the most difficult analysis.

of the elastic-plastic of major proportions

New numerical of speciis

were

in the generation part

by the computer

program,

but the plastic geometry

of the analysis

straightforward. tified

The necessary Equations

additional

and nomenclature

are identhe

in Figure 2.

(1), (2) and (4) continue

to apply, with

substi tuti ons _x as appropriate.
= _ P

=

_ at

=

_ ax

=

_ at by the relation
0 <_ _ _<

(30)

Equation
for 0

(5) is supplemented
< _ _ < _ a and

o

(31)

The relations
(Et) I =

(4) for the adherend
Eltl(l _ C) =

stiffnesses
a - _ - X)

are replaced

by
a - _ - b [ - _) (32)

Elt1(l

=

Elt1(l

and (33)

(Et) 2

=

E2t2 _

=

E2t2

a +

X

=

E2t2

+ _

+

In the elastic power

zone, the location is sought:

of which

has yet to be determined,

the same

series solution
O0

O0

T
m._

£..An X(n-l) 1

or

Y -Ye

=

_--_AnX (n-l) 1

(34)

p

again with the joint.

AI = 1 by definition

of adherend

1 as the more

highly

loaded end of

In the left adhesive adherend

plastic

zone

of the joint

illustrated

in Figure

2, the

forces per unit width
TI = • £ - T £{

follow
and

from equations
T2 = T £_ p

(I) and (31) as
.

(35)

av

p

15

Substitution

into equation (4), making use of equations (2), yields

6 2 - 61

: -<o__,)_+ -T
n o y =

l[

/T2
(Eltl) (i_)

0

_:J
-

/T1 d 1 2
(36)
_ + C ,

_[,
-n

m 2 - ct 1)AT£_

+ _p£2 E2t2

g +

/(_ - _v'_
0

d_

_]
Eltl

(37)

Y

=

1

(a 2 -

al)AT£

_ + 'r £ 2 • -P [E2t2

[1

E t:l £n(1-

()

+

C .(38)

The appropriate
Y

boundary
: Ye

conditions
+ Yp

are that at _
= o

(39)

and
Y : Ye

at

C

=

a/_

(40)

Consequently,

from equations

(39) and (38), (41)

C

=

(Ye + Yp)

so that, from equations

(40) and (38),

Yp

-

-

a2 _ _I)AT£

+ • £2 . _ - -P E2t 2 Eft I

Eltl

£n

-

. (42)

Equation

(42) may be non-dimensionalized It then adopts the form
+ (t£) 2

by use of the quantities

in equations

(13) to (15).
= (t£)

CTHERM(1)

c)

+

(I£) 2

i+ _R(1)

[l-(Tav/Tp)]

'

£n

[1+mm(1)]

(i

-

_)

(43) In solving for the joint strength it is necessary to elastic to maintain adhesive continuity at

the transition tinuity

(_ = a/L) from plastic stresses requires

behavior.

The con-

of adherend

that there be no change

in dy/dx.

From equations

(4) and (2)

dy --

=

I -- [( oi2

-

Ct )AT I

+

(44)
T2 _ (Et)2 T1 ] (Et)l

ax

n[

16

(I£) 2 I-ETR(1) Z+ m_(z) + (I£)211 . stress distribution 2.(Tav/Wp) ] (a/£)] (45) [1 + ETR(1)][1 For the elastic side. T2 : T £ . can now be evaluated by a recur- just as in Section Under certain combinations of stiffness adhesive and thermal shear mismatch between adherends there will be no second plastic stress zone at the far end of the evaluation the series than a second to (I) Figure and the joint while under others of (34) unity plastic 2._) _ p _ . evaluating the unit far end width the of are greater of indicates adhesive adherend a need zone. (a/£) of of by means of this the ratio presence × = 1 A value affects the Tend/T p < Z.T £(Tcp _) (47) av Substitution sion d(Y/ye) of equations (47) and (33) into equation (44) leads to the expres- = d_ The transition d(Y/Y e) dy _=0 O __ • _ P (u2 _ Ul)AT£ T £2 _ p+ E1t I T £2 lO E2t 2 as (T p -T av )£2 (48) _+ _] £ (E2t2)[l- relation at _ = o follows 211- (Wav/Wp) ]ETR(1) c (I£) CTmmM(1) (i£)21 -EE(1) 1+ [i + _m(z)](z . in non-dimensionalized form. the elastic rence formula.or. equation d(Y/Y e) (34) requires that : dx X=0 A2 (46) Since AI _ l._) (49) 17 . stress at In the former case. the the will elastic lead adhesive to a result for at per shear there will be. Referring through again equations evaluated (31) as TI : T £_'r. forces joint. for the plastic side of the transition d(Y/Y e ) = d_ = a/_ (I£) CTmmM(1) .

(12) 2 [i. for long overlaps. This numerical problem boundary evaluation of d(Y/ye)/d X at X = (b/Z) to match plastic adhesive zone. [i + _(i)] A comparison changing whether of equations (43) and (53) shows complete While equation (53) could consistency be employed upon interto identify subscripts 1 and 2. since Y = Ye at _ = o . = (_£) CTmmM(1) _ (_£)2 + mm(1) + (12) 2 Tav/_P £n - . yielding _l + _R(1) (12) CTmmM(1) _ . the only reason why it proved trough. (50) (51) [i 1 (12) 2 )]mm(1) c (Tav/TP £n(l-[) + C [i + m_(1)] shear strain . this of the (12) 2 factor accuracy in the very small term was able to overpower numerator prevented conditions of the recurrence the reliable formula the influence (18). zone in Figure 2 is more critical there is once the extent an inherent (e/c) had been established. numerical in the step by step computation It was explained in Section shear of the strength for the be the by the procedure perfectly-elastic computed joint. possible outlined 2 that. only the average adhesive stress could along and not the stress distribution In the computer to evaluate program as a function of position in Appendix A3. (52) Signifying definition) by Ymax the peak adhesive at the less critical (by right hand end of the joint.(Tav/Tp)]ETR(1) c _ (_£)2 £n(l . (34)._ + _) + C [i + _R(1)] in which. was the extent of the elastic the factor [i-(a/£)-(0/£)] n-1 < 1 in equation At high values of n. at the transition solution of the second Consequently possible an iterative had to be employed to evaluate the maximum 18 .Equation (48) may be integrated = once. the left or right hand end of the joint of the second plastic difficulty above. adhesive.

(54) (a/Z) so that a(Tav/T p) / d(a/C) + a (1-_-)Cn(l-_-) & = (_c) 2 e . it can be seen that. It is significantly conservative adhesives only for very short [very small laps [small values of (_c)] or very brittle values of (yp/Ye)].ETR(1)] - (55) (_) (54) yields. for the minimum Substitution (stat{onary) of equation value of (55) into equation (Tav/_p) [i + ETR(1)]CT_(1) a--t = ETR(1) + v T P + -- a{ c [i .[i ETR(1)]CT_(1) + [i + ETR(1)]CTHERM(1) [i . Equation This difficulty was eventually to read overcome by the following (43) was re-arranged [I+ETR(1)] yp + i : 1 Cn[lThis can be differentiated = 0 with when respect to (a/g)] (I_)2 Ye (>. In the scarf for elastic-plastic were encountered if the initial estimates and (a/g) were not sufficiently close to the true values. (56) This is evidently consistent with (a/z) = 0 for large estimated of over- overlaps joint and.ETR(1)] - [_ + m_(_)]CTHmM(_) 1 (_c) the elastic solution . The adhesive (56) implicitly through shear strain capacity yp is involved in equation the extent (a/g) of the plastic zone. Equation (55) 19 .[1-ETR(1)] . upon subsequent proved comparison with the more precisely close lower bound strengths. to be an extremely for all cases practical interest. in the iterative solution process.C) .extent of the elastic trough. Referring to equations (45) and (46). technique. the second term of the elastic adhesive shear stress series A2 depends on the preceeding estimates of both (a/g) early development joints of the digital convergence computer program insurmountable for (_av/Tp) difficulties and (Tav/Tp).

as appropriate) hesive at the more critical analysis). small that Specifically. This program and in Appendix A2 served to provide precise solution the initial estimates A3. one adherend will fail if the scarf angle e is so e < T/F u . included in Appendix A3. proved to be quite convergent. strength(s) a potential problem with the adherend if the scarf angle is too small.is solved equation digital with by iteration (56) or (54). overlap of for preferring adhesive the load transfer overlap than with a longer of brittle The extreme shear case of making the overlap so extremely long that the peak adhesive 20 . imbalance across the joint from equation rein- of the softer problem It is evident (17) that this adherend of peak of breaking off the tip of (usually) the brittle adhesives the stiffer likely to arise with shear stress (higher values _p) than with ductile to effect adhesives. (Tav/T p) and (c/L) after which (_av/_p) is recomputed and the estimate of (a/L) adjusted until convergence is attained. the potential bond shear strength Brief is computed from each end of the joint and sample outputs are and the lower value adopted. the solution by local to decrease forcement potential is more adhesive reason ductile the adherend stiffness adherend. to evaluate Appendix employed (a/L) and the result substituted a listing into IY A2 contains of the FORTRAN computer program to solve equations (55) and (54). (where F U (57) compression. end of the joint this situation shear stress Should arise. of (a/L) (Tav/_ p) in the more listed in Appendix The sequence of variables used in the solution is (a/L). the bond with an adequate margin. with This is one important a shorter adhesive. user instructions The analyses above for scarf joints that a small enough strength through pertain scarf to adhesive shear stresses and it is demonstrated angle can always be found to transfer There is. the full adherend of course. by the adis is the ultimate adherend stress in tension. strongly divergent The iteration after other eventually of equation re-arrangements (55) demonstrated characteristics. (identified or shear. together technique sample outputs adopted and brief user instructions. In those cases in which the critical end is not evident by inspection.

21 .stress actually developed is restricted to a small fraction of its capacity when adherend failure occurs outside the joint has theoretical appeal only. frequently being quite impractical.

for a given overlap (_).4. It is clear that the effects being significant are insignionly for those for very short and very long overlaps. important lap always adhesive. shear stresses characteristic. This is that the potential overlap. a joint in which the potential bond strength exceeds by any specified adherend factor. probability of breaking detail off the tip of the stiffer as its counterpart to exceed While joints. (in tension. This diagram. are proportional to the individual imbalances. 23 . Figures 3 and 4 showthe separate effects of adherend stiffness and thermal mismatch. This continues contrast develop indefinitely with increasing to the behavior maximum of uniform which lap joints [References (1) and beyond bond (2)]. This is amply demonstrated combine by curve to decrease for long of this D in Figure While stiffness and thermal of curve mismatch the bond efficiency overlaps below the unit value A. there adherend. an unbalanced problem of scarf joints it would than they do in the case of uniform to conclude that one could be erroneous scarf joint within is that. in which shear. design Nevertheless. not as acute a design this feature restricts problem for stepped-lap the scarf e : angle the value (58) compression. on the elastic joint strength. av p more than any other. of this by making on the potential sufficiently of scarf joints angle small. or ARCTAN(Xp/F u) strength load). The effect of stiffness imbalance is a smooth decrease from a fully-efficient bond (T = T ) to a less efficient bond (T < _ ) asymptoting towards the solution av p given in equation dominant strength in marked feature (21). Fu is the adherend ultimate as appropriate for the applied The effect of adherend is shown thermal mismatch on the potential bond strength of scarf joints ficant in Figure 4. DISCUSSION F PARAMETRIC O EFFECTS Representative solutions from Sections 2 and 3 for unbalanced bonded scarf joints are illustrated in Figures 3 through 7. respectively. The deviations from unity in the (TaV/Tp) ratio. the one can always design adherend strength 4. is role in the strength joints. which intermediate strength strengths remain effectively characteristic the scarf constant overlaps. the bond strength As a consequence play a far more ends up being proportional the elastic adhesive to the overlap. the capabilities angle becomes of an elastic The limiting a strong as the scarf very small. The effect is that. characterizes the bond is of the scarf joint to increase behavior.

the joint will the application lap joints of any mechanical Quite unlike the behavcan be elimi- [References (1) and (2)]. this problem of the overlap. alone. the thermal mismatch and the set dominate over those from stiffness more critical showing how. thermal Curves A. masking plasticity. of using high peak shear stress than a brittle able to of very high peak shear stress the variation in joint is that the joint inevitably is better load which occurs as the result of Another benefit manufacturing imperfections and non-uniform load distribution. net area loss on the cross-section 24 . respectively. C and F form another there is a range adherend thermal mismatch. at (_) between adherend stiffness and thermal mismatch. = 2 for all Figure 5 shows the interaction Curves B. The extent of this strength mismatch.overlaps of practical values of the thermal interest. at the more critiIf the tip of the impose an effective end [see equation were allowed adherend to be broken off. over- For each amount shear is an associated lap below which the bond can be uniformly overlaps fluence the asymptotic of any adhesive solution stressed. In the overlaps available of practical interest. Curve = 3. For indefinitely completely large the in- (21) again holds. there in Figures 6 and 7 for stiffness of adhesive plastic and thermal strain. completely by sufficient extension Just as is the case for uniform the potential shown lap joints adhesive plasticity can increase increase is bond shear strength. mismatch The effects coefficient are maximum (_) at CTHERM. is that the problem cally loaded stronger of breaking off the tip of the adherend (58)] is greatly alleviated. of overlaps split for which the residual apart without ior of uniform nated stresses are so severe that loads. end of the joint for severe is reversed. this would of the weaker adherend. B showing the ef- one set of solutions. D and E represent imbalance as well. Curve with curve fect of stiffness thermal adherend mismatch mismatch D adds the influence the behavior of compounding E demonstrates For values arising of self-cancelling imbalances effects of (_) less than 3. adhe- the actual amount sives can improve a ductile adhesive withstand adhesive of adhesive plasticity joint from real structural One benefit rather the potential of moderately strength greatly.

the samediagram serves also for the elastic-plastic analysis.AT 1 is (60) shear strain. Peel stress problems are ignored on the grounds that the outermost end steps are invariably thin enough (in good design practice) not to induce significant peel stresses in the adhesive. to interrelations o and i mathematically. necessary that it is. ELASTIC ANALYSIS STEPPED-LAP OF JOINTS The analysis for the strength of stepped-lap adhesive-bonded joints contains features of both the uniform lap joints [References (1) and (2)] and the scarf joint above. 1 1 + _.6 )/n 1 0 • (62) 25 . on occasions. = 0 . do likewise. The thermo-elastic for the adherends d8 d_. surrounding 1 equations for a differential element of one dT. res- and the factors 2 in equations (59) account for the two bond surfaces thicknesses 1 the inner adherend. refer to the total nature change of the solution the subscripts are T 0 0 cross-section is such and the forces and T. This begins with the equilibrium of the steps.5. i 6 ) / o (61) to the shear strain by the while the elastic relation adhesive shear stress is related T : Gy = G(6. i = dx The adhesive E t 0 0 + _ o AT . Consequently the adherend T 0 to and The t. 1 T. y lap shear n loading. dT ---9-0 23 + dx Here the subscripts pectively.t. for tensile : (a. A representative idealized stepped-lap joint is shown in Figure 8. . along with the sign convention and nomenclature necessary for the analysis. Just as for the scarf joint analysis. Likewise. so it contains information not necessary for the elastic analysis. - -dx _ E. ___z _ 2_ clx to the "outer" = 0 (59) o and i refer and "inner" adherends. the small eccentricity in the load path has been ignored in the interests of obtaining a useful uncomplicated design tool.

ire f + s.t. A4. + E o = _2_ .The solution proceeds just as in Reference (I). that step. Integrating again. [ ref 12 12 1 1 lI A B (_x)] . used to of solve the equations solution ing with stress).2 T sinh(Ax) equation T o and T. In the for it proves convenient to adopt the start of each step as the origin of equations (69).i] . (67) The values solution of T °ref and T. The key 26 . assumed values proceeds. z = T Ore f B .2---_osh(_x) .2 T [cosh(Ix) (66) . ATx + -Ti x + 2---cosh(Ix) + 2--{sinh(lx)1 E. Zref depend upon the origin of x adopted. Zre f A + 2 T sinh(Ix) B + 2 T [cosh(Ix) . by means 6 o and 6. one joint adhesive step at a time startshear strain (or so of the load and initial The latter is set at the maximum adhesive shear allowable strain and remains it is computed that the peak adhesive is greater elsewhere strain (most probably is reduced at the other end of the joint) as necessary in which case the initial as much to avoid exceeding the allowable. listed in Appendix joint.2--{sinh(_x)_2 _2 (Xx)] ] 1 (68) = 6. (69) In the FORTRAN IV digital computer program. -a z o )AT ] (63) = dx 2 The solution of equation (64) is = where ditions the for integration each step.i] : T. unless above for the elastic The solution stepped-lap the technique is as follows. (64) A cosh(_x) + B sinh(_x) to be determined into equation by boundary (59) yields (65) con- constants A and B are of Substitution A .m G[Ti Tn L IEit i o Eoto + (a. dT dx G Id6i n [ dx d6 1 dx _. 1 = 6 + _ ATx + _ Ore f o E t o o T °ref x .

quite difficult. Ti' equations complete 6o and _i at the end of that step then (69) and (62). 1 So) AT ] (71) so that at x = o B = -q_ i _ ___o__o + Eoto (a. 1 - (*)AT o x= 0 . This was not the result It follows directly from of in conditioned physical characteristics be they of stepped-lap or bolted. estimate to act at the near is adjusted the two quantities step by step.equation evaluated at the in the solution specified the step is equation (or (65). To._ i _IEit _ i ___o_o + T E ot o (a. shear to identify margins as much as the most critical are identified. a check is made throughout adhesive and adherend the joint. even conditions (load and peak adhesive figures. do match. locations. also evaluated -d'_ dx = A_ sinh(_x) + B_ cosh(Xx) = __ G[T. joints. to be transferred follow from one (65). That B derives is from equation (63). to eliminate While the formulation straightforward. the initial that stage. respectively. (72) The values of _. If. (66). after the load computed that assumed until out of the (starting) At far end of the joint does not match end. mathematical formulation. (68). would A change were precisely digit to 16 significant initial condition of l in the 16th significant a change by a factor frequently effect of up to +lo 7 in a quantity of a poorly strong computed in the fourth or fifth step. bonded that any non-uniformities and materials the load transfer are dominated by the geometry of the end three 27 . set of computations. It is the nature stepped-lap joints. ble to compute initial of the equations and analysis solution scheme above is quite to be impossiif the correct of an the actual numerical Even with double values for all steps of the problem proved precision it was almost invariably of the joint shear in a single stress) pass. is necessary If any negative stress are reduced the load and peak adhesive them. The integration computed) constant shear A is stress as the start of subsequently consideration. (67). A : T adhesive under X= O (70) at the start The other constant of that step.

if the initial load estimate too high subsequent (even if only minutely). far end of the joint precisely check is made. step caused overflows on the step just before and underflows computations in the computer the computaof that for tions would diverge an initial placed these. were it too low. nique was found to bring the upper rapidly.steps. practically all the load is transferred a narrow effective coding the end three sive. adjustment involved. terms do not scale check to the adhesive A necessary on the accuracy that precisely of the numerical processis critically es has been accomplished obtained regardless by checking the same solution at the more of whether the computations end. precisely Therefore upper the opposite and lower underestimate bounds were of on the load estimate and the trial load was taken as the average If the trial load was found to be too high. commence loaded end of the joint or at the other 28 . it served as the new upper This techagreement of that step step in turn. to ensure equalled that input at the ends of each exceeds step. Due allowance is made for the mismatch this linear sign of the quantities last operation scaling. out of the Then a stresses bound and. as is evident in proportion from equation and (62). However. in a characteristic of that load. of the seemingly By printing undesirable characcomputastep was for a teristics tions and is summarized out intermediate on a given it became clear that. must if there is any adherend by iteration this be performed stress since. that the adhesive was the internal loads for at one end of the joint) strength to compute and check on the adherend dealing with this problem The technique finally employed took advantage as follows. way. wise. In the absence of any thermal of checking on the allowables can be performed thermal mismatch by simple present. Because (rows of) bolts or through of this characteristic estimate end zone of adheled the initial of the equations to a highly accurate critical of the load (assuming but was unable margin. What happens in a uniform in between has only negligible effect on the critical Likethrough loads which almost invariably lap joint. on the adhesive and adherend that neither the allowable. the thermal adherend stresses. until the load transferred at the near end. it was used to raise the lower bound. occur at one end or other of the joint. Once this had occurred and the solution and lower bounds into precise the computations to perturb for the start each were frozen proceeded successive using the same convergence check above.

In view

of the numerical to reason

problems

encountered

with

this analytical

solution,

it stands solution.

that they will would

have their counterpart

in any finite-element gradient areas.

Very fine grids

be needed

in the high stress

29

6. In addition of stepped-lap (62), to

ELASTIC-PLASTIC the equations the of

ANALYSIS Section

OF 5 for

STEPPED-LAP the

JOINTS elastic instead analysis of

perfectly requires,

joints, that = _

elastic-plastic

analysis

equation

p

for

y

> -

Ye

'

(73)

and T The elastic-plastic rather (61) than and : G7 solution the (60), shear for is best y _ Ye out in terms of the adhesive zones,

(74)
shear from

carried

strains equations

stresses.

In the

plastic

adhesive

.......... dx whence, from n[dx equations dx] (59) n[Eit i

---L° Eoto

+

(_. i

- _ o

)AT

(75)

dx 2 Therefore, in the plastic zone, _2 --Tx2+Cx+D 2G p and P

--x G

= P

constant

(76)

(77)

T o while

=

T Ore f

-21_x p

,

T. I

=

T. +2Tx ire f p

(78)

6 o and

=

6 Ore f

+ a ATx o

+-

_. i

=

_. + a. ATx ire f i

+

E.t. 1 1

I[
,T iref

x+Tx P

2

I }

(79)

31

In equation

(77), D is set equal

to

y

at the start for each step. Thus

of any step, The other

since

a new c

zero for x is chosen follows from equations

at that location (75) and (77).

constant

c

.......
dx x = 0

l Ti To
n [Eit i Eot o

+ (_i - _o)AT

I
_x=

"
0

(80)

Very few individual throughout

steps of stepped-lap

joints

have fully-plastic is frequently

adhesive confined

the entire joint.

Any adhesive Therefore,

plasticity in performing

to the end(s) of the step(s). analysis extent of a stepped-lap

an elastic-plastic the

joint,

it is necessary

to be able to compute

of the plastic

zones.

Therefore,

beginning

at the left hand end of high load inis

the step element tensity

shown in Figure

8 and assuming

a sufficiently

for the adhesive

to be in the plastic extent

state, the first computation zone. This is then a second trough com-

that of the maximum

possible extent

of the plastic

pared with the actual is performed step.

of the step. possible extent

If necessary,

computation in that same

of the maximum

of the elastic

Starting

from equation
_2

(77) with y = Yref at x = o,

y

=

--T
SO P

x2 + Cx +
Yref

(81)

where lesser

the constant

c is given by equation y = Ye"

(80).

It is necessary

to find the to read

value of x for which
12_ P 2G x P

Equation

(8]) is re-arranged

2 + Cx P

+

(Yref

- Ye )

=

0

(82)

so that

the maximum

extent

of plastic

adhesive

zone is given

by

xp

=

- C + V c2 -

- 212Ye(Yre

f - Ye )

(B3)

Now, since c = dy/dx

< 0 at x = 0 the minus it is compared

sign in front

of the radical

holds.

Once Xp has been computed, > £step' various to (80). that particular quantities Should

with the step length £step" throughout

If Xp

step is fully-plastic

and the values of'the from equations (73)

at the far end of the step are evaluated £step' the difference throughout or becomes

xp be less than elastic

is examined plastic

elastically, at the

to see whether far end.

it remains

again

For Xp < £step' the values

of the various

stresses,

strains,

32

In the event that x e does not extend it is necessary the elastic beyond the far (right hand) end of the the load transferred between simple step being analyzed. it is mathematically trough (of to shift the x origin to the middle of the elastic 2x ) so that : • cosh(_x) p / cosh(_x e (62) requires that ) (84) At the pe transition (x = -x e) equation ... (85) SO that the elastic trough £step were a distance 2Xx e = tanh -1 . as is evident trough must far simpler extent e It is necessary from equation be maintained possible at these extent (75).. throughout In doing so. .. of the joint. ep identifies elastic-to-plastic that dy/ax transition at the far end transitions. (73) to (80) are employed zone to the end of the 33 .displacements the subscripts wise and forces are evaluated pe serve to identify the possible in terms of equations (73) to (79) and Like- the plastic-to-elastic transition.. the solution conveniently 2x = 1 -.. if = .T X tanh(Ix ) p e great enough. the adherends to compute trough._ )AT] T Eoto i o pe could extend. The maximum (65). of elastic be deduced from equation In doing so. k_y e [Eiti for hyperbolic exponential expressed as + (si E t o o functions So)AT pe in terms of exporentials (86) By use of known formulas the interrelation (85) is more between and and logarithmic functions. i E o t o l pe (87) 1 i 1 e l + 1 Ti T o T Eoto + (s i _ ao)A T 1 pe __ i [ Ti it kny e E i . elastic of the preceding to the far end of the step for the plastic under analysis.. dT dx G I Ti n [Eit i o + (s. it is quite it back to take the value of 2x e from equation tions Should (65) to (72) for the standard the elastic trough not extend (87) and substitute analysis into equasection. equations step.£n Xny e i ...

there may be a starts elastically behavior and becomes In this case the actual exusing equations (65) to of elastic is determined positive by iteration.t. that exceeding on an inner step can occur of such details only as the result of poor detail can increase the potential joint The improvement No new numerical Appendix not have difficulties were encountered analysis in the program listed in did the A5 for the elastic-plastic a direct counterpart with keeping of stepped-lap elastic joints which in the perfectly track analysis. n [E. and vice versa. I i ___o_o+ (_ _ E t i o o ep (90) In the last steps of the joint at the far end. in equation (87). strength. (Ye + Ylo or ) any analytical to reduce While the exceed their respective this does not cause in the analysis necessary. logic associated elastic of the locations of the transitions as they moved between and plastic iteration adhesive behavior. at the end of the step. problem. However. with each successive posed a formidable One small computational 34 . (72) with a cut off (either or negative) on the shear stress. y exceeds allowables. the step will are employed step which tent in the analysis.. in those steps. the plastic the adhesive shear strains are so small as not to reach throughout at either end of the step... the adhesive tic throughout Yref" may be fully by plas- in which case. If it should T. near the middle of the joint. recognize difficulty. external An iterative procedure adhesive is employed load and initial strain whenever one should this does not represent the allowables design. be elastic Towards and equations (65) to (72) the far end of the joint plastic. Yep should be replaced in which state Likewise. any analytical difficulty. or T 1 o transpire that.Equation (77) now becomes _2T y -- --_x 2G 2 + Cx + Yep (88) with T The constant = T p for x > x ep (89) of equation (75) c in equation (88) is evaluated in terms C dx ep = .

the joint strength will not be the samefor each load sense. Such a situation is common the bonding in of titanium edge membersto boron-epoxy panels.problem was that. by a single input for the variable SGNLD. Since stepped-lap joints are frequently more critical in the adherend than in the adhesive. if the load estimate at someearly stage in the iteration sequencewas too far removedfrom the correct value. The computer programs have been so coded that.he respective t solutions for tensile shear loading (SGNLD +l) and compressive shear loading = (SGNLD -l) can be printed out. a special feature has been added to increase greatly all adherend strengths artificially in order to print out also the potential adhesive bond strength and confirm that it exceeds the adherend strength by an adequate margin. The analysis above is presented for the case of tensile lap shear loads being positive and the sign convention is in accordance. the computer would predict physically unrealizable large negative shear strains in the adhesive. The computer program. In the event that there are simultaneous = stiffness and thermal mismatches between the adherends. checks simultaneously for the allowable adherend and adhesive strengths at the most critical locations in each step. as basically written. A special set of instructions was prepared for this quirk. 35 .

with a ductile adhesive softening the most severe of the adhesive stress spikes. one should exercise caution with regard to the critical end step of the adherend. The first is that the joint load capacity is defined by the end three steps at the more critical end of the joint. the behavior very closely approaches that of the scarf joint. The necessary restriction is that the product of maximum adhesive shear stress and total bond area on the end step must not exceed the product of adherend material allowable and. Mathematically speaking. In such cases the added strain concentrations in the bond due to the step discontinuities are not very important. and practical experience. If the extensional modulus of a composite adherend is 37 . For this reason. it is the very end step that is likely to precipitate joint failure unless its length is restricted in the design process. in a well-designed joint. Stepped-lap joints with only two or three steps are usually confined to thin adherends for which the potential bond shear strength is far in excess of the adherend(s) strength. a ductile adhesive with higher strain energy provides stronger joints than a brittle adhesive with higher peak stress but less strain energy. It should be noted also that minimizing adherend stiffness imbalance increases the potential bond shear strength.7. DISCUSSION F DESIGN O OFSTEPPED-LAP JOINTS The digital computer programs developed above to analyze stepped-lap joints can serve also as a useful design tool. These perturbations becomeprogressively greater as the number of steps decreases until the stepped-lap solution reduces to a single-lap joint for one step. Third is that. If other steps have a significant influence it will be adverse and be due to poor design detailing. preliminary design of practical stepped-lap joints by means of the scarf joint solution appears to be quite realistic. cross section of the end step. Three clear dominant joint characteristics have been confirmed by studies with this program. The second is that. once the joint is essentially well-designed. In doing so. however. quite major changes can be madeto other than the critical end three steps without any significant impact on the joint strength. have identified the end step of the stiffer adherend as a prime candidate for the most critical design detail. Most applications of stepped-lap joints contain a large number of steps and. Consequently. the stepped-lap family of joints represent perturbations about the scarf joint solution. The stepped-lap joint analysis.

load. in order to protect the tip of the adherend. the total scarf length A reasonable the transfer approximation to this is given by the approxim- p= {Tavl_ \ Tp / p £ = _E_i]_ [E2t2] p £ (92) for the asymptotic scarf joint solution for very long overlaps. most of the shear load transfer will be concentrated at the composite end of the joint with the probable result that tip fracture of the stiffer adherend will occur. the stepped-lap guide. it is suggested that one third scarf joint of the total thickness design into a practical 9. the scarf angle el is set to exceed elmin = Tp in which Tp is the peak adhesive end allowable nature stress in tension. shear / Fu stress and Fu is the appropriate or shear as dictated (9l) adher- compression. by the process of the of the applied The next step in the preliminary necessary to effect design is to estimate entire ation load P. that the steps are thinner opposite load transfer and at the extreme problems. The conversion joint of this conceptual stepped-lap is illustrated schematically in the in the lower part of Figure more critical single will It should be noted region. In this joint. whence -_ -- -- . One simple remedy to this potential difficulty is to be found in the concept of the dual-slope scarf joint illustrated in the upper part of Figure 9. step sizes in the lightly offsets the greater loaded area effect an economy expense of proper detailing in the more crit- 38 . end for a peel stresses configur- step to minimize potential peel stress joints Normally design not be a problem with stepped-lap for practical ations but the double-lap joint analysis can serve as a check if appropriate. (93) Xp[E1tlJ The optimum determined developed location of the transition from scarf angle 81 to e2 can then be computer program by trial and error using in Section 6. of fabric- The larger ation which ical areas.significantly less than that of a metal adherend to which it is bonded. joint As a preliminary be tried.

to such step are increased. computer programs A4EF and A4EG. whether one. a model scarf which the for dual-slope approximate at one end scarf joint has own right as well stepped-lap is particularly than for the analysis. the appropriate is to decrease the length of This of the other steps. In doing In rare instances are critical. joint. analysis developed by the rules (critical) above An analysis and the limiting detail If this is the strength procedure of the end step of the stiffer this length and increase increment adherend. and the overlap can accomplish the number is already an improveand reasonably ment in joint strength. it should be remembered step will not transfer much more load even if its length 39 . so. This characteristic is that. These are precisely of which the same as for an unbalanced of overlap beyond the shear strength is independent some The impact that. the number situation strain A halving of the step thickness and doubling of steps at the more critical can be identified by a solution end of the joint in which will also help. of refining the preliminary is performed. as confirmed adherend with the internal and adhesive respect stresses at the ends of each and every length increases. once each elastic trough long to contain distribution. is or all of the step lengths from the governing That this should be so follows directly equations step of the joint. for each double-lap value. adhesive the maximum shear developed is less than the allowable. importance (91). of steps decrease The technique is as follows. for the The steepening brittle This angle Tp is follows important ductile adhesives greater much higher from equation adhesives. the incremental It is necessary step thickness. Indeed.For merits joint reasons in its evident from the discussion as for of the for above. One characteristic bonded joints of the internal traceable stress distribution joint within stepped-lap and has no is directly to double-lap phenomena counterpart or any step in scarf joint is sufficiently shear-stress behavior. a fully-developed an increase in the adhesive in that step length does by application of the not alter the joint shear strength. step are invariant some. identified. inside which is the same. of this phenomenon indicates no further on the design of stepped-lap inadequate increase bond strength in step lengths to increase bonded joints if analysis great. Reduce it may not be the very end but one or two steps for improving the joint strength The procedure of the critithat is the length cal steps and increase any fully-elastic the others.

more with its lower modulus load elastically and higher shear strain adhesive.increased. The only inherent difficulty in this approach is the care needed not to exceed the adherend allowables near the more critical end of the joint. had this been included. One may look upon an optimally designed stepped-lap joint as an approximation to a dual slope scarf joint with a small angle at the less critical end to build up the total load transferred and a steeper angle (still small) at the more critical end to prevent breaking off the tip of the adherend. steps at one end of the joint will tend to becomecritical and length increases in the remaining (elastic) steps will continue to increase the joint strength. Furthermore. slightly than does the bein Figures lO to 12 omit the influence of thermal mismatch strength disparity tween adherends and. to stepped-lap bonded joint to scale in The joint is drawn lO and II and the material included in the Appendix. It is evident from Figure elastic brittle lO that the ductile carries adhesive. respectively. Narmco Metlbond in Figure 329 and Hysol 13. the elastic 40 . properties can be found and ductile in the sample adhesives referred The brittle to are. also illustrated The elastic stress the sharp spikes in the shear distribution These spikes. separated by relatively thickness lightly-loaded represent the influence of the uniform steps. Since the average bond stress on a scarf joint approaches a fixed fraction of the maximum bond shear stress. the joint strength may be improved by increasing the numberof joint steps. an overlap sufficiently long can always be found to develop a potential strength 50 percent in excess of the adherend strength. a reversal of load direction can reverse the more critical and less critical ends of the joint. Therefore it is necessary in such cases to design for both the maximum tensile shear and compressive shear loads to be applied. characteristics show dramatically of each step. if the adhesive shear stresses at each end of the step are less than their plastic value. The behavior of bonded scarf joints (Figure 6) serves to explain this approach. EA951 which solutions have the shear in Figure lO at the ends troughs. If the adhesive shear strain is predicted to be the limiting feature rather than the adherend strength. Figures analyses Figures printout lO to 12 illustrate using the computer solutions programs obtained above. In doing so. In the presence of adherend thermal mismatch (advanced composite-to-metal for example). but at a decreasing rate. increasing the step length indefinitely will not introduce a plastic zone.

as shown in the second illustration of Figure 12. Figure II shows the computed bond shear stress distributions. Of interest is the way in which the adherend thermal and stiffness imbalances compoundto decrease the joint strengths for tensile loading while they counteract each other for the compressive loading. Figures II and 12 depict only the most critical conditions within each step because the computer program does not normally output a continuous solution. The following table enumerates a number of solutions obtained with the steppedlap joint computer programs above. on the other hand. The failure modespredicted are identified by the commentcodes l through 5 which are explained at the foot of the table. by the time the adhesive has used up only 15 percent of its total shear strain capacity. the computer program 41 . as shown in the fourth illustration. This has been demonstrated to be free from convergence problems (as confirmed by Figure 10) but. as shown in the middle illustration of Figure II. Figure 12 demonstrates how the theory identifies the end metal step as being prone to fatigue failure. the load level will increase until failure occurs in the composite at the end of the joint. takes more computer time. In optimizing the joint proportions. when the adhesive properties are modified to account for plasticity. The effects of thermal stresses are included. All cases except those for optimized step lengths have the joint geometry shown in Figure 10. The ductile adhesive. As is to be expected from the adhesive characteristics in Figure 13. is computed to have a potential bond strength nearly as great as the strength of the titanium outside the joint. once the titanium has yielded locally. even though the end step had been shortened to alleviate the problem. In the static load case the theory predicts that. The adhesive shear stress distribution throughout the lightly loaded regions is not crucial to the design/analysis cycle. naturally. the load level is so high as to cause the end (thin) titanium step to yield. as also is the influence of the direction of the applied load.Figure I0 would have been very pronounced in favor of the ductile adhesive for a tensile shear loading. this modification does not increase the joint strength of the brittle adhesive sufficiently for the bond to be stronger than the weaker adherend. The ductile adhesive has a considerable strength margin over the composite adherend. Actually. For illustrative purposes one can easily artificially divide each step into a number of short segments in order to avoid adding another computation sequence to the programs. corresponding with Figure 10.

2 4927 11866 26099 1.280 ° F COMPRESSIO -400% \ EPON 951 PURELY-ELASTIC ELASTIC-PLASTIC POTENTIAL BOND STRENGTH COMMENTS METLBOND 329 PURELY . 2. It is interesting in shear to observe sive had insufficient important phenomenon strain energy revealed for the problem adhesive is that the ductile uses up only about the composite adher- a third of its ultimate end just outside shear strain capacity This leaves in breaking margin the joint. elastic at left.264 IN. TITANIUM FAILURE FAILURE FAILURE FAILURE AT - 3812 10555 3 YIELDS IN IN IN IN ON 8552 16457 3 END (THIN) STEP JOINT AT 18216 LB/IN. at right. THICK 0. 2 9203 17821 450OO I .25 THICK GRAPHITE-EPOXY FAILURE LOADS OPTIMIZED -280°F N TENSION (LBS/INCH) STEP LENGTHS -280% COMPRESSION TENSION COMPRESSION -400 ° F 0° ADHESIVE_ E_ r TENSION & COMPRESSIO N -280% TENSION . loss in is incurred by shortening the lengths the end steps of the other (and some of steps to com- this could be recovered pensate) but the problem by increasing of yielding the end titanium step has been eliminated that the brittle to arise. 4. OF JOINT TITANIUM COMPOSITE END END 2547 9290 3 6152 17720 3 LEGEND COMPOSITE ADHESIVE COMPOSITE COMPOSITE OUTSIDE AT COMPOSITE ONE ONE STEP IN STEP IN - END FROM FROM OF JOINT OPERATING TEMPERATURE CURE TEMPERATURE OF ADHESIVE was used modified joint to identify for the most critical until location the and the tensile step lengths were by hand strengths to re-analysis the the the minimum and compressive This is took only the two more matched achieve of composite results adherend and this joint strength. iterations beneficial shown internal one of merits complete Figure brittle 14 illustrates adhesives. 3.2 10730 16997 30569 1.4 4367 18180 23257 5 9990 t8182 27299 5 3683 10769 25123 I . 5. the bond shear A comparison stress distributions between for both ductile of uniform A small and is effected optimized a joint step lengths. and that with joint strength lengths.ELASTIC ELASTIC -PLASTIC COMMENTS COMMENT 7829 14430 28362 1. 2 6764 13505 3 : I. a generous for dealing with 42 .STRENGTHS OF STEPPED-LAP ADHESIVE-BONDED JOINTS JOINTS TITANIUM OF TITANIUM IN. TO ISOTROPIC HTS GRAPHITE-EPOXY 0. adheAnother for the ductile adhesive. feature analysis.

This figure compares the performance of the preliminary design (Figures lO and ll) with the optimized design. Improvementsin ultimate compressive strength and tensile fatigue load capacity are demonstrated.stress concentration due to irregularities in load intensity or bond thickness across the width of the joint. 43 . Figure 14 omits consideration of thermal effects in order not to complicate the comparisons made. the brittle adhesive should not be expected to develop the full predicted joint strength over each inch of a wide panel. Failure would be initiated by a local effect and then be propagated rapidly. Figure 15 includes these effects for both tensile and compressive shear loading with the ductile adhesive. Because of these ever-present considerations.

strength for of formulas a close of on the is that. of the load the same can be depending load. computer are believed They While algebraic joints. The solutions bonded form and stepped-lap necessary These adhesive and digital analytic listed joints adherend and FORTRAN IV programs to include the be the also precise are first the Appendices. the stiffer necessary to some Those load the than load on the the scarf of stresses not too joint adherend exhibit joints. thickness The appropriate increments joints with in in order to more capacity.8. Stepped-lap joints characteristics steps that near the both of the scarf and uniform joint area of carry double-lap significantly lap of joint middle in is a stepped-lap corresponding not a major steps transferred a uniform but load so transferred is effected usually the contribution. as for nature step. more small. cannot potential by stepped-lap joints be increased procedure augment transfer joints. In transferred unlike scarf exceeded shear a determinable strength the of other words. thicker and stepped-lap than is possible can efficiently uniform double-lap between latter are adherends to restricted thinner sections practical applications. extensional strength limit stiffnesses. increasing steps Because of finer scarf overlap(s). such of require for thermal-mismatch. the stress. the tip of however. which of cannot scarf Unlike uniform a definite the potential be exceeded joints increases in which by using longer bond strength a design the joint. This report scarf the presents elastic CONCLUSION analysis obtained methods are are for effects for adhesivein in the which and elastic-plastic joints. overlap to also ensure occur to of for solutions plasticity. explicit of long the scarf solutions derived iterative lowerscarf towards lesser which overwith is forced solutions. adherend angle the is can always In indefinitely failure it is so that outside check that be devised this at the using approach. adherend the imbalances and the are direction precisely Within each since governing it is equations found that an unbalanced once joints. at one or both Most the of transfer through on the end three of the ends the joint. peak bond fraction adherend equalling lap the joints. account stiffnessnumerical bound joints a fixed ratio reach laps. no further value. The dominant average that bond fraction characteristic stress asymptotes overlaps. The inclusion of adhesive plasticity in the analysis has a marked effect on the 45 . indefinitely is the load the to load employ the double-lap overlap the has joint.

The elastic-plastic joints ized. important On the other hand. temperature. the elastic adhesive stresses joints play a than mis- role in the behavior lap joints.strength far more predictions. and at the extremes of material property of the environmental changes with temperature range. in the optimization 46 . of scarf and stepped-lap they do for uniform match effects advanced The inclusion in the analyses of thermal to the permits their application to the bonding how the joint of titanium strength composite laminates and explains changes with the load direction in such a situation. provides Analyses analysis of the internal stresses within stepped-lap bonded sufficient should information for the joint proportions to be optim- be performed for each load direction taking due account sequence.

" NASA Contract 74-90. January L.. "Investigation Composites for Aircraft of Joints and Cutouts Douglas in Advanced Company. Company. Hart-Smith. J. NASA CR I12235. and Hawley. J. and Ratwani. F33615-67-C-1582. "A Theory June 1957. 378-393. et al." Douglas Aircraft NASA Langley 1973." J.REFERENCES l • Hart-Smith... 1 Hart-Smith." J. NASl-ll234." Aircraft AFFDL Contract DAC-61593. V. "Investigation Structures. D Lehman. May 1971. June 1963. et al. Lubkin. SPI 28th Annual Western Proceedings. F. M. A. L. Report No. Structures. NASA CR I12236. 47 ." Aircraft AFFDL Contract 61566." Technical of Joints in Advanced Company. July 1971." Douglas Aircraft NASA Langley 1973. January F33615-67-C-1582. Company. 3. AFFDL-TR-69-43. "FilamenDouglas Aircraft Conference tary Composite Company. Fourth Quarterly Progress Report April 1968... J. 1 Sumida. J. Fibrous G. Mech. Composites A. of Metal R. Fibrous G. Reinforcement L. Appl. Third Quarterly Progress Report DAD- 1 Lehman. o Lehman. Volume for Aircraft Douglas Report Aircraft AFFDL Contract l. NASI-9953. Composite 5. Structures. Pride.. January L. Structures. P. "Adhesive-Bonded Contract Double-Lap Joints. 255-260.. Materials M.. NASl-ll234. T.. M. M. 24. "Stress Distribution in Bonded Joints. Report No. F33615-67-C-1582.. 1968. W. Erdogan. and lilg. "Adhesive-Bonded Contract Single-Lap Joints. of Elastic Scarf Joints. "Investigation Composites for Aircraft of Joints and Cutouts Douglas in Advanced Company. 5. Fibrous G.

Aerospace N. Teodosiadis.. 12.. 1970. lO. Douglas R. of NonCompo- Filamentary Contract Southwest Institute. T. T." November Aircraft IRAD Technical No." Aircraft IRAD Report No. Aircraft IRAD Technical Report No. Hsu. Wah. N." April 1970. ADR 02-01-70. IV. Douglas 1969. "The Strength Company. May 1971). "Analysis of Bonded Joints.I. L. M and McKinney. "The Development for Bonded Joints Research in Advanced AFFDL 1972. et al. February May Ig70." July Grumman Report No. Interim Technical Volume AFFDL F33615-70-C-I 302. Analysis of Bonded Composite Lap Joints. Reports Ill.. "Plastic Company. Corporation. II. C. J. September No's F33615-69C- Report AFFDL-TR-72-97. Douglas L. Interim Technical (See also Research 1970. of the Fatigue Composite Phenomena J. of Adhesive-Bonded Single-Lap Joints. standing J.. May 1969. Technical (See also Fourth Quarterly l. R. 13. Hart-Smith. and V." Lockheed-Georgi a Company. M. linear Analysis site Structures. 48 . MDC-J0367. J.o Dickson.. and Saleme. 14. Corvelli. "Development and Bolted of an Underin Advanced Contract of Bonded Joints Fi Iamentary Materials . MDC-J0742. Report AFFDL-TR-72-64. Calcote... Report.." 1641. March 1971). "The Strength Company. DAC-67836.. of Adhesive-Bonded Report Double-Lap Joints. Grimes G. Hart-Smith. June 1972. Technical and Development Methods L. E.

2 AND Elf I > E2t2 BUT.) FIGURE I. EXPLANATION BONDED SCARF OF NON-UNIFORM BETWEEN ADHESIVE DISSIMILAR SHEAR STRESSES IN ADHERENDS JOINTS 49 . WHEREAS THE CRITICAL END REVERSES WITH LOAD DIRECTION FOR THERMAL IMBALANCE.SCARF JOINT BETWEEN DISSIMILAR MATERIALS (c_I :'c_2u Eit I = E2t2) RESIDUAL ADHESIVE SHEAR STRESS RESIDUAL ADHESIVE SHEAR STRAIN i_ 1. RITICAL C JJ I_ ADHESIVE SHEAR STRESSES UNDER PROGRESSIVELY INCREASING TENSILE LOADS ___CRITICAL SHEAR STRAIN _ _ iAILURE OF ADHESIVE CORRESPONDING ADHESIVE SHEAR STRAINS (NOTE THAT THE STRESSES AND STRAINS FOR PARTIAL LOADING. ABOVE t WOULD ALSO INDICATE THE BEHAVIOR UNDER STIFFNESS IMBALANCE IF o_I =of. IT REMAINS THE SAME FOR STIFFNESS IMBALANCE.

a I )AT X CTHERM(I) = P(E-_ 1:. 3'p.l_p JOINT GEOMETRY ® E1.T . NOTATION ANALYSIS AND GEOMETRY FOR ADHESIVE-BONDED SCARF JOINT 5O .1 (a 1CTHERM(2)= i: ( I + 1 E2t2 ) a 2). '7e .¢ 1 E2 '=2 qb--_× b a tav ADHESIVE BEHAVIOUR RCTANCG ADHESIVE SHEAR CHARACTERISTIC --_ _ Ax (REFERENCE) G 1 1 /t 2 ETR(I) = Ett I/E2t 2 ETR(2) = E2t 2/Ett 1 (e¢2.t2 t! T-av[ ® G.._.k (REFERENCE) 1 ) NON-DIMENSIONALIZED JOINT PARAMETERS DISPLACEMENTS AND ELEMENT LOADS FIGURE 2..

ADHEREND THICKNESS (EXTENSIONAL STIFFNESS) RATIO I ETR o 0. A IS CRITICAL FOR BOTH POSITIVE (TENSILE OF LAP-SHEAR) LOAD P STRENGTH NEGATIVE (COMPRESSlVE ADHEREND SCARF LAP-SHEAR) VALUES ON EFFECT OF OF BONDED STIFFNESS IMBALANCE ELASTIC JOINTS 51 . (0_ 1 == o_' 2 ) CTHERM LOCATION AND FIGURE 3.5 I I ] I I I _ I 2 I I I 5 I I J J I I0 ht J 20 30 NON-DIMENSIONALIZED OVERLAP E1 z/ J -_ t2 p 2 ETR = Eltl _< 1 E2t2 " O.

! t CTHERM = 1 .o_ 2 p _--' --.I (_2"a'1)AT)_ p ÷ 1 ' t2 operating E.IDEN" :AL ADHERENDS I 2 5 OVERLAP X[ 10 20 30 NON-DIMENSIONALIZED E2._ p = 1_avl ' t.T stress free LOCATION LOCATION LOCATION LOCATION A A B B CRITICAL CRITICAL CRITICAL CRITICAL FOR FOR FOR FOR CTHERM CTHERM CTHERM CTHERM < > q: > 0 0 0 0 AND AND AND AND P P P P > _: _: :_ 0 0 0 0 FIGURE 4.-e2t2 .t. -- I. _2 __ G. EFFECT OF ADHEREND THERMAL OF BONDED SCARF JOINTS MISMATCH ON ELASTIC STRENGTH 52 .

0 I'-- Z 0 I.0 .I 0.0 A B C D E F IDENTICAL CTHERM CTHERM CTHERM CTHERM CTHERM = = = = = I ADHERENDS 0. ETR = 0.5 +I.. ETR = 0.5 I 2 5 OVERLAP XL I0 2O NON-DIMENSIONALIZED FIGURE 5. INTERACTION FOR ELASTIC OF ADHEREND STIFFNESS AND THERMAL IMBALANCES BONDED SCARF JOINTS 53 .2 0.I0. ETR = 1.0 N 0 Z I Z 0 Z 0. ETR = 0.5 +2.U 1.3 0.0 -I. ETR = 1.< o V z 0 Z I--- 2.0 5.5 tl.

9 (/) iii 0°8 n.6 l 2 NON-DIMENSIONALIZED 5 OVERLAP I0 7_L 20 30 40 Z ADHESIVE FIGURE 6.nn 0°6 0°5 x 0..2 I" Z O Ill 0.0 C 0.4 LU r_ I--- 0.1. "I(/) 0°7 z O . 3 and 4 for notation) _'Y CRITICAL END SHEAR CHAP_CTER_ IDEALIZED SCARF JOINT EFFECT OF ADHESIVE PLASTICITY IN TO ADHEREND STIFFNESS IMBALANCE REDUCING STRENGTH LOSS DUE FOR BONDED SCARF JOINTS S4 . RCTAN(G) ' _ (See Figures 2.1 t.3 0.n O LU 0 0.

O I 2 NON-DIMENSIONALIZED 5 OVERleAP I0 20 30 (See Figures 2._ 0°5 ETR--i. EFFECT OF ADHESlVE PLASTICITY IN REDUCING STRENGTH LOSS TO ADHEREND THERMAL MISMATCH FOR BONDED SCARF JOINTS DUE 55 . 3 and 4 for notation) FIGURE 7.

NOTATION JOINT AND GEOMETRY FOR ADHESIVE-BONDED STEPPED-LAP ANALYSIS 56 ."_-F_._-+a oo o_Tl Ax .x O t/2 GEOMETRY pe = PLASTIC-TO-ELASTIC ep = TRANSITION JOINT ELASTIC-TO-PLASTIC ADHESIVE SHEAR STRESS DISTRIBUTION -_ 6° T° -4{.r "-_ -'" -'" . 2 I _: "--*-- "".-. "-" _ I + E--_-+a Ax T. _ [ I I DISPLACEMENTS AND ELEMENT LOADS FIGURE 8. o .I _ T :I "1 _ Ax (REFERENCE) { To I +l_.step P Eo.__.

REPRESENTATION FOR STEPPED-LAP LAMINATE OF OPTIMIZED JOINT WITH THAT OF LINE STEP PROPORTIONS MODULUS OF COMPOSITE METAL ADHEREND LESS THAN FIGURE 9. IDEALIZED DUAL-SLOPE SCARF JOINT TO PROTECT TIP OF STIFFER ADHEREND E2 A DH ESIVE FILAMENTARY COMPOSITE METAL CENTER (B) .POTENTIALLY EI COMPOSITE CRITICAL REGION ADHESIVE LAMINATE METAL CENTER LINE --_ E2 EI _ (A) . PRACTICAL AGAINST PROPORTIONING FATIGUE FAILURES OF AT STEPPED-LAP TIP OF METAL JOINTS TO PROTECT ADHEREND 57 .

ELASTIC SHEAR STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS ADHESIVES IN BONDED STEPPED-LAP FOR BRITTLE AND JOINTS DUCTILE 58 .SCALE 0 I 2 3 INCH 0°/ -_ * 450/90 °) HTS GRAPH ITE-EPOXY _ TITANIUM 6AI-4V _ POSITION ALONG JOINT FIGURE 10.

.226 max DUCTILE ADHESIVE OF > "' "I- 5-4-2-i 0 O i 1 I I AT YIELDING TITANIUM < u < ri I U O I O P = 14430 Ib/in. ELASTIC-PLASTIC SHEAR STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS DUCTILE ADHESIVES IN BONDED STEPPED-LAP FOR BRITTLE AND JOINTS Sg . I I o_ < ILl "iL/3 .112 max AT ULTIMATE BRITTLE ADHESIVE O m SHEAR CAPACITY O O O 3-2 0-i I P = 13505 I Ib/in.I _' = 0.-.. 0-- I GI .7 0 DUCTILE ULTIMATE ADHESIVE AT 0 4-3-2-SHEAR CAPACITY P = 28262 Ib/in.. 6-- y = 0. I 1 ALONG O I I I JOINT POSITION FIGURE II.(0o/+ 45o/90 o) HTS GRAPH ITE-EPOXY 6AI-4V TITANIUM q D O 8-7-6-5 v L_ U. '_ 6-5 _j O ¢ OO ). max = 1.

000 -- _. ADHEREND STRENGTHS STEPPED-LAP JOINTS AND INTERNAL LOADS FOR BONDED 6O .. _ Z Z < O-z::) Z F_ 30..o. DUCTILE ADHESIVE P = 14430 Ib/in. o ...Ll FINAL 20.'. _ o 20... O < 0 Z I. 000 P = 13505 Ib/in. i o I ALONG t o i JOINT & .000 -0-O __ YIELDING 0 I DUCTILE ADHESIVE I I J P = 14430 Ib/in..__._ .000 0 .ooo Z _" I.000 -P = 13505 Ib/in..000-' .._ POSITION FIGURE 12. _I I I I I---l-- Z_ r-..000-- I BRITTLE ADHESIVE <: 20. I I I. L.. I I I '_" I-.._ I0...._ C3 30.U I0.. 0 0 " I U I-. Z "' .000 FAILURE AT 18216 Ib/in. 0 0 0 OF TITANIUM ! I I "r" ..U _ ILl 0 ..000 -- BRITTLE ADHESIVE I 0 0 0 < 0 20.J __ I0..

/IN.- 6 -r" 0 Z 5 4 I Z Q 3 0 _ 2 0 0 0.0 FIGURE 13.5 SHEAR 1.I0 9 NARMCO METLBOND 329 8 m v 7 \ \ b.) I .5 2.0 STRAIN (IN. COMPARISON BRITTLE AND OF SHEAR STRESS-STRAIN ADHESIVES CHARACTERISTICS FOR DUCTILE 61 .

P = 13076 Ib/in. STRENGTH 0 YIELDS T STRESS _max O y Z max O O COMPOSITE FAILS HERE NO YIELD IN TITANIUM P = 18181 Ib/in.112 O O Tmax = 9000 Ymax 0 0 psi = 0.112 0 Ymax O P = 13592 Ib/in.) SHEAR ELASTIC-PLASTIC ADHESIVE (DUCTILE Tma x = 9000 psi y = 0.45°/90 °) HTS NO JOINT "Cmax = 6000 psi Ymax 0 0 P = 8249 Ib/in.1 GRAPHITE-EPOXY THERMAL J (AT = 0°) STEPS) STRESSES GEOMETRIES (DIFFERENT END l:ma x = 6000 psi y mcIx T STRESS "C O = 0. COMPARISON BETWEEN STEPPED-LAP JOINTS WITH LENGTHS AND WITH OPTIMIZED STEP LENGTHS UNIFORM STEP 62 .045 max 0 0 0 O O P : 6796 Ib/in. METLBOND 329) FIGURE 14. (BOND STRENGTH ADHESIVE. 951) 38696 Ib/in. 25859 EPON Ib/in. 0 0 0 = 0.I P = 7180 o 0 Ib/in.I SCALE 2 3 4 I INCH 0 I 2 6AI-4V TITANIUM # (0°/+.195 0 HERE 0 0 TITANIUM P = 14034 (BOND Ib/in.045 Trnax : 9000 y psi : 0. O ELASTIC ® ADHESIVE SHEAR ADHESIVE ')e t METLBOND 329) 'l:ma x = 9000 0 O psi = 0. ELASTIC-PLASTIC ADHESIVE SHEAR (BRITTLE ADHESIVE. T STRESS (BRITTLE STRESS ]: O O O P = 6608 max O Ib/in. 0 0 l (_E 0.65 ELASTIC "3 _max ADHESIVE = 6000 y max psi : SHEAR (DUCTILE ADHESIVE t EPON : 951) 6000 psi : O 0.

SHOWN IF ADHERENDS WERE SUFFICIENTLY STRONG. DESIGN STRENGTHS CALCULATED AT ROOM TEMPERATURE. FOLLOWED AT THE SAME (I A) PRELIMINARY (REDUCED) DESIGN SECTION. FIGURE 15..l..75 IN.) -EPOXY °) HTS IN COMPOSITE AT 18180 Ib/in. w .. FAILURE TITANIUM FAILURE COMPRESSION IN COMPOSITE AT 18182 Ib/in. DURING THROUGHOUT. STRENGTH OF COMPOSITE ADHEREND OUTSIDE JOINT = 18216 Ib/in.j A COMPRESSION NOTE THAT PRELIMINARY PREMATURE FAILURE OF FAILURE IN COMPOSITE AT 16997 Ib/in. I (IN .TENSION [---. BY SCALE 0 GRAPHITE (0°/45°/-45°/90 TENSION _ \V// _F 6AI-4V "1.. FATIGUE COMPOSITE END STEPS WERE ALREADY SHORTENED WITH UNIFORM STEPS 0. FAILUREIN COMPOSITEAT 18216Ib/in. IN EVERY CASE POTENTIAL BOND SHEAR STRENGTH WOULD EXCEED 23257 Ib/in..t/. YIELD IN TITANIUM AT 11866 Ib/in... LONG FAILURE WOULD OCCUR AT A.. TITANIUM DESIGN. NO YIELDING OF TITANIUM (B) OPTIMIZED DUCTILE ADHESIVE CURED AT 350°F. OPTIMIZATION OF DETAILS IN STEPPED-LAP BONDED JOINTS 63 .

65 . IMAX . adhesive.APPENDICES A. 20. The condition breaking for such information of the stiffer likely rapidly plastic is the possible scarf off of the thin tip a situation is un- adherend for a very small adhesives A simpler angle. out thoroughly stresses and sample are illustrated in Section Only shear are considered. procedure is available for the elastic- The format of the input data necessary as follows: to operate the A4EC computer program is CARD l: FORMAT (415) IMAX = Number of thermal mismatch coefficients. angles with the peel stresses used in practice. the adherend shear should series along similar The adhesive can be integrated is obtained mathematically so that a more The first tractable solution for the adherend stress solution stresses. distribution distribution series it is recommended proceed that any attempt lines.I Computer Program A4EC For Elastic computer program Strength of Bonded with Scarf Joints in Section The FORTRAN 2 is listed solutions IV digital below. there with the series computed solution to this problem. two terms follow ones would derive from the average from recurrence could arise shear and the subsequent under which a need formulae. no computation for the stress distribution was found which (z/_ = 1). was considered The peak shear sufficiently stress is accurate located over the far end of the joint correctly by program A4EC at one end or other of the overlap. the averse- age shear stresses quence are considered very reliable. problems associated neglected in accordance in Section with the very small scarf are severe convergence While As discussed 2. integration the convergence series was enhanced average stress stress into the contributions to pursue shear stress.LE. The only real need computation for a shear stress distribution of the internal greatly adherend by prior is as an intermediate Since step in the of the to the stresses. associated the analysis This program has been checked 4. Such for perfectly elastic because the shear stress drops off very away from the ends.

LE.LE. l and 2 must be identified or that 0 . ETR .) able range of adhesives. indefinitely.LE. (Note that to account of CTHERM(1) form.LE. application Values of up to Greater under for the availassociated alone. to be read (Note that this is one more than the number in. etc.LE. which because limiting large. (Subscripts Array Number restricted to lO so ETR(K)=Adherend by dimensio_ statement. lO. 50.: FORMAT (IOF5. 2B.5 = 0 is set by program 50 are impractically as of internal case.3) = Adherend thermal mismatch coefficients in non-dimensionalized statement. NMAX (Note NMAX = 20 is recommended. on card 2. 3B. 40.) KMAX . overlaps. etc.) should be read in in ascending CARDS 4.2) stiffness ratios (E1tt)/(E2t2). must not exceed 0. with failure of the joint values residual stresses 66 . equal Number restricted and opposite to 20 by dimension values must be read in consecutively between tensile and compressive ±5 are sufficient are usually thermal for the difference the shear load. I. of OL(J) that OL(2). etc. The limiting of adherend case of OL(1)=O stiffness of overlaps is set by the program. Number restricted to 40 by dimension order and (Note that OL(J) must be read in in ascending is the first entry computations.: FORMAT (IOF7.LT. 2A.) OL(1) Values exceeding CARDS 3.) . lO . of answers printed KMAX = Number imbalances. 4A.: FORMAT OL(J)= (12F6. 3A. 4B. descending order.JMAX= Number of non-dimensionalized overlaps. JMAX .) CARDS 2. (Note that this controls the number of columns across the page and cannot be increased NMAX = Number of terms in power series.2) Non-dimensionalized statement.

the non-dimensionalized joint + Each table is prepared for a single value of thermal mismatch coefficient (_2. The output tables comein pairs with the ratio of the average to maximum adhesive shear stress (Tav/_p) and the non-dimensionalized joint of the adherend extensional stiffness overlap strength ratio ETIR = _ : n E1tl/E2t (Tav/Tp)(l_) as functions 2 < 1 horizontally and _2 vertically. along with sample output pages.The complete listing follows. 67 ._I) AT_ CTRERM = and equal and opposite values are treated in 1 z turn to cover both tensile and compressive shear loadings.

] • (-THERNC ÷ V3_OLAP) A4ECO660 A. A4EC0560 STRGTH(J. IqAX AEECO660 _0 180 K = 1. 0. JMAX AEEC0460 C ESTABLISH ADHEREND I END OF JOINT AS REFERENCE AEECO670 C SUBSEOUENTLY CHECK WHFTHER ADHEREND I END OR ADHEREND 2 END IS CRITICAA4EC0680 NCRTND = I A4ECO_OO THFRMC = CTHERM(I) AEECOSOO VR = FTR(K| A_ECOSLO IF ((VR ...lO) AEECOLIO C _EAD IN ARRAY SIZES A4ECOI2O READ (5_10I IMAX_ JMAX. & A(lt2I=A(AEECO630 A[I. A4ECO650 A(3. KMAX AkEC0650 DO 1_0 J = 2. 1. + VR A4ECO580 V2 = VR / VI AEEC0590 V_ = (I.LE. KMAX AEEC06OO T_U_VG(ItK) = 1. .K). CTHFRM(IIt A(N.5 A(2. STRGTH(EO. ETR(K). = 0.)l = A. (THERMC .2) _ 0.2). I2. 12) A4EC0320 WRITE (6. AEEC0660 A(2.K) = OL(J) A4EC0550 ICRTND(J.) • ( V2/2.ME. KMAX| A4ECO260 30 FORMAT IIOFS.21. IMAX) AEECO270 60 FOPMAT (10F7. 2) GO TO 130 AS RAPIDLY 68 .o A6ECO680 AEECO6qO AEECOTOO AEEC07[O AEECO?20 AEECO_3O AEECOT_O AEECO750 AEECO760 AEECOT?O AEECOT80 A4ECOTqO AEECO800 AEECO8IO AEECOBZO AEECOB30 AEECOB60 A4ECOBSO AEEC0860 AEECO8?O A4ECOBBO A(3. A4FCO080 C TAUAVG(J.I) GO TO 100 AEEC0520 C SET UNIFORM STRESS FOR BALANCFD JOINTS AEECO530 TAUAVG(J. AEEC0420 C START OF COMPUTATION DO LOOPS AkEC0630 DO 310 I = t.CDECK AEEC AEECO010 C FLASTIC ANALYSIS ]P UNBALANCED SCARF JOINTS AEECO020 C WON-OIMENSIONALIEED FORMULATION AEECOO_O C aVERAGE STRESSES A4ECO060 C STIFFNFSS AND THERMAL IMBALANCES ACCOUNTED FOR A4ECOOSO C 9AT& PRESENTATION F_ TENSILE SHEAR LOAOING AEECO060 C :HANGF SIG_ OF CTHFRM TO USE FOR COMPRESSIVE SHEAR LOADS AEECO070 C DIMENSION 3LlJt. 20. K = [.Z)t TAUAVG(4O.tl=A(2tZI=1. 50 . 9H KMAX = .30) (_TR(K)./OLAP2) ) C COMPUTF AVERAGE SHEAR STRESS IN BOND TRATI_(J_NCRTND) = Vl • iV2 ÷ THERMCIOLAP .1) = O.lO).LE. NMAX A4ECO130 IO FORMAT (6151 A4ECOI40 IMAX 1F. ETR(IO). TRATIO(N. ÷ A(3. C _OMPJTE NMAX TERMS 3F AVERAGE STRESS POWER SERIES DO [10 N = 6.A2SAVEIOLAP2} C CHECK WHICH ENO OF JOINT IS CRITICAL IF (NCRTND .ME.80) ICTHERM(I! I 1.2) AEEC0250 C _EAD IN NON-DIMFNSIQNALIZED THERMAL MISMATCH COEFFICIENTS A4EC0260 READ (5.2ItA4ECOIOO [ TRATIDI50.OR. 2 110 A(N. iO AEECOI50 _EAD IN _ON-DIMENSIONALIZFD OVERLAP ARRAY AEECOL6O OL([) = O.K) = I. CTHERMi2OIt A(50.2) AEECOO60 WRITE (6. IMAXI AEECO370 80 FORMAT (2OH THERMAL MISMATCHES/.70) (ETR(KIt K = 1. 12.(J). 12.10)./6.5 BECAUSE OF A SUBSEOUENT TREND CHECK A4ECOIO0 C )LlJ) MUST BE IN ASCENDING ORDER A4ECO190 READ (5.2) AEEC0360 WRITE (6. NMAX SIG(N.K) = 0 AEEC0560 GO TO 180 A4ECO570 lO0 Vt = l.2I/V[) • {I.VR) I Vl AEECO600 DLAP = OLlJ) AEECO610 OLAP2 = OLAP _ OLAP A_ECO620 C 3DMPUTr I_ITIAL TERMS _F SERIES_ ASSUMING AIL. AEECOtTO C OL(2) MUST BF oLE.1) SIG(3.1) = 1. KWAX .| o.GE.K)t STRGTH(J. KMAX) AEECO350 70 FqRMAT (22H STIFFNESS IMRALANCESIt IOFS..3) A_FCO280 C PRINT OUT INPUT DATA AEECO290 WRITE (6.) .2) = (OLAP2 / 6.LE. | + [.LE.40) (CTHERM(1)t I = L.]) A_ECOO80 C SET UNIFORM STRESS FOR ZERO OVERLAP A@EC0390 DO 90 K = 1. gH JMAX = . A4ECO310 l _H NMAX = . KMAX.. JMAXI A_ECO200 20 FORMAT (12F6°2) A4ECO210 C READ IN STIFFNESS IMBALANCE ARRAY AEFC0220 C IOENTIFY ADHERENDS I AND 2 SUCH THAT ETR(K) = (ETIZ/(ET)2 . [.I) t. lot NMAX .M) = I ((N-2)_(N-1) ÷ OLAP2 • V21 • A(N-t_M) [ ÷ V3 • OLAP2 • A(N-2. ICRTNO(60. A4ECO230 READ (5. 40. JMAXp KMAXt NMAX AEECO300 50 FORMAT (tH[.2). A4ECO610 _0 STRGTH(ttK) = O.20| (Ol. qH IMAX = . JMAXI AEECO)3O 60 PORMAT (1OH 3VERLAPS/t 12F&. ICRTND(J.K)t SIG(N. J'= 2.1) !20 SIG(Nt2) = SIG(N-I.2). JMAX .5 + A13.1) = (OLAP/6.1) _ SIG(N-ItI) + A(N.2) DO 120 N 6. J = I. [OF?. O. co . A4ECOOqO IDIMENSION OL(60I.50) IMAX.FQ.60) (OL(J).2) • A(Nt2) C COMPUTE A2(NMAX) A2SAVE = (_HERMC/DLAP • V2 (SIG(NMAX_[I/VI)) / [ ( (SIG(NMAX.AND.M) | / {N_(N-_)) C COMPUTE A2 THROUGH RAPID CONVERGENCE OF AVERAGE STRESS C NOTE THAT INDIVIDUAL TERMS IN DISTRIBUTION DO NOT CONVERGE SIG(3. NMAX DO liD M = 1. SIG(50.

!. |.AND. IOFlO.K) = I00. 28H0 = BOTH ENDS EQUALLY LOADED/.220l CTHERM([). 4X. A4ECI330 STRGTHIJ.)) GO TO 160 C ALL P_SSIBILITIES FOR EITHER END CRITICAL CHECKED OUT A_ECI2IO A4ECI220 C ONLY POSSIBILITY REMAINING IS THAT TAUMAX IS IN MIDDLE OF JOINT C _OTE THAT THIR PHENOMENON ARISES ONLY FOR JOINTS BROKEN WITHOUT LOAD A4ECI230 C I WHEN THE lOAO IN THE OPPOSITE SENSE IS EXAMINED AAEC1240 C SDMBINATION O_ SEVERE THERMAL MISMATCH AND EXCESSIVE LENGTH IS NECESSAAAECI250 AAECI260 C IDENTIFY FAILURE CA_ES BY ASTERISKS AAECI270 T_UAVG(J.L) . A4EC1550 6 BH SCALED. A4ECISEO 2 3_X. A4ECIO!O C I SINCE FTRKK) .K) • OL(J) A_ECI3_O GO TO 180 C A_HEREND 2 END OP JOINT CRITICAL A4FCI3go A4ECIAOO !TO TAIJAVGIJ. 0.I) . 3qX.I//) A4ECISTO GO TO 230 A4ECI5BO 210 THERMC : .6BX.2). HENCE NCRTND = ! AAECID20 ICRTND(J. O. 25H2 : STIFF ET END C_ITICAL/I. 0.LE. A4ECI340 GO TO 180 C ADHERFND [ END OF .KI : TRATIn(J.(TRATIO(J.1). 0.K) = i A4ECII90 IV ((TRATIO(J.) GO TO 160 A_ECI040 IP (TRATIOIJ. O.} . K = I. IX. A4ECI420 IBO CONTINUE A4ECI430 C IOENT!FY CRITICAL END OF JOINT FOR ZERO OVERLAP A4EC!440 qO 190 K = I.GE.) GO TO 140 A4ECIOOO C BOTH IMBALANCES WILL INEVITABLY COMPOUND FOR CTHERM(I| . A4ECIB&O 51 = S_PT ET END CRITICAL/ 6BX. 0.K) = TA!JAVG(J. 3IHNDN-DIMENSIONALIZED FORMULATION//. O.I) . IH+.AND.1) . O. I VR AAECOg20 THERMC = THERMC AAEC0930 GO TO IOO AAECO940 130 CONTINUE A_COqSO C IDENTIPY AVERAGE SHEAR STRESS / MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS & CRITICAL END A4ECOg60 C NOTE THAT INITIAL SELECTION CRITERIA ASSUME ONE END OF JOINT OR AAECOgTO A_ECOQBO C I OTHER IS CPITICAL AND PRECLUDE POSSIBILITY OF MAXIMUM STRESS IN C 2 MIDDLE. 48HADHESIVE-BONDED SCARF JOINTS (ELASTIC AA4ECI620 INALY_IS)I. O.2001 (FTR(K).) GQ TO 270 C IF 69 . AAECIO80 AAECIOgo C 3OVER SITUATION WHERE THERMAL IMBALANCE DOMINATES OVER STIFFNESS A4ECIIOO C l IMBALANCE. 3gHFXT_NSIONAL STIFFNESS |THICKNESS) RATIO/.) .K) = O.!) AAECI370 STRGTH(J.AND.I).)) GO TO lbO A4ECIITO C :HECK IF StIFfNESS IMBALANCE DOMINATES AAECII80 ICRTND(J. 3IHNON-DIMFNSIONALIZED FORMULATION//.I.K) = O. A4ECI520 6BK.AND° (TRATIOIJ.GT.5 F]R THIS CHECK.KI. ICRTND (J. 25H2 = STIFF ET END CRITICAL//. NOTE NEED OL(2I . II.K) = 2 A4ECIlIO IF ((TRATIO(2.K| * OL(J. l.NE.3.AND.))GO TO 150 A_ECII20 A4ECII30 IF ((TRATIO(2.GE. 2mHO = _OTH FNDS E_UALLY LOADED/. F6. 20X. 4X. J_AX A4ECI_3O WRITE (6.2) .).LT.CTHERM(I) AAECISqO C PRINT QtlT HEADING AAECI600 WRITE (6. 3IHTHERA4ECI6]O 2MAL MISMATCH COEFFICIENT = .) GO TO 150 A4ECI050 A_ECI060 140 CONTINUF C IDENTIFY MORE POWERFUL IMBALANCE FOR NULLIFYING BEHAVIOUR {NCRTND = )A4ECIOTO C ! CTHERM{I) .F6. 1Xl} 250 CONTINUE A4ECI750 A4ECI?60 IF (CTHERM(I| .IE.I/) A4ECI7OO 230 CONTIN3¢ AAECITIO r PRINT 3UT TABULATIAN_ qF AVERAGE BOND STRESSES A4EC1720 DO ?50 J = l.2) A4ECI4IO STRGTH(J.GT. THERMC_ (ETRIK)_ K : l.JOINT CRITICAL AAFCI350 A4EC1360 160 TAUAVGIJ. 2X. K = I.) GO TO 130 A4ECOBgO AOHFREND 2 EN9 IS CRITICAL INTERCHANGE I ANO 2 AND RECOMPUTE A_ECOPO0 NCRTND = 2 AAEC0910 VR = I.GT. 3OHEXTENSIONAL STIFFNESS (THICKNESS) RATIO/. |TRATID(J.K) = TRATID(J. l. 3IX. IH+. 7H RATIO/. .2). 48HADHESIVE-BONDED SCARF JOINTS (ELASTIC AA4ECISOO INALYSISI/. 7H qATIO/.) .2. A4ECI280 STRGTH(J. AAEC1560 7 7H L/T/.GT. 72HAVERAGE SHEAR STRESS / MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS .240) OL(J).2 I_ (CTHERM(1) .AND. ITH FOR TENSION.LE. 0.2) . _IX.LT. ETR(K| .3IX. 3oX.I. KMAX) AAEC!490 200 FORMAT (IHI.K) = [CRTNDt2.IO(IJ. A6ECI670 6 qH SCALED. ((TAUAVG(J. 17X.3. IOF[O. KwAX _4EC1450 lqO ICRTNO(I.|TRATID(J.I) .LF.LE. lO(F7°5. A4FCI540 5 6BX. ?2HAVERAGE SHEAR STRAAECI530 • ESS / MAXIMUM SHEAP STRESS I = SOFT ET END CRITICAL/.IO(/I.GT. O.3IX. F6.K) = TAUAVG(J. AAECOQ90 IF (CTHERM(1) . I.ICRTND(J. = .NE.LT.LE..IF {THFRMC . I6H A4FCI640 3FOR COMPRESSION//.K) AAEC1460 C 4ENCE NEEO OL(21 . ICRTND(J. KMAX) AAEC1740 2_0 _ORMAT (IH .).EO. 33HZERO THERMAL MISMATCH COEFFICIENT//.K) = I0 AAECI290 GO TO l_O A4ECI3OO A_ECI3IO C ZERO STRENGTH ATTAINED A_ECI320 150 TAUAVG{J. SUBSEQUENT SEPARATE CHECK ON THIS CONDITION. A4ECI680 A4ECI6qO 7 ?H L/T/.I.LT. A4ECI650 4 20X.O. I.K)).EQ.K) = fOOD.))GO TO 170 A4ECII4O C :HECK IF TWO IMBALANCES PRECISELY CANCEL ICRTND(JvK) = 0 AAECIISO A4ECII60 IF ({TRATIOII.K) = I A4ECIO30 I_ (T_ATIO(J. KMAX) A4ECIblO _20 FORMAT (IHI.| GO TO 210 A4ECI470 C PRINT OUT SPECIAL HEADING FOR ZERO THEPMAL MISMATCH BETWEEN ADHERENDS AAECIA80 WRITE (6. AAEC!20O I (TRATIO(J.

[O(/)t3|X• 68HADHESIVE-BONOED SCARF JOINTS INALYSISI/. K = 1. 6_Xt 25H2 = STIFF ET END CRITICAL//. [H+.260) (ETR(K). KMAX) 300 F_RMAT (|H • F6. 3[HTHERA_EC1910 2MAL MISMATCH COEFFICIENT = • F6. K = I. _OTH ENOS EQUALLY 1 LOA_ED/. KMAX) A4ECt890 280 _ORNAT (1Hl•IO(/). 2X• !O(F?. S 6 7 AOHERENDS (ELASTIC A6ECZT?O A6EC[780 AA4ECITgO A4_C1800 A_EClelO 68X• 28H0 = . (FTR(K).K) ICRTND(J•K)). A4EC1950 6 9H SCALED.3[X• _HADHESIVE-BONDED SCARF JOINTS (ELASTIC AA4EClDOO [NALYSIS)/. 39HEXTENSIONAL STIFFNESS (THICKNFSS) RATIO/.C PRINT OUT SPECIAL HEADING FOR ZERO THERMAL MISMATCH BETWEEN W_ITE (6.3• [?H CDR TENSION• = F6. K = 1• KMAX) 260 FORMAT ([Hl.!//) A4EC!860 GO TO 290 A6EC1870 C PRINT OUT HEADINGS A4EC1880 ZTO W_ITE (6•280) CTHERM(I)• THERMC. 39X. [RH P_OGRAM COMPLETEO/I A4EC2O50 STOP 6_EC2060 END A_EC2070 70 . _X. IOFIO. 1X_ I1• 1X)) A4EC2O20 310 CONTINUE A4ECZ030 A4EC2040 WRITe (6•320I 320 FORMAT (IHI. 7H RATIO/. 31HNON-DIqENSIONALIZED FORMULATION//• 17X.ECI9_O C PRINT OUT TABULATIONS OF NON-DIMENSIONALIZED STRENGTHS A4ECIqQO A4EC2000 DO 310 J = I• JWAX A4EC2O[O WRITE (6v300) OLIJI• ((STRGTH(J. A_ECI_50 7H L/T/• 7H RATIO/• IH_. 20X• STRENGTH = SOFT ET END T2HNON-DIMENSIONALIZA_ECX820 CRITICAL/• A6EC1830 68X• 25H2 = STIFF ET END CRITICAL//• A6EC1860 _H SCALED• 3IX. 33HZERO THERMAL MISMATCH COEFFICIENT//.[/) 290 CONTINUE A.4. 4X• LO_lO. * A4EC1930 A6ECIg40 4 20X. 3oX• _IHNON-DIMENSIONALIZED FORMULATION//• 2 38X. 31X.2. 2_HO = _OTH ENDS EQUALLY LOADED/.68X.3 16H A4EClg20 3FOR C3MPRESSION/I. 3gHFXTENSIONAL STIFFNESS (THICKNESS) RATIO/• A4ECIg60 A4ECI9_O 7 ?H L/T/. 72HNDN-OIMENSIONALIZ_D STRENGTH 51 = SOFT ET END CRITICAL/.

1914 3.C0 1.0615 26.8679 2 2 ? 2 2 2 2 2 l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 STIFFNESS 0.4 0.36100 0.q9ll 4.8473 9.q 1.00 10.7765 0.6012 1.81366 0.60000 0.0000 1 28_5 1 6154 2 4000 3 2759 4 2000 6 I176 .3282.6647 9.6401 4.985.9123 1.85654 0. ENOS FOUALLY LOADED ET END CRITICAL ET END CRITICAL EXTENSIQNAL'SIIFFNESS O.6596 5.78898 2 0.00 12.00 40.90554 2 0.91086 %.90116 5.4257 2 2 2 2 2 I 1 .7 FOR COMPRESSION NON-OIMENSIONALIZED STRENGTH .50_7 1 17.87725 1.0 0.2309.72477 0.54_C5 0.81855 0.464_o C.3 1.0 0.823_ 29.0349 15.70542 0.r%ocO 0.00 2S.6743 5.0119 5.0 0.8611 1.7635 1.450_0 _ 0.50 I .65475 2 0.7 FOR COMPRESSION AVERAGE SCALED t/T RATIO 0.O0 45 • 00 50.0900 3. 1.00000 0.9190 33.91693 0.85197 0.1 0.2174M 0.5561 2.53426 9.8375 1.2443 2-_.38SI 1.00 30.4415 2.51219 9.2_753 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 I 1 1 I I 1 | I 1 0.5035 7.5_83_ 0.2281 36.24889 0.83009 0.7184 1.8861 1.50 1.6966 6.97086 0.4858 1._3_7 0.60076 0.98084 0.7186 9.73842 2 C.5559 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 l 1 I 1 1 1 1 l 1 L 1 l l 1 1 ITH|CKNESSI 0_6 0.74233 L 0.0q251 2 0.6511 1 0.73&?I 2 0.63278 2 Z 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 I I I I 1 1 1 l I I I 1 I 0.3463 8.7957 0.7517 5.20 1.76471 0._232 15.43304 0.2R82 3.8[390 t 0.3763 2 2 2 2 2 2 [ 1 1 1 1 I I l 1 1 1 1 1 I I l I I 1 0. 2 2 1.1808 0.62426 0.70 2.7257 AOHESIVE-BONDEI) SCARF JOINTS NON-DIMENSIONAL[IFD THERMAL MISMATCH COEFFICIENT = 1.84893 0.9939[ 0.61028 0.R3920 ?.9L27 2_. 6.88161 I 0.O00 = " • 8OTH SOFT STIFF RATIO 0.00 40 .6766 7.69g49 I 0.00 '}.9 0.3601 0.85591 .5244 1.60823 0.0920 4.76977 .53491 0.92538 0.6771 2.84a75 I I.65?8 L 6.000CC 0.5422 2.00000 2 0.47955 i 0.6606 22.95149 _.667h6 0.9 [.00 15.610_0 0.7345.26014 D.88690 O.00 25.21276 0.86769 0.97265 0.54442 0.597 0.91828 0.00 SHEAR STRESS I MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS .88544 1.8913 13.OOCO0 2 0.00 35.4055 ]7.42958 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 I } I [ 1 L I 1 [ l L 1 l 1 I 1 I 0.3299 2.8909 3.95406 0.1 1.6_07 C.5241 1 15.73113 0.00 17.8 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 I 1 I [ 1 | L I l 1 1 I I 1.00000 _.00000 0.00 12.00 17. 75796 _ 74956 0.2 0.55292 0.13598 0.6g43 2.92155 C.6706 0.53543 0.3_020 0.0050 _3.6063 4.41102 0.19828 0.00 SO.00 35.86900 C.OOO00 I 0.3.6145 0.24336 0.1463 10.44311 .3898 1.2144 ?.0214 1.7cbti6 0.00 8.7899 2.8242 3.76971 0.6475 28.412o IC.9576 1.71052 0. 7800 0.5493 5.539_I 0.4054 46.6556 4.g0099 0._.9055 42.86069 0.1353 [1.69196 0.9012 1.OO0 = = = BOTH SOFT STIFF RATIO 0._243 21.6927 0.1804 0.9252 16.0769 18 .9_7.5442 1 13.337_2 0.5 0.9093 1.3443 4.50 3.67802 1 0.4869 L 21.67365 2 0.3.3823 D.0273 .5630 16.57870 0.2 1.6032 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 22 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 I 1 i l I I I 1 1 I 5.0 0.83784 0.53112 (THICKNESS) 0.9453 2.4 2 1.12851 2 2 2 2 2 I l I 1 1 1 l I 1 I 1 1 i I 1 1 I I 1 I 0.627q6 0.7127 8.4369 2.99505 0.95034 C.64119 I 0.20 0.56_<.0 1.09 10.65101 2 0.74928 0.2545 1.493_2 I 0.1806 0.4410 2.84396 0.84665 0.6822 Ib.6699 1q. I I .9769 21.00 4.8147 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ? 2 1 L L 1 I L l ] L 1 0.9765 .575qi C.38831 0.6397_ 0.664? 3.[8_6 0.80708 20.00 6.66000 C.96006 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 .46S7 8.30709 O.44169 0.00000 0.50653 0.7491 3.598_3 C.28q7 6.7574 10.6558R 0.424_ 17.5 1.43528 ?.39226 0.64724 _ 0.77127 I 0. 0 I 2 = ANALYSIS) FOR -I.65067 0._5564 C.53_.2084 2.7723 2.0581 4. 0.2W3CR 0.3930 11.97046 9.6390 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 l 1 1 1 L 1 I I I 1 I I 1 0.0 0.9052 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1.57337 0.00 45.18200 0.3850 1.31778 0.47)2 4.65535 [ 0.o?5?4 0._2 0.66619 0.I511 0.96350 3.655l 15.3945 9.88575 0.20 .50 .0R90 6.2171 _.05_7 1.9080 I0.00 30.8304 1.70000 0. 1 1 [ .53618 I 0.6541 13.1597 _. A.13224 0.3 0.0166 0.1853 1.0664 2.6525 4.95444 0.89309 1 C.568_ 24.34975 0.0065 88.48181 0.0 0.00 4.6646 4.86776 0.5L660 0.1R18 0.69411 I 0.2346 2g.9051 33.0 0.1531 4.66_3 7.67711 0.4792 5.2.62723 0.84543 _.7q801 m.e O.56000 0.93363 0.50710 1 C.39121 0.4 0.53846 ¢.0 0.82669 0.4390 14.97474 I 0.4245 0.5495 5.66184 2 0.15164 0.52000 0.84035 0.55590 0.77653 C.0 0.7o593 0.666R0 0.27354 0.4035 0.00 2.98775 0.0685 1.76604 2 0.78754 0.2136 3.q4304 C.70 2.000 FOR IEL_STIC FORMULATION TENSION.1802 0.7807 19.98710 0.65517 0.90420 C.00000 0.94234 0.6469 5.0670 4.1832 0.1516 1.7347 0.76_7 9.3909 0.78277 0.00 15.4066 1 19.59078 0.1019 16.9151 2.8084 11.41oi 0.3849 0.9010 74.8227 25.4rgX 0.8839 2.2233 6.0676 2.l O.7310 33.6428 31.1822 C.1618 2.47_9 0. 60C0 0.901g4 0.C198 2).80360 0.46177 C.55882 0.8306[ 0.91323 0.77430 _ 0.6533 25.80324 0.63194 0.59619 0.6736 0.50888 C.00 20._159 41..7538 10.D0 EXTENSIONAL O.00000 0.907_1 C.92051 0.3b_q 0.6 2 I.5462 4.775_4 0.83225 0.37706 0. ENDS EQUALLY LOADED ET END CRITICAL ET END CRITICAL SCALED LIT RATIO 0.0000 4.87400 0.9923 5.00000 0.2578 13.87291 n.6979 1L.83718 0.1814 0.70116 0.6C976 0.93616 0.ADHESIVE-BONDED SCARF NON-DIMENSIONALIZFO THERMAL MISMATCH COEFFICIENT = 1.4n593 0.00 2.73_9 26.56828 I 0.73050 I 0.90116 0.1598 12.3708 3.3016 1.1334 5.00 6.90883 2 C.6_4.8IT_J 37.3857 1.8331 1.20 0.5915 1.07616 0.O0 1.00 5..57729 0.9370 11.g3686 0.83629 2 2 2 7 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ? 2 2 1 I I 1 1 l [ 1 I 1 0.8 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 .71339 1 0.779/4 0.60_49 1 0.57[0 I 11.61449 0.4138 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 ! [ 1 0. [ 1 1 0.90707 0.0051 I0.50J0 1.3915 1 9.14320 0.76470 0._4764 0.7354 2.00000 0.O 0.1615 1.5640B 0.73902 0.81511 1 0.gC099 0._.72061 0.62. _.90370 0.72_5 3. 1 I l I I 1 0.4262 4.1251 1.9560 13.72779 0.631_0 0.2124 3.0 0.5412 9.93810 2 2 _ 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 I 1 [ l 1 I 1 1.5 0.78171 0.00 8.58104 0._ 0.38_0 0.4179 13.4775 II. 0 i 2 = ANALYSISI -L.9203 3.16368 0.C039 4_.4342 1 7.6074 l 8.6312 0.012 _.77_0_ 0.4040 28.6.000 JOINTS (ELASTIC FORMULATION TENSION.9507 6.5877 19.9899 2.9108 7.79135 0.0571 1.7012 0.93192 1 0.2372 1. 71 .90688 1 0.2424 14. 4.74328 0.4_71 9.50 3.50 1.00 20.C0_8 33.3877 0.6208 14.3987 0.5112 7.89497 .43742 1 0.

34081 l 0.46823 i 0.8159 7.17310 0.63593 0. _0.08378 0.71320 0.4512 28.1470C 0.57096 0.55480 9.3023h 0.5233 13.q848 1.4663 T.1802 0.7862 C.13918 0.5C461 0.3671 0.0769 19.6678 0.65280 0.00 6.51¢55 0.00 45.42141 9.2062 4.229t8 0.7 0.3581 0.6635 II.5336 4.24d6 22.95564 I C.1406 20.$317 1.4_55 0.36_55 1 C.2420 I L I I l I 1 1 I 1 1 ] t [ l 1 I 1 1 | 1 1 1 I 1 0.9 0.39153 C.33250 L C.84624 0.2195 7.9 0.60000 1 C.72993 0.20806 0.00 4.5964 r.0804 1.47998 0.6717 0.42611 0.45L56 0.2966 2.4459 I 1 l l 1 L I l l I L 1 [ l 1 I l I I l l I I I 1 = ANALYSIS) 1.20 I .4567 9.07536 0.00 5.37103 l 0.373?3 STIFFNESS 0.153LC 0.33741 I 0.7455 0.2324 1.7473 4.179q 0.2052 2.07552 0.1342 6.41663 I 9.1786 0.00 35. O0 40.7800 O.42491 0.6792 19.74896 0.50t5 n.09%3 8.00 2.5907 0.3 O.8 1 l I 1 I I I I I I I 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ! I.1739 10.16187 0.00 20.98930 0.51219 I C.6993 [ 2.00 1.11640 0.80T03 0.7703 4.00 EXTENSIONAL O.69288 3.76053 0.OCO00 0.00 12.6738 _.4206 0.q9_6 6.370_ 0.46837 0o4723q 0.20 0.83743 0.72161 0.54116 0.179T4 I I I L l 1 1 i 1 1 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 | 1 1 0.3874 2.52241 0.75428 0.08043 0.6966 16.2 1.2805 1.20 0.68_1 O.6123 2.1790 0.6133 43.61a5 34.9876 ll.68304 0.1176 8.74925 _.00 1.58598 0.2886 3.25175 10._38 I 5.CflO¢C 0.89490 l 0.27131 0.0948 6.4817g 0.0088 33._.540T2 0.40_1 9.90003 0.4499 0.59519 0.4)4_ 1.0 C.47294 3.5860 0.7CCCO I 0.747# 10.3.6_66 ADHESIVE-BONDED SCARF NON-OIMENSIONALIZED THERMAL MISMATCH COEFFICIENT = -1.[[35 1.9426 2.458[ 25.3_70 22.6525 6.3440 L 0._772 1 0.22052 C.55620 0.1116 1 I I I I l 1 l l I 1 1 I I t I 1 1 I 1 I 1 I I 1 l.00 17.O 0.24953 C.0 3."0 0.50 1.4000 3.9279 10.35053 0.45257 0.00 17.6964 18.4439_ 3.00 5.8151 6.5647 I _.22848 _.00 35.36_7_ 0.5234 0.2661 2.6688 L 0.34q2 0.88396 L C.6l_7 0.85807 0.0 0.43216 0.17L2 2.6154 2.3899 0.9972 1 I 1 I I 1 I 1 1 I [ ! t I l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 l 0.6073 16.1T93 0.0198 23.46519 1 3.23_74 C.00 45°00 50.5795 21.0541 13.34915 0.75569 9.9788 l.0912L 0.243|9 0. IR96 1.8o_25 1 £.6T126 I I L 1 I I l i I I L L I I L I L 1 I 1 L I L l I (THICKNESS) 0.6231.O_llq 0.39459 0.80769 L r.1773 0.R610 1.C127 28.3413 29.232[ 3_.53986 0.68619 0.9161 0.9056 1.86223 1.6269 0.8669 8.7647l l 0.00 6.25T52 C.88632 0.O l 1.56892 0.22642 0.46631 0.0 0.5775 _.1 1.0 0.53?4 0.0295 8.4081 _.48126 0.00 4.66110 0.49nI 0.22567 0.36479 I C.82518 0.61955 0.44777 C.00 8._0 1. ENOS FOU&LLY LOADED ET ENO CRITICAL ET END CRITICAL SCALED LIT RATIO 0.49699 0.8162 I 8.q6II L.7210 0.62600 0.58728 0.7694 0.4s3_ 0.264_? .OqO0 1.7123 0.95012 I 0.C475 1.76470 I 0.9 1.45|_ C.70 2.33435 0.0349 15.50 l .3091b 1 0:39187 I 0.3823 0.6932 2.2_336 _.07770 0.4 1 l.15625 0.32859 1 0.19655 0.2929 ll._tBt 1.52617 9.3629 0.70 2.50 1.5710 0.7451 l 12.7417 3.6 0.59_6 3.9364 _.0070 l 1.12571 1 C. 90099 L C.00 8.1629 2.009 = = = BOTH SOFT STIFF RATIO 0.32810 1 0.13635 ?.7096 0.3031 3.6_21 0.07173 0.39066 I 0.17792 0.39652 0.C?73 18.65962 1 0.00 40.00 25._ l 9.3464 0.8355 0.6 1.2 0.51992 0.5 L 1. 0 I 2 = ANALYSISI FOR 1.60648 0.21[12 0.2386 26.46449 I 0.O 0.51854 t 0.25479 1 C.8 0.267_I C.00 30.3_60 13.9525 12.81d3 19.350_6 L 0.0 0.66040 0.3727 0.3741 0.00 10.5503 0.7212 1 I I l I 1 I l 1 1 1 l I 1 1 I 1 I l 1 I 1 L t 1 0.48003 0.93_6 2.00 20.4521 0.000 e STIFFNESS 0.4504 ].25q3 [.8719 !.40_44 C.943O4 1 0._e056 0.64523 0.8193 4.89129 0.4 0.50T7 6.38280 1 0.07407 0.0245 2.80778 0.0050 _3.4_317 1 0.3323 I 1 I l I 1 I [ 1 1 I 1 | 1 L 1 l 1 [ t I I [ l I 0.1810 L.T560 5.14287 9.4516 Ib.07175 0.6593 0.39788 1 0.2.07_58 O.26171 9.3648 0.0703 23.L778 0.0 0.20017 0.2000 6.8763 1.[ 0.50 1.0963 1.8362 33.2943 1.7765 6.00000 10.7 FOR COMPRESSION AVERAGE SHEAR STRESS / MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS .4670 22.36534 0.000 JOINTS (ELASTIC FORMULATION TENSION.3799 0.402_ 0.84?9 26.5CZ4q 0.56145 0.05853 0.5986 0.39[1 15.73410 1 q.S2137 0.547? 0.22T4 {4.67_7 2.33217 I 0.7644 1.60199 0.08258 0.50 3.2239 _8.4362 7.42329 0.43596 0.6706 0.57Z26 0.60009 I 0.74157 0.7986 l I6.16031 0.77768 0.49123 0.33388 1 0.47886 C.0032 I 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I l I 1 1 1 1 1 FOR.359_ 7.40275 0.66665 72 .55077 0.0065 38.122_ 29.00000 0.9271 2.1155 38.31221 1 0.9_67 1.t527 C.53737 0.3735 10.56558 0.46[4 [.3567 0.5691 9.18374 g.14343 0.7243 I4.5738 0.3192 12.6631 5.9583 7.63481 0.2Q821 1 C.2649 1_.o9876 3.5185 0.7494_ 0.0039 48.000C0 I 0.00 15.6623 I_.17574 0.9 l.5 l 1 1 I 1 I I I 1 1 I I l 1 1 1 l 1 I l I l I I I 0.00 30.1693_ 0.52000 1 C.0 0.13722 0.268T1 0.65517 I C.76_42 1 I 1 I L I 1 l I I 1 1 1 I 1 t 1 I l 1 L I L 1 1 0.27645 0.53846 l 0.3155 4.49810 1 0.268_2 1 0.6030 0.?097 0.I297 13.S?15 9.3_265 i 0.OOCO0 1 0.68466 0.21413 0.50 3.57_6 4.1800 0.66303 0.00 I0.IT10 5.87Rq 14.07309 0.SOO00 I C.4759 '?.5548 0.1g32 8.26752 I C.71621 0.7729 0.1_637 0.16569 0.38733 0.10537 _.6294 25.1423 5.1T83 3.0 0.852R9 0.35051 n.83786 1 C.0CC03 U.93363 L O.00 STRENGTH EXTENSIONAL ENOS EQUALLY LOADEO ET EN_ Cg(TIC&L ET END CRITICAL 0.45358 1 0.07123 0.00 2.8989T 0.3q378 1 9.99099 t 0.5213 0.0q13 I8.74129 0.1796 0.205_ [.6741 1.00 5.68'_C 7.00030 0.Z5R87 1 0.55882 ! O.5642 0.79127 9.50653 1 0.89646 0.00030 0.4_49 0.5104 1.6494 0.7375 3.tS182 0.00 2.8226 0.40808 3.5630 l I | [ 1 I 1 l I I l I 1 I 1 I I I 1 I 1 1 | l l FOR (ELASTIC FORMULATION TENSIONw 0 [ 2 ITHICKNESS| 0.08484 1 1 1 I I i I 1 1 1 1 l 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 I I i 1 0.2L61 8.0 0.00 2_.00 50.468S 3.55258 0.19695 0.92051 1 0.759T3 0.86900 l C.9248 L0.8417 _.96006 1 1 1 1 l 1 L 1 1 L 1 L L 1 l 1 l l L L 1 1 1 l 1 1.Z8608 1 C.45975 1 0.AOHESIVE-BONDEO SCABF JOINTS NON-DIMENSIONALIZEO THERMAL MISMATCH COEFF|CIENT = -1.6563 3.8280 4.903 = = = BOIH SOFT STIFF RATIO 0.q009 9.3771 0.54931 9.35817 I _.36396 1 0.9051 3.45322 0.2759 4.006b I 3.000_9 0.35313 1 0. COMPRESSION NON-OIMENSIONALI7ED SCALED LIT RATIO 0.

between adherends i . and (3) that the stiffness i.2 Computer Program Scarf Joints FORTRAN IV digital for the A4ED For Lower Bound Elastic-Plastic Strength of Bonded This computer program strength Its covers of a simple bonded efficient scarf joints approximate of prac- solution tical close A4EE. (2) the thermal is not too high.e. are exception other words. from A4EE. quicker (I) on examination of equivalent satisfactory was not computed answers i. that vided the that elastic-plastic and materials. 3 . CTHERM great.e.2 S ETR S i. most proportions starting It development to of proceed the in was needed the more results as a sufficiently precise program by A4EE prothat point for convergence transpired. The the In input data for that program Yp/Ye for A4ED is the precisely the cannot behavior same as for be equal must zero to program zero for A4EE with A4EE.5. A listing of the program and sample outputs follow.A. computed by A4ED for plasticity conservative. other adhesive adhesive perfectly the elastic values be excluded adhesive On the unduly hand... non-linear mismatch behavior coefficient mismatch YP/Ye > 0.. that be not too < 2. computations and adhesive A4ED were as final negligible. that 0.e.

LMAXI AAED0730 140 F_RMAT (14F5. I0. L = I. 9. ICRTND(40. VL(2I.VR(1) A4ED0860 VL(I) = 1. GPOVGEIL). K = L. LMAXt NMAX AAEDO230 AAEDO240 lO FORMAT (515) AAED0250 C IMAX . O.AAEDOOXO CDECK A4_D AAEOO020 C ELASTIC-PLASTIC ANALYSIS OF UNfALANCED SCARe JOINTS C L3WER BOUND ANALYSIS PROVIDED WHICH IS ACCURATE FOR DESIGN A_EDO030 C NON-DIMENSIONALIZED AVERAGE SHEAR STRESSES COMPUTED AAEDO040 AAEDO050 C NON-DIMENSIONALIZED JOINT STRENGTHS COMPUTEO C RANGE OF ADHESIVE DUCTILITIES INCLUDED AAEDO06O C RANGES OF ADHE_ENO STIFFNESS AND THERMAL IMBALANCES ACCOUNTED FOR AAEDO070 AAEO00@O C DATA PRESENTATION FOR TENSILE SHEAR LOADING C CHANGE SIGN OF CTHERM TD USE FOR COMPPFSSIVE SHEAR LOADS AAEOOOqO AAEDOIO0 C SET CTHERM . ICRTNDIJ_K). GPOVGE(20).|O).2) AAED0530 C AAED0540 C PRINT OUT INPUT DATA ATEDO550 WRITE (6. I Gq TO 620 A4ED0790 A_EDOOOO DO 620 1 = l_ IWAX THERMC(II = CTHERM(I) A_ED08[O _EOOB2O THERMC(2I = . TRANSL_K. KMAX . J = 2. ETR(K). TRANSL(LOIA4EDOlqO C A_EDO2OO C READ IN INPUT DATA AAEDO210 AAEO0220 C REAO IN ARRAY SI_ES _EAD (5. J = [e JMAX) AAED06IO gO FORMAT (12F6. KM_X AAEDOB30 A4ED0840 VR(1) = FTR(K) A_ED0850 VR(2I = I. STRGTH(J. A4EDO2QO C OL(J) MUST BE IN ASCENDING ORDER A4ED0300 C 3L(2) _UST BE LESS THAN 0. AAEDOIAO C 2 VR(NCRTNO). qH lUAX = . JMAX. / Vn(l) VU(I} = l.}) AAED04_O C READ IN PLASTIC-TO-ELASTIC STRAIN RATIO ARRAY AAED0490 C GPDVGE(L) MUST B_ . I.I2.VR(2) 74 . FOR ELASTIC-PLASTIC ANALYSIS AAED05OO r "URELY ELASTIC SOLUTION OBTAINED FRO_ SEPARATE PROCEDURE AAFOOSIO READ (5.GT.50) (GPOVGE(L). OLTRNC(2).. 20.12.1) A_ED0740 C A_EDO750 C START COMPUTATIONAL O0 LOOPS A4FOO760 Dq 620 L = I.2) A_EDO360 C READ IN STIFFNESS IMBALANCE ARRAY A4ED0373 C IDENTIFY ADHERENDS SUCH THAT ETR(K) = (ET)l/(CT)2 . CTHERM(2D).LE.i A4ED0440 C NEED CTHERMII) ARRAY TD CONTAIN BOTH POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE VALUES A4ED0450 C I TO COVER BOTH TENSILE AND COMPRESSIVE LOADS AAFDO460 READ (5.PQ3_NL.60) IMAX.I2.LE.140) (GP3VGE(L). 40. AAED0400 READ (5t301 (FTR(K). TRATIO(J.GE.BO) (OL(J). LMAX) A4FO0520 50 FORMAT ([4F5.1!0) AAED06?O lid FORMAT (20H THERMAL MISMATCHES) AAEOO6eO WRITE (6_X20) ICTHERM(1). 20. IMAX) A4EDO_7O 40 FORMAT (lOFT.40) (CTHER_(1).AAEDOI30 C l TAUAVG(J_K). IM&X) AAED0690 [20 FORMAT (IOF_. . L = i. 50 . NMAX AAEDO5GO 60 FORMAT (|HI.1001 [FT_(K). AAEDOI80 2 THERMC(2)t VR(2). LMAX .12.12) A_EOO580 WRITE (b.2) A_EDO420 C READ IN NqN-OIMENSIONALIZED THERMAL _ISMATCH COEFFICIENTS A4ED0430 C STHERM .LE.K). gH KMAX = . I = 1.[O). A4EO0570 I OH LMAX = . ÷ VR(1} A4ED08_O A4EOOn80 VU(2) = I.2) AAED0620 WRITE (b_90) AAED0630 90 FORMAT [22H STICFNESS IMBALANCES) AAED0640 WRITE (6. I = [. JMAX . AAEDO[6O DIMENSION OL(40I.AND. KMAX.20i (OL(J). A(NI. KMAX) AAED0650 IO0 FORMAT ([4F5. OLTRNT(2).2) AAEDO660 WRITE (6. K = It KMAX) A_EDO_IO ]O FORMAT (IOFS. qH JMAX = ._) AAEDO?O0 WRITE (6. KMAX.LE.EQ.NCRTND). JMAX. A4EnO_OO STIFFNESS RATIOS SHOUL_ BE IN ASCFNDIN_ DR DESCENDING ORDER A_EDO3qO C ETRiK) SH3ULD INCLUDE VALUE [.2 FOR IDENTIFICATION OF CRITICAL END A4ED0310 C 1 0 = JOINT OF ZERO qVEqLA_ (LIMITING CASE) A_ED03?O C 9LlJ) . O. cqR COMPATIBILITY WITH FORMAT STATEMENTS 670 _ 5qO AAED0330 READ (5.LT. lO. VU(NCRTND) yLINCRTNDI.LE. ID).[0) IMAX. THERMC(NCRTND).TH_RMC(I) DO _50 K = I. AAEDOI50 C _ OLTRNCINCRTNDI. BUT MUST EXCLUDE VALUE O.LE.CURE TEMP. ZOO. . CTHFRM(I|. AISO) AAEDOITO l TRATI3(40.?O) AAED0590 • 0 FORMAT (IOH qVERLAP$I A4EDO600 WRITE (b.2It TAUAVGIAO. .130) AAEDOTLO 130 FORMAT (34H PLASTIC TO ELASTIC STRAIN RATIOS) AAFo0720 WQIT = [6. OLTRNTINCRTND). AAFDO260 C I NMAX . [ALPHAI2)-ALPHA(LII_{OPERATING TEMP. JMAX) AAEDO3kO C NOTE JMAX ONE MORE THAN INPUT VALUES 9N CARD(S) AAEO0350 20 FORMAT ([2_6. LMAX G_MMAR = GPOVGEIL) A4ED07?O C ENSURE EXCLUSION OF NEGATIVE PLASTICITY IN _DHESIVE [ERROR IN DATA) A4EDO780 IF [GAMMAR °LT. STRGTH(40. LMAX. C _EAD IN NON-DIMENSIONALIZED OVERLAP ARRAY AAEDO2?O AAED0280 qL(1) = O. AND REPLACE ADHEREND ET'S WITH GT'S FOR IN-PLANF AAEDOIIO C L (EDGEWISE) SHEAR LOADING C AAEDOI20 C DIMENSION 3L(J). VU(2). ETRIIOI. oH NMAX = .

2 TP_TIg(J.l .LT. OTHER END OF JOINT CRITICAL AAED1460 OTHER END nF JOINT IDENTIFIED AS CRITICAL BY SHEAR STRAIN GRADIENT AAEDL4TO SET INFINITE TRANSITIONAL OVERLAP TO ACCOUNT FOR THIS AAED1480 IF ! (V3 . A4E91250 GO TO 2[0 AAEDI260 SET TRANSITIONAL OVERLAPS FOR THERMAL MISMATCH ONLY A4101270 190 IF {THERMCII} . AAEDI330 I_ (THERMC(2) .GF.LT.LT. 0. * VR{2) 150 C C C C C C C C C C C C C q C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C A4EDOQO0 A4EOIO00 ESTABLISH TRANSITIONAL OVERLAPS FROM _ULLY-DLASTIC TO ELASTIC-PLASTIC A4EDIOLO I MEHAVIOUR 4S REFERENCE LENGTH FOR START OF ITERATIONS A4EDI020 SPECIAL _ROCEDURE FIR LESS THAN COMPL=TELY UNBALANCED JOINTS A4EDI03O 160 I _ ((THERMC([) .} OLTRNT{I| = lOO000O.GT. A4EDI4qO IF (V4 . 0. 0.VUINCRTND) + VL(NCRTNO)_THERMC(NC_TNO)/OLaPA4EOOgqO GO TO 2TO A4EDOBeO A4EDO900 AAEDOOIO A4FD0920 A4EDOg30 A4EDO940 A4Eno950 a_FD0960 A4ED0973 C C C C NCRTND STRESS J = 2. A4EDII!O OLTRNC(1) = lO00OOO.} GO TO 190 AAEDI050 I_ (VR(I) .EQ.EQ. OTHFR END OF JOINT CRITICAL AAED1510 OTHER END OF JOINT IDENTIFIED AS CRITICAL BY SHEAR STRAIN GRADIENT A4EDI520 SET INFINITE TRANSITIONal OVERLAP TO ACCOUNT FOR THIS AAEDI530 IF i IV4 . AAED1350 GO TO 210 AAEDI360 200 CONTINUE A4EDI370 STANDARD PROCEDURE FOR COMPLETELY UNBALANCED JOINTS A4EDLOBO Vl = THERMC([) • VL(LI / (2.) OLTRNC(2) = [O0000O.NCRTNO| :1. 0.) OLTRNC(2) = SQRT(GAMMAR_VL(2)/VU(2)) AAEDI240 IP (VU(2I .) OLTRNT(2) = -GAMMAR/THERMC(2| A4ED[300 IF (THERMC(2) .EQ. 0.| ) OLTRNCIZi = l. DO 150 J = 2. A4EDEIqO IF (VU(2) . 0.) OLTRNT(2) = IO000OO. 0. O. 0.LT° 0. O.LT.) OLTRNC(1} = fOOD000. O. . NEED TO PREVENT COMPUTATIONS BASED ON THIS AAEDIS90 2 UNREAL SITUATION.LE.) OLTDNT(2) = lOOOO00. 0.GT. |OLTRNC(I} . 0.I . 0. 0. A4EDI660 IF IV4 .) OLTRNC(1) = i000000.) OLTRNT(2) = SQRT(_AMMAR_VL(2)/VU(2)) A4EO[200 I¢ (VU(2) . 0.l OLTRNT(1) = Vl ÷ SORTIV_) A4EDI450 IF NOT. 44ED1540 IF ICRTNO .) OLTRNTll) : TO00000.LE.) OLTRNCI[) = -V| ÷ SQRTIV3I A4EDL620 IF NOT.LE. (OLTRNTI2} .) . A4FOll20 OLTRNCI2I = I000030.) ) OLTRNC(1) = 1000000. 0.VLI21 C C C SPECIal SET : 1. = J OVERLAPS 75 . 0.GE. JMAX OL_P : OL(J) 00 |50 NCRTNO = 1. FO_ JMAX 2 SHORT GRADIENT = IOOOOOO. l.) OLTRNC(2) = GAMMARITHERMC(2) A4EOI340 IF (THERMC(2) .GE. A4EDI2gO I_ (THERMC(2) . (VR(I) .| . 2 FOR SHORT OVERLAPS.LT. A4EDI210 IF (VU(1) .EQ.OR.) OLTRNT(2) = V2 + SQRT(VA) A4ED1500 IF NOT. AAFOl130 GO TO 210 A4EDII40 SET TRANSITIONAL OVERLAPS cOR STIFFNESS IMBALANCE ONLY AAEOIlSO IN TH_ ABSENCE OF THERMAL MISMATCH.OR. SAME END IS CRITICal FOQ BOTH A4EDII60 1 TENSILE SHPAR AND COMPRESSIVE SHEAR LOANING A4EOIITO t80 IF (VU(I) °GT.OR. A4EDI6@O AAEDL6QO A_ED1700 A4EDI710 AAEDI720 AAED_730 AAEDI?40 AAFDI750 AAED1760 PROCEDURE FOR PURELY ELASTIC aDHESIVE JOINT IF (GAMMAR .I . 0.) OLTRNC(2) = tO00000.) OLTRNCIL) = GAMMAR/THERMC(1) A4EOIO20 I c (THEQMC(!) .I OLTRNC(1) = SORT(GAMMAR_VL(I)/VU(I)) A4101220 I_ (VUII) .LT. • VU(2|) A4EDI400 V3 = V|=VI ÷ GAMMAR_VL(II/VU(1) A4EDI4tO V4 = V2_V2 • GaMMAR_VL(2)/VU(2) A4EDI420 ESTABLISH TRANSITIONAL OVERLAPS BELOW WHICH JOINT IS F_ILLY PLASTIC 441D1430 NEXT F_UR STATEMENTS APPLY FOR TENSILE SHEAR LOADING A4101440 IF IV3 .EQ.GF. O. O.LT.) ) OLTRNT(1) = 1000000. HENCF CHECKS ABOVE AND BELOW A4EDI600 NEXT FOUR STATEMENTS WOULD APPLY FOR COMPRESSIVE SHEAR LOADING AAED1610 IF IV3 .AND. 0.) ) OLTRNT(2| = [000000.GT° 0.) OLTRNC(2) = -V2 • SORTIV4) A4EOI670 IF OTHERNOT_ END OTHER OF SET INFINITE IF ( IV4 210 SET DO 260 UNIFORM DO 220 JSAVE ENO OF IDENTIFIED JOINT CRITICAL CRITICAL JOINT AS BY SHEAR STRAIN TRANSITIONAL OVERLAP TO ACCOUNT FOR THIS . A4EDI[O0 OLTRMT(2I = lO00000. OITRNT|I| WILL BE COMPUTED VERY A4EDI550 l LARGE_ AND VICE VERSA AAEDI560 THIS IS PHYSICALLY R_ALISTIC AND DOES NOT LEAD TO IMPOSSIBLE COMPUTINGA4ED[570 IF BOTH V] AND V_ ARE POSITIVE.LE.LE.GT.OR. • VU(L|) A4FDI390 V2 = THERMC(2) • VL(2l / (2. O.GE. JOINT CONTAINS BOTH IMBALANCES A4EDIO?O GO TO 200 a4EDIO_O SET INCINITE TRANSITIONAL OVERLAP FOR IOENTICAL ADHEPENnS AAEDIOQO lTO OLTRNT(1) = tO00000. O. 0. a4EOl310 IF (THERMCII) . OTHER END 0¢ JOINT CRITICAL 44FD1630 OTHER END OF JOINT IDENTIFIED AS CRITICAL BY SHEAR STRAIN GRADIENT A4ED1640 SET IN=INITE TRANSITIqNAL OVERLAP TO ACCOUNT FOR THIS AAEDI650 I_ I IV3 .) GO TO 160 ZERO TRANSITIqNAL LENGTH FOR PUrELY-ELASTIC JqINTS TRaNSL(K| = O.LE.GE.) OLTRNT([) = -GAMMaRITHERMC(I) A4EDI280 IF (THERMC(I| . 0.) ) Gq TO lTO A4EDIQAO IF (TH_RMC(I) . EITHER OLTRNTIE) OR OLTRNT(2) WILL BE AAED15BO I COMPUTED NEGaTIVF.) GO TO loO AAEDI060 IF NON_ 0 = THESE. 0.GE. O.GE. (OLTRNT(1) °LE. (OLTRNC(2) . A_ED!230 IP (VU(2) .LE. 1.) DLTRNT(I| = SQRT(GAMMAR=VL(I|/VUII)) A4EDIEBO [P (VU(I) . 0.

GT.I GO TO 340 C IF NOT| THERE HAS BEEN A COMPUTATIONAL MISTAKE C PRINT ASTERISKS TO IDENTIFY ERROR C RERUN WITH GREATER VALUE OF NMAX TAU&VG{J. J_AX OLAP = OL(J) "TAUt = TRATIO(J_I| TAU2 = TRATIO(Jt2) IF ( (TAUt oLT. Io| .EQ. 2 IF C ADHEREND {DIFFNCI290_300_310 JOINT It) END 0 CRITICAL 290 TAUAVGIJtK) = TAUt STRGTH{JtK) = TAU1 = OLAP ICRTNOIJ_K| = I C C_VER SITUATION WHFRE TRANSITIONAL LENGTH IS LESS THAN OL(2I l_ {J .GT.LT.GT.099 IF (AOVERL .) ICRTNDIJ.OLAP_VUII)/VL(I) IF (GRADNT .LT. NCRTND :EO.EQ° 2| TRANSLIK| = OLTRNTIZ) C COVER CASES OF ZERO OR NEGATIVE ESTIMATED STRENGTHS 320 IF (TAUAVGIJtK| °GT. 0. THIS APPLIES TO ELASTIC-PLASTIC ADHESIVES IF IGA_AR °EQ.001} &OVERL= 0°001 240 CONTINUE TRATIO(J_NCRTND| = I.EO.q9991 GO TO 250 C COMPUTE CORRESPONOING AVERAGE SHEAR STRESS TRATIO|JtNCRTND| = I.GT.GT. IF (JSAVE .EQ. 0. STRGTHiJ_K| = lOO0° 3_0 CONTINUE 350 CONTINUE A4EOI7?O ABED[780 A4EOIT90 A4EDtOOO A4ED[O[O A_EDX820 A4ED[830 A4ED1840 A_EOLB50 A4EDIB60 A_ED[870 ASEDtO_O A4EOt_O0 A4EDtOOO A4EDZOIO A4EDX920 A4EOL?3O A4EO1940 A4EDI950 A4EDI960 A4FD[970 A4EDIg80 A4ED|Q90 ABED2000 A4ED20[O ABE92020 A4ED2030 A_ED20_O A4ED2050 A4ED206O A4ED2OTO A4ED2080 AAFD2OQO A4ED2LO0 A4ED2IIO A4ED2120 A4ED2t30 A_ED2L4O A4ED2150 A4ED2160 A_ED2t70 A4ED2190 A4EO2t90 A4EO2200 A4ED2210 ABED2220 A4E_2230 A4ED2240 A_EOZ250 A_ED2260 A4EO2270 ASE02280 A4ED2290 A4E02300 A4ED23[O ABED2320 A4EO2330 A4EOZ340 A4ED2350 AAED2360 A4E02370 _EO23BO A4EO2390 A4EO2600 A6E02410 A4EO2420 AAEDZ430 AAED2440 ASED2450 A4EO2460 ASED2470 A_ED24BO A4ED2490 A4ED2500 AAE025IO ASED2520 L_ADA4ED2530 AAEO2540 ASEO2550 ABED2560 A4EO2570 ABED2580 A_ED2590 A4ED2600 A4ED26[O A4EO2620 ASED2630 ACED2640 76 . O| MCRTND = t TRANSL(K) = OLT_NTiMCRTND) GO TO 340 280 DIFFNC = TAU1 TAU2 F DIFFNC °LTo 0 t NCRTND EQ.LTo 0. JMAX OLAF = OLIJ| OLAPZ = OLAP t OLAP C 30qPUTE AOVERL FOR _INIMUM VALUE OF TAVOTP BY ITERATION C SET INITIAL ESTIMATE OF EXTENT OF PLASTIC ZONE FROM TRANSITIONAL OLAP AOVERL= OLTRNTiNCRTNO) / OLAP DO 240 N = It NMAX ARMOR = [o -AOVERL AOVERL= -ARMOR=ALnG(ARMDgl ÷ (GAMM&R / ((VUINCqTND)/VL(NCRTNO))= l OLAP2 . 0 C IF OIFPNC . GO TO 340 3)0 IF (TAUAVGIJ_KI . JOINT IS FULLY PLASTIC 220 TRATIO(J_NCQTNO| = [. STRGTHiJtK| = OLAP C TRANSITIONAL OVERLAPS ALREADY COMPUTED FOR ELASTIC ADHESIVE C BYPASS RECOMPUTATION.THERMCINCRTNDI=OLAP)) IF (AOVERL .K) = O._Q° 0. JMAX) GO TO 260 C C COMPUTE JOINT STRENGTH FOR ELASTIC-PLASTIC ADHESIVE BEHAVIOUR 230 OD 250 J = J_AVE.EQ. JOINT HAS BROKEN DUE TO THERMAL STRESSES WITHOUT EXTFRNAL TAUAVG(JtK| = O.I_ {OL(J) .K) =TAUZ STRGTH(J_K) = TAU2 • OLAP ICRTND(J K) = Z C 3OVER SITUATION WHERE TRANSITIONAL LENGTH IS LESS THAN DL(2I IF (J .LE.) GO TO 330 C IF NOT.DR. . 2| TRANSL(KI = OLTRNT{II GO TO 320 C ADHEREND (2I END OF JOINT CRITICAE 310 TAUAVG(J.| GO TO 360 MCRTND = ICRTND(JvKI IF (MCRTND . O. 0. 0.K| = t IF (GRADNT . OLTRNT(NCRTNDI) GO TO 230 C IF NOT. STRGTH(J.) } GO TO 200 C IF SO_ JOINT IS NOT FULLY PLASTIC C IF NOT| IDENTI_Y CRITICAL END OF JOINT FROM SHEAR STRAIN GRADIENT GR&DNT = THERMC(1) . 2I TRANSLIK| = OLTRNT(I} GO TO 320 C BOTH ENDS OF JOINT EQUALLY CRITICAL FROM NULLIFYING {OR ZERO| C t ADHEREND IMBALANCES 300 TAUAVG(J_K| = TAUt" STRGTH(J_K| =TAU[ _ OLAP ICRTNDIJtK) = O C COVER SITUATION WHERE TRANSITIONAL LENGTH IS LESS THAN OL(2) IF (J . IF (AOVERL . I.) ICRTND(J_K) = 2 T&UAVGIJ_K) = [.EQ.E9. 0. (TAU2 . 0:. 0.K| = 100.99Q) AOVERL= 0. I _F DIFFNC . I.) IC_TND(JtK) = 0 IF (GRADNT .t NCRTND .(VL(NCRTND|=GAMM&R/OLAP2 _ (VL(NCRTND)= L THERMCfNCRTND)/OLAP VU(NCRTND|| _ AOVERL) / ALOG(ARMDR| 250 CONTINUE 260 CONTINUE C C VALUES COMPUTED ARE NOW STORED IN TRATIOIJtNCRTND) Z?O DO 360 J = 2.

3IHNON-DIMENSIONALIZED FORMULATION/) Iv |GAWMAR .SRO) (ETRIK). 7H L/T/. 10(F7. [O(F7. = . 56HADHESIVE-BONDED SCARF JOINTS (ELASA4ED3OgO ITIC-PLASTIC AN_LYSIS)I.3801 FORMAT (IHO. KMAX) _70 FORMAT (IH . "---"` = FORMAT (IH . 33HZERP THERMAL MISMATCH COEFFICIEN T ) A4ED3210 GO TO 570 A4ED3220 550 WRITE (6.K) = 1. THERMC(2) A4ED3230 560 FORMAT IIH . A_ED3240 l |?H FDQ TENSION.3.1. 9FlO. ICRTND(J. 2X.NE. I/. F6. 33HZFRO THERMAL MISMATCH COEFFICIENT) GO TD _50 JOINTS STPAIN A4E02650 A4ED2660 &4CO2670 A4EO2680 A4EO2690 A4ED2700 WHICH A4ED2710 A4ED2720 A4ED2730 A4ED2740 A4E02750 A4ED2760 _4ED2770 (ELASA4ED2780 A4ED2?90 A4E02800 A4ED2B[O A4ED2820 A4EO2B30 A4ED2840 A4ED2850 _ATIOA4E02860 A4ED2870 A4ED2880 A4EO2_go A4ED2900 A4EO29[O C WRITE |6. 37X. 3IHTHERMAL MISMATCH COEFFICIENT = . 0. c6. IX}) _qO CONTINUE [ C C C C C A4ED2920 A4ED2930 _4ED2g4O A4ED2950 A4ED2q60 ET EA4EO2q70 A4ED2980 A4ED2Q90 A4ED3OO0 A4EDO010 A4ED3020 A4ED3O30 A4ED3040 A4FD3050 A4ED3O60 PRINT OUT JOINT STRENGTH HEADING A_EDOO?O WRITE (6. F6. K=AX TAUAVG(1. 3IX. 31HNON-DIMENSIONALI_ED FORMULATION/) A4ED3!IO I c (GAMWAR . 27X. 3gHEXTENSIONAL STIFFNESS (THICKNESS) PATIO/. A4ED3IO0 2 3_X. KMAX) 460 FORMAT( IHO. 20X. 6?X. 360 ICRTNO([.500) A4ED3130 500 F3RM_T |lHO.K)). STRGTH(I.3. = . qFIO.KI = O. JMAX A4EO3340 WRITE (6_590) OL(J).KI).) GO TO 430 WRITE (6. F6. 25H2 = STIFF gT EN_ CRITICAL/. 56HADHESIVE-BONDED SCARF ITIC-PLASTIC ANALYSIS)/.N_. K = [. 27X. tXl) A4EO3360 600 CONTINUE A4ED3370 WRITE OUT TRANSITIONAL JOINT STRENGTHS A4ED33_O WRITE (6.3. K = 1. [ = SOFT 2N_ CRITICAL/.C C SET C C C C C C UNIFOR_ STRESS FOR ZERO DO 360 K = L.. 4gHPLASTIC TO ELASTIC ADHESIVE SHEAR t F5. 49HPLASTIC TO ELASTIC ADHESIVE SHEAR STRAIN RATIOA4ED3[_O I = .) GO TO 550 &4CO3190 WRITE (6. IX. 16X. 25H2 = STIFF ET ENO CRITICAL/t 3 @HO SCALED. I6X.2) A4ED3180 530 IF (CTHERM([) . _H QATIR. 67X. [6H FOR COMPRESSION) 450 WRITE (6.460) IETR(K). START OVERLAP SMALL ENOUGH TO BE LESS THAN THAT AT PRINTING OUT OF TABULATED RESULTS 380 390 _00 410 420 430 _40 OUT AVERAGE STRESS HEADING WRITE (6. F7. 31X. 3qHEXTENSIONAL RTIFFNESS (THICKNESS) PATIO/. 2X. II.4. K = l.r COEFFICIENT .540) A4ED3200 5_0 FORMAT IIH .520) GAM_AR A_ED3160 520 FORMAT(IHO. 23HPURELY ELASTIC ADHESIVE) GO TO 410 WRITE I6. IX. KMAX) A4ED3350 590 F3_MAT (IH .NE. 0. ((STRGTH(J. JMAX WRITE (6. 27X. 2 39X. 42X. 23HPUQELY ELASTIC ADHESIVEI A4ED3140 GO TO 530 A4EO3150 510 WRITE (6. 6BX.3T0) FORMAT (1HI/. 3 RHO SCALED. =5.470) OL(J).l GO TO 510 A4ED3120 WRITE (6.560) THERMC(1).420) FORMAT ([H . F6o2. A4ED3_?O l 72HNDN-DIM_NSIONAL[ZED JOINT STRENGTH T I = SOFT ET EA4ED32BO A4ED32qO 2ND CRITICAL/.) GO TO 390 WRITE (6.NE. 16H FOR COMPRESSION) A_ED3253 570 WRITE (6.5. A4ED3300 A4FD3310 4 _H L/T/. [0 3X|) A4ED3390 A4ED3400 620 CqNTINUE A4ED341O A4ED3420 WRITE (6_630) A4ED3430 b30 FORMAT IIH[. KMAX) A4ED3260 580 FORMAT( IHO. O. 5(IHOI). K = I.400l GAWMAR F3RMATIIHO. ! 72HAVERAGE SHEAR STRESS / MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS . 27X. II. _: KMAXI 610 FOQMAT (_HO TRANSL. 42X.460) THERMC(I). 31HTHERMAL THERMC(2) MIb_A.3.K)._. 7H RATIO. If. _°1. F6. ICRTNDIJ. _ _.490) A4E03080 _90 ¢ORMAT (IH1/.K).2) IF |CTHFRM(1) . ((TAUAVG(J. O.K) HENCE NEED POR OL(2) TO BE [ NCRTND CHANGES END PRINT 370 De COMPUTATIONS.2. ITH _OR TENSION. 30HO = BOTH ENDS EQUALLY CRITICAL/. 5([HO/). IBH PROGRAM COMPLETED) A4ED3440 STqP A4ED3450 END 77 .6!0) (TRANSL(K)IX. 30HO = BOTH ENDS EQUALLY CRITICAL/. 6@_. !H ) A_EO3320 WRITE OUT TABULATIONS _F JOINT STRENGTHS A4ED3330 DO 600 J = I.K) = ICRTNO(2. 37X. [H ) WRITE OUT TABULATIONS OF AVERAGE BOND STRESSES DO 480 J = 1. 20X.

n30oo 1 • OC _00 I .00000 1.0000 L•?O00 1.00 40.0000 I 5.70 2._0000 1.00000 Z 0.oqno I 4.0654 48.00 3_1.00 TRANSL FXTENSInN&L 0.qTOS& I 0.OOOO0 1.g 0.0000 l•2000 1•_0o0 1.210_ _.9704_ O.00OO n I 1•0o003 1 I•C0000 1 o•qqq681 1 0.0030 _.00 12._qoq 16.00OO 1 _.OO I0.qR24 0._OeO0 1.071|4 0.q*_07 0.00000 1.12_0 29._40S I L 4.283'.00000 I 0.90_24 0.5000 1 3.2000 I.00 35.623_5 l 0.00 50.978[8 0.2000 2 l•S000 2 1•1000 7 2.9727 6.77_3 5.0557 5.NqO0 2.46_58 I 0•43829 "I O.8990 0.q3fl&8 D.8 .7030 2.q6t76 1 0.0 0._64I 21.00000 L.qOo30 1.00 30.S4_P 124.0000_ 1.00 2.05019 2 0.2_00 0.72_5 1 5.4 0.75237 0.0000 5.OOqOo L•_qO0C I•0000¢ 1. _1.90000 I.7165_ I 0•6601_ 1 0.07470 l 0.&967 g.00 ]10.2075 _._0OO 1.0000 1.00000 1.42qD _.1044 1_.3q9_0 l.0028 I 7.O0000 .2000 1.00000 2 l.3 0.g62f16 _ 0.00 6.2000 0.O000 4.00000 !.5_02 13.o_7RO 2 o.920C 23._nco _.0000 |.00_0 4.Stra 14.00000 .50 1.000 = = = BOTH SOFT SIIEF OATIq ¢.18L7 4.6_7fl9 O.0 0.0_00 2._O00 1.00 _iO.30090 L.0o000 1.qgql4 0.A l.o_0 7.Otto00 .00e0 I 2._000 0.00 25._407n L O•7Aql7 1 0.50 3.50 1.O0000 1.5_2_q L O.6_26 L 11.?000 _.07_21 0.)O_qO I.0000 2.0q900 l.04T_ Pl.5000 1.0965 1 IA•_70 1 L•Ol_ 1 _I.00030 • 00000 .R_ _.uoqGo o•ggg_7 0.1106 2 2 ? P 2 P 2 7 ? ? 7 2 ? 2 ? 2 ? _ 1 1 1 1 I 1 i 1. O0000 0.14q0 8.0647 16.s13o7 I 0.58_ ? 7 _ 7 2 0 I L 1 1 L I 1 I I 1 1 1 I 1 I I I l I 0.5000 3.2oO0 0•5000 l•oeoo 1.30343 L 0.5000 _.2000 _.91_63 O.75_96 L 0._935 3q.2474 3_.30003 •09000 I.2000 1•_000 1.06701 10.qOq7 s 1 0._7945 0.1248 5.1843 t1.3_093 7 L.21820 0.7_OO 2.9S8_0 1.30470 0.3 ? I•09000 2 1._00Q l.2000 I.00000 ._000 I 2.Q?6qO 0.2000 0.?0or) 1.96Ra _B.00000 1.00n00 2 l.0 CL)R L CnMPRESSIuN NnN-D|M_NSIONALIEP'_ JqINT 5TREH_TH e FNDS FOUALLY C_ITICAL ET END CRITICAL FT END CRITICAL SCALEO LIT RATIO 0.1q_3 14.00000 l.0 0.00000 .0000 1 3.OqO00 ._144 13•14P s: 14•672a L_._379 o 1 0.0C 2.9361 4.00 15.0 0.503fl4 1 0.6_71 78.O00OO 0._4_G 1 6•3763 1 7.77al STIFFNEK5 0.3297 5.09000 _ 1.)09_ 12.T6qI R•_633 ADHESIVE-RC_rO SCAq_ JOINTS NON-DIMENSICNALIIE_ _OHESIVF I•000 SHfAn IrLASTIC-OLASTIC FP_MULATION SHEA_ STRAIN FOR TENS[ON.nq?35 0.q 0.0000 2.4004 5.55502 L 0•53_7 I 0.77_6 7.SO00 1._qc88 I 0.00000 l.qqsT 11.00 _5. COOnO I 1.076S0 ? 2 P 2 2 2 2 ? 2 7 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 7 2 2 2 L ! 1 I 78 .20n0 0.nnO00 L.LST& 2 2 ? 2 0.50 3.90_4 27.00000 I 1.C000 2.1048 5.0000 4•0_n0 5•?909 6.0 0.0000 _.00003 ._n3o 1.05737 0.O_o00 l.1606 24•1825 4.& _ ? 7 2 2 2 ? 2 2 0 1 1 1 L 1 1 I I 1 I 1 1 I 1 1 0.5009 1.O000C L.q777) 0.ADHESIVE-BONDEr) SCARF JOINTS IFLASTEC-PLASTIC NON-D|.30OC0 1._¢71 _S.7?SI I_.3_A55 0.2000 2 0.Hr)q_ 21.7510 12.00 B.7044 19.0000 5.1535 27.00'3C0 l.00000 l.gq4q5 0.0 0.O0000 1 l.6002% 1 0.0000 6•0000 q.0 0..3027R 0._ ? 0.86090 0.qo_5 1 7.0 0.0 _ L.4570 1?._15q 4_•37&7 47.0 q.00900 I.00Oq 12.0000C l.7 O.6044 3.50 1.36491 1 0.20 0.00 17.5245 1 q.O0 IT.OOOnO l•Or)O00 1.63378 I 0•61s61 I 0.7000 7._q030 2 1.TO 2.g47_9 10•A6A¢? 1 0.0000 4._090 _.0000 1 s. STRrS£ .O00] 10.3334 1 13.O00_O .75176 I 0.2_415 0.OO_nO L.g0O00 l.30000 1.00 5.00000 1._000 1•O000 1.000 = = • _OTH 5qFT STIFF RATIO 0.5030 1.7760 I_.0_000 1.O000n 7 1.O0 ¢5.7000 7.7R725 0.09000 l.23732 0._249 5.00000 1._14_5 0.OOOO 5.40391 0.lq?_ 77.OOOOq .0000 _._3_0 1•7gnO 2.0000 4•0000 _.7000 2._9% 34•_3_2 3_.41022 1 0.n000 2.nOPnO .78320 0.4q266 l 0.0045 14.q72_ | 0.91527 I 0.00000 •gO00n .$8213 ITHICKNESSI 0.OOOr) 1.72540 I O.1142 2 ? ? 2 ? 2 L 1 1 I l 1 1 1 l 1 1 L I L L 1 L ! 0.7213 6.0000 7.O.0000 L0.00 1.00000 1.00000 1.00000 1.COOq_ 1.50r)0 3.i166 10.00000 P t.0 0.5000 _ I•oooo 2 1.00300 l.59695 O.4752 ).20q0 o.? ANALYSIS1 THERMAL PLASTIC MISMATCH T_ FI AS T IC AOHcSIV CF)FF_ICIPNT = 1.003h I•200_ 1.00900 0.)ODO 2 l.00 20.384_0 _ 2 7 2 O.00 4.I_25 20.85245 1 9.0900 9.2150 4.0676 11.00 6.3222 1 q.5q42 7.82124 0.5030 l 1•7300 I ?.g645 2_.O0000 2 L n0o9o 2 I 00000 C I 00000 I 1 00000 I 1 00003 L L 00090 1 1.Lqql ] 13.2037? O.O9009 .000_ _0•0000 74•7ts4 2q•_.7374 5._668_ 0.7637T 0.SS3E8 t 0.SaqS6 0.O000n 2 L.4_35S 2 2 ? 2 2 2 ? ? I 1 L STIFFNESS 0.0000 3.20 0.9_010 I O.00000 L.7000 2.52719 I 0.S000 3.noooo 0.33R41 0.0690 2_.I 1.00000 I•O00C_ 10.2764 1 12.937_ 30.5000 1 _.000 n 4.604R_ I O.5000 3.00003 .71153 0.0000 14.727_ 0.000°0 1.0000 2.000 _ATlq = = -|.oqooo 1.O00}O [.00 4.00000 t.QF3q_ 0._762_ 0.293_2 0.0707 I ?6•Sflq6 I 79.Ono00 1. N00OO ? I•_ono 2 I.'4FNSIONAL | Z ED F(IRMULAT ION I: SItEAR 5 T RAIN CAR TENSION.00 IS.6237 12.g0110 0.C_OqO l•OnOaO I•0O000 1•00000 1•00000 L.4_92 0.qgR4 5.6017 8.84qi 1_.00000 l.2 l.000_ 17.O0 20.05990 2 0.00000 1.955_0 0. r_OOOq .054_ _3.72q32 0.20 1.q0n46 0.q 1.63241 1 9.00 50.0000 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ? 2 2 2 2 2 2 ? ? ? 2 2 2 2 ? 2 0.00000 1.00 1._27 10._000 I.00 EXTENSIONAL 0.1_74 L 11•17]1 1 L2.0 "FOR C_MPRFSSI_N MAXI_U4 ENDS EOUALLY CnITICAL El FN n CRITICAL FT EN9 CRITICal SCALEI_ LIT RATIO 0.50177 1 0.OOOOn 1.0556 _._9_5 q.o_no _.6q_3] 0.O0000 1.6 1.40477 1 0.O0 I0.20 1.31023 1 0.43_4 1 B•0782 I q•l?0q I I 10._0142 O.TOCO 2.00000 7 1.OOO00 1•00000 l._000 1.6574 9.50313 I 0.78625 0.63755 I 0.00r)00 1.18326 2 2 2 ? 2 0.00900 L 1.Iq2Xq 0.0000 q.99959 0._090 1.O000 l.q477_ l 0.00 ?_. O | 2 |THICKNESS) O. OttO00 O.1630 3.00000 2 L.705_ ?.N0000 .S3_RL L 0. O [ 2 AK_ALYSIS) THERMAL AVERAGE PLASTIC TO ELASTIC MISMATCH COEFFICIFNT: SHEAR STRESS I nATlO : : -L.7201 _S.0000 15.0000 2.42707 0.08S77 O.5094 lg.OnOQO L • 0000 q 1.5565 4.0OnO 5.2000 l.1105 7.0 ? 9.LQ07 17.6&b71 0.70_00 0.g36_ 8.00 B.06402 1 0.1 0.50 l.626_ ll.0372 33.36604 0.00 5.6533 O•R ? 2 2 2 2 ? 2 2 2 7 2 _ I 1 1 1 I 1 1 I 1 I I I 1 0.00000 I.00 12.6270 5.7 .5 1.O000r) _ L.5777 ? 2 _ _ 7 7 2 _ 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 I I 1 I 1 1 L I 1 O._000 1.0176 4).0 0._04_9 L 0.9850 q•2_qO 10.qn528 L 0.R6914 3.5000 l.0000 5.4ql5 l_•7qC_ 17.fl7_5_ I n.9_9_7 2 q.q_4_4 0._000 _.]?L7 19•23_7 ?_.

2570 I I 1 I 1 I l 1 I 0. 2.nO_3_ 1 L._OO') _.00000 l .071]_ l 30.0o000 1.40119 0.5000 1.O00OO lo_nOOO 1.52062 I 0.90058 I 0.9.0000 L.00 35. 3600 7.58091 0.00007 1.1127 1 R.4 1.00 40.493q 10.45090 0.00000 0.00000 1.0000 ADHESIVE-BONDED SCARF JOIHTS IELASTIC-Pt_STIC NnN-OIMENSIONAL I Z_D Fq_'_UL_ T InN ADHFSIVE -1..00 12.q045 _. g99')7 0.000 SHE_R STRAI_ FOR T_NSIOH.23650 0. 7000 7._000 _.9#30 1 ?.0000 3._62 9.4q6 o 1 I l I L I 1 _.00 _.R0674 1 0.391_0 0.0 o.5090 1.0 _.00_ IELASTIC-PLASTIC FORMULATION SHFAP STOAIN _0_ TFNSI_.7964 lb.'_qo.0000 1.97054 0.00_0 1.o5o00 9.00000 1.3992 2.0000 4.7_01 _.3?L7 L 19.62463 O.01155 L 0. 00000 1.67038 0._3843 0.015a I |q.00 10._q3q 11 .7000 ?.4':5O._7_7 1 6.0 0.b I o.7000 ?. I 14.5000 1 I.1978 I 3.')0990 1.20 0. L 0.51_O.ooono I.00 B.OnO0') 1 1.7502R 0.985& I 27._2046 0.9372 1 3%.5000 1.62837 0._._09_0 L L. t 0 I 7 (THICKNESSI O. 5') 0'_ 3 ._0462 I 0.7090 2.90q_.00 5.3913 q.0 0.000_') I l.5387 6.71&O_ 0.?000 0.00000 I.2000 1.7817 I 5.92 0.00 30._708 .00000 I.0g7_ 4.0027 1 21. _ L 1.O.7000 1.0_00 4.300_0 1 I._6060 10.3_.0000n ENDS rOUALLY CRITICAL ET £ND CRITIC6L FT FND CRITICAl FXTErdSIONAL O.O000O 1.9_0_0 I.998n_ 0._n_90 I 1.00000 1.0 0.276_ 0.5252_ l 1 I 1 I I 0.770_6 0. aI025 I 0.00 2.5356 I 13.00000 I°00000 1.gATqL 0.C_L60 6.O00oo 1 1.00000 I._24 O.27051 0. 11.000')0 ! .I116 3.97282 0.2O90 0.15073 0.7&AOl 0.3341_ 0.gqTI 2.90000 I L._155 _.OOOO L.974 TM D.17°.09003 1 l.70 2.0000 2.05939 0._18 I_. 9'_80 I "_R.000_9 I 1.7147 I_.80P6) 1 0.7A37_ 0.237_2 0.00000 I .00000 1.0000 5.997_ _) 0.6_11 I 0.3555 b.0 0.00 TRANSL STRENGTH ENOS EOIIALLY CRITIrAL _ END CRITICAL FT ENn CRITICAL FXTENSIDNAt O.O0000 1.49_6 2. 7c_69_ 0.]151 4.41_66 0.&511 15.8_q_ I 0.4771R 0. 00000 O.O 1.0000 2. O00')C 1.O0000 l l.0000 I.0000 7.900_0 ! 1.000')0 l .5n00 I.71127 0._._q?_ [ q.00000 0.5_3b 1 11.990_q l L.3_31_ 0. m4043 O.4 0.7123 10.2'_2 o .16815 0.50400 0.05_ 0.00 15. 1967 q [ I 1 I I 1.50 3.NO0_ L.0_59 10.¢61_ 0.5000 3.2891 24.780_ 21.O.15959 0.71_05 0.00 17.0 0.70 1.T.qO&bo.00 1 .5559 I _.692q 40.2_52 I 2_.00 35.OOOO 2.8546_ L o.4'-6_0 I 0.5030 I .5000 1 . 5nO0 L . l t.2750 _3.2R7_) Iq.00 50.00 40.0 0.4 5.7525 _1._6_5 5.2 0.q0010 0.00 17.59#65 0.Ogo00 L 0.6306 2.g971 4._970 >_.00 10.OO0q _.1_680 O.04_ 5.n654 5.2_554 0.2000 I .00 30.5_7 L 17.418_ 3.8_R2 _.00000 0.09o67 0.o.55757 0.q0372 0.2175 0.50 1.70n4_ 0.54_9_ I 0.00 45. 5000 1 2.0300'} 1 0.O00g_ 1 1.0292 6.2soI l 13. _04l_ " 5.q539 %. Z03') _}.7356? 0.00 45.?_36 ]6.000_0 1.q134 5.00000 1.00 6.73_0_ I 0.762_8 I l I I 1 1 I l 1 I 0.OOO = = = BOTH SqFT STIFF RATIO 5.04_3 3.35504 0.7000 2._0_I 3.260_ 2q.. O.03000 I 1.6')2q I 3.21q0 3_.nq72 I 3.R0605 I 0.0')000 I .7478 _..241_7 0.7071 _.98?4._345 1 1_.5030 1.9g_87 1 0.g012 9.ADHESIVE-BONDED SCARF JOINT_ NON-DINENSIONALIZEO ^OHESIVF -1.5_5_5 10.?0267 0.R_490 O.5000 1.633_.00')0 I 2.5OO3 I .O0000 1.123_ I _.7871 1 5.92&]_ I 0.3275_ 0.2000 0.OOC_ L I.171_ _4.7 AN&IYSISI THERMAL PLASTIC _IS_Tr_ TO ELASTIC CNFFFICIFNT JOI_IT = R_TIO = = I.4_03 &..0000 _.R n. ?000 I 8._4_q 7.5030 1.5305_ 0.66177 0.7000 2.2009 0.2000 I.00_0_ I 1.2_n_ 32.6q077 0.00 25.OqO0] 1 1.202_0 0.00 4.515q 6._gTL STIFrNFSS 0.O 0.73847 0.0003 ?._090 13.0000 2.00 5._ 0.304_3 0._87_ ? .8403 3. 0 I ? RAIIO ANALYSIS| THERMAL PLASTIC MISMATCH TO ELASTIC E3F_FIEI_NT = = 1.30:_ 1 la.lO?6 10.1_?I I 1_.999_ ! _.531_7 1 0.OOqO0 1.?O00 1. =BnTH = SOFT = STIC_ RATIO 0.BI':"._929T O.5 STPESS .99_55 0.?LR6] 0.6._ooo _}._55 1 0._7761 t 0.O 7.0000q 1.00000 1.8260? I 0._OOO 1.o975 7.52')0 2.50_9 1.00000 1.qq7_ 5.5475 _.2000 1 1.00090 1 l.l 1.qC_65 1 0.aO57 8._51Rb 1 0.3502 l q.0A95 0.51860 0.00003 1 1.2022 1 &.5_q7_ 0.210_ 40.5777 0.4!7_g 0.9000 _ . 1 1 I 1 l I.5195 i Iq.00300 1.38716 O.00nnO 1.59_8 0.l_qqR 1 I I 1 I I I 1 1 L 1 I 1 I l I I I I I I I [ I l 0°2 l.1107 1 l 1 1 1 l 1 1 I ! ! I 1 I 1.930_ 1 L 1 I I L I I I I I l L I I L I 1 I 10.81377 0.OOn0 I . _.00 20.75007 0.5000 1.0000_ l.4304_ 0._q188 10.83704 1 0.0450 L2.50 1.2000 I.Rq?O 0.6S33 O.65_b 4.95_& _.441_ 2 .0000o 1. 2 _00 I .9727 2.I_2 35.5473 5.51_ t 21._n_35 I 0.q2"[ I 0.55 B.I_1 [ 25.qqL75 10.31249 0.1815 0.724_ 15.57a2o I 0.9354 I I [ I I 1 I I I l 1 I I L I I I I I I 1 I 1 1 0.365_ I 7.23R_ 10.30_09 I l.25&_2 0.503_ 0.O00C !.9o30 I 24.00009 I. _qoO ').00 50. O0"_e [ 1.816_ L 0.g&265 0.O00_O 10.50 3.00 7. 09 O.53659 I 0.00n0 1.912 F) 1 43.165C 4.50 1. 3695_.0&gq _.00030 1.90000 1 l. 0.2050 0. qqlq7 I 0.00 6.q0655 l 0.2_352 0.?O00 1.7_220 O.317_ 5.3903 13.7602 _6.nO_oa 1.0480 4. tR96 . 00000 1.062_ 20.7 1.q71_ I _. I 0._I045 0._029_ L 0._aq3 1 10. _.8 1 1._000 _.7000 2.90900 I l.5A79 4.00 15.5000 ! l.71253 q _ 79 .70_0 ?.2000 0.'q_')q 1 0.998_6 0.666%3 0.OOOOO 1 1.5000 1.730% 1%.qo052 I 0.0 0.70 2._)q44 I 0.00 6.2171 16.5298 I L5.00 O00 1.18189 0. 7C00 1 2.00_0) i 1.OCOnO I 1.5000 I._C0 5.47_01 0.2000 1.3 l.00000 1.00 20.50')0 2.00 1.247_5 0.44356 0.00000 | O.5057 _._7257 l 0.82L32 I 0.gg_O0 I 0.151n I _.99P93 0.6710_ 0.6517_ 0._q76 5.15825 0._c)40 10 .00000 I .R5_7 _.26_5 3.7433 q.3 0.O0_O0 [ l.63_00 I 0.5 O.2507 2._3o11 ITHICKNESSI 0.707 7.0 FOR COMPRESSION NON-OIHENSInN_L[ZEO SCALFD L/T RATIO 0.00 12.00 25.00000 1 .OO090 1.00 SHEAR STRESS / _AXIMUM SHE_R STIFFNFSS 0. PO000 I .0_00 _ .00000 1.l 0.gT650 11:_8 1 1._009 1._O00 1.0 0.4427 1 1 I l 1 1 I O.ag79 3._33_O.Dono0 l.o000 I .06176 06_.6121_ 1 0.357_ L O._0276 I 0.00000 1.00000 1.0O0OO 1. 20000 l • 00')00 1.00_00 0.0000 5._ 0.0 Fnq COMPRESSION AVERAGE SCALED LIT RATIO 0.gL3q 6.20 0.n I 0.qqgO 1.5000 t. _ 0._.0_32 1 Ii.6 1.2993 22.

IMAX = Number JMAX = Number of non-dimensionalized overlaps. The limiting case of OL(1)=O of overlaps is set by the program. 20. 50. the This program program A4EE will not handle adhesives for which A4EC was developed.LE. Severe convergence program. lO . 40. adhesive shear strain ratios. the ratio of the adhesive If this ratio exceeds peak shear stress stress.LE.LE.A. off or be yielded depending The input data required to operate program A4EE is as follows. CARD l : FORMAT (515) of thermal mismatch coefficients. 20.) LMAX = Number of plastic-to-elastic LMAX . the tangent break of the scarf angle is too small and the tip will either the nature of the adherend material. lO.LE. printed across the (Note that page this controls the number of answers and cannot be increased indefinitely for a single pass through the program.) KMAX = Number of adherend stiffness imbalances. adhesive as well is presented elastic in Sections 3 and 4.) 81 . or not the adherend evaluating direct are exceeded can be determined to the adherend angle. KMAX . IMAX . NMAX .LE. (Note NMAX = 20 is recommended.LE. to be read (Note that this is one more than the number in. NMAX = Number of terms in power series. computer provides for the precise shear stress for adherend The governing on bonded stiffness analysis perfectly scarf joints and thermal with small imbalance scarf as angles.3 Computer Program A4EE For Elastic-Plastic program Strength of Bonded Scarf series Joints solu- This FORTPJ_N IV digital tion for the average It accounts plasticity. JMAX . difficulties were encountered to the omission Whether simply by allowable the scarf on in the development of a solution of the numerical This contributed shear stress for the adherend allowable and adhesive stresses distributions.

4B. is rejected strain ratios. which is the first entry on card 2. for elastic breakdown A4ED. Number of GPOVGE(L) statement. 4A. etc. CARDS 3A. OL(1) = 0 is set by the program as a limiting case. (Note that OL(J) must be read in in ascending order and that OL(2). o < ETR(K) order. etc. (Value of zero. etc.: 2. range up to ±5 are suffiand adherends.2) ETR(K) = Adherend Number of stiffness values ratios restricted (Eltl)/(E2t2). thermal mismatch coefficients in non-dimensionalized statement.) CARDS 5.) _ i. Numberrestricted to 40 by dimension statement. to I0 by dimension such or that statement.2) = Ratio of adhesive entries restricted plastic-to-elastic to 20 by dimension case.: 3. must not exceed 0.: FORMAT (14F5. but accepted 82 . failure of the cient for the available Greater of adhesives with values are usually associated stresses joint under residual thermal alone.) Values of OL(J) exceeding 50 are impractically large. (Subscripts Array should 1 and 2 must be read in be identified in ascending descending CARDS 4. etc.CARDS 2A. 5A.2) OL(J) = Non-dimensionalized overlaps. FORMAT (12F6. (Note CTHERM(1) Number restricted to 20 by dimension that equal and opposite to account application values must be read in consecutively between Values tensile and compressive for the difference of the shear load. 5B.) by program A4EE to prevent by of the computational sequence. FORMAT (I 0F5.5 because of internal computations. 3B.: FORMAT (IOF7.3) = Adherend form. 2B.

The output tables comein pairs with the ratio of the average to maximum adhesive shear stress (_av/T9) and the non-dimensionalized joint strength (Tav/_p)(_) as functions of the adherend extensional stiffness ratio ETIR F. coefficient Each table for a single value of thermal CTHERM = T cover a single The alized behavior both i tensile value of T_SL table from i and the and equal and opposite values are treated in turn to compressive plastic-to-elastic shear loadings.A complete listing and sample outputs follow. 83 . adhesive Each shear column overlap of table strain the is prepared _p/_e" for ratio quantity strength listed defines at the the foot of each non-dimensionthe adhesive transitional to at which changes fully-plastic elastic-plastic. = itl/E2t 2 < i horizontally and the nondimensionalized is prepared joint overlap _ = _ + mismatch _2 vertically.

9H KMAX = . A_EE0400 STIFFNESS RAT)MS SHOULD BE IN ASCENDING DR DESCENDING ORDER ASEEO4lO ETR(KI SHOULD INCLUDE VALUE 1. O. LMAXt NMAX A_EE0580 60 FORMAT (IH[. AAEEO2gO READ IN NON-DIMENS[ONALIZED OVERLAP APRAY A4EE03OO OL(tl = O. A4EE0280 ! NM_X . I = l_ IMAX) A4EE0690 40 FORMAT (lOFT. ETR(IO). A4EEO[90 2 THERMC(2). IMAX 84 . J = 3.LE. IIOF5. KMAX) A4EE0670 IOO FORMAT (16_5. qH JMAX = . . KMAX.3) A4EE0500 READ IN PLASTIC-TD-_LASTIC STRAIN RATIn ARRAY A4EE05[O GPOVGE(L) MUST RE .GE. TAUAVG(JtK)t STRGTH(JtK)t THERNC(NCRTND)t AAEEOI50 2 VRINCRTND|t VU(NCRTND)t VL|NCRTNO)t ICRTNO(JtKIe OLTRNT(NCRTND}t A4EEOI60 3 OLTRNC(NCRTND)t TRANSL(K)t TAUEND(NI)t SAVOTP(MIt TAVOTP(M).LE. TRANSL(IOI. A4EE03IO OLIJ) MUST BE IN ASCENDING ORDER A4EE0320 3L(2) MUST BE LESS THAN 0.2) A4FE0380 READ IN STIFFNESS IMDALANCE ARRAY A4EE0390 IDENTIFY ADHERFNDS SUCH THAT ETR(K) = (ET)II(ET)2 . . A4EE0170 BOVERL(NI) DIMENSION OLI_O).90) A4EE0650 gO FORMAT (22H STIFPNESS IMBALANCES) A4EE0660 WRITE (6. KMAX . K = 1.I GO TO 670 A4EEO880 DO 6_0 I = 1. JMAX) A4EE0360 NOTE JMAX ONE MORE THAN INPUT VALUES ON CARD(S} A4EED370 20 FORMAT (12F6.110) A4EEO6qO I|O FORMAT (2OH THERMAL MISMATCHES) A4EE0700 WRIT_ (6tI20) (CTHERM(I)t I = It IMAX) AAEE0710 120 FORMAT (lOFT°3) ASEED720 WRITE (6tl3Ol A4EE0730 IJO FORMAT (3_H PLASTIC TO ELASTIC STRAIN RATIOS) A4FEO740 WRITE (6_I40l (GPDVGEIL).PRJPNL. L = 1.A4EEO2OO 3 TAUFND(SOIt SAVOTP(50)t TAVOTPI50)t BOVERL(50) ASEEOZIO A4FEO220 AAEEO230 READ IN INPUT DATA A4EEO260 READ IN ARRAY SIZES A4EEOZ50 READ (SilO) IMAXt JMAX.LE° 40. TAUAVGIADvIO}t STRGTH(6OtlO)e ICRTNDIAO.12.IO).2) A4EE0440 READ IN NDN-DIMENSIONAL[ZED THERMAL MISMATCH COEFFICIENTS A4EE0650 CTHERM . L = Ie LM&XI A4EE0750 1_0 FORMAT (I4FS. 9H IMAX = . FnR ELASTIC-PLASTIC ANALYSIS A4EE0520 PURELY ELASTIC SOLUTION OBTAINED FROM SEPARATE PROCEDURE A4EE0530 READ (5.50) (GPOVGE(LI. VRI2)t VU(2lt VL(2lt OLTRNT(Z)t OLTRNCI2). KMAXt LMAXt NMAX A4EE0260 [0 FORMAT (515) A4EE0270 IMAX . (ALPHA(Z)-ALPHA(I)I=(OPERATIN_ TEMP. O.I2t QH NMAX = .Z) A4EE0680 WRITE (6. 100.LT.LE° 20.60) IM&X_ JMAX. SFPARATF PROGRAM NEEDED A4EFO870 IF (G&MMAR °LE.GT. O. I. AND REPLACE AOHERENO ET'S WITH GT_S FOR IN-PLANE C I (EDGEWISE! SHEAR LOADING C C DIMENSION 3L(Jlt ETR(K)t CTHERM(1)t GPOVGE(L)t TRATIO(JtNCRTND|t C C C C C C C C C C E C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C AAEEO010 A_EEO020 AAEEO030 A4EEO04O AAEEO050 A4EEO060 A4EEO070 A4_EOOO0 A4EEOOqO A4EEOLO0 A4EEOIIO A4EEOIZO A4EEO|JO A_EE01_O [ A(N).2|.60) (CTHERM(I). II AAEE0760 A4FEO770 STORE CONSTANTS A4EE0780 ANMAX = NMAX A4EEO790 All) = I.CO. A4EEO420 READ _5 30) (ETR(K}.2) A4_E0640 WRITE I6.2 FOR IDENTIFICATION OF CRITICAL FND AAEE0330 [ qF JOINT OF ZERO OVERLAP (LIMITING CASEI A4EE0340 OLIJI . J = I. 20e JMAX . lot LMAX .LE. [0. LM&X) A6EE0560 50 FORMAT (L4F5°2) A4EE0550 A4EEO560 PRINT OUT INPUT DATA ASEEO570 WRITE (6.CDECK AAEE C ELASTIC-PLASTIC ANALYSIS OF UNBALANCED SCARF JOINTS PRECISE SOLUTIONt NOT LOWER BOUND NON-OIMENSIONALIZED AVERAGE SHEAR STRESSES COMPUTED C NON-DINENSIONALIZED JOINT STRENGTHS COMPUTED C RANGE OF ADHESIVE DUCTILITIES INCLUDED C RANGES OF AOHERENO STIFFNESS AND THERMAL IMBALANCES ACCOUNTED _OR " C DATA PRESENTATION ¢OR TENSILE SHEAR LOADING CHANGE SIGN OF CTHERM TO USE FOR COMPRESSIVE SHEAR LOADS C SET CTHERM .12.12. CTHERMI20)t GPDVGE(20)_ A(SOIt A4EEOI80 I TRATIO(40.I2) ASEF0600 WRITE (6t70) A4EEOAtD 70 FORMAT (IOH OVERLAPS) AAEE0620 WRITE (6t80) (OL(J). K = It KMAX) ASEEO430 30 FORMA. A4EE0800 TAUENOII) = [. SO . BUT MUST EXCLUDE VALUE O.AND. JMAX) A4EE0630 _O FORMAT (I2F6.[001 (ETR(K). FOR CJWPATIBILITY WITH FORMAT STATEMENTS 550 E 660 A4EEO350 READ (5t20) (OL(J). A4EEOO!O A4EE0820 START COMPUTATIONAL DO LnOPS A4EE0930 DO 670 L = It LMAX A4EE0840 GAMMAR = GPOVGE(L) A4EEO850 ENSURE EXCLUSION _F NEGATIVE PLASTICITY IN ADHESIVE tERROR IN DATA) A6EEOS60 EXCLUDE PURELY-ELASTIC ADHESIVE.LE.CURE TEMP°) ASEE0660 NEED CTHERM[I) A_RAY TO CONTAIN BOTH POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE VALUES ASEEO4TO 1 TO COVER BOTH TENSILE AND COMPRESSIVE LOADS A4EE0480 READ (5. ASEE0590 I QH LMAX = .

GTo 0. OLTRNT(2) = tOOOO00. EITHER DLTRNT(|) OR OLTRNT(ZI WILL BE AAEE[560 COM_UTED NEGATIVE• NEED TO PREVENT C_MPUTATIONS BASED ON THIS AAEEI570 _ UNREAL SITUATION. AAEEI230 GO TO [90 A_EEI240 SET TRANSITIONAL OVERLAPS FOR THERMAL MISMATCH ONLY A4EE1250 [70 IF ITHERMCII) otto 0.LT.l . 0.OR° (OLTRNT(II oLE.) | OLTRNC([) = tO00000. 0.) OLTRNC([) : SQRTIGAMMAR_VL(I)/VU([)} AAEE[200 IE (VU([I . Vl(2) = t. AAEEt310 I_ (THERMC(2) . 0•| OLTRNTII) . 0.) .CO.GE.) 8LTRNT(2) = V2 + SORT(VA) AAEEI480 IF NOT. C OLTRNC(I) = lOOOOOO. 0. HENCF CHECKS ABOVE AND BELOW A4EEISBO A4EEIS90 AAEEIEO0 AAEEI610 A_EEIE20 A4EE1630 A_EE[640 A4EE[650 A4EEI660 AAEEI670 AAEE|680 A4EEI_O0 A4EE[6qO A4EEITIO AAEEI720 AAEEI730 AAEEIT_O AAEEt750 &4EEt760 NEXT IF (V3 STATEMENTS FOUR WOULD FOR SHEAR LOADING .) ) GO TO 150 IF (THERMC([) . 2 FOR SHORT _VERLAPS. O. 0. 0°) OLTRNC(2) = [OOOOOO.OR.GE.) ) OLTRNT(2| = lO00000.I I OLTRNCI2! = IOOOOOO.LE° 0. FOR BOTH A4EEOBgO A4EE0900 A4EE0910 A4EEOq20 A4EE0930 A4EE0940 AAE_O950 AAE_O960 A4EE0970 AAEEO9BO AAEEOq90 A_EEIO00 AAEEIO[O A4EE[020 A_EEI030 AAEEL040 A4EE[050 A_EEt060 AAEEIO70 A_EE|OBO A_EEI090 AAEEttO0 AAEEIIIO AAEE[[20 A4EE[130 AAEEIIAO AAEEII50 A4EEI[60 AAEEIITD A_EEIIBO AAEE[[90 C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C IF (VU([) . I.AND. I_ IV4 •GE 0. 0. 0. 0°) OLTRNT(II = Vl ÷ SQRTIV_} AAEEI430 • A_EEI_40 IF NOT.1 ) OLTRNT([) = LO0000O. (VRII) . 0.LT° q°I . + VR(1) VU(2I = I. [.THER_C(1) DO 460 K = 1.GF. AAEE1330 GO TO tOO A4EEL340 IBO CONTINUE AAEEI350 STANDARD PROCEDURE FOR CDMPLFTELY UNBALANCED JOINTS AAEE1360 V[ = T_ERMC(I) # VL([I / (2. • VR(2} FSTABLISH TRANSITIONAL OVERLAPS FROM FULLY-PLASTIC TO ELASTIC-PLASTIC C 1 BEHAVIOUR AS REFERENCE LENGTH FOR START OF ITERATIONS C SPECIAL PROCEDURE _OR LESS THAN COMPLETELY UNBALANCED JOINTS IF [ iTHERMC{[} . Do) OLTRNC(1) = lO000OO. OTHER END OF JOINT CRITICAL OTHER END OF JOINT IDENTIFIED AS CRITICAL BY SHEAR STRAIN GRADIENT A_EE1450 SET INPINITE T_ANSITIONAL OVERLAP TO ACCOUNT FOP THIS A4EE1460 IF ( IV3 . . = VU(I)I AAEEI3TO V2 = THERMC(2) = VL(2) / (2° * VU(2)I AAEE[380 V] = VI*VI + GAMMAR_VL(II/VUI[) A4EEI_90 V_ = V2=V2 + GAMMAR=VL(2I/VU(2) AAEE1400 ESTABLISH TRANSITIONAL OVERLAPS BELOW WHICH JOINT IS FULLY PLASTIC AAEEIAIO NEXT _DUR STATEMENTS APPLY FOR TENSILE SHEAR LO_DING A_EEI420 IF IV3 GE.) OLTRNC(1) = GAMMAR/THERMC([) AAEEI300 IF (THERMC(I) .GT.EQ.) OLTRNT(I) = lO00000.} OLTRNC(2) = GAMMAR/THERMC(2| AAEE1320 IF (THERMC(2) . GO T_ 190 C SET TRANSITIONAL OVERLAPS FOR STIFFNESS IMBALANCE ONLY IN THE TENSILE ABSENCE [ 160 I_ (VU(I} IF (VU(1) IF (VU(2) IF |VU(2) C C C OF MIS_ATCHt SHEAR THEQ_AL COMPRESSIVE AND •GT. OTHER END OF JOINT CRITICAL AAEEIA90 OTHER END OF J_INT IDENTIFIED AS CRITICAL BY SHEAR STRAIN GRADIENT A4EE[500 SET INFINITE TRANSITIONAL OVERLAP TO ACCOUNT FOR THIS AEEEIS[O I = ( IV4 . 0.LT._R. A4EEIZTO IF (THERMC(2) °LT.) GO TO 16O I = (VR(1) •EQ.LT. OTHER END OF JOINT CRITICAL OTHER END OF JOINT IDENTIFIEO AS CRITICAL BY SHEAR STRAIN GRADIENT " SET INFINITE TRANSITIONAL OVF_LAP TO ACCOUNT FOR THIS IF ( IV3 .VR(2) .) DLTRNC(2) = SQRTIGAMMAR=VLI2I/VU(2)) A4EEI220 I_ (VU(2) •LE. OLTRNT(I| WILL BE COMPUTED VERY AAEEI530 I LARGE_ AND VICE VERSA A4EEI540 THIS IS PHYSICALLY REALISTIC AND DOES NOT LEAD TO IMPOSSIBLE COMPUTINGAAEE1550 IF 83TH V3 AND V4 6RE POSITIVE.) OLTRNT(2) = [OOOOOO.LT. .) OLTRNT(I) = -GAMMAR/THERMC([| AAEE[260 IF (THE_MC(1) .) OLTRNC(I) : lO00OO0• AAEEI210 IF (VU(2) °GT. O. IOLTRNC(2) DO 3_0 NCRTND = l_ 2 THERM = THERMC(NCRTND) VRREF = V_(NCRTNOI VUREF = VU(NCRTND) VLREF = VL(NCRTND} UNIFORM STRESS FOR SHORT OVERLAPS .} _LTPNT(2) = -GAMMAR/THERMC(2) AAEEI2BO IF (THERMC(2) •GE• O. 0. 0°} DLTRNT(2) °LE.LE. SQRT(GAMMAR_VL(2)IVU(2)| I000000.I . A4EE[470 IF (V_ °GE.OR° (OLTRNT(21 oLE. 0°) OLTRNC(2) = IOOO000.LE.) OLTRNC(L) APPLY -VI ÷ COMPRESSIVE = SORT(VJI C IF NOT.EQ. AAEE1290 IF (THERMC(1) °GE.) OLTRNC[2) = -V2 • SQRTIV4| • C IF NOT_ OTHER END OF JOINT CRITICAL C OTHER END 0 = JOINT 19ENTIFIED AS CRITICAL BY SHEAR STRAIN GRADIENT C SET INFINITE TRANSITIONAL OVERLAP TO ACCOUNT FOR THIS 190 IF ( IV4 .) .VR(1) Vt(l): I. / VR(1) VU(1) = I. 0.LE. (OLTRNC([) . 0.THERMC([) = CTHERM(1) THERMC(2) = . . 0. C SET 85 . AAEEISZO IF ICRTND °CO. O. 'C OLTRNC(2) = tO00000.LT. JnINT CONTAINS BOTH IMBALANCES GO TO [_0 C SET INFINITE TRANSITIONAL OVERLAP FOR IDENTICAL ADHERENDS [50 OLTRNTI[) = lOOOO00.) OLTRNT(2| = = = = SAME IS SHEAR END LOADING CRITICAL SQRT(GAMMAR_VLIII/VUI[)) LO0000O. O°| OLTRNT(I) . 0.} GO TO 170 C I_ NONE DF THESE.KMAX VRII| = ETR(K) VR(2) = I.

1° A4EE2080 AMIN = GAMMAR I IIVUREFIVLREF|=OLAP2 .THERM=OLAP + OLAPZ=VUREF/VLRE_) t I2. .|.THERM = OIAP|) A4EEE950 IF (AOVERL . SO CUT DOWN ON NMAX A4EE2470 GO TO 250 A4EE2480 240 CONTINUE A4EEZ4qO GO TO 270 A4EE2500 250 DO 260 N = NSAVE.CO. A4EE2360 A(3) = A(3) / 3.I. .GT. JMAX| GO TO 380 A4EEI830 C A4EE1840 C _OMPHTE JOINT STRENGTH FOR ELASTIC-PLASTIC ADHESIVE BEHAVIOUR A4EEI850 2LO D9 3BO J = JSAVF. O. NM_X A4EE2390 NSAVE = N A4EE2400 AN = N A4EE241O AIN)= ((2. FOR ADVERL . NMAX A4EE25qo AN = N A4EE2600 280 TAUENDINMAX) = TAUEND(NMAX) + AINI*IARMDR_IN-11I_AN A4EE2610 IF (TAUEND(NMAX) .(VLREF_GAMM&R/OLAP2 + (VLREF_THERM/OLAP . AREF A4EE23IO C A(2I SHOULD BE .LT. O. HAVE IDENTIFIED EXISTENCE OF SECOND PLASTIC ZONE.THERM=OLAP! A4EEZOqO TRUE EXTENT OF FIRST PLASTIC ZONE BOUNDED WITHIN AMIN AND AREF A4EE2[O0 ADEL = (AREF . OLTRNTINCRTND)} GO Tn 210 A4EE1800 C IF NOT.AOVERL A4EE2200 C COMPUTE ASSOCIATED AVERAGE BOND STRESS A4EE2210 TAVOTP(MI = I. A4EE2580 DO 280 N = 2.A4EEI770 DO 200 J = 2.CO.LT. OR IDENTIFY A4EE2530 C 1 EXISTENCE OF SECOND PLASTIC ADHESIVE ZONE.NCRTNDI = I. AT THE NCRTND REFERENCE END A4EE2630 _F NO_.LE.FQ.)=AIN-I) * A4EE2420 1 IA_-3.AMIN) I (ANMAX . A4EE2260 C ESTABLISH A(2) AT START OF ELASTIC ZONE FROM CONTINUITY OF SHEAR A4EE2270 C [ STRAINS IN ADHESIVE AT TRANSITION. AREF A4EE2330 A(3| = {AlZl . . JMAX A4EEI780 JSAVC = J A4EEIT_O IF (qLIJ_ . A4FE2370 C COMPUTE SUBSEOUENT TER_S FROM RECURRENCE FORMULA A4EE2380 DO 240 N = 4. THIS ENSURES AOHFREND STRESSA4EE2280 C 2 CONTINUITY A4EE2290 A(2) = THERM_DLA_ . AT WHICH TAVOTP . A4EE2520 C ESTIMATE ELASTIC ADHESIVE STRESS AT OTHER END OF JOINT.I_IAN-2°)_AIN-2) + (OLAP21VLREF)_ A4EE2430 2 IIAOVERL_VUREF * VRREFI_AIN-2) + VUREF_A(N-3III I A4EE2440 3 IAOVERL=APMDR=IAN-I°I=ANI A4EE2450 IF (ABS(A(NII °LT. JMAX A4EE1860 OLAD = OL(J) A4EEIBTO OLAP2 = OLAP * OLAP C COMPUTE AOVERL F3R MINIMUM VALUE OF TAVOTP BY ITERATION A4EE[B80 C SET INITIAL ESTIMATE _ EXTENT OF PLASTIC /ONE FROM TRANSITIONAL OLAP A4EFIBqO AOVERL = OLTRNT(NCRTND) I OLAF A4EEIqOO N2_AX = 2 • N_AX A4EE[910 DO 220 N = |. N2MAX A4EEL920 ARMOR = L. AT OTHER ENOA4EE2640 86 . 1.CO. A4E"E2560 C TAUENDI[) = l° A4EE2570 TAUENDINMAXl = [. FOR AOVERL . AS APPROPRIATE A4EE2540 C START BY ASSUMING NO SECOND PLASTIC ADHESIVE ZONE A4EE2550 270 COVERL = O.-AOVERL) A4EE2030 TRATIOIJ. O.VUREF) • A4FF2O20 [ AOVERL) I ALOG(I.GT.AOVERL A4EEI930 A3VERL = -ARMOR=ALOGIARMDR) + (GAMMAR / ((VURFF/VLREFI=OtAP2 A4FF[940 [ .L.I=IAN-I.=ARMDR) A4EEZ340 C 30NVERT STRESS TERMS INTO AVERAGE STRESS TERMS BY DIVIDING BY N A4EE2350 AI2) = A(2l 1 2. O.}*ADEL A4EE2190 ARMOR = [. AREF A4EEZ320 C &(2) _HOULD _E .OLAP2*IVUREF .EO.NCRTND) = TAUREF A4EE2O40 230 CONTINUE A4FE2OSO AREF = AOVERL • O. JOINT IS FULLY PLASTIC A4EEIBIO 200 TRATIO(JtNCRTNO) = I A4FFIB2O I t (JSAVE .(VLREF_GAMMAR/OLAP2 + (VLREF_THERM/OLAP . NMAX A4EE2170 AM = M A4EE2[80 AOVERL = AREF .E50) GO TO 2_0 A4EE2460 C IF NOT.(AM . l. FOR AOVERL .OOIl AOVFRL = 0.) A4EE21tO C MINIMUM VALUES OF TAVDTP ARE NOW COMPUTED.(t.001 A4EEtqTO 220 CONTINUE A4EEI9BO TRATIDIJ. THESE APPROXIMATE THE TRUEA4EE2|20 C [ SOLUTIONS FOR ALL BUT SHORT OVERLAPS OR THICK ADHERENDS A4EE2130 C 2 IN CONJUNCTION WITH SEVERE ADHERENO MISMATCH AND/OR BRITTLE A4EE2L40 C 3 ADHESIVES. OVERFLOW IS IMMINENT.qoqO) GO TO 230 A4EE2000 : COMPUTE CORRESPONDING AVERAGE SHEAR STRESS A4EE20[O TAUREF = |° .-TAVOTP(MI)IARMOR) / VLREF A4EE2300 C aI21 SHOULD BE . REFINE ANSWER BY PRECISE SOLUTION IN POWER SERIES A4EE2[50 £ COMPUTE JnINT STRENGTH FOR ELASTIC-PLASTIC ADHESIVE BEHAVIOUR A4EEZt60 DO 360 M = [.LT.qQQ A4EE2060 C THE FACTOR IS TO PREVENT DIVERGFNCE IN THE SERIES COEFFICIENTS A4EE2070 C SET MINIMJ_ POSSIBLE VALUE OF AVOERL. It{AN-Z. OoqOqq) AOVERL = o. NMAX A4EE25tO 260 AIN)= O.VUREF! A4EE2220 I * AOVERL| / ALOGIARMDR| A4EE2230 C A4EE2240 C START COMPUTING ELASTIC STRESS SERIES A4EE2250 C AlL) = I. A4EEl?qO IF (AOVFRL .GT.GT.I GO TO 310 A4EE2620 F SO ONLY THE ONE PLASTIC ZONE.=AqVERL . O.qqqg A4EEI960 I_ (AOVERL .

NMAX AAEE2g50 AN = N AAEE2960 320 S&VOTP(MI = S&VOTPIMI ÷ A(N)t(BOVLt*IN}) AAEE2970 CHECK C C C C C ON _ONVERGENCE OF AOVERL IF (SAVOTP(MI . CORRECT VALUE DF &OVE_L LIES BETWCEN M AND M-[ LOCATIONS TRATIDIJ_NCRTND| = TAVDTPIM-L} ÷ (TAVOTP(M) .AOVERL) I (ANMAX .EQ. CORRECT TRANSITION LIFS BETWEEN NL AND N[-[ LOCATIONS A4EEZ@40 CnVERL = |. l) GO TO 360 PROTECT AGAINST DIVISION BY ZERO I = ( (TAVOTPIMI .AND.I &AEE26gO ROVFRL(I} = t.0301 . ITEpATE ON cqVFRL AAEE2800 C _OuPUTE VALUE QP COV_RL NEEDED TD RESTRICT STRESSES TO ELASTIC LEVEL AAEE2@IO I = ITAUEND(NI) . I VALUES AND M . TAVOTPII)) TRATIOIJ.TAVOTOIM-II I SAVOTPIM-I|) I 2 (L. A4EE2730 OO 2_0 N : 2. TAVOTP(M)I GO TO 360 IF SO.LT.AND.AOVERL .GT. IO.I .I) T&U2 = TRATIQ(J. NEFD TO RE-ESTIMATE AOVERL _SE LINEAR INTERPOLATION TO ESTIMATE AOVERL IEXTENT OF FIRST PLASTIC t ZONE) Ir ISAVOTP(Wl .LT. CONVERGENCE n= AOVERL NOT YFT ESTABLISHED I_ NOT.LT.Da99. NMAX A4EE2?IO BOVERL(NII = BOVERLINI-I) ÷ OFLBOL AAEEZTZO TAUENDINII = t. NO FURTHER FAILURE CASES LEFT TO CHECK FOR RATIO = SAVOTP(MI I TAVOTPIM) CHECK ON CONVERGENCE OF JOINT STRENGTH PREDICTIONS IF I (1.21 IF ( {_AU[ . CANNOT HAVE CONVERGED YET IF ( ISAVOTP(MI .OLAPSVUItl/VL(I) 87 .(SAVOTPIMI . I. O°O00OtI .LT.NCRTNDI C NEED TO SELECT LOWFR V_LUE TO IDENTI_Y CRITICAL END OF JOINT DO 650 J = 2.O000t) .AND.EQ.NCRTND) = TAVOTPIll. (SAVOTPIMI . RATIO} . O.AND.NCRTNDI °LT.O00L. (SAVOTPIMI . -O.COVE_L A4EE2930 " EVALUATE AVERAGE STRESS IN TERMS OP SERIES COEFFICIENTS A4EE2940 90 320 N = 2. O. RECORD AVERAGE SHEAR STRESS C VALUES COMPUTED ARE NOW STORED IN TRATIOIJ.OR.) .g99_ .LT. 11 I GO TO 330 IF _0.AND. JMAX OLAP = OLIJ) TAUt = TRATIOIJ.LT.GT. TAVOTP(MII .TAUEND(NI})) GO TO 3[OAAEE2790 C I_ NOT. AAEE2920 BOVL = t. .CO.C AAEE2650 C PROCEDURE FOR _ECOND PLASTIC ZONE AAEE2660 C 3SE LINEAR INTERPOLATION TO ESTIMATE C_VERL IEXTFNT OF SECOND PLASTIC A4EE2670 C L ZONEI &4EE26BO DELBOL = (I.TAUPNDINL-|)I / ITAUEND(NI) . NMAX A4EEZ?40 &N = N a4EE2750 V = BOVERLINI)_IN-II AAEEZT60 290 TAUEND(NI) = TAU_N_(NII + AIN)IVIAN AAEE2?70 AAEE2780 C SHECK FOR CONVERGENCE OF COVFRL I _ II[.GT. I°! ) GO TO 390 C IF SO.GT. (M . (TAU2 . .LT. 1. SOLUTION IS NUMERICALLY INDISTINGUISHIBLE PROM THE LOWER BOUND NEED _OTH M . t. JOINT IS NOT _ULLY PLASTIC C IF NOT_ IDENTIFY CRITICAL END OF JOINT FROM SHEAR STRAIN GRAOIENT GRADNT = TH[R_C([) . AS SET EARLIER PROTECT AGAINST &CCUMULATED NUMERICAL ERRORS 3SE LOWER BOUND SOLUTION IF REFINEMENT RESULTS IN STILL LOWER VALUES 370 IF (TRATIOIJ.I ) GO TO 360 IF SO. RAT)Of I GO TO 350 I_ SO_ CONVERGENCE IS ESTABLISHED IF NOT. .NCRTND) = O.NCRTND) = TAVDTPll) 300 CqNTINUE 44EE2980 A4EEZggO AAEE3OO0 AAEEDOIO A4EE_O20 A4EE3030 A4EE3040 AAEE3050 A4EE3060 AAEE3OTO AAEE3080 AAEEDO90 A4EED[O0 AAEE3llO A4EE3120 A4EE3130 A4EEDIAO A4EE3150 A4EE3[60 AAEE3170 AAEE3180 AAEEDIgO AAEE3200 A4EE32tO A4EE3220 AAEE3230 AAEE3240 AAEE3250 AAEE3260 AAEE3270 A4EE3280 AAEE3Z90 AAEE3300 AAEE331O AAEE3320 AAEE3330 AAEE3340 A4EE3350 A4EE3360 A4FE3370 AAEE33_O AAEE3390 AAEE3400 AAEE34[O AAEE3420 A4EE3430 A4EE3440 AAEE3450 AAEE3460 44EE_470 AAEE3480 AAEE3490 A4EE3500 AAEE351O A4EE3520 C C C C C C C C C C C C C C CONVERGENCE OF AqVERL ESTABLISHED. 0.TAVOTPIM| + TAVOTPIM-I)) / SAVOTP(M-I)) GO TO 370 330 TRATIOIJ NCRTND) = TAURFF GO TO 37_ 360 TRATIO(J. (0.TAUEND(NI-I)11 A4EE2860 Gq TO 310 AAEEZ870 300 CONTINUE AAFE2_BO C ]EFER CHECK ON WHETHER COVERL IS SO L_RGE THAT CRITICAL ENO OF JOINT AAEEZBaO C t IS AT _THPR FNO UNTIL AFTER CONVERGENCm OF AOVERL IS ESTABLISHEDA4EE2QO0 C AAEEZglO 3[0 SAVOTPIM) = t.TAVOTPIM-I|I = l it.EQ.l GO TO 300 &AFEZ820 C I_ _O. -O.OOOOl) ) t RATIO = I.AND.CO.EQ. ÷ TAVOTPIM} IF ( (TAVOTP(MI . .OOOOtI } l RATIO = l° ÷ SAVDTP(M) IF NONE OF THE ABOVE. ITAVOTPIM) .AOVERL 44EE2700 DO 300 NL = 2. CONVERGENCE ESTABLISHED IF I (SAVOTP(_| .LT. 2 VALUES FOR FIRST CHECK IF IN .I. ESTIMATF OF BOVFRI_ IS INSUFFICIENT AND THAT OF COVERL EXCESSIVEA4EE2@30 C IF NOT.BOVERL(NI-1) AAEF2850 L ((I. AOVFRL . GO TO 370 _50 TRATIOIJ. . .NCRTND) = TAVOTPIM) GO TO 370 360 CONTINUE IF REFINEMENT HAS NOT CONVERGEDt USE LOWER BOUND ESTIMATE TRATIO(J.TAUEND(N[)I .GT.1 GO TO 360 I_ SO.GT.

420 ADHEREND |l) END OF JOINT CRITICAL 400 TAUAVG(JtK) = TAU! STRGTH(JtK) = TAU_ $ OLAP ICRTN_(JtK) = 1 :OVER SITUATION WHERE TRANSITIONAL LENGTH IS LESS THAN OL(2) IF (J . 3IX. THERMC(2) ATFE4260 520 F_RWAT {IH . 5(IHO/). 2TX.K| = |. 4OHPLASTIC TO ELASTIC ADHESIVE SHEAR STRAIN RATIOASEESIOO ASEE4200 1 _5. 0.) ICRTND(JeK) = I I= (_RADNT .K) IF (MCRTND .GT.GT° 0°I ICRTND(J.C C A4EE3530 A6EE3560 A4EE3550 A4EE3560 A4EE3570 A6EE3580 ATEE3590 ASEE3600 A4EE3610 ATEE3620 A6EE3630 A4EE3660 A4EE3650 A4EE3660 A4EE3670 A6EE3680 _4EE3690 A6EE3700 _4EE37LO A4EE3720 A6EE3730 A4EE3740 A4EE3750 A4EE3760 A6EE3TTO ASEE37BO ASEE3790 ASEE3800 ATEE38[O ASEE3820 A6EE3830 A4EE3840 A4EE3850 ASEE3860 A4EE3870 ASEE3880 ASEE3890 LOADASEE3900 ASEE3qIO ATEE3920 A_EE3q30 A4EE3940 ASEE3950 ASEE3960 ASEE3q70 ASEE3980 ASEE3q90 ASEESOOO ASEE40[O ASEES020 ASEE4030 SET UNIFqRM STRESS POR ZERO OVERLAP A4EE4040 DO 470 K = l. 56HADHESIVE-BONDED SCARF JOINTS (ELASASEETISO ITIC-PLASTIC ANALYSIS)/. ITH ¢OR COMPRESSION} ASEE4280 530 WRITE (6.[I.GT. 0. NCRTND . I6X_ 3[HTHERMAL MISMATCH COEFFICIENT = _ F6°3. 6_X. O.} GO TO 440 IF NOT. 27X. 0. ASEET060 STRGTH(I.LT. 37X. KMAX} A4EE4290 560 FORwATI IHO. 2) TR_NSLIK) = OLTRNT(I} GO TO 430 &DH_R_ND (2} END _ JOINT CRITICAL _20 T&UAVG(JtK) = TAIJ2 STRGTH(J. K = L. 6_X. START PRINTING OUT OF TABULATED RESULTS ASEES[[O ATEES[20 PRINT OUT AVERAGE STRFSS HEADING A4EESI30 WRITE (6. 450 CONTINUE 660 CONTINUE C C C C C C C C . ' ASEE4310 3 RHO SCALED. IX. 3qHEXTFNSIONAL STI=FNESS (THICKNESSI RATIO/.C C C C C C C : C C C C C C C IF (GRADNT .EO. LH t _EE4340 WRITE OUT TABULATIONS OF AVERTGE BOND STRESSES ASEE4350 DO 560 J = !. 7H RATIO_ FT. 2) TRANSLIKI = OLTRNT(2I COVFR CASES OF ZERO OR NEGATIVE ESTIMATED STRENGTHS 130 IF (TAUAVG(JtK) . K = I.K) = TAIJl _ OLAP ICRTND(JtK] = 0 COVER SITUATION WHERE TRANSITIONAL LENGTH IS LESS THAN OLI2) IF (J .FQ. 2) TR_NSLIK) = OLTRNT(I) GO TO 630 BOTH ENDS DF JOINT EQUALLY CRITICAL FROM NULLIFYING (OR ZERO} l &DHEREND IMBALANCES 4|0 TAUAVG(JtK) = TAU[ STRGTHIJ. 33HZERO THERMAL MISMATCH COEFFICIENT) ASEE4260 GO T_ 530 ASEE6250 510 WRITE I5. STRGTHIJtK) = OLAP MCRTND = ICRTNDiJ. KMAX) ASEE6370 550 F3R_AT IIH • F6.E6320 ASEE4330 6 7H L/T/. 20X.LE.) ICRTNOIJ.. qFID.EQ.540} (_TRIK). 31HNON-DIMENSIONALIZED FORMULATION/) ASEESI70 WRITE I6.TAU2 IF OIFFNC . IlL IX}) ASEE63BO 560 C_NTINUE A4EE4390 ASEE6400 PRINT OUT JOINT STRENGTH HEADING 88 .EQ.500) ASEE6230 500 FORMAT (1H .2} ASEE42IO I_ ICTHERMII) .I. JMAX ASEE4360 W_ITE (6_550l OL(J|. JOINT HAS BROKEN DUE TO THERMAL STRESSES WITHOUT EXTERNAL TAUAVG(J.K) A4EESO70 HENCE NEED FOR 0C12} TD BE S_ALL ENOUGH TO BE LESS THAN THAT AT WHICH A4EESO80 | NCRTND CHANGES ASEETOqO ASEEStO0 END 0= COMPUTATIONS.4Q0) G_MMAR A_EES180 490 FDRMAT(IHO.2_ 2Xt [0(_7.} 30 TO 450 IF NOTt THERE HAS BEEN A COMPUTATIONAL MISTAKE PRINT ASTERISKS TO IDENTIFY ERROR RERUN WITH GRF_TE_ V_LUE OF NMAX TaUAVGIJtKI = [00.EQ.K) = 2 COVER SITUATION WHERE TRANSITIONAL LENGTH IS LESS THAN OtI2} IF IJ .KI}.K} = O. ATEE4270 1 I?H FOR TENSION. STRGTH(J. 470 ICRTND(ItK} ICRTNDI2.K} = 2 TAUAVG(J. ((TAUAVG(J. ASF. 25H2 = STIFF ET ENO CRITICAL/. 2 IF IDIFFNCJ400tSIO.K} = TAU2 • OLAP ICRTND(J.3. STRGTHIJtK} = 1000. O) MCRTND = [ TRANSL(K| = OLTRNT(MCRTND) GO TO 650 390 DIFFNC = TAUI .EQ.t NCRTND °EQ. ICRTND(J.520I THERMC([). O. = t F6.} G_ Tq 510 A4EE6220 WRIT_ (6. KMAX ASEES050 TAUAVG(IeK) = 1. 1.NE.5. 30HO = BOTH ENDS _QUALLY CRITICAL/.t NCRTND °EQ. I ?ZHAVERaGE SHFAR STRESS I MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS l = SOFT ET EASEF4300 2NO CRITICAL/.EQ° ! IF DIF_NC . 0 IF DIF_NC .LT° 0.K) = 0 IF (GRAONT .K).K| = O° GD TO 450 660 IF [TAUAVGIJtK) . 0.K) = O.4_0} ATEETITO 490 FORMAT (IHI/. ASEES160 2 3qX.

II. ITIC-PLASTIC ANALYSIS)/. 37X. 20x.NE. 27X.4t IX. 27X. K = I. [H ) WRITE _UT TABULATIONS OF J_INT STRENGTHS DO 650 J = l JMAX WRITE (6t640_ Ol(Jit I(STPGTH(JtK). ET A4EE4470 A4EE4480 A4EE4490 A_EE4500 A4EE65LO A_EE4520 AEEE4530 A_EE4540 A4EE6550 A_EE4560 EA4EE4570 A4EE4580 A4EE4590 A4FE4600 A4EE46LO A4EE_620 A4EE4630 A4EE4640 A_EE4650 A_FE4600 A_EE4670 A_EE4680 A4EE_6qO A_EE_700 A_EE_TLO A%E_4720 A_EE_730 A_EE4740 C C 72H_3N-DIMENSIDqAL|ZED=JOINT STRENGTH t CRITICAL/t 69X_ 25H? STIFF FT END CRITICALI_ _HO SCALED.630) (ETRIKIt K = It KMAX) FORMAT( [HOt 67X. IO(PT. ICRTNOIJ. I _?H FOR TENSION.) GO TO 600 WRITE (6.3t I6H cOR COMPRESSION) WRITF (6. tX)t 650 CONTINUE WRITE qUT T_&NSITIONAL JOINT STRENGTHS WRITE (6. 3OHEXTENSIONAL STIFPNESS (THICKNESSI 7H L/TIt 7H RATIO. F6. 5(1H0/).3. 69HPLASTIC WRITE ()isTo) 56HAOHFSIVF-BONDED FORMULATION/I TO ELASTIC AOHESIVE SCARF JOINTS SHEAR STRAIN (ELASA4EE4420 AEEE6630 A4EE4640 A4EE4450 RATIOA4EE4460 _EE44ZO 590 600 610 620 030 t I=_ t _5. = SOFT RATIO/. = It KMAX) C 680 LOH PROGRAM COMPLETED) 89 .ZI (CTHERM(II . 33HZERO THERMAL MISMATCH C_EFFICIENT) GO T3 620 WRITE (6t610) THERMC(I)_ THERMC(Z) FORWAT (IH _ 16X._t 3XI) 670 CONTINUE WRITE F_RMAT STriP ENO 16t680| (IHI. 3IHTHERWAL MISMATCH COEFFICIENT = . 30HO BOTH ENDS EQUALLY CRITICAL/t I 2ND 3 6 i F6. lOIF7. 31X. 2 3Q_t 3[HNON-DIqENSIONALIZED WRITE I6t5901GAMMAR FORMAT(IHO.5q0) FORMAT IIH . = . It 9FIO°[I.2t 2X.KI)t K 640 FORMAT (IN t F6.660) (TR_NSLIK). FT.570 580 FORMAT HI/. KMAX| 660 FqRWAT (SHO TRANSLt IX. 0.

5000 1.00000 1.3263 5.00000 I.0000 ? 16.19250 1 0.95840 1.46685 10.4570 12.2869 L 10.3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 I 1 l l 0.87531 0.00000 1.0000 l 4.5000 1.50_0 1.77538 Z 2 2 2 2 2 ? 2 2 2 2 I I l I I I I I 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 Z 2 2 Z 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 9O .1266 6.7790 16.0000 1 2.0000 2 1.5830 1 L3.0OO00 1.8093 _ 21 1.0000 1 1 1 I I I I 1 2.00 17.70 2.46458 1.CCO00 2 1.00 o.15351 7.O0000 1.00001 1 7.0000 1. 061_23 o_1_23 I 03l_25 t 0.00 5.7000 2.76310 0.00000 I 1.00090 2 1.4670 12.00000 2 1.0046 I 13.33862 o.6464 112.SO00 1.a998 6.66U18 L 0.7 ANALYSIS) THERMAL PLASTIC MISMATCH TO ELASTIC COEFFIC|ENT JOINT = RATIO = = -1.O00002 2 0.29337 I 0.2164 3.0000 2 3.58q5 0.00000 1.96793 1 0.0000 1 3.1698 24.5C00 1.000002 l.8965 18.0134 21.9726 6.2030 1.20 0.1248 1 6.00000 1.23733 0.92849 I 0.0000 2 1.2000 0.96388 0.00900 2 1.9027111.00 35.0 0.00000 1.9099T L L.20 1.77193 l C.0 0.0000119.95259 0.00 1.1535 22.O0000 1.00000 2 1.5000 3.00000 9 l.00000 1.000C01 1.O0000 1.00 6.00090 L 1.00 5.00000 1.0547 33.56259 8:536RL 0.0 FOR COMPRESS(ON NON-Of SCALED MENSIONAL I ZEO STRENGTH ENDS EQUALLY CRITICAL ET ENO CRITICAL ET END CRITICAL EXTENSIONAL STIFFNESS 0.68081 0.8269 5.0000 4.1709114.84276 0.1229 7.200n 0.4375510.2000 0.OO000 2 1. O00002 2 1.00000 2 l.2000 2 1.00000 l.O0000 O.7052 2 2 2 2 2 i I 0.3365510.00000 2 L.5820g 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 ITHICKNESS) 0.00000 2 1.75237 I 1 L I 0.50 1.999091 0.80528 l 0.200C 0.84ql 2.00000 1 0.00000 1.83893 L 0.0000 2.60023 L 0.9T055 L 0.8656 48.6 1.80555 0.00002 I4.56502 0.0000 2 5.0 0.2000 0.00000 2 I.00 15.0028 5.96189 | C.5000 2 0.72569 0.5000 1.3_4_3 I 1 1.1848 I 31.0090 I 5.07650 - ] :88 0.00000 2 l.70001 1.91935 1 0.97040 0.00000 1.65241 5.8 2 2 2 2 2 4.5777 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0.70001 2.O000G 1.00 4.q99qg I 0.00000 0.59088 0.6729 L I6.00000 I 1.0000 1.8 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0.7826 6.0.96498 I G.52482 t 15.0 0.18362 1 0.50313 0.96206 I 0.5000 2 3. ENOS EQUALLY CRITICAL ET END CRITICAL ET END CRITICAL SCALEO LIT RATIO 0.5 0.3334 16.7193 I _.87321 I 0.8551T 0.66241 I_.908T1 0.82124 0.00 20.2016 9.8645 24.5C00 L.OOO0 6. O0000 1.7690 8.2000 0.000002 1.5662 24.000002 0 L.oo 0.4_366 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 I L _ l I 1 ] I I 1 1 I l l STIFFNESS 0.25981 6.1SL8 112.30278 I 0.00000 1 L.5000 3.52719 L 0.00000 1.00 6.0000 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0.9036.00002 t.O0000 1. O0000 1.89_4q 1 0.09066 2 0.0000 2 6.1055 1 6.00OO02 l.00 40.79799 1 0.00000 1.O0000 2 1.000002 l.I893 8.8005210.C0000 1.5976 1 5.0000 2 6.96040 2 0.00 30.1911 117.50000 1.3763 6.5000 1.7000 2.87620 0. 7251 17.6 0.3471 35.0 0.573451 0.000 (ELASTIC-PLASTIC FORe4ULATION ANALYSISI THERMAL PLASTIC TO ELASTIC MISMATCH COEFFICIENT = SHEAR STRAIN FOR TENSIONt 0 l 2 RATIO = • -1.2764 10.00090 1.0000 5.z0380 1 03047_ 6s.0000 5.1736 8.60091 9.50 1.00000 2 1.90300 L I.Z518 I 6.20 0.5000 Z 2.00 EXTENSIONAL 0.0 0.5000 3.1828 4.8160 43.36492 L 0.0000 113.6720310.o l I 1 [ I 21.95753 I 0o98527 0.00000 1.C0000 1.99994 I 1.00 25.O0000 t.0000 1.00 65.00000 1.28423 I 0.0000 1.6 0.2_39 31.Z113119.585121 0.63T1 28.3767 47.00(_O 0.0 0.5009 1.9121110. I166 1 10.9 0.70996 1 0.751'3 112.7267 1 5.O0000 0.7000 2.4384 6.O0000 1._862 1 8.0000 5.1106 1 L I I l 29.00000 I 1.50 3._512 5.00000 l |.000002 l.00000 1.90998 2 0.7902 ! L 15.O0000 1.000001 0.9g97 1 111.0000 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 I 0.0 0.0000 10.1 0.0000 16.0000 8.00000 2 1.03001 2.O0000 2 1.0000 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0.3962 6.2000 0.0000 6.0000 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1.AOHESIVE-BONDEO SCARF JOINTS NON-O[MENSIONALIZEO AOHESIVE 1.50 1.00030 21.00090 2 1.4641 o6.00 2.1325 20.5896 29.2ooc 1.00 00 0.00000 L.2OO0 1.1067 5.99253 l 0.8582 1 5.00 6.78625 L 0.00000 I 1.3 0.00 25.00030 1.3000 2 b.35606 1 0.2 0.68788 0.00000 1.96345 2 0.00000 2 l.OCOOC 1.97282 I 0.2000 0.2000 1.0000 1.5000 1.99991 6.79300 I 0.00 12.0000 3.88484 0.97137 0.6484 I 3.5000 1.5000 1.9200 23.3_345 .6666 9.5000 1.70 2.0.551T 8.0517 27.2370 I 26.8 O.00000 l.00000 1.0706 26.60483 0.6533 14o647 16.88720 | 0.00000 l 1.00000 1.99738 0.OOO00 I.00 15.50 3.003002 I.062b I 11.00000 1.0000 Z 5.89563 0.0000 6.5000 1.09000 1.1046 I_.7300 2.0380 33.030002 1.00 8.O00CO 1.4290 43.000002 1.40478 .5943 1 9.O000C 2 1.CCCO0 1.5000 l 1.00000 1.84530 I C.5000 1.9324 30.72892 0.0026 l 4.7626 l 7.O0001 1 8.OCOOC 1.0000 L I 9.53627 0.0000 2 6.00000 1 1.0 l.9402 I 9.2000 L.5 1.2000 2 0.h324[ I 0.6 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 1 1 0.00001 Z.0000 2 6.2000 1.8990 L 24.5000 1.71675 | 0.23T0 38.26377 I 0.7 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 I l I I l 1 I 1 I I I I 5.00000 1.3q35 39.20 1.00000 2 l.0000 2 9.96031 1 0.00000 1.0 0.5038451007 0.0 0.O0000 2 1.q 1.5000 1 2.0000 1.2000 1.909 = = • BOTH SOFT STIFF RATIO 0.0 FOR COMPRESSION AVERAGE SHEAR STRESS / MAXIMUM SHEAR STRESS .9126 43.00090 1.0000 2 5.62385 0.00000 l.00000 2 1.00000 1.00030 0.6382 I !1.00000 2 l.9253 | 10.8081 1 7.7761 i L 1 I I 19.9691 38.O00002 1.78328 | 0.32522 1 1 I I 1 29.000 = = = BOTH SOFT STIFF RATIO 5.00000 L.0000 2 7.0000 I 3.5000 [ 3.02771 0.7000 2.403_1 1 0.00000 2 1.7201 I 35.0000 .6144 13.00 50.O00002 1.00000 1.7000 2.00000 1.00030 l l'O00001.0000 5.9999 2 8.PlA14 0.2T43 I 1 I I I I 2 2.0557 l 8.CO000 2 1.000000 l.00030 1..50 1.42707 1 0.6337_ 8:61561 60177 0.14_6 I L4.909_6 0.0 0.00000 1.O0000 1 1.75176 0.00000 0.0C000 1.00 12.O03OO Z 1.86914 0.0000 1.0000 4.71153 0o6q831 0.20on 1.1142 ADHESIVE-BONDED SCARF JOINTS NON-DIMENSIONALIZEO ADHESIVE 1.00 10.39522 I 17.3829! .81665 I 0.0030211.0 2 0.5000 3.97820 0.00 1.000 (ELASTIC-PLASTIC FORMULATION SHEAR STRAIN FOR TENSInNt t 0 1 ITHICKNESS) 0.4752 1 g.0000 2 5.5000 2 3.OOCPO 1.94536 0.00 2.00000 1.8792519.7213 1 T.00 TRANSL 02 2 2 2 0.5000 L 2.5133 19.8633 2.95968 Z 0.00000 2 L.00000 2 1.7000 2.63452 112.5000 1.0000 I 4.00000 l 1.6_5821 0.0782 6.97479 I 0.3651 7.4904112.0 0.00 10.1200110.b5868 0.2000 O.00000 1.2474 1 38.L 27.2OO0 1.00000 I.1576 3.67945 2 1.7000 2.0000 1 4.49266 0.00000 1.00000 1.00000 0.6216 34.120.00 8.00000 1.1 0.00 0.4906 1 7.

6411 32.9134 1 5.00000 1 I.2 l 0.2692 2.0000 1 I 1 I I 1 I L 1 1 I I 1 L 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 0.00000 1.00 eD.00 40.8436 L 13.6_o83 1 g:76_61 083838 o.2398 32.2190 L 35.63343 0.TOSS 1 1 1 1 0.5041 5.51R3 2.0 0.1 _49_2 l 1 I I 1 0.0727 4.2_00 1 0.00 10 1. I993 11.sslo6 I o.44360 o.6929 1 40.85154 1 I l l L I I t [ 1 L L L I 1 0.54292 1 o.0000 1.62838 0.8929T I 0.3502 9.0 FOR COqPRESSIDN NON-DIMENSIONALIZED SCALEO LIT RATIO 0.5259 1T.2000 1.2000 1 1.55 1 0.9932 2_.5000 1.1519 28.2000 1.00000 I.7 1 I 1 L L I 1 I I 1 I L L 1.6345 11.5.5482 5.27051 0.00000 1 1.531_6 0.T6086 1 0.00 2.6965 2.0000 1 4.44020 I _:476015726C_ 0.60124 0.92636 0.6503 4.00000 1. 0 1 2 RATIO • = 1.CO000 1.8594 1 22.O00 : = " BOTH SOFT STIFF RAT 0.2000 0.0633 II.52538 1 o.4996 1 2. O0000 1 1.000 SHEAR STRAIN FOR TENSION.391_08"4"_° 0.0 0.0606 12.7355 12.891.q083 l 11o9051 2.0 0.53Ol 15.00 35.99967 0.5248 I_.893o9 1 c.99998 1 0.ADHESIVE-BONDED SCARF JOINTS NON-DIMENSIONAL|ZED ADHESIVE -1.2379 24.62842 0.zAso 1 1 1 0.00000 L.00000 1.46143 I o.00 30.0000 2.99968 1 0.L&gL 6.8.2_00 0.99998 0.00 35.6255 3. 0.T1_O3 o.3252 19.00000 I 1.2_00 0.3665 7.5475 3.3151 1 4.4 0.99985 0.8180 5.4 1 0.O000O 1.4.5_45 I 0.819R6 0.4109 1 9.5000 1.00000 1 1.38.9"L169 1.2236 36.9799 30.OCOCO 1.g991 3.22046 0.2000 0.00000 l 1.63838 I 1 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 I 1 1 I 0.8326 5.00000 L.3952 16.O0000 L.2000 1.7601 5.24234 10.4663 I 5.50 1.8990 [ 1 1 L I 1 1 I 1 1 I I 1 I I l 1 L 1 l 1 I I I I 0.87112 10.9qq96 1 0.1912 l 3.2000 l 0.00000 L 0.048& 6.2000 1 1.82132o.O0000 1 1.67801 • 1 1 o.78511 0.00000 1 0.IT5 0.00 25.69735 0.00000 l 1.000_C 1. 330.0028 21.970|2 0._2220 0.5"000 1 1.T1863 0.0000 2.000_0 1.00000 1.5000 1 3.44942 0.9999 4. o.99984 0.00 6.C000 2.TO00 2.4845 I 3.632q 2.00000 L.O00DO 1.35526 0.53_61 0.7123 18.7 ANALYSIS) THERMAL PLASTIC TO ELASTIC MISMATCH COEFFICIENT JOINT ffi RATIO • • 1.00 10.6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 t 1 l.00000 0.00000 I.8249 5.2000 0.0000 1 2.2000 1 0.2331 13.O0000 0.0000 1 1.5000 L 1.8421 3.3556 _.70 2.00000 1.910_ l 6.229q L6.0000 2.q L 0.0 0. 14553 0 • [ 4099 I L 1 I 1 I I I I [ L 1 1 I 0.9o363o.24T64 I O.00000 0.9 1.33458 I 0.51_7 2.O0 50.0434 3.7000 1 2.5482 6.0000 3.5000 1.5000 I 1.0 0.2000 0.1771 0.1 I • O00OO 1.5777 O.2136 1 17.5319 l 0.00 2.905_ l 10.0000 1.1967 1 1 I i 1 1 L 1 1 I ADHESIVE-BONDED SCARF JOINTS NON-OIMENSIONALIZED IELASTIC-PLASTIC FORMULATION ANALYSISI THERMAL PLASTIC MISMATCH SHEAR TO ELASTIC COEFFICIENT = ADHESIVE -1.5 STRESS .4712 6.0 0.5000 1.OOCO0 1.6546 4.T3562 o.250C 6.27636 I I 1 I I I 0.5437 11.00000 1.451ec 0.5000 1.5000 1 1.00 12.4594 1 15.87289 0.T1251 o.354_ 3.00000 1..00000 1o00000 1.557620.5000 1.5 I 0.95968 °.0 0. I 1 I o.l 0.0993 I 7.5000 l.2_97 10.00000 | 1.O000O L.4999 2.T313 15.20241 0.36955 1 0.00000 I L.20 1.O0000 L.00900 l.9866 7.97479 1 .96g1 38.9C083 0.4_07 0.73587 n.2 t 0.5000 1.2543 12.9065 L 9.1107 I I 1 I 1 1 l I 1 I I I L 1 1 1 1 1 _ L 1.8654 48.9999 7.00 5.00000 1.82q2 1 9.7000 2.69225 L 0.00000 l.67878 ITHICKNESS) 0.2501 13.2_55_1 0.O0000 1.2107 40.00000 L 1.5000 1.2899 10.50 3.90?6 1 8.0000 I 2.52655 0.826150.5000 2.00000 1.89T29 O6T_88 75o28I o.5000 L._0 1.5000 3.6121_ [ o.89271 1 O.3455 l 8.18 1 0.T4_38 91 .0C0OO l._1 I I 1 I 0..00 17. OOO00 I.96345 1 l 1 1 1 I I I l I 1 1 1 I 1 EXTENSIONAL O.7433 9.04q4 1.00000 l.00000 1.1851 21.20 0.0 FOR COMPRESSION AVFRAGE SCALEO L/T RAT IO 0.OOOCO 1.00000 ll.8469 7.000 (ELASTIC-PLASTIC FORMULATInN SHEAR STRAIN FOR TENSIONp • 0 [ 2 (THICKNESS) 0.3090 I 13.80_68 I O.5305_ i 0.621T8o.5000 L.2970 1 26.80544 1 0.0000 4.7090 2.9990 I 7. ENDS EQUALLY CRITICAL ET END CRITICAL ET END CRITICAL IO 0.00 8.00900 l .23810 1 0.5154 10.0_030 1 1.00000 1 1.6351 14.275& 3.O0000 l.00000 1.9831 8.7965 1 16.5203 21.6660 25.171_ 1 44.O0000 l.4992 2.359_ 41_66I 0.000 : = = BOTH SOFT STIFF RATIO 5.90030 L.7804 I 3.15852 0.00000 0.67088 I 0.00000 L L.0 1 0.30443 0.712930.O0000 L 1.00000 0.91187 0.0345 16.43031 L 0. 0.00000 I 1..00000 I 1.8 1 I I I 1 1 L 1 I I 1 i I 1 I 1 L 1 0.O000 1.7000 1 2.0000 2.9160 1 4.23650 0.8805 4.81317 1 0.C00CO 1.0481 4.62464 0.96498 1 i 0.0 L 1.7723 I 26.00 15.32T_6 I i I 0_6_40 0.5000 3.00000 1.180R 4.O0000 1.00000 I 1.0443 3.3 0.26359 1 _:3578s _ 0.00000 1.3292 20.00 4.99988 0.OO 8._.894_2 I 1 0.0900 I 1.9806 1 4.6 1 0.8919T 1 0.O0000 1.442T STIFFNESS 0.00000 L 1.84430 0.O0000 1.86152 1 1 I I 1 ! 1 1 I 1 I L L I L 5.0000 5.0 0.63663 0.9253 9.O0000 l.._124_ .00000 L L.9624 16.7000 1 2.T000 2.00 4.0000 L 1.99995 L 0.99066 1 0.0000 3.49119 .1246 29_0380 33.0000 1.0158 19.5282 I o.5.2891 24.5000 1.312] 1 5.T8521 I I 0.15121 O.5054 7.5000 1.5000 1 2.O00DO 1.99984 0.6 [ 1 I I 1 I L 1 I 1 I I I I I L L L L L 1 1 I I I 0.9752 2.72fi9 2.00000 l.5227 L9.0 0.3 I L.5558 8.0 L 0.00000 0._14o5 0.00 15.96o311 o.9999 1 3.9000 I 4.00 45 .9996 4.00000 1 1.OCOOO [ 0.g354 0.9126 43.5000 L.2877 1 I_.00030 L._195o I I I 1.2000 1.50 1.6533 0.00 20.535T 13.00000 L.00000 L.4 1.00 TRANSL STRENGTH ENOS EQUALLY CRITICAL ET END CRITICAL ET END CRITICAL EXTENSIONAL O.1325 35.00000 l.81646o.2763 1 Z3.00 25.00000 1.70 2.0 I 0.0900 2.00 3O .7478 4.85127 0.TqbLl 1 0.651T2o.ODOOC 1 1.2 1.7000 2.2001 3.00000 1 1.2000 1.4241 I 6.5000 3.0 0.00000 1.00000 I 1.3923 13.5762 6.2608 28.6794 4.2COG 1.20 0.0000 1.9992 5.9T282 1 1 I } 0.8o559 1 o.34328 t 0.9858 21.2009 I 1.00 45 • O0 50.9998 I 5.96T93 o.8068s 1 o.0000 3.50.50 3.5000 1 L.18193 0.99996 0.96189 .99990 0.00000 I 1.5000 3.54_7 7.0962 1 3.0000 5.5329 1 2. Bo4oo I o.00000 1.T483_0.2000 1.3663 L 7.74324 o.9995 3.808690.)O_UO l.3553 2.3378 [ 0.tO00 2.25_47. O.TO00 2.0520 q.8 1.O000 1.00 12.1169 1 10.00 STRESS I MAWIMUM SHEAR STIFFNESS 0.OODO0 l.00000 1.0402 5.00000 0.50 L .0000 1 2.00 40.2570 0.00 I0.1293 8.00 17.0000 2.89232 1 0.2000 0.2462 3.7525 1 31.16827 0.00 ZO .156o.0000 1.64o63 0 72T40 o.08q5 I 1 I I 1 1 1 L 1 L l 1 1 l 1 l 1 l l l l ! I ! 1 0.2S63 4.00 5.8194 L 11.5000 I 1.4_7_ 1 0.00 1.7812 1 21.5216 1 3.

2A: FORMAT TAUMAX (BFlO. bonded are Eccentricities joint are excluded in which from the joint and a symmetric the thicknesses the joint of the two outer two-sided adherends is analyzed lumped together greater in evaluating strengths. in Section 5 has been prepared computes as the FORTRAN joint IV digital The program the elastic strength of any steppedstresses stress input lap bonded joint and prints out the most critical In order adherend and adhesive internal steps for each step of the joint. G shear modulus. identified accounts in the listing.4 Computer Program A4EF For Elastic Strength of Stepped-Lap Bonded Joints computer The analysis program A4EF. step thickness in optimizing the and step lengths. to obtain a more complete each step can be subdivided is printed and a series of shorter the solution The input data out to supplement output.A. 93 . CARDS 2. CARD l : FORMAT (12) of configurations (each requiring a complete set of data) M = Number to be solved. stepped-lap The reason joint for this is the utilization of the back-to-back joint than of the singlein one of the strength sided joint. predicted A single-sided can be analyzed of the actual with this program joint and halve One can add a mirror for this joint certain image of twice factors the actual thickness and twice the bond area to l for of adher- or one can change single-sided end stiffness increments of 2. joints. two ways. instead.3) = T = Peak adhesive p : Elastic adhesive shear stress. distribution. The program for arbitrary combinations and thermal imbalances as well as non-uniform successfully strength. in order It has been used joint proportions to maximize the joint A complete listing of the program A4EF follows after the input and output have been described.

= Coefficient 1 of thermal expansion of inner adherend. STROTR(N) = Net strength of outer adherends at nth step.. operating -T cure SGNLD = +l for tensile shear load. 3(N = ANSTEP+I) FORMAT (7FI0.. loads.Tstress_fre e = Temperature differential. . 94 . and = -1 for compressive shear load. STEPL(N) = Length of nth step. 3B. 3A.GAMMAX = Ye + Yp Maximum adhesive shear strain. ETOTR(N) = Net extensional stiffness of outer adherends at nth step.etc.) (This may be set less than Ye to cover partial GAMMAE = Ye Elastic adhesive shear strain. ETA = n = Bond line thickness. -_T DELTMP = AT = Toperating .3) = Sum of thicknesses of outer adherends for nth step.. ETINR(N) = Extensional stiffness of inner adherend at nth step. of adherend property This serves read in. to control the cards CARDS 3. ALPHAO = _ 0 = Coefficient of thermal expansion of outer adherend. THICKO(N) THICKI(N) = Thickness of nth step of inner adherend. ALPHAI = _. ANSTEP = Number number of steps in the joint. STRINR(N) = Strength of inner adherend at nth step.

The more accurate solution is obtained by starting the iterative solution from the more critically loaded end. and the $ecgnd one is to be preferred. the program outputs solutions from each end. Therefore. with TOUTER TINNER and being the loads (_t) in the outer and inner adherends.The output is in tabular form with one row devoted to each step or step portion. 95 . in those cases in which the a priori identification of the more critical end is not possible. The need for this higher precision on IBM computers arises from the precision loss throughout the nested do loops in the iteration sequence. Those entries not defined in the input description above are: TAUthe adhesive shear stress. DELTAIthe displacement of the inner adherend. GAMMA adhesive shear strain. respectively. Such cases have been run and the computational procedure in double precision has been shown to be sufficiently accurate from either end. DELTAO displacement the the of the outer adherends. The greater number of significant digits employed by CDC machines has been found to obviate the need for this and the program can be modified to single-precision operation on CDC machines in a straightforward manner.

_10. V. INCLUO_D cO_ D_UBLF-SInED JO!N T A4_FO_O C REOHCE TO I.I'ITI"INS _4c=0030 _4E=0043 C JOINT _NALYSIR PR. ANSTF _ A4_ =0480 20 F_UAT (8_[0. EM IS ACUTE _:qR STEOPI:")-t _P JOINTS. r2.lO _-_HEQPND Nn_U^l (aXIAL! _4==93S0 C I STOEC.20) T_IJ_AX. T_tJ{50). _ELTM ° A4=F0740 bO FOPMAT (LWll. CTmTR. qEDHCF Tr] I.M_=| qO Tn 40 aACF0610 C IF NOT.H .P. * CI &4=F0660 C FAC'rOp 2. _l_TA[}(50l. 5(IHD/I. FI0ol)I A_¢F0830 80 {0NTINUF A_EF08_O C A_EF0950 C ESTIMATF MA'(IMUM POSSIPLE BOND CAP_CITY =qQ FIILLY-PLASTIC ADHC. _EFO6BO 50 C3 = _LPHAn = r)ELT'. NUMNPQ n_ JOINT CqNClClI_ATIONS TO BE SOLVED A_EcO_[O C READ IN MATERIAL _ooP_RTIE_ _%E_0420 nn 3qO _COUNT = I._-"rI_BL= TO _ CqNVEQGr:NT SqLUTIOH IN q'. _I.I . Fill.t. TIHF_F_(501.=. SUEH _ A_cPO2TO C 7 SITUA_TOH C_N _ SPRTTF_ IF THF SHEAR S_SS IN THE COpMCR AAcFO280 C 8 SOLIITION t_ N_SATIV c _ T_E ST_T n c THF J(]INT A4E. llH INPUT _&T&/I.4=LPING RATHER THAN HINDEQIHG. THCKH]. = r.QISE i4_0080 AAFcOODO C NOT" THAT rF)NVFQ_F'_tC. 3(IX.'_ C SOLUTIn". cMELy HIGH _I)HESIV":SHFAR STpFSS P._P A4FF0690 44 = _LPHA[ w= qFLTMP _4EFO700 r5 = C_ . STEPL_ THICKP.J_i E-PoFCISI._ PP"]. ETINR(NI. C. A4EF0760 2 3X. A4EF0350 2 C1.E ZEQr). STQIN_ISOI.7. Lr_W unL)tlLUS _4E=0140 C 2 AOHcSIVCS PPnvcn _'. nELTAI. B. A_EFO_TO [ DFI. D. DFLT. A_c0320 3 THCKNI(50). THICKI(NI. ANSWER F_qM r)N= E_I. IX_ 6HTHICKI.CC:.A. PI) GO TO 390 _4EF0600 IF (GAMM_ ._'nF)UL. STE_. STRGN_. 9HDFLT_P = . ALPH_I._OHESIV_ PEeL STRESS "]'_!THE A4EFO060 C 2 G_F?uNr) TqA. T_IJU_. A4EF0780 4DObHSTRqTP80 = N _ 5_.T._. _TROTPfS3).tT. 9H_LPH_I = . _TINR. _INNER. STEOL(N). M " A_EFO_30 NRVRS = 0 AAE_O_40 JFLAG = l A4EFO_50 C JFLAG I3ENTIFIFS FN_ O_ . STRINg(HI)._. A'cnuNTS =OR B:INP!Nr.(rICH HI"_H C L oEsInUA! THEPMAL '_T_cqSF. THICKq(N|. L_ I)'_SS STOP|ChIT rHPnllGi4 THE JOIN 'r _:Rnq END TO eND. 13H (prR qEC.SXIMtII_' ELASTIC VALIIF A4_0620 TAUWAX = r. 5WETINO/I) A4_F0790 _4cF0800 WRITE (6. THICKI(HI_ _TE_t. S THAT I T _='FAKS APART R_'IOR "rn _=_0230 C 2 APOt tCATInH rF MECHaNICAl. (O°qq9 . T&'l.(NI. _ GAMMAX_ _AHM&E.. _EF0310 2 =TINR(50|. A4EFo[g3 C THF ItNDEPLYING OI=F'rCULTY IS {I_'!E qF NU_IFRIC_. PEEL STPFS ¢.Jq_CY LnSS I'.70) N. KTRGN_(50I _=F0330 DPURLF P_ErISIPN TOllT. A4E=OT70 3 IH . FT_TR(50|.7_L_:M DEPFND_HT. STaiRs. SIVF PROND = TA!IM_X w. L_AE)_. GAMMA(50). A._A"}IF'JTS A "r _FF0200 C 2 BOTH eNDS Flc EArH qF TH_ _IITFR _TEPS.]N. _4EF0810 [ STRINO(N). &HTHICKO.%"A A4=F0570 VCHFCK = G * . THCKNI. PRF)-_LI::'I_ 'JnT TO t.JOINT FRPM WHICH ANALYSIS r_MMENr_S A_EFO_60 RC_q (5.0 CI = C. C2. FIO. WITH_4PF0260 C 6 THF TH_OH_L STP=SSES .30) ((THIKKO(_). I. _EING A4EFOL30 C I MODE '::EVE_E F"R _oI'TLE (HI. _4=_0750 l 13H (_F_ DE_.'3R. _X.I "HE C ].£3 AA=_07lO C AACF0720 C PRINT nu _ IN_)UT DATA AAEF0730 WRITE (6. THICKO(50)..60) _LPH&O. P). cb.G=. IF JqINT HAS ONLY O_!F SInE _nNDEn 96 . G_WUA. PRESENCF _F ¢x"rc._Tp_SbH_TRIN_.-_I. THICK|. _EtTAn. T OllT-'q {Nn STeP t_ tISUALI_Y SU=PICIENTLY THIN #nR A4=FOOTO C _. STEP{50).3C. IOH ALPH_n = . _H |_E_. A_FFO_[O C NOTE THA T PR_. Al OHAI. FTQUT_. AAEF0340 t TM_X t T_IN._ STQPSS A'. qLAO * 2.1). TAULWP _4EF0380 PE_n 15. 3fiX. Ttn_D. ETINNR. n_.N r= qII:FIC:ItTIPS &Qc np. 4X. IN _4E_OI60 C 4 SIMr_LF-PR. / ETA A_F0650 C2 = 2. 5X.I_) A')HESIVES. TCHCCK. STEPS "r_KFN H_R = Tn Cr)NSTI)AIN T=Nr)ENCY _4FCOlO0 C 2 "TO DIVC_F. 21IX. THCKN_(50|. N = l. 5HET_TP.qRAM C_N_"CIT HA'IDLE P_nc'EPLY A .OOl . TMP. _L_WO_. ITS A4FFh020 C PFPFECTLY-I::LACTIC S. ETA.7.%E R = TAtJMAX / VCHECK A4FF0580 A4_P0590 IF ((l.CISI")N. C3. OELOLT. THI_KI(50).|hiNt WITH . F. A4F=0370 4 KTPOTP.3) A_EFOAgO NSTFPK = ANSTCP AAEF0500 MSTEPS = NS_EPS + I AAEF0510 C READ I_' JOINT GPOUFTRy AAEF05?O RFAn (5. A4EF05_O [ STPOTR(N). LHN_ 2X 5HSTFP[ _ IX.OHE_:NO.0290 DIMENKT_N TOUT_P{50). =TINN_(50I.T"IC.AwM.!I_V A A4=FOI50 C 3 (. WILL n.[0I M &%cFO3gO tO FORMA _ (12) A4FFO%00 C M. c. ALPH_O. 5X. A4E=0360 3 STqGTP. D. C 5 ACTIIALLY.FF JqIHT _E=02_O A4_0250 C 4.FO. ST_OTO(NI. MSTEPSI AAEF0540 30 FORMAT (7c[0.j RC_TH SID_:__ nF INNER _.O. _10. r.l MORE AND LFSS STRINGENT TECHNIOIIFS C NOTe ALS n THAT Cr)NVF')r. SGNI. C4.(50). A4EF0960 _4E_0_70 C NOTE FACTOR 2.C DECI_ /_4 c= a4c_OOlO C STFPD_:r)-L. FTO'ITR(50).S TO LESS THAN M. ETPT_iNI. STRGTP(501.JT _ROM F_THFR ENr_ WILL BE LARGE A"ll') P'3SITIVF. THF L_TE_ _NSWE_ IS _OP _ LOA_ 0 = QEVEPS_O SIGN. C5.3) A_EF0550 _4FF0560 C CHECK ON CONSISTENCY F)F Ar}HFKIVE r).'_FTC c_ TRYING a_Tl-. STE_I. ETOTRiNI.n . GEO_ICF PE_K SHEAR ST_F¢.! FYA'AI_ _(: AqHESIV[ SHF_-. FVF_I C 1 WITH ')_'._l. 5X. 3_. A4EF0670 C I IF B']NDFn nN oHE Sine nNLY. WITH O_'!LY _ S_-_LL LOSS f')_ _CC!lPACY I_'l LATF_ A4FFOI70 A4EFOIRD C 5 STppS.. Pl . c (BY _'R=E_'TN_ _nLUTIOH qN c STEp A _" _ TIME) HAVE _CEN A4C_Ol[O C 3 AF'PPTE_ . A_cF0300 I _EITAI(50). _TINRIN) _4¢F0_20 70 F0_MAT (IH .F.%P AnwcSIV_-_9_Ir)Fn-JOIP. F6.A_MaX A4EF0630 C SET tiP RFCIIPPING CONSTAHTS _4EF06%0 4. S nUT QUITS C'_NStDEq'ATION OF . P.

LnAD ESTT_'Av = IS Tnn LOW N_T. JPT_ _ _tJST gPPAK &PA_T IINnER PFSIr)U_L THEn'_AL &4EFIh40 C 2 STqr-ss ^LPN _ WITHP!JT ANY r-XT=_'_LLY APPLIED L°AF).AXI_LJ" SHE.AND.999999 .n = GA_(1) = _T_ A4CCil.4_I010 C 2 THr. _AUT TH=RP WERE S_u_ eXCEPTIONS A4EC1270 C INTCpmEr)I^TF LC'IQP AOJI.4_P1310 IF ( (1. vpIJTFR(1)) ) GO TO 130 A4EFI5LO IP (TAUTER(N+I) . A4cPt560 C [ IF BFINOED QN ONE SlOE ONLY. CaNTLV L_££ IF VHrOU_L MTS_A'CH A4rFOqlO I f_cT'._. SP Nq CASFg PratT-FIB50 C 3 PEAL cqNCERN _:: F_CL'JDFP BY THE RESTRICTION A_qVP _46P1069 DP 2qO T = 1.O C SET I_ITI_L r.AH'_.LT.Tr-_ c_q_ N. SI_.LT.IVIO'l I£ q_TAIN_F_LF FPFIM qTH_=O END. [00 A4E=[250 r CONVeRT.000000001 ._G) A4CFI290 C CMECK 0_1 cnKwp_qFNC= OF TQIJTEP(TEL&r.ISTS LOAD I.O TO 160 A4VcI320 r_q tO0 N = Ir-LAq. _x 0oQ'Hr) _4r:PLl30 TINNCP([) = O.4E¢ 1630 (i CHECK WHETHER DP NOT PPFCI{PLY log PEeCENT OF LPA9 HAS TRA*.%T. BrtTH SIDES PF INNER ADHEREND. CONVFRAE_IC_ CalLS A4C_1540 90 OELr_LT = (2.) A4ECl300 P = TOIITCP(T=LhG) / SCHCCK _.) + # * (E . JUST LIKE THOSF VALUES 2 Exr_ss OF U_ITY A4EF1690 A4FFI700 A4EFI7IO A4=F1720 86EF1730 RIa4EF1760 A4_FI750 A4EFI760 0 C C C C C IF If: RI rlF IN 97 .q ADoLTP[? LOA. A4.L T.l. 6&=FI380 I I: (TAil(t) .t T .O0000l .IP_' + T.F1570 DELTAq(N÷I) = F)EIV_O(N) + C3 * C + SGNLO * (TOUTER(N) * r A4E_1580 l DELDLT) / FTOT_(N| A4EFI590 _ELTAI(N÷I) = OELTAI(N) + C6 • C ÷ SGNL r) $ (TINNERIN) • C ÷ A4_FI600 1 OELDLT) / ETINRIN) A4FFLblO GAm_'A(N_-ll = TAU(N+I) / _ A4EPL620 lO0 CONT I NIJ_ _. o1 . / &L_MOA) • (A * F + R = (P . #2) TINNERIMSTF_S)) .Ak"-PO£70 TSIIIIPP = 2.SCEeRED &4EFIO_O RI = TOUTPR(I) / TINNER(MST_PS) A4EFI650 C C_ECK ALSf3 WHPTH_I_ 01) NOT CqNVFnGENCF H_£ BEFN OqTAINED 84FF1660 P2 = TCHECK t TINNEP(MSTEPq) A6_FI&70 IF ( (l. 84_F12_20 _0_ lgo IFL&q = I.Nr-^PLy _L'aAYS ._ALL.£ _LA<TIC JrllFh IT STr=NG'H A4EPI340 /_ =. TAll(N) A4EFI350 AtAMnA = r)SORT(r2 _ (1.cO. * SPriNT) :. A4E_II40 . REP.G "r.)) 84EFt450 C F^C_qR 2. Pl) .l !NVFQME_I%Tr L_nP A4=Pt200 C LEAVE AO.3_. ODP h4:P1210 TCHFCK = O. ACCq_INTC FOR 8nN_ING n_._AX I "rAtJ{ [) : T£[JMtX _4EF].GT.PE¢¢¢CTLY-_L_TIC AqN_ CAP_. &CCD'INtS FO _ BONDING ON nOTH STnFS OF INNER _DHE_END.FQ.LCg£ CRTTTCAL E_f_.C.qN IN l{)A. (0.n. UCP TO t.. _4F-FIlRO C TLq_f_ = 5.J_v _c SIG_IICT._M A4PF0940 PRf]VIF_E PIITEQ lPqP Tq _nJUST AD_CgIVF PFAK SHC_ {) _T_F%C A v STAOT _ A4EPOgSO I )mINT P. _4EFII20 TnllVFP(l) = 5.AIILNP) / 2. • T. (-l. / =TF)TRIN)) ) &_Ec[360 R = (TINNed(N) / FTINq(N) TqtJTrR(N) / ETQTR(N) + C5 * £gNl O) A4EFI370 l "_ CI / AluMna AkEC:I3RO C NOTE THAT SGNLq qiC._ HAVF A_EFI030 r 1 _pprIsITP SI.OELT _4"FI4SO VINNER(N+I) = TIN_ERIN) + D_LT A4EF1490 II: (_! . T.090 IP (1 .900999 92) ) GO vO __O'J TOUTEd(I) ._N_LIHG POqRLE_ IN WHICH RHr&p ^4_FIO00 C L ST__FSS IN _r)_rS!VE _FVEI_F.r_o F CI_ITIC_L TEXAN hf_HESIVF. g_Fr)gc)O r.4=rltTO "MIN = O. _4CF1470 TnLJTFP(_+I) = TAIITCR(N) . (o. tnAP ESTIMATE IS "O n HIqH GO Tn 120 IS UNSUITABLE _Do _ CDNVERGFNCE CHECK qECALJSE NEGATIVE VALUES l REPRFSENT TOn HICH &lq&D ESTIMATE. 50 _4_FI070 T_U(1) = (TAIJ_. A4cct240 F)_ 150 Nt'DLI_IT = I.cUrT ._OA _ C A4F¢14IO F: = DSINH(r_) A4EF[420 F : OCPgH(_) _6E¢1430 TAIIIN+I) = A * = ÷ R * = A4_c1440 DELT = (2.t. WHEN C_]&'DijV_TIONS STY9 T FQ n_ _. S_l.O0000000000OOOO. EVCL A4EFI2RO C TtqAn = Tn_JTER(IFL.t. 84CFI029 C NOTE Al gp TH.q Tq _rC] 'l_'v F r'p l-)miTe. tq Ig A4-'PO030 I ACCC*AnLISHED L%TFP IN I)_._ftTAqIl) = O. w. A4E=1460 C [ l_ _qNDEr) ON f_!E SIDE ONLY.%ITFICL_ITLy IqWF_ TH& _l _)I _STTC COT!MOTE _4:c0900 ACTUAL lOAD CA_rlTv . P) ) C.AN n. / (ALAU08*_2)I • (A * (P .t Gr} .CITY WILL qc CLQgpp Tq _Sy'4PTnTE Fie £r^_. / CTINO(N) + [._Hr). IF the_.K. N_TCPg A4r_1230 _CHEC_ = l._I) _AX AkEFn_O80 T_Ill We = D. n AO_coc_!9 £TeE_'r.D gT_pg_ AN. * TOU"Eo(III) GO Tn 140 A4EF[S?O £ NOTP TH&" THERE CONVERGENCE CHECKS ARE CRITICAL ^4_Ft530 C Ig THE FA£TnR -I IS FITHFR TOO LARGE NP TDF} S._ Tn 90 A4=F|500 IF (TINN:R(N÷t) . NIFIPS WHETHE_ SHPA_ L_O I£ T=N_ILF qP COMPPFSSIVEA4E=IB90 C = gTE°L(N) A4Pc[400 P = AI. _I) .F)_InITI'}N£ A4FcLIIO G_MmAII) = T_'J(I) / c._ C_UTED I. A4EPI680 C C C C C C C C C IIF(1._R C_gFS IN @HICH rIv_ Am_FSIVE IS -n_P CPITIKAL AT A4CF0960 2_ nTHPR FN9 (IF JOINT _}P _D_4FCC'ID_ _Rr _. A4EFIISO PELT&I(I) = Sqt'q. (-1. * PBO_J n ^4ECll(_O C OPPRATr PN THE LOAf} LEVEL I'.O0000I( .QqR. #FDIJC c_ Tfl 1.T. _in [c _Ir.GT.D)t A4E.'. NSTFPS) C.LT.'VrN ar)HcPcNqs fg gEVV_F A4cP0920 #EDLJCTI. NSTEO S _4E_1330 C INNER lf] no CQMDIJTE. 84_F0_90 I JnI_'T £QLIITIP _.GO tuSX = [0. T&U'.JtJSTMC_JT OF TA(IM&X --0.c. (0.1550 C I:ACTOR 2. tlO Tq on.qCCUPOEO nFTWFEN 20 AND 30 CYCLFg IN TEST A4_F1260 C l CASES. NnTE TH_I oo(]%m_M I£ PPPVPf'. I) T_'I(1) = TGIIM_X A_C_ll.qgqgQqqgg .

LT. I T Mc_NS THAT THE Jql_l 'r WILL FAIL F)I_ c A4r-F26[O C 3 TO =_FSIDtIAL VHEC_M_. O. oSC_LE) PSCALF = _TNP A_FF245-r) IF (_J ._rCHANIC&L l{]_OS A4Fr2620 I_ (PSCALE . HAY WrLl JUST ¢IGN!cY THAT FA_ FN.OV_'RNING ELASTIC S_LUTI.q Tq 210 A4_F2460 QOTR .GT. e RSC_LF A4EF2390 _TAIlU'_ TAll( 1 ) I TAtI'_ . A4E_1890 _0 TO 150 a4F.r.1 * TnUTEP(ICOI.l * T_IIT=QIIr_=IN T) a4EF21go C THE LIMITS ABOVE Agr COlT!CaL IN _NSUqING CONVERGENCE A4EF2200 C I THEY MUST _E _EITHER v_ LARGe NO_ TO0 S_ALL A4E_2210 IgO CqNTIHUE A4E_2220 N_VOS = 1 A4E_2230 A4EP2240 200 IF ( IC5 .! R_TR =-[. CORRECTInNS A4FFI950 C 3 ARE AoPLIFO LATER A4EFlq&O IF (THIN .q OF JQIHT IS CRITICAL A_eEF25_C_ C NrITE THA T PPO_gAH A_SIJME. RSCALF) PSCAI.OT_.LT.Ir._) I STQO'rp(N) A4EF247f_ IF (ROTp .T_E_. I RT6_} = -[. g_THFP THAN _DHESIVE. "RINR a4CF2_40 I_ (PTNR . R=MEDY IS Tq PPFFZE A4_F20_O C 2 E_RLIER V&LtIFS. O. A4EF2120 TUIN = -I.0_._2330 C PRr]r.ITE_(l) A4EF2050 a4EP2060 a4F_?070 _ Tn I_0 A4EF2OOO 160 ICnlJNT = IFLAG • I A4_F2090 I ¢ (TO.) °SCAt. NITtlr_ _ IN TENSION AS a4.TOtJT_R(.iT. PTPST SDLIITION M_Y _E SCALED IN TH_ ABSFNCE 9F ANY TH_RaAL _4E_2260 C l uISMATC_ RETWCF N aDHerENtS A4_F2270 C IF SO. _V=N FO_ ELASTIC _3HFSIV c aND a4EP2290 C 2 aOH_c_'q_ A4EF2300 C APPLY SCALE PArT[?P TEl SOLIITTn_ FOR ONLY Ar)HFPEN r) STIFFNESS IM_ALANC_ A4FC2310 C ASC_. EVEN IF IT MFANS EXCEEDING A4EClq40 C 2 ADHFREND STRENGTHS IN INTFRMEDIATE CAMPUTATIAN_. 0.T.n.r.F2550 C IF RTAUM_X . (KS . P = -[.9 _ TOLITFR(IPP'INT| A4FF2IAO Gq T_ IqO _4E_2170 180 TMIN = 0. Ic THey _D=.IN WHETHE R INTErNal LO_gS AlE CQ!TIC. SO DTatlMX a4'-F_570 C 1 . 0.) _INP = -l.1 _TA_I_X = -I° '= _TAtlMX _4CP?4lO no 220 _I = 2. A4_FI_20 TCHECK = TINHER(_STEPS! A4EF18_O GO Tn LSO A4FF1840 C NnTE THaT LABELS 2b AND 7 COVPeH FINF A_JUSTMFNTS Tq THF JOINT LOAOSt a4EF[_50 C [ WHILE LABFLS 27 AND 28 REPRESFNT COaRSF ADJUSTMENTS a4FCI860 130 TMAX = TOtJTERII_LAG) a4EF[870 SCHFFK = TOUTERIIFLAGI a4FPtRSO TOUTFR(IFLAGI = (THIN ÷ TMA_) I 2. F_IqTINrTIOH IS 'IqUAILY _INI_POPTANT KINCE. TMA_) TMAX = 5° * TWAX a4¢Flq70 TnUT_R(IFLAG) = (THIN + TMAX) 1 2.:U_L STRE._HY INTCO_JAL AnHFDEND KTRrSSFS r)_ A4cc259r) C [ R"VCRRFD qI_N :41TH PFSP"_T Tq STRFSS r_!.LT° 0.v _pvo A4EF2480 IF (ROTQ .000001) t GO _n 240 A4E¢2250 C IF NOT. OTAII_I_-') prrTo = RT_UMX A4=:'_2&3 r) _f_ 230 H = I_ USTCPS A4=-PZ640 llO 98 .'_ A4_:24")0 IF (RTAGMX .L STQCSS_S ALqN r WITHOUT ANY . 0°| _0 TP 170 A4EF21OO IF (TOUTEPIICOLIMT) . PESIDUAL THF. TH A4E_25_O C USII_LLY aDHFSIVF IS CRITICAL _v QN _ FND n= JOINT _R _. A4F¢17qO TCHFCK = TTNN_(M_T_oS) A4FFI790 Gn Tn 150 A4_FIgO0 120 TM_X = TOUTFQITFLaG) A_E:I_IO T_IJTr_(IFLAG| = (THIN + T_AX) / 2.) GO TO 180 A4BF2110 TMAX = TOUT=_(II / lO._AM aSSUMES _nHE_FH r) _ILr]WA_LFS HAVc SaMe MAC._O° MSTEpS) . E = RnTR A4FF24gO 210 RT_*U = TALl(N) / TatlM&Y A4EF2500 IF (STAll °L T.TMIN = TOUT_FII_LAGI A4FF1770 TnUTED|ICLAG) = {THIN + TM&X) / 2.C_LE A4_ _2540 C QFCTR IS PR. PTAU*4X) t)TAIJMX =RTAII A4FF2520 220 CPNT INUF A4EF2530 RFCTR = RK. _SCAL _.LT.9 * TOIITCQ(ICO'JMT) a_=F2180 TMIN = l.lgO0 140 THIN = T_dTERII_LA_| _4_=lqlO SCHECK = T OUT_P{IFLAG) A4_FI920 C IF ADHFRFNn. SPLUT!_N _IJST _E QE_TNEO _Y IT_RATTONt SINCE THErmAL STRESS A4=F22BO C l TEQWS _0 N_T SCALE LI_EA°LY.ST._._ T_4AT ._2140 C l IN COMP_FSSIFI'_._qRTIn_'ALITY CC_NSTANT _. WHICH HAVE CONVERGED AND SLIGHTLY PERTIJQR A4E_2030 C 3 INT_Q_¢DIAT_ VaLUFS_ _ND T_ CH_CK ¢_P C_NVERGENCE AT THE FAR EN_A4FF20_O TMAX = TO'.C_T. 0.'tN A4_. -0.GF. A4EFIg90 150 CONTINHE A4_FI990 IF (N .ITEP(IcnlINT) °GT. JqINTR._SES AP_ LtNI.GT. _ QTat! A4_P25IO IF (PTAtJ . IN A4¢_2350 C 2 o_CTICtI. NSTEOS) GO T_ 190 ^4FF2000 C CONVFPGFNCr WILL _tOT PROCEF9 TA _A_ END OF JnINT IN SIN_L = PASS A4cF20lO C I B_CaLISE OF HItMEqIC_L ACCURACY PRR=L_MS.LT.L v. AL _rIQ ELASTIC ADHESIVE ()P A4E_2320 C I WHrVHEO qTHE_ END OF }fliNT IS un_c CRITICAL _qR A_HESIV r A4_. I.'.Fg. IKLELY Tn A4E_2360 C 3 _gEAK ADHEQE_n(K) QATHF _ T_.NT) A4_F2[50 _MIH = 0. HSTcPS A4CF2420 RINR = TINNER(N) / STRINR(N) A4Fr24_O IF (_INR . * Tu_X a4EF2t30 _0 T_ 190 A4Fc2140 170 T_AX = 1. _r)N"SIVF r'LAS'rICITY CDN IMCpEAS_ STRr'.OOOOOII . 0.N ADHFSIVF _4F_2370 RSrALF = TOUTFR(L| / STQrlTp{I) _4EF2380 IF (oRCAL _ .JTSI{)E THE JOI_tT _p¢ NDT A4_c2600 C 2 CRITICAL. . LIMITS Jf}INT STRFNGTHt HFE_ TO A4EF[930 C l BOnST PLOAO IN _OqpAPTI_N TO TAHMAX.

r_U|[) MUST Rc INCREASED A4CF3020 IF ( (RTAtIMX .l _.4.nD_ CRITICAl c_p ADHFqIV r . IH . (RSCAL = . A6=g3_30 2 clO.LT. IX. [8H31VcoOrHT _Ol)IVInN) A6=c3160 _4F=3170 PRINT OlIT _ESULTS OFeLASTIC COMPUTATIONK A4_P_IBO 310 WRITE (6. O000l) ) _.3. PRInt O_IT AN_WCa_4cC3OSO GO Tq 14 A6_P3060 270 IF (T_U([| . IX.# T_UUPD : T_U([) A4E=3ilO 290 rnNTIN)I c &4EF3120 IF PPOG_A V Gors BaYqNn oPCC_EDING CONTIMIJE STAT=_CNT$ SOlUTIq_ HAS NOTA4EF3130 ! Cn_. 5X. 6HTINNF_.L T.LT.Hl.g90qg) . F6. v#U_AX.[. FIO. IX.O000l ._ Tn 270 A4c=3010 I_ _[]TH PT_I_ AND RqCaLE 6_E .LT° O._Ng. _6_F3520 l 1-1. [X) F7. I. 0.EQ. _KTFPR) _0 vq 250 _4E_2850 R_TQ = TOllT_(_) / STRnTRIN} A4P_2860 IF (ROTO .G T._T° 0°| TAU!IDR = T_IJ([) A4cF3hTQ I¢ (TAil(I) °l T .) :PT_ = -|. I_ _AQ END IS CRITICAL A6EF3510 I_ ((TAU(MSTEPS) .GE. qmUl_IqN HAS P_TLEO vQ A6E=3060 | CqNVER_E WITHI'I So_CIFT_D _!uMnEP 0 _ ITC_TIP_S. A4_3220 3 IH . g_.I/. 2X) 5HSTEPL. Ih.LT./tW_) A4_#2o_0 !F ( (1. (TAU(MSTrPS) .IT.IN_TY. 5X) [HN. 0. 5_H SG_LD = +I Fnq TFNSILE SHEAR AND =[^4CF3730 6 gO_ COMO_ESqIV_/.)oP) / Iv + _8. TH!CKI(N).GT.O000[ . GAMMA(NI._0.q_qq9) ) GO v_ 2R0_4cc3030 I = _IEI41c np TME THOE_ CHECK¢ _gfiV E tS ME T.I °I'_ : -1. I. o) . * _TAiIMX _4==2790 Pq 260 N = _.lT. 9. PARTICtIL_LYA4EF3420 4 I ¢ lt STARTS AT THAT END OF TH_ JOINT AT WHICH THE A_HESIVE &4EP3430 A4E¢3660 5 SHEAR STRESS IS AT ITS HIGH_ST. _6.OT.330) N. IX) A4EF3320 1 F6.LT. IX. I) GQ Tn 360 A6E_36gO IF SO. 3X) AkE_3250 6 3HT_U. O. qTEOL(NI.L v. _([NO/). STRINP(NA4=_3300 21 A6E¢33[O 330 ¢ORMAT (IH . A4PF2750 240 oSC_L_ : T_lIT_P([) / _TgqT_I[I A4Cg2760 IF (P_CA1. = = Rnvo A4cF2_80 250 PT^{J = _All(_) / T_IJMAX _4_P2800 IP (RT^)I .t v. IY._T. rlO._0. TINNER(N). _6. 5X) 6HTqlIT_P.qT. l_.1. A4EF_?IO 2 69H ALLOW_BI E _HESIVF KHE_ o STRESS. [Y.AN_.CT pT_UM_) _TAUMX = QT_I} A4EF29[O 260 CONTINUE _4_2920 C_CK mN C_NVEPG_JC r A4E=2930 P = QT_IM_ A4EF2g40 I c (_TAIIMX . O. 5X.bOO]I} . 6HqELTAI. l. _q TRY AGAIN _Pn_ OTHER EN_ 66c_3500 ACCURACY AT F_ END 0¢ JqINT _AY BE oOfi.) T_!ILWP = T6lJ(I) A_EF3[O0 IF (TatJ(l) . A6_F3200 l 39H ELASTIC JOINT STRC_G_H_ DL_A_ (lBS) = .A4E_3290 [ nELT_O(N). vAUMAX (PSI) = ) FD.|/. 12. A6E¢3650 IDENTI_Y C_ITICAL Fun Oc JOINT A4_¢3660 AVOID REVERSING FND_ _ACK _SAIN _6EF3670 IF (JFL&G . (. P) .300) A6_F3150 300 _OPMh v (l. TWICKO(N). C .6. 8HSGNLn = . RI ) _O TQ XIO _6_F2990 I_ P!THF_ RTAUMX qP D_CALE . 4X.nINI _rt_tT(P. O. _STFDS _6FF3280 WRITE (6. ll A4=F3340 340 CO_)TINUF A6_F3350 350 CONTINIIE A6EF3360 84_g3370 RECOMPUTC SnLIITION FQOM n'HcP ENn q_ JOIN_ I_ APPanP_IATE Aqa¢3380 NUTF TUAT) I_ COMPlIT_R P_INTS nUT TW_ SnLUTIDNS Tq A qIV_N PRgRLEM BY A4E_3390 [ RcVF_SING FNDS AND _F-AN_LVZING. THe SECOND SnLUTION IS Tn BE PRFFE_RFD. q. FlO. 5_q&MMA.TqUTFR(_II Tl_lNro(_l) TAUIN) = = Vntlm_(N) = TI_'NEO(.4. FIO.. MST_DS A4E_2@O0 RIK!R : TI_NER{_) I STR[HDIN-I) A4FC2810 NEED TO CIIHPAEC LnAn WITH qT_ENGTH D_! THIN SlOE q: STEP.G T . oqrAL_) P%CAEF = RINP _4F_2_40 I _ (N . IX) 6HTHICKO. oSC_LF) =S_81. IX. O°) TAULW° = _AU(X) _6_¢_08_ qn TO 290 A4_F3090 2_0 IF (TAll(I) .qT. H_N rc IN-l) A4CF2820 IF (RI_P . ]Y.ANn. l. _GNEO.l Q_r_LC = -_. * QI_I _ A:c_2830 IF (RIN_ . F6oI//&4EF3260 5. _V_N I= _HF ANSWERS p_IK_T_D S_F_ Tq SUgGeST A4E_34[O 3 qTHEnWIS _. O.4.LT. IPITTY) TAtlJ[) _UST_RE nFqP=AS=_ 84=c3000 Ic ( (qTAIluX . TnUTFO(N)) KTROTP(N). I_) 6HDELTAO) IX.QT. IT IR B_CAURE THF FIPRT FAILED A_cF3600 2 Tn CONVr_GE. PSE_L_I o = _SCAL_ AG_F2QSO I _ ( (l. 6X.n vn 310 / / _C T_ RFrT_ 84cc2650 A4FF2660 A4_=2670 A4_F2680 A4=_2690 A4=_2700 C ? C C C C C C C C C C A4=_2720 LISF ITTPATIVC SPl_!IrI_q WHE_ _DHFDC_D TqFRMAL MISMATCH IS DRCSE_! T _4FF2730 8qCERVAI _t WHEVNF R INTCON_[ LnADS _ C_ITTCAL FnP _I__STIC _gH:qIV c OP A4¢_2740 [ WHFTH_O qTHCp rN? c)F Jpl_IT I_ .LF.ggqg9 . 6HRTRQT_. F6. _6E_3260 7 5_. nELTAI(N)._R° (QSCAL c . IX._9. _ _SC_L= 84c_2770 _TAU_X = TAU(1) / T_II_AY A4_27QO I_ (QTA!IMX . _ RTM} A4Ec2900 TE (oTAU . 6HSTRINP/I| A4_F3270 nO 360 N = l. 2) GO _0 390 Ak=F3680 IE (NRVRS . 36H TEMoEp_TUPE nIF_EO_NTTAL (DEQ E) = . _ TAIlMAX A4Fc2970 = (V + _Atl. * TAUII)))) Gq TO 390 C C C C C C C C C C 99 . * ROT_ A4_F2g?O IF (O9T¢ .l. DFLTMn A4Ea3190 320 FnRMAT (IH[/.320l TOUTER(I). 6HTHICKI.ggqo_ .4.I _T_!I = -I. TAU([)) . F&. |O.VFRG_ A4FF3160 W_ITE (6. TAUIN).:! / OFCmR /OFC _° 230 OFLT_[}(_I) _nFlTAl(_) r. R) ) _0 Tn 3[0 A4=_2960 V = 2._!) TAUIN) I o_rvo = = OELT*.| RTA'IuX = -t. SOLUTION H_S E_ILED TO CONVerGE.

E FA_ n¢ JOI_lTv TAIIIM_TFPSI SIMPLY .GT.C C C l AT F&ILUR¢ FN r) TCI Ct'INV_P_. STRINRIMSTFrJ_.STQIHR(I'II : STRGT_('wST_DS STFPL(MSTCPS) = _TEPiMSTEP_) THICKO(MSTFPS) = O. STS.TEPlN) = F. r' Al. = 2 h!gVDS 0 GO TO 50 CnNT INUE STQD FN_ A4g_3530 A4CF3540 _4Eg3550 A4FF3560 _4Fg3570 A4EC3580 A6Fg3590 A6EP3600 a6FF3610 _6E_620 A4_F3630 A4EF3640 A4EF3650 A_E_3660 A_F_3670 ^4F=3680 A4cP3690 A4EF3700 A4EF3710 _4_3770 &4FP3730 A4_F3740 _4=F3750 A4_=_760 a4FF3770 A4E_3780 A4_¢37gO A4_B3800 &4gF3810 _6F_382_ A4E=3830 _4EP3840 A4_3850 _4E_3860 A6_P3870 _4E_3890 lO0 .I ALP¢'I_I = V JI::LA_.} = ¢.TFPS THICKT(N| = 7HCKNCI(NISTFPS FTFtTR(NI = ETINN_(MST¢_}(.) = O.TRGTPII} V = ALPHa._E D_. NSTP_'S lUl N) N) NI N) N) YFt _ (NEARI PNO FND 370 N 380 390 THTCKn(N| = THCKNTIMK.FTTNR(N) = ETPtlTR('wS_EPSSTQr)TR(N) = STRC_R(mS'r_r_(. _ST_PS C. PTI_.TA AND I:'F&NALYZE 360 nf_ 370 N = I. PHAq = &LPH_. THF TAll[L} M_Y F _c RF_LIL "r F_P THF _T NcA Q 2 nF THP JnINT BFING MDqE CRITICAL TH&N THP.TCPt{N) THCKN')(N) = THICKQ(N) THCKNI(N) = I HICKT(N) FTtlljTR(N ETINN_(N STRGT_(N) STRCNQ(N) DO 380 I = = = = = PTfIT_INI =TINR(H| STRfITRiN| STRINQ(N) ]. FTINR(NI_TcoSI = F'rplITR(1) STprtTR(MSTEPS) = O. THICKI(_IST_CPS) = THCKNI](t) ETOTQ(MSTCl)(.G RE:VC:P.

O_C _.0 7132._37 )_49.9303 ¢._14 545.1250 0.0060 0.2C60 _.3072 0.2 309.1620 9.C 2R64.3740 _o¢74C C.0 32509.INPUT ALPHAO N OATA 0.0 32500.0044 0.1620 0.L323 C.3_71 Co}073 0.6 32500.C | Z 3 4 5 6 7 B 9 10 11 t? 13 14 15 16 17 I_ 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 _7 28 2_ 39 •I 0.? _67_C.1250 0.1750 C.22_0 0.5 675.C _83C00._ 0..CO7 C.006 0.0_06 C._ @620.0750 0.2 3_77.1250 0.176_ 0.9037 0.0056 0.0.16_ 0.9 5657.0020 0.0 267_0.004_ 0.4 1410.0C54 0._!1 0. TAIJMA_ |PSI| " 6_CO.0750 0.6 6396._C51 0.& |[g@.04_2 0.125C _.0 9105.0 153_0.3 2215..6 140.2_C¢ 2.C 9[CR.3 69_.0 9620.17_0 0.1250 0.0 153_0.C 2C8.044¢ n.0 4950.0 151RO.0 6072.4 I705.5 _346.2_40 0.2_60 O._ 0.0 6072.013 _0.C _C_6.R O.0002 0.1760 0. 12_q 0.00_ _ O.229? 0.8 765._ N STEPL TH|CK_ T_[CK| TAt/ &AMWA OELTAO DELTA| TOUTER " STROTR TINNER $TR|N_ .0 15180.0 3900.2 54qL.1753 0.6 5020..I_50 0.3_ C.0 g_20.0 3296_C0.8 371g.0 15150.2_0 0.1 62q3.3 18_C.2_?_ .2 5o32.2 645.0 _SQ2CO0. ° 0.I_2 9.0750 0.2_60 0.0 3_00.08_0 0.Q 0.0 352000.0 40_3C_0.764_ 0.125_ 0.GO41 0.4 2343.0 26750.0 1518C.0 3000.0 L608.1250 0.[620 P.9 2756.n_03 }.1250 0.0 _620. _ 9620.125 _ 0.7 _715..0 3036.003 0.q 0.9 2370..C 9629.9032 0.2 6227.7 1232.n15 0.0932 0.72_ ?.C I05500C.0 32500.0050 0.1 C.001 0.2500 T_U G_MMA OELrAO o.167_ _.2060 _.} _..0 0.8 5_.003o 0..6 5484.C 15160.0 32g60C0.0750 0.0 I_Z16.0 210_0.0 2112003.2 _.004_ 0..C_ e.l?s? 0._46 - _ ELASTIC JOINT STqF'4_TH_ P|O_q (twS) = 676_.0 1760000.0 21060..$250 0.3 $106.B IT31.1323 o.b 3835.0020 12 13 14 15 Ib 17 $8 $@ 20 21 2Z _3 2_ _ 27 _8 2g 30 31 0._ 3206000.2645 0.0 35200C.0 18216.0 6072.0057 ll 12_3 _.0915 0.o LO16.1250 0.C?_ 9.0880 0.132" 0.3 &21.1250 0._44o 0.2060 0.0 15180.4 452_.3_C 0.2200 0. 0.90&I n.2500 _.6 3387.0 C.4 2R07.5 1738.COG9 0.0 32500.6 9.6 C.0 _25_C.0 4000000._4_ _.O 9108.0 32500.8 6027.6 5316.0062 0.OCR _.0 1760000.9 151RO.0 4090000.0 15340.0 6402._'I_ 0.0 12544.04_0 O.4 4_40.0 4000000._32 7 2245.? 67_.0 g620.0750 0.3 _6_.0 32500.O OlnB.0(30 0.1 L276.$329 0.0 15340.0 25920C0.4 5633.7200 C.7 572.0 3000.1 2739.1_?_ 0.C 39_0.1250 0.0 2ll20nC.6 3305.005_ C..30g C.0 9620.OC_ _.C 35200G.07S_ 0.7 5311.C 12144.C857 O.0753 0.1320 0.2 g5_.0 26780°0 26780.9065 _ 0.0 4_9030._0_3 0"C046 C.h C.0 15180.$250 0.264" 0.26_ 0.6 2o2@.0 26780._V4] r.1620 0.0 21060.7 6275.0_50 0.0022 C.00|4 ^.C 0.nC4 _.0 _500._750 9.O_D O.7 _4.e.C _5Q2_g0.7 '.176_ O.0 I056000.118_ O.27nO 9._.6 2360.0 3@00.9C22 0.0 STROTR I_216.7 6498.0 15180.GOG9 0.0_$_ _.n41 0.2_09 0.0 25o2c00.C 9108.923 C.?C6 C.8 2757.005_ 0.0 15180.0 326_C.0 3q0_.C 12l_4.B 1984.0 140_000.0 C.0 9620._0 ).0052 0.25C0 0.0 26780.1 558_.3 40G8.O 313_.2 3900.3 1553.7 5612.4 ZSgS.0 glCS.6 822.1250 0.oe_ 0.n 12144._ 11_4090.0 3036.6 W&C_._3: ^ ".0_62 0.0 9108.0750 0.074C 90_n.0 3_36.0 1202.0 3900._I 0._003 O.0_35 0.$253 0.1250 0.G_q_ 0.5 _57&.O 2112000.0075 TOUTER 7828.0 3036.027 q55.0 267@0.0 3036.II@C n.0759 0.0 12144.0 1534e.4 1433.1250 9.4 2061._7_0 ].OCC8 0.C 153_0.5 4140.0 26750.2640 9.? 1214_.0750 0.0049 0.08R0 O.0 3250C.00_0 0.0 6C72.e06 ?.C 6_72.035 1225.3750 0.0054 0.229C 0.2640 0.C2c 767.0 TINNER 0.ORqC 3.I_50 0.1259 0.0050 0.125_ 0.0750 0.022 0.3012 0.7 782a.0 831.CSg 2_74.0 q6_C.0750 0.2640 0.I_50 0._^_ O'C)4b 0.0903 0.006_ ?.0 N = +l FOO TENSILE SHEAR AND -1FnR COupR_SSIVE TE_PERATtJ_E OIFFE_='_TIAL (OEG F| = f.162_ 0.0 ICS6000.0 N I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 lO 11 12 13 16 15 16 17 I_ 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 _8 29 30 31 SrEPL 0.0 TH{CKI _.003 O.0 176nOCe.37#3 ?.0 60_.7 735.0 26783.1190 :.011 9"002 O.9 C.1250 0.0 32500.3 585._ 4_3.*016 9.3 5259.30_g 9.0 g620.C _¢_6.?0_0 _04.0 3036.1150 0.1_50 0.0 1760r07.2 3687.0 267_0.0054 0.?060 3.4 C.0 6072.0059 0.0 _072.0012 0.0 6072.00C6 C.C 6072.9_40 0.[250 0.0029 O.0 12144. F! ETINR 450090._073 OELTAI 0.0046 0.26_C 0.0020 0.1620 C.1_50 0._ Pqq.tlR 0.0 15340.3 2164.eOl 3. 0.1250 0.9 1673._ _ Q.1370 0.0443 0.0 q[08.2_C0 0.0 352000.0750 0.CO_ 0.2 1800.0 2937.206_ C._ 6780.0_] 0.g 12144._7_0152.5 3479.0740 ).2_ o.C 2_02039.9 26750.Cl$ 9.1 3263.0750 _.0 3o]3.C 12144.092_ C._03 _.0 3900.04%0"_.2500 "..IIHC _.O 15180._04C C.0 1272.5 1452.1253 0.7 2146.C _72.O_OC C.O 1405007.7503 9.C0_ C.8 6213.2643 0.0 15180.9 N • 1.1 5487.2 410_.._ = 0°0000050 IPER ETOTR 2112000.8 4[G5.6 30_6.1320 _.0 oIOR.0 |Of .0 ZI060.1759 _.0 6072.3 401.6 -0.00_3 C.2_CO DEG.3063 0.0 21060.0 0.0557 0.c qi08.6 ].13_0 O._ 1408_30.0 15216.0320 0.) 21069.C _gz.0C16 ¢.0015 C.O qlO8.2 4348.4 2511.016 _.0 3036.7290 0.OqqO n._20Q 0..9 7081.8 1152.0 DEG.7643 0.I!OO _.? ALLOWASL_ aOHES{VE SHEAR _TRFSS.0 18_16.0 -4530_0._92 0.$250 0.1767 _.1250 0. _Bq'r O.17S9 _.2_'_ 0.0 18216.0 15340.2_0C O.0 STEPL THICKD 0.C_e_ 0.923 t.1250 0.0 21060.257_ O._0_C 0.0 ?I060.OCZ7 0._3"0 Z.0 1184_.5 4016.6 0.8 5559.1250 0.0 537.1250 0.0004 0.0750 0.9 glO_.0 9506._ 5q&.0750 0.0 32500.1250 0.0 18_00.0051 0.0060 0.0 3909.002 0.0 O._ 32500.0 l_q_COC._ 9.Y N • I.07_? _.13_ 0.1750 0.0 $5340.0 6072.?._ 0.IIqC O.2640 0.0 66Z5.|250 0.C 1C560_0.264C 0.0 I056000._640 0.IIR_ C.6 5766.0027 0.206_ 0.C_64 0.4 _301.1 O.9 6176.0 IDEGo FI STRINR 3000.1250 O.¢n@ 0 .075_ 0.0 26780._3CQ _.0 gl08.002g 0.0034 c.2 3_qg.0 12144.llqo 0.1759 m*=*.0 32500.0740 9.00_5 0.25C0 0.3 223.730 0.1 ]175.0750 q.'3_ 19&_ .0052 0.0 513.C 37£.6 6766.1250 0.0 1_5_000.005a 0.001 C.1320 0.3 4682.0 704000.4 _72.2 $q36.1250 0.O 2ll/C_.1320 C.r 12144.B 7255.0 521_.IIAC O.l&20 C._ 4009C90..2_? C.1250 0.0750 _.O N = *| _hR TFNSIL_ S_E_R AND -I FOR COMORESSIVE TEWPERATURE OI_Q_NTI_L IDE_ _l = C.0 32500.036& l 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0.0040 0.0 9620. OLOAO ILLS) = 7825..2_0 _.0 21060.0 3296000.162n C.0 3900.0_43 0.C SfRINR 3900.2_60 0.0 121_4.0 704900..|329 n._ ELASTIC JOI'JT $TRFNCTLe.0759 0.3 3250r.I3)O _.O 1760900.0 26780.6 35r.17&0 0.0 12144.csb 7359.0 lI.7 1848.915 1_I_.07_3 9.0 352000.2 1122.216 e.4 4007.125_ C.04_ 0.2^_] 9.0_2 0._37 0.._ 7rl.0 I_216.i_0 3S0w.1250 0.9 9620.0750 0.6 _74.C7&O 9.25_0 0.5 551.C_] 0._4s C.0016 0.0022 0.1 3133.0 695.0 21060.0012 0.0750 0.1 O.002_ 0.9 4694._ 153%0.0 6072.0 40CCCO0.0 1_216.25C0 0.4 _ISE.00_6 0.1323 5.1 2568.1677 C.727 1708.0 |534¢.0 llq_C90.0050 0.074_ 0. F) ALPHAI $TROTq 18216.0 1534_.4 519.25r) 0.0447 0.r _.CSq o 0.OII 0.O IPFR THICK| n.tlR: 30_3.1620 0.O tSq_C_O.0037 0.CC9 e.I150 _.0061 C.0039 O.1670 C.0007 _._ 6705.0P63 0.)01# 9.0 _.0 6_72.2360 _.176 c 0.CII C.0 1518_._7| C.0005 0.03g 1826.l 470.DI6 9.OC0_ 0.176_ _.)II 922.6 59_1.)CSg _.0 15180.003 n.9_56 9._39 0.0_22 0.C_00 _.0750 0.0 q620.0 $4_50_C.0 IS216.005B 0.0 4827.3 ZIOb3.1250 0.4090.006 9.0 9620.11%0 C.0 12144.2_60 ?.1250 0.259 0.3 1330._ 18216.0750 0.8 401._ 155.0 21060.00_6 3.1250 0.C 3_g6090.llqC _.3 1550.0 3036.1250 *_***- a _ r _ _ _ .0_32 0.0 12144.030 7274.9056 9.1250 0._005 C.0O18 0._ 0.611 C.0116 6764.1 2877.0 3036.0750 0.C.0 IS216.0 _1060o0 _I060.0 26780.0 32500._749 _.1250 0.1250 0.8 130.1250 0.0 3036.0 OELTMP 0.013 0.CC36 0.8 6_73o3 7092.C01 c._12 C.C 1_216.9_4e 9.0 1425.0 704000.0 15340.3 311_. 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strength of stepped-lap program joints is covered by the analysis as a design The digital computer A4EG has been prepared out detailed tool for the analysis stresses. A complete is used as A4EG listing of the program A4EF A4EG follows.A. This is only adhesives because the end step of the stiffer adherend most critical detail. this elasticadhesive iterafor for the program A4EG seeks the existence and extent of any plastic zones within any step or step portion. joint the program of such joints. format Precisely the same input data inasmuch as for program prints and the output elastic ! is the same except solutions. The convergence of an extra rarely of the nested tive do loops is complicated the maximum ductile adhesive by the addition loop accounting a known quantity is usually shear strain. critical it in those less In addition plastic to those features of the elastic solution A4EF.5 Computer Joints Program A4EG For Elastic-Plastic Strength of Stepped-Lap Bonded The elastic-plastic in Section 6. out separate and elastic-plastic I03 . can serve By printing internal the to aid in design as to reduce improvement by changing proportions regions in such a manner and to increase the load transfer severely loaded in the more areas.

Rll Gn T_ 820 A4EGO5RO IF (GAMMAX .Tqc _4_OLOn C NOTE THAT C_NV_O_FNC_ PP_PLF_ IS ACUTF Fna STEppEO-L&O JOINTS_ eVEN A4FGOLLO C I WITH _OU_LE-P°FCISIDN.TBU_AX_N--_EPGAM_AX' _AMMAF. VB. E. TY IS ONE 0_ NUMERICal ACCURACY L_SS IN THE A4EG0210 C t o_ESENCE OF EXTREMELY HIGH ADHESIVE SHEAR STRESS GRAOIENTS A_ A4_G0220 C 2 BOTH ENDS O_ EACH O c THE OUTER SIFTS. THICK9. STRGNR. _4EG0320 3 THCKNO_ THCKH[. OELTAO. N = 1.a4cqOOtO CDECK A4PG A4EGO020 C STCPPFD-LAD &DHF_|V=-RqNDEn-JOINT_ A4Pq0330 C ELASTIC-PLASTIC SnLIJTT_N_ A4=GO040 C JOINT ANALYSf_ pRn_oA_ A4CGO050 C PRnGRAm CAN BE USrn T_ gPTTMT?E JOINT DESIGN PROOOPTI_NS A_=_O060 C SOLUTInN EXAMINES A_HcSTVE SHE_R ST_aS _ AND AOH_QFNO NORMAL (AXial) A4EGO070 C 1 STRFS_ BUT OUlTS C_!_|_FRATI_N qF ADHESIVE PErL STO_S qN THe A4_GOOO0 C 2 GROIIN_ THAT nt]TEP c_D ST_P IS USIIALtY SUFFICIENTLY THIN _P_ A4E_OO90 C _ PEEL STRESS D_qqt_uS mOT T_ _._R. ETINRISOI. C5. TINNF_(ISOI. STEPL(50I. _TA. A4EG0260 ETO_R(50|. NUMBER _F JOINT CONfigURATIONS TO BE SnLV=D A4EGO3qO READ IN MATERIAL P_OOF. ST_OT_(5OIt STRINg(50I_ STEP(t50). A4EG0300 l TM_X. C.r}MPUTERS IN SINGLE P_cCISION L BUT ONLY WORKS INTerMITTENTLY IN SINGLE aRECISI_N ON IBM MACHINESA_FG0240 C DIMPNSIqN TOI. • GAMMAE -1. A4FGO?O0 C THE UNDERLYING DIFFtCUL. NSTEP_ A4EGO650 50 OLAP = _LA_ + STOOL(N) A4cG0660 A CHECK nN THE CONSTANCY _F THE TOTal THICKNESS OF THE STEOPED-LAP J_IA4_G0670 I N t ADHEReNtS IS NOT PROVIDED _ECAUSE STRONGER JOINTS ARE OBTAINFDA4_G0680 2 BY MATCHING T_F AOHEREND EXTENSIONal _TIFFNES_E_ AT THE ENDS OF A4EG0690 I THE JOIN( AND MAINTAINING THIS TOTAL APPROXIMATELY CONSTANT TH_OUA4EG0700 I GHOUT THE LENGTH OF THE JOINT. VT_ VSt vg. THE OMISSION 0_ A CHECK nN THE A4EG0710 I ADHEREND THICKNESSES U_KFS THE P_OGRAM MORE VERSATILE. ALOHAOt ALPHA(. C7 = C[O = 60 C3 = C_ = CS = ACCOUNTS ON ONE _OR _ONDING ONLY. IN A4EGOIBO C 4 SINGLE-PRECISIOn. THICKI(N).LT. CLO.G03BO M oEO. OELTA!(ISOI. * TAUm&X ALPHAO * DELTMP ALOHA( _ DELTMP C4 C3 COMPUTATION qF ACTUAL BOTH R_DUCE SIDES Tn OF I.D. TAULWR. _4EG0230 C PROGRA_ HAS BEEN ADAPTED Tn RUN 3N CDC c. 00.OS'20|SGNL. m A4EG0410 N_V_S = 0 A4EG0420 JFLAG = 1 A4EG0430 JFLAG IDENTI_IES ENn O_ JOINT _RPM WHICH ANALYSIS COMMENCES A4FG0440 64=G0450 LREAnDELTMp. A4EG0460 20 FORMAT (BFIO. V_. TAU|IOR. REDUCE PEAK _HEAR STRESS TO LESS THAN _AXIWUM _IASTIC VALUE a4¢GO600 TAUWAX = G * GAMMAX A_EG06IO GAMMAE = GAMMBX A4_G0620 SUM LAP LENGTH_ &4EGO630 40 OLAP = STEPL([) A4EG0640 DO 50 N = 2.GE. T!NNER. FVINNq. C2. A4EGO_30 THICK(. STR_TR. CELT. STRINg. ST_PLIN|.TIFS A4=G0400 DO 820 mCOUNT = I. C3. GAMUP=. A4EG0720 SET UP RFCIJRRING C_NSTANT_ A4=G0730 40 C[ = G / ETA _4EGOTqO C2 = 2° * Cl A4_G0750 FACTOR 1 IF2. A4=G0520 [ STROTP(NI. r7.ON BONDED SIDE -l. INNER 6qHEREND. &L_MD_. 64EG0_50 DELTAO(ISOI.GT. V5. DELDtT. =TqTa. TWIN. ETOTR(NI_ _TINR(N). FTINR. RI . PL.A_FG0280 STR_NR([50| A4_GO2qO DOUBLE oR_CIS!gN TOUTER. STFPL. TAU. STOOTR. THICKg(50). FLST_. G_MMA.JTCgI150). A4EGOZ70 THCKNO(150I. =LWIN &4EGO350 READ (5_I0) m A4EG0370 10 FORMAT (12) A4. D. THICKI(50). V. WITH ONIY A SUALL LOSS O_ ACCURACY IN LATF_ A4EGOIO0 C 5 STEPR.31 A4=G0470 NSTEOS = ANSTE o A4E_0480 MSTE_S = NSTEP_ + 1 A4EG04?O LMAX = 3 * NSTFPS A4EG0500 MCHCCK = LMAX + I READ JOINT GEOWETRY A4=G05[O (5_30| ((THICKO(NI. _AMM&E) GO TO 60 A4EG0590 IF NOT. LOW mqDtILtJ_ A_E_OI60 C 2 ADHESIVES Po_VF_ AMENARLF T_ A COHVEOGFNT S_LUTIgN IN _NL V A A4E_170 C 3 SINGLE PASS STRAIGHT THROUGH TH= JOIN T FDOM _ND T_ eND. ETOtJTO. THCKN!([50)_ _TqUTO([50)t FTINNP(150)_ STPGTa( [50). A4¢_03[0 2 C4.999 . A_ B. M_TEPSI A4EG0530 30 FORMAT (T¢lO°3l A_G0540 CHECK _N CONSISTENCY OF ADHESIVE DATA A4EG0550 VCHECK = G * GAMMAE A4=G0560 R = T&UMAX I VCHECK A4EG05?O IF I([°OOI . STRIN_IN)t. GAMMA(150). TAIJ([50). STFoS T&KFN HEPE TO C_NSTRAIN TENnENCY A4cOOL20 C 2 TO DIVCOGE (_Y COEEZING SOLIJTI_N nNE STEP A T A TTUEt H_VC BEeN A4_GOI3O C 3 AOOp_Fo AFTFO TOYING _TH P_RF _N_ L_SS STRINGENT T_CHNIQUES A4_GOL40 C NOTE ALS_ THAT CONVPa_ENCS _I=PICItLTIES _E P_O_LFM nEPCN_=NT_ _¢TNG A4EGOtSO C I MnRE SEVEOE cnP BRITTLr (NIGH MD_ULItS! ADHESIVES. A4EG0760 A4EG0770 A4EG0780 A4EG0790 _6_G0800 _4EGOBIO A4EGOBZO A_EG0830 A4E_O840 IN READ l 2 3 C C C C C C C C C C C C C PREPARE FOR SEPAraTe [ _N ASSUMPTION KA_HSV = 0 C C PRINT OUT INPUT DATA 0_ ADHPREND RnT_NTIAL STIF_NESSES ADHESIVE _ SHEAR INFINITE STRENGTH STRENGTHABEGOflSO A4EG0860 A4EG0870 A4EG0880 I04 . nELTAI. F. XO. _L_AX. £X. STEP. TCHFCK. &4EGO340 5 GAMLWR. VlO.

I CTOTD|H||| e4EG[650 B = (TINNER|N) t FTINR(N) T_UTEP(N| / FTOT_(N) + C5 = SCNIOI A4EG1660 l = CI / ALA_DA _4_G1670 C NOTF THAT SGNLD SIGNIFIES WHETHFP SHEAR LOAD IS TENSIL= mR CnuooES_IVFA4EGI6BO C = _TEPL(NI A4EG16qO D = ALAMOA = C _4=_1700 E = DSINHID) A4EGLTIO F = OCOSHIDI A4EG1720 TAU(N÷L) = A * F ÷ B $ = A4EGL730 DELT= 12. T2. 5X. 4X. P6. SO NO CASES O_4EGIJ50 C 3 R_AL CONCERN ARE FXCLUOED BY THe RFSTqICTION ABOVE A4EGI]60 Do 310 I = l.TMITED _DHFREN n STRENGTH IS A4EGI230 C l ACCOMPLISHED LATER IN PoOGPAM A4Eq1240 C PROVIDE OUTER LOOP TO AOJ_IST ADHESIVE _AK SHESR S_RAIN AT START PF A4EGI250 C l JOINT F_ CASES IN WHICH _ITHE _ ADHESIVE IS MODE CRITIrAL AT A4_q1280 2 RTHER FNO 0 c JOINT OR ADHERFNnS ARE MORE CRITICAL THAN AOHESIVE. lO. THICKO(NI. I) g_ Tn 410 4 C C C C C C C C _TART WITH ELASTIr ANALYSIS PROCEED TO ELASTIC-PLASTIC ANALYSIS DNI.)) A4EG1740 C FACTOR 2° ACCOUNTS cOR B_HqIN_ ON BqTH _IOFS 9= TNNER ADHFRENn. ¢). FIO. 5X.EQ. ALPH_O 13H (PER = • PlO. _4=_1380 IF (TAU(1) °GT° TAUMAX) TAU(I) = TAUMAX A4PGt3gO IP (I .ANO. _ED_ICE TO 1. 1 STPINR(N|. A4_G[760 ' C C C C C I05 . IX. 6HSTRINR. 2°IF INCLUDED Tn JOINT HAK FO p DOUBLE-SIDED ONLY ONE SInE BON_}ED T a4CqltlO PERFECTLY-#LASTIC RPNq CAPA£1TY WILL _E CLDSFR Tq ASyMpTOT# O c SCAqF A4_GII20 [ JOINT S_LUTION AND IS SIGNIFICANTLY LqWFR THAN PLASTIC ESTIMATE A4EGIIJO SCARF JOINT STRENGTH ¢STIUATE WnLILD BE THE LFSSE_ nF PBON9 = _. A4cGt440 DELTA_II) = O.) = TAI.*TAUMAX=_LAO*(E2T2)/(EITt) A4EGIISO NOTE_ H_WFVPR.IMAX A4cGI400 r SET INITIAl CONOITIRNS 84EGI410 GAMMA(1) = T_t)(t) / _ A4_GL420 TOIJTC_(I} = 5. A4FG0890 A4EG0900 A4EG0910 A4EG0920 A4EGO930 A4EG0940 a4EGOq50 A4EGOq60 A4EG0970 e4¢_Oq80 A4=G0990 A4EGLO00 &4EG[OIO A4EGIO20 &4FGL030 A4=Gl040 A4_Gt050 A4EGI060 A4Fgl070 A4c_I080 A4EGIO90 NOTE JOIN A4FGIIO0 R_DUCE _ACTOR 1. I)) I00 CONTINUE IP IKAOHSV . 84c_[320 NOTE ALSO THAT. THE TOTAL L_AD _RANS_ER A4EGIIqO C 4 BECRMFS INDEPENDENT nF EACH 8N9 eVERY (LONG) STEP IN THE JOINT A4EGI200 C ACT_IAL LOAD CAPACITY _AY RE _IGNIFICANTLY LESS I = THFqMAL MISMATCH A4EBIZIO C l BETWEEN ADHFRFNDS IS SFVERF A4E_1220 C REDUCTION IN LOAD _q ACCOIINT FOR L. 4X.GT. (PEG.A4EG1270 TAUUD 0 = 2° m T8IIMA_ A4_i2BO TAULWR = O. P|llt IH 5X_ [HNt = 2X.4|. 1) _AU(1. LIKEWISE. WHEN COMOlITATI_NS ETA DT FO_M _4=G1310 2 THE LESS CRITiCAl END. o) . SOLUTION IS ORTAINABLE _ROM OTHER FNn. ALPHAI. A4EGI750 .LT° P) ) GO TO 180 84_1610 qO 120 N = I=L_. RIO. 51[HOl)p F}. • P_N_ A4=GI470 T_IN = O. 5X.?0 80[ WRITE FORMAT 13H I6. 84PG1290 C NOTE THAT PROGRAM IS PPPVPNTF_ FROM HANDLING PRPBLFM IN WHICH SHEAR A4EG1300 C 1 STRESS IN A_HESIVP RFVPRSES SIGN. JOT M_ WU_T BREAK APAPT t)NDE _ PESInUAL THERMAL A4=G[340 C 2 STRESS ALONE WITHOUT _NY EXTERNALLY A_PLIEO LQ80. _6. 5H_TEDLt 9H 1Xt 6HTHICKO.=rAtl_&XA4CGl|40 1 _OL&P=I=ITI)/(EZT2) ANn PBnND = 2. ALPH_O.7. PUT THERE W¢RE SOME EXCFPTION_ A4_81560 C INTEPWFDIATF LOOP A_JUSTS LOAq LEVEL A4EG1570 V[O= -I° _ T_UT¢_(|) A4FG1580 C CHECK ON CONVERGENCE OF TOIJTE_(I_L8_| _4rG1590 R = TOUTFO(IFLAG) I SCHCCK A4EG1600 IF ( fl°OOO003001 . A4EGISIO on 210 ]FLAG = 1_ NSTFP_ _4=G[520 SCH_CK = IO000000OO000000° A4cG[530 Dn 170 NCDUNT = l.[). 3Xt _ qHDELTMP . 2([X. 100 A4EG1540 C CnNVFPGENCE NFARLY ALWAYS OCCUR_Eq BETWEEN 20 ANO 30 CYCLES IN TEST A4EG1550 l CASES. ETTNO(N) 90 FORMAT (IH .I.80I (LHItt (DFR DEG. DFG. t atAMOA) * (A * E + B * (_ l. STEPL(N).Y 1 _ ADHESIVE IS MORE _PTTtCAL l THAN AOHEOEND(S) NEED ELASTIC SOLUTION TO IDENTIFY C_ITICAL END POP ELASTIC-PLASTIC 1 SOLUTION WHEN R]TH THERMAL ANO STIFFNFSS 8DHP_PNO MI_M_TCHEq 2 ARE PRESENT ESTIWATF MAXI_LI u oqSSIRLE PnNo CAD&rITY =OR PULLY-PLS_TIC ADHESIVE PBON_ = TAtluA_ = _L_P * 2. &4#GI4BO C OPERATE ON THE LOAn LEVEL IN INTE_MFnIATE LOoP 84=GI4gO C LEAVE A_JUSTMENT q_ TAUMAX FOR OUTER LqPP A4F_I50O TCHECK = O. F[O. 2(IX. 3(IX. THAT STEPPED-LAP JOINTS EXHIBIT CHARACTERISTICS OF A4EGI160 [ DOUBLE-LAP JOINTS T_ T_P EXTFNT THAT THE LO_O T_NSFER_F3 nN ANY A4EGII70 _ ONE STEP IS INqEPENDENT OF THAT STEP LENGTH ONCE THE LENST_ A4E_llBO C 3 EXCEFDS& TRANSITIONAL V_LUE. THICKI(N). ETOT°IN|. 5HFTOTR. STROTQ(NI. $ PnqNq _4cGl4_ TINNCR(I) = O. 50 A4EGI_70 T_U([) = (TAULIP_ ÷ TAULWR) I 2.C 1 IF BnNOEO ON ON= SIDE ONLY. 6HTHICKI. IF (HE MAXIMUM SHEAR STRFS_ AND APPLIED LOANS HaVF A4PG1330 C 1 PPPOSITE SIGNS.7. 6HSTRnTR.gO) N. DFLTMP llH INOUT _AT_/t_ IOH 9HALPHAT = . NS_PK ^4_G1620 C INNER lnOp COMPUTES ELASTIC JOINT STRENGTH A4=G[630 a = TALl(N) A4Eq1640 ALAMDA = DSOqTfC2 * l[°/ FTINR(NI ÷ 1. 5HFTINR//I nO IO0 N = 1. 3X.FO. 84EG1450 nELTAI(I) = SGNLn * GAM_A(II * ETA A4_1460 TMAX = I0. M_T_oS WRITE (6.9999999gg .

LT. LOAD FSTIM_T_ IS TOn . t It._Nr). * TM_X ANEG2350 G_ TO 2LO A4=G2360 180 ICOUN_ = IFLAG + I ^_EGZ370 IF (TqUTE_IICOUNTI . RE) . q2l ) SO TO 220 A4_GIOgO _49G1990 IF {TOUTER(l) . ggoggo . EVEN FOR ELASTIC ADHESIVE ANn A4EG2570 C 2 ADHERENOS &GEGZERO C AGEG2590 C APPLY SCALE FACTOR TO SOLUT!ON =OR ONLY ADHEP=ND _TICFN_SS IMBALANCE AN=G2600 ASCERTAIN WHETHER INTERNAL LOADS AR= CRITICAL FOR ELASTIC ADH=SIVE nR _6=_26[0 C t WHET_ER OTHEP END O = JOINT IS M_RF CRITICAL FOP ADHrSIVE ANEG2620 C PROGRAM ASS)J_FS 8DHER=ND ALLOWABLES HAVE SAME MAgNItUDE IN TENSION AS A4EG2630 C l IN COMPRESSION.30 A4=_2000 C IF SO LOAD FSTIM&TF IS TOO LOW _4EG2OIO c NO_. O.|.ANn.T. QEMcOY IS TO FREEZE A4FG2310 C 2 FARLIFR VALnlES. I {ALA_DA"*2}! * |A * {r L.GT. _GF_2140 C l WHILF LABELK 27 AN_ 2_ R_FSENT COARSE ADJUSTMENTS A4EG2IEO t50 TMAX : TOtITFO(IrLA_| _cG2l&O SCHECK = TOUTER(IFLAG) _4cG2170 ToUT_OilFL_| = (T_IN + TM&XI / 2. DELTBOIM+I) = DcLTBO(NI + C3 * C + SGNLD * (TOtITCR(_!) * C A4E_I870 I nELDLTI / CTOTD|N) AAEGIB_O DELTAI(N+I} = nELTAIIN} + C4 * C + SGNIO w. * TMAX &GCG24[O Gn TO 210 A4EG2420 190 TMAX : 1. NSTFPS| _C) Tr_ l|O _4=Gl_On IF . LT) / =.rT_R(N) A4Fnl910 GAMMA(N+1} = TSUfN+I) / G a4EGlq20 120 CONTINI9 c C CHFrK WHETHER OP NOT Pn=CISCLV 100 PERCENT 0 = LOAD H_S TR_NSF"RoED A4=GIgBO _FGIg40 RL = TDUTE_(L) / TINNEPIMSTEPq| _4EGIq50 C CHECK ALSO WH:THER no NOT CoNVErGENCE HAS BEEN OBT_INF'_ _4EGI960 02 : VCNCCK ! TfNNCO{'_STFP¢) _4=G1_70 I¢ ( ([.LT._. LIMITS JqlNT STR_NGTH_ NEED TO ANEG2220 C t BOOST olOBn IN PROPORTION T3 TA)I_X) EVEN IF It v=ANS EXCEEDING A_=C2233 C 2 aDHF#EN9 STREM_THS IN INTER_=DI&TE COMPUTATIONS.qOOgOq . VL_| Gn _n l_O A4EGI820 C NOT c THAT THESE CONVERGENCE CHrCKS APE CpITIr_L A4c_1830 C I= THE FACTOR -I. DISTINCTION IS _ISUALLY ttNIMPnRTANT SINCE._c TMAX) rMA_ : 5. (o. SOLIITION MUS T _E REFINED BY ITERATION.INFO Af)HEP=_J r'.T_U(N+I ) . • T_A_ _4_G2260 TOUTER(ICL_G) = (VMTN + TMB_) I 2.rip. WHICH HAVE CONVERGED AND SLIGHTLY _ERTU_R A4CS2320 C 3 INTERMEDIATE VALU=S. IS vnF) LAp r.OOOOO[ . IN &GEG2660 I06 . A4_IB60 C t IF BONDED ON TIN= sir) F fONLY.t * TOlJT_R(IC_JN T) A4=G2k30 TMIN : O.ANr}.L T. A4cC2110 TCHFrK : TINNEPI_STEOSI A4=G2t20 Go Tn 170 A6_GZI30 C NOT_ THAT LA_ELS 26 ANO 7 GOVERN _INF ADJIISTMFNTS TO THE JOINT LDAOS. 0. cno_ECTIONS A4¢q2240 C 3 8RE APPLIED l_ T_R A4EG2250 I= (TMIN .I + _ _' (F . AND T_ CHFCK _OR CONVERGENCE _T THE _AR ENOA_FS2330 TMAX : T_UTFOII) A_EG23_O TMIN = -1. SINCE _HERMAL STRESS A_EG25bO C [ TERMS no NOT SCALE LINEARLY. ICE .l v. JUST LIKE THOS E VALUES IN aGcGOOqO C 2 EXCESS q= !JNITY 8_E_2050 tO0 TMIN = TOUTER( I_LAG| &_E_2060 TOUTF_flFLAG} = (TMIN + TMBX) # 2.) GO TO 190 ANCG2380 I _ (TOUT=_(ICOIJNT) . A4=_2270 L?O C_NTIMU: AGFG2280 IF (N .IGH GO Tn 140 ANEC2020 C P[ IS UNSUITAeLE FC _ A CnNVCOGF_'C _ CHECK gFCAI)SE NEGATIVE VALUES O _ RIA4=G20_O [ oEDD_SE_/ TO9 HISH A tn_o =STIM_T=.CT.O')OOOl . c nP TO3 S_A! Lt CgNVCPGFNCF P_ILS ttO nELOLT = (2. (TINNr_tN| * C + A4=GIq90 A4Enl900 I DELr. TINNCO(MSTEPSI) GO TO ]. NSTEPS) Go Tq 210 A6_G2290 C CONVERGENCE WILL NO T PROCFEO Tn FAR ENO O_ JOIN T IN SINGLE PASS AN=G2300 C l _ECAUSF OF NUMERICAL ACCURACY P_OBLEMS.L _.O0000[I ) on TO 260 84FG2530 C IF NOT.) G ° T_ 200 A_cG23qO TuAX = _nUTE_(ll I tO. =lEST SOLJTION MAY _F qCAL=O IN THE ABSENCE q_ ANy THEOMAL A4EG25#O C I MISMATCH B_TWE=N ADH=QFNDS _4EG2550 C IF SO.O)) A4=GIB4O A49GI850 C FACTOR 2. &4cG2400 TMIN = -l.FO. Pc_IJCE Tn I.GT.EQ.9 * TOIITERIICOUN _) A4E_2460 TMIN = l.OOO00l) . P[} . A4cq2070 TCHECK : TINNEQ(MST=P_) &4_GOOBO G_ TO tTO A4EG20_O t60 TMAX = TnUTE_(I_L&G) AGEG2IOO TOUTE_(IPLAG) = ITUIN + T_AXI / 2.IT.T.g • TOUTER(ICO!INTI A4E_Z440 Gn TO 210 A_E_2450 200 TMIN = 0. (O.. CIO) qn TO 150 IF (TOUTCQIN+tt . A_=G2tBO GO vq 170 A4cG2[90 160 TMtN : TOUTED(TEL&G) A4_G2200 SCH_C_ : TOtITER(ICL&G) &4=G22[O C 1_ AOHEREND_ OATH co THAN ADHESIVE._4c_1770 TOUTFQ(N+}} = TnqlTFO(N) _ELT TINN"P(N÷}| = TINNFRIH) ÷ [_FL T ANE_IT_O A4=G1799 IF |N . Arcn)JNTS rno nFONqYNG n_! BOTH SINES OF I_.l * TOtJTC_(ICOUNT) 84EG2_70 C THE BOUNDS ABOVE APE CRITIChL IN ENSURING CONVERGENC = ANEG24BO C THEY MUST BF NEITHER _3n LARGE Nn_ TO_ SMALL A4cG2490 2LO CONTINUr AGEG2500 N_VRS : I A4=_2510 C _EG2520 220 IF I (C5 . 0. m|} .. -O.

C C 2 3 P_ACTTCAL JqlP. PL_A_ (l_Sl = _OHESIVC SHEAR STRESS.) DTArlM_( = -}.ST. 7 5X. IN) = G_M*_IN) I _CtR DFLTAO(N) = qELTAq(N) I PFCTR 250 qELTAI (HI = r_C_LTAI{N) / _rT_ Gn TF1 3_0 r C C C C " C C AM_q2800 _cG2_[h aMcG2R20 a4_G2930 A_G2840 _4_G2950 A_En2960 A4CG2q70 A_PG2983 AAFG299q a_=r. PTAIpAXI P'rAilMX = P'rA!J 240 CDNT |N_l c RFCTO = _SCALP C RIZCTR IS PPqDC_RTIF}Nat ITY C'n_'lqTt. q) ) gn T_ 330 A4_G3230 V = 2° * T_Io_ax A4F_32_O P = (V + TAUUP p ) 1 (V ÷ T_!ILWO) 8_EG3250 IF ( ([. PSCALF) _SEAI E : RI_iR a4Eq3t20 I p (N . 54H SGNLD = +I FO o 36H TFMOC_&TUP = DIFFereNTIAL 5. 0.GT. RSC_. o| ._T.ITSIr)E TH_ |FLINT ^PP Nq T r 2 CRITICAl.NI_:Y TPl. T_IJMAX = . 6_ST_OTP.LT. T_UIII MIIST _F INCREASFD A4EG3290 i_ ( (PT&UMX . t DTAU IF (PTAII °CT. nELTMO 5IlHO/I. 5X.LT.LT. R E_I_ O_ Jql MT IS r_I'ICAl C NPIT= TMhT PqOr._T.LT° 0. IBHnTV_RGENT SPl!lTlON) A4 cC3400 P_INr 330 360 OUT WRITE FOR_T [ 39H 2 69H 3 IN 6 =OF PESULTS (6. * DSCAL¢ AP_: II_!LIKLELY TO AMcG2650 A_=G2660 A_EG2670 _PG?690 A4EGZ700 A_=G27[O A4cn?720 _EG2730 A4EG27_O A_cG2?50 A4sG_T6g _4_q2770 AMcG27RO I F (QTaUMx . ogeALEl n = PSCAL r _FG3220 I= I (I°O000I .QT. oTAtlMX) orCTQ = PT_tIMX OF) 250 N = 1_ MSTCDS TOUTERIN) = TnlIT_PfN) / pFrTR TI_oNEqIN) TIN_qEq(N) / pPCTO TAIIINI = T_IJIN| I PFCTP GAMMh.GT. KOLUTIQN HA_ CONVER_EO AMEG33[ 0 GO TQ 330 A_FG3320 290 _AUU "o = T_U([) A4. _ST_P_ RINP = TINN"o(M) / qrQINP{I_-[) r. IX! 6"fHI_gl. ) OTAII = --iq. IX.SCALE .) R_. 2gO0 AM_G2910 AMEq2920 A4Eq2g-_O A_=_940 AMcG2950 A4EG2Q60 _Eq?970 A_cG2980 A4c_2qgO a_G3OOn a4=G3010 _4EC3020 USF IT_PATIVF qqLilTIqN WHEN AnH_N_ THFgM^L MISMATCH IS v_cS_NT A4Eq303O aSCERTAIN WHFTH_ o INTERNAL LOADS AoE COITTC_L FqP _LASTTC _ONESIVE nO _4=_3940 [ WNCTHEm _THER FN_ 0 = JqIK'T IS uqqc CPITIC_L Fqm _qHESIVC.9ggqq| . AgHESIVF OLASTIC_ITY CAN [NrPEAS c STRPN%TH C USUALLY ADHcSIVc I{ CPITIC_L _T FIN = END F)F JOIKIT _R nTHFR. * OTaU_X a4EG3OqO 0 _ 280 N = 2.ST_PL_ IX. 0. 0. 5X. oSC_L c ) oSCALE = OnT R _6cG3150 270 QTAIll = TALl(N) I TalIMA_ A_G_[60 IF (RTAU .LT. n_ _L_STIC CO_PUTATION_ TnUTFR(II. 6HTnlJT_ • A4c_500 6HSTQINRI/| a4=G3510 64rG3520 C 5.00001 ._U = TAll(N) / TIIIM'SX IF (PTAPI .1_ T.l/.320| &4on33 qO 320 ¢ORMAT (IN|.a4_. (. 0.) °T_IMX = -[. IH . o_sIr)UAL BREAK _F)HFO=Nr_(s) RA'rHF'_ RSCALE = TmlITCP(tt l _TRnTP(I) IF (PSCALF oL T .) _T_U = -l._.COo _TCDS) r. = RvAU 84Eq3170 IP IRTAII .LTo UNITY.r._O. 6HOmtlAl. TAUfL) uIJST BE DECREa_E_ A_E_3270 IF I (QTaiIMX . 5HGAMMa. _ IX. = RT{IIJMX rio 240 N = 2. 6 3HT&U_ 4X.) DF]'D = --]° * p_T R IF (RF)TP .GT.II|) SAEG3aSO 310 COHTINUE A_cG3360 lg DRPGPAU GqcS ngYnNq PP_CEFDING CONTINUE STATEMVNT_ q_tUTIO_J HA_ NOTAqFG3370 I CqNVFOGFD A6PG33_O W_ITE (6. A_G3350 260 PSCALF = Tq_ITFO(I) / STp_TP(II AMF_060 IC (RSCALF . 0.1. IT _I=A_S THA T THE JqINT WILL _:AIl DII _: C 3 Tn RESIm_L T_I_P_L STRC_KE_ AL_NF W_THF_UT ANY MI:EHANIC_L lOADS IF (_SCAL c . Sn RTA!IM_ C l . * _CALF _6=G3070 _TAUMX = TAIl(If I T_U_AX A_G_080 IF (PTAUMX . [P TqFy 5RE. 6HDPLTAq_ 6HT!NNFO_-SX_ AMFG3420 _4=G3630 A4cq3660 FlO. NFEO STI)_CNGTN qN THIN SIO c q_: STF_. _6.GTo Pl °_NO. • QI_'R IF (RINP . PSCAI 61 PqCALE = P]TR 230 DT. _6. o.1 RSC_LE = -I.9999q . fO. l.r.I T. I.hR.GT.LT. MSTCPq a4EG3IO0 qINO = TINNFRIN) / STRINP(N) a4EG3|[O IF (RIMR . l_IAACq3680 a4cG34qO 6HTHICKO. IRSCAL c .ST rD.-_ Tn 230 PnTR = TF)LJTF_{M_ 1 5TRC_TI_(N_ IF (Rr_To ..C_t_ c T_DMAL STqFSqES THeM anHCKIVP = -I. I"N. ELASTIC _LLgWaBLr _ 8HS_NLD CqMP_ESK!VE/.C'_LE. RTAII'4_) R_AIIuX = OT_IJ A4_G3[80 ?RO CONTIMll c A4E_31gO CHECK nN CONVCRG_NC _ ^4CG3200 R = _TA!JMX _MEG321q IF (RT_IJMX .II._40) IINll.O000[) ) GO Tn 290 _MEG32RO IF _TH RTAqlMX AND RSCALE Ao_ .O000II .qgggg °LT.T. UNITY. I. MSTFnS 107 . R| | SO TO 330 _G3760 IF FITH co RTaUM_ OR _CAL_ . T_I)MAXI S_NLB. 3X. HENCE "rHF (N-I) IN COMPARICOH IF (PIN o . MSTEPS| GO T_ 270 AM_G3130 PqTR = TqlITER(N) I RTROTP(N) A@EG3140 IF (R_TR . O.LT° O. A6c_3460 TrNSILE SHEAR &NO [A4gq3670 (nrG _) = . or.! WIT_ RFRP_CT TO STPFSR FII. NT G_VFRNI_!h _LaSTIC Sr}LLITIq_J E [_z I_T/_UM_ . qAM AKSaP_ES THAT A"IY INTERNAL aD_IFREN3 STDFSSES r)_ C I RFVERSEn _IC. ITS. JOINT STRENGTH.L T .} QINP = -!. A4cG3450 (osl} = _ FA. (o.L v` 0.r-T.ggggg} } S_ Tn 300A_?C3300 IF NEITHER CHECK IS MET.r.LE) RSC_tC = RI_!Q !F (N . 5X_ O0 360 N = 1.tl.G33_O On v_ 310 &_¢3360 300 TAtltW_ = Ta. MAy WELL |lIST SI. 2X.AN_.T.

I = ETINR(N) STP_TO(L-2) = STRq_'_(N) _Tl_GVO(L-l) = STOUTLY(N) S'rRC. _tO. l) qO _ 370 A_EG3710 IF SO. THe SE_nN_ S_LUTION IS TO BF PPCFr_RFg. 21 FORMAT ([H i F6. tXt P6°4. SOLIITI_N HaS FAILED TO C_NVFRGF.ANn. ktSTCP( ST_PL(N| _TEP(MST_PS N) • _IrKnIN) = THCKNI(_ST_°_ N) T_ICKI(N) = THCKN_(MSTC_S M) ¢TOTO(N) = _TI_fHo(HKTFP% H) ETINq(N| : ETOIIT_(MSTFPK . T_(LI = ¢._STIC SOLtl_rnN ELASTIC SOL_JTI_ _I HAS IDENTI=I_ C_rTICAL END O_ JOINT._l STRINg(N) = STRCTP(MSTF°S . ANn I O_nEo qr DATA I F NCKESSAQY. _F_B6qO 1¢ (. FTIN_(_STEPS) = FT_tJVO([) ST_OTR(MST_DS| : O.4. A4=_560 F6. [Xt r6=4.GE. IT IS _ECAUSF THE CIR_T _AILFD A4cC3630 2 T_ CONV_G_. TAU(MSTFPS) . OARTIC'IL&_LYa4EG3650 4 I_ IT STARTS AT THAT FN_ _c THE JOINT A T WHICH THE BqHE_TV _ a4=_3660 5 _HEAR SVPESS IS at TT_ HT_H_STo A_EG_670 IOENTIFY COITICAL _NO OF . STEOL(NI.A4_3530 _TRINQ(N_4F_35_O A4EG3550 350 • 4X_ 12.FO. E_EG3570 _G35_0 3bO A4EG3590 A4FG3600 RECOMOUTE SOLUTTnN FROM OTHEP END OF JOINT.t. £X_ =6°4.EQ.IrLAG . =6. T_UTFRINIt THIrKIfN|t STOqTR(N). MST_PS _4EG3800 _TFP(_') = STEPL(N) A_EG3810 THCKN_(N) : THICKn(N} A4EG38_O THCKNI(_) = _ICKI(N) A_EG3830 _TnUTR(N) : _TOT_(N) A4FG38_O FTINHR(N) : FTIMq(H) A4EG3850 STOGIE(N) : STRO_q(N) _4=_3960 380 STPGN_(N) = ST_T_R(N) 6_EG3870 A4EG3880 _0 •390 N : [. THICKI(M_TFPS) : THCKNOII) _TOTOIMSTC°S) = O. IX. SO THEPE I_ Nq NFED r_p 2 CAPABILITY I _' TH_ _L_STIC-_LASTIC SOLIITION ADD EXTRA L3CATIOMS INSID_ STC_S _ aCCqtlNT =OR POTENTIAL l CLASTtC AND FLAS_IC-_-PLAST!r _ANSITIONS IN ^qHEqIVF 410 r_o 420 N = I. I. _ELTaI(NI. IX. IF APPR_OpI&T r A4E_3610 NOTF T_AT.IOTNT A4c_3680 AV_lO REVERSING CND_ _ACK afiaI*.IQINT B_ING MODE CRITICAL THA_! THE STARTING (NEAR) rUB &4EG3780 ReVErSe _ATA AND REAN&LYZE A4EG37qO _70 DO 380 N = [. 2 FIO. ¢tO. IX. FIO.II CONTINt)_ N.3t IX.MI ST_OTO(N I = STp_Nv(MST_K .l.CE.I_TCPS L = 3 * N THCK_!f].r C C C C C C £ C E C C C C C _AU_A(NI. rAtlINt.|L-2) = THI£KO(N) THCKNO{L-[| : THICK_fN) TI-ICKNq|L) = THI_K_(N) THCKNT(L-2! = THIrKT(_II THCKNIit_-|! = THIr. ST_Ik_DlMS_¢ps| = STR_TO( [| V = ALPHAO ALOH_ = ALPHA) ALPHA) = V JFLA_ = 2 NPVRS : 0 GO TO 60 CqMO!ITATtmNS OTAIIMXI STRENGTH G_ _9 IF f120 aDHERENO_ A_F uq_E CRITICAL A4_G38gO A4EG3900 A4FG39tO A4CG3q20 A4EG3q_O &4c_3940 _4EO3qSO a4EG3_60 A4CG3970 &4EG3980 AkEG3qqO A_EG_OOO _4CG4010 A_EG_O_O A_EG4030 A4EG6040 A4=G4050 A4EG4060 _4EG4070 A4FG_080 A4E_4090 A4=G_IOO _4FG_tlO A4FG4120 A4EG&130 A4EG4140 A4EG415_ A4EG4160 A4E_4170 A6EG4IRO A_FG4[90 A_cG_200 a6EG42[O A4FG4220 A4EG423q &4EG4?_O _4cG4250 A_ES4260 A4=_4270 a4EG4280 A4_C4290 A4EG4300 A4E_4310 A4F_43ZO &4E_4330 A4_4_40 A4_G_350 &4FG436q A4FC4370 A4=G4380 a4EG43qO _4FG4400 WRITE ¢6. RECORD Pl ASTIC JOINT ELST R : TnllTEO(I) START ELA_TIC-Pt. IX.IRE TO CO_!VERG c MaY _E _IMPLY THE oF@ULT 0¢ THE PAR END A4:G3770 2 OP THE . THICKn(N). (TAUIWSTEP_I . * TALl(l)))) _0 TO _00 A4EG3750 IF.LE. TAU(II| . l×. IX. iX._) STEPL(UqTFO_ t : ST_P{MSTFp_I THICKO|MST_S| = O.GT. FVCN I r TuE ANSWFR_ PRTNTEn SEEM Tq SII_FST A4FG3640 3 OTHEPWTSP. TAUfI| _T NEAR EN9_ A4EG3760 l FAIL. TINNER(Nle 390 C C C C C C C C C C C BYoAS_ _LASTIC-PLASTIC [ THAN ADHESIVE _00 IF (PqCAtE . at _AP cN_ n: JOINT.T_C"rR(N) STPGNR(L-2| = STRINg(U| STRnND(L-|) : CTRINP(N| RFVEPSCD OUCH PLASTIC-TO- I08 .4. PTol. I p COMOUTCP DBTNTS gUT TW_ SOLUTIONS Tq A GIVFN PRn_LFM BY A4ES3620 [ _EVPRKTN_ E_nS _N_ PC-ANaLYZING. 2) GO Tn 400 A4Ea3700 IF (NoVaS . _.350| | qELTAO(NI. a4cG3740 l (-l. So TRY AGAIN FQnM OTHEP END A4Fq3720 ACCURACY AT F_R END pc JnIN" uAY BE PnO_ IF FAR END IS CPITICAL AkEG3730 IF ((T_IJ|MSTE_S) . KI(Nt THCKNI(LI = THICKI(Nt ETr_LtTR(L-2) = FTCITR(N) _TnlJT_(L-l} = ETOTR(N) FTOUTR(L) : CTrlTg'(HI ETTNNP(L-2) = ETINR(N) ErINNP(L-X| = c'rIMo(Ml ETINNI:(I.

Q.gT. ICHECK . a4EG4530 NOTE THAT THE PEnTnP 2.cO._Nn. 50 IF ! (KAD_SV . PPP=PCTLY-PLA_TIC JOINT STRENGTH A4EG4580 ICHFCK = 0 AAF_45q0 JCH=CK = I0 A4EG4600 Nc¢_ TO SET 3TFPEOFMT VALUES FoR IrHcr_ _Nn JCHFCK WITH NE!THEq A4EG6610 I EQUAL T_ _ITHPQ | 3p ? A4EG4620 A4FG46_O OP 760 _-T. NST=P_ INNFPMO_T LnOP COM°UTCS JOIN T STPENGTH _4EG5010 t : 3 = _ . a4EG4_IO TNCKNO(MCHFrKI = 3.0_ TWO CONSPCUTIV_ ITE_ATIONKA4_G4??O A4=G4780 430 GAMM_(ll = (G_MMA Ill ÷ CAMUP_| I 2. 1. o) ) GO T_ 670 _4F_4980 Vll: TQIJ_FP([) A4FG4goO VlO = -I.| _O T_ 470 _4P_52AO . _EG4680 IF ( (KA_HSV .Iq!NT &4EC5240 HENr_ NEE_ EO _ DPIq_ PI.I. l) Gn TO 430 A4EG4710 IF N_T. tULLY-PLASTIC JOINT ST_ENGTN A4EG4570 TMIN . A4_G4740 IC_¢_K = 2 A4FG4750 _0 TO 450 _4_4760 IF ICHE_K . 84EG5200 I_ ROND:D ON qNF SI_E 0 _ JOINT ONLY. GAuqA.) .0 p • (! .INn_ qN STreNGTH A4E84520 TUPPER = TAIIM_X * nLAP * 2. I = RONnFq qN oNE SInF ONLY. A4PG4840 T_UI[| = TaU_AX A4EG4950 DEL_An([) = O. _cqUCF TO [.A_'D. A4_$6440 FTINNP(MCHECK) = FTTNQ(USTEPSI a4=g4450 _TRGT_|MCH_CK) = O. &CCqUNTK F_R MON_ING ON BOTH SIDES OF A4cC4540 I ADHerENtS.gggqgqgq9 . (I ._'P. l) .it. A4=G4420 THrKNI(MCHECK) = TNICKI(MST_Pq) A4E_4430 ETOUTR(MCHFFK) = O. Ln_9 HAS _EFN TO0 L_W .DO. NST_D_ a4:G4880 Jl = 3 * I_LA_ . A_cS5210 B = (C5 * SGNLD .V6 I V4 + V7 1V5| I eTA A4cG5220 NOTe THAT B SHOULD B_ N_GATIVE AT ANn NcAQ _O_c rpITIC_L _N_ nF .FO. A4E_5IO0 M_L_ = 0 A4EG51IO SOLVE FOR _AXlUU M pOSSI_L _ _YT_NT 0_ PLASTIC ADHESIVE ZONE _4¢_5170 I AND cn_PARE WITH _TPD L_NGTW A4FGSI30 V4 : ETOTO(N) ak_G5140 V5 : CTIN_(NI A4_qSlSO V6 = TOIJ*C_(L) A4EG5160 V7 : TINN_R(L) ^4c_5170 Vq : STC_(t) &4EG51RO V = (t° / V4 + 1° I VS) / FT_ A4C_SLOO A : TA_IMAX * v . DO 660 NC_IINT = I.620 C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C £ STQCNP(L) = ST_TNR(N.l. A4ES4460 STRGNRJ_CHFCK) = S_R[NPIMSTEPS| A4_G4470 USE OUTER L00 p Tq AnJUST MAXIMUm ADHrSTVE SHEAR STRAIN LEVEL A4PG4480 GAMUPP = GAMuAX &4EG44go GA_LWP = _AMUAE A4FG4500 GAMUP_ AND GAMLWR SERVE AS qOIINDS DN SHEAn STRAIN ACTUALLY DEVELOPED A4EG4510 SET UPPER _ND IOWFR BO!.10INT A4FG5230 IP NOT. [) .O00000001 .2 _4cG4Bgo J2 = J] + 3 ^4PG4900 A4_4910 SCHECK = lO00000000000000. _4F84830 TINNPP(1) ._O.FQ.G_.GT. A4cGS050 IF aDHF_IVE IS NOT LnAqPD INTO DRASTIC 7ONE IN LATED STEPS OF JOINT. A4FG4550 TLnWPq = PLSTQ A4EG4560 TMAX oPO. I) ) SO TO 440 A4EG4690 IF (ICHECK .N c. *Vll A4PGSO00 nO 600 N = ICla_. JCHECK| CD TO 450 A4Eq4700 IP IIrHPCK .2 _4_G5020 A4EG5030 ST£P(L) = STF_I (N) A4EG5040 STFPIL+t} = O. 2 _ND LOAD HAS BPFN TOO HIGH POR TWO CONSECUTIVE A4EG4770 l ITFPATIgNS A4FG4730 GAU_A(II = I_AMMA(1) + GAMLWq) I 2. r • 0. 0. C71 ) Go TO 510 A4CG5090 X_ = [0000000000.AqTIC qqLtlTln_ TP IOENTIFY CpITICAL FNn A4EGS_50 IF IV8 .} _P TO 4_0 _4E_5260 PROCEDURE FOR oOSITIVC PLASTIC A_HFSIV c _H_&P STRAINS &4cS5270 I_ JR . o) . A4FG5060 [ RyPAc_ SUCH CnMPUT5TInNK A_P PP_CPE_ Tn . DIVI_E h BY _._qNLO * GA_AIII * _TA DP 7oo I=LAG = l. A4_4860 A4EG4870 nELTAI(l} .EO. I09 .ERFPSTLY-FLASTTC SeLUTIA4EGS070 VR = GAMMA(L) A4cGSO80 IF ( IV8 . 1) | Gn Tq 770 A6EG6640 THIS INSTRUCTIO_ PRINTS OUT SOLUTION POP POteNTIAL BOND SHEAR STRFNGTHA4EG4650 TMAX = TLIOP_P A4PG46_O TMTN = _tqWF_ A4EC46TO GAM_A(I| = (GAMIJPR + GAMLWP) I 2. SOLIITIqN IS DonCF=qING c_OM WRON_ eND OP . (V8 oGE. STFPIL+2I = O.EQ. ICHECK = l A4EG4790 GO T_ 450 _4EG4800 A4EG4_IO 440 GAMUAII) = CA_M_X SET INITIAl CoNnITInNS A4=G4820 45Q TO!ITERI[I = (_llPOE _ + TtOWF_| / 2. (o. 50 A4cO4920 USUALLY 20 CYrLF_ Oc IT_O_TTON WEre SLI_PTCIENT AT T_IS PqINT A4CG4g30 MIDDLE LOOP _qJUSTq Ln_n LEVel &4E_4940 CHECK nN cqNVERGENCE OF "OUnce(J[| A4EG4950 o : TnuT_o(jI) / SCH_CK _4_G4960 A4PG4970 IF ( I[.L r.

0 C._TTVC PL&STI_ ADHESIVE _Hg&R STQ_TH_ 660 IF (R .I r.K ELASTIC-PLASTIC nq FULLY FLASTIC THROUCHnUT _4_G5960 510 K = l _ * N + 2 A6_GS950 K . Pt. STE D IS PLASTIC THRgUGH_UT A4EG5710 L1 = L ÷ 1 A4_G5720 L2 = t ÷ 2 &4EG5730 TOUTEd(L() = Tr]UT_IL) A4F_5740 TOtJTEO(L2) = TOIrr=_(l.GE.IFS OF" POUATInNS HnLOS pFr. (1. * A% A4_5420 670 IF (yp . nRFAK LID gT_m INTn . C10} ) ^4EG6tJO I GO TO 540 A4_G6140 IF NOT. PLASTIC 7_q_.wF IS UN_f_'INnr_r)t _S .1 / V4 a4EG5650 [DELTAI(L| = DELTAIIL-II ÷ C6 i V9 ÷ SGNLD $ IV7 $ V9 + TAHIL) A4EG5660 1 fVq**21 t Z. A4EGSSBO L = L ÷ l _4EG55gO TnUTC_(L) = VO ")EI. ACCOUNTS FC)P _nNr)ING 0_ BrITH SIDES 0= INNER ADHERCN').EQ. TAIIMAX) . ¢ B r)SOQT|r}) ) I i2. ASTIC Zr_NF IS IlN_f]i)klr)Fn. / V6 ÷ 1.XP AA=_fi480 Vq = XO A4cG54qO MAY HAVF Tr_ DECRFASF (.) A4_GSq30 DELTAI(LI) = r)EL"AI(L! A4EG5B4O DELTAI(L2) = DELTAI(L) a4C_B50 690 IF (N . = 0 A4EG6030 COMPUTF VALUES AT FAP FN r) 0¢ FLASTIC ZONE A4PG6040 A = TAH(LI B = IV7 / V5 V6 I V4 ÷ C5 * SGNLOI * C1 I ALAMDA A4EG6050 NOTE THAT SGNL_ SIGNIFIES WHETHER SHF_R LOAD IS TFNSIL _ OR COMPRFSSIVEA4FG6060 C = STEPILI A4EG6OTO A4EG6080 D = ALAMDA * C A4EG6090 E = DSINHIOI ^4EG6[O0 F = OCngHIOI A4EG6[tO TAUIL+ll = A = F • B • = A4EG6120 IF ( (TALIIL÷XI .n TO 610 A4EG5880 NOTF THAT THFS _ CqNVE_GENrE CHECKS &RE CRITICAL A4EG5_90 500 IF (MPL. / VS)) _4EG6020 tFLar.AND. VIOl C.C C C C C C r.EO.AMuAF r = = llO . = I _4EG5460 STCP(I.) G n 1"n 6Tg A4cG5400 IF SO..) &4EG5750 TIk_NER(LI) = TINNER{L) A4F_5760 TINN=RIL2) = TINN=Q(L) A4FG5770 TAUILI) = T&U(L) _6_q5780 TAUIL2) = TAI](L) _4EG5790 G_MMA(LI) = G_mUAlL) ^4EG5800 GAMMAIL2).) r.i. n. vR r. AS &T FaR FN'_ q¢ .T 84EG5600 TINN_P|L) = V7 ÷ nEt. (TAU(L÷I} . r)c.: (r) .LT.rE. t -_l GO T'_ 470 P_nCl::_tJ _: I::np NFr.LT. RFOUCE BY ITERATION 86_G6150 ELM_X = C A4EG6160 _LMIN = O. = G_m_(L) A4F_5810 OELTAOIL[| = r)FLTaO(L) A4_G5820 OFtT*niL2| = OELTAOI|. w. ELASTIC ST_P SIZF IS EXCESSIVE.Dt ADH=qIvF_ TS c')l LY-Ol _ST_C THPOUGHOlJ'r TNAT STCl} A4F_5440 IF NPI 'r. 1) _.TRESS A_EG5690 IF (MFLAG .TFP OR STFP PORTION A4E_5520 THIS SE'. T A4=q5610 GAMMAIL) : GAMM_(L-I) ÷ P * Vg ÷ TAUIL-_) _ V ww (VQW_$2) h4_5620 TA_I(L) = TMJ(L-II A4EG5630 DEL'rAOIL) = nEl_'AOlL-l) + C3 * V9 + SGNLD * IV6 * V9 .0 TO 510 A4EG5900 GO Tn 590 A4EG5910 A4FG5920 PROCEDURE fOR PER_ECTLY-FLASTIC ZONE A4EGSQ_O IDENTIFY WHETHER STFP I.. VIOl GO TO 620 A4FqS870 IF (TINNER(L) ._G .| / V5 A4EG5670 NOTE THaT USE OF TAU(L) INSTEAD OF TAUMAX AUTt"J_ATIC&LLY ACCOUNTS FOR A4EG5680 t SIGN OF A_HESEVE SHEAR _. A4EGS570 1 1_ BF)Nr)FO nN nNE SIr)E n*!LY. C C C r C C C C C C C A4ES5290 _4Sn5300 _4_S5%10 a_EG_3?O 84_G5330 A4=G5340 A4EC5350 ^4=G5360 A4FG5_70 _4E_5_80 a4EG5390 If: (fl . 1) GO TO 690 AAEGS700 IF N_T.LT.TEP('}_H-_I _1_1_ A_ T r) ST=P(_ WeN) L &T_D a4_GS500 A4=_5510 P_C)CEDII__ Fg_ F*JLLY-PLASTTC (. NST_:PS) GO TO 500 A4¢G5860 IF (TOUTER|L) .GE._TaRT q_ gTCp 84EG5540 680 OELT = 2.) = XO A4E_5470 ST=P(L÷I) = V (_ . _ * C I.n Tn /+70 C = VR ÷ r.EO. * TAUIL) * Vg _4F_5550 THF USE nP TAIl(L) INSTEAn _= TAUm/_X crlVEDS REVerSal nF SIGN _4CG5560 F_CTO_ 2. 0. 0.LACTIC AND ELASTI_ PORTInN5 A4EG5450 MFLAr.q Tn 479 IF S_.L'r. AROLESS OP SIGN o= S_F_R STOFSS ^4EGSS30 l GRAOIENT AT .LE.g'_ Tn 4QO A4_5430 ]P c.IPIHT AAEGSA[O XP = (B pqOPT(_)) / (2._T l:b_ I:_n r)rJOIN" '(P : (-l. Vq) . C C C C =.ORRESPF1Nr)S TO NO oLASTIC ZONE AT NEAO _¢NO OF JOINT A4_G5960 SET INITIAL CONOITIPNS AT START O_ STEP A4_GSg70 V6 = CTOTR(N) A6EG5980 V5 = F'rINg(N) A4EGSggO V6 = TOUTER (L | ATEG6000 V7 = TINNFR(L| A4_G6010 ALAMO& = r)SORTIC2 . AMM^E B**2 4.EO.TAU(L) • A4Eq5640 (vg**2) / 2.nJCF Tn 1.

A_MA(L) = GA_hIt-l) + R * Vq + A * (vg**2) TAm(It) = TAU(I_-I) DELian(L) = 9FLT_q(L-I) + r3 * V9 + Sf. _EDIICE Tm I./V5) NOTe: THI: USF F)_: TAil(t-if INSTEAD De: _AI_MAX IN ORO c_ TO ACCOUN T I AUTn_ATICALtY rn1_ THE SIGN CIP T_E SHEAP STR_'SS lie _ONnEn ON ON= SIP. VIO) C.JOINT ONLY. B = (C5 _ SGNt D .NLD * IV6 * Vq . TR_NS_F_ VALUES l JUST CqMPUT_D _CPDSS TO LAST su_nTvTsION IN STEP THIS IS N_CFSSAPY TF_ ppovIf?_ INPUT r)AT_ FO_ START r}_ NEXT ST_.V6 / V4 ÷ V7 / VSI / ETA C.qT._PGF rip TQP SMALL. ) / V5 If: THE_E HAS BFEN NP PLASTIC /nN_ AT START r)F STEP.1 T_ll(|+l) = 5_.c tiRE _NI Y_ L = t + 1 TDHT_P(LI = V6 _t T TINk}_PIL) = V7 ÷ met T nFLF)LT = (2.GT.n TO 550 IF NPT. NSTFO_) _Q T r) _60 IF (TOtJTr--O(L) . Ill . 1 TC _nNg_O _k! q_.t T. _.LT° TAII'-_AXI .T [l ) f_ (K . 0°) TAtlIL_[) : TF (TCWCrK .0 ']EL T = (2. I (mLmMn'_*'*2ll * _.21 = r)rLr&q(I i nELTAI(L2) = 9ELTAI(L) 550 IF (N .n TO 610 NOT¢ THAT TI-.FQ.Hlr_) TCHcCK = A * e ÷ 9 * f_ ( ITC_ECV .r.q Tn 580 tl = L + I TOLIT=PlLI) = TO(ITCR(LI TINNFR(LI) = TTNN=_IL) TALI(LI) : TAU(LI GAMMAILI) = G_MAIL) DELT^nILI) = DFLTAOIL| * w.0 rq 5]0 A_Eq6270 a4_G6280 A4EG6290 84cq6_00 A4EG6310 a4_g632n A4EG6330 A4Cq63_9 INf_ AqH_EN_.LT. EL + SGNLD * rL + SGNL n * A4cqfl|?O A_=G6180 A4Eq&|go A_CG6200 _4EG6210 A_FG6220 AAFG6230 C101 ) FL_AX = FL A4_6260 CIOI ) FLMIN = El A4=G6250 _4EG6260 .DFLDL_I IV4_4cG6_20 (V7 _ _t + O_LOLT} /VSA4EG6_3_ A4EG6650 a4cG6660 A4EG6670 A4EG6_80 A4CG6_90 A_FGb500 A_EG65[O 84cG6520 8_G65_0 AWF_6_40 A4EG6550 84PG6560 A4_G6570 A4EG6580 A4_G65go A4FG6600 A4EG6610 A_EG6620 A4EG6630 A4=G6640 A4EG6650 A4FG6660 A6_6670 64_G6680 A_EG66qO A4EG6700 A4c_6710 84EG67_0 AWEG6730 A4FG6749 A4_G6750 A4EG6760 A4_G6770 A4_G67BO A4EG6790 AAEG6800 8_EG68[0 A4FG6820 AAEG6830 A_EG68_O A4_G6850 86EG6860 A4cG6870' A_F_6880 AWEG68qO A_E_6qOO A_EG6qlO A4FG6q20 A4cG6930 A4EG6940 A_=_6950 84_G6q60 AWEG6970 A4EG6g80 84_G6ggo A4FG7000 A4EG7OIO a4EG7020 AA_q7030 A_EG70_O Zn_N p AT FAO PND np ST=P 7n_JE AT NEAR E_. 0. TAII_X CIO + _: * {c I. TAfI'_) .n Tp 550 T ¢ NOT.qgggggqg9 . 86Eq6350 AA_q6360 A4cG6370 A4_G6380 a4_g6390 ÷ g * l= nil A4=q6400 _ T_'Nr ° 89H_RrN r_" A6rG6_[O IV& * EL . THieF W_ Nm {rT_ST) OLASTIC L2L *2 (TCHFrK (TCHFCK (o.Aklh.Ik!TS cpo F_lnlNO n_. I At '_'_r}a't * (t_ * _: FACTQR 2. I(L) i (V9. = _LHIN f EL_AX I = ( (1°00000900l . &?./V4 + l.)) RqTH SI"_ES OF _cr_U_F TO 1° (P_ * (_ l. THFRE f¢ _'I0 (SPCQN n) PLASTIC L[ = . DIVINE A SY 2. .2) / 2o ) / v_ D=LTAI(I.PO. * TAU(I ) * V9 I=ACTC)D 2.I : OFITAIIL-I! + C4 * V9 + SqNLD * IV7 $ V9 + TA=IIL) I (Vg*e2) / 2. IF ( (TFNc._1 = (_tuAx' ÷ _t'AIql P = ALA_In _'._D i?r: JOINT C C TINNF_'(I.) r..LT.I) = Tq_ITC_(LI TINNF_(LI) = TT_NcR{|.LT.L + I TnlJTCP_I. DELT_O(L) = _CITAn(l-l) + C3 * nTLTAI(L) n=LT_T(L-L) + r4 * GA_vI8(L) = T&!III ) I G TF (LFL_r..L T .o Tn 5q0 CRITICAL CONVFOGENCF _AILS C C C 3 C C C C C C C PRnC_DHPE FqR (qECONr)._rT_o F_!::2.O TO 620 _F (TINNrR(L) .= = _rqc. P) | ?.! °A_° 520 C rlN T I k}l. VlO) c.) PLASTIC ZONE AT FAR END qF STFP 570 VO = ST_O(L) DFIT : 2.PO.0 -n 570 C. i.) ON BOTH 'ST_ES _ED_IC_ TO I.FQ. AFCF_I. C_ .nO._2} = "INNer'ILl • Ail(L2} = T_II(L_ C. * Pl I 2._AIL2) = q_"_'_lL1 r)EL_AO(l. .} TaIl(ll) = TAil(t] G^_M_(Lll : GA"_AILI OFLTMIILI) = q_LTAniLI [IFLTAI (t[) = _EtT^.T._T. = or. i) ?. SET INITIAL CF)NDITInNS _T Sr_oT OF STIcP V4 : ET(]Tn ( N I V5 = CTINP(N) V6 = TOUTeR(L) V7 = TINNFR(L} t : t + I TOUTFO (L ) : V6 DFLT TINNEd(L) = V7 + r_ELT A : (TAIl(L-I) I FTAI * ft. I) ?. Acrql!_!T< _nP BrINnlN_ l IF _qNDED 9N q_ STq c ONLY.P IF (K . It r. C C C C C . °EO. IF 5_0 s'r_ILI = _L _T_DII+|I = _TFPIL+I) + C _L LCL&q = 1 IF (TrHECK .IESIz CONVEOGENC c CHECKS _RE I _ VIO 15 FITHP D Tnn L.JNTS r?)P _ONnlNG n_ BOTH SIOES O_ INNER ADHEQPNDo I IF _ONOE r) ON nNF STOE F_NLY.TA.CFII. 560 fP: (LFLAC.

TION SHmIL{_ BE &/.FO. 0. i R_D 84cq7800 IF (RnTg .[O 650 TMAX = TOUTEQKJII AWEG7420 TPLITFP(. NST_OSI r. TS° = TI_PPEO ! TLPWCR AWCG7880 &4EG7890 IF f (l. A4EG7860 A4EG7870 C I N_ mOPE CONVERGENCE IS PgSSIBLF.AN_..70 Z 3 INTFOMFDIAT_ VALUES. REMEDY IS TO FqEE/F FAPLIFP V_LHFS. fqG&MAX . P) ) no Tg 770 C AnJUS T MAXIM_l u ADHESIVE SHE_R STRAIN IF ADHCRFNO STRENGTH GOVFRNq _VEOAWEGTgO0 C l &DwESIV c STOEN_TH CDNSIDE_ATION_ A4¢_7910 IF | (RSCAL_ ..FG73qO _0 Tn 660 A/.q Tq 630 TP (T_UTER(L) =LT° V]._Ng.999909 oLT. H _EG73/.E = TOUTPR(1) t STRGTPfll A4=G7690 IF IPSCALE . 10.qOQgqqoqQ .TMTN) / 2° A_EGT/.9 * T_U_=_(J2| a/.L _. lnAO ESTIMATe: IS TF}D HIP.Q_.E_TlAO A/. tq_D FSTIM_ T= IS TqO LOW _#E_7330 C IF RFVERS= HOtqS.lc aWcG7050 AWcG7060 620 _4EG7070 AWEG7ORO 610 C AR c CPYTICAL A/.EG7500 TMIN = -I.r.E07400 C PROCEDURE FOP WHF_I lqAr) =STIMATE IS TOO HIGH A6EG7/. N) f C.l T.F_ TO 660 580 If2 .=G7L30 A_EGTL/.EG7590 nO TO 700 A_cG7600 690 TM&X = o.I1) = (TMAX 4. _I.0 700 CPNTINIIP A4_7650 C A4EG7660 C ASCE_TAIM WHETHE@ INTERNAL LnAOq APE CQITICAL FOR ELASTIC-PlAKTIC A6EST6TO K l _OHF_IV_ &4CG7680 710 o¢CAI.50 C CONVERGENCE 'WILL NOT ogr_cE_ r) TO FaD END OF JOINT IN SINGLF PASS A_EGT_60 r t BcCAIL_F Or NUMEPICAL ACCUI_ACY °R.GT.) _n Tp 6RO 8_EG7530 IF ITO!_TEO{J2) . o) .LT.cQ.LT° TINNCR(MCHCCK|I GO TO 6/.30 TCHFCK = TINNFO|MCHCCK) A_EGT_O 660 CONTINUF AkFG7/.O0000000l . 0.FGTOqO _qTlO0 A_GTItO C IS TnCl HIGH &_EG7120 _/.FG7200 _/.LT° _l| °AND° A_q7260 l (1. WHICH HAVE rqNV_R_=_. 0. NSTFPS) r.rf_ 710 AAE_7270 IF (TFHJT¢o{[) .n TQ 630 600 CnNTI HUE PRgC¢DURE _t'}R WHEN Lr}AD ¢STIMATE 610 TMAX = T_tlTCD(JI) SCHECK = TOUTFR(J[I TnUTCPI.1 * T_IJTE_(J2) ^WCG75RO TMIN = 0. &N_ TO rH_KK PnP CONVER_ENC_ A T THE _AP ENnA_E_T_80 _4cG7490 TMAX = TUPpFR A/.EGT_70 680 T_AX = 1.09990q .GT° [. (0.TMIN! / 2° _EG7380 TCHECK = TINNFR(MCHECK) A/. QGAMAXI _GAmAX : QG_MX A4EG7830 84EG7840 7_0 CONTINU_ C A4EG_850 C IF tlPPF_ aND LqWEq RquNns 04 JnINT LQan HAVE COALFSCEO. * DSCAL_ _4FG7700 RGAMAX = GAuM_(ll / GA_mAX 84_G77[0 IF (_GAU_X . _CHEC_) G9 Tn 720 &4EG7780 A4=G7790 IF (_DTg eLI° 0°) @nT_ = -t. O_I_T nlJ • g=SUt. HFRE.E_7520 670 IF (TOIJTEP(J2I . R2) ! r.GT. oSCALC) R_C_LE = RIN_ _4EG7770 IP (N .L T.00000l °GT° °2) oANr).| * TOU_=aiJ2) AWFG7620 C THE BOUNgS ABOV r A_E CRITICal IN _NSURING CQNVERGFNCE A_EG7630 C THEY _UCT _ NEITHF_ Trip L_GE N_o TOO S_ALL _4cG76/. • TMAX _4EG7510 GO Tn 700 A/. 8_EG7550 TMIN = -_° _ _MAX A_EG7560 GO TR 700 A/. VIO) GI1 Tn NOT= THAT THE_ c CONVERGENCE CHECKS 590 IF (N ._.1 o_AX = -I.|i = (TMAX ÷ T_INI / Gn TO 660 PROC_nURF cf3g WHEN LQAD ESTTM_TF 620 TMIN = Tf)UTFR(JI} SCHECK = TOUT_Q(JI) TqUTEP|J[I = ITMAX + TMT.GT. FSTIM^'rF IS Tr_rl LOW _7360 640 'rMIN = TnUTFQ(J[) _/.FG7210 A_EG7229 C AWEG7230 C CHECK WHETHFQ OP MO _" op_rISELY ]00 PEq_ENT OF tn_o HAS TQ8N_=E_QCD A_EG7240 630 P[ = TOUTF_([) / TINNER(MCHFCK) AWEG7250 P2 = TCHE£K I TINNEoI_CHECKI IF ( ([. $ _G&M_X _4Eg7720 DO 73_ N = 2. _E_TI60 C I-_ TOO LOW AA_G7170 _/.L T. _ND TO P_OTUR_ qLIqHTLY A_FS7/. MCHE£K &WCq7730 gINO = TINNER(N) / STRGNO(*'-[I A4c_7740 C AT EACH KTFP TRANSITION NEE_ THE THINH_P SFCTIqN° HENrF TI4F (N-If 84EG7750 IF (RINR .) .O A_FG7150 2.| GO TO 600 84EG7540 TMAX = T_UTF@([| / [0. = qlmO A4EG7760 IF (_!N o .0 _4EG7280 _4EG7290 C NOTE THAT.CqT_lO r 2 INT=RCHANGEO WITH THE FOLLOWING _rl_ic A_EG7320 K It: SO. 0°) _G_MX = -Io * _AMX Tc (oGAMX .g * TOI_TEPIJ2I &6E_7610 TMIN = [. (O. l. 0.T. LOAD IS TAKEN TO BE PFISITIVF WHETHCO TENSILE r)p Nr_T A4EG7300 [ Cr)D & NEGATIVe LrlAr)_ r)pCCFDING INST_UP.fl . 0.) oqC_L= = -l.EG7370 TOUTERIJlt -(TMAX 4.0001) | A/*EG7q20 OELT_I(LI) = r)ELTAI(L) IP (N . o_C&LE) o_CALF = OPTQ A4FGTB[O 720 RG_MX = G_MM_fNI I G^WM&X _4ES7820 IP (_G_MX .030001 .O| Gn Tp If: (TINNFP(L} °L T.GT.) RINP = -I.O GO Tn 650 a_EG7350 C PROCEDtJRF FqR WHEK! L_AP.O001| .rI_LEMS.FGTlqO 2° A/.LT.PO.GT.

2X_ 5_STEPL. rnNvcor.999Q1 ! r.o Tn 750 NCITH c_ nF THC_F cH=rK_ I_ Gm TF) T70 NOT_ P_ITFO_T c l I13 . 6HnELT_. IX. P7. 5X. I_. (PGAMAX . A_E_8330 Rln STRINR(K) = in00_OO0000_O0000OOOOO. STEo(N). 11 GO _n 820 A4EG82_O A4cG8290 C I _ NqT_ r_P. PRINT OIIT. _6.OWE_ = T_)IJTcP( 11 14EGR040 JCH__rK = I A4=GB050 760 CONTINII_ a4c_B060 r i c PRQGRA_ r_qc_ oAS T THIS CqNTTN!iF KT_TCME_'T. 6HST_TNPl/) _4¢_Q[gO on _00 N = I. IX. I_ _6.3. SSNLn.6. LX. THCKNI(NI._LWP = r. 6HTHIC_P. IX. F6. _I0.IT. SCTIC-PLSRTIC JOTN _ _.ICR(K_}._TH_ OLO_r) (IBS} = . _PlUTION _S CONVERG_q. qTOGN_{N_%EGB270 &4_GR230 790 _mp_AT (IN . _LO. 36H T=MP_D6TtlP_ _I_FEPENT!AL (nFG :i : _ c6. 5_.4. IX.320) _4=GROBO a4_q80gO r_ PRTN T OUT o=S_LTS P_ cL_TTC-OLA. 6H_FLTST._A(M)_ ^4EG82[0 l DELTAS(N). clO. ENC= HAS _-_IL_O &4:_8070 WPTT_ 16.3 ( (_SC_LE . t/. 5N_MA. KT?C rr)MPtITA!ON¢ A4EG810O 7TO WPTTC f6_7_0) TC)UTCD(_)_ GA4_AX. A4cGSI89 7 5X.4.ITC P_TCNTI_ t ROND KT_N_TH nF _HFSTV _ KADHSV = I A4EGR310 nO 81h K = I_ _ST _oR _4ES8320 KTPnT_(K} = 1000000000000000000000. 5Y. TAU(Nt_ C_. 6HTTN_P. 6X.n Tn 760 A4cGB020 750 r.L.l) _4:G8750 800 CONTTNtlF A4cG8270 I_ IK^DHSV ._-A(l) a4_8030 T|. _G8240 A4EGS?50 l _6. 0. 2 _lO.l.9999) I C.F) Tn 7t.4.^6E_7930 A4_n7g_O A6EG7950 C I_: ME'T.TDI::_.FO. IX. I_.LT. L_ IX. 8H_GNLO : . clO.[//A4=_8160 5.AND. I_ 6HTHTCKT 3W_ A_G8170 6 3HTALI. 5_H _GNLD : +L FqP TrNSTLC SHEAR ANP -IA_S8L50 4 FQQ COMD_ESSTVm/. TnI_T=_(NI. &4_RI3O A4E_81_O 3 IN . 5([qF)/l_ A6FG8120 | 47H Cl. lqN. tH . r6. STq_TP(N)_ TIN_. 0. _6. 5X. P4. 6H_TPO To. IX.I. IX. 6_q!ITFR.JCN!:rK = 2 A4E_OIO g. IX. _CN_C_ A6E_R200 WmITF |6_7901 N.I. T2_ IX.A6=G7960 _4F_7970 e If: A4?GTqRO A4:GTQ90 TUPOFR = TnI)TcP( ] ) A_=_8000 . A6cGR3_O G_ _n 70 _4E98_50 8_0 CPHTIN_I_ A6EG8360 STPP A6:_8370 Ic . T_CKN_IN). DEL_I(KII. n!:LT_D _4E_RLIO 780 FF_I_M_T (1H_/. 4X.4.

1623 0.1620 0.0 18216.043 0.0 IR8800_.0 15340.077 0.3 6cco.0 1056300.1180 0.0 N STEPL THICKO THICK! TAU 10730.0 15190.750? 0.0 0.0 6C72.3 0.061 0._ -.1 6824.037 C.CC66 -._ 21C63.0 10730.0 9620.0 0.1 84Ol.1238 0.6 12172.0 12144.B 10C_0.17_00.100 0.75_0 0.C 15340.0743 0.206? 9.0 -1FOq COMPRESSIVE OELTAO 0.0 -0.08_0 0. FI STRINR 3qGO.0 0.7500 0.7 4824.0 15180.0135 -.0 1763000.2500 6000.088q 0.1180 0._40 O.1 -0.1 2676.o*_o o.8 10730.7500 0.1 {PSI) • 6GO0.01_3 -.25C0 DEG.CC64 -.1 33_5.0 _033.5 IC040. _.2357 0.000C050 STFPL THICKO (PER THICKI BEG.01_e O.C 320600_.0 0.6 16_58.0 TINNER 0._059 -.0 0827.2663 0.17_0 0.2500 0.C 3036.3 4122.0 18216.r 12144. F| ALPHAI STROTR 1_216.0 334C.1 IPSII = 6000.C o620.7 FOR COMPRESSIVE OELTAO OELTAI TOUTER 16q96.3 12874.0 32530.0 STROTR 1_216.2060 0.1 48_4.0026 -.0 6000.17_0 I_20 0.0 STROTR 18216.061 0.0 9_20._5oo.1 2676.2_00 0.1620 0.1180 0.0 n ELASTIC JOINT STRENGTHt PLq_9 (LRS| = ALLOW&fiLE ADHFSIV_ SHEAR STRESSt TAUNAX N = -1.0120 -._ 18216.0114 -.0 N • ÷1FOq TENSILE SHEAR AND -1 TEMPERATURE DIFfERENTIaL IDEG FI = -28_.037T -.2200 0.0300 0.6 t_ 1_ 0.C 26783.0077 -.9 3385.0 325CC.7 7169.0 0.0 1214_._ INPUT ALPHAO N I 2 3 D&TA = O.0233 0.7500 ? _*_ _ ELASTIC-PLASTIC JOINT STRENGTH_ PLOAO ILBSI ALLOWABLE ADHESIVE SHE_R STRAIN_ GAHMAX = N = -1.016_ 0.3 3670.2649 0.0 N = +1 FOR TENSILE SHEAR AND TEMPERATURE DIFFERENTIAL IDEG FI • -280.0010 -.056 -.0020 -.9300 _.0 91_q.0 21060.1320 0.7 7168.3 0o218 0. 0.C58 0.0 3036.O 91C8.3 4018.1 STRINR 3000.01_5 0.0 0._033 -.c 6900.037 0.077 0.1 3036.6 1432_._RRC 0.3147 -._009 -.o230 -._ 704C03.eq5 0.3750 0.0031 -.0 303_.S 9827.2 _900.136 -.3 706000._ 9827.0 1534_.? 3714.2060 33_0.3750 0.75_ **_**= THICKO 0.1760 0._ 32530.0 6972_0 6C72.0 0.0028 -.0 267RC.0 _6780.0440 0.7503 0.1620 6000.0 N STEPL _HICKO THICK[ TAU GAMMA 16996.0 7344.0 N • 01FO_ TENSILE SHEAR &N_ TEMPERATURE DIFFERENTIAL |OEG El = -28C.1 6055.4 580_.8 6711.C0q5 -.0 300_.0_0 c.0 14RS.0 6072.5 1o13.0 I 2 3 4 5 6 I o 9 0 0.26_0 0.037 0. 4 S _ 7500 :753q 0.0 400_00.0 _616.062 O.136 -.C 6C72.0 1534C.n_.0 GAMMA 0.6 16996.0 2797.11RC 0.6 1.0 0.o15_ -.2640 0._ _925.q 0.0016 -._ 18216.C 1056000.C95 I 0.0 15340.C 0.5 14320.zo6c 0.0 0.r 3722.0000050 (PER ETOTR 2115000.O STEPL 0.Oltq -.0 q!38.0160 -.0 0.0 34_3.0 2106_.0 -.0 2243.2660 0.O 2112030.75C0 0o75_0 0.0 962C.3753 0.5 5696.C 6072.0 12144.1180 0.0120 7 -.7530 9.C ELASTIC JOINT STRENGTH.C 4000COC.e 1913.6 12172. PLOAO (LBS| = ALLOWABLE ADHESIVE SHE_R ST_ESSw TAUMAX N = -1.C IT600CO.1320 o.0 12144.C iOEG.1760 0.4 13_q6.0198 -.1320 0.O 1184000.2500 0.C 6000.2_00 _ 1760 v_1763 0.4 22_2.0 2176_.0C -.C 151P0.3 9108.0152 TOUTER 10730.04_ 0.C 34_3._37 0.0132 -.3 2679_.0154 -._62 0.0 91C8.250C 0.0 9.0 32500.7S00 0.1329 0.6 STRINR 3937.1CC 0.C l_4C.0440 0.2_00 0.( 6000000. FI ALPHAI STROTR = 0.0 140?300.26_0 56g6.1_2c 0.1CO 0.132_ 0.0 1518C.0 600_.2203 0.0057 -.0 6000.0 0.0 1184033.0300 _.0440 0.7 2568.C 962C.0 2678C.2640 _.3120 -.9C32 -.0 48n_00.0114 -.7500 0.7 223g.0005 -._ 5055.0147 DELTA! -.C 0.0889 0.0 3036.0 (PER THICKI 0.0 IPER ETOTR DEG.0071 -.C g620.0_R0 0._500 0.0 5072.8 6711.05_ 0.4 -0.0233 -.0 0.1329 0.8 4025. F| ETINR OELTNP -280.0740 0.0 15216.0087 -.6 16996.C q_2C.0071 -.0152 lOT]O.8 3_o.1 2676. 0.8 8497.2640 32_C0. 3036.2200 0._ 36_9.01q3 -.0232 114 .C 2112002._5r9 oo°"°365 0.750? 0. .7500 4 0._ 15183.g _616.9 _683._ 3252C.0 0.0 32530.7530 0.047 q.lCC -.IOO n.2P6_ 0.0 21063.0 3036.1180 9.07_C 0.c7_¢ I1R_ _.0 -.0 3520_.0 ql_.4 401R.3753 0.1 -0.C DELTMP • -280.0330 -._ qlO_.C _OEG.0300 0.3759 0.g 2678£.0 2IC6C.0 TINNER C.0198 -.0 2560._309 0.9 3900.33C0 0.9232 -._ 1¢08C07.0740 0.0233 0.0 O.3565 0.056 0.6 8817.0 12164.0300 0.37_0 ****** 0.0003 -.0 3qCC.8 22_9.7500 0. FI ETINR 4_00_0.o169 0.6 5806.0 10216.O 12144. I00 0.0 325_0.O -1FOQ COMPRESSIVE OELTAO DELTA! TOUTER STROTR TINNER STRIN_ GANMA t 3 0.0185 0.8 3722.0 0.0 0. N STEPL THICKO THICK[ TAU 10730. F) STRINR ! .0 0.6 15510.0 32500.3750 0.8 3679.0 BEG.1620 0.0 352000.C _.2_60 ?.22_C 0.0_5 0.1 0.3750 • ***** 0.8 7168.2060 0.1 438.0 1518_.II0 .l 8817._C!7 -.056 -.C 25g2000.7135 0.2 27qT.0005 -.7500 9.C47 0.INPUT ALPHAO N OATA 0.elI7 -.0 = 0.O _1060.5 2243.0 32500.2643 3.CC_8 -.CI14 -.0 32960_C.C .0 2232.2 6000.162_ 9.0 2592000.C 18RBCCC.0035 -.0030 -.25n0 0.6 14320.0740 0.0193 1i _3 t4 15 .2_0 C.058 0.9011 -.061 -._ 73_4.q 13282.9 1?172.q74_ 0.0 15180.0 6000.0 153_.0 26780.015_ -.

0 1408000.C 4003000.074_ O.0 6_0.375_ 0.0 -.t 26241.2_6C _._ t00_i_ STRINR llltllllll ***illalli *****•**ii **illilili it.0_t80.********* lll/ltll/l illlllllll _ l_ _.5 11_68.C _CO0.fill llllililli llliliiiil _ e.lilt l.5 11944._lq_o.7soo O._ N I 2 S STEPL 0.1 (PSll • 6000.7500 0.0 450_*q 4500*0 6500*_ _0_.0122 -._o _.o o.ICZ -.i*2C ec:o.z_*c 0.zseo 6_qC.0 tOO_.0214 -.062 0.2200 THICK! G.7500 0.INPUT ALPHAO N DATA 0.75_00.zi_c O.* **i****i** lilee_leee ***i****** *i******** ********** ********** i******iis ****ii***i 2||2_CC.0 0.Ill illliilill iililiit*i 12568._740 _.1320 0.CL77 -.0 1056000.l llilitliil tilllilill IIIIIIIIIi o.100 -._3_C TAU 6000.0 -1 FOR COMPRESSIVE OELTAO 0.0017 -.2S_0 TAU 6000.l l_l_°_ iliilillil 2_ll_.0 (DEG.0 0.0 1760000.100 0.0066 -.5 21568.*t F(]* TENSILE SHEAR AND -i TEMPERATURE DIFFERENTIAL (_EG F) • -280.2200 0.o_o i_ o.O_O_ o.264_ 0.4 2262_.0_3 0.043 0.0 N .o o.151 0.llSr O.O_Z3 -.o_7 -._740 0.0 -.zc_ O.o 0.S i.8 2230.2060 0.5 il_6_*_ STROTR TINNER 0.0 3520C0.264_ 0.9 STEPL THiCKO (PER TH|CKi DEG.02C8 *.fill.1 **_t****'* ********** 88L7.0 GAMMA 1.o 6coo.2_00 0.0C35 -.5 21561.l 2624l.0 THICKI 0.0880 0.5 56e&.ee_ _ C.750_ 0.700 1.O09g -.095 ELASTTC-PLASTIC J_INT STRENGTH.151 1.3750 r.4 3365.OOg9 TOUTER 305_qo5 26C68.03_6 43l_1# 131_.1760 0. FI ETINR nELTMP = -28r.0 0.0 THICKO 0.0440 0.it.O o.25_0 0.0005 -.0085 -.0 t._ _e_o.0 _c_.c eooo.1620 0._ c.1180 0.10o-.0 I 0.till.l ****lilli* ******tee* ********** TINNER STRiNR GAMMA 0.0 ELASTIC JOINT STRENGTH.2_rC _.e_Z -.9 2243.3 _10i3 lliliiilli llililiil* lliillliil 7_48. PLOAO (LBS) ALLnMABLE ADHESIVE SHEAR STIESS_ TAUMAX N • -loO N .2200 0. F) STRINR 0.2 ._ 2592000.3750 0.0 6_00.7 256B.03o_ -.o3s_-.o &CGO.7503 0.0_ 0.1 8497.C_64 -.3750 0._e _.T FOR COMPRESSIVE DELTAO 0.0306 -.C 3296C0_.z_l -.O_T-.O_4q .2640 0.5 2606q.7SO_ 0.q 26263i3 lt013i_ lilliiliil lillilii.ZTZ -.llqC 0.0337 -. FI ALPHA] STROTR = 0.7590 ****** THECKO 0.0095 -.3750 0.0052 -.030_ 0.ce_ ¢.ZTeO o. PLOAD (LBS) ALLO_ABLE ADHESIVE SHE_ STRAIN_ GAM_AX • N . 0.0052 -.C lOT30.0 0.CLR2 tii**'*i** *i**=****i ai*******i ili*lali*i .0 11A40_C.176_ 0.0 115 .669 • .2 2797.D_80 6 0.17&_ 0.1 l14_*l lllil.5 1913.o0_ -.eoz_ o.2500 e_li*eese_ *******I** ********=* ****t***_* ********** e***mi*m.0093 -.÷| FOq TENSIL_ SHEAR ANO TEMPERATURE DIFFERENTIAL (DEG F) .133 0.0147 DELTA] -.C II _._s:o o.6980 0.2060 9.7500 0.2660 C.03q3-.04_0 T lliill 0.C 400300_.0000050 (PER ETOTR OEG.8 STROTR **ti***lil s_i_i_ois* 4C18.0 704C00.1620 0.Oi_Z TOUTER 107_0.C N I 2 3 6 5 6 T STEPL 0.0033 *.C7_ _cco._L95 DELTA] -.305&B.0_7 _.1 10730.e _0_._337 -.0300 0.ilil l_O_OlO lilillilll liillllili llilt*lill 18624.o_4o Is o.loo-.izss o.-1.O)C_ 0.|320 S 0.22_0 O.OT_o_ o.lC2 O.0 68_000.0 3772.C 188BC00.o_sa O.-28C.C 6P3_.C_7 0.0L22 o.Ct24 -.037 0.5 26968.132_ O.

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