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Soci al iza tion an d Per so na li ty
Nature of Socialization
Everyone is a unique individual with his or her own characteristic patterns of thought and behavior.
Personality – Patterns which tend to determine our day to day actions Development Personality – involves the interaction of many biological and cultural factors.
Socialization – process by which we learn to survive as individuals and as members of society. Socialization helps explain the differences among a society’s members as well as the similarities, it also allows for social change.
Socialization and Stages of Development
Piaget Stage 1: Sensorimotor - Sensorimotor perceptions and motor activity dominate the infant’s life; infant cannot distinguish between itself and others. Stage 2: Preoperational - Child begins to distinguish between his/her own body and other people and objects; gains primitive notion of cause and effect; believes everything has an end or a purpose. Age: 2-7 years Mead Stage 1: Pre-Verbal
Stage 2: Play (Verbal) - Child learns to take the role “the other” by seeing the world from the perspective of other people.
Stage 3: Concrete Operational - child begins to be able to take the role of “the other”, can understand abstract concepts through concrete references to the material world. Age 7-12 years
Stage 3: Game (Verbal) - child learns to integrate his/her actions into a network of organized activity; understands the notion of community or generalized other; comes to view his/her behavior in relation to abstract rules and regulations.
Stage 4: Formal Operational - child is able to think abstractly without reference to the material world. Age after 12 years.
Cooley perceived the individual and society as parts of a whole, not as separate beings. He links every person to the social world through the looking glass self. Who we are to ourselves, according to Cooley. The social product or a result of a “feedback” from the way others see us. Three Principal elements 2. 3. 4. The mental image of our appearance to the other person. The mental image of his judgment of that appearance Form of self feeling such pride or shame.
Charles Horton Cooley – suggested that a child’s first awareness of his own personality is a reflection of how he thinks others see him. Someone who is very intelligent may consider herself stupid if others treat her as if she was stupid. Children tend to be affected by the opinions of anyone with whom they come in contact. With maturity, comes the ability to judge the which opinion ought to be accepted and which should be rejected. George Herbert Mead – described the process as one whereby we learn to judge our behavior according to our perceptions of social expectations. He referred to this growth of an awareness of the generalized others. Sigmund Freud – believed that biological drives are in constant conflict with social demands. We begin life as infant interested only in self gratification. Id or Biological Urgencies – to find acceptable ways to satisfy demands. Super ego or conscience – internalizes ideas of right and wrong.
Erik Erikson – envisioned eight stages of human development. A child must develop a basic trust or mistrust in others depending upon his experience with his parents. Lawrence Kohlberg – proposes that morality develops in stages. • • • At first, children follow particular patterns of behavior both from fear of punishment and desire for rewards. Gradually, they learn to think in terms of rigid moral rules. They discover that there are several sides to every issue. They begin to make decisions not to please others but to satisfy their own emerging sense of right and wrong.
The Socialization Process and its Agents
The personal aspect of socialization has been viewed by social and behavioral scientists from at least three complimentary perspectives.
Socialization as preparing individuals for participation in group life. Socialization is viewed as enculturation. Similarities among the personalities of people who have been raised within a given cultural setting are the focus of study. Socialization is looked at as a process geared to controlling disruptive drives
One of the most remarkable features of any society is that it can be survive as an organized, viable system despite the constant change of its membership through birth and death.
Socialization – accomplished through many different agents – family, school, peer group, church, occupation, and mass media. No two individuals are exposed to precisely the same pattern pf experiencing, thus none of us is shaped into exactly the same mold. Family – The first socializing agent with which most of us come in contact is the family. Parents provide the answer to the child’s questions in the way they treat their baby in the first few years of his life. Most parents make a conscious effort to pass on their values and ideas to their children. School – a rationally organized bureaucracy. A social machine designed to “process” batches of human beings who are fed into the system at the bottom and who are expected to emerge some years later with useful and socially approved modifications in their knowledge, skills, values, attitudes, and general orientations to society.
Peer group – interaction is essential for children are to become fully developed morally. Its major purpose is to provide enjoyment . As children grow older, the influence of their peers becomes increasingly significant. Adolescents have their own ways of speaking. Dressing and behaving and they may refuse to believe that every adult went through the same experience during his/her own youth. Mass media – Media may create a distorted impression of societal realities. Through media children are exposed of an adult world of which they are not yet a part. They acquire conceptions of people’s values, numerous social roles, and other kinds of social knowledge without seeking it. This is incidental learning, an unplanned by-product of entertainment.